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Sample records for early postmenopausal women

  1. Bone mineral content in early-postmenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporotic women: comparison of measurement methods

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbold, W.D.; Genant, H.K.; Reiser, U.J.; Harris, S.T.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-08-01

    To investigate associations among methods for noninvasive measurement of skeletal bone mass, we studied 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods included single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiography was performed, and a spinal fracture index was calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and modest correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were modest in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method are not predictive of those by another method for the individual patient. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture is provided by QCT; the weakest, by SPA. There was a high correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results, indicating that errors due to vertebral fat are not substantial in these postmenopausal women. Single-energy QCT may be adequate and perhaps preferable for assessing postmenopausal women. The measurement of spinal trabecular bone density by QCT discriminates between osteoporotic women and younger healthy women with more sensitivity than measurements of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT.

  2. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  3. Osteoporosis in otherwise healthy perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women: physical and biochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pouillès, Jean-Michel; Trémollieres, Florence A; Ribot, Claude

    2006-02-01

    Population studies have shown that about 3-5% of perimenopausal women already have osteoporosis according to the WHO definition of osteoporosis for postmenopausal women ( t -scorewomen, with no identifiable cause of bone loss. This group has so far been little studied. We prospectively evaluated a group of 60 perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women (mean age 52.2+/-2.5 years) who were found to have apparently unexplained low bone mass, and we compared them to 120 controls matched for age and menopausal status. These women were extensively investigated, including by detailed questionnaire and laboratory testing. Of the 60 women with osteoporosis, only three were found to have previously undiagnosed disorders (two with subclinical hyperthyroidism and one with elevated serum PTH levels) that might have contributed to their low bone mass. On the other hand, osteoporotic patients were characterized by a significantly lower body weight, higher prevalence of personal and parental histories of fractures and a higher level of bone turnover as assessed by increased serum osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase levels and urinary type I collagen C-telopeptide (CTX) excretion, as compared to controls. These findings support theories of a genetic contribution to osteoporosis and underline the predictive value of a previous history of personal and familial fracture in the identification of osteoporosis in early postmenopausal women. PMID:16021526

  4. Sleep in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vigeta, Sônia Maria Garcia; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eleonora Menicucci

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that most influence the perception of sleep quality in postmenopausal women. We used the methodological strategy of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD), which is based on a theoretical framework of social representations theory. We obtained the data by interviewing 22 postmenopausal Brazilian women who were experiencing insomnia. The women gave accounts of their difficulties with sleep; a variety of dimensions were identified within the data. The onset of sleep disorders might have occurred during childhood or in situations considered to be stressful, and were not necessarily associated with menopause. We found that hormonal alterations occurring during menopause, psychosocial factors, and sleep-breathing disorders triggered occasional sleep disturbances during this time of life. Participants were aware of the consequences of sleep deprivation. In addition, inadequate sleep hygiene habits figured prominently as determinants in the persistence of sleep disturbances. PMID:21917564

  5. Early Postmenopausal Phase Is Associated With Reduced Prostacyclin-Induced Vasodilation That Is Reversed by Exercise Training: The Copenhagen Women Study.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup, Camilla M; Nielsen, Mads B; Mogensen, Alexander S; Stallknecht, Bente; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-10-01

    The postmenopausal phase is associated with an accelerated rate of rise in the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and hypertension; however, the mechanisms underlying these adverse vascular changes and whether exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular function remains unclear. We examined the function of the vascular prostanoid system in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1±0.5 [mean±SE] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50±0 versus 54±1) years of age were included. Before the training period, the vasodilator response to intra-arterial infusion of either the prostacyclin analog epoprostenol or acetylcholine was lower (≈13%-41%; P<0.05) in the postmenopausal compared with the premenopausal women. Acetylcholine infusion induced a similar release of prostacyclin (6-keto prostaglandin F1a). To elucidate the role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids, acetylcholine infusion was combined with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ketorolac and here the vascular response to acetylcholine was reduced to a similar extent in pre- and postmenopausal women. Exercise training increased (P<0.05) the vasodilator response to epoprostenol (≈100%-150%) and acetylcholine (≈100%-120%) infusion in the postmenopausal group. These findings demonstrate that the early postmenopausal phase is associated with a marked reduction in vascular function. Despite of a reduced sensitivity to prostacyclin, the overall balance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor prostanoids does not seem to be altered. Exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular sensitivity to epoprostenol and acetylcholine, suggesting that beneficial vascular adaptations with exercise training are preserved in recent postmenopausal women. PMID:27550922

  6. Vitamin D Status and Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Voland, Rick; Sondel, Sherie A.; Parekh, Niyati; Horst, Ronald L.; Wallace, Robert B.; Hageman, Gregory S.; Chappell, Rick; Blodi, Barbara A.; Klein, Michael L.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (nmol/L) and the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was investigated among participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Methods Stereoscopic fundus photographs, taken from 2001–2004, assessed AMD status. Baseline (1994–1998) serum samples were available for 25(OH)D assays in 1,313 women with complete ocular and risk factor data. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for early AMD (n=241), among 1,287 without advanced disease, were estimated with logistic regression and adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, family history of AMD, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hormone therapy use. Results In multivariate models, no significant relationship was observed between early AMD and 25(OH)D (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.79, 95% CI=0.50–1.24; p for trend=0.47). A significant age interaction (p=0.0025) suggested selective mortality bias in women ≥75 years: serum 25(OH)D was associated with decreased odds of early AMD in women <75 years (n=968) and increased odds in women ≥75 years (n=319) (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.52, 95% CI=0.29–0.91; p for trend=0.02 and 1.76, 95% CI=0.77–4.13; p for trend=0.05, respectively). Further adjustment for body mass index and recreational physical activity, predictors of 25(OH)D, attenuated the observed association in women <75 years. Additionally, among women <75 years, intake of vitamin D from foods and supplements was related to decreased odds of early AMD in multivariate models; no relationship was observed with self-reported time spent in direct sunlight. Conclusions High serum 25(OH)D concentrations may protect against early AMD in women <75 years. PMID:21482873

  7. Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Jehan, Shazia; Masters-Isarilov, Alina; Salifu, Idoko; Zizi, Ferdinand; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gupta, Ravi; Brzezinski, Amnon; McFarlane, Samy I

    2015-01-01

    One of the core symptoms of the menopausal transition is sleep disturbance. Peri-menopausal women often complain of difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep with frequent nocturnal and early morning awakenings. Factors that may play a role in this type of insomnia include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle. Other common sleep problems in this age group, such as obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome, can also worsen the sleep quality. Exogenous melatonin use reportedly induces drowsiness and sleep and may ameliorate sleep disturbances, including the nocturnal awakenings associated with old age and the menopausal transition. Recently, more potent melatonin analogs (selective melatonin-1 (MT1) and melatonin-2 (MT2) receptor agonists) with prolonged effects and slow-release melatonin preparations have been developed. They were found effective in increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency as well as in reducing sleep latency in insomnia patients. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on the changes in hormonal status to sleep problems among menopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:26512337

  8. Assisted reproduction for postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Merryn Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    With increasing longevity, an ageing population and advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ART), a greater number of women are deciding to have a child and become a mother in their later years. With this social and demographic change, an important social and ethical debate has emerged over whether single and/or married postmenopausal women should have access to ARTs. The aim of this paper is to address this question and review critically the arguments that have been advanced to support or oppose the use of ART by older women. The arguments presented consider the consequences for the individual, the family and wider society. They cover the potential physical and emotional harm to the older woman, the possible impact on the welfare and wellbeing of the future child, and the impact on the norms, values, customs and traditions of society. After reviewing the evidence, and weighing the opposing arguments, this paper concludes that there is no moral justification for a restriction on the use of ART by postmenopausal women. Allowing access to ART for postmenopausal women is an extension of reproductive autonomy and procreative rights in an age where the promotion of agency, autonomy, individual choice and human rights is paramount. PMID:25116376

  9. A Comparison of Self-reported Oral Contraceptive Use and Automated Pharmacy Data in Peri- and Early Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, Leslie; Ichikawa, Laura; Hubbard, Rebecca; Operskalski, Belinda; LaCroix, Andrea; Ott, Susan; Scholes, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Oral contraceptive (OC) use can occur throughout a woman’s reproductive lifespan with the potential for long- term impacts on health. To assess potential measurement error in prior OC use, this study compared level of agreement between self-reported prior OC use and pharmacy dispensing data in peri-/early postmenopausal women. Methods The study’s 1,399 women (ages 45–59 years) were participants in a population based case-control study of the association between OC use and fracture risk. Episodes of lifetime self-reported OC use (in months) were collected, by telephone interview, for 1/1/2008 through 11/25/2012. Pharmacy fills, back to 1980, were collected from automated data. Agreement was measured using the Prevalence Adjusted and Bias Adjusted Kappa Index (PABAK). Results The number of women with OC pharmacy fills was 11–45% higher than those who reported OC use during each time period. Between-measures agreement was better for more recent use. PABAK values ranged from 0.88 (95% CI 0.85–0.90) within 5 years from the reference date to 0.65 (95% CI 0.59–0.71) within 15–20 years. Conclusion For studies designed to assess the long term effects of OC use, the current results are reassuring in noting moderate agreement between self-reported OC use and pharmacy data for up to 15–20 years before the interview. PMID:25453353

  10. Meta-analysis of trials comparing anastrozole and tamoxifen for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aydiner, Adnan; Tas, Faruk

    2008-01-01

    Objective It was aimed to review the literature and make a meta-analysis of the trials on both upfront, switching, and sequencing anastrozole in the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer. Methods The PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov and Cochrane databases were systematically reviewed for randomized-controlled trials comparing anastrozole with tamoxifen in the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer. Results The combined hazard rate of 4 trials for event-free survival (EFS) was 0.77 (95%CI: 0.70–0.85) (P < 0.0001) for patients treated with anastrozole compared with tamoxifen. In the second analysis in which only ITA, ABCSG 8, and ARNO 95 trials were included and ATAC (upfront trial) was excluded, combined hazard rate for EFS was 0.64 (95%CI: 0.52–0.79) (P < 0.0001). In the third analysis including hazard rate for recurrence-free survival (excluding non-disease related deaths) of estrogen receptor-positive patients for ATAC trial and hazard rate for EFS of all patients for the rest of the trials, combined hazard rate was 0.73 (95%CI: 0.65–0.81) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion Anastrozole appears to have superior efficacy than tamoxifen in the adjuvant hormonal treatment of early breast cancer. Until further clinical evidence comes up, aromatase inhibitors should be the initial hormonal therapy in postmenopausal early breast cancer patients and switching should only be considered for patients who are currently receiving tamoxifen. PMID:18664277

  11. Thyroid dysfunction in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2007-03-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is common, especially among women over the age of 50. In caring for peri- and post-menopausal women, it is important to recognize the changing clinical manifestations of thyroid disease with age. Postmenopausal women are at increased risk of both osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, and untreated thyroid disease may exacerbate these risks. Screening for thyroid dysfunction in asymptomatic individuals is controversial, but aggressive case-finding should be pursued, especially in older women. Women with overt thyroid dysfunction should be treated. Therapy for women with subclinical thyroid dysfunction is more controversial, although women with levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) > or =10 mU/L should be treated, and treatment may be considered in symptomatic women with subclinical hypothyroidism and TSH values <10 mU/L, and in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism who have TSH values consistently <0.1 mU/L. In women who are treated with thyroxine, careful dose titration and monitoring are required in order to prevent the adverse consequences of iatrogenic subclinical hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Finally, caution is required in diagnosing and treating thyroid dysfunction in women who are taking oral estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators. PMID:17448261

  12. Postmenopausal symptoms among Egyptian geripausal women.

    PubMed

    Sweed, H S; Elawam, A E; Nabeel, A M; Mortagy, K

    2012-03-01

    Increases in life expectancies mean that women are spending longer periods of their life in a hypo-oestrogenic state. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the prevalence of postmenopausal symptoms among elderly Egyptian women in the geripausal phase. A sample of 400 community-dwelling elderly women aged > 65 years were recruited from 6 geriatric social clubs in Cairo. A full personal and medical history was taken from all participants. The menopause rating scale was applied to all participants after translation and linguistic validation in the Arabic language. The most prevalent postmenopausal symptoms were joint pain (90.3%), followed by sleep problems (84.0%) and physical and mental exhaustion (80.0%). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between total menopause rating scale score and age, duration of menopause and number of chronic diseases but not with age of menopause. PMID:22574473

  13. Complete molar pregnancy in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Begum, Jasmina; Palai, Pallavee; Ghose, Seetesh

    2016-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is an abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue during pregnancy. It is a disease of reproductive age, and a few cases have also been seen in women with advanced age, although it is extremely rare in postmenopausal women. Here, we describe an uncommon case of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) in a postmenopausal woman, who has presented to us with complaints of bleeding per vagina, vomiting with 22 weeks size gravid uterus. Ultrasound finding along with raised serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) 400,000 mIU/ml suggested the diagnosis of CHM. In view of postmenopausal status and future risk of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, we performed a total abdominal hysterectomy. Uterus was 20 cm × 15 cm × 15 cm filled with cystic, grapes such as vesicles. Microscopic examination demonstrated generalized trophoblastic proliferation with hydropic degenerated villi suggested of benign CHM. Follow-up showed steady fall in serum β-HCG level and no evidence of any residual disease. A suspicion of GTD should be kept in mind while evaluating a patient with peri- or post-menopausal bleeding so that it will prevent a delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27499598

  14. Complete molar pregnancy in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Jasmina; Palai, Pallavee; Ghose, Seetesh

    2016-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is an abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue during pregnancy. It is a disease of reproductive age, and a few cases have also been seen in women with advanced age, although it is extremely rare in postmenopausal women. Here, we describe an uncommon case of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) in a postmenopausal woman, who has presented to us with complaints of bleeding per vagina, vomiting with 22 weeks size gravid uterus. Ultrasound finding along with raised serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) 400,000 mIU/ml suggested the diagnosis of CHM. In view of postmenopausal status and future risk of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, we performed a total abdominal hysterectomy. Uterus was 20 cm × 15 cm × 15 cm filled with cystic, grapes such as vesicles. Microscopic examination demonstrated generalized trophoblastic proliferation with hydropic degenerated villi suggested of benign CHM. Follow-up showed steady fall in serum β-HCG level and no evidence of any residual disease. A suspicion of GTD should be kept in mind while evaluating a patient with peri- or post-menopausal bleeding so that it will prevent a delay in diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Exemestane Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

  16. Vitamin D status among postmenopausal Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Suriah A; Chee, W S S; Yassin, Zaitun; Chan, S P

    2004-01-01

    Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) were determined in 276 (103 Malays and 173 Chinese) postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 65 years. The level of 25 (OH) D was significantly lower in the postmenopausal Malay women (44.4 +/-10.6 nmol/L) compared to the Chinese women (68.8 +/- 15.7 nmol/L) (P<0.05). There were 27% Malay women with serum 25 (OH) D in the range of 50 - 100 nmol/L (defined as lowered vitamin D status, or hypovitaminosis D) and 71% with levels in the range of 25 - 50 nmol/L (defined as vitamin D insufficiency) compared to 87% and 11% Chinese women respectively. Serum 25 (OH) D was found to significantly correlate with BMI, fat mass and PTH level. Multivariate analyses showed that race has a strong association with vitamin D status. The high prevalence of inadequate levels of serum vitamin D found in our study may have important public health consequences and warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in the older adult Malaysian population. PMID:15331337

  17. [Epidemiologic variables in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Murillo-Uribe, A; Carranza-Lira, S; Martínez-Trejo, N A; Santos González, J E

    1999-10-01

    The objective was to know the characteristics of presentation, its clinical aspects and the modification in the diagnostic tools in a selected population of Mexican women with spontaneous menopause. The age at menarche, age at menopause, marital status, age at marriage, number of pregnancies and occupation of 1,099 women with spontaneous menopause were studied. In 619 women which were not receiving nor had received hormone replacement therapy the clinical, laboratory such as glucose, lipids, hormones, bone remodeling biochemistry; and X ray studies such as densitometry and mammography were analyzed. The age average of menarche presentation was at 13 years, and that of spontaneous menopause at 48.1 years 78% were married, with an age at marriage of 23 years, 66% had home duties. The screening tests showed that 30% of patients required cardiovascular evaluation, 40% showed alterations on lipids levels and at least 40% had some alteration on bone remodeling biochemistry or in densitometry. The mammography was normal in 81%. This study showed that most of the data in these group of women were similar to those of other populations, and many of them need intensive surveillance and adequate therapeutic prescriptions to diminish risk factors. PMID:10582395

  18. Doubts about oestrogen therapy in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    1976-01-01

    In postmenopausal women, the predominate steroid is estrone, and data have indicated that conversion of androgen to estrone is 2-3 times greater in women with endometrial cancer than in others. 2 studies of exogenous estrogens in postmenopausal women are summarized. In the 1st, 317 patients with adenocarcinoma were compared with matched controls with cervical, ovarian, and vulval neoplasms. 152 patients had estrogen therapy as compared with 54 controls, and calculations revealed the cancer risk as 4.5 times greater among patients than controls. The 2nd study concerned the use of conjugated estrogens. 94 patients with endometrial cancer and double that number of matched controls were examined. Conjugated estrogens had been used by 57% of patients and only 15% of controls. The data revealed an increased risk of 5.6 times in patients using estrogen for between 1 and 5 years, rising to 13.9 times greater risk after 7 or more years; and this relationship could not be explained by factors such as age, parity, obesity, or menopausal age. The chance of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women not using estrogens is 1/100,000/year. In estrogen users, the level increases to between 4 and 8/100,000/year. More information is needed on effects of estrogens; they are valuable in relieving psychological symptoms, vasomotor instability, and, perhaps, mortality, osteoporosis, fractures, and vascular diseases after oophorectomy. These advantages have to be weighed against thromboembolism, coronary diease, strokes, and possible cancer; the benefits and risks are not easily calculated. PMID:12258712

  19. Effects of Exercise on Bone Mineral Content in Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta E.; McManis, Beth G.

    1990-01-01

    Study tested the effect of exercise programs on bone mineral content (BMC) and BMC/bone width in 31 postmenopausal women. Subjects were placed in groups with aerobic exercise, aerobics plus upper-body weight training, or no exercise. Results indicate that regular exercise programs positively affect bone mineral maintenance in postmenopausal women.…

  20. Vaginal oestrogen for overactive bladder in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ostle, Zoe

    This article asks the question 'Should nurses recommend vaginal oestrogen for overactive bladder in post-menopausal women?' The article will review the evidence for use of vaginal oestrogen and consider the potential side-effects and risks. The main finding is that vaginal oestrogen is effective for treatment of overactive bladder in post-menopausal women with vaginal atrophy. However, vaginal atrophy is undertreated. This article identifies some of the barriers that may prevent diagnosis and treatment, and suggests changes in practice. Nurses should take the initiative and ask post-menopausal women about symptoms. Nurses should be trained to examine women, diagnose vaginal atrophy and discuss treatment. PMID:26067792

  1. Ultrasonographic Observation of the Breast in Early Postmenopausal Women during Therapy with Cimicifuga Foetida Extract and Sequential Therapy with Estrogen and Progestin

    PubMed Central

    Gaowa, Sharen; Sun, Ai-Jun; Jiang, Ying; He, Fa-Wei; Zheng, Ting-Ping; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is now recognized that Cimicifuga foetida (C. foetida) extract is effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms. But the durations reported were usually short. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of C. foetida extract therapy and different estrogen and progesterone sequential therapies, on the breasts of early postmenopausal women. Methods: This was a prospective randomized trial. Ninety-six early menopausal women were recruited and randomly assigned into three groups treated with different therapies for 2 years. Patients were given C. foetida extract in Group A, estradiol valerate and medroxyprogesterone acetate in Group B, and estradiol valerate and progesterone in Group C. Ultrasonography was used to monitor changes in breast during treatment. Results: In comparing breast glandular section thickness before and after 1 and 2 years of treatment, no significant difference was observed in Group A (11.97 ± 2.84 mm vs. 12.09 ± 2.58 mm and 12.61 ± 3.73 mm, P > 0.05); in Group B glandular section thickness had increased significantly (10.98 ± 2.34 mm vs. 11.84 ± 2.72 mm and 11.90 ± 3.33 mm, P < 0.05) after treatment, the same as Group C (11.56 ± 3.03 mm vs. 12.5 ± 3.57 mm and 12.22 ± 4.39 mm P < 0.05). In comparing breast duct width before and after 1 and 2 years of treatment, no significant difference was seen in Group A (1.07 ± 0.19 mm vs. 1.02 ± 0.18 mm and 0.98 ± 0.21 mm, P > 0.05); in Group B the duct width had a downward trend after treatment (0.99 ± 0.14 mm vs. 0.96 ± 0.22 mm and 0.90 ± 0.18 mm, P < 0.05), the same as Group C (1.07 ± 0.20 mm vs. 1.02 ± 0.17 mm and 0.91 ± 0.19 mm, P < 0.05). The nodules detected before treatment had disappeared after 1-year of treatment or exhibited no distinct changes in the three groups. However, new breast nodules had appeared after 2 years of treatment: There was one case in Group A, two cases in Group B and four cases in Group C, with breast hyperplasia after the molybdenum

  2. Patient's Anastrozole Compliance to Therapy (PACT) Program: Baseline Data and Patient Characteristics from a Population-Based, Randomized Study Evaluating Compliance to Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy in Postmenopausal Women with Hormone-Sensitive Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harbeck, Nadia; Blettner, Maria; Hadji, Peyman; Jackisch, Christian; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Windemuth-Kieselbach, Christine; Zaun, Silke; Haidinger, Renate; Schmitt, Doris; Schulte, Hilde; Nitz, Ulrike; Kreienberg, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The Patient's Anastrozole Compliance to Therapy (PACT) program is a large randomized study designed to assess whether the provision of educational materials (EM) could improve compliance with aromatase inhibitor therapy in postmenopausal women with early, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Patients and Methods The PACT study presented a large, homogeneous dataset. The baseline analysis included patient demographics and initial treatments and patient perceptions about treatment and quality of life. Results Overall, 4,923 patients were enrolled at 109 German breast cancer centers/clinics in cooperation with 1,361 office-based gynecologists/oncologists. 4,844 women were randomized 1:1 to standard therapy (n = 2,402) or standard therapy plus EM (n = 2,442). Prior breast-conserving surgery and mastectomy had been received by 76% and 24% of the patients, respectively. Radiotherapy was scheduled for 85% of the patients, adjuvant chemotherapy for 38%. Reflecting the postmenopausal, hormone-sensitive nature of this population, only 285 patients (7%) had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions A comparison with epidemiological data from the West German Breast Center suggests that the patients in the PACT study are representative of a general postmenopausal early breast cancer population and that the findings may be applicable to ‘real-world’ Germany and beyond. Compliance data from PACT are eagerly anticipated. PMID:24419247

  3. Life Satisfaction and Morbidity among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lukkala, Pyry S.; Honkanen, Risto J.; Rauma, Päivi H.; Williams, Lana J.; Quirk, Shae E.; Kröger, Heikki; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between morbidity and global life satisfaction in postmenopausal women taking into account type and number of diseases. Materials and Methods A total of 11,084 women (age range 57–66 years) from a population-based cohort of Finnish women (OSTPRE Study) responded to a postal enquiry in 1999. Life satisfaction was measured with a 4-item scale. Self-reported diseases diagnosed by a physician and categorized according to ICD-10 main classes were used as a measure of morbidity. Enquiry data on health and lifestyle were used as covariates in the multivariate logistic models. Results Morbidity was strongly associated with life dissatisfaction. Every additional disease increased the risk of life dissatisfaction by 21.1% (p < .001). The risk of dissatisfaction was strongest among women with mental disorders (OR = 5.26; 95%CI 3.84–7.20) and neurological disorders (OR = 3.62; 95%CI 2.60–5.02) compared to the healthy (each p < .001). Smoking, physical inactivity and marital status were also associated with life dissatisfaction (each p < .001) but their introduction to the multivariate model did not attenuate the pattern of associations. Conclusions Morbidity and life dissatisfaction have a disease-specific and dose-dependent relationship. Even if women with mental and neurological disorders have the highest risk for life dissatisfaction, monitoring life satisfaction among aging women regardless of disorders should be undertaken in order to intervene the joint adverse effects of poor health and poor well-being. PMID:26799838

  4. The immune system during the pre-cancer and the early cancer period. IL-2 production by PBL from post-menopausal women with and without endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yron, I; Schickler, M; Fisch, B; Pinkas, H; Ovadia, J; Witz, I P

    1986-09-15

    We report on alterations in IL-2 production and cell proliferation following PHA stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from stage-I endometrial carcinoma (EC) patients, and on mechanisms involved in these alterations. Our study includes 3 groups: EC patients, post-menopausal women at high risk of developing EC, and age-matched healthy women. IL-2 production was markedly lower in most EC patients than in healthy controls. Varying levels of IL-2 were produced by PBL from women in the high-risk group. The proliferative response of PBL to PHA appeared to correlate with levels of IL-2 production. Our results suggest that macrophages are involved, in part, in the modulation of T-cell functions of EC patients. PMID:3488968

  5. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Mscisz, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Barchia, I.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene’s Score (GMS) and Kupperman’s Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT). PMID

  6. Endothelial Function and Insulin Resistance in Early Postmenopausal Women with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Importance of ESR1 and NOS3 Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Clapauch, Ruth; Mourão, André Felipe; Mecenas, Anete S.; Maranhão, Priscila A.; Rossini, Ana; Bouskela, Eliete

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular benefits from estradiol activation of nitric oxide endothelial production may depend on vascular wall and on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) polymorphisms. We have evaluated the microcirculation in vivo through nailfold videocapillaroscopy, before and after acute nasal estradiol administration at baseline and after increased sheer stress (postocclusive reactive hyperemia response) in 100 postmenopausal women, being 70 controls (healthy) and 30 simultaneously hypertensive and diabetic (HD), correlating their responses to PvuII and XbaI ESR1 polymorphisms and to VNTR, T-786C and G894T NOS3 variants. In HD women, C variant allele of ESR1 Pvull was associated to higher vasodilatation after estradiol (1.72 vs 1.64 mm/s, p = 0.01 compared to TT homozygotes) while G894T and T-786C NOS3 polymorphisms were connected to lower increment after shear stress (15% among wild type and 10% among variant alleles, p = 0.02 and 0.04). The G variant allele of ESR1 XbaI polymorphism was associated to higher HOMA-IR (3.54 vs. 1.64, p = 0.01) in HD and higher glucose levels in healthy women (91.8 vs. 87.1 mg/dl, p = 0.01), in which increased waist and HOMA-IR were also related to the G allele in NOS3 G894T (waist 93.5 vs 88.2 cm, p = 0.02; HOMA-IR 2.89 vs 1.48, p = 0.05). ESR1 Pvull, NOS3 G894T and T-786C polymorphism analysis may be considered in HD postmenopausal women for endothelial response prediction following estrogen therapy but were not discriminatory for endothelial response in healthy women. ESR1 XbaI and G894T NOS3 polymorphisms may be useful in accessing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes risks in all women, even before menopause and occurrence of metabolic disease. PMID:25077953

  7. Interpreting Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Regan, Meredith M; Price, Karen N; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Thürlimann, Beat; Gelber, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    The Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 study is a four-arm trial comparing 5 years of monotherapy with tamoxifen or with letrozole or with sequences of 2 years of one followed by 3 years of the other for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early invasive breast cancer. From 1998 to 2003, BIG -98 enrolled 8,010 women. The enhanced design f the trial enabled two complementary analyses of efficacy and safety. Collection of tumor specimens further enabled treatment comparisons based on tumor biology. Reports of BIG 1-98 should be interpreted in relation to each individual patient as she weighs the costs and benefits of available treatments. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT00004205. PMID:21635709

  8. Interpreting breast international group (BIG) 1-98: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 study is a four-arm trial comparing 5 years of monotherapy with tamoxifen or with letrozole or with sequences of 2 years of one followed by 3 years of the other for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early invasive breast cancer. From 1998 to 2003, BIG -98 enrolled 8,010 women. The enhanced design f the trial enabled two complementary analyses of efficacy and safety. Collection of tumor specimens further enabled treatment comparisons based on tumor biology. Reports of BIG 1-98 should be interpreted in relation to each individual patient as she weighs the costs and benefits of available treatments. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT00004205. PMID:21635709

  9. Rate of bone loss in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women

    SciTech Connect

    Aloia, J.F.; Ross, P.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-02-01

    Regional and total bone mass were determined in three groups of women by photon absorptiometry of the distal radius (bone mineral content (BMC)) and total neutron activation analysis (total body calcium (TBCa)), respectively. There were three groups of patients: group A, osteoporotic women treated with a variety of pharmacologic agents; group B, osteoporotic women (controls) taking only calcium supplements; and group C, normal postmenopausal women. The mean TBCa and BMC were considerably higher in the postmenopausal women than in the osteoporotic women. The rate of change of bone mass in group C was -0.45%/yr and -0.9%/yr for the total skeleton and radius, respectively. Group B had no significant rate of loss, whereas group A demonstrated a significant increase in TBCa of 0.75%/yr with no change in the BMC of the radius. There were no significant between-subject correlations for the slopes (rates of change) of the two bone mineral measurements.

  10. Women with prolactinomas presented at the postmenopausal period.

    PubMed

    Shimon, Ilan; Bronstein, Marcello D; Shapiro, Jonathan; Tsvetov, Gloria; Benbassat, Carlos; Barkan, Ariel

    2014-12-01

    In women, prolactinomas (mainly microprolactinomas) are commonly diagnosed between 20-40-year old. In postmenopausal women, prolactinomas are rarely encountered and usually do not present with hyperprolactinemia-related symptoms as these are dependent on intact ovarian function. Therefore, the true incidence of prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenomas in postmenopausal woman is unknown. Our study objective was to characterize these rare and unique pituitary tumors. A retrospective study including a consecutive group of postmenopausal women followed and treated at 3 Endocrine academic clinics. Baseline clinical characteristics (PRL and gonadotropins levels, other pituitary hormones, adenoma size and invasiveness, visual fields) and response to treatment are reported. The cohort included 14 postmenopausal women with prolactinomas (mean age at diagnosis, 63.6 ± 7.1 years; range, 54-75 years). Mean adenoma size at presentation was 25.6 ± 12.4 mm (range, 8-50 mm). Six out of the 14 women had significant visual fields damage. Mean baseline PRL level was 1,783 ng/ml, and median PRL was 827 ng/ml (range, 85-6,732 ng/ml). Medical treatment with cabergoline was given to twelve of the patients. Cabergoline normalized/near-normalized PRL in eleven women; one woman was dopamine agonist-resistant. Five of the six subjects with visual disturbances normalized or improved their vision, and a pre-treatment diplopia in another patient disappeared. Two large pituitary tumors disappeared on MRI following long-term dopamine agonist therapy. All other treated prolactinomas, except the resistant adenoma, shrank following medical treatment. Prolactinomas are rarely diagnosed in postmenopausal women. These women usually harbor large and invasive macroadenomas, secreting high PRL levels, and usually respond to dopamine agonist treatment. PMID:24711223

  11. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (II) Physiological and Symptomatic Responses of Early-Postmenopausal Women to Standardized doses of Maca in Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Centre Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Mscisz, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Kapczynski, W.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Barchia, I.

    2006-01-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-corrected, outpatient, multi-centre (five sites) clinical study, in which a total of 168 Caucasian early-postmenopausal women volunteers (age>49 years) participated after fulfilling the criteria: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) >30 IU/ml and estrogen (E2) <40 pg/ml levels at admission. They were randomly allocated to Placebo and Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO) treatment, according to different monthly treatment sequences scheduled for each site. Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day) during three (Trial I; n=102) or four (Trial II; n=66) months study periods. At the baseline and follow- up monthly intervals, blood levels of FSH, E2, progesterone (PRG) and lutinizing hormone (LH), as well as serum cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TRG), high- and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) were measured. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene’s Score (GMS) and Kupperman’s Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly results in one model and Maca versus Placebo contrast in another model. A total of 124 women concluded the study. Maca-GO significantly stimulated production of E2 (P<0.001) with a simultaneous suppression (P<0.05) of blood FSH, increase (P<0.05) in HDL. Maca-GO significantly reduced both frequency and severity of individual menopausal symptoms (hot flushes and night sweating in particular) resulting in significant (P<0.001) alleviation of KMI (from 22 to 10), thus, offering an attractive non-hormonal addition to the choices available to early-postmenopausal women in the form of a natural plant alternative to Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) – hence, reducing dependence on hormone therapy programs. PMID:23675005

  12. SKIN WRINKLES AND RIGIDITY IN EARLY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN VARY BY RACE/ETHNICITY: BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SKIN ANCILLARY STUDY OF THE KEEPS TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin; Pal, Lubna; Altun, Tugba; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Freeman, Ruth; Amin, Hussein; Harman, Mitch; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize skin wrinkles and rigidity in recently menopausal women. Design Baseline assessment of participants prior to randomization to study drug. Setting Multicenter trial, university medical centers. Patients Recently menopausal participants enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Interventions Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck using the Lemperle wrinkle scale. Skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek using a durometer. Outcome Skin wrinkles and rigidity were compared among race/ethnic groups. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were correlated with age, time since menopause, weight, and BMI. Results In early menopausal women, wrinkles, but not skin rigidity, vary significantly among races (p=0.0003), where Black women have the lowest wrinkle scores. In White women, chronological age was significantly correlated with worsening skin wrinkles, but not with rigidity(p<0.001). Skin rigidity correlated with increasing length of time since menopause, however only in the White subgroup (p<0.01). In the combined study group, increasing weight was associated with less skin wrinkling (p<0.05). Conclusions Skin characteristics of recently menopausal women are not well studied. Ethnic differences in skin characteristics are widely accepted, but poorly described. In recently menopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT), significant racial differences in skin wrinkling and rigidity exist. Continued study of the KEEPS population will provide evidence of the effects of HT on the skin aging process in early menopausal women. PMID:20971461

  13. Sexuality in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morokoff, Patricia J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews psychological and biological aspects of effects of menopause on sexuality. Discusses population studies revealing that postmenopausal status is associated with decline in some components of sexual functioning. Notes that little research has examined psychological response to menopause and its effect on sexual functioning. Research on…

  14. Are post-menopausal women "half-a-man"?: sexual beliefs, attitudes and concerns among midlife Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Ling, Davina C Y; Wong, William C W; Ho, Suzanne C

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the concerns and issues specific to sexual behaviors and interests among postmenopausal women in a metropolitan urban city in Southern China. This was a qualitative study using semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs). Twenty-two informants aged 50 and above recruited through an ongoing research project on early post-menopausal women under the purview of the School of Public Health at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The main outcome measures were themes identified as health concerns towards sex among postmenopausal women. Contrary to prior expectations and stereotypes, we found that the respondents were very open in discussing their sexual concerns and shared extensively from their personal experiences. Our respondents perceived significant differences in sexual needs between older men and women. Many respondents identified the effects of menopause and general health problems, as well as environmental limitations and communication problems between spouses as barrier to healthy sexual relationships within their marriages. Conversely, sexual disharmony was seen as an important cause of marital strife among older couples. There is a growing need in studying health concerns among the fast-growing, Chinese middle-aged and older population. Our qualitative study revealed a wide gap in the knowledge regarding general and sexual health issues among post-menopausal Chinese women. Raising awareness among health professionals of these issues is essential in addressing health concerns regarding this traditionally taboo subject within the Chinese context. PMID:18396726

  15. Increased prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in osteoporotic postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mangiafico, Roberto Antonio; Russo, Enzo; Riccobene, Stefania; Pennisi, Pietra; Mangiafico, Marco; D'Amico, Ferdinando; Fiore, Carmelo Erio

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a population of osteoporotic postmenopausal women. The presence of PAD was assessed by ankle brachial index (ABI) in 345 ambulatory osteoporotic postmenopausal women, and in 360 community-based, age- and race-matched postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density (BMD) (control group). PAD was detected in 63/345 (18.2%) osteoporotic women and in 14/360 (3.8%) control subjects (P < 0.0001). The mean ABI values were significantly lower in the osteoporosis group than in the control group (0.98 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.04 +/- 0.06, P < 0.0001). No difference in cardiovascular risk factors was observed between osteoporotic patients and controls, or between osteoporotic patients with and without PAD. Osteoporotic patients with PAD had lower femoral neck BMD T scores than those without PAD (-4.2 +/- 0.7 vs. -2.3 +/- 0.7, P < 0.0001). Only 4 PAD patients (5.1%) had intermittent claudication. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with PAD within osteoporotic patients were lower femoral neck BMD T score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.05-0.70, P = 0.01) and systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.02, 95% CI, 1.00-1.03, P = 0.01). This study shows for the first time an increased prevalence of PAD among osteoporotic postmenopausal women, with a lower femoral neck BMD T score being a significant independent predictor. The findings suggest that vascular status evaluation should be done in osteoporotic postmenopausal women in order to identify candidate patients for preventive and therapeutic cardiovascular interventions. PMID:16502119

  16. Mediating Influences on Serum Lipids among Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby

    The purpose of this study was to investigate among postmenopausal women the relationship of dietary fat intake, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and body weight to total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol measures in order to assess the relative influence of each…

  17. Biochemical Changes in Postmenopausal Women Following a Muscle Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow-Harter, Christine

    1987-01-01

    Twelve postmenopausal women attending a 50 minute exercise class three times a week for eight weeks were compared with 10 controls who maintained sedentary routines. Results showed that the exercise group had higher serum alkaline phosphatase and lower serum calcium than the controls. (Author/CB)

  18. Androidal fat dominates in predicting cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive ...

  19. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia in post-menopausal women: pros.

    PubMed

    Iacovazzo, D; De Marinis, L

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of hyperprolactinemia in women peaks during the 3rd-4th decade and then greatly decreases after the menopause. Apart from the effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin can act directly on bone metabolism. Hyperprolactinemia is a recognized cause of secondary osteoporosis, and treatment with dopamine agonists can lead to improved BMD. Moreover, hyperprolactinemia has been linked to weight gain and insulin resistance, which can be ameliorated following medical treatment. Although relatively rare, prolactinomas can be observed in post-menopausal women and are frequently large and invasive; dopamine agonists appear to be as effective in these patients as in younger women to induce reduction of prolactin levels and tumour shrinkage. Here, we review data potentially favouring medical treatment with dopamine agonists in post-menopausal women diagnosed with hyperprolactinemia. PMID:25112228

  20. Vitamin D Repletion in Korean Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yoon-Sok; Chung, Dong Jin; Kang, Moo-Il; Kim, In-Ju; Koh, Jung-Min; Min, Yong-Ki; Oh, Han-Jin; Park, Il Hyung; Lee, Yil-Seob; Waterhouse, Brian; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.; Nino, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Up to 71% of South Korean postmenopausal women have vitamin D deficiency {serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] level <50 nmol/L}. Data on vitamin D supplementation was collected during the screening phase of an efficacy/safety study of denosumab in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. This report describes the effect of vitamin D supplementation on repletion to 25(OH)D levels ≥50 nmol/L in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods Vitamin D levels of Korean postmenopausal women (60–90 years old) were measured by extracting 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 from serum samples via protein precipitation and using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Calibration curves were constructed from the mass chromatograms to obtain total vitamin D levels. Subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L were supplemented with 1000 IU of vitamin D tablets during the 2.5-month-long screening period. Dose, frequency, and duration were determined by the investigator. If repletion was achieved (≥50 nmol/L) on retest, subjects were eligible to be rescreened for study entry. Results Of 371 subjects screened, 191 (52%) required vitamin D supplementation, and 88% (168 of 191) were successfully repleted. More than half of the subjects (58%) who were successfully repleted received doses of 2000 IU daily. The mean time to successful repletion was 31 days (standard deviation 8.4 days; range 11–48 days). Conclusion Supplementation with daily median doses of 2000 IU vitamin D successfully repleted 88% of Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis within 48 days to a serum vitamin D level of 50 nmol/L. PMID:27189286

  1. Plasma leptin values in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kocyigit, Hikmet; Bal, Serpil; Atay, Ayşenur; Koseoglu, Mehmet; Gurgan, Alev

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has a protective effect against osteoporosis and this effect has been attributed to a high body fat content. It has been shown that the leptin concentration is higher in obese patients. Leptin, the protein product of obesity gene, is a hormone produced in adipose tissue. Some studies suggest that endogenous leptin might influence bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. In this study, we investigated plasma leptin concentrations in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and also analyzed the relationship between plasma leptin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in order to understand the potential role of leptin in maintaining bone mass. Forty-two postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and thirty seven age and BMI-matched healthy postmenopausal women were included in the study. The mean femoral neck BMD value in the patient group was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.691±0.1 g/cm2 and 0.863±0.1 g/cm2, respectively; p<0.001). The mean plasma leptin concentration in the patient group was not significantly different from that in the control group (p>0.05). Plasma leptin levels were correlated with BMI in both groups (p<0.001 in the patient group and p=0.001 in controls). There was also a strong positive correlation between plasma leptin levels and %fat in both groups (p<0.001 in the patient group and p<0.001 in controls). But there was no correlation between plasma leptin levels and femoral neck BMD values in both groups. Our results do not support the hypothesis that leptin itself plays an important role in maintaining bone mass in postmenopausal women. PMID:23988172

  2. Progesterone Therapy, Endothelial Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A 3-Month Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial in Healthy Early Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Jerilynn C.; Elliott, Thomas G.; Norman, Eric; Stajic, Vesna; Hitchcock, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Progesterone is effective treatment for hot flushes/night sweats. The cardiovascular effects of progesterone therapy are unknown but evidence suggests that premenopausal normal estradiol with also normal progesterone levels may provide later cardiovascular protection. We compared the effects of progesterone to placebo on endothelial function, weight, blood pressure, metabolism, lipids, inflammation and coagulation. Methods and Results We conducted a randomized, double-blind, 3-month placebo-controlled trial of progesterone (300 mg daily) among 133 healthy postmenopausal women in Vancouver, Canada from 2003–2009. Endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography was a planned primary outcome. Enrolled women were 1–11 y since last menstruation, not using hormones (for >6 months), non-smoking, without diabetes, hypertension, heart disease or their medications. Randomized (1∶1) women (55±4 years, body mass index 25±3) initially had normal blood pressure, fasting lipid, glucose and electrocardiogram results. Endothelial function (% forearm blood flow above saline) was not changed with progesterone (487±189%, n = 18) compared with placebo (408±278%, n = 16) (95% CI diff [−74 to 232], P = 0.30). Progesterone (n = 65) and placebo (n = 47) groups had similar changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. High-density lipoprotein was lower (−0.14 mmol/L, P = 0.001) on progesterone compared with placebo. Fasting glucose, hs-C-reactive protein, albumin and D-dimer changes were all comparable to placebo. Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile scores were initially low and remained low with progesterone therapy and not statistically different from placebo. Conclusions Results indicate that progesterone has short-term cardiovascular safety. Endothelial function, weight

  3. Exercise and smoking habits among Swedish postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Frisk, J; Brynhildsen, J; Ivarsson, T; Persson, P; Hammar, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess exercise habits and their relation to smoking habits and social and medical factors in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a questionnaire to all 1324 55-56 year old women in Linköping, Sweden. RESULTS: Response rate was 85%. About a third of the women took part in some kind of quite strenuous exercise for at least one hour a week. After a quarter worked out once a week; fewer did swimming and jogging. One in four women smoked. Women who used hormone replacement therapy, who were not smoking and who had a physically light occupation more often took part in strenuous sports. Women who had been treated for malignancies or with back problems exercised to the same extent as women in the general population. CONCLUSION: About a third of the post-menopausal women exercised on a regular basis, if exercise involved in getting to and from work was not counted. Since regular physical exercise has many health benefits, more women should be encouraged to take part in regular physical exercise. Factors probably associated with level of education and general awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle positively influenced the likelihood of these women to be physically active on a regular basis. A previous malignant disease or current back problems did not prevent women from taking part in exercise on a regular basis. Images Figure 1 PMID:9298557

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Denosumab in Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hai-Feng; Gu, Ling-Jia; Wu, Yue; Zhao, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Zhe-Rong; Yang, Yun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and safety of denosumab in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until October 30, 2014 using combinations of the following search terms: osteoporosis, postmenopause, postmenopausal, women, denosumab. The primary outcome was bone mineral density (BMD) change, and secondary outcomes were change in the bone turnover markers β-isomerized carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and adverse events. Patients treated with denosumab had significantly increased BMD of the lumbar spine (7.58%), total hip (4.86%), and distal third of the radius (2.92%) than those treated with placebo (all, P < 0.001). Patients treated with denosumab had a significant decrease of CTX (−66.16%) and P1NP (−64.65%) as compared with those treated with placebo (both, P < 0.001). Adverse events were similar between the 2 groups (pooled odds ratio = 1.04, P = 0.625). Denosumab increases BMD and decreases markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and is not associated with significant side-effects. PMID:26554766

  5. Hormones and sexuality in postmenopausal women: a psychophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Laan, E; van Lunsen, R H

    1997-06-01

    Sexual function, including vaginal atrophy, and hormonal status, were studied in 42 naturally postmenopausal women. Vaginal pulse amplitude and subjective sexual responses during self-induced erotic fantasy and during erotic films were compared with responses of a small number of premenopausal women. As predicted, vaginal atrophy was related to estrogens but not to complaints of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. No significant relationship was found between hormones and sexual function. Unexpectedly, most of the few correlations that did reach significance involved prolactin. The fact that prolactin was negatively associated with sexual desire, sexual arousal and vaginal lubrication during sexual activity, suggests that psychosocial factors are more important than hormone levels in postmenopausal sexual function. Comparisons with a number of premenopausal women revealed that although postmenopausal women displayed lower vaginal pulse amplitude responses prior to erotic stimulation than the premenopausal women, this difference disappeared during subsequent erotic stimulation. We argued that this finding can be interpreted as being supportive of the notion that complaints of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia should not be attributed to vaginal atrophy associated with menopause. Rather, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia seem to reflect sexual arousal problems. PMID:9219109

  6. Pheromonal influences on sociosexual behavior in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Friebely, Joan; Rako, Susan

    2004-11-01

    To determine whether a putative human sex-attractant pheromone increases specific sociosexual behaviors of postmenopausal women, we tested a chemically synthesized formula derived from research with underarm secretions from heterosexually active, fertile women that was recently tested on young women. Participants (n = 44, mean age = 57 years) were postmenopausal women who volunteered for a double-blind placebo-controlled study designed, to test an odorless pheromone, added to your preferred fragrance, to learn if it might increase the romance in your life. During the experimental 6-week period, a significantly greater proportion of participants using the pheromone formula (40.9%) than placebo (13.6%) recorded an increase over their own weekly average baseline frequency of petting, kissing, and affection (p = .02). More pheromone (68.2%) than placebo (40.9%) users experienced an increase in at least one of the four intimate sociosexual behaviors (p = .04). Sexual motivation frequency, as expressed in masturbation, was not increased in pheromone users. These results suggest that the pheromone formulation worn with perfume for a period of 6 weeks has sex-attractant effects for postmenopausal women. PMID:15765277

  7. Effects of Yogasanas on osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Motorwala, Zainab S; Kolke, Sona; Panchal, Priyanka Y; Bedekar, Nilima S; Sancheti, Parag K; Shyam, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is commonly encountered by postmenopausal women. There is an increased need for a low cost and efficient treatment alternative to address this population. Aims: To study the effects of integrated yoga on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Settings and Designs: Experimental pre-post study conducted in a community setting. Materials and Methods: 30 females in the age group of 45–62 years suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) score of ≤−2.5 underwent a 6 months fully supervised yoga session. All the participants completed the study. Pretraining and posttraining BMD was calculated. Outcome measure: DEXA score at the lumbar spine. Statistical Analysis: The study was statistically analyzed using paired t-test to see the significance of pretraining and posttraining effects of a yoga session. Results: Improvement in T-score of DEXA scan of −2.55 ± 0.25 at posttraining as compared to a pretraining score of −2.69 ± 0.17. Conclusions: Integrated yoga is a safe mode of physical activity which includes weight bearing as well as not weight bearing asanas, Pranayama, and suryanamaskar, all of which helps induce improvement in BMD in postmenopausal osteoporotic females. PMID:26865770

  8. Vitamin D status in healthy postmenopausal Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Niafar, Mitra; Bahrami, Amir; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Najafipour, Farzad; Mobasseri, Majid

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few epidemiologic studies on vitamin D status of postmenopausal women in the Middle East countries. This study aimed to investigate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in postmenopausal women living in the north-west of Iran. METHODS: Using the records of the local household registry, 300 cases were enrolled by simple random sampling. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined by fully automated chemiluminescent immunoassay. In addition, the study included survey questions regarding age, body weight and height, use of supplements and skin protection agents and clinical and reproductive histories. RESULTS: Our cases had the mean age of 63.41 ± 4.64 years with menopause duration of 16.79 ± 6.15 years. Median and interquartile 25-75 range of vitamin D were 14.20 ng/ml and 7-37.2 ng/ml respectively. We found hypovitaminosis D [25(OH) D < 10 ng/ml] in 38.3% of our cases. Serum 25(OH) D concentrations were not significantly correlated with age or BMI. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that 25(OH) D levels in postmenopausal women of north-west Iran are low. Studies to elucidate and assess the dietary intake of vitamin D in elderly women of this region can be of further benefit. PMID:21772879

  9. [Labial fusion in postmenopausal women--a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Ganovska, A; Kovachev, S

    2016-01-01

    Labial fusion is benign genital disorder, which more frequent in children at 6 years old and less in women in reproductive and postmenopausal age. It can be congenital or acquired condition. Its etiology is unclear. The low serum estrogen concentration is the basic cause of labial fusion. As a result of physiological hypoestrogenism in the vulvar skin and mucosa come on atrophic changes, which together with the chronic inflammatory changes lead to labial adhesia with subsequent partial or total obstruction of the vagina and/or the urethra. The treatment can be conservative or surgical depending on the degree of labial fusion. We perform two clinical cases respectively of total and partial vulvarsynechiae in postmenopausal women. The clinical picture of the patient with total synechiae is represented by a difficult and prolonged micturition and urinary incontinence, while in patients with partial synechiae is represented by an inability to carry out sexual intercourse. PMID:27514170

  10. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Ponikowska, Irena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24971341

  11. A-FABP concentration is more strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and the occurrence of metabolic syndrome in premenopausal than in postmenopausal middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Stefanska, Anna; Ponikowska, Irena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24971341

  12. Investigation of women with postmenopausal uterine bleeding: clinical practice recommendations.

    PubMed

    Munro, Malcolm G

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal uterine bleeding is defined as uterine bleeding after permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from loss of ovarian follicular activity. Bleeding can be spontaneous or related to ovarian hormone replacement therapy or to use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (eg, tamoxifen adjuvant therapy for breast carcinoma). Because anovulatory "cycles" with episodes of multimonth amenorrhea frequently precede menopause, no consensus exists regarding the appropriate interval of amenorrhea before an episode of bleeding that allows for the definition of postmenopausal bleeding. The clinician faces the possibility that an underlying malignancy exists, knowing that most often the bleeding comes from a benign source. Formerly, the gold-standard clinical investigation of postmenopausal uterine bleeding was institution-based dilation and curettage, but there now exist office-based methods for the evaluation of women with this complaint. Strategies designed to implement these diagnostic methods must be applied in a balanced way considering the resource utilization issues of overinvestigation and the risk of missing a malignancy with underinvestigation. Consequently, guidelines and recommendations were developed to consider these issues and the diverse spectrum of practitioners who evaluate women with postmenopausal bleeding. The guideline development group determined that, for initial management of spontaneous postmenopausal bleeding, primary assessment may be with either endometrial sampling or transvaginal ultrasonography, allowing patients with an endometrial echo complex thickness of 4 mm or less to be managed expectantly. Guidelines are also provided for patients receiving selective estrogen receptor modulators or hormone replacement therapy, and for an endometrial echo complex with findings consistent with fluid in the endometrial cavity.� PMID:24377427

  13. Investigation of Women with Postmenopausal Uterine Bleeding: Clinical Practice Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Malcolm G

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal uterine bleeding is defined as uterine bleeding after permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from loss of ovarian follicular activity. Bleeding can be spontaneous or related to ovarian hormone replacement therapy or to use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (eg, tamoxifen adjuvant therapy for breast carcinoma). Because anovulatory “cycles” with episodes of multimonth amenorrhea frequently precede menopause, no consensus exists regarding the appropriate interval of amenorrhea before an episode of bleeding that allows for the definition of postmenopausal bleeding. The clinician faces the possibility that an underlying malignancy exists, knowing that most often the bleeding comes from a benign source. Formerly, the gold-standard clinical investigation of postmenopausal uterine bleeding was institution-based dilation and curettage, but there now exist office-based methods for the evaluation of women with this complaint. Strategies designed to implement these diagnostic methods must be applied in a balanced way considering the resource utilization issues of overinvestigation and the risk of missing a malignancy with underinvestigation. Consequently, guidelines and recommendations were developed to consider these issues and the diverse spectrum of practitioners who evaluate women with postmenopausal bleeding. The guideline development group determined that, for initial management of spontaneous postmenopausal bleeding, primary assessment may be with either endometrial sampling or transvaginal ultrasonography, allowing patients with an endometrial echo complex thickness of 4 mm or less to be managed expectantly. Guidelines are also provided for patients receiving selective estrogen receptor modulators or hormone replacement therapy, and for an endometrial echo complex with findings consistent with fluid in the endometrial cavity. PMID:24377427

  14. Sex steroids modulate prolactin response to naloxone in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Melis, G B; Gambacciani, M; Paoletti, A M; Mais, V; Cagnacci, A; Petacchi, F D; Fioretti, P

    1985-08-01

    To evaluate whether ovarian steroids modify the prolactin (PRL) response to opioid receptor blockade, the effects of naloxone infusion (1.6 mg/h for 4 h) on PRL secretion were studied in 5 postmenopausal women. Naloxone infusion was performed in basal conditions and after chronic oral treatment with conjugated estrogens (CE) (1.25 mg/day, for 20 days) or CE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (10 mg/day, for 20 days). Under basal conditions, 17 beta-estradiol, estrone, gonadotropin, and PRL plasma levels were in the normal range for postmenopausal women, and naloxone failed to affect PRL secretion. Naloxone induced a significant PRL increase after CE treatment alone (p less than 0.001) or in combination with MPA (p less than 0.001). The increase was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) after CE + MPA treatment than after CE treatment alone. These data suggest that steroids modulate the stimulatory effect of naloxone on PRL secretion in postmenopausal women. PMID:2995857

  15. Argan oil and postmenopausal Moroccan women: impact on the vitamin E profile.

    PubMed

    El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; El Hamdouchi, Asma; Labraimi, Hanane; Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Kartah, Badreddine; El Kari, Khalid; Bensouda, Yahya; Derouich, Abdelfettah; Dodin, Sylvie; Denhez, Clément; Guillaume, Dom; Agnaou, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin E supplements could be beneficial for postmenopausal women. To evaluate the effect of edible argan oil consumption on the antioxidant status of postmenopausal women, the vitamin E serum level of 151 menopausal women consuming either olive or argan oil was determined. Serum level of vitamin E was increased in the argan oil consumer group. Therefore, an argan oil-enriched diet can be recommended to help prevent some postmenopausal disorders. PMID:23472459

  16. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. ); Gutai, J.P. ); Powell, J.G. )

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  17. Fasting Serum Glucose Level in Postmenopausal Bangladeshi Women.

    PubMed

    Tajkia, T; Nessa, A; Mia, M R; Das, R K; Sufrin, S; Zannat, M R; Naznin, R; Khanam, A; Akter, R; Nasreen, S

    2016-07-01

    The study was done to find out the causes that changes the fasting serum glucose level in postmenopausal women. This was descriptive type of cross sectional study carried out over a period of one year from July 2014 to June 2015 in the department of physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Women of reproductive age (25-45 years) and clinically diagnosed 100 menopausal women (45-70 years) were included for this study. Convenience type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of fasting serum glucose was done by GOD-PAP method. Data were expressed as mean±SD and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test. The mean±SD of serum glucose in menopausal women were significant at 1% level of probability than women of reproductive age. This study revealed that postmenopausal women showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose level. Fasting blood sugar level between the study & control group were 7.69±2.37 and 4.59±0.73 and the difference was statistically significant. PMID:27612883

  18. Profiling of plasma metabolites in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Miho; Harada, Sei; Kurihara, Ayako; Fukai, Kota; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Ayano; Okamura, Tomonori; Akiyama, Miki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Asako; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Banno, Kouji; Aoki, Daisuke; Takebayashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of amino acids and other polar metabolites with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women in a lean Asian population. Methods: The participants were 1,422 female residents enrolled in a cohort study from April to August 2012. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III modified for Japanese women. Associations were examined between MetS and 78 metabolites assayed in fasting plasma samples using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Replication analysis was performed to confirm the robustness of the results in a separate population created by random allocation. Results: Analysis was performed for 877 naturally postmenopausal women, including 594 in the original population and 283 in the replication population. The average age, body mass index, and levels of high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of the entire population were 64.6 years, 23.0 kg/m2, 72.1 mg/dL, and 126.1 mg/dL, respectively. There was no significant difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between women with and without MetS. Thirteen metabolites were significantly related to MetS: multiple plasma amino acids were elevated in women with MetS, including branched-chain amino acids, alanine, glutamate, and proline; and alpha-aminoadipate, which is generated by lysine degradation, was also significantly increased. Conclusions: Our large-scale metabolomic profiling indicates that Japanese postmenopausal women with MetS have abnormal polar metabolites, suggesting altered catabolic pathways. These results may help to understand metabolic disturbance, including in persons with normal body mass index and relatively high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and may have clinical utility based on further studies. PMID:27070805

  19. Trans Fat, Aspirin, and Ischemic Stroke in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yaemsiri, Sirin; Sen, Souvik; Tinker, Lesley; Rosamond, Wayne; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; He, Ka

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between dietary fat intake and ischemic stroke among postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 87,025 generally healthy postmenopausal women (age 50–79 years) enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Repeated and validated dietary assessments were done using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of ischemic stroke based on quintiles of the cumulative average of fat intake. Results We documented 1,049 incident cases of ischemic stroke over 663,041 person-years of follow-up. Women in the highest quintile of trans fat intake had a significantly higher incidence of ischemic stroke (HR 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–1.79, P-trend = 0.048) compared with women in the lowest quintile, while controlling for multiple covariates. The observed association was modified by aspirin use (P-interaction=0.02). The HR was 1.66 (95% CI 1.21–2.36, P-trend<0.01) among baseline non-aspirin users (n=67,288) and 0.95 (95% CI 0.60–1.48, P-trend=0.43) among aspirin users (n=19,736). No significant associations were found between intakes of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fat and ischemic stroke or any ischemic stroke subtypes. Interpretation In this large cohort of postmenopausal women, higher intake of trans fat was associated with incident ischemic stroke independent of major lifestyle/dietary factors. Aspirin use may attenuate the potential adverse effect of trans fat intake on ischemic stroke. PMID:22383309

  20. Diabetes, Metformin Use, and Colorectal Cancer Survival in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cossor, Furha Iram; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Gunter, Marc J; Johnson, Karen; Martell, Robert E.; McTiernan, Anne; Simon, Michael S.; Rohan, Thomas; Wallace, Robert B.; Paulus, Jessica K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Observational studies have associated metformin use with lower colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence but few studies have examined metformin’s influence on CRC survival. We examined the relationships among metformin use, diabetes, and survival in postmenopausal women with CRC in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Clinical Trials and Observational Study. Methods 2,066 postmenopausal women with CRC were followed for a median of 4.1 years, with 589 deaths after CRC diagnosis from all causes and 414 deaths directly attributed to CRC. CRC-specific survival was compared among women with diabetes with metformin use (n=84); women with diabetes with no metformin use (n=128); and women without diabetes (n=1854). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate associations among metformin use, diabetes and survival after CRC. Strategies to adjust for potential confounders included: multivariate adjustment with known predictors of colorectal cancer survival and construction of a propensity score for the likelihood of receiving metformin, with model stratification by propensity score quintile. Results After adjusting for age and stage, CRC specific survival in women with diabetes with metformin use was not significantly different compared to that in women with diabetes with no metformin use (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.40 –1.38, p=0.67) and to women without diabetes (HR 1.00; 95% CI 0.61 – 1.66, p=0.99). Following propensity score adjustment, the HR for CRC-specific survival in women with diabetes with metformin use compared to non-users was 0.78 (95% CI 0.38 – 1.55, p=0.47) and for overall survival was 0.86 (95% CI 0.49 – 1.52; p=0.60). Conclusions In postmenopausal women with CRC and DM, no statistically significant difference was seen in CRC specific survival in those who used metformin compared to non-users. Analyses in larger populations of colorectal cancer patients are warranted. PMID:23773299

  1. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  2. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (−6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (−0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics. PMID:25713654

  3. Influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Torres, Vanessa Braga; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse Melo; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Matias de Barros, Alef Cavalcanti; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho; Micussi, Maria Thereza de Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study with a sample of 100 postmenopausal women, aged between 45 and 65 years, divided into three groups according to menopausal stage: hysterectomized and early and late postmenopause. Patients were assessed for sociodemographic and gyneco-obstetric factors and subjected to a muscle strength test and perineometry. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and multiple regression were applied. [Results] The results showed homogeneity in sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. There was no difference in pelvic floor muscle function among the three groups. Type of delivery, parity and physical activity level showed no influence on muscle function. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level had no influence on pelvic floor muscle pressure in postmenopausal women. One hypothesis to explain these results is the fact that the decline in muscle function in postmenopausal women is related to the female aging process. PMID:27134366

  4. Influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Torres, Vanessa Braga; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse Melo; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Matias de Barros, Alef Cavalcanti; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho; Micussi, Maria Thereza de Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study with a sample of 100 postmenopausal women, aged between 45 and 65 years, divided into three groups according to menopausal stage: hysterectomized and early and late postmenopause. Patients were assessed for sociodemographic and gyneco-obstetric factors and subjected to a muscle strength test and perineometry. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and multiple regression were applied. [Results] The results showed homogeneity in sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. There was no difference in pelvic floor muscle function among the three groups. Type of delivery, parity and physical activity level showed no influence on muscle function. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level had no influence on pelvic floor muscle pressure in postmenopausal women. One hypothesis to explain these results is the fact that the decline in muscle function in postmenopausal women is related to the female aging process. PMID:27134366

  5. Ethnicity, sleep, mood, and illumination in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Daniel F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Klauber, Melville R; Rex, Katharine M; Tuunainen, Arja; Langer, Robert D

    2004-01-01

    Background This study examined how ethnic differences in sleep and depression were related to environmental illumination and circadian rhythms. Methods In an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, 459 postmenopausal women were recorded for one week in their homes, using wrist monitors. Sleep and illumination experience were estimated. Depression was self-rated with a brief adjective check list. Affective diagnoses were made using the SCID interview. Sleep disordered breathing was monitored with home pulse oximetry. Results Hispanic and African-American women slept less than European-American women, according to both objective recordings and their own sleep logs. Non-European-American women had more blood oxygen desaturations during sleep, which accounted for 26% of sleep duration variance associated with ethnicity. Hispanic women were much more depressed. Hispanic, African-American and Native-American women experienced less daily illumination. Less daily illumination experience was associated with poorer global functioning, longer but more disturbed sleep, and more depression. Conclusions Curtailed sleep and poor mood were related to ethnicity. Sleep disordered breathing was a factor in the curtailed sleep of minority women. Less illumination was experienced by non-European-American women, but illumination accounted for little of the contrasts between ethnic groups in sleep and mood. Social factors may be involved. PMID:15070419

  6. Dhea supplementation and cognition in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Parsons, T D; Kratz, K M; Thompson, E; Stanczyk, F Z; Buckwalter, J G

    2006-02-01

    Previous work has suggested that DHEA supplementation may have adverse cognitive effects in elderly women. This article analyzed 24-h measurements of DHEA, DHEAS, and cortisol to determine if cognitive decrease with treatment is mediated by DHEA's impact on endogenous cortisol. It was found that DHEA administration increased cortisol at several hours during the day. In the treatment group, cortisol was positively associated with cognition at study completion. An increase in negative associations between DHEA(S) levels and cognition was found at completion. Increased cortisol does not explain the cognitive deficits associated with DHEA, suggesting a direct negative effect of exogenous DHEA on cognition. PMID:16393880

  7. Micronutrient intake and breast cancer characteristics among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Few studies on micronutrients and postmenopausal breast cancer have examined the association with breast cancer characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between vitamin C, vitamin E, folate and beta-carotene from diet and supplements and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer subtypes defined by histology (ductal/lobular), estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PGR) status. In a prospective cohort study of 26,224 postmenopausal women information on diet, supplements and lifestyle was collected through questionnaires. One thousand seventy-two cases were identified during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios of total breast cancers and breast cancer subtypes related to micronutrient intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazard analyses. This study found no association between overall breast cancer and any micronutrients, while some effects were shown when stratifying by breast cancer subtypes: dietary but not supplemental beta-carotene showed a protective effect against lobular breast cancer [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.91]. Dietary vitamin E was associated with decreased risk of ER and PGR positive breast cancer (IRR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-0.98) and dietary folate was associated with increased risk of ER and PGR positive breast cancer (IRR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.03-1.95). This study found no effect of micronutrients on overall risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but indicated possible effects of micronutrients in subgroups of breast cancer, with a potential beneficial effect of dietary beta-carotene in lobular breast cancer and dietary vitamin E in ER + PGR+ breast cancer and a potential harmful effect of dietary folate in ER+ PGR+ breast cancer. PMID:20698054

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption and 24-hour urinary levels of melatonin in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for...

  9. Soy Isoflavones for Reducing Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Randomized Three Year Intervention in Postmenopausal Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has indicated that soy protein with isoflavones may attenuate bone loss in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would decrease bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women (45.8-65.0 years) by maintaining bone mineral density (BMD), and this bone-sparing effect would be g...

  10. Increase in vertebral body size in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Briot, K; Kolta, S; Fechtenbaum, J; Said-Nahal, R; Benhamou, C L; Roux, C

    2010-08-01

    Bone geometry plays a prominent role in bone strength. Cross-sectional studies have shown that advancing age is associated with increasing diameter of long bones, related to both periostal apposition and endosteal resorption. However, there are few data provided by prospective studies, especially concerning the changes in vertebral body dimensions. The objective of this prospective study was to measure the changes occurring in the vertebral body size of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Three-year data from placebo groups of the SOTI and TROPOS trials, performed in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, were used for this study. In these trials, patients underwent lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine at baseline and annually over 3 years, according to standardized procedures. Six-point digitization method was used: the four corner points of the vertebral body from T4 to L4 are marked, as well as an additional point in the middle of the upper and lower endplates. From these 6 points, the vertebral body perimeter, area and depth were measured at baseline and at 3 years. The analysis excluded all vertebrae with prevalent or incident fracture. A total of 2017 postmenopausal women (mean age 73.4+/-6.1 years) with a mean lumbar spine T score of -3.1+/-1.5, and a mean femoral neck T score of -3.0+/-0.7 are included in the analysis. Vertebral body dimensions increased over 3 years, by 2.1+/-5.5% (mean depth+/-SD), by 1.7+/-8.3% (mean area+/-SD) and by 1.5+/-4.9% (mean perimeter+/-SD) at the thoracic level (T4 to T12). At the lumbar level (L1 to L4), these dimensions increased as well: 1.4+/-3.6% (mean depth+/-SD), 1.4+/-5.7% (mean area+/-SD), 0.7+/-2.9% (mean perimeter+/-SD). A significant increase in vertebral body size was observed for each vertebral level from T5 to L4 for each of these parameters (p<0.01). These prospective results demonstrate that vertebral body dimensions increase over 3 years in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID

  11. Design, conduct, and analyses of Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98: A randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with receptor-positive, early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Price, Karen N; Gelber, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitors provide superior disease control when compared with tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. Purpose To present the design, history, and analytic challenges of the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial: an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing the aromatase inhibitor letrozole with tamoxifen in this clinical setting. Methods From 1998–2003, BIG 1-98 enrolled 8028 women to receive monotherapy with either tamoxifen or letrozole for 5 years, or sequential therapy of 2 years of one agent followed by 3 years of the other. Randomization to one of four treatment groups permitted two complementary analyses to be conducted several years apart. The first, reported in 2005, provided a head-to-head comparison of letrozole versus tamoxifen. Statistical power was increased by an enriched design, which included patients who were assigned sequential treatments until the time of the treatment switch. The second, reported in late 2008, used a conditional landmark approach to test the hypothesis that switching endocrine agents at approximately 2 years from randomization for patients who are disease-free is superior to continuing with the original agent. Results The 2005 analysis showed the superiority of letrozole compared with tamoxifen. The patients who were assigned tamoxifen alone were unblinded and offered the opportunity to switch to letrozole. Results from other trials increased the clinical relevance about whether or not to start treatment with letrozole or tamoxifen, and analysis plans were expanded to evaluate sequential versus single-agent strategies from randomization. Limitations Due to the unblinding of patients assigned tamoxifen alone, analysis of updated data will require ascertainment of the influence of selective crossover from tamoxifen to letrozole. Conclusions BIG 1-98 is an example of an enriched design, involving

  12. Postmenopausal Estrogen Therapy and Depressive Symptoms in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Whooley, Mary A; Grady, Deborah; Cauley, Jane A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence regarding the effect of postmenopausal estrogen therapy on mood is limited. METHODS To determine whether postmenopausal estrogen therapy is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in elderly women, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 6,602 white women ages 71 years or older who were recruited from population-based listings in Baltimore, Md; Minneapolis, Minn; Portland, Ore; and the Monongahela Valley, Pa. Use of estrogen and progestin was determined by interview. Participants completed the Geriatric Depression Scale short form (GDS) and were considered depressed if they reported 6 or more of 15 possible symptoms of depression. RESULTS A total of 6.3% (72/1,150) of current estrogen users, 7.2% (142/1,964) of past estrogen users, and 9.0% (313/3,488) of never users reported 6 or more symptoms of depression (P = .004). Current estrogen users had a decreased risk of reporting 6 or more depressive symptoms, compared with not current (past or never) users of estrogen (odds ratio [OR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 0.9; P = .01], adjusted for living alone, bilateral oophorectomy, current smoking, physical activity, social network, self-perceived health, cognitive function, functional status, and antidepressant use. However, excluding women who use estrogen or progestin alone, we were unable to find an association between current use of combined estrogen plus progestin therapy and depressive symptoms (adjusted OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.4; P = .5). CONCLUSIONS This cross-sectional study found that current use of unopposed estrogen was associated with a decreased risk of depressive symptoms in older women. Additional studies are needed to understand the effect of combined estrogen and progestin therapy on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older women. PMID:10940144

  13. Urinary calcium excretion in postmenopausal African American women

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, John F.; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to develop a reference range for urine calcium excretion (both 24-hour and fasting) for African American women compared to White women. In addition, the variables that determine urine calcium excretion were identified. Material: Data were analyzed for baseline studies of healthy postmenopausal volunteers who participated in seven separate studies conducted at one site. Methods: Some studies included fasting urine Ca/Cr and others 24-hour urine calcium excretion. 24-hour urine calcium was considered with and without correction for urinary creatinine excretion. Calcium was measured initially by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and more recently by an automated method (ADVIA 2400 Chemistry System). Results: Participants were considered healthy based on history and physical and routine laboratory studies. Those screened who had a history of nephrolithiasis were excluded. A reference range for 24-hour urine calcium and fasting urine calcium/creatinine was developed. Reference intervals of 11 – 197 mg/24-hour urine calcium excretion and of 0.007 – 0.222 of fasting Ca/Cr were found for African American women compared to 21 – 221 mg/24 hours and 0.019 – 0.264 in White women, respectively. Urine creatinine excretion was higher in African Americans consistent with their higher muscle mass. Conclusion: Urine calcium excretion is lower in postmenopausal African American than White women. The reference range developed should be considered in the diagnosis of hypocalciuric states and may also be useful in the diagnosis of hypercalciuria. PMID:26226948

  14. Integrated Model for Denosumab and Ibandronate Pharmacodynamics in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, Dhananjay D.; Marathe, Anshu; Mager, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the pharmacodynamic properties of denosumab, a RANK ligand inhibitor, and ibandronate, a bisphosphonate, using an integrated bone homeostasis model in postmenopausal women. Mean temporal profiles of denosumab, serum and urine N-telopeptide (sNTX, uNTX), lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) following denosumab administration, and urine C-telopeptide (uCTX) and lumbar spine BMD upon ibandronate administration were extracted from the literature. A mechanistic model was developed that integrates denosumab pharmacokinetics with binding to RANK ligand and ibandronate inhibition of osteoclast precursor differentiation to active osteoclasts (AOC). Biomarker concentrations were linked to the AOC pool. BMD was characterized by a turnover model with stimulation of bone formation and degradation by AOB (active osteoblasts) and AOC pools. The estimated basal sNTX, uNTX and uCTX concentrations were 7.24 nM, 14.4 nmol/mmolCr, and 31 μg/mmolCr. The BMD degradation rate was 0.00161 day−1 with stimulation constants associated with AOB and AOC of 1214 and 790 pM−1. Plasma ibandronate concentration producing 50% of maximum inhibition of osteoclast differentiation was 522 ng/L. The integrated model, which incorporates multiple pathways of therapeutic intervention, quantitatively describes changes in clinical biomarkers of bone turnover and BMD after denosumab and ibandronate exposures in postmenopausal women. PMID:21953540

  15. Intravenous estrogens increase insulin clearance and action in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Van Pelt, R. E.; Gozansky, W. S.; Schwartz, R. S.; Kohrt, W. M.

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that estrogens alter insulin action, we evaluated the effects of intravenous conjugated estrogens (CE) on insulin-stimulated steady-state glucose infusion rate (SSGIR) and suppression of plasma glycerol in postmenopausal women (mean ± SD; 56 ± 4 yr; n = 12) not using hormone replacement. SSGIR and glycerol were measured during a two-stage (8 and 40 mU · m−2· min−1) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp on 2 days, with or without a 2.5-mg intravenous CE bolus. Serum estradiol concentrations were increased ~200% on the estrogen (EST) compared with the control (CON) days. Serum insulin was reduced (P < 0.01) during stage 2 of the clamp for EST (63.3 ± 12.8 μU/ml) vs. CON (78.2 ± 15.8 μU/ml). Mean SSGIR and plasma glycerol did not differ between CON and EST days. With adjustment for differences in insulin concentration between conditions, stage 2 glucose disposals were significantly higher (8.63 vs. 7.20 mg · kg−1 · min−1) and plasma glycerol concentrations were significantly lower (29.4 vs. 35.0 μmol/l) for EST vs. CON. Our findings suggest that acute CE administration increases insulin clearance and action in postmenopausal women. PMID:12684221

  16. Risedronate slows or partly reverses cortical and trabecular microarchitectural deterioration in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bala, Yohann; Chapurlat, Roland; Cheung, Angela M; Felsenberg, Dieter; LaRoche, Michel; Morris, Edward; Reeve, Jonathan; Thomas, Thierry; Zanchetta, Jose; Bock, Oliver; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Djoumessi, Roger Martin Zebaze; Seeman, Ego; Rizzoli, René

    2014-02-01

    During early menopause, steady-state bone remodeling is perturbed; the number of basic multicellular units (BMUs) excavating cavities upon the endosteal surface exceeds the number (generated before menopause) concurrently refilling. Later in menopause, steady-state is restored; the many BMUs generated in early menopause refill as similarly large numbers of BMUs concurrently excavate new cavities. We hypothesized that risedronate reduces the number of cavities excavated. However, in younger postmenopausal women, the fewer cavities excavated will still exceed the fewer BMUs now refilling, so net porosity increases, but less than in controls. In older postmenopausal women, the fewer cavities excavated during treatment will be less than the many (generated during early menopause) now refilling, so net porosity decreases and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) increases. We recruited 324 postmenopausal women in two similarly designed double-blind placebo-controlled studies that included 161 younger (Group 1, ≤ 55 years) and 163 older (Group 2, ≥ 55 years) women randomized 2:1 to risedronate 35 mg/week or placebo. High-resolution peripheral computed tomography was used to image the distal radius and tibia. Cortical porosity was quantified using the StrAx1.0 software. Risedronate reduced serum carboxyterminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 bone collagen (CTX-1) and serum amino-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP) by ∼50%. In the younger group, distal radius compact-appearing cortex porosity increased by 4.2% ± 1.6% (p = 0.01) in controls. This was prevented by risedronate. Trabecular vBMD decreased by 3.6% ± 1.4% (p = 0.02) in controls and decreased by 1.6% ± 0.6% (p = 0.005) in the risedronate-treated group. In the older group, changes did not achieve significance apart from a reduction in compact-appearing cortex porosity in the risedronate-treated group (0.9% ± 0.4%, p = 0.047). No between

  17. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women.

    PubMed

    Compston, Juliet E; Wyman, Allison; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D; Chapurlat, Roland D; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L; Hooven, Frederick H; LaCroix, Andrea Z; March, Lyn; Netelenbos, J Coen; Nieves, Jeri W; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B; Anderson, Frederick A

    2016-07-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women, but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years after weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years after weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years after weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is found as early as 1 year after weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26861139

  18. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lomax, Anna J.; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J.; Yeow, Elaine G.; Bell, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. Results All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (−5.4%) and hip (−4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. Conclusion In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic. PMID:26909285

  19. Oral health after breast cancer treatment in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Amódio, Juliana; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; Carrara, Helio Humberto Angotti; Tiezzi, Daniel Guimaraes; de Andrade, Jurandyr Moreira; dos Reis, Francisco José Candido

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Oral health can affect a patient's general health and quality of life. Given the increase in breast cancer survival rates, investigations of factors influencing the quality of life of survivors have gained importance. Therefore, the objective of our study was to characterize oral health in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study. Forty-eight women who survived breast cancer (age 62.1±9.1 years) and 48 healthy controls (age 61.8±8.6 years) were included. For each case and control, a complete oral evaluation chart was completed. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic periodontal disease was 98% in breast cancer survivors and 87% in controls. The breast cancer survivors had a median of 16 remaining teeth, whereas controls had a median of 22 remaining teeth (p = 0.03). The percentage of sites with gingival bleeding was 16.05% (0-100%) in breast cancer survivors and 0% (0-72%) in controls (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Chronic periodontal disease and tooth loss were highly prevalent in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. To improve survivors' quality of life, a preventive oral health evaluation should be available prior to cancer treatment. PMID:25518024

  20. Depressive Symptoms, Bone Loss, and Fractures in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Delia; Brunner, Robert L.; Robbins, John; Reed, Susan D.; Newton, Katherine M.; Melville, Jennifer L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis and depression may be associated through common physiologic systems or risk factors. Objective To assess the associations between depressive symptoms (Burnam’s scale) or antidepressant use and bone outcomes. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants A total of 93,676 postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years old) enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Measurements Self-reported fractures (n = 14,982) (hip [adjudicated], spine, wrist, and “other”). Analyses included 82,410 women with complete information followed on average for 7.4 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip (n = 4539), spine (n = 4417), and whole body (n = 4502) was measured at baseline and 3 years in women enrolled at 3 densitometry study sites. Results Overall, there were no statistically significant associations between depressive symptoms or antidepressant therapy and 3-year change in BMD. In a subset of women not using antidepressants, there was a significant difference in whole-body BMD change between women with and without depressive symptoms (P = .05). Depressive symptoms (hazard ratio [HR] 1.08; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.14) and antidepressant therapy (HR = 1.22; CI = 1.15 to 1.30) independently increased risk of any fracture, the majority of which occurred at “other” anatomic sites. Antidepressant therapy increased the risk of spine fracture (HR = 1.36; CI = 1.14 to 1.63). No associations were observed between depressive symptoms or antidepressant therapy and hip or wrist fracture. Conclusion In this study of postmenopausal women, average age 64, we observed minimal association between depressive symptoms and 3-year changes in either BMD or fracture risk. Antidepressant use was not associated with changes in BMD, but was associated with increased risk of fractures at the spine and “other ” anatomic sites. PMID:18286345

  1. Prevalence of Calcified Carotid Artery on Panoramic Radiographs in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Jamileh Beigom; Moshfeghi, Mahkameh

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of calcified carotid artery in 50 year-old and older postmenopausal dental outpatients for early diagnosis of individuals at risk of stroke. Materials and methods This is a descriptive study of 200 panoramic radiographs. These radiographs included post-menopausal women referring to the Department of Oral Medicine at Shahid Beheshti Faculty of Dentistry during 2006-2007. The x-ray machine, developer and film type were the same for all the radiographs. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test. Results We found 22 calcified carotid arteries. The left and right carotid arteries were involved in 7 and 9 cases, respec-tively. In 6 cases both carotid arteries were calcified. Four individuals had no vascular risk factor excluding age and others had at least one risk factor. We found significant statistical correlation between hypertension, past history of myocardial infarction, and hypercholesterolemia with calcified carotid artery on panoramic radiographs. Conclusion Under the limitations of the present study, prevalence of calcified carotid arteries is 11.0 % in 50 year-old and older postmenopausal dental outpatients. PMID:23230481

  2. Soy foods, isoflavones, and the health of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Messina, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Over the past 2 decades, soy foods have been the subject of a vast amount of research, primarily because they are uniquely rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. The phytoestrogenic effects of isoflavones have led some to view soy foods and isoflavone supplements as alternatives to conventional hormone therapy. However, clinical research shows that isoflavones and estrogen exert differing effects on a variety of health outcomes. Nevertheless, there is substantial evidence that soy foods have the potential to address several conditions and diseases associated with the menopausal transition. For example, data suggest that soy foods can potentially reduce ischemic heart disease through multiple mechanisms. Soy protein directly lowers blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, and the soybean is low in saturated fat and a source of both essential fatty acids, the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid and the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid. In addition, soflavones improve endothelial function and possibly slow the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Isoflavone supplements also consistently alleviate menopausal hot flashes provided they contain sufficient amounts of the predominant soybean isoflavone genistein. In contrast, the evidence that isoflavones reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women is unimpressive. Whether adult soy food intake reduces breast cancer risk is unclear. Considerable evidence suggests that for soy to reduce risk, consumption during childhood and/or adolescence is required. Although concerns have been raised that soy food consumption may be harmful to breast cancer patients, an analysis in 9514 breast cancer survivors who were followed for 7.4 y found that higher postdiagnosis soy intake was associated with a significant 25% reduction in tumor recurrence. In summary, the clinical and epidemiologic data indicate that adding soy foods to the

  3. Low estrogen levels and obesity are associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and estrogen level, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Fifty-four obese women (premenopausal, n=25; postmenopausal, n=29) were selected to participate in this study. The outcome measurements in the pre- and postmenopausal groups were compared using independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis. The estrogen level (P<0.001), LTL (P<0.05), high-density lipoprotein level (P<0.05), and CRF (P<0.001) were higher in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. The body fat percentage (P<0.05) and triglyceride concentration (P<0.05) were lower in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. There were no significant associations between LTL, CVD risk, CRF, and oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-menopausal women. The body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent-age in postmenopausal women were negatively associated with LTL (P<0.05). When all women were considered (i.e., both pre- and post-menopause), the BMI, percentage of fat, and waist circumference had a negative association with LTL (P<0.05), and estrogen levels were positively associated with LTL (P<0.05). Decreased estrogen levels after menopause, a pivotal factor in the biology of aging, and obesity were more associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women than aerobic capacity and other CVD risk factors. PMID:27419121

  4. Low estrogen levels and obesity are associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and estrogen level, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Fifty-four obese women (premenopausal, n=25; postmenopausal, n=29) were selected to participate in this study. The outcome measurements in the pre- and postmenopausal groups were compared using independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis. The estrogen level (P<0.001), LTL (P<0.05), high-density lipoprotein level (P<0.05), and CRF (P<0.001) were higher in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. The body fat percentage (P<0.05) and triglyceride concentration (P<0.05) were lower in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. There were no significant associations between LTL, CVD risk, CRF, and oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-menopausal women. The body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent-age in postmenopausal women were negatively associated with LTL (P<0.05). When all women were considered (i.e., both pre- and post-menopause), the BMI, percentage of fat, and waist circumference had a negative association with LTL (P<0.05), and estrogen levels were positively associated with LTL (P<0.05). Decreased estrogen levels after menopause, a pivotal factor in the biology of aging, and obesity were more associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women than aerobic capacity and other CVD risk factors. PMID:27419121

  5. Genital and subjective sexual arousal in postmenopausal women: influence of laboratory-induced hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2002-01-01

    The current study was aimed at comparing genital and subjective sexual arousal in pre- and postmenopausal women and exploring the effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on these parameters. Seventy-one women (25 young and premenopausal, 25 postmenopausal, and 21 age-matched premenopausal women) participated in two counterbalanced sessions consisting of genital arousal assessment with vaginal photoplethysmography and subjective arousal assessment with self-report questionnaires. SNS activity was enhanced using laboratory-induced hyperventilation. Results demonstrated no significant differences between pre- and postmenopausal women on genital and subjective measures of arousal in response to neutral and erotic films. SNS manipulation increased genital excitement only in young, premenopausal women. These data suggest that prior SNS enhancement can differentiate pre- from postmenopausal genital arousal. Data also revealed significant correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal in older pre- and postmenopausal women, but not in young premenopausal women. These data are the first to directly compare genital-subjective correlations between pre- and postmenopausal women. PMID:11898709

  6. Postmenopausal Women's Quality of Sleep and its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To asses self-reported sleep disturbance and its associated factors in 50-60-year-old Menopause women. Settings and Design: This cross sectional study included 700 healthy 50-60-year-old women volunteers who were postmenopausal for at least 1 year. The volunteers were interviewed after providing informed consent. The study questioner included two main aspects: Personal characteristics and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 14 software. Results: The mean sleep scale score was 7.84 ± 4.4. Significant correlations had seen between sleep disturbance and characteristics of occupational status, educational status, husband's occupational status, and economical status, and (P = 0.002). There were no significant correlation between sleep disturbance and other personal characteristics, such as age; partner's age; number of children; family size; consumption of tea, coffee, or cola. Conclusions: Sleep disturbance is common in menopausal women. Taking into account the sleep-related personal characteristics, suitable interventions should be taken to improve sleep quality, which is a very important for maintaining the quality of life. PMID:25861204

  7. Effect of estrogen/gestagen and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy on bone formation in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, K.; Riis, B.; Christiansen, C.

    1986-12-01

    The effect of two different estrogen/gestagen regimens and 24R,25-(OH)2-cholecalciferol on bone formation was studied in a randomized trial with 144 healthy postmenopausal women. Urinary excretion (UE) of /sup 99m/technetium-diphosphonate and serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) was determined before and then once a year for 2 years of treatment. Both estimates of bone formation showed highly significant decreases (p less than .001) to normal premenopausal levels in women receiving unopposed 17 beta-estradiol or in a sequential combination with progestagen, whereas unchanged high values were found in the groups receiving 24R,25-(OH)2D3 and placebo. The data show that bone turnover increases in early postmenopausal women concomitantly with the loss of bone mass, and that hormonal substitutional therapy normalizes the total skeletal turnover as well as preventing bone loss.

  8. Estrogen Therapy Has No Long-Term Effect on Cognition in Younger Postmenopausal Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk to cognitive function years after treatment. A randomized clinical trial of estrogen therapy in younger postmenopausal ... 1998 at 40 academic research centers. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: women who had ...

  9. Coffee, tea, and melanoma risk among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haotian; Reeves, Katherine W; Qian, Jing; Sturgeon, Susan R

    2015-07-01

    Laboratory research suggests that components in coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects. Some epidemiologic studies have reported that women who consume coffee and tea have a lower risk for melanoma. We assessed coffee, tea, and melanoma risk prospectively in the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study cohort of 66,484 postmenopausal women, followed for an average of 7.7 years. Coffee and tea intakes were measured through self-administered questionnaires at baseline and at year 3 of follow-up. Self-reported incident melanomas were adjudicated using medical records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk, adjusting for covariates, with person-time accumulation until melanoma diagnosis (n=398), death, loss to follow-up, or through 2005. Daily coffee [hazard ratio (HR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.12] and tea (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.31) intakes were not significantly associated with melanoma risk compared with nondaily intake of each beverage. No significant trends were observed between melanoma risk and increasing intakes of coffee (P for trend=0.38) or tea (P for trend=0.22). Women who reported daily coffee intake at both baseline and year 3 had a significantly decreased risk compared with women who reported nondaily intake at both time points (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). Consistent daily tea intake was not associated with decreased melanoma risk. Overall, there is no strong evidence that increasing coffee or tea consumption can lead to a lower melanoma risk. We observed a decrease in melanoma risk among long-term coffee drinkers, but the lack of consistency in the results by dose and type cautioned against overinterpretation of the results. PMID:25325307

  10. Breast Cancer Risk in Metabolically Healthy but Overweight Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Marc J.; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y.F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin’s mitogenic/anti-apoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e. normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity (i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile [q1]) have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N=497) and a subcohort (N=2,830) of Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared to metabolically healthy normal weight women (hazard ratio [HR]HOMA-IR=0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI],0.64-1.42). In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR=1.76; 95% CI,1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR=1.80; 95% CI,0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin=2.06; 95% CI,1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin=2.01; 95% CI,1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin=0.96; 95% CI,0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification, than adiposity per se. PMID:25593034

  11. Increased serum inhibin B levels in postmenopausal women with altered thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, N; Luisi, S; Nardo, S; Gargano, L; Franchi, A; Sibilla, R; Canettieri, G; Petraglia, F; Centanni, M

    2003-08-01

    Hyper- and hypothyroidism have significant effects on the female reproductive system. However, little in the way of data is available on the relationship between ovarian paracrine control and thyroid function. This study was aimed at characterising the serum levels of inhibin B in relation to altered thyroid function. Serum inhibin B and FSH levels were measured in 91 women (51 regularly cycling and 40 postmenopausal). The mean serum concentration of inhibin B in euthyroid cycling women (0.025 +/- 0.018 microg/l) was similar to that observed in hyper- and hypothyroid patients (0.022 +/- 0.015 and 0.018 +/- 0.014 microg/l, respectively, p=ns). Inhibin B levels were obviously reduced (-72%) in euthyroid postmenopausal women. In contrast, in hyper- and hypothyroid postmenopausal women, inhibin B levels remained substantially at the premenopausal level. So far, serum inhibin B appeared to be significantly increased in both hyperthyroid patients (0.025 +/- 0.014 microg/l; p<0.0001) and in hypothyroid patients (0.016 +/- 0.006 microg/l; p=0.0006). Altered thyroid function did not affect FSH levels at fertile age. However, a significant decrease of FSH levels was observed in hyper- and hypothyroid (-52% and -43%, respectively) postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, these FSH levels remained in the postmenopausal range. These results indicate that an altered thyroid function affects serum inhibin B levels in postmenopausal women. PMID:12953168

  12. Early Postmenopausal Transdermal 17β-Estradiol Therapy and Amyloid-β Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Kantarci, Kejal; Lowe, Val J.; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Bailey, Kent R.; Fields, Julie A.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Zuk, Samantha M.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Gleason, Carey; Jack, Clifford R.; Rocca, Walter A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It remains controversial whether hormone therapy in recently postmenopausal women modifies the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Objective: To investigate the effects of hormone therapy on amyloid-β deposition in recently postmenopausal women. Methods: Participants within 5–36 months past menopause in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study, a randomized, double blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial, were randomized to: 1) 0.45 mg/day oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE); 2) 50μg/day transdermal 17β-estradiol; or 3) placebo pills and patch for four years. Oral progesterone (200 mg/day) was given to active treatment groups for 12 days each month. 11C Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging was performed in 68 of the 118 participants at Mayo Clinic approximately seven years post randomization and three years after stopping randomized treatment. PiB Standard unit value ratio (SUVR) was calculated. Results: Women (age = 52–65) randomized to transdermal 17β-estradiol (n = 21) had lower PiB SUVR compared to placebo (n = 30) after adjusting for age [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.31(0.11–0.83)]. In the APOE ɛ4 carriers, transdermal 17β-estradiol treated women (n = 10) had lower PiB SUVR compared to either placebo (n = 5) [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.04(0.004–0.44)], or the oral CEE treated group (n = 3) [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.01(0.0006–0.23)] after adjusting for age. Hormone therapy was not associated with PiB SUVR in the APOE ɛ4 non-carriers. Conclusion: In this pilot study, transdermal 17β-estradiol therapy in recently postmenopausal women was associated with a reduced amyloid-β deposition, particularly in APOE ɛ4 carriers. This finding may have important implications for the prevention of AD in postmenopausal women, and needs to be confirmed in a larger sample. PMID:27163830

  13. Avenanthramide supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Ryan; Dickman, Jonathan R; Kang, Chounghun; Zhang, Tianou; Chu, Yi-Fang; Ji, Li Li

    2014-01-01

    During aging, chronic systemic inflammation increases in prevalence and antioxidant balance shifts in favor of oxidant generation. Avenanthramide (AVA) is a group of oat phenolics that have shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capability. The present study investigated whether dietary supplementation of avenanthramides (AVA) in oats would increase antioxidant protection and reduce inflammation after a bout of downhill walking (DW) in postmenopausal women. Women at age of 50-80 years (N = 16) were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion, receiving two cookies made of oat flour providing 9.2 mg AVA or 0.4 mg AVA (control, C) each day for 8 weeks. Before and after the dietary regimen, each group of subjects walked downhill on a treadmill (-9% grade) for 4 bouts of 15 minutes at a speed of 4.0 km/h with 5 minutes rest between sessions. Blood samples were collected at rest, 24 h post-DW, and 48 h post-DW pre- and post-supplementation. Both DW sessions increased plasma creatine kinase activity (P < 0.05). Before supplementation, in vitro neutrophil respiratory burst (NRB) activity was increased at 24 h post-DW (P < 0.05) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was increased 48 h post-DW (P < 0.05). AVA supplementation decreased DW-induced NRB at 24 h (P < 0.05) and CRP level 48 h (P < 0.05). Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β concentration and mononuclear cell nuclear factor (NF) κB binding were suppressed at rest and during post-DW period in AVA but not C group (P < 0.05). Plasma total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were increased in AVA vs. C (P < 0.05), whereas glutathione redox status was elevated 48 h post-DW but not affected by AVA. Thus, chronic AVA supplementation decreased systemic and DW-induced inflammation and increased blood-borne antioxidant defense in postmenopausal women. PMID:24645793

  14. Avenanthramide supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    During aging, chronic systemic inflammation increases in prevalence and antioxidant balance shifts in favor of oxidant generation. Avenanthramide (AVA) is a group of oat phenolics that have shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capability. The present study investigated whether dietary supplementation of avenanthramides (AVA) in oats would increase antioxidant protection and reduce inflammation after a bout of downhill walking (DW) in postmenopausal women. Women at age of 50–80 years (N = 16) were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion, receiving two cookies made of oat flour providing 9.2 mg AVA or 0.4 mg AVA (control, C) each day for 8 weeks. Before and after the dietary regimen, each group of subjects walked downhill on a treadmill (−9% grade) for 4 bouts of 15 minutes at a speed of 4.0 km/h with 5 minutes rest between sessions. Blood samples were collected at rest, 24 h post-DW, and 48 h post-DW pre- and post-supplementation. Both DW sessions increased plasma creatine kinase activity (P < 0.05). Before supplementation, in vitro neutrophil respiratory burst (NRB) activity was increased at 24 h post-DW (P < 0.05) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was increased 48 h post-DW (P < 0.05). AVA supplementation decreased DW-induced NRB at 24 h (P < 0.05) and CRP level 48 h (P < 0.05). Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β concentration and mononuclear cell nuclear factor (NF) κB binding were suppressed at rest and during post-DW period in AVA but not C group (P < 0.05). Plasma total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were increased in AVA vs. C (P < 0.05), whereas glutathione redox status was elevated 48 h post-DW but not affected by AVA. Thus, chronic AVA supplementation decreased systemic and DW-induced inflammation and increased blood-borne antioxidant defense in postmenopausal women. PMID:24645793

  15. Psychosocial Predictors of Coronary Artery Calcification Progression in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Low, Carissa A.; Matthews, Karen A.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Edmundowicz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Objective Coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been associated with psychosocial factors in some but not all cross-sectional analyses. The goal of this study was to determine whether positive and negative psychosocial factors prospectively predict CAC progression in postmenopausal women. Methods Participants from the Healthy Women Study who also participated in the Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center protocol (n = 149) completed self-report psychosocial measures prior to two electron beam tomography scans of CAC separated by an average of 3.3 years. Results of exploratory factor analysis were used to create aggregate psychosocial indices: Psychological Risk (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, cynicism, anger-in) and Psychosocial Resources (optimism, purpose in life, mastery, self-esteem, and social support). Results The Psychological Risk index predicted significantly greater CAC progression over three years (β = .16, p = .035, ΔR2 = .03) while the Psychosocial Resources index was not predictive of CAC progression (β = -.08, p = .30, ΔR2 = .01). On individual scales, higher scores on cynicism emerged as a significant predictor of CAC progression, along with a trend linking anger-in to atherosclerosis progression. A post-hoc analysis showed a significant interaction between cynicism and anger-in (β =.20, p = .01, ΔR2 = .03), such that women reporting high levels of both cynicism and anger suppression exhibited the most CAC progression. Conclusions These findings highlight psychosocial risk factors that may accelerate the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in older women, suggest the potential importance of examining combinations of psychosocial risk factors, and represent potential targets for psychological interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:22042881

  16. Serum biomarker profile associated with high bone turnover and BMD in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Siegel, Eric R; Achenbach, Sara J; Khosla, Sundeep; Suva, Larry J

    2008-07-01

    Early diagnosis of the onset of osteoporosis is key to the delivery of effective therapy. Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide a means of evaluating skeletal dynamics that complements static measurements of BMD by DXA. Conventional clinical measurements of bone turnover, primarily the estimation of collagen and its breakdown products in the blood or urine, lack both sensitivity and specificity as a reliable diagnostic tool. As a result, improved tests are needed to augment the use of BMD measurements as the principle diagnostic modality. In this study, the serum proteome of 58 postmenopausal women with high or low/normal bone turnover (training set) was analyzed by surface enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and a diagnostic fingerprint was identified using a variety of statistical and machine learning tools. The diagnostic fingerprint was validated in a separate distinct test set, consisting of serum samples from an additional 59 postmenopausal women obtained from the same Mayo cohort, with a gap of 2 yr. Specific protein peaks that discriminate between postmenopausal patients with high or low/normal bone turnover were identified and validated. Multiple supervised learning approaches were able to classify the level of bone turnover in the training set with 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In addition, the individual protein peaks were also significantly correlated with BMD measurements in these patients. Four of the major discriminatory peaks in the diagnostic profile were identified as fragments of interalpha-trypsin-inhibitor heavy chain H4 precursor (ITIH4), a plasma kallikrein-sensitive glycoprotein that is a component of the host response system. These data suggest that these serum protein fragments are the serum-borne reflection of the increased osteoclast activity, leading to the increased bone turnover that is associated with decreasing BMD and presumably an increased risk of fracture. In conjunction with the

  17. Effect of Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga Racemosa) on Vasomotor Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Nahaee, Jila; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Bayatipayan, Somaye

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:Hot flash is considered to be an early and common symptom of menopause. The present study aimed to determine the impact of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods:This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. This study was performed on 84 postmenopausal women. The participants were randomly divided into control and intervention groups. The participants of the intervention group received one black cohosh tablet per day and the control group received one placebo tablet per day for eight weeks. The severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes were recorded during the pre-intervention phase, and 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and ANCOVA tests. The level of significance was considered lower than 0.05. Results:There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of severity and number of hot flashes in weeks 4 and 8 by controlling the intensity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes before the intervention. Moreover, using repeated measures ANOVA, the intergroup comparison indicated a significant difference in bothgroups (the test and control groups) in terms of severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes. Conclusion:According to the findings of the study, it seems that black cohosh can be used as an effective alternative medicine in relieving menopausal vasomotor symptoms. PMID:25276716

  18. An exploratory comparison of vaginal glycogen and Lactobacillus levels in pre- and post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Modur, Sharada; Burgad, Derick; Gilbert, Douglas; Golub, Elizabeth T.; French, Audrey L.; McCotter, Kerrie; Landay, Alan L.; Spear, Greg T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have suggested that glycogen expression in vaginal epithelium decreases at menopause, resulting in reduced levels of lactobacilli. However, free glycogen in genital fluids and its relationship to Lactobacillus levels has not been compared in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods 82 cervico-vaginal lavage samples were collected at different phases of the menstrual cycle from 11 pre-menopausal (4 HIV-uninfected and 7 HIV-infected) and 12 post-menopausal (7 HIV-uninfected and 5 HIV-infected) women over a 1–3 month period. Free glycogen was quantified in genital fluid. Lactobacillus levels were quantified by real time PCR. Estrogen and progesterone levels in blood were determined by ELISA. Results Free glycogen was detected in both pre- and post-menopausal women. Across all samples, those from post-menopausal women had significantly lower levels of free glycogen than those from pre-menopausal women (median 0.002 vs. 0.065 µg/µl, respectively; p = 0.03). Lactobacillus levels correlated positively with free glycogen in both pre- (Spearman r=0.68, p <0.0001) and post-menopausal women (r=0.60, p <0.002). Samples from pre-menopausal women had higher Lactobacillus levels and a lower vaginal pH (median log=8.1; median pH= 4) than those from post-menopausal women (median log=7.1; median pH=4.6) although these differences were not significant. HIV status had no significant effect on these relationships. Conclusion Free glycogen was detected in both pre- and post-menopausal women and correlated with Lactobacillus in both groups. These results point to the complexity of the relationship between menopause and vaginal microbiota and indicate that more careful studies of the role played by glycogen are warranted. PMID:25535963

  19. Over-the-counter treatments and perineal hygiene in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Martin, Deanna K.; Brousseau, E. Christine; Yip, Sallis O.; Fried, Terri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this descriptive study was to quantify the personal hygiene habits/practices and over-the-counter (OTC) products used by postmenopausal women. Specifically, we were interested in any product that would contact the vulva or vagina. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of postmenopausal women seeking routine gynecologic care. We developed questionnaire of personal hygiene habits/practices and OTC products used by women that would contact the vulva or vagina. We recruited postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care from two separate gynecology practices. Descriptive statistics were performed as appropriate to characterize the frequency of reported treatments and practices. Results The questionnaire on OTC treatments and perineal hygiene was completed by 114 postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight women (50.9%) reported using at least one OTC vulvovaginal treatment in the last three months, including barrier treatments, topical anesthetics, powders, and antifungals. Women often used more than one OTC product. Thirty-seven women (32.5%) reported the use of two or more OTC products. Powders were used by 34 women (29.8%). Talcum powder was the most commonly used powder (76.5%, n/N = 26/34). Nine (7.9%) postmenopausal women reported douching in the last three months. Conclusions We found that over half of postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care have used an OTC product for vulvovaginal symptoms in the last three months and 1/3 of women use 2 or more products. Because the use of OTC products is so common, our study highlights the need for detailed history inquiry about OTC product use and perineal hygiene practices. PMID:23880795

  20. Identifying metabolically healthy but obese individuals in sedentary postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Messier, Virginie; Karelis, Antony D; Prud'homme, Denis; Primeau, Vanessa; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different methods to identify metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) individuals in a cohort of obese postmenopausal women. We examined the anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of 113 obese (age: 57.3 +/- 4.8 years; BMI: 34.2 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)), sedentary postmenopausal women. The following methods were used to identify MHO subjects: the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (MHO: upper quartile of glucose disposal rates); the Matsuda index (MHO: upper quartile of the Matsuda index); the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (MHO: lower quartile of the HOMA index); having 0-1 cardiometabolic abnormalities (systolic/diastolic blood pressure > or =130/85 mm Hg, triglycerides (TG) > or =1.7 mmol/l, glucose > or =5.6 mmol/l, HOMA >5.13, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) >0.1 mg/l, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <1.3 mmol/l); and meeting four out of five metabolic factors (HOMA < or =2.7, TG < or =1.7 mmol/l, HDL-C > or =1.3 mmol/l, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol < or =2.6 mmol/l, hsCRP < or =3.0 mg/l). Thereafter, we measured insulin sensitivity, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), body fat distribution (computed tomography scan), energy expenditure, plasma lipids, inflammation markers, resting blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We found significant differences in body composition (i.e., peripheral fat mass, central lean body mass (LBM)) and metabolic risk factors (i.e., HDL-C, hsCRP) between MHO and at risk individuals using the different methods to identify both groups. In addition, significant differences between MHO subjects using the different methods to identify MHO individuals were observed such as age, TG/HDL, hsCRP, and fasting insulin. However, independently of the methods used, we noted some recurrent characteristics that identify MHO subjects such as TG, apolipoprotein B, and ferritin. In conclusion, the present study shows variations in body composition

  1. Relationships Between Dog Ownership and Physical Activity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Betsy C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Volpe, Stella Lucia; Howard, Barbara V.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Positive associations between dog ownership and physical activity in older adults have been previously reported. Purpose The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations between dog ownership and physical activity measures in a well-characterized, diverse sample of postmenopausal women. Methods Analyses included 36,984 dog owners (mean age: 61.5 yrs), and 115,645 non-dog owners (mean age: 63.9 yrs) enrolled in a clinical trial or the observational study of the Women’s Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations between dog ownership and physical activity, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Owning a dog was associated with a higher likelihood of walking ≥150 min/wk (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10–1.17) and a lower likelihood of being sedentary ≥8 hr/day (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83–0.89) as compared to not owning a dog. However, dog owners were less likely to meet ≥7.5 MET-hr/wk of total physical activity as compared to non-dog owners (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00–1.07). Conclusions Dog ownership is associated with increased physical activity in older women, particularly among women living alone. Health promotion efforts aimed at older adults should highlight the benefits of regular dog walking for both dog owners and non-dog owners. PMID:25449694

  2. Factors Associated with Mammographic Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Caglayan, Kasim; Alkis, Ismet; Arslan, Ergin; Okur, Aylin; Banli, Oktay; Engin-Ustün, Yaprak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Breast density increases the risk of breast cancer, but also in the interpretation of mammography is also important. This study examine the risk factors affecting breast density in postmenopausal women. Methods Between January 2013 and January 2014, 215 patients admitted to The Clinics of Gynecology and Obstetrics with complaints of menopause were taken. According to the results of mammography, Group I (non-dense, n = 175) and Group II (dense, n = 40) were created. The informations of the caseswere analyzed retrospectively. Results In Group I, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, parity were significantly higher than group II (P < 0.05). In group II, the withdrawal period of menstruation and progesterone levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, BMI for dense breasts and number of pregnancies were found to be an independent risk factor (P < 0.05). Conclusion Increased BMI, pregnancy and parity, result of reduction in density , but longer duration of menopause and increased progesterone cause an increase in density. BMI and the number of pregnancy was found to be independent risk factors for reducing breast density. PMID:26357645

  3. Six-month oral dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation in early and late postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Stomati, M; Monteleone, P; Casarosa, E; Quirici, B; Puccetti, S; Bernardi, F; Genazzani, A D; Rovati, L; Luisi, M; Genazzani, A R

    2000-10-01

    The adrenal production of the delta 5-androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), declines linearly with aging. The evidence that DHEA or DHEAS administration may alleviate some of the problems related to aging has opened new perspectives for clinical research. The present study aims to investigate the effects of a 6-month DHEA supplementation in early and late postmenopausal women, with normal or overweight body mass index (BMI), on the level of circulating steroids, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), beta-endorphin and gonadotropins, and on the adrenal gland response to dexamethasone suppression and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. Early postmenopausal women (50-55 years) both normal weight (BMI 20-24, n = 9) and overweight (BMI 26-30, n = 9) and late postmenopausal women (60-65 years) both of normal weight and overweight, were treated with oral DHEA (50 mg/day). Circulating DHEA, DHEAS, 17-OH pregnenolone, progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, allopregnenolone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estradiol, SHBG, cortisol, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and beta-endorphin levels were evaluated monthly and a Kupperman score was performed. The product/precursor ratios of adrenal steroid levels were used to assess the relative activities of the adrenal cortex enzymes. Before and after 3 and 6 months of therapy, each women underwent an ACTH stimulating test (10 micrograms i.v. in bolus) after dexamethasone administration (0.5 mg p.o.) to evaluate the response of cortisol, DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, 17-OH pregnenolone, allopregnanolone, progesterone and 17-OH progesterone. The between-group differences observed before treatment disappeared during DHEA administration. Levels of 17-OH pregnenolone remained constant during the 6 months. Levels of DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased progressively from the first

  4. Postmenopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... other options for managing hot flashes, as well: Herbal supplements: Many women have reported success in managing hot flashes with specific herbal supplements and preparations. You can learn more about herbal ...

  5. Relationship between global pulse wave velocity and diastolic dysfunction in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Palmiero, Pasquale; Maiello, Maria; Daly, David D; Zito, Annapaola; Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Nanda, Navin C

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Global aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVg) is a simple, accurate, and noninvasive method to determine large artery stiffness. The goal of our study was to investigate the relationship between PWVg, LV mass, and diastolic function in postmenopausal women. Patients and method: We screened 321 consecutive women with echocardiographic examination to determine PWVg. LV diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and LV hypertrophy (LVH) were diagnosed according to ASE (American Society Echocardiography) Guidelines. Results: The mean age of the 321 women studied was 59.9 years of age with 20 percent of the women menstruate and 80 percent post-menopausal. Amongst the post-menopausal women, 168 patients had LVDD (66.7%), 127 had mild diastolic dysfunction, 40 had moderate diastolic dysfunction, and 1had severe diastolic dysfunction. In these post-menopausal patients with diastolic dysfunction, 89.3% had an increased PWVg while 10.7% had a normal PWVg which was highly statistically significant (p < 0.001). The patients with a normal PWVg all had mild diastolic dysfunction. Increased left atrial volume indexed for body surface area was present in only 19 women, 12 of whom had LVDD and 14 increased PWVg, but statistical analysis was not performed due to the low number of women affected. There was no statistically significant difference in age between postmenopausal women with and without increased PWVg. Conclusion: In our population of postmenopausal women, we observed a strong relationship between LVDD and LVH with PWVg. Our study supports the usefulness of assessment of aortic stiffness as a marker of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25664082

  6. The uterine choriocarcinoma in postmenopausal women: specificities of diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kaabia, Ons; Meddeb, Sawsen; Rhim, Mohamed Salah; Bibi, Mohamed; Khairi, Hedi

    2014-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a gestational trophoblastic tumor that mainly affects women of childbearing age. Cases of choriocarcinoma in postmenopausal women are exceptional. Through an observation and literature review, we propose to study the specific diagnosis and treatment features of this tumor in menopausal women. We report the observation of a pure uterine choriocarcinoma, which occurred in post-menopause. The diagnosis was made on the analysis of surgical specimens confirmed by measurement of hCG. Chemotherapy was started after a total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy first. The improvement was dramatic after 3 courses of chemotherapy and the patient is in complete remission after five years of monitoring. The primitive forms of pure choriocarcinoma in postmenopausal women are exceptional. Their etiology is poorly understood and their treatment based on chemotherapy. PMID:25815097

  7. [Decrease of labor absenteeism associated with hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Blümel, J E; Sáez, L; Roncagliolo, M E; Tacla, X; Brandt, A

    1995-08-01

    Absenteeism affects efficiency and costs of health care. Most of health workers are middle age women, whose climacteric symptoms may reduce their work capacity working at a public hospital in Santiago during 1992. Fifty-eight percent were postmenopausal and 34.8% of these were receiving hormone replacement therapy. Global absenteeism rate was 17.1 days/year. These figures were 14.8 days/year for premenopausal and 17.8 days/year for postmenopausal women (NS). Among the latter, those women receiving hormone replacement therapy had a significantly lower absenteeism rate (9.4 days/year compared to 20.4 days/year among those not receiving hormones). Osteoarticular diseases were responsible for 44.3% and psychiatric diseases for 18.1% of sick leaves. No differences in absenteeism were observed between different professional levels. We conclude that hormone replacement therapy is associated with a better working capacity in postmenopausal women. PMID:8657962

  8. Weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective cohort of overweight and obese US women.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Goodman, Michael; Patel, Alpa V; Diver, W Ryan; Flanders, W Dana; Feigelson, Heather Spencer

    2011-04-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk; however, it is unclear whether losing excess weight will lower risk. Therefore, we examined the relationship between weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer among 13,055 overweight and obese, cancer-free women who enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort in 1992. During the 15 year follow-up, 816 postmenopausal breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Self-reported weight was collected before diagnosis at baseline and 10 years prior to baseline. The median weight loss was 11 lbs, but only 58% of the women maintained this weight loss through the first 5 year follow-up interval (1992-1997). Using both restricted cubic splines and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, we observed no association between weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer. The hazard ratio for 30+ pounds of weight loss compared to stable weight was 0.95 (95%: CI 0.47-1.95). An inverse association was, however, suggested among women who maintained ten or more pounds of weight loss through the next interval. There was no evidence of effect modification by postmenopausal hormone use, initial BMI, or other factors examined. In summary, weight loss was not associated with postmenopausal breast cancer in this study. Future studies should focus on sustained weight loss and whether the timing of weight loss is important. PMID:21327461

  9. Uptake of exemestane chemoprevention in postmenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Bilge; Sorkin, Mia; Pusztai, Lajos; Hofstatter, Erin W

    2016-01-01

    Despite their efficacy, uptake of selective estrogen receptor modulators for breast cancer chemoprevention remains low. Exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, has recently been identified as a potential chemopreventive option with fewer serious side effects compared with selective estrogen receptor modulators in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to assess the uptake of exemestane in a breast cancer prevention clinic. A retrospective chart review was conducted to capture chemoprevention uptake by postmenopausal women presenting to the Yale Breast Cancer Prevention Clinic between November 2011 and November 2012. Descriptive statistics of the study population have been presented. Statistical analyses were carried out using SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA) between December 2012 and February 2013. Of 90 postmenopausal women, 56 were eligible for chemoprevention. Their mean age was 56.8 years. Among the women, 39% had osteopenia or osteoporosis. Thirteen women chose to start chemoprevention medication (23%). Although 31% of the chemopreventive medication administered included exemestane, only four of 56 postmenopausal women opted for exemestane (7%). Chemoprevention uptake rates of postmenopausal women in the setting of a breast cancer prevention clinic are higher than that reported in the general population; however, they remain low overall despite the inclusion of exemestane as an option. A significant proportion of postmenopausal women have decreased bone density, which is a potential barrier to exemestane uptake. The results provide practical implications suggesting that exemestane may have limited impact on breast cancer chemoprevention uptake. Further investigations should focus on understanding the factors that influence, predict, and increase chemoprevention uptake. PMID:25642790

  10. Uptake of exemestane chemoprevention in postmenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sorkin, Mia; Pusztai, Lajos; Hofstatter, Erin W.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their efficacy, uptake of selective estrogen receptor modulators for breast cancer chemoprevention remains low. Exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, has recently been identified as a potential chemopreventive option with fewer serious side effects compared with selective estrogen receptor modulators in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to assess the uptake of exemestane in a breast cancer prevention clinic. A retrospective chart review was conducted to capture chemoprevention uptake by postmenopausal women presenting to the Yale Breast Cancer Prevention Clinic between November 2011 and November 2012. Descriptive statistics of the study population have been presented. Statistical analyses were carried out using SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA) between December 2012 and February 2013. Of 90 postmenopausal women, 56 were eligible for chemoprevention. Their mean age was 56.8 years. Among the women, 39% had osteopenia or osteoporosis. Thirteen women chose to start chemoprevention medication (23%). Although 31% of the chemopreventive medication administered included exemestane, only four of 56 postmenopausal women opted for exemestane (7%). Chemoprevention uptake rates of postmenopausal women in the setting of a breast cancer prevention clinic are higher than that reported in the general population; however, they remain low overall despite the inclusion of exemestane as an option. A significant proportion of postmenopausal women have decreased bone density, which is a potential barrier to exemestane uptake. The results provide practical implications suggesting that exemestane may have limited impact on breast cancer chemoprevention uptake. Further investigations should focus on understanding the factors that influence, predict, and increase chemoprevention uptake. PMID:25642790

  11. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption and estrogen levels in postmenopausal women: a review.

    PubMed

    Purohit, V

    1998-08-01

    This report reviews the literature to evaluate association between moderate alcohol consumption and estrogen levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Of the eight studies available in literature on postmenopausal women who were not on estrogen therapy, two analyzed urine samples and six analyzed blood samples for estrogen levels. Of the two urine sample studies, only one reported positive association (p < 0.05) between alcohol consumption and estrogen (estrone and estradiol) levels that increased by 16 to 20%. Of the six blood sample studies, only two--one in American women and one in European women--reported significant increases (p < 0.05) in estradiol levels in response to alcohol consumption. In the American women study, estradiol levels increased only with wine and not with beer or whiskey. In the European women study, estradiol levels increased in Danish and Portuguese women, but not in Spanish women. Thus, further studies are required to establish correlation between moderate alcohol consumption and estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. Of the two studies on postmenopausal women who were on estrogen replacement therapy, one administered estradiol through transdermal patch (0.15 mg) and one orally (1 mg/day). In both studies, blood estradiol levels were measured after administering a single dose of ethanol orally (0.7-0.75 g/kg of body weight). Estradiol levels were increased by 22 and 300% in the transdermal patch and oral studies, respectively. These results suggest that alcohol consumption may increase blood estradiol levels in postmenopausal women who are on estrogen replacement therapy, and this may increase the risk of breast cancer. PMID:9726268

  13. Equol production changes over time in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Franke, Adrian A; Lai, Jennifer F; Halm, Brunhild M; Pagano, Ian; Kono, Naoko; Mack, Wendy J; Hodis, Howard N

    2012-06-01

    Equol (EQ) is produced by intestinal bacteria from the soy isoflavone daidzein (DE) in 30%-60% of the population and is believed to provide benefits from soy intake. A robust EQ status definition is lacking, and it is uncertain whether EQ is formed consistently within an individual and ceases upon oral antibiotic treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled soy intervention trial with 350 postmenopausal women, DE and EQ were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and every 6 months over 2.5 years in overnight urine, spot urine and plasma. Equol production changes and status (remaining an EQ producer or nonproducer or changing towards an EQ producer or nonproducer) were assessed. Equol status was determined most dependably by overnight urine applying as cutoff a ratio of EQ/DE≥0.018 with a DE threshold ≥2 nmol/mg creatinine: the soy and placebo groups had approximately 30% consistent EQ producers during the study, but 14% and 35%, respectively, changed EQ status (mean 1.4-1.7 times), while 27% and 17%, respectively, had antibiotic treatment (P<.01 for inverse association). No significant trend in change of EQ production or status was observed when overnight urine was limited to collections closest to before and after antibiotic treatment. Similarly, antibiotic type or class, duration, dose or time between antibiotic treatment and overnight urine collection showed no consistent influence on EQ production. Equol production can markedly change intraindividually over 2.5 years, and antibiotic treatment impacts it inconsistently. Factors other than antibiotic treatment must be considered as causes for EQ production changes. PMID:21775122

  14. Construct Validation of the Dietary Inflammatory Index among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Tabung, Fred K.; Steck, Susan E.; Zhang, Jiajia; Ma, Yunsheng; Liese, Angela D.; Agalliu, Ilir; Hingle, Melanie; Hou, Lifang; Hurley, Thomas G.; Jiao, Li; Martin, Lisa W.; Millen, Amy E.; Park, Hannah L.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Shikany, James M.; Shivappa, Nitin; Ockene, Judith K.; Hebert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Many dietary factors have either pro- or anti-inflammatory properties. We previously developed a dietary inflammatory index (DII) to assess the inflammatory potential of diet. In this study we conducted a construct validation of the DII based on data from a food frequency questionnaire and three inflammatory biomarkers in a subsample of 2,567 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods We used multiple linear and logistic regression models, controlling for potential confounders, to test whether baseline DII predicted concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 (TNFα-R2), or an overall biomarker score combining all three inflammatory biomarkers. Results The DII was associated with the four biomarkers with beta estimates (95%CI) comparing the highest with lowest DII quintiles as follows: IL-6: 1.26 (1.15, 1.38), Ptrend<0.0001; TNFα-R2: 81.43 (19.15, 143.71), Ptrend=0.004; dichotomized hs-CRP (odds ratio for higher versus lower hs-CRP): 1.30 (0.97, 1.67), Ptrend=0.34); and the combined inflammatory biomarker score: 0.26 (0.12, 0.40), Ptrend=0.0001. Conclusion The DII was significantly associated with inflammatory biomarkers. Construct validity of the DII indicates its utility for assessing the inflammatory potential of diet and for expanding its use to include associations with common chronic diseases in future studies. PMID:25900255

  15. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Mammographic Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Trinh, Thang; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Hall, Per; Celebioglu, Fuat

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT), little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. Methods We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI) and HRT was studied. Results Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07). This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06): increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01) but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82). A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04). No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. Conclusions Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk. PMID:24349146

  16. Isoflavone supplementation influenced levels of triglyceride and luteunizing hormone in Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyung; Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, Okhwa; Lee, Kyun-Hee; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Young, Kwon Dae; Jeong, Yang Hye; Choue, Ryowon

    2013-03-01

    We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of soy-derived isoflavone on blood glucose, lipid profiles, and sex hormones related to cardiovascular disease in Korean postmenopausal women. One hundred thirteen postmenopausal women were recruited from the Seoul metropolitan area. To confirm postmenopausal and gynecologic status, the subjects were clinically examined by a gynecologist using ultra sound and X-ray. Finally, 85 postmenopausal women whose follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were higher than 40 IU/ml were enrolled. Subjects received either 70 mg isoflavone or placebo capsules daily for 12 weeks. As a result, the values of fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, as well as those of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and FFA, were not different between the groups after supplementation. However, triglyceride (TG) levels in the treatment group decreased significantly compared with those of the placebo group (p = 0.0215). The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) significantly decreased in the treatment group (p = 0.027); however, the levels of FSH, estrone and estradiol were not changed after intervention. In conclusion, isoflavone supplement of 70 mg/day for 12 weeks decreased blood levels of TG and LH in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:23475289

  17. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  18. Measurement of spinal or peripheral bone mass to estimate early postmenopausal bone loss

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents data from 153 healthy, early postmenopausal women who were randomly allocated to two years of treatment with estrogen or placebo. Bone mineral content in the forearms was measured by single-photon absorptiometry, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and total-body bone mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry, before and after one and two years of treatment. At the end of the two years, there were highly significant differences of 6 to 7 percent between the estrogen and the placebo groups at all sites measured. The range of the changes of the spine measurement was twice that of the forearm and total-body measurements. It is concluded that measurement of the forearm by single-photon absorptiometry is superior to measurement of the spine by dual-photon absorptiometry both in clinical studies and in the individual patient for detecting estrogen-dependent bone loss and its treatment by estrogen replacement.

  19. Enhanced Neuroactivation during Verbal Memory Processing in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Short Term Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Carol C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Love, Tiffany; Wang, Heng; Tkaczyk, Anne; Smith, Yolanda R.

    2012-01-01

    Capsule Using a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we showed that short-term hormone replacement therapy increases brain activation in parietal and prefrontal areas during verbal memory tasks in postmenopausal women. Objective To study the effects of hormone therapy on brain activation patterns during verbal memory in postmenopausal women. Design A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Setting A tertiary care university medical center. Participants Ten healthy postmenopausal women (age range 50-60 years) were recruited from the local community. Interventions Women were randomized to the order they received combined hormone therapy, 5 ug ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate, and placebo. Volunteers received hormone therapy or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a one month washout period, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. An fMRI was performed at the end of each 4 week treatment utilizing a verbal memory task. Main Outcome Measure Brain activation patterns were compared between hormone therapy and placebo. Results Hormone therapy was associated with increased activation in left middle/superior frontal cortex (BA 6,9), medial frontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate (BA 24,32), posterior cingulate (BA 6), and left inferior parietal (BA 40) during memory encoding. All regions were significant at p ≤ 0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions Hormone therapy increased neural activation in frontal and parietal areas in postmenopausal women during a verbal memory task. PMID:18692790

  20. Type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Mahnaz; Rastegari, Zahra; Paknahad, Zamzam

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The type of body fat distribution has an important role for identifying risk of diseases. One of the simple anthropometric indexes for estimating type of body fat distribution is waist circumference index. This study is aimed to determine the type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors. METHODS: This is a cross sectional descriptive analytical study. Samples were 278 postmenopausal women in Isfahan who were selected by stratified sampling and then were invited to 64 health centers of Isfahan. Data was gathered using a questionnaire and standard meter. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Results showed that in postmenopausal women the mean of waist circumference index was 93.63 (10.66) and its range was 54 to 119 cm. There was a meaningful relation between job, educational status, total pregnancies, total deliveries, age of first pregnancy, lactation history and menopausal age with waist circumference index. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that the type of body fat distribution of postmenopausal women is of android type. Considering side effects of this kind of distribution, necessary teachings about healthy eating, movement and exercises must be given to women of these ages. PMID:21589746

  1. Hormone therapy and maximal eccentric exercise alters myostatin-related gene expression in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Spektor, Tanya M; Rice, Judd C; Sattler, Fred R; Schroeder, E Todd

    2012-05-01

    We sought to evaluate baseline mRNA values and changes in gene expression of myostatin-related factors in postmenopausal women taking hormone therapy (HT) and not taking HT after eccentric exercise. Fourteen postmenopausal women participated including 6 controls not using HT (59 ± 4 years, 63 ± 17 kg) and 8 women using HT (59 ± 4 years, 89 ± 24 kg). The participants performed 10 sets of 10 maximal eccentric repetitions of single-leg extension on a dynamometer. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were obtained from the exercised leg at baseline and 4 hours after the exercise bout. Gene expression was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for myostatin, activin receptor IIb (ActRIIb), follistatin, follistatin-related gene (FLRG), follistatin-like-3 (FSTL3), and GDF serum-associated protein-1 (GASP-1). In response to the exercise bout, myostatin and ActRIIb significantly decreased (p < 0.05), and follistatin, FLRG, FSTL3, and GASP-1 significantly increased in both groups (p < 0.05). Significantly greater changes in gene expression of all genes occurred in the HT group than in the control group after the acute eccentric exercise bout (p < 0.05). These data suggest that postmenopausal women using HT express greater myostatin-related gene expression, which may reflect a mechanism by which estrogen influences the preservation of muscle mass. Further, postmenopausal women using HT experienced a profoundly greater myostatin-related response to maximal eccentric exercise. PMID:22395277

  2. Estrogen and cancers of the colorectum, breast, and lung in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Honma, Naoko; Hosoi, Takayuki; Arai, Tomio; Takubo, Kaiyo

    2015-09-01

    As estrogens play an important role in maintaining physiological function in various organs, the estrogen decrease after menopause is thought to cause various diseases frequently observed in postmenopausal or elderly women. With the aging of society and a decrease in infectious or vascular diseases, neoplasms have now become the most frequent cause of death in Japan. Cancers of the colorectum, breast, and lung have been rapidly increasing both in incidence and death, especially among postmenopausal women. Interestingly, all three of these cancers are associated with estrogens. In premenopausal women, ovarian estrogens plays major roles in the female reproductive organs through the classic estrogen receptor, ER-α. In postmenopausal women, however, estrogens produced/activated by peripherally localized estrogen-metabolizing enzymes such as aromatase, which converts androgen into estrogens, are thought to play physiologically and pathobiologically important roles in various organs through second ER, namely ER-β, distributing systemically. In this article, the association of estrogens with these cancers in postmenopausal or elderly women are reviewed, especially focusing on the role of ER-β and peripheral estrogen metabolism. The possibility of prevention or treatment of these diseases through estrogenic control is also discussed. PMID:26126901

  3. Osteoporosis and polymorphisms of osteoprotegerin gene in postmenopausal women – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Grazio, Simeon; Kosovic, Pasezada; Uremovic, Melita; Nemcic, Tomislav; Bobic, Jasminka

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has an important role in bone remodeling, and it has been proposed that the OPG gene might be a candidate gene for osteoporosis predisposition. Several studies have already assessed the connection between OPG gene polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study we wanted to analyze the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD and bone turnover markers in women with and without osteoporosis. Material and methods In 22 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (aged 65.6 ±12.6) and 59 women without osteoporosis (aged 60.8 ±8.7) we analyzed the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD, measured by dual energy absorptiometry and with bone turnover markers (crosslaps and osteoprotegerin). A163G, G209A, T245G and G1181C polymorphisms were determined. Results No significant differences in age, anthropometry, number of fractures, osteocalcin and cross-laps were found between women with and without osteoporosis. Women with osteoporosis were significantly longer in postmenopause. Significantly more women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism (p = 0.038) compared to women without osteoporosis, while no significant difference was found in prevalence of TT and GG polymorphism between patients with and without osteoporosis. No relationship was found between investigated polymorphism and bone turnover markers. A significant negative correlation between total hip BMD and crosslaps (p = 0.046) as well as between total hip T score and crosslaps (p = 0.044) was found in women without osteoporosis Conclusions Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism more frequently than women without osteoporosis. Our results indicate that A163G polymorphism could have an impact on higher bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:27407270

  4. Effects of obesity and hormone therapy on surgically-confirmed fibroids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Eva M; Balkwill, Angela; Reeves, Gillian; Green, Jane; Beral, Dame Valerie; Coffey, Kate

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between body mass index (BMI), use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), and incidence of uterine fibroids in postmenopausal women, 610,604 postmenopausal women without prior hysterectomy or diagnosis of fibroids were followed as part of a large United Kingdom prospective cohort study. We used Cox regression models to calculate adjusted relative risks (RRs) of surgically-confirmed fibroids (defined as a hospital admission with uterine fibroids as a primary diagnosis with a related surgical procedure), in relation to BMI and use of HT. During an average of 11.4 years of follow-up, 3561 women were admitted to hospital with surgically-confirmed fibroids. Five-year incidence rates decreased with age, from 0.50% (1 in 200 women) at age 50-54, to 0.11% (1 in 1000 women) at age 75-79. The 5-year rate in postmenopausal women aged 50-54 was about a quarter that seen in premenopausal women of the same age (1 in 200 vs. 1 in 50). Compared with normal weight women, obese women had a RR of surgically-detected fibroids of 1.46 (95% CI 1.33-1.59; p < 0.0001). HT use was associated with a RR of 2.33 (95% CI 2.18-2.49; p < 0.0001) in ever versus never users. When we analysed HT use and BMI together, obese vs. normal weight never users had a RR of 2.00 (95% CI 1.77-2.26): the highest risks were seen in women who were obese and had ever used HT, RR = 3.30 (95% CI 2.88-3.79). Uterine fibroids continue to occur in postmenopausal women; obesity and hormone therapy use are important modifiable risk factors. PMID:25784364

  5. Longitudinal associations of the endocrine environment on fat partitioning in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Goss, AM; Darnell, BE; Brown, MA; Oster, RA; Gower, BA

    2013-01-01

    Among postmenopausal women, declining estrogen may facilitate fat partitioning from the periphery to the intra-abdominal space. Furthermore, it has been suggested that excess androgens contribute to a central fat distribution pattern in women. The objective of this longitudinal study was to identify independent associations of the hormone milieu with fat distribution in postmenopausal women. 53 healthy postmenopausal women, either using or not using hormone replacement therapy (HRT), were evaluated at baseline and 2 years. The main outcomes were intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), and total thigh fat analyzed by computed tomography (CT) scanning and leg fat and total body fat mass measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA-S, SHBG, and cortisol were assessed. On average in all women combined, IAAT increased by 10% (10.5 cm2) over two years (P<0.05). Among HRT users, estradiol was inversely associated with, and estrone was positively associated with, 2-yr gain in IAAT. Among HRT non-users, free testosterone was inversely associated with, and SHBG was positively associated with, 2-yr gain in IAAT. These results suggest that in postmenopausal women using HRT, greater circulating estradiol may play an integral role in limiting lipid deposition to the intra-abdominal cavity, a depot associated with metabolically detrimental attributes. However, a high proportion of weak estrogens may promote fat partitioning to the intra-abdominal cavity over time. Further, among postmenopausal women not using HRT, greater circulating free testosterone may limit IAAT accrual. PMID:22173571

  6. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women†

    PubMed Central

    Compston, Juliet E.; Wyman, A; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L.; Hooven, Frederick H.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; March, Lyn; Coen Netelenbos, J.; Nieves, Jeri W.; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G.; Siris, Ethel S.; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B.; Anderson, Frederick A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years following weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years following weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years following weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is seen as early as 1 year following weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. PMID:26861139

  7. Association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and coronary artery calcification in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyung; Ahn, Chul Woo; Nam, Ji Sun; MD, Shinae Kang; Park, Jong Suk; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in postmenopausal women, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been known to be associated with cardiovascular disease. However, little information regarding the relationship between NAFLD and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in postmenopausal women is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between NAFLD and CAC in postmenopausal women. Methods: Among 4,377 participants who underwent cardiac computed tomography in a health promotion center, 919 postmenopausal women were enrolled. Anthropometric profiles and multiple cardiovascular risk factors were measured. NAFLD was measured by ultrasonography, and CAC was evaluated by cardiac computed tomography. Odds ratios and 95% CI for the presence of CAC, by severity of fatty liver disease, were estimated using logistic regression. Results: Women were stratified into three groups by severity of NAFLD. There were significant differences in cardiovascular parameters among the groups, and prevalence of CAC significantly increased with severity of NAFLD. On logistic regression analysis after adjustment for multiple risk factors, the odds ratios for the prevalence of CAC were as follows (P < 0.05): no NAFLD, 1.0; mild NAFLD, 1.34 (95% CI, 0.92-2.16); moderate to severe NAFLD, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.06-3.16). However, this association was attenuated after adjustment for insulin resistance (P = 0.16). Conclusions: There is a significant correlation between NAFLD and prevalence of CAC, but NAFLD is not an independent factor for coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:26154274

  8. Simvastatin Effect on Calcium and Silicon Plasma Levels in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Horecka, Anna; Hordyjewska, Anna; Blicharski, Tomasz; Kocot, Joanna; Żelazowska, Renata; Lewandowska, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2016-05-01

    Postmenopausal women more often suffered from knee osteoarthritis and its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Calcium and silicon are significant elements involved in bone and joint metabolism, especially in older people. Cardiovascular diseases are common worldwide and simvastatin is the most prescribed drug in such population of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin administration on calcium and silicon concentration in the plasma of postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. Sixty postmenopausal mild hypercholesterolemic women (mean age 61.4 years, range 54-68) were enrolled. Thirty patients received simvastatin (20 or 40 mg/day) for at least 1 year before being enrolled (simvastatin "+" group). Control group consists of remaining 30 women (simvastatin "-"group). Silicon and calcium concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Plasma simvastatin level was determined 3 h after the drug administration using HPLC-UV-Vis. Calcium but not silicon level was significantly lower in patients receiving simvastatin in comparison with non-statin group (1.91 ± 0.32 vs. 2.33 ± 0.19 mmol/l, p < 0.05). A weak but significant positive correlation between plasma silicon and simvastatin levels (r = 0.3, p < 0.05) was observed; this may be due to the fact that simvastatin contains silicon dioxide as an inactive ingredient. The mean simvastatin concentration was 9.02 ng/ml. All hypotheses were verified at the significance level of p < 0.05. A statistically significant decrease in the plasma calcium concentration of postmenopausal women, treated with simvastatin suggests that simvastatin may play a role in calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. Positive correlation of simvastatin concentration with silicon level in the plasma suggests that both might prompt the positive effect of osteoarthritis treatment. PMID:26858096

  9. Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women in Iran: A Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdi; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Menopause can have psychological, physical, and vasomotor symptoms along with sexual dysfunction and these symptoms can affect the quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this research was to determine and association the effective factors on QOL among postmenopausal Iranian women. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on 300 postmenopausal women in Hamadan, Iran. We used the Menopause-Specific QOL questionnaire (MENQOL) for measuring QOL in postmenopausal women. SPSS version 16 was used for data analysis. Results The mean scores of QOL for vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual domains were 11.65 ± 5.93, 19.36 ± 1.20, 39.12 ± 1.95 and 11.02 ± 5.66, respectively. Higher scores had worse QOL. Using MENQOL scores, our study showed significant differences in QOL based on age, education level, financial status, number of children, employment, and body mass index (BMI). Conclusion Menopause causes a decrease in QOL, which is dependent to age, work, BMI, financial status and number of children variables. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective intervention programs to improve QOL in postmenopausal women. PMID:27152311

  10. Association of Lipid Accumulation Product with Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Namazi Shabestari, Alireza; Asadi, Mojgan; Jouyandeh, Zahra; Qorbani, Mostafa; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-06-01

    The lipid accumulation product is a novel, safe and inexpensive index of central lipid over accumulation based on waist circumference and fasting concentration of circulating triglycerides. This study was designed to investigate the ability of lipid accumulation product to predict Cardio-metabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women. In this Cross-sectional study, 264 postmenopausal women by using convenience sampling method were selected from menopause clinic in Tehran. Cardio-metabolic risk factors were measured, and lipid accumulation product (waist-58×triglycerides [nmol/L]) was calculated. Optimal cut-off point of lipid accumulation product for predicting metabolic syndrome was estimated by ROC (Receiver-operating characteristic) curve analysis. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 41.2% of subjects. Optimal cut-off point of lipid accumulation product for predicting metabolic syndrome was 47.63 (sensitivity:75%; specificity:77.9%). High lipid accumulation product increases risk of all Cardio-metabolic risk factors except overweight, high Total Cholesterol, high Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and high Fasting Blood Sugar in postmenopausal women. Our findings show that lipid accumulation product is associated with metabolic syndrome and some Cardio-metabolic risk factors Also lipid accumulation product may have been a useful tool for predicting cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:27306343

  11. Decreased bone mineral density is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seok Kyo; Yun, Bo Hyon; Noe, Eun Bee; Suh, Jong Wook; Choi, Young Sik

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 252 postmenopausal women who had visited a health promotion center for a routine checkup. BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and coronary atherosclerosis was assessed using 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Participants were divided into normal BMD and osteopenia-osteoporosis groups, according to the T-scores of their lumbar spine or femoral neck. Results Participants with osteopenia-osteoporosis had a significantly higher proportion of coronary atherosclerosis than did those with normal BMD at the lumbar spine (P=0.003) and femoral neck (P=0.004). Osteopenia-osteoporosis at the lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 7.27) or femoral neck (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 10.57) was associated with coronary atherosclerosis, after controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Decreased BMD is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women, independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors. Postmenopausal women with decreased BMD may have a higher risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:25798428

  12. Severity and clustering of menopausal symptoms among obese and nonobese postmenopausal women in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharanya Shre, E. S.; Trout, Kate; Singh, Sonia Pant; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: The symptoms of menopause have a negative impact on quality of life, especially in women transitioning to menopause and earlier transitions. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect of obesity on the severity of menopausal symptoms and the clustering of symptoms in postmenopausal women in India. Methodology: The Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal women of Chennai, visiting Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2013 in Chennai, India. Sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure level, menopausal history, personal health history, and hormonal disorder issues were investigated. Results: The results have shown that 24% of the participants had complaint of mild to severe hot flushes, half of them had reported heart ailments (49%; n = 74), and disturbed sleep (48%; n = 72). The proportion of overweight/obese participants was higher in married (64%) than widows (41%), and this difference was found statistically significant (P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in MRS scores of obese and nonobese postmenopausal participants. Conclusion: There is a need of developing interactive, user friendly, technology based education module for addressing the chronic ailments of postmenopausal women. PMID:27134461

  13. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and 24-Hour Urinary Levels of Melatonin in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, S.; Baer, D. J.; Stevens, R. G.; Albert, P. S.; Dorgan, J. F.; Kesner, J. S.; Meadows, J. W.; Shields, R.; Taylor, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for breast cancer including serum and urinary levels of hormones and other biomarkers. Previously, we observed significant increases in concentrations of serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in participants after consumption of 15 or 30 g (one or two drinks) of alcohol per day. Objective: In the present analysis, we evaluated the relationship of alcohol consumption with 24-h urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) concentration (micrograms per 24 h). Design and Participants: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed a controlled diet plus each of three treatments (a nonalcoholic placebo beverage or 15 or 30 g alcohol/d) during three 8-wk periods in random order under conditions of weight maintenance. Measures: 6-SMT was measured in 24-h urine samples that were collected at entry into the study (baseline) and at the midpoint (4 wk) and end (8 wk) of each of the three diet periods. Results: Concentration of 6-SMT was not significantly modified by the alcohol treatment after adjustment for body mass index, hours of sleep, daylight hours, and baseline level of 6-SMT. Conclusions: These results suggest that low to moderate daily alcohol consumption does not significantly affect 24-h urinary levels of melatonin among healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:22013099

  14. Relationship of Circulating Total Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein to Trabecular Bone in Postmenopausal Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homocysteine (Hcy) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are novel risk factors for osteoporosis. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the relationship of Hcy and CRP to volumetric trabecular bone, but also to assess their relationship to areal composite bone in healthy postmenopausal women (N=184)....

  15. ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY REDUCES TOTAL PLASMA HOMOCYSTEINE AND CONCURRENTLY ENHANCES GENOMIC DNA METHYLATION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), which can affect the risk of major cancers, has been known to reduce total plasma homocysteine concentrations in postmenopausal women, the mechanisms and subsequent molecular changes have not yet been defined. To investigate the effect of ERT on homocyste...

  16. Behavior of temporal parameters of the ground reactive forces for the walking of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    DE Sousa, Adriana Leite; Calçadas Dias Gabriel, Ronaldo Eugênio; Faria, Aurélio Marques; Aragão, Florbela R; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Helena

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the influence of body composition and menopause characteristics on certain temporal parameters of the behavior of vertical and anteroposterior components of ground reactive forces, as well as the vertical and anteroposterior rates on the walking of postmenopausal women. The sample consisted of 67 postmenopausal women, average age 59 years. Body composition was assessed by octapolar bioimpedance and ground reactive force by the Kistler force platform. Vertical loading rate correlated positively with age (r = 0.02) and negatively with weight (r = -0.33). The relationship between the rates of vertical loading and unloading associated positively with menopause time (r = 0.27) but negatively with weight (r = -0.27). Vertical unloading rate showed a negative association with abdominal visceral adiposity (r = -0.27). The relationship between the times of the intermediate and final phases of the support correlated significantly with abdominal visceral adiposity (r = 0.25) and fat mass (r = 0.24). The study suggests that fat mass and abdominal visceral adiposity affect the support time, and increased abdominal visceral adiposity implies a slower pre-suspension phase during the walking of postmenopausal women. Hormone replacement therapy was shown to be an enhancer of steeper vertical loading and anteroposterior unloading and longer time in the double support phase, indicating a greater stability of postmenopausal women when walking. PMID:26686563

  17. Anemia in postmenopausal women: dietary inadequacy or non-dietary factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postmenopausal women are disproportionately affected by anemia, and the prevalence in females > 65 years of age in the United States is approximately 10%. The manifestation of anemia in older populations is associated with dietary inadequacy, blood loss, genetics, alterations in bioavailability, ren...

  18. Weight Lifted in Strength Training Predicts Bone Change in Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussler, Ellen C.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.; Houtkooper, Linda B.; Metcalfe, Lauve L.; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G.; Harris, Robin B.; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between weight lifted in one year of progressive strength training and change in bone mineral density (BMD) among calcium-supplemented, postmenopausal women. BMD was measured at baseline and after one year. Evidence of a linear relationship between BMD change and total and exercise-specific weight lifted during the 1-year…

  19. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and mammographic density in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ahn, Jiin; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Chan-Won; Yun, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Min-Jung; Suh, Byung-Seong; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance (IR) with mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to evaluate these associations in pre- and postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was performed in 73,974 adult women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination that included a mammogram between 2011 and 2013 (mean age 42.6 years). MetS was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. IR was assessed with the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dense breast were estimated using logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounders. In premenopausal women, MetS and all its components except waist circumference were associated with dense breast. After adjustment for potential confounders, the OR (95% CI) for dense breast in women with MetS compared with those without MetS was 1.22 (1.06-1.39). In postmenopausal women, however, there was positive but non-significant association between MetS and dense breast. In both pre- and postmenopausal women, high blood glucose and IR were positively associated with dense breast. The OR (95% CI) for dense breast between the highest and lowest quartiles of HOMA-IR was 1.29 (1.20-1.39) for premenopausal women and 1.44 (1.05-1.97) for postmenopausal women. In a large sample of Korean women, MetS and IR were associated with mammographic dense breast, demonstrating that IR, a potentially modifiable risk factor, may increase breast cancer risk, possibly through high mammographic density. PMID:26277917

  20. Women in Early Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Eleanor S.

    1982-01-01

    Biographical sketches are given for several women who made early contributions to the science of geology. A short biography of Inge Lehmann is also included as a more recent example of a woman who has made a notable contribution to the geological field. (Author)

  1. Screening for osteoporosis among post-menopausal women in community pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Barris Blundell, Damià; Rodríguez Zarzuelo, Carmen; Sabio Sánchez, Belén; Gutiérrez álvarez, José Luis; Navarro Visa, Elena; Muñoz Valdés, Oscar; Garrido Jiménez, Belén; Gómez, Rocío Sánchez

    Objectives To identify postmenopausal women with risk of osteoporosis through quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUI) and to value the medical intervention after the determination of the bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study developed in a community pharmacy. During the month of June of 2005 the community pharmacy enrolled postmenopausal women into the study. Women in treatment with calcium, vitamin D, hormone replacement therapy, estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin or biphosphonates were considered criteria for exclusion. To all the women that consent to participate, the pharmacist measured BMD with the device Sahara Hologic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer at right calcaneus. Following the World Health Organization, women were classified as osteoporotic if their T-Score was less than -2.5 and as osteopenic if their T-Score ranged between -2.5 and -1.0. Results Of the 100 women screened, 11 (11%) presented risk of osteoporosis and 61 (61%) of osteopenia. The 18.5% postmenopausal women with body mass index lesser than 30 presented risk of osteoporosis and the 63.0% osteopenia. Conclusions The QUI constitutes a useful tool in community pharmacy for the screening of osteoporosis and it supposes a greater integration of the community pharmacy within the health care. PMID:25247006

  2. Protective Effects of White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) against Hepatic Steatosis in Ovariectomized Mice as a Model of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Noriko; Kubo, Makoto; Liu, Zheng; Chu, Peiguo; Wang, Charles; Chen, Yate-Ching Yuan, Shiuan

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis). Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM), Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX) mice (a model of postmenopausal women). OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas) and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6), were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women. PMID:22046322

  3. Metabolic syndrome affects breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: National Cancer Institute of Naples experience.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Immacolata; Esposito, Emanuela; Pentimalli, Francesca; Crispo, Anna; Montella, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Maria; De Marco, MariaRosaria; Cavalcanti, Ernestina; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Fucito, Alfredo; Frasci, Giuseppe; Maurea, Nicola; Esposito, Giuseppe; Pedicini, Tonino; Vecchione, Aldo; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Giordano, Antonio

    2010-12-15

    Postmenopausal women show the highest incidence of breast cancer in the female population and are often affected by metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome (MS)--characterized by central adiposity, insulin resistance, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high serum triglyceride and high blood pressure--seems to be strictly correlated to breast carcinogenesis. We enrolled 777 healthy women and women with breast cancer in our nested case-control study to evaluate the association between MS and breast cancer, analyzing anthropometric parameters (weight, height, BMI, waist and hip circumference), blood pressure, serum HDL-C, triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, testosterone and uric acid levels and administering a questionnaire about physical activity, food intake, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, personal and familial history of disease. We found an higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (30%) in postmenopausal breast cancer patients compared to healthy women (19%). None of the individual MS features was strong enough to be considered responsible for breast carcinogenesis alone. However, of the 63 postmenopausal breast cancer cases associated to MS, 30% presented three or more MS features, suggesting that the activation of multiple molecular pathways underlying MS might contribute to tumorigenesis. Our data support the hypothesis that MS may be an indicator of breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. The unsettlement of the hormonal arrangement in postmenopausal, along with an increase in visceral adiposity, probably favour the hormone-dependent cell proliferation, which drives tumorigenesis. Adjustments in lifestyle with physical activity intensification and healthy diet could represent modifiable factors for the primary prevention of sporadic breast cancer. PMID:20935521

  4. Baseline observations from the POSSIBLE EU® study: characteristics of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Cyrus; Roux, Christian; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Guillemin, Francis; Jonsson, Bengt; Ortolani, Sergio; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Horne, Rob; Kakad, Shilpa; Shepherd, Susan; Möller, Gerd; Marciniak, Anne; Martinez, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Summary Prospective Observational Scientific Study Investigating Bone Loss Experience in Europe (POSSIBLE EU®) is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study that utilises physician- and patient-reported measures to describe the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women on bone loss therapies. We report the study design and baseline characteristics of 3,402 women recruited from general practice across five European countries. Purpose The POSSIBLE EU® is a study describing the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications. Methods Between 2005 and 2008, general practitioners enrolled postmenopausal women initiating, switching or continuing treatment with bone loss treatment in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Patients and physicians completed questionnaires at study entry and at 3-month intervals, for 1 year. Results Of 3,402 women enrolled (mean age 68.2 years [SD] 9.83), 96% were diagnosed with low bone mass; 55% of these using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Most women (92%) had comorbidities. Mean minimum T score (hip or spine) at diagnosis was −2.7 (SD 0.89; median −2.7 [interquartile range, −3.2, −2.2]) indicating low bone mineral density. Almost 40% of the women had prior fractures in adulthood, mostly non-vertebral, non-hip in nature, 30% of whom had at least two fractures and more than half experienced moderate/severe pain or fatigue. Bisphosphonates were the most common type of bone loss treatment prescribed in the 12 months preceding the study. Conclusions POSSIBLE EU® characterises postmenopausal women with low bone mass, exhibiting a high rate of prevalent fracture, substantial bone fragility and overall comorbidity burden. Clinical strategies for managing osteoporosis in this population varied across the five participating European countries, reflecting their different guidelines, regulations and standards of care. PMID:21258637

  5. The Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Pre- and Postmenopausal Korean Women: KNHANES 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Chon, Seung Joo; Jung, Yeon Soo; Kim, Bo Ok; Noe, Eun Bee; Yun, Bo Hyon; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum ferritin levels increase in postmenopausal women, and they are reported to be linked to major health problems. Here, we investigated the association between serum ferritin levels and insulin resistance (IR) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 6632 healthy Korean women (4357 premenopausal and 2275 postmenopausal) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2007–2010 were enrolled in the study. Serum ferritin values were divided into six groups for the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. IR and obesity indices were evaluated according to the six serum ferritin groups. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS software, version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Results The association between the IR indices and ferritin groups had a higher level of statistical significance in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group. In addition, for the postmenopausal group, the estimates increased significantly in the sixth ferritin group compared to those in the first ferritin group. However, the association between the obesity indices and ferritin levels was not significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Conclusion Elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. PMID:27337113

  6. Acupuncture to Treat Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, A. G.; Pires, G. N.; Andersen, M. L.; Tufik, S.; Hachul, H.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders are commonly observed among postmenopausal women, with negative effects on their quality of life. The search for complementary therapies for sleep disorders during postmenopausal period is of high importance, and acupuncture stands out as an appropriate possibility. The present review intended to systematically evaluate the available literature, compiling studies that have employed acupuncture as treatment to sleep disorders in postmenopausal women. A bibliographic search was performed in PubMed/Medline and Scopus. Articles which had acupuncture as intervention, sleep related measurements as outcomes, and postmenopausal women as target population were included and evaluated according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool and to the STRICTA guidelines. Out of 89 search results, 12 articles composed our final sample. A high heterogeneity was observed among these articles, which prevented us from performing a meta-analysis. Selected articles did not present high risk of bias and had a satisfactory compliance rate with STRICTA guidelines. In general, these studies presented improvements in sleep-related variables. Despite the overall positive effects, acupuncture still cannot be stated as a reliable treatment for sleep-related complaints, not due to inefficacy, but rather limited evidence. Nevertheless, results are promising and new comprehensive and controlled studies in the field are encouraged. PMID:26366181

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Denosumab in Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hai-Feng; Gu, Ling-Jia; Wu, Yue; Zhao, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Zhe-Rong; Yang, Yun-Mei

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and safety of denosumab in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until October 30, 2014 using combinations of the following search terms: osteoporosis, postmenopause, postmenopausal, women, denosumab. The primary outcome was bone mineral density (BMD) change, and secondary outcomes were change in the bone turnover markers β-isomerized carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and adverse events.Patients treated with denosumab had significantly increased BMD of the lumbar spine (7.58%), total hip (4.86%), and distal third of the radius (2.92%) than those treated with placebo (all, P < 0.001). Patients treated with denosumab had a significant decrease of CTX (-66.16%) and P1NP (-64.65%) as compared with those treated with placebo (both, P < 0.001). Adverse events were similar between the 2 groups (pooled odds ratio = 1.04, P = 0.625).Denosumab increases BMD and decreases markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and is not associated with significant side-effects. PMID:26554766

  8. Can progestin be limited to every third month only in postmenopausal women taking estrogen?

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, E; Salmi, T; Puolakka, J; Heikkinen, J; Granfors, E; Hulkko, S; Mäkäräinen, L; Nummi, S; Pekonen, F; Rautio, A M

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated whether a progestin, added for 14 days every 3 months to estrogen replacement therapy, is capable of preventing the development of endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal women during a treatment period of 2 years. Postmenopausal women (263) in 10 hospitals and medical centers in Finland participated in this non-randomized prospective multicenter trial. The women received estradiol valerate 2 mg daily for 84 days and 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate daily for days 71-84 followed by seven drug-free tablets. This regimen was repeated four times per year. The first year of treatment was completed by 227 (86%) women and the second year by 143 out of 146 women. The incidence of unscheduled and heavy bleedings was higher in women who were postmenopausal for less than 3 years. Endometrial biopsies demonstrated progestational response in 64% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. The 3 month regimen prevented development of endometrial hyperplasia but was not able to restore a hyperplastic endometrium to normal. PMID:7731382

  9. Low vitamin D, and bone mineral density with depressive symptoms burden in menopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Bener, Abdulbari; Saleh, Najah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The reported association between vitamin D level and loss of Bone mineral densitometry measurements (BMD) has been controversial. Objective: The objectıve of the current study was to determine whether low vitamin D level and BMD are associated with depresive symptoms as burden in Arab women during the menopausal and postmenopausal period. Design and Setting: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used at the Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers in Qatar. Subjects: A multi-stage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1436 women aged 45-65 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013 and 1106 women agreed to participate (77.2%) and responded to the study. Materials and Methods: BMD (g/m2) was assessed at the BMD unit using a Lunar Prodigy DXA system (Lunar Corp., Madison, WI). The antero-posterior lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the mean of the proximal right and left femur were be measured by two technician and then reviewed by one radiologist. Data on body mass index (BMI), clinical biochemistry variables including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were collected. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered for depression purposes. Results: Of the 1436 women living in urban and rural areas, 1106 women agreed to participate (77.0%) and responded to the study. The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 53.8 ± 3.2. The median age of natural menopausal in the present study was 49 years (mean and standard deviation 49.5 ± 3.1 and postmenopausal was 58.1 ± 3.3). There were statistically significant differences between menopausal stages with regards to ethnicity, education level, systolic and dialostic blood pressure, parity, sheesha smoking and depressive symptoms. Overall 30.4% of women were affected with osteopenia/osteoporosis in premenopausal and postmenopausal (24.4% vs 35.7%; P = 0.0442). Osteopenia in premenopausal and postmenopausal (18.7% vs 29.3%; P = 0.030) and Osteoporosis (9.9% vs 15.9%; P = 0.049) were

  10. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and its relation to climacteric symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Idun Berenice Villalobos

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study To compare fibromyalgia prevalence in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and its relation to the climacteric symptoms. Material and methods Two hundred and nine women were studied, who attended the gynecology consultation at the hospital. They were divided in two groups: group I (premenopausal, n = 113) and group II (postmenopausal, n = 96). In all of them, climacteric symptoms and fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria were investigated; for the latter, the evaluations were done according to the 1990 and 2010 criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. Results When groups I and II were compared, no differences were found in somatometry, medicament consumption and associated diseases. When analyzing the general group, the fibromyalgia prevalence was greater in the postmenopausal women. However, when comparing the groups according to climacteric symptoms, in group I, 29% of symptomatic women had fibromyalgia, while only 4% of asymptomatic ones (p < 0.002). In group II, 15.7% of symptomatic women, and 2.5% of asymptomatic ones had fibromyalgia (p < 0.02). In group I, the more common painful points were the lower back (45.5%), neck (35.7%), and upper back (32.1%). The more frequent symptoms were non-restful sleep (49%), followed by fatigue and cognitive symptoms (42% for each one). In group II, the more common painful points were the lower back (42%), neck (40%) and upper back (38.5%). The more frequent symptoms were fatigue (69.6%), cognitive symptoms (59.3%) and non-restful sleep (57%). Conclusions In premenopausal women, fibromyalgia was related to the presence of climacteric symptoms and in postmenopausal women – to their absence. PMID:26327850

  11. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders. The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors. Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  12. Breast Cancer and Osteoporosis – Management of Cancer Treatment-Induced Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalder, Matthias; Hadji, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Summary The incidence of breast cancer (BC) in postmenopausal women is continuously rising. Due to early diagnosis and various treatment designs, the long-term clinical outcome has improved. Frequent settings are chemotherapy as well as endocrine treatment. Both have proven to interfere with bone health resulting in cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL). Whereas chemotherapy is associated with increased bone resorption, aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy reduces residual estrogen and is associated with decreased bone mineral density. Independent of the AI administered, the loss of bone mineral density is twice as high compared to healthy postmenopausal women. As a consequence of CTIBL, both chemotherapy and AI treatment can lead to a significantly increased fracture risk. Therefore, several guidelines have emerged for the management of CTIBL in women with BC, including strategies to identify and treat those at high risk for fractures. Further research on tracking guideline adherence examining the feasibility and practicability of guideline implementation to bridge the gap between determined scientific best evidence and applied best practice is needed to adjust these guidelines in the future. PMID:25759610

  13. Prediction of metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal Ghanaian women using obesity and atherogenic markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important health problem which puts individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes as well as obesity-related cancers such as colon and renal cell in men, and endometrial and oesophageal in women. Objective This study was aimed at examining how obesity indicators and related determinants influence metabolic syndrome, and how the factors can be used to predict the syndrome and its cut-offs in postmenopausal Ghanaian women. Methods Two hundred and fifty (250) Ghanaian subjects were involved in the study with one hundred and forty-three (143) being premenopausal women and one hundred and seven (107) postmenopausal women. The influence of traditional metabolic risk factors including high blood pressure, dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance on obesity and atherogenic indices i.e. body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), Waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), high density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol ratio (HDL-C/TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol to low density lipoprotein ratio (HDL-C/LDL-C) and triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) were identified according to the Harmonization (H_MS) criterion. Results The predominant anthropometric marker that significantly influence metabolic risk factors among the pre- and postmenopausal women was waist-to-hip ratio (premenopausal: p- 0.004, 0.026 and 0.002 for systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HDL-C; postmenopausal: p-0.012, 0.048, 0.007 and 0.0061 for diastolic blood pressure (DBP), FBG, triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) respectively). Using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve for WC, WHR, TG/HDL-C and HDL-C/TC among postmenopausal women were estimated at 0.6, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.8 respectively. The appropriate cut-off values for WC, WHR, TG/HDL-C and HDL

  14. Effects of aerobic exercise on blood pressure and lipids in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Menopause may increase risk of hypertension and abnormal lipid profile. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of morning and afternoon aerobic exercises on hypertension and lipids in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women. Forty five women aged from 49 to 60 years were randomly assigned into three groups. Group (A) 15 patients received medicine, (B) 15 patients performed morning aerobic exercises and received medicine, and group (C) 15 patients performed afternoon aerobic exercises and received medicine. Blood pressure measurement and lipid profile tests were performed before and after the study. The results showed that there was a statistical significant difference among all groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, favoring group C. Also there was a statistical significant difference among all groups in lipid levels, favoring group C. Therefore, it can be concluded that morning aerobic exercises were more effective in reducing the blood pressure and lipids than afternoon exercises in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women. PMID:26171380

  15. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in postmenopausal women and the percentage of women who had low HDL (<50 mg/dL) was higher (p < 0.01) among premenopausal women. In addition, negative correlations were found between WC and HDL-C (r = -0.148, p < 0.05) and BMI and HDL-C (r = -0.258, p < 0.01) for all subjects indicating that increases in weight and abdominal fat have a deleterious effect on plasma HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that although HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age. PMID:27417608

  16. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in postmenopausal women and the percentage of women who had low HDL (<50 mg/dL) was higher (p < 0.01) among premenopausal women. In addition, negative correlations were found between WC and HDL-C (r = −0.148, p < 0.05) and BMI and HDL-C (r = −0.258, p < 0.01) for all subjects indicating that increases in weight and abdominal fat have a deleterious effect on plasma HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that although HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age. PMID:27417608

  17. Quality of Life among Iranian Infertile Women in Postmenopausal Period: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Montazeri, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infertility has a significant impact on a women's quality of life (QOL). Infertile women face with physical and mental challenges during their postmenopausal period. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QOL among Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period using a valid and reliable instrument. Methods In this cross-sectional study both snowball and social networking methods were used for sampling. Two demographic and QOL questionnaire were used for data collection. The QOL questionnaire includes 41 items which measure the QOL in five dimensions: socioeconomic, mental health, religiousness, physical health and future imagining. Data analyzed was carried out in IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 using descriptive statistic, χ2 test, and Fisher test. A P value of 0.01 or less was considered significant. Results Overall 211 eligible participants were studied. Some participants obtained full score on socioeconomic, religiousness, physical health and future imagining dimensions of QOL but none on the mental health dimension of the QOL. Only, 6.6% of study participants have a good QOL. There was a significant relationship between age and financial provider whit status of QOL. Conclusion Most Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period have poor or moderate QOL. Therefore, improving the QOL among these women should be considered. PMID:27617245

  18. Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women and Their Spouses: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadalizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh; Rezaei, Nazanin; Hakimi, Sevil; Montazeri, Ali; Taheri, Safoura; Taghinejad, Hamid; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most women spend more than one-third of their lives after menopause. Due to physiologic changes in that period, menopause can cause a series of symptoms such as vasomotor symptoms, psychologic problems, and sexual dysfunction, which can affect the women’s quality of life (QoL) and other family members, especially their spouse. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the association between the QoL of postmenopausal women and their husbands. Patients and Methods: This descriptive-inferential cross-sectional study was conducted according to the census of 2006 in Iran. A total of 400 postmenopausal women aging 50 to 59 years and their spouses in 80 cluster heads of Ilam City residents were selected and studied in collaboration with the Statistical Center of Iran. The required data were gathered using the short-form health survey (SF-36) questionnaire and demographic questionnaire developed by the researcher-trained interviewers. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18 through Kruskal Wallis test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and correlation. Results: The participants’ mean age was 54.2 ± 2.8 years for women and 61.1 ± 6.1 years for their spouses. More than half of the women (57%) and about one-third of men (32.8%) were illiterate. The employed educated women aging 50 to 54 years had a higher mean score of SF-36 domains. The difference in education was significant in all domains except for mental health. There was a significant difference in age in all domains except in general health. The mean score of all domains of QoL was significantly less in the illiterate men than in the literate ones (P < 0.05). The results of the present study showed a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between the couples’ QoL, vasomotor symptoms, and aging. Spearman test showed a significant positive correlation in all domains of QoL between postmenopausal women and their spouses (correlation coefficient, 0.48-0.63). Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study

  19. Denosumab: a review of its use in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2014-07-01

    Subcutaneous denosumab (Prolia(®) [USA, Europe]; Pralia(®) [Japan]) once every 6 months is indicated in several countries for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at increased or high risk for fractures (featured indication). In some countries, it is also indicated for use in postmenopausal women who have failed or are intolerant to other osteoporosis treatments. In several international, phase III trials (≤3 years' duration) involving more than 12,000 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or low bone mineral density (BMD), including Asian studies, denosumab was an effective and generally well tolerated treatment. Relative to placebo, denosumab treatment significantly reduced the risk of vertebral, nonvertebral and hip fractures and increased BMD at all skeletal sites evaluated, including the lumbar spine and total hip. Furthermore, the benefits of denosumab treatment were generally evident after the first dose and were maintained during up to 8 years of treatment in an ongoing extension study. The tolerability profile of denosumab during this extension phase was consistent with that observed during the initial 3-year FREEDOM trial. At 12 months, denosumab treatment increased BMD at the total hip, lumbar spine and/or femoral neck and reduced markers of bone turnover to a significantly greater extent than oral bisphosphonates in women who were essentially bisphosphonate-naive and in those who had switched from alendronate to denosumab treatment. Further clinical experience, including an ongoing postmarketing safety study, will more fully define the long-term safety of denosumab. In the meantime, denosumab is an important option for the treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis at increased or high-risk of fractures, including in women at increased risk of fracture who are unable to take other osteoporosis treatments. PMID:24935243

  20. Adiponectin as a Protective Factor Against the Progression Toward Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Darabi, Hossein; Raeisi, Alireza; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Ostovar, Afshin; Assadi, Majid; Asadipooya, Kamyar; Vahdat, Katayoun; Dobaradaran, Sina; Nabipour, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Serum adiponectin levels have been suggested to be predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in diverse populations. However, the relationship between circulating adiponectin levels and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women has not been investigated. A total of 382 healthy postmenopausal women who participated in a prospective cohort study were followed for 5.8 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to the criteria set out by the American Diabetes Association. Adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using ELISA. Of 195 women who did not have diabetes at baseline and who were reexamined in the second phase of the study for diabetic status, 35 subjects (17.9%) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus during the 5.8 years follow-up period. The women with type 2 diabetes had lower adiponectin levels than the healthy postmenopausal women. Multiple regression analysis showed that, after adjustments were made for age, cardiovascular risk factors, OPG, and hs-CRP levels, higher baseline adiponectin levels were associated with a lower relative risk (RR) of having type 2 (RR = 0.07, confidence interval [CI]: 0.01–0.66, P = 0.021). Higher baseline adiponectin levels functioned as a predictor of a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus among postmenopausal women during a 5.8 years follow-up study. Therefore, it is suggested that elevated adiponectin levels may offer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus after the menopause. PMID:26287420

  1. Evaluation of decision rules for identifying low bone density in postmenopausal African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Ballard, Joyce E.; Holiday, David; Turner, Lori W.; Keenum, Amy J.; Pearman, Cynthia M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While African-American women tend to have greater bone mineral density (BMD) than caucasian women, they are still at risk of developing osteoporosis later in life. Clinical decision rules (i.e., algorithms) have been developed to assist clinicians identify women at greatest risk of low BMD. However, such tools have only been validated in caucasian and Asian populations. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of five clinical decision rules in identifying postmenopausal African-American women at greatest risk for low femoral BMD. METHODOLOGY: One hundred-seventy-four (n=174) postmenopausal African-American women completed a valid and reliable oral questionnaire to assess lifestyle characteristics, and completed height and weight measures. BMD at the femoral neck was measured via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for identifying African-American women with low BMD (T-Score < or = -2.0 SD) using five clinical decision rules: Age, Body Size, No Estrogen (ABONE), Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI), Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (OST), Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE), and body weight less than 70 kg. RESULTS: Approximately 30% of African-American women had low BMD, half of whom had osteoporosis (BMD T-Score < or = -2.5 SD). Sensitivity for identifying women with a low BMD (T-Score < or = -2.0 SD) ranged from 65.57-83.61%, while specificity ranged from 53.85-78.85%. Positive predictive values ranged from 80.95-87.91%, while negative predictive values ranged from 48.44-58.33%. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the clinical decision rules analyzed in this study have some usefulness for identifying postmenopausal African-American women with low BMD. However, there is a need to establish cut-points for these clinical decision rules in a larger, more diverse sample of African-American women

  2. Characterization of Vascular Disease Risk in Postmenopausal Women and Its Association with Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, N. Maritza; Gleason, Carey E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Hodis, Howard N.; Miller, Virginia M.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Santoro, M. Nanette; Cedars, Marcelle; Lobo, Rogerio; Merriam, George R.; Wharton, Whitney; Naftolin, Frederick; Taylor, Hugh; Harman, S. Mitchell; Asthana, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Objectives While global measures of cardiovascular (CV) risk are used to guide prevention and treatment decisions, these estimates fail to account for the considerable interindividual variability in pre-clinical risk status. This study investigated heterogeneity in CV risk factor profiles and its association with demographic, genetic, and cognitive variables. Methods A latent profile analysis was applied to data from 727 recently postmenopausal women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Women were cognitively healthy, within three years of their last menstrual period, and free of current or past CV disease. Education level, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE4), ethnicity, and age were modeled as predictors of latent class membership. The association between class membership, characterizing CV risk profiles, and performance on five cognitive factors was examined. A supervised random forest algorithm with a 10-fold cross-validation estimator was used to test accuracy of CV risk classification. Results The best-fitting model generated two distinct phenotypic classes of CV risk 62% of women were “low-risk” and 38% “high-risk”. Women classified as low-risk outperformed high-risk women on language and mental flexibility tasks (p = 0.008) and a global measure of cognition (p = 0.029). Women with a college degree or above were more likely to be in the low-risk class (OR = 1.595, p = 0.044). Older age and a Hispanic ethnicity increased the probability of being at high-risk (OR = 1.140, p = 0.002; OR = 2.622, p = 0.012; respectively). The prevalence rate of APOE-ε4 was higher in the high-risk class compared with rates in the low-risk class. Conclusion Among recently menopausal women, significant heterogeneity in CV risk is associated with education level, age, ethnicity, and genetic indicators. The model-based latent classes were also associated with cognitive function. These differences may point to

  3. Does the effect of soy phytoestrogens on bone in postmenopausal women depend on the equol-producing phenotype?

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2007-06-01

    Plant-derived phytoestrogens are considered to be an alternative therapy for the prevention and control of bone loss in postmenopausal women. However, there are contradictory findings among clinical studies in the efficacy of soy isoflavones on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. Inter-individual differences in gut bacteria metabolism of isoflavones to produce equol (the equol-producing phenotype) might partly explain these discrepancies. Among several trials in this area of research, few studies took the equol-producing phenotype into consideration, and those studies support the importance of this phenotype in the effect of soy isoflavones on bone health among post-menopausal women. Greater consideration of the equol-producing phenotype in the design of studies investigating the effect of soy isoflavones on bone health of postmenopausal women may provide more useful information. PMID:17605306

  4. Serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese postmenopausal women: the Shanghai Changfeng Study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Lin, Huandong; Hu, Yu; Li, Xiaoming; He, Wanyuan; Jin, Xuejuan; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Naiqing; Song, Binbin; Pan, Boshen; Gao, Xin

    2015-10-14

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk of CVD: the increased serum ferritin level may be involved in the pathogenesis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship of ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. A total of 1178 postmenopausal women (mean age, 60·8 years) were enrolled from the Changfeng Study. A standard interview, anthropometric measurements and laboratory analyses were performed for each participant. Bilateral CIMT (carotid intima-media thickness) were measured using ultrasonography, and the presence of carotid plaques was assessed. Serum ferritin was measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The results showed that serum ferritin was 181·9 (sd 65·8) ng/ml in the postmenopausal women. Multivariate, linear, stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that age (standardised β = 0·233, P< 0·001), alanine transaminase (standardised β = 0·194, P< 0·001), log homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (standardised β = 0·181, P< 0·001), TAG (standardised β = 0·083, P= 0·003), Hb (standardised β = 0·080, P= 0·004) and PPG (2-h glucose levels following a 75-g oral glucose challenge) (standardised β = 0·079, P= 0·004) were independently associated with serum ferritin. Compared with the ferritin level of subjects in the first quartile, that in the fourth quartile had greater CIMT, and higher prevalence of carotid plaque. After adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors, Hb, leucocytes, log urine albumin:creatinine ratio and liver function, the ferritin level of postmenopausal women in the fourth quartile had a 1·587-fold increased risk of carotid plaques relative to those in the lowest quartile. In conclusion, these results suggest that serum ferritin is independently and positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women and that ferritin may be implicated in atherosclerosis. PMID:26395322

  5. Paraoxonase 1 activity and phenotype distribution in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Butorac, Dražan; Ćelap, Ivana; Kačkov, Sanja; Robić, Vera; Miletić, Tomislav; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Hulina, Andrea; Kuna, Krunoslav; Grubišić, Tihana Žanić; Rajković, Marija Grdić

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postmenopausal women have higher risk of cardiovascular disease. One of the contributing factors could be reduced activity of anti-atherogenic enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1). The aim of this study was to examine differences in the lipid status, paraoxonase and arylesterase PON1 activities and PON1 phenotype in women with regular menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: The study included 51 women in reproductive age (25 in follicular and 26 in luteal phase of the menstrual cycle) and 23 women in postmenopause. Lipid parameters in sera were determined using original reagents and according to manufacturer protocol. PON1 activity in serum was assessed by spectrophotometric method with substrates: paraoxon and phenylacetate. PON1 phenotype was determined by double substrate method. Results: Compared to the women in follicular and luteal phase, postmenopausal women have significantly higher concentration of triglyceride [0.9 (0.7–1.3), 0.7 (0.6–1.0) vs. 1.5 (0.9–1.7) mmol/L; P = 0.002], cholesterol [5.10 (4.78–6.10), 5.05 (4.70–5.40) vs. 6.30 (5.73–7.23) mmol/L; P < 0.001], LDL [3.00 (2.56–3.63), 3.00 (2.70–3.70) vs. 3.90 (3.23–4.50) mmol/L; P < 0.001], and apolipoprotein B [0.88 (0.75–1.00), 0.79 (0.68–1.00) vs. 1.07 (0.90–1.24) mmol/L; P = 0.002]. PON1 basal [104 (66–260), 106 (63–250) vs. 93 (71–165) U/L; P = 0.847] and salt-stimulated paraoxonase activity [210 (131–462), 211 (120–442) vs. 180 (139–296) U/L; P = 0.857] as well as arylesterase activity [74 (63–82), 70 (54–91) vs. 70 (60–81) kU/L; P = 0.906] and PON1 phenotype (P = 0.810) were not different in the study groups. Conclusion: There are no differences in PON1 activity and PON1 phenotype between women with regular menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women. PMID:24969921

  6. The Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Estrogen Levels of Postmenopausal Women - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Bauer, Brent A.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Cha, Stephen S.; Suman, Vera J.; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Olson, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The roll of estrogens in the pathogenesis of breast cancer is well documented and has lead to the development of Selective Estrogene Receptor Modulators and Aromatase Inhibitors for treatment and prevention of breast cancer. However these agents are associated with significant side effects and are therefore not well accepted by healthy women who are at high risk for breast cancer. There has been some evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies that grapes have an aromatase inhibiting effect resulting in a decrease in estrogen synthesis and increase in androstenedione and testosterone. Method We conducted a randomized, double-blind, dose finding early phase trial. Eligible partici-pants were randomly assigned to one of 4 doses of grape seed extract (200, 400, 600, or 800 mg) to be taken daily for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the change of plasma hormone levels (estrogen conjugates from baseline to 12 weeks after treatment with grape seed extract). Results Forty-six women were enrolled, 39 (84.8%) completed the study. In this pilot study grape-seed extract given in daily doses of 200, 400, 600 or 800 mg for 12 weeks to postmenopausal women did not decrease plasma estrogens (estrone, estradiol, estrone sulfate) and did not increase precursors of androgens (testosterone and androstenedione). There were large variations in pre- and posttreatment estrone, estradiol and estrone sulfate and androgen precursors. Conclusion Future research should carefully consider BMI and changes in BMI as well as higher dosing of grape seed extract in their design. PMID:24670122

  7. Resistance training improves isokinetic strength and metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Pedro Ferreira Alves; Gadelha, André Bonadias; Gauche, Rafael; Paiva, Flávio Macedo Lahud; Bottaro, Martim; Vianna, Lauro C; Lima, Ricardo Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of resistance training (RT) on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. Patients and methods Twenty-two postmenopausal women (65.0±4.2 years) underwent 12 weeks of whole body progressive training with intensity prescribed based on rating of perceived exertion. Dominant knee extension strength was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer before and after the intervention. Moreover, all volunteers had blood samples collected for lipid profile, glycemic control, and C-reactive protein analyses. Waist circumference and arterial blood pressure were also measured at baseline and after the training period. Student’s t-tests for paired samples and repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare dependent variables, and statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results Isokinetic muscle strength significantly increased (P<0.01) with training. It was observed that waist circumference as well as total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly decreased with training (P<0.01). Total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, an important marker of cardiovascular disease incidence, was also significantly reduced (from 3.91±0.91 to 3.60±0.74; P<0.01) after the program. Blood glucose, basal insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were also significantly reduced (P<0.01). No significant alterations were observed for resting blood pressure, triglycerides, or C-reactive protein. Conclusion Based on the observed results, it can be concluded that a 12-week progressive RT program, besides increasing isokinetic muscle strength, induces beneficial alterations on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. These findings highlight this mode of exercise as an important component of public health promotion programs for aged women. RT improves isokinetic strength and metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. PMID:26300634

  8. Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Nourozi, Mansoreh; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Hanachi, Parichehr

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find out whether or not soy milk as a phytoestrogen product can improve the quality of life of the Iranian postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: Participants of this randomized clinical trial were 57 healthy postmenopausal women. All eligible women were randomly divided into two groups of soy milk (SG) and control (CG). Individuals in the SG (n = 34) received 500 ml soy milk including genistein (28.86 mg/dl) and daidzein (8.25 mg/dl) per day, while the participants in the CG (n = 23) received 500 ml low fat cow milk per day during 8 months. Both groups also took daily calcium-D capsules (500 mg calcium and 200 IU D3). The quality of life of all participants was examined twice (at the baseline and the end of the eighth month) using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL) questionnaire. Results: A total of 57 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52.13 (3.05) years were included in this study. Despite the significant but weak difference was observed between SG and CG in the sexual domain score (the mean of percent change: 0.46% vs. 33.94%, respectively; p = 0.031), while significant relationship was found between the soy milk consumption and improvement in the domains studied (vasomotor, psychosocial and physical). Conclusion: Overall our findings showed that soy milk does not improve the quality of life in postmenopausal women. But to achieve more reliable results, it is recommended further study to be done with a larger sample size, more prolonged, and with participants having severer vasomotor symptoms. PMID:26175764

  9. The Relationship Between Bilateral Oophorectomy and Plasma Hormone Levels in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Shafrir, Amy L.; Rice, Megan; Hankinson, Susan E.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Narod, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oophorectomy prior to natural menopause reduces breast cancer risk. We evaluated whether timing of oophorectomy (during premenopause vs. postmenopause) or hysterectomy was associated with hormone levels, specifically estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and prolactin, using data from the Nurses’ Health Study. Methods We included 2,251 postmenopausal women not using hormones who provided blood samples in 1989–1990 and/or 2000–2002, and who were controls in various nested case-control studies. We used multivariate linear mixed effects models to assess geometric mean hormone levels by surgery status. Results Bilateral oophorectomy was associated with 25% lower testosterone levels vs. women with natural menopause (20.8 vs. 15.5 ng/dL)(P<0.0001) with no effect of timing of surgery (P=0.80). SHBG levels were lower among women with a premenopausal oophorectomy (52.2 nmol/L) vs. those with natural menopause (58.1 nmol/L) or a postmenopausal oophorectomy (62.0 nmol/L)(P = 0.02). There was no significant association of oophorectomy with estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, DHEAS, or prolactin levels (P ≥ 0.23). A simple hysterectomy was associated with a significant 8% lower testosterone (P=0.03) and 14% lower DHEAS (P=0.02) levels compared to women with natural menopause, but not with other hormone levels. Conclusion Although limited by small numbers, our findings suggest no differential influence of timing of surgery on sex hormone levels. The reduction in testosterone levels women with oophorectomy or hysterectomy suggests a possible role of this hormone in postmenopausal breast cancer development. PMID:25523946

  10. The relationship between bilateral oophorectomy and plasma hormone levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Shafrir, Amy L; Rice, Megan; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather; Tworoger, Shelley S; Narod, Steven A

    2015-02-01

    Oophorectomy prior to natural menopause reduces breast cancer risk. We evaluated whether timing of oophorectomy (during premenopause vs. postmenopause) or hysterectomy was associated with hormone levels, specifically estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and prolactin, using data from the Nurses' Health Study. We included 2,251 postmenopausal women not using hormones who provided blood samples in 1989-1990 and/or 2000-2002, and who were controls in various nested case-control studies. We used multivariate linear mixed-effects models to assess geometric mean hormone levels by surgery status. Bilateral oophorectomy was associated with 25% lower testosterone levels versus women with natural menopause (20.8 vs. 15.5 ng/dL) (P < 0.0001) with no effect of timing of surgery (P = 0.80). SHBG levels were lower among women with a premenopausal oophorectomy (52.2 nmol/L) versus those with natural menopause (58.1 nmol/L) or a postmenopausal oophorectomy (62.0 nmol/L) (P = 0.02). There was no significant association of oophorectomy with estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, DHEAS, or prolactin levels (P ≥ 0.23). A simple hysterectomy was associated with a significant 8% lower testosterone (P = 0.03) and 14 % lower DHEAS (P = 0.02) levels compared with women with natural menopause but not with other hormone levels. Although limited by small numbers, our findings suggest no differential influence of timing of surgery on sex hormone levels. The reduction of testosterone levels in women with oophorectomy or hysterectomy suggests a possible role of this hormone in postmenopausal breast cancer development. PMID:25523946

  11. Fall prevention in postmenopausal women: the role of Pilates exercise training.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, F; Martínez-Amat, A; Cruz-Díaz, D; Pérez-López, F R

    2016-06-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a major public health concern for postmenopausal women. Fear of falling, impairments in gait and postural control, and changes in body composition have been identified as important risk factors for falling. Physical exercise is an important tool in fall prevention and management. The Pilates method is a non-impact activity that can be adapted to different physical conditions and health status and is recommended for various populations. In postmenopausal women, it has been deemed an effective way to improve some fall-related physical and psychological aspects, such as postural and dynamic balance. In addition, some physical capacities, such as flexibility, personal autonomy, mobility, and functional ability have also shown to benefit from Pilates interventions involving women in their second half of life, as well as certain psychological aspects including fear of falling, depressive status, and quality of life. Pilates exercise has shown effectively to prevent falls in postmenopausal women by improving their balance, physical and psychological functioning, and independence. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations. PMID:26849849

  12. Multidisciplinary Overview of Vaginal Atrophy and Associated Genitourinary Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Irwin; Dicks, Brian; Kim, Noel N; Hartzell, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Vaginal atrophy, which may affect up to 45% of postmenopausal women, is often associated with one or more urinary symptoms, including urgency, increased frequency, nocturia, dysuria, incontinence, and recurrent urinary tract infection. Aims To provide an overview of the current literature regarding cellular and clinical aspects of vaginal atrophy and response to treatment with local vaginal estrogen therapy. Methods PubMed searches through February 2012 were conducted using the terms “vaginal atrophy,” “atrophic vaginitis,” and “vulvovaginal atrophy.” Expert opinion was based on review of the relevant scientific and medical literature. Main Outcome Measure Genitourinary symptoms and treatment of vaginal atrophy from peer-reviewed published literature. Results Typically, a diagnosis of vaginal atrophy is made based on patient-reported symptoms, including genitourinary symptoms, and an examination that reveals signs of the disorder; however, many women are hesitant to report vaginal-related symptoms, primarily because of embarrassment. Conclusions Physicians in various disciplines are encouraged to initiate open discussions about vulvovaginal health with postmenopausal women, including recommended treatment options. Goldstein I, Dicks B, Kim NN, and Hartzell R. Multidisciplinary overview of vaginal atrophy and associated genitourinary symptoms in postmenopausal women. Sex Med 2013;1:44–53. PMID:25356287

  13. Serum sex hormone levels are related to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Dorgan, J F; Longcope, C; Stephenson, H E; Falk, R T; Miller, R; Franz, C; Kahle, L; Campbell, W S; Tangrea, J A; Schatzkin, A

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a nested case-control study to prospectively evaluate the relationship of serum estrogens and androgens to risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. From 1977 to 1987, 3375 postmenopausal women free of cancer and not taking replacement estrogens donated blood to the Breast Cancer Serum Bank in Columbia, Missouri. Of these, 72 were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer. For each case, two controls matched on age and date and time of day of blood collection were selected using incidence density matching. The median age of subjects at blood collection was 62 years; the time from blood collection to diagnosis ranged from less than 1 to 9.5 years with a median of 2.9 years. Risk of breast cancer was positively and significantly associated with serum levels of estrogens and androgens. Compared to women in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile for non-sex hormone-binding globulin (non-SHBG) bound (bioavailable) estradiol had a relative risk of 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-18.5) and those in the highest quartile for testosterone had a relative risk of 6.2 (95% CI = 2.0-19.0). Our results lend considerable support to the hypothesis that serum concentrations of estrogens and androgens are related to the subsequent diagnosis of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. PMID:9167999

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TUBERCULOSIS AND FEMALE HORMONE LEVELS IN POST-MENOPAUSAL WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Gulru; Senol, Gunes; Anar, Ceyda; Meral, Ali Riza; Tuzel, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an intracellular infection controlled by T-lymphocyte. After menopause, T-lymphocyte cells counts increase suggesting a possible link between T-lymphocyte cell counts and estrogen and progesterone levels. In this study we compared post-menopausal women with and without TB to determine any differences in estrogen and progesterone levels between the two groups. The study group consisted of 38 post-menapausal women hospitalized for TB at Dr Suat Seren Chest Diseases and Surgery Training and Research Hospital for Tuberculosis, in Izmir, Turkey. The control group consisted of 30 post-menopausal women without TB. Both groups were selected from patients without immunosuppressive diseases or malignancies in whom PPD testing was not contraindicated. The mean progesterone level in the control group was 0.3896 ± 0.2014 ng/ml and in the study group was 0.3607 ± 0.3006 ng/ml (p = 0.638). The mean estrogen level in the control group was 18.9873 ± 6.5332 pg/ml and in the study group was 26.2768 ± 14.3418 pg/ml; the difference was significant (p = 0.007). The body mass index in the study group was significantly (p = 0.034) lower than in the study group. In post-menopausal women, the mean estrogen level was significantly higher in participants with TB than those without TB. PMID:27086428

  15. Relation of skinfold thickness and visceral fat with the endothelial function in Mexican postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Muro, Ana Mirna Fino; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between skinfolds and visceral fat with vascular reactivity according to body weight, fat distribution and time since menopause in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods In postmenopausal women, tricipital, suprailiac and subscapular skinfolds as well as blood pressure were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Brachial artery Doppler ultrasound at baseline and after the hyperemic stimulus was done and Doppler parameters were assessed. For statistical analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis, as well as Student t were used. Results Sixty-six postmenopausal women were studied; age was 54.5 ± 7.4 years. Skinfold thickness was related with subcutaneous and visceral fat. In all groups, the arterial diameter increased after the hyperemic stimulus among 6.5% and 9% of women. The pulsatility index decreased in the whole group and in those with BMI ≤ 27, WHR ≤ 0.85 and time since menopause ≤ 10 years. Negative correlations were observed between the percentage of change in arterial dilatation and the subscapular skinfold and subcutaneous fat in the whole group and in the subgroups with BMI > 27 and WHR > 0.85. Conclusions Skinfolds are indirectly related with visceral fat, and skinfold thickness permit to conclude about impact in endothelial environment. PMID:26327895

  16. Memory Decline in Peri- and Post-menopausal Women: The Potential of Mind–Body Medicine to Improve Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Jim R; Johnson, Aimee K; Elkins, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a frequent complaint during the menopause transition and among post-menopausal women. Changes in memory correspond with diminished estrogen production. Further, many peri- and post-menopausal women report sleep concerns, depression, and hot flashes, and these factors may contribute to cognitive decline. Hormone therapy can increase estrogen but is contraindicated for many women. Mind–body medicine has been shown to have beneficial effects on sleep, mood, and hot flashes, among post-menopausal women. Further, mind–body medicine holds potential in addressing symptoms of cognitive decline post-menopause. This study proposes an initial framework for how mind–body interventions may improve cognitive performance and inform future research seeking to identify the common and specific factors associated with mind–body medicine for addressing memory decline in peri- and post-menopausal women. It is our hope that this article will eventually lead to a more holistic and integrative approach to the treatment of cognitive deficits in peri- and post-menopausal women. PMID:25125972

  17. Genotypes and clinical aspects associated with bone mineral density in Argentine postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Adriana; Ulla, María; García, Beatriz; Lavezzo, María; Elías, Eliana; Binci, Miriam; Rivoira, María; Centeno, Viviana; Alisio, Arturo; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine genotypes and clinical aspects associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women from Córdoba, Argentina. Polymorphisms were assessed by RFLP-PCR technique using BsmI and FokI for vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and XbaI and PvuII for estrogen receptor-alpha gene (ERalpha) as restrictases. Sixty-eight healthy, 54 osteopenic, and 64 osteoporotic postmenopausal women were recruited. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD were inversely correlated with age in the entire analyzed population. Height was lower in osteopenic and osteoporotic women as compared to healthy women (P < 0.05). Weight and body mass index (BMI) were the lowest in osteoporotic women (P < 0.01 versus healthy group). Serum procollagen type I Nterminal propeptide (PINP) was higher in osteoporotic women as compared to the other groups. Distribution of VDR and ERalpha genotypes was similar in the three groups. Genotype bb (VDR) was associated with low values of lumbar BMD in the healthy group (P < 0.05 versus genotype Bb), and with low values of femoral BMD (P < 0.05 versus genotype BB) in osteoporotic women. BB*Pp interaction was associated with the highest femoral neck BMD (P < 0.05), whereas the bb*xx interaction was associated with the lowest femoral neck BMD in the total population analyzed (P < 0.05). In conclusion, parameters such as age, height, weight, BMI, serum PINP, VDR genotypes, and interactions between VDR and ERalpha genotypes could be useful to predict a decrease in BMD in Argentine postmenopausal women. PMID:18600402

  18. Physical activity and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, A R; Kushi, L H; Hong, C P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether the incidence of diabetes is reduced among physically active older women. METHODS: We assessed physical activity by mailed questionnaire and 12-year incidence of diabetes (ostensibly type 2 diabetes) in a cohort of 34257 women aged 55 to 69 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake, estrogen use, dietary variables, and family history of diabetes, women who reported any physical activity had a relative risk of diabetes of 0.69 (95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.77) compared with sedentary women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that physical activity is important for type 2 diabetes prevention among older women. PMID:10630154

  19. Chronic l-citrulline supplementation improves cardiac sympathovagal balance in obese postmenopausal women: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexei; Chernykh, Oksana; Figueroa, Arturo

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of chronic l-citrulline (L-cit) supplementation on resting heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure (BP) in obese postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assign to either an L-cit group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). HRV and BP were measured before and after 8weeks. There were significant decreases (P<0.05) in nLF (sympathetic activity), LnLF/LnHF (sympathovagal balance), and BP as well as a significant increase (P<0.05) in nHF (vagal tone) following L-cit compared with no changes after control. Our findings indicate that L-cit supplementation improves sympathovagal balance in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:27356482

  20. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Luminal B Subtype Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sanggeun; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Sanghwa; Kim, Jee Ye; Kim, Seung Il

    2016-03-01

    Currently, there is limited information on the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients with insulin resistance. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between insulin resistance and clinicopathological factors in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients without diabetes. We assessed 760 patients with breast cancer treated between 2012 and 2014. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics between patients with and without insulin resistance using univariate and multivariate analyses, including after stratification by menopausal status. Insulin resistance was defined according to the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Of 760 patients, 26.4% had insulin resistance. Age, menopausal status, body mass index, tumor size, histologic grade, Ki-67 expression, and breast cancer subtype significantly differed according to the presence of insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis revealed that postmenopausal status and obesity were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In postmenopausal women, older age, obesity, larger tumor size, advanced stage, and high proliferative luminal B subtype were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In contrast, in premenopausal patients, only obesity was related to insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis indicated that insulin resistance was independently correlated with obesity, larger tumor size, and the luminal B/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative subtype in postmenopausal but not premenopausal patients. Insulin resistance was significantly associated with larger tumors and proliferative luminal B subtype breast cancer in postmenopausal women only. These findings suggest that insulin resistance could mechanistically induce tumor progression and might be a good prognostic factor, and that it could represent a therapeutic target in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. PMID:26945364

  1. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Luminal B Subtype Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sanggeun; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Sanghwa; Kim, Jee Ye; Kim, Seung Il

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, there is limited information on the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients with insulin resistance. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between insulin resistance and clinicopathological factors in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients without diabetes. We assessed 760 patients with breast cancer treated between 2012 and 2014. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics between patients with and without insulin resistance using univariate and multivariate analyses, including after stratification by menopausal status. Insulin resistance was defined according to the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Of 760 patients, 26.4% had insulin resistance. Age, menopausal status, body mass index, tumor size, histologic grade, Ki-67 expression, and breast cancer subtype significantly differed according to the presence of insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis revealed that postmenopausal status and obesity were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In postmenopausal women, older age, obesity, larger tumor size, advanced stage, and high proliferative luminal B subtype were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In contrast, in premenopausal patients, only obesity was related to insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis indicated that insulin resistance was independently correlated with obesity, larger tumor size, and the luminal B/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative subtype in postmenopausal but not premenopausal patients. Insulin resistance was significantly associated with larger tumors and proliferative luminal B subtype breast cancer in postmenopausal women only. These findings suggest that insulin resistance could mechanistically induce tumor progression and might be a good prognostic factor, and that it could represent a therapeutic target in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. PMID:26945364

  2. The VSQ: a questionnaire to measure vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Yip, Sallis O.; Wedderburn, Terri S.; Martin, Deanna K.; Li, Fang-Yong; Choi, Jennifer N.; Kenton, Kimberly S.; Fried, Terri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a vulvovaginal symptoms questionnaire (VSQ) to study symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual-impact of vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods We developed questionnaire focused on vulvovaginal symptoms based on modifications to the Skindex-16, a validated questionnaire to measure the impact of skin disease. We then recruited postmenopausal women seeking routine gynecologic care to test the psychometric properties of the VSQ. Test-retest reliability was assessed 2 to 4 weeks after their initial recruitment and measured utilizing intra-class coefficients. Four distinct a priori scales of the VSQ were developed: symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual-impact. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify the four a priori scales by evaluating the goodness-of-fit of a final confirmatory factor analysis model. The internal consistency of the scales was assessed through the calculation of Cronbach’s α coefficient. Results The VSQ is a 21-item written questionnaire with four scales, symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual impact. One hundred twenty postmenopausal women participated in the psychometric validation of the VSQ. The test-retest reliability the four scales measured by intra-class coefficients were 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.65 for symptoms, emotions, life-impact and sexual-impact. The goodness-of –fit of the confirmatory factor response model was confirmed. Cronbach’s α coefficients were 0.76, 0.87, 0.83, and 0.82 for the scales. Conclusion The VSQ is a reliable and internal consistent instrument to measure vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women. PMID:23481118

  3. Genetic Background, Adipocytokines, and Metabolic Disorders in Postmenopausal Overweight and Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Mosor, Maria; Przysławski, Juliusz; Bogacz, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between the genetic background, adipocytokines, and metabolic state in postmenopausal women has not yet been fully described. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PPAR gamma-2 (Pro12Ala, C1431T) and ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) polymorphisms and serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, visfatin, and resistin) and metabolic disorders in 176 postmenopausal women with increased body mass (BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2)). The distributions of selected alleles and genotype frequencies were determined with the PCR-RFLP method. The bioimpedance method was used to determine nutritional status, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were applied to determine serum concentrations of adipocytokines. Viscerally obese postmenopausal women had higher body mass, body fat content, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, uric acid, and HOMA-IR and a higher prevalence of the Ala12 allele. In models based on cytokine concentration, higher body mass and glucose concentration (visfatin model, p = 0.008) and higher insulin and triglyceride levels (resistin model, p = 0.002) were observed in visceral fat deposition and this was potentiated by the presence of the T1431 allele. In resistin models, co-existence of Ala12/X polymorphisms with the T1431 allele was associated with higher resistin and triglyceride concentrations (p = 0.045). In postmenopausal women, metabolic parameters are mainly determined by the distribution of body fat, but Ala12/X polymorphism may increase the metabolic disorders and this effect can be enhanced by the T1431 allele. PMID:27246401

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption and changes in postprandial lipoproteins of premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a diet-controlled, randomized intervention study.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, M S; Sierksma, A; Schaafsma, G; van Tol, A; Geelhoed-Mieras, T; Bakker, M; Hendriks, H F

    2000-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Earlier studies in men have shown that moderate alcohol consumption affects lipoprotein metabolism and hemostasis. In this diet-controlled, randomized, crossover trial, we investigated the effect on lipoprotein metabolism of moderate consumption of red wine or red grape juice with evening dinner for 3 weeks in premenopausal women using oral contraceptives and in postmenopausal women. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected 1 hour before dinner up to 19 hours after starting dinner at 2-hour or 4-hour intervals. Plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride levels peaked 3 hours after dinner with wine in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. After wine consumption, the overall high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was increased in postmenopausal women (mean increase 0.17 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.03), and the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was reduced in premenopausal women (mean reduction 0.35 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.01) as compared with grape juice consumption. The findings suggest that postprandial lipoprotein metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption differs between oral contraceptive-using premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. The response of postmenopausal women to alcohol resembled the response found in earlier studies in men. PMID:10957749

  5. Autonomic control of cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Irina W.; Kiselev, Anton R.; Karavaev, Antoly S.; Prokhorov, Mikhail D.; Gridnev, Vladimir I.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I.; Bezruchko, Boris P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the features of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women. Material and Methods We studied 185 postmenopausal women aged 59.3±8.5 years (mean±SD) and 104 premenopausal women aged 45.1±5.8 years. Standard indices of heart rate variability (HRV) (mean heart rate, coefficient of variation, standard deviation of the NN interval (the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram with normal sinus rhythm) (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), proportion derived by dividing RR50, the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms, by the total number of NN intervals (PNN50), and power of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands in absolute values and percentages of total spectral power) and index S of synchronization between the 0.1-Hz rhythms in heart rate and photoplethysmogram were compared between these two groups at rest. We assessed the following sex hormones: estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone. Results Mean heart rate and power of LF and HF bands were significantly different (p<0.05) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The autonomic indices were similar in women with natural and surgical menopause. Some indices (coefficient of variation, SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50, and power of LF and HF bands) showed weak correlation with menopause time in women with natural menopause. In women with surgical menopause, a moderate statistically significant correlation was observed only between menopause time and S index (r=−0.41, p=0.039). In premenopausal women, only testosterone correlated weakly with coefficient of variation, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, and power of HF band. In postmenopausal women, no correlations were found. We did not find any significant relationship between autonomic indices and hot flashes, assessed by hot

  6. Influences of teriparatide administration on marrow fat content in postmenopausal osteopenic women using MR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Luo, X; Xie, X; Yan, F; Chen, G; Zhao, W; Jiang, Z; Fang, C; Shen, J

    2016-06-01

    Objective Teriparatide could induce osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells while inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. However, there are significant differences between ex vivo and in vivo models. We aimed to evaluate the impact of teriparatide on marrow and abdominal fat accumulation in postmenopausal osteopenic women. Methods Postmenopausal osteopenic women were randomly assigned to receive teriparatide or placebo for 12 months. Subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), marrow fat fraction (MFF), bone density (BMD) and bone biomarkers were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Results At 12 months, mean percentage changes in BMD from baseline were 3.51%, 2.21% and 1.80% at lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck for the teriparatide group, respectively. Relative to baseline conditions, teriparatide reduced MFF (-3.54% at 6 months; -5.87% at 12 months, all p < 0.01). A significant difference in MFF, but not BMD, was first detected at 6 months (p = 0.012) between groups. MFF was negatively associated with SAT (r = -0.479) and positively associated with VAT (r = 0.531) and VAT/SAT (r = 0.415, all p < 0.05). Teriparatide treatment did not alter abdominal fat composition. Conclusion Teriparatide effectively lowers marrow adiposity but not abdominal fat accumulation in postmenopausal osteopenic women. PMID:26744910

  7. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie; Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Halldin, Krister; Åkesson, Agneta

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  8. DXA-derived abdominal fat mass, waist circumference, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Little, Jonathan P; Paus-Jenssen, Lisa S; Case, Allison M; Biem, H Jay

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived fat mass indices for predicting blood lipid profile in postmenopausal women. A secondary purpose was to determine whether waist circumference is comparable with DXA-derived measurements in predicting blood lipid profile. Subjects were 423 postmenopausal women (age 58.1 +/- 6.3 years). Fat mass was assessed at abdomen, trunk, and total body using DXA. Anthropometric measurements included BMI and waist circumference. Blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TAG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and cholesterol/HDL ratio. Of the DXA-derived measures, abdominal-fat mass was the best predictor of blood lipid profiles. DXA-derived abdominal fat mass and waist girth explained 20 and 16.5% of variation in TC/HDL ratio, respectively, in univariate analysis, with no difference between the slopes of the regression coefficients. Eighty-four percent of subjects were common to the top quartiles of waist circumference and abdominal fat mass, and blood lipid profiles generally worsened across increasing quartiles. DXA-derived abdominal fat mass and waist circumference are of equivalent utility for predicting alterations in blood lipids. Waist circumference is, therefore, ideal as an inexpensive means in primary health-care services for predicting risk of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. PMID:19343013

  9. Associations between frequency of coffee consumption and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei; Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Keqin; Tang, Zihui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed at estimating the associations between coffee intake and osteoporosis (OP) in Chinese postmenopausal women. Methods: We conducted a large-scale, community-based, cross-sectional study to investigate the associations by using self-report questionnaire to access frequency of coffee intake. The total of 1817 participants was available to data analysis in this study. Multiple regression models controlling for confounding factors to include frequency of coffee intake variable were performed to investigate the relationships for OP. Results: Positive correlations between frequency of meat food intake and T-score were reported (β = 0.216, P value < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the frequency of meat food intake was significantly associated with OP (P < 0.05 for model 1 and model 2). The postmenopausal women with high frequency of meat food intake had a lower prevalence of OP. Conclusion: The findings indicated that frequency of coffee intake was independently and significantly associated with OP. The prevalence of OP was more frequent in Chinese postmenopausal women not preferring coffee habits. PMID:26629099

  10. Psychological reactivity to laboratory stress is associated with hormonal responses in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Manzur, Angelica M.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Spiegel, David; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study examined associations between psychological reactivity and hormonal responses to a standardized laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) in postmenopausal women. METHODS Forty postmenopausal women ages 50–74 completed anxiety and mood assessments prior to and following the TSST. Blood samples were drawn across multiple time points for assessment of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and DHEA. RESULTS As expected, significant increases in anxiety and negative affect and decreases in positive affect were observed from pre- to post-TSST; however, the magnitude of change in anxiety and mood varied considerably across individuals. Analyses indicated that greater increases in anxiety and negative affect from pre- to post-TSST were associated with higher levels of cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA, controlling for race, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Changes in positive affect were not associated with cortisol, ACTH, or DHEA. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that enhanced reactivity to stress is associated with higher hormone levels among postmenopausal women, which could have potential implications for health. PMID:24595153

  11. Selenium Intake in Hypertensive and Normotensive Post-Menopausal Indonesian Women.

    PubMed

    Adriani, Merryana; Diarry, Vella I P; Abdulah, Rizky; Wirjatmadi, Bambang

    2015-01-01

    The Indonesian Ministry of Health has predicted that the national prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia may reach 26.5% in 2013. Increasing age, stress, lack of physical activity, obesity and passive smoking are known to be risk factors of hypertension. In women over 50 y, hormonal changes that occur post-menopause may also increase the risk of hypertension and other vascular diseases. Antioxidant precursors, such as selenium, however, are known to provide protection against the development of several oxidative stress-related diseases, including hypertension. To prove the hypothesis, we compared the levels of consumption of selenium in hypertensive and normotensive post-menopausal women. An observational comparative study with cross-sectional design was conducted in groups of post-menopausal women with hypertension and those who are normotensive. Structured interviews and food recall of 2×24 h were used to determine the level of consumption, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) questionnaire was used to measure the level of stress. The result suggests a significant difference in the levels of selenium intake between the normotensive and hypertensive groups (p=0.008). Furthermore, the passive smoking and stress levels of the hypertensive group were significantly higher than those of the normotensive group. These result support the hypothesis that selenium may play a protective role in vascular disease. PMID:26440639

  12. Update on the effect of estradiol in postmenopause women with Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yu-Long; Zou, Shuang; Zhang, Changfu; Li, Jun; Xu, Yinghui; Li, Shao

    2016-09-01

    Estradiol (E2) has been used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) for many years but with various responses. Evidence from clinical studies, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), and observational studies further underscores the importance of E2 in postmenopause women diagnosed with AD. The purpose of this article is to review all clinical trials to date focusing on the E2 in AD patients to explore the evidence regarding use of E2 in AD treatments. To achieve this objective, clinical studies regarding E2 levels in AD patients and RCTs assessing AD treatment in postmenopause women were identified through searches of MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, Ovid, and Google Scholar. E2 has demonstrated good therapeutic effectiveness in AD patients, however, further larger scale, double-blind RCTs are required before a definitive conclusion can be reached and the results need to be compared with other drugs. This update reviews the newest clinical information regarding the role of E2 in postmenopause women with AD. To our knowledge, this is the only systematic review of this area. PMID:26931740

  13. Health Characteristics of Postmenopausal Women with Breast Implants

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, J. Peter; Landfair, Angela Song; Shestak, Kenneth; Lane, Dorothy; Valoski, Alice; Chang, Yuefang; Tindle, Hilary A.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Implant breast augmentation has long been a subject of controversy in both the plastic surgery and mainstream media. Methods We evaluated characteristics of women who had breast implant surgery in the Women's Health Initiative observational study (WHI OS) between 1993 and 1998. Most women in this study cohort had breast implant surgery 20 or more years prior to recruitment into the WHI OS. The women who were in the WHI OS who had not undergone breast implant surgery served as the comparison group. There were 86,686 women in the WHI OS who did not have breast implant surgery and an absent history of breast cancer, and 1,257 women who had breast implant surgery and no prior breast cancer. Results Total mortality rates were substantially lower among women with breast implant as was incidence of coronary heart disease. Women with breast implants in this study had a lower BMI throughout adult life and were more physically active than control subjects. After adjustment for these variables, differences in total mortality were no longer statistically significant. Women who had breast implants reported overall poorer quality of life and emotional well-being. Among women with breast implant surgery, 7% of deaths were due to suicide (n=3) versus 0.4% (n=20) in controls. Conclusion Significant differences in health characteristics and quality of life measures are seen in a cohort of women with breast implants decades following implant surgery. Further longitudinal studies need to focus on both physical and psychological health among women undergoing breast implant surgery. PMID:20195108

  14. Diagnostic Efficacy of Panoramic Radiography in Detection of Osteoporosis in Post-Menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Sunanda; Krishnamurthy, Vasavi; Pagare, Sandeep S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate panoramic radiograph, a commonly taken dental radiograph as a screening tool to detect early osseous changes (normal, mildly or severely eroded) of the mandibular inferior cortex and measure the mandibular cortical width (CW) in post-menopausal women and correlate it with the bone mineral density (BMD) measured by the ultrasound bone sonometer at the mid-shaft tibia region. Materials and Methods: The study included females between 45 years and 65 years of age in their post-menopausal stage (no menstruation for at least 6-12 months). Mandibular indices (mandibular CW and mandibular cortical shape) were evaluated from panoramic radiographs. The BMD assessment was carried out at the mid-shaft tibia region, exactly half-way between the heel and the knee joint perpendicular to the direction of the bone, using an ultrasound bone sonometer. It is a non-invasive device designed for quantitative measurement of the velocity of ultrasound waves as speed of sound in m/s, capable of measuring bone density at one or more skeletal sites. Using 1994 WHO criteria the study subjects were categorized as Group 1: Normal, Group 2: Osteopenia, Group 3: Osteoporosis. (WHO T score for tibia BMD can be used as a standard). Results: The diagnostic efficacy of the panoramic radiograph in detecting osseous changes in post-menopausal women with low BMD was shown to have 96% specificity and 60% sensitivity with mandibular cortical shape and 58% specificity and 73% sensitivity with mandibular CW measurement. Factorial ANOVA analysis carried out indicated a significant correlation of BMD classification with mandibular cortical shape (F = 29.0, P < 0.001, partial eta squared [η2] =0.85), a non-significant correlation with mandibular CW, (F = 1.6, P = 0.23, η2 = 0.86), and a more significant correlation with combined cortical shape and width (F = 3.3, P < 0.05, η2 = 0.70). Conclusion: The study concludes that the combined mandibular cortical

  15. Nutritional education in the primary prevention of osteoporosis in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Woźniak-Holecka, Joanna; Sobczyk, Karolina

    2014-03-01

    Osteoporosis affects millions of people in the whole world and brings about far-reaching physical and psycho-social consequences for patients and financial ones for the health care system, and therefore it is classified as one of public health problems and treated as a social disease. Women belong to the increased osteoporosis illness risk group due to lower top bone mass reached earlier in life as compared to men and due to hormonal changes occurring in the menopausal period, which affect loss of the bone mineral density (BMD). Limitation of the osteoporosis-related financial and social costs increase requires efficient preventive actions on the level of early, primary, secondary or tertiary prevention. At all the four osteoporosis prevention phases, the crucial role is played by health education and nutrition education, the latter being the key element of the former one. The nutritional education purpose is to acquaint patients with nutrition recommendations that are the basic element of the osteoporosis prevention and to make them change their nutrition habits, which will improve their osseous metabolism. The education should be based on results of the latest scientific researches and focus on recommendations relating to proper supplementing of calcium and vitamin D, simultaneously including all the other nutrition components, necessary to decrease the osteoporosis risk. The primary prevention oriented to a specific group at risk for osteoporosis, including peri- or postmenopausal women, should be provided in cooperation with the different levels' medical professionals and it should focus on causing positive changes in patients both as regards nutrition habits and physical activities. PMID:26327830

  16. Salivary bone turnover markers in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women: daily and seasonal rhythm.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Gretel G; Gonzales Chaves, Macarena M S; Fajardo, Maria A; Ponce, Graciela M; Toyos, Gloria I; Lifshitz, Fima; Friedman, Silvia M; Zeni, Susana N

    2012-04-01

    No studies had investigated circadian and circannual rhythms of bone biomarkers in whole saliva. We evaluated the salivary daily and seasonal rhythm of carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP). Forty clinical and oral healthy ambulatory pre- and postmenopausal women from two southern Argentine cities: Comodoro Rivadavia (latitude 45º S) and Ushuaia (latitude 54º S) were included in the study. CTX levels were evaluated in serum, urine, and saliva, and b-ALP levels were measured in serum and saliva. In both groups of women, salivary CTX showed a maximum percentage of change early in the morning (80%) and a minimum in the late afternoon (45%), similarly to the pattern observed in urinary samples. No daily rhythm was observed in serum or salivary b-ALP. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels decreased in winter vs. summer (p < 0.01) without differences between the two studied groups. Conversely, parathormone reached higher levels in winter (p < 0.05) which induced a slight non-significant increment in salivary CTX and b-ALP levels. The results showed that, as in serum and urinary samples, salivary CTX exhibits daily and a slight seasonal rhythmicity. Whole non-stimulated saliva is a useful tool to detect several oral and systemic diseases because it has important advantages compared to serum and urinary samples. Then, it may also be a promising sample to test changes in bone metabolism contributing to diagnose and to monitor the therapy of several metabolic bone diseases. PMID:21431857

  17. Risk factors for breast cancer in postmenopausal Caucasian and Chinese-Canadian women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Striking differences exist between countries in the incidence of breast cancer. The causes of these differences are unknown, but because incidence rates change in migrants, they are thought to be due to lifestyle rather than genetic differences. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine breast cancer risk factors in populations with different risks for breast cancer. Methods We compared breast cancer risk factors among three groups of postmenopausal Canadian women at substantially different risk of developing breast cancer - Caucasians (N = 413), Chinese women born in the West or who migrated to the West before age 21 (N = 216), and recent Chinese migrants (N = 421). Information on risk factors and dietary acculturation were collected by telephone interviews using questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were taken at a home visit. Results Compared to Caucasians, recent Chinese migrants weighed on average 14 kg less, were 6 cm shorter, had menarche a year later, were more often parous, less often had a family history of breast cancer or a benign breast biopsy, a higher Chinese dietary score, and a lower Western dietary score. For most of these variables, Western born Chinese and early Chinese migrants had values intermediate between those of Caucasians and recent Chinese migrants. We estimated five-year absolute risks for breast cancer using the Gail Model and found that risk estimates in Caucasians would be reduced by only 11% if they had the risk factor profile of recent Chinese migrants for the risk factors in the Gail Model. Conclusions Our results suggest that in addition to the risk factors in the Gail Model, there likely are other factors that also contribute to the large difference in breast cancer risk between Canada and China. PMID:20053286

  18. Prevalence screening for ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women by CA 125 measurement and ultrasonography.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, I; Davies, A P; Bridges, J; Stabile, I; Fay, T; Lower, A; Grudzinskas, J G; Oram, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the performance of the sequential combination of serum CA 125 measurement and ultrasonography in screening for ovarian cancer. DESIGN--The serum CA 125 concentration of each subject was determined and those with a concentration > or = 30 U/ml were recalled for abdominal ultrasonography. If ultrasonography gave abnormal results surgical investigation was arranged. Volunteers were followed up by annual postal questionnaire. SETTING--General practice, occupational health departments, ovarian cancer screening clinic. SUBJECTS--22,000 women volunteers who were postmenopausal and aged over 45 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Apparent sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, years of cancer detected. RESULTS--41 women had a positive screening result and were investigated surgically. 11 had ovarian cancer (true positive result) and 30 had other disorders or no abnormality (false positive result). Of the 21,959 volunteers with a negative screening result, eight subsequently presented clinically with ovarian cancer (false negative result) and 21,951 had not developed ovarian cancer during follow up (apparent true negative result). The screening protocol achieved a specificity of 99.9%, a positive predictive value of 26.8%, and an apparent sensitivity of 78.6% and 57.9% at one year and two year follow up respectively. The estimated number of years of cancer detected by the prevalence screen was 1.4 years. CONCLUSIONS--This screening protocol is highly specific for ovarian cancer and can detect a substantial proportion of cases at a preclinical stage. Further investigation is required to determine the effect of the screening protocol on the ratio of early to late stage disease detected and on mortality from ovarian cancer. PMID:8490497

  19. Nutritional education in the primary prevention of osteoporosis in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sobczyk, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis affects millions of people in the whole world and brings about far-reaching physical and psycho-social consequences for patients and financial ones for the health care system, and therefore it is classified as one of public health problems and treated as a social disease. Women belong to the increased osteoporosis illness risk group due to lower top bone mass reached earlier in life as compared to men and due to hormonal changes occurring in the menopausal period, which affect loss of the bone mineral density (BMD). Limitation of the osteoporosis-related financial and social costs increase requires efficient preventive actions on the level of early, primary, secondary or tertiary prevention. At all the four osteoporosis prevention phases, the crucial role is played by health education and nutrition education, the latter being the key element of the former one. The nutritional education purpose is to acquaint patients with nutrition recommendations that are the basic element of the osteoporosis prevention and to make them change their nutrition habits, which will improve their osseous metabolism. The education should be based on results of the latest scientific researches and focus on recommendations relating to proper supplementing of calcium and vitamin D, simultaneously including all the other nutrition components, necessary to decrease the osteoporosis risk. The primary prevention oriented to a specific group at risk for osteoporosis, including peri- or postmenopausal women, should be provided in cooperation with the different levels’ medical professionals and it should focus on causing positive changes in patients both as regards nutrition habits and physical activities. PMID:26327830

  20. Effects of Isoflavones on the Skin of Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Accorsi-Neto, Alfeu; Haidar, Mauro; Simões, Ricardo; Simões, Manuel; Soares-Jr, José; Baracat, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of isoflavones on the skin of postmenopausal women. DESIGN: A prospective study was performed with 30 postmenopausal women before and immediately after the end of treatment with 100 mg/day of an isoflavones-rich, concentrated soy extract for six months. A skin punch was performed in the gluteal region for sample collection before and immediately after the treatment program. Morphometric determination of epidermal thickness, the papillary index (wrinkling), and the amount of dermal elastic and collagen fibers was assessed. In addition, the number of blood vessels in the sample was also evaluated. The paired Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: Isoflavone treatment resulted in a 9.46% increase in the thickness of the epidermis in 23 patients. In addition, the papillary index was reduced in 21 women. The papillary index was inversely proportional to skin wrinkling, i.e., there were a large number of papillae after treatment. The amount of collagen in the dermis was increased in 25 women (86.2%). In 22 women (75.8%) we observed that the number of elastic fibers increased. The number of dermal blood vessels was significantly increased in 21 women. CONCLUSION: Our data show that the use of a concentrated, isoflavone-rich soy extract during six consecutive months caused significant increases in epithelial thickness, the number of elastic and collagen fibers, as well as the blood vessels. PMID:19578653

  1. Are patterns of bone loss in anorexic and postmenopausal women similar? Preliminary results using high resolution peripheral computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Milos, Gabriella; Häuselmann, Hans-Jörg; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Rüegsegger, Peter; Gallo, Luigi M

    2014-01-01

    This study intended to compare bone density and architecture in three groups of women: young women with anorexia nervosa (AN), an age-matched control group of young women, and healthy late postmenopausal women. Three-dimensional peripheral quantitative high resolution computed-tomography (HR-pQCT) at the ultradistal radius, a technology providing measures of cortical and trabecular bone density and microarchitecture, was performed in the three cohorts. Thirty-six women with AN aged 18-30 years (mean duration of AN: 5.8 years), 83 healthy late postmenopausal women aged 70-81 as well as 30 age-matched healthy young women were assessed. The overall cortical and trabecular bone density (D100), the absolute thickness of the cortical bone (CTh), and the absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) were significantly lower in AN patients compared with healthy young women. The absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) in AN and postmenopausal women was similar, but significantly lower than in healthy young women. The comparison between AN patients and post-menopausal women is of interest because the latter reach bone peak mass around the middle of the fertile age span whereas the former usually lose bone before reaching optimal bone density and structure. This study shows that bone mineral density and bone compacta thickness in AN are lower than those in controls but still higher than those in postmenopause. Bone compacta density in AN is similar as in controls. However, bone inner structure in AN is degraded to a similar extent as in postmenopause. This last finding is particularly troubling. PMID:24084384

  2. Potential implications of adjuvant endocrine therapy for the oral health of postmenopausal women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, L. Susan; Havens, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Current adjuvant treatment modalities for breast cancer that express the estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor include adjuvant anti-estrogen therapies, and tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Bone, including the jaw, is an endocrine-sensitive organ, as are other oral structures. This review examines the potential links between adjuvant anti-estrogen treatments in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer and oral health. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the Web of Knowledge was conducted using combinations of key terms “breast,” “cancer,” “neoplasm,” “Tamoxifen,” “Aromatase Inhibitor,” “chemotherapy,” “hormone therapy,” “alveolar bone loss,” “postmenopausal bone loss,” “estrogen,” “SERM,” “hormone replacement therapy,” and “quality of life.” We selected articles published in peer-reviewed journals in the English. The authors found no studies reporting on periodontal diseases, alveolar bone loss, oral health, or oral health-related quality of life in association with anti-estrogen breast cancer treatments in postmenopausal women. Periodontal diseases, alveolar bone density, tooth loss, and conditions of the soft tissues of the mouth have all been associated with menopausal status supporting the hypothesis that the soft tissues and bone of the oral cavity could be negatively affected by anti-estrogen therapy. As a conclusion, the impact of adjuvant endocrine breast cancer therapy on the oral health of postmenopausal women is undefined. The structures of the oral cavity are influenced by estrogen; therefore, anti-estrogen therapies may carry the risk of oral toxicities. Oral health care for breast cancer patients is an important but understudied aspect of cancer survivorship. PMID:22986813

  3. VITAMIN D–BINDING PROTEIN IN HEALTHY PRE- AND POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: RELATIONSHIP WITH ESTRADIOL CONCENTRATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Pop, L. Claudia; Shapses, Sue A.; Chang, Brian; Sun, Wei; Wang, Xiangbing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between endogenous serum estradiol and vitamin D–binding protein (DBP) and total, free, and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods In 165 healthy women (ages, 26 to 75 years) not taking any form of exogenous estrogen, the serum concentrations of estradiol, 25OHD, DBP, parathyroid hormone, and albumin were measured. Free and bioavailable 25OHD (free + albumin-bound) levels were calculated from total 25OHD, DBP, and serum albumin levels. Results Premenopausal women had higher serum 25OHD (31.5 ± 7.9 ng/mL), DBP (45.3 ± 6.2 mg/dL), and estradiol (52.8 ± 35.0 pg/mL) levels than postmenopausal women (26.5 ± 4.9 ng/mL, 41.7 ± 5.7 mg/dL, and 12.9 ± 4.9 pg/mL), respectively. In addition, the calculated free and bioavailable 25OHD levels were higher in pre- than postmenopausal women (P<.05). Serum estradiol correlated with DBP (r = 0.22; P<.01) and total 25OHD (r = 0.27; P<.01). In multivariate regression models (with or without serum 25OHD), estradiol was independently associated with DBP (P<.05). Conclusion Lower estradiol level is one of the factors that contribute to lower DBP levels in older women. Our data indicate that besides well-known factors such as age, gender, and race, serum estradiol concentrations are also a physiologic predictor of DBP concentration. PMID:26121448

  4. Risk of Mortality According to Body Mass Index and Body Composition Among Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Bea, Jennifer W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wertheim, Betsy C; Nicholas, J Skye; Ernst, Kacey C; Hu, Chengcheng; Jackson, Rebecca D; Cauley, Jane A; Lewis, Cora E; Caan, Bette; Roe, Denise J; Chen, Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Obesity, often defined as a body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of 30 or higher, has been associated with mortality, but age-related body composition changes can be masked by stable BMI. A subset of Women's Health Initiative participants (postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years) enrolled between 1993 and 1998 who had received dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans for estimation of total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM) (n = 10,525) were followed for 13.6 (standard deviation, 4.6) years to test associations between BMI, body composition, and incident mortality. Overall, BMI ≥35 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.82), while TBF and LBM were not. However, an interaction between age and body composition (P < 0.001) necessitated age stratification. Among women aged 50-59 years, higher %TBF increased risk of death (HR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.38, 4.34) and higher %LBM decreased risk of death (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.74), despite broad-ranging BMIs (16.4-69.1). However, the relationships were reversed among women aged 70-79 years (P < 0.05). BMI did not adequately capture mortality risk in this sample of postmenopausal women. Our data suggest the clinical utility of evaluating body composition by age group to more robustly assess mortality risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:26350478

  5. Sexual Function and Exercise in Postmenopausal Women Residing in Chalous and Nowshahr, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masomeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The sexual function of menopausal women is influenced by several factors. Objectives We aimed to investigate the association between exercise and sexual function among postmenopausal women residing in Northern Iran. Patients and Methods Using a multistage, randomized sampling method, 405 postmenopausal women, aged 40 to 65 years, were recruited to participate in this population-based, cross-sectional study. The female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire and a researcher-designed questionnaire were completed by every subject. Results Overall, 61% of the women reported having experienced sexual dysfunction, and 53.6% reported that they had not performed any kind of exercise within the last 6 months; among those who did exercise, the most common form was walking (79.8%). The FSFI total scores (P = 0.013), as well as the scores in the lubrication (P = 0.007) and pain (P < 0.001) domains, were significantly lower for the women who performed exercises other than walking compared to those who only walked or who did not exercise at all. The frequency of weekly exercise had a positive correlation with the scores in the lubrication (r = 0.18, P = 0.014) and orgasm (r = 0.146, P = 0.045) domains. The logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the chances of reduced sexual desire were decreased by 80.2% (P = 0.044) with every unit increase in the frequency of weekly exercise. Conclusions More frequent exercise will improve the sexual function of post-menopausal women. PMID:27437131

  6. Adiponectin as a Biomarker of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Dobek, Aleksandra; Garczynski, Wojciech; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an adverse effect on bone mass, mainly by intensifying resorption, this peptide has also been demonstrated to increase the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, and reduce bone resorption. There are still many ambiguities; for example, it can be assumed that concentrations of adiponectin in plasma do not satisfactorily reflect its production by adipose tissue, as well as conflicting in vitro and in vivo results. It seems that the potential benefit in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis associated with the pharmacological regulation of adiponectin is controversial. PMID:24591772

  7. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Results Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254–3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007–1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. Conclusion The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose

  8. Evaluation of activity of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in postmenopausal women suffering from severe acute illness

    PubMed Central

    Raj, M. Neelima; Suresh, V.; Mukka, Arun; Reddy, Amaresh; Sachan, Alok; Mohan, Alladi; Vengamma, B.; Rao, P.V.L.N. Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Postmenopausal women constitute an ideal model for studying the extent of hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis suppression in critical illness as the gonadotropins are normally high and non-cyclical in them. The objective was to assess the impact of acute severe illness in postmenopausal women on the HPG axis and the activities of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), the hypothalamo- pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axes; and levels of serum prolactin, by comparison between critically ill postmenopausal women and otherwise healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: Thirty five consecutive postmenopausal women older than 60 yr admitted to medical intensive care with a Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) more than 30 were included. On day five of their in-hospital stay, blood samples were collected for oestradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), cortisol, androstenedione, prolactin and thyroid profile. Thirty five apparently healthy postmenopausal women were selected as controls. Results: Levels of LH, FSH, thyrotropin, free thyroxin (fT4) and free tri-iodothyronine (fT3) were lower while oestradiol, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were higher among patients in comparison to healthy controls. Prolactin levels were similar in patients and controls. Among sick patients both FSH and fT4 showed a negative correlation (P<0.05) with the SAPS II score. Interpretation & conclusions: In critically ill postmenopausal women, paradoxically elevated oestrogen levels despite gonadotropin suppression suggests a non-ovarian origin. Prolactin remained unaltered in patients despite their illness, possibly reflecting atrophy of lactotrophs in menopause. PMID:26997016

  9. Pharmacy-based care for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Janet E; Bopp, Janice

    2002-01-01

    Perimenopause and menopause represent a major physiologic and, often, psychosocial transition in the lives of women. During this time, women often experience disturbing new symptoms and develop an increased awareness of their risks for major chronic illnesses. Women in this stage of life are often highly motivated to improve their health and can benefit greatly from pharmacy-based preventive health care services. Although perimenopausal and menopausal women represent an important target market, some pharmacists may wish to offer more focused services within the broader arena of women's health. For example, a number of community pharmacies have developed niche services for these patients, such as osteoporosis screening, (46) breast cancer risk assessment, (50) or bioidentical HRT consulting and compounding. (59) Other pharmacy care services that may be targeted to women in midlife include smoking cessation, weight management, and dietary supplement consulting. Based on the experiences of the Mar-Main Pharmacy staff, a practical approach is to implement new services gradually, while focusing on providing high-quality, individualized service to a small number of patients. Using this strategy, Mar-Main Pharmacy has experienced tremendous growth in its bioidentical HRT services. This increase in demand for pharmacy services has arisen from word-of-mouth referrals from patients and physicians rather than formal marketing. Perimenopausal and menopausal women represent a growing and increasingly knowledgeable group of patients. Many of these women are seeking care that is individualized, responsive to their health beliefs, and designed to help them maintain a high quality of life. Providing pharmacy-based consulting services for these patients can be extremely rewarding, both professionally and personally. PMID:12269705

  10. Evidence of improved serum fatty acid profile of postmenopausal women receiving atorvastatin and raloxifene.

    PubMed

    Piperi, C; Zisaki, K; Skenderi, K; Kalofoutis, C; Kalofoutis, A

    2005-07-01

    Raloxifene and atorvastatin have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with postmenopausal status and it has been postulated that their effects may be partly mediated by favourable changes in serum lipids and fatty acid composition. In the present study, individual administration of either raloxifene (Group A) or atorvastatin (Group B) or both (Group C) was compared for a period of 3 months and their effects on total lipids and fatty acids composition was evaluated. Postmenopausal women receiving both raloxifene and atorvastatin showed significant changes in the majority of serum lipids with important reductions in total cholesterol (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), LDL-C (p < 0.001) and Apo B levels (p < 0.001). Phospholipids concentrations (p < 0.01) as well as Apo A-I were also significantly raised (p < 0.001). Furthermore, oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2) levels were significantly increased (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively) followed by a marked reduction in palmitic acid (16:0) and arachidonic acid (20:4) concentrations (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively). The results of the study indicate that the serum lipid and fatty acid composition in postmenopausal women is influenced by the combined treatment of raloxifene and atorvastatin and a further attempt to evaluate the significance of these results is discussed. PMID:16183584

  11. Micronutrients and superoxide dismutase in postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis: a pilot interventional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The study was aimed at investigating changes in periodontal parameters and superoxide dismutase activity triggered by root surface debridement with and without micronutrient supplementation in postmenopausal women. Methods Forty-three postmenopausal chronic periodontitis patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=22) were provided periodontal treatment in the form of scaling and root planing (SRP) and group 2 (n=21) patients received SRP along with systemic administration of micronutrient antioxidants. Patients in both groups were subjected to root surface debridement. Group 2 patients also received adjunctive micronutrient antioxidant supplementation. Serum and salivary superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity along with periodontal parameters were recorded at baseline and 3 months after therapy. Results Salivary and serum SOD values significantly (P<0.05) improved with periodontal treatment. Improvement in systemic enzymatic antioxidant status along with reduction in gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing (%) sites was significantly greater in group 2 as compared to group 1. Conclusions Adjunctive micronutrient supplements reduce periodontal inflammation and improve the status of systemic enzymatic antioxidants in postmenopausal women. Graphical Abstract PMID:25177523

  12. Factors associated with decreased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ying; Huang, Jian; Tian, Jing-bin; Cao, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Guo-ling; Wang, Chun-gang; Cao, Ying; Li, Jian-rong

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the risk factors for decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia. Methods Cluster sampling method was adopted in this large-sample, cross-sectional study. A total of 219 postmenopausal female inpatients with schizophrenia were selected and interviewed in Beijing. The average age of the patients was 60.4±7.0 years. Clinical assessment instruments included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and a questionnaire with detailed general information and disease-related investigations. Laboratory measurements included prolactin (PRL), estradiol, progesterone, thyroid stimulating hormone, FT3, and FT4. BMD testing was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis or osteopenia was 66.2% (n=145). Decreased BMD was associated with age, illness duration, therapeutic dose (equivalent chlorpromazine dose), treatment duration, PANSS-negative scores, body mass index (BMI), daily exercises (min/d), drinking (unit/wk), PRL, and estradiol. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, treatment duration, PANSS-negative score, BMI, and PRL were significantly associated with decreased BMD. Conclusion Prevalence of BMD loss was higher in Chinese postmenopausal women with schizophrenia compared to the normal BMD group. A combination of demographic and clinical factors play important roles in determining decreased BMD, including older age, longer treatment duration, more PANSS-negative scores, higher BMI, and higher PRL level. PMID:26937181

  13. Effects of raloxifene on carotid blood flow resistance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ceresini, Graziano; Marchini, Lorenzo; Rebecchi, Isabella; Morganti, Simonetta; Bertone, Luca; Montanari, Ilaria; Bacchi-Modena, Alberto; Sgarabotto, Maria; Baldini, Monica; Denti, Licia; Ablondi, Fabrizio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Valenti, Giorgio

    2003-03-01

    Raloxifene is one of the most important selective estrogen receptor modulators currently employed for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, it has also been suggested that this compound affects the vascular system. We evaluated both carotid blood flow resistance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in 50 healthy postmenopausal women randomly assigned to receive, in a double blind design, either raloxifene (60 mg per day; N=25 subjects) or placebo (N=25 subjects) for 4 months. Indices of carotid blood flow resistance, such as the pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI), as well as the flow-mediated brachial artery dilation were measured both at baseline and at the end of treatment. Changes in PI were -1.86+/-2.24 and -2.15+/-2.22% after placebo and raloxifene treatment, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. Changes in RI were -0.77+/-1.72 and -1.81+/-1.54% after placebo and raloxifene treatment, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. At the end of the treatment period, the increments in artery diameter measured after the flow stimulus were 10.79+/-2.39 and 6.70+/-1.23% for placebo and raloxifene, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. These results demonstrate no significant effects of raloxifene on either carotid blood flow resistance or brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in postmenopausal women. PMID:12618276

  14. Sexual function and help seeking for urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pakgohar, Minoo; Sabetghadam, Shadi; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common condition, especially in middle-aged and older women. UI is known to affect sexual function. Many women with UI do not consult a doctor about their condition. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of sexual function and help seeking in postmenopausal women with urinary incontinence. This cross-sectional correlation study took place from March to May 2012. The subjects were selected by a clustered sampling method from various zones of Rasht (North of Iran). The data were collected using personal data forms, Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis, Incontinence Severity Index, and Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS17 at the significant level of P < .05 and then were compared by parametric and nonparametric tests. A total of 313 menopausal women aged 45 to 60 years (mean 52.9) were recruited for the study. The mean sexual function score was 31.07 ± 7.52. Only 27.3% of subjects seek care for urinary incontinence. There was a significant correlation between sexual function and help seeking. The results of this study indicate that there is a significant correlation between sexual function and help seeking in postmenopausal women who participated in the present study. Health-care professionals should pay more attention to sexual symptoms of UI and make patients aware of available treatments. PMID:26882204

  15. Dietary patterns and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Teresa T.; Feskanich, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined the association between predominant dietary patterns and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years. Methods We used data from 74,540 women in the Nurses’ Health Study followed between 1980 and 2010, and 35,451 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed between 1986 and 2012 for this analysis. Health and lifestyle information was assessed every two years. Diet was assessed approximately every four years with a food frequency questionnaire. Two major dietary patterns were previously derived using principal component analysis. The Prudent pattern is characterized by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and poultry, and the Western pattern is characterized by higher intakes of red and processed meats, sweets, and refined grains. We computed relative risks (RR) for hip fracture by dietary pattern scores using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. Results During follow-up, there were 1891 hip fractures in women and 596 in men. No association was observed between the Prudent or Western pattern and risk of hip fractures in either men or women. We also did not find an association among lean (BMI<25) or overweight (BMI >=25) individuals or among those with higher or lower levels of physical activity. Conclusion Neither the Prudent nor the Western dietary pattern was associated with risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women or men over 50 years of age. PMID:25731807

  16. Postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting among pre- and postmenopausal women undergoing cystocele and rectocele repair surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abaszadeh, Abolfazl; Yari, Fatemeh; Yousefi, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and postoperative pain are among the most common side-effects of surgery. Many factors, such as a change in the level of sex hormones, are reported to affect these complications. This study aimed to evaluate the probable effects of the menopause on PONV and postoperative pain. Methods Prospective study, in which a total number of 144 female patients undergoing cystocele or rectocele repair surgery under standardized spinal anesthesia were included. Patients were divided into two equally sized sample groups of pre- and postmenopausal women (n = 72). The occurrence of PONV, the severity of pain as assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, and the quantity of morphine and metoclopramide required were recorded at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h after surgery. Results The mean VAS pain score and the mean quantity of morphine required was higher among premenopausal women (P = 0.006). Moreover, these patients required more morphine for their pain management during the first 24 h after surgery compared to postmenopausal women (P < 0.0001). No difference was observed between the two groups regarding the incidence of PONV (P = 0.09 and P = 1.00 for nausea and vomiting, respectively) and the mean amount of metoclopramide required (P = 0.38). Conclusions Premenopausal women are more likely to suffer from postoperative pain after cystocele and rectocele repair surgery. Further studies regarding the measurement of hormonal changes among surgical patients in both pre- and postmenopausal women are recommended to evaluate the effects on PONV and postoperative pain. PMID:26634082

  17. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal, physically inactive South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Lesser, I A; Dick, T J M; Guenette, J A; Hoogbruin, A; Mackey, D C; Singer, J; Lear, S A

    2015-01-01

    In South Asians, a unique obesity phenotype of high abdominal fat is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with abdominal fat and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether CRF as assessed by VO2 peak, in post-menopausal South Asian women, was associated with body fat distribution and abdominal fat. Physically inactive post-menopausal South Asian women (n = 55) from the Greater Vancouver area were recruited and assessed from January to August 2014. At baseline, VO2 peak was measured with the Bruce Protocol, abdominal fat with CT imaging, and body composition with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. ANOVA was used to assess differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) between tertiles of CRF. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses explored the association between VO2 peak with SAAT, VAT, TAAT and body composition. Models were further adjusted for body fat and body mass index (BMI). Compared to women in the lowest tertile of VO2 peak (13.8-21.8 mL/kg/min), women in the highest tertile (25.0-27.7 mL/kg/min) had significantly lower waist circumference, BMI, total body fat, body fat percentage, lean mass, SAAT, VAT and TAAT (p < 0.05). We found VO2 peak to be negatively associated with SAAT, VAT and TAAT, independent of age and body fatness but not independent of BMI. Further research is necessary to assess whether exercise and therefore improvements in CRF would alter SAAT, VAT and TAAT in post-menopausal South Asian women. PMID:26844150

  18. Association of LRP5 genotypes with osteoporosis in Tunisian post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a highly heritable trait. Among the genes associated with bone mineral density (BMD), the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene (LRP5) has been consistently identified in Caucasians. However LRP5 contribution to osteoporosis in populations of other ethnicities remains poorly known. Methods To determine whether LRP5 polymorphisms Ala1330Val and Val667Met are associated with BMD in North Africans, these genotypes were analyzed in 566 post-menopausal Tunisian women with mean age of 59.5 ± 7.7 years, of which 59.1% have low bone mass (T-score < −1 at spine or hip). Results In post-menopausal Tunisian women, 1330Val was weakly associated with reduced BMD T-score at lumbar spine (p = 0.047) but not femur neck. Moreover, the TT/TC genotypes tended to be more frequent in women with osteopenia and osteoporosis than in women with normal BMD (p = 0.066). Adjusting for body size and other potential confounders, LRP5 genotypes were no longer significantly associated with aBMD at any site. Conclusions The less common Val667Met polymorphism showed no association with osteoporosis. The Ala1330Val polymorphism is weakly associated with lower lumbar spine bone density and osteopenia/osteoporosis in postmenopausal Tunisian women. These observations expand our knowledge about the contribution of LRP5 genetic variation to osteoporosis risk in populations of diverse ethnic origin. PMID:24885293

  19. Vegan diet and blood lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study of pre and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vegan diet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, partly due to its effects on serum lipid profiles. Lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)] have not been fully elucidated either in pre and postmenopausal vegans or in ovo-lacto vegetarians. This study aimed to compare lipid profiles among vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores. Methods Demographic data and lipid profiles were obtained from the 2002 Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine factors significantly and independently associated with different categories of veganism and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles in the dietary types. Results A total of 2397 premenopausal and 1154 postmenopausal participants who did not receive lipid lowering drugs were enrolled. Premenopausal vegans had significantly lower HDL-C and higher TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C compared with omnivores. For postmenopausal women, vegans had lower TC while ovo-lacto vegetarians were observed with low HDL-C when compared with omnivores. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets decreased HDL-C levels in premenopausal women (β = -7.63, p = 0.001 and β = -4.87, p = 0.001, respectively). There were significant associations between lower LDL-C and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (β = -7.14, p = 0.008) and also between TG and vegan diet (β = 23.37, p = 0.008), compared with omnivorous diet. Post-menopausal women reported to have consumed either a vegan or an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet were at the risk of having low HDL-C unlike those that consumed omnivorous diets (β = -4.88, p = 0.015 and β = -4.48, p = 0.047). There were no significant changes in LDL-C in both pre and postmenopausal

  20. BFH-OST, a new predictive screening tool for identifying osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhao; Yang, Yong; Lin, JiSheng; Zhang, XiaoDong; Meng, Qian; Wang, BingQiang; Fei, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in a Han Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST). Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST) based on age, body weight, height, and history of fracture after the age of 45 years. The BFH-OST index (cutoff =9.1), which performed better than OSTA, had a sensitivity of 73.6% and a specificity of 72.7% for identifying osteoporosis, with an area under the receiver operating

  1. Soy isoflavone supplementation and breast density in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy isoflavones may protect against breast cancer. Breast density, a marker for breast cancer risk, increases as a result of hormone replacement therapy. We examined the relation between isoflavone supplementation and breast density using the mammograms from 358 women who participated in the multi-s...

  2. Effects of strontium ranelate on markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Atteritano, Marco; Catalano, Antonino; Santoro, Domenico; Lasco, Antonino; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    Recent pooled analyses have shown that strontium ranelate increases the incidence of venous thromboembolism and non-fatal myocardial infarction, but no explanations were given. The aim of our study was to assess the effects a 12-month treatment with strontium ranelate on hemostasis factors and markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Forty osteoporotic postmenopausal women received orally strontium ranelate 2 g daily, plus calcium and colecalcipherol for 12 months. Forty postmenopausal osteopenic women matched for age, menopausal age, and body mass index served as controls and received orally calcium and colecalcipherol for 12 months. Biochemical cardiovascular risk factors and hemostatic indices were assayed prior to treatment, and after 3, 6, and 12 months of therapy. These indices included fibrinogen, fasting glucose, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma levels of D-dimer, homocysteine, partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time. In addition, we evaluated possible changes in blood pressure and occurrence of venous thromboembolic events. At baseline, no statistically significance was observed between the two groups except for bone mineral density at lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur, which was lower in strontium ranelate group. After 12 months of treatment, there was no statistically significant change in cardiovascular risk factors and hemostatic parameters. None of the 40 women developed any clinical venous thromboembolic event. A 12-month treatment with strontium ranelate did not alter hemostasis factors or markers of cardiovascular risk, suggesting that reported increased risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction with strontium is mediated by other factors. PMID:26304851

  3. Ascorbic acid attenuates the pressor response to voluntary apnea in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Brittney J; Patel, Hardikkumar M; Muller, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that postmenopausal women have an augmented blood pressure response to voluntary apnea compared to premenopausal women. Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and healthy aging are associated with increased oxidative stress, which may impair cardiovascular function. Restoring physiological responses could have clinical relevance since transient surges in blood pressure are thought to be an important stimulus for end-organ damage in aging and disease. We tested the hypothesis that acute antioxidant infusion improves physiological responses to voluntary apnea in healthy postmenopausal women (n = 8, 64 ± 2 year). We measured beat-by-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and brachial artery blood flow velocity (BBFV, Doppler ultrasound) following intravenous infusion of normal saline and ascorbic acid (∼3500 mg). Subjects performed maximal voluntary end-expiratory apneas and changes (Δ) from baseline were compared between infusions. The breath hold duration and oxygen saturation nadir were similar between saline (29 ± 6 sec, 94 ± 1%) and ascorbic acid (29 ± 5 sec, 94 ± 1%). Ascorbic acid attenuated the pressor response to voluntary apnea (ΔMAP: 6 ± 2 mmHg) as compared to saline (ΔMAP: 12 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.034) and also attenuated forearm vasoconstriction (ΔBBFV: 4 ± 9 vs. −12 ± 7%, P = 0.049) but did not affect ΔHR. We conclude that ascorbic acid lowers the blood pressure response to voluntary apnea in postmenopausal women by inhibiting vasoconstriction in the limb vasculature. Whether ascorbic acid has similar effects in OSA patients remains to be prospectively tested. PMID:25907792

  4. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  5. Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Fingernail Clippings Can Help Differentiate Between Postmenopausal Women Who Have and Have Not Suffered a Fracture.

    PubMed

    Beattie, James R; Cummins, Niamh M; Caraher, Clare; O'Driscoll, Olive M; Bansal, Aruna T; Eastell, Richard; Ralston, Stuart H; Stone, Michael D; Pearson, Gill; Towler, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was applied to nail clippings from 633 postmenopausal British and Irish women, from six clinical sites, of whom 42% had experienced a fragility fracture. The objective was to build a prediction algorithm for fracture using data from four sites (known as the calibration set) and test its performance using data from the other two sites (known as the validation set). Results from the validation set showed that a novel algorithm, combining spectroscopy data with clinical data, provided area under the curve (AUC) of 74% compared to an AUC of 60% from a reduced QFracture score (a clinically accepted risk calculator) and 61% from the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score, which is in current use for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Raman spectroscopy should be investigated further as a noninvasive tool for the early detection of enhanced risk of fragility fracture. PMID:27429561

  6. Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Fingernail Clippings Can Help Differentiate Between Postmenopausal Women Who Have and Have Not Suffered a Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, James R.; Cummins, Niamh M.; Caraher, Clare; O’Driscoll, Olive M.; Bansal, Aruna T.; Eastell, Richard; Ralston, Stuart H.; Stone, Michael D.; Pearson, Gill; Towler, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was applied to nail clippings from 633 postmenopausal British and Irish women, from six clinical sites, of whom 42% had experienced a fragility fracture. The objective was to build a prediction algorithm for fracture using data from four sites (known as the calibration set) and test its performance using data from the other two sites (known as the validation set). Results from the validation set showed that a novel algorithm, combining spectroscopy data with clinical data, provided area under the curve (AUC) of 74% compared to an AUC of 60% from a reduced QFracture score (a clinically accepted risk calculator) and 61% from the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score, which is in current use for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Raman spectroscopy should be investigated further as a noninvasive tool for the early detection of enhanced risk of fragility fracture. PMID:27429561

  7. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Oxidative Stress in Postmenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Castrejón-Delgado, Lizett; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ana Karen; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral hormone therapy (HT) on oxidative stress (OS) in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out. We formed four groups of 25 women each; healthy (HW) and MetS women (MSW) were assigned to HT (1 mg/day of estradiol valerate plus 5 mg/10 day of medroxiprogesterone) or placebo. We measured plasma lipoperoxides, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, total plasma antioxidant status and uric acid, as OS markers. Alternative cut-off values of each parameter were defined and a stress score (SS) ranging from 0 to 7 was used as total OS. MetS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Participants were seen at baseline, 3 and 6 months. After 6 months, MetS decreased in MSW-HT (48%), their triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) improved; in the other groups no difference was found. SS in MSW-HT decreased (3.8 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.3, p < 0.05) and OS was also reduced (44%), this effect was evident since 3 mo. HW-HT with high OS also decreased (40%). In placebo groups there was no change. Our findings suggest that HT improve lipids and OS associated to MetS in postmenopausal women. PMID:27563883

  8. Serum Carotenoid Concentrations in Postmenopausal Women from the United States with and without Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhifang; Zhang, Zhumin; Penniston, Kristina L.; Binkley, Neil; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant defenses may be compromised in osteoporotic women. Little is known about fruit and vegetable or carotenoid consumption among postmenopausal women. The primary carotenoids in human serum are α- and β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. This study investigated the interrelationships among serum carotenoid concentrations, fruit and vegetable intake, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (n = 59, 62.7 ± 8.8 y). Bone density was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and osteoporosis diagnosis was based upon T-scores. Serum samples (n = 53) and 3-day diet records (n = 49) were analyzed. Logistic regression analyzed differences between carotenoids after adjusting for serum retinol; supplement usage; milk, yogurt, fruit, and vegetable intake; and BMI. Pearson statistics correlated carotenoids with specific fruit or vegetable intake. Serum lycopene concentrations were lower in the osteoporosis group than controls (p = 0.03). β-Cryptoxanthin intake was higher in the osteoporosis group (p = 0.0046). Total fruit and vegetable intakes were correlated with serum lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin (p = 0.03, 0.006, respectively). Serum α-carotene concentration was associated with carrot intake, and zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin with lettuce intake. Carotenoids that may have beneficial skeletal effects are lower in women with osteoporosis. Research is needed to identify potential protective mechanisms or utilization of carotenoids during osteoporosis. PMID:19003732

  9. The effects of moderate alcohol supplementation on estrone sulfate and DHEAS in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, Somdat; Baer, David J; Johnson, Laura L; Dorgan, Joanne F; Campbell, William; Brown, Ellen; Hartman, Terryl J; Clevidence, Beverly; Albanes, Demetrius; Judd, Joseph T; Taylor, Philip R

    2004-01-01

    Background We have demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (15 g/d, 30 g/d) for 8 weeks resulted in significantly increased levels of serum estrone sulfate and DHEAS in 51 postmenopausal women in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We now report on the relationships between serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels after 4 weeks of moderate alcohol supplementation, and compare the results to the 8 weeks data to elucidate time-to-effect differences. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed 0 (placebo), 15 (1 drink), and 30 (2 drinks) g alcohol (ethanol)/ day for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Changes in estrone sulfate and DHEAS levels from placebo to 15 g and 30 g alcohol per day were estimated using linear mixed models. Results and Discussion At week 4, compared to the placebo, estrone sulfate increased an average 6.9% (P = 0.24) when the women consumed 15 g of alcohol per day, and 22.2% (P = 0.0006) when they consumed 30 g alcohol per day. DHEAS concentrations also increased significantly by an average of 8.0% (P < 0.0001) on 15 g of alcohol per day and 9.2% (P < 0.0001) when 30 g alcohol was consumed per day. Trend tests across doses for both estrone sulfate (P = 0.0006) and DHEAS (P < 0.0001) were significant. We found no significant differences between the absolute levels of serum estrone sulfate at week 4 versus week 8 (P = 0.32) across all doses. However, absolute DHEAS levels increased from week 4 to week 8 (P < 0.0001) at all three dose levels. Conclusions These data indicate that the hormonal effects due to moderate alcohol consumption are seen early, within 4 weeks of initiation of ingestion. PMID:15353002

  10. Evaluation of Trabecular Micro-Architecture in Non-Osteoporotic Post-Menopausal Women With and Without Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Kruger, Diane; Del Rio, Alejandro Munoz; Kleerekoper, Michael; Binkley, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI) parameters of trabecular micro-architecture between postmenopausal women with and without fracture who have normal or osteopenic bone mineral density (BMD) on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods The study included 36 post-menopausal Caucasian women 50 years of age and older with normal or osteopenic BMD (T-scores better than −2.5 at the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and one-third radius on DXA). Eighteen women had a history of low-energy fracture, while 18 women had no history of fracture and served as an age, race, and ultra-distal radius BMD-matched control group. A three-dimensional fast large-angle spin-echo (FLASE) sequence with 137 μm × 137 μm × 400 μm resolution was performed through the non-dominant wrist of all 36 women using the same 1.5T scanner. The high resolution images were used to measure trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, surface-to-curve ratio, and erosion index. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare differences in BMD and μMRI parameters between post-menopausal women with and without fracture. Results Post-menopausal women with fracture had significantly lower (p<0.05) trabecular bone volume fraction and surface-to-curve ratio and significantly higher (p<0.05) erosion index than post-menopausal women without fracture. There was no significant difference between post-menopausal women with and without fracture in trabecular thickness (p=0.80) and BMD of the spine (p=0.21), proximal femur (p=0.19), one-third radius (p=0.47), and ultra-distal radius (p=0.90). Conclusions Post-menopausal women with normal or osteopenic BMD who had a history of low energy fracture had significantly different (p<0.05) μMRI parameters than an age, race, and ultra-distal radius BMD-matched control group of postmenopausal women with no history of fracture. Our study suggests that μMRI can be used to identify individuals without a DXA-based diagnosis of

  11. Relationship Between Femur Bone Mineral Density, Body Mass Index and Dental Panoramic Mandibular Cortical Width in Diagnosis of Elderly Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Devi B.K., Yashoda; Rakesh, N.; Reddy, Sujatha S.; Santana, N.; Shetty, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To measure and determine mandibular cortical width (MCW) on the panoramic radiographs, to evaluate the usefulness of the method in identifying postmenopausal women with low femoral bone mineral densities (f- BMD) and to correlate the radiographic findings on panoramic radiographs with the f-BMD assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to predict the efficacy of the radiographic method in diagnosing osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty postmenopausal women (60 normal and 60 osteoporotic) in the age group of 50-75 y with f-BMD assessed by DXA had undergone panoramic radiographic examination. The patients were classified as normal (T-score ≥ -1.0) and osteoporotic (T-score ≤ -2.5). MCW on panoramic radiographs was measured bilaterally at the mental foramen region with a caliper and their mean was used as the exposure measure in the analysis. Results: Student t-test showed that mean f-BMD, BMI and MCW was found be less in osteoporotic patients as compared to normal group with a statistically significant p-value < 0.001. Pearson correlation coefficient test revealed that MCW correlated positively with f-BMD and showed a significant decrease with age of the patient. Conclusion: Postmenopausal women with low f-BMD had thinner mandibular cortex at the mental foramen region when compared to normal subjects and are more susceptible to femoral neck fractures. Mandibular inferior cortical width at the mental foramen region could be used to identify postmenopausal women with low f- BMD. Hence, dental panoramic radiographs serve as a useful screening tool for early diagnosis of osteoporotic fractures. PMID:25302265

  12. The Effects of Tualang Honey on Bone Metabolism of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Effendy, Nadia; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamad, Isa Naina; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration with a consequent increase in bone fragility can be associated with various stimuli such as oxidative stress and inflammation. Postmenopausal women are more prone to osteoporosis due to reduction in estrogen which may further lead to elevation of oxidative stress and lipid accumulation which will promote osteoblasts apoptosis. Proinflammatory cytokines are elevated following estrogen deficiency. These cytokines are important determinants of osteoclasts differentiation and its bone resorption activity. The main treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis is estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Despite its effectiveness, ERT, however, can cause many adverse effects. Therefore, alternative treatment that is rich in antioxidant and can exert an anti-inflammatory effect can be given to replace the conventional ERT. Tualang honey is one of the best options available as it contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as a free radical scavenger, reducing the oxidative stress level as well as inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine. This will result in survival of osteoblasts, reduced osteoclastogenic activity, and consequently, reduce bone loss. Hence, Tualang honey can be used as an alternative treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with minimal side effects. PMID:22973408

  13. Odanacatib: a review of its potential in the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chapurlat, Roland D

    2015-06-01

    Odanacatib is a cathepsin K inhibitor developed for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is a bone resorption inhibitor, but which preserves bone formation to some extent. It can be administered once a week, in tablets also containing vitamin D. In a large clinical development program, it has been shown that odanacatib reduces bone resorption, with a reduction of about 60-70% in biochemical markers of resorption, while bone formation decreases to a lesser magnitude. Odanacatib continuously increases bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and lumbar spine over 5 years. Once it is stopped, a complete resolution of effect is observed, with declining BMD and increased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture and bone strength have also been improved in clinical trials using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) at the lumbar spine and hip, and high resolution peripheral QCT at the distal radius and tibia. In a phase III trial involving 16,713 postmenopausal women ⩾65 years of age with low BMD, the risk of fragility fracture was significantly reduced at the spine, hip and other nonvertebral sites compared with the placebo group. Odanacatib has been generally well tolerated, with no observation of osteonecrosis of the jaw so far, but with exceptional observations of subtrochanteric atypical fracture and morphea-like lesions. Odanacatib appears a useful new option in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26029271

  14. Odanacatib: a review of its potential in the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Odanacatib is a cathepsin K inhibitor developed for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is a bone resorption inhibitor, but which preserves bone formation to some extent. It can be administered once a week, in tablets also containing vitamin D. In a large clinical development program, it has been shown that odanacatib reduces bone resorption, with a reduction of about 60–70% in biochemical markers of resorption, while bone formation decreases to a lesser magnitude. Odanacatib continuously increases bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and lumbar spine over 5 years. Once it is stopped, a complete resolution of effect is observed, with declining BMD and increased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture and bone strength have also been improved in clinical trials using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) at the lumbar spine and hip, and high resolution peripheral QCT at the distal radius and tibia. In a phase III trial involving 16,713 postmenopausal women ⩾65 years of age with low BMD, the risk of fragility fracture was significantly reduced at the spine, hip and other nonvertebral sites compared with the placebo group. Odanacatib has been generally well tolerated, with no observation of osteonecrosis of the jaw so far, but with exceptional observations of subtrochanteric atypical fracture and morphea-like lesions. Odanacatib appears a useful new option in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26029271

  15. Religion and healthy lifestyle behaviors among postmenopausal women: the women's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Fitchett, George; Ockene, Judy K; Schnall, Eliezer; Crawford, Sybil; Granek, Iris; Manson, JoAnn; Ockene, Ira; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Powell, Lynda; Rapp, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Worship attendance has been associated with longer survival in prospective cohort studies. A possible explanation is that religious involvement may promote healthier lifestyle choices. Therefore, we examined whether attendance is associated with healthy behaviors, i.e. use of preventive medicine services, non-smoking, moderate drinking, exercising regularly, and with healthy dietary habits. The population included 71,689 post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative observational study free of chronic diseases at baseline. Attendance and lifestyle behaviors information was collected at baseline using self-administered questionnaires. Healthy behaviors were modeled as a function of attendance using logistic regression. After adjustment for confounders, worship attendance (less than weekly, weekly, and more than weekly vs. never) was positively associated with use of preventive services [OR for mammograms: 1.34 (1.19, 1.51), 1.41 (1.26, 1.57), 1.33 (1.17, 1.52); breast self exams: 1.14 (1.02, 1.27), 1.33 (1.21, 1.48), 1.25 (1.1, 1.43); PAP smears: 1.22 (1.01, 1.47-weekly vs. none)]; non-smoking: [1.41 (1.35, 1.48), 1.76 (1.69, 1.84), 2.27 (2.15, 2.39)]; moderate drinking [1.35 (1.27, 1.45), 1.60 (1.52, 1.7), 2.19 (2.0, 2.4)]; and fiber intake [1.08 (1.03, 1.14), 1.16 (1.11, 1.22), 1.31 (1.23, 1.39), respectively], but not with regular exercise or with lower saturated fat and caloric intake. These findings suggest that worship attendance is associated with certain, but not all, healthy behaviors. Further research is needed to get a deeper understanding of the relationship between religious involvement and healthy lifestyle behaviors and of the inconsistent patterns in this association. PMID:21301947

  16. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its predominant components among pre-and postmenopausal Ghanaian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a clump of risk factors for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Menopause and age are thought to predispose women to the development of metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MetS and identify its predominant components among pre-and postmenopausal women in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. Two hundred and fifty (250) Ghanaian women were randomly selected for the study. They were evaluated for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome using the World Health Organization (WHO), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Harmonization (H_MS) criteria. Results Out of the total subjects, 143 (57.2%) were premenopausal and 107 (42.8%) menopausal. The study population was between the ages of 20–78 years. The overall percentage prevalence of MetS were 14.4%, 25.6%, 29.2% and 30.4% according to the WHO, NCEP-ATP III, IDF and H_MS criteria, respectively. The prevalence was found to increase with age, irrespective of criterion used. Generally, MetS was significantly higher among postmenopausal women (p < 0.05 by all criteria) compared to their premenopausal cohort, but with marked inter-criteria variations. Abdominal obesity, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride-high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were significantly (p < 0.05) different among the two groups of women. Central obesity, higher blood pressure and raised fasting blood glucose were the predominant components that contributed to the syndrome in Ghanaian women. Conclusion The higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women is an indication that they are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Therefore women in that group should be monitored for the two conditions and also be advised to adopt healthy

  17. Physical Activity Level of Post-menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Dallanezi, Glauber; Freire, Beatriz Funayama Alvarenga; Nahás, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahás-Neto, Jorge; Corrente, José Eduardo; Mazeto, Gláucia Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Proper physical activity is related to the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. Purpose To assess the level of physical activity (PA) in post-menopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional clinical study included 123 post-menopausal women. The inclusion criteria were: age of ≥ 45 years with last menses at least 12 months prior to the initiation of the study, and bone density scan (BDS) values measured over the preceding 12 months. Women with severe osteoarthritis were excluded. Women were allocated into three groups, according to BMD measured by BDS [osteoporosis (OP; 54 women), osteopenia (35 women), and normal bone density (NBD; 35 women)], and compared for general, clinical, and anthropometric data, and for PA level. The latter was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) units. Participants were classified as sedentary, active or very active. Quantitative variables were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Associations between qualitative variables were tested by Chi-square (χ2) or Fisher's exact test. In order to check for differences among groups and IPAQ domains, a generalized linear model with Gamma distribution was adjusted for values in METs. Results The OP group differed from the NBD group regarding age (61.8 ± 10.1 and 52.9 ± 5.4 years), percentage of participants with self-declared white ethnicity (43.9 and 28.0%), body mass index (BMI - 25.7 ± 5.4 and 30.9 ± 5.1 kg/m(2)), and time since menopause (15.5 ± 7.5 and 5.8 ± 4.5 years). Smoking rates were higher in the OP (55.6%) and NBD groups (33.3%) than in the osteopenia group (11.1%). Within the OP group, the rate of subjects with sedentary lifestyles was higher (42.6%), and time spent sitting was greater (344.3 ± 204.8 METs) than in the groups with osteopenia (20.0% and 300.9 ± 230.6 METs) and NBD (17.7% and 303

  18. Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Jones, Rena R; Anderson, Kristin E; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cerhan, James R; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Weyer, Peter J; Ward, Mary H

    2015-07-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potential human carcinogens. We evaluated the association of nitrate and nitrite ingestion with postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Among 28,555 postmenopausal women, we identified 315 incident epithelial ovarian cancers from 1986 to 2010. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were assessed at baseline using food frequency questionnaire data. Drinking water source at home was obtained in a 1989 follow-up survey. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels for Iowa public water utilities were linked to residences and average levels were computed based on each woman's duration at the residence. We computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We tested interactions of nitrate with TTHMs and dietary factors known to influence NOC formation. Ovarian cancer risk was 2.03 times higher (CI = 1.22-3.38, ptrend  = 0.003) in the highest quartile (≥2.98 mg/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤0.47 mg/L; reference) of NO3 -N in public water, regardless of TTHM levels. Risk among private well users was also elevated (HR = 1.53, CI = 0.93-2.54) compared with the same reference group. Associations were stronger when vitamin C intake was postmenopausal women. PMID:25430487

  19. Effects of fluoxetine and melatonin on mood, sleep quality and body mass index in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chojnacki, C; Walecka-Kapica, E; Klupinska, G; Pawlowicz, M; Blonska, A; Chojnacki, J

    2015-10-01

    Frequent mood and sleep disorders and increased appetite leading to obesity are observed in postmenopausal women. Due to the limitations of hormone replacement therapy the researchers look for other treatment regimes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluoxetine and melatonin in the treatment of these disorders. The study included 64 overweight postmenopausal women, aged 54 - 65 years, with increased appetite. They were randomly assigned in 2 groups. In group I (n = 30) fluoxetine (20 mg in the morning) and placebo (in the evening) were administered for 24 weeks. Group II (n = 34) received fluoxetine (20 mg in the morning) and melatonin (5 mg in the evening) in the same period of time. Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HARS), Beck depression scale (BDI), the insomnia severity index (ISI) and body mass index (BMI) were used to assess the health status and the treatment efficacy. After 24 weeks, comparable and statistically significant reduction in the level of anxiety and depression was obtained in both groups. In group I, the ISI decreased from 14.9 ± 2.5 points to 10.9 ± 1.9 points (P < 0.05) and in group II from 15.8 ± 2.4 points to 7.7 ± 1.5 points (P < 0.001). In group I no reduction in BMI was achieved whereas in group II this index decreased from 30.9 ± 3.1 to 26.3 ± 3.2 (P < 0.05). We conclude that combined administration of fluoxetine and melatonin was useful option to treat mood, sleep and appetite disorders in postmenopausal women. PMID:26579572

  20. Association Between Serum Levels of Testosterone and Estradiol With Meibomian Gland Assessments in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Ablamowicz, Anna F.; Nichols, Jason J.; Nichols, Kelly K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this analysis were to determine if there is an association between serum levels of testosterone and estradiol with meibomian gland (MG) morphology and lipid layer thickness. Methods The data used for this analysis were collected from postmenopausal women with and without dry eye disease. Meibography was used to assess MG dropout on the central two-thirds of the eyelid and biomicroscopy was used for assessing MG expressibility and meibum quality. Venous blood samples were drawn for serum hormone level analysis. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlations were used for statistical analysis. Results One hundred ninety-eight postmenopausal women with an average age of 61.2 (±9.1) years were included in this analysis. Testosterone levels showed significant differences between MG dropout grades 1 and 4 (P = 0.002) and grades 2 and 4 (P = 0.01), whereas estradiol levels were different based on MG dropout (P = 0.53). No significant correlations were found between testosterone (r = 0.10, P = 0.17) or estradiol (r = 0.05, P = 0.45) and lipid layer thickness. Conclusions Testosterone levels were increased with MG dropout, which was significant between the mild and severe dropout groups, whereas no significant differences were found with estradiol and any MG assessment. Although the literature suggests an association of serum hormone levels and pathogenesis of dry eye disease in postmenopausal women, analysis of active sex steroid precursors and local tissue hormone levels may prove more useful. PMID:26830366

  1. Cost-effectiveness of bazedoxifene versus raloxifene in the treatment of postmenopausal women in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Darbà, Josep; Pérez-Álvarez, Nuria; Kaskens, Lisette; Holgado-Pérez, Susana; Racketa, Jill; Rejas, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of bazedoxifene and raloxifene for prevention of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures among postmenopausal Spanish women aged 55–82 years with established osteoporosis and a high fracture risk. Methods A Markov model was developed to represent the transition of a cohort of postmenopausal osteoporotic women through different health states, ie, patients free of fractures, patients with vertebral or nonvertebral fractures, and patients recovered from a fracture. Efficacy data for bazedoxifene were obtained from the Osteoporosis Study. The perspective of the Spanish National Health Service was chosen with a time horizon of 27 years. Costs were reported in 2010 Euros. Deterministic results were presented as expected cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), and probabilistic results were represented in cost-effectiveness planes. Results In deterministic analysis, the expected cost per patient was higher in the raloxifene cohort (€13,881) than in the bazedoxifene cohort (€13,436). QALYs gained were slightly higher in the bazedoxifene cohort (14.56 versus 14.54). Results from probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that bazedoxifene has a slightly higher probability of being cost-effective for all threshold values independent of the maximum that the National Health Service is willing to pay per additional QALY. Conclusion Bazedoxifene was shown to be a cost-effective treatment option for the prevention of fractures in Spanish women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and a high fracture risk. When comparing bazedoxifene with raloxifene, it may be concluded that the former is the dominant strategy. PMID:23882153

  2. Effect of Transdermal Teriparatide Administration on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cosman, Felicia; Lane, Nancy E.; Bolognese, Michael A.; Zanchetta, Jose R.; Garcia-Hernandez, Pedro A.; Sees, Karen; Matriano, James A.; Gaumer, Kim; Daddona, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Treatment of osteoporosis with an anabolic agent, teriparatide [human PTH 1-34 (TPTD)], is effective in reducing incident fractures, but patient resistance to daily sc injections has limited its use. A novel transdermal patch, providing a rapid, pulse delivery of TPTD, may provide a desirable alternative. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a novel transdermal TPTD patch compared to placebo patch and sc TPTD 20-μg injection in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Design: Our study consisted of 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, positive control, multidose daily administration. Patients: We enrolled 165 postmenopausal women (mean age, 64 yr) with osteoporosis. Interventions: A TPTD patch with a 20-, 30-, or 40-μg dose or a placebo patch was self-administered daily for 30-min wear time, or 20 μg of TPTD was injected daily. Outcomes: The primary efficacy measure was mean percentage change in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) from baseline at 6 months. Results: TPTD delivered by transdermal patch significantly increased lumbar spine BMD vs. placebo patch in a dose-dependent manner at 6 months (P < 0.001). TPTD 40-μg patch increased total hip BMD compared to both placebo patch and TPTD injection (P < 0.05). Bone turnover markers (procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen) increased from baseline in a dose-dependent manner in all treatment groups and were all significantly different from placebo patch (P < 0.001). All treatments were well tolerated, and no prolonged hypercalcemia was observed. Conclusion: Transdermal patch delivery of TPTD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis for 6 months is safe and effective in increasing lumbar spine and total hip BMD. PMID:19858319

  3. Pharmacologic management of bone-related complications and bone metastases in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Denise A

    2016-01-01

    There is a high risk for bone loss and skeletal-related events, including bone metastases, in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Both the disease itself and its therapeutic treatments can negatively impact bone, resulting in decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone loss. These negative effects on the bone can significantly impact morbidity and mortality. Effective management and minimization of bone-related complications in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer remain essential. This review discusses the current understanding of molecular and biological mechanisms involved in bone turnover and metastases, increased risk for bone-related complications from breast cancer and breast cancer therapy, and current and emerging treatment strategies for managing bone metastases and bone turnover in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. PMID:27217795

  4. Effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Insulin Resistance in Postmenopausal Diabetic Women

    PubMed Central

    Bitoska, Iskra; Krstevska, Branka; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Subeska-Stratrova, Slavica; Petrovski, Goran; Mishevska, Sasha Jovanovska; Ahmeti, Irfan; Todorova, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is closely associated with diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, increased visceral fat in menopause is also associated with IR, which makes postmenopausal diabetic women in a big risk for cardiovascular diseases. There are conflicting reports about the effects on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on IR. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of HRT on IR. METHODS: A total of 40 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and followed for 12 months. Half of them were assigned to take HRT, while the other half made the control group. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and insulinemia were measured in both groups at baseline and after 12 months. IR was represented by Homeostatic model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: HRT was associated with significant decrease in HOMA-IR, FPG and insulinemia in the examined group. There was no significant reduction in FPG and no significant increase in insulinemia levels and HOMA-IR values in control group after 12 months. CONCLUSION: HRT was associated with statistically signifficant increase of insulin sensitivity. Larger clinical trials will be necessary to understand whether HRT may improve insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in women with diabetes, especially when given shortly after entering menopause.

  5. Efficacy and safety of Labisia pumila var alata water extract among pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; George, Annie; Hazlina, Nik Hussain Nik; Azidah, Abdul Kadir; Idiana, Hassan Intan; Law, Kim Sooi; Bahari, Ismail Shaiful; Zahiruddin, Wan Mohamed Wan; Liske, Eckehard; Azreena, Abas

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of Labisia pumila var alata (L. pumila) water extract for improving quality of life, cardiovascular and hormonal balance. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 16-week study in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. The subjects were randomized to 400 mg propriety extract of L. pumila or placebo. A Women's Health Questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the data. A total of 197 subjects (L. pumila: n=102 and placebo: n=95) were analyzed. Subjects in the herbal group showed improved memory/concentration, vasomotor symptoms, menstrual symptoms, and sleep problems by 8.3%, 15.9%, 11.8%, and 31.0%, respectively. The greatest improvement was observed for the question: "I get frightened or panic feelings for apparently no reason at all" with a 53% decrease as compared with placebo. Improvements were also seen in the cardiovascular parameters, and the safety profiles were normal. Postmenopausal women supplemented with L. pumila showed no changes in gynecological relevant hormones luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 17β-Estradiol. Water extract of L. pumila was shown to be safe and effective for improving several parameters of quality of life and cardiovascular risks factors (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]). PMID:25000151

  6. Short-term Hormone Treatment Modulates Emotion Response Circuitry in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Love, Tiffany; Smith, Yolanda R.; Persad, Carol C.; Tkaczyk, Anne; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of combination hormone therapy (HT) on emotional processing in postmenopausal women using functional neuroimaging. Design A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Setting A tertiary care university medical center. Participants Ten healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 56.9 years, S.D. = 1.4) were recruited. Interventions Women were randomized to the order they received combined hormone therapy, 5 ug ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate, and placebo. Volunteers received hormone therapy or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a one month washout period, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. Subjects participated in an fMRI emotional processing task, where they were asked to rate emotional pictures as positive, negative, or neutral. Main Outcome Measure Brain activation patterns were compared between hormone therapy and placebo conditions within subjects. Results During negative emotional presentations, after subtracting the effect of neutral images, areas of significant differences between HT and placebo conditions were identified in the orbital, frontal, cingulate and occipital cortices. During positive emotional image presentation there were significant differences between placebo and HT conditions within the medial frontal cortex. Conclusions Short-term menopausal treatment with combination hormone therapy affects regional brain activity within areas implicated in emotional processing. PMID:19243753

  7. Does Probability Guided Hysteroscopy Reduce Costs in Women Investigated for Postmenopausal Bleeding?

    PubMed Central

    Breijer, M. C.; van Hanegem, N.; Visser, N. C. M.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Pijnenborg, J. M. A.; Opmeer, B. C.; Timmermans, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate whether a model to predict a failed endometrial biopsy in women with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) and a thickened endometrium can reduce costs without compromising diagnostic accuracy. Design, Setting, and Population. Model based cost-minimization analysis. Methods. A decision analytic model was designed to compare two diagnostic strategies for women with PMB: (I) attempting office endometrial biopsy and performing outpatient hysteroscopy after failed biopsy and (II) predicted probability of a failed endometrial biopsy based on patient characteristics to guide the decision for endometrial biopsy or immediate hysteroscopy. Robustness of assumptions regarding costs was evaluated in sensitivity analyses. Main Outcome Measures. Costs for the different strategies. Results. At different cut-offs for the predicted probability of failure of an endometrial biopsy, strategy I was generally less expensive than strategy II. The costs for strategy I were always € 460; the costs for strategy II varied between € 457 and € 475. At a 65% cut-off, a possible saving of € 3 per woman could be achieved. Conclusions. Individualizing the decision to perform an endometrial biopsy or immediate hysteroscopy in women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding based on patient characteristics does not increase the efficiency of the diagnostic work-up. PMID:25785283

  8. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Morillas-Ruiz, J. M.; Delgado-Alarcon, J. M.; Rubio-Perez, J. M.; Albaladejo Oton, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil) separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD. PMID:25136625

  9. Simplified Tai Chi Resistance Training versus Traditional Tai Chi in Slowing Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiru; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Dinghai

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study examined whether simplified Tai Chi resistance training is superior to traditional Tai Chi in slowing bone loss in postmenopausal women. Methods. This prospective trial included 119 postmenopausal women (age: 52–65 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to participate in a traditional Tai Chi program (TTC, n = 40), a simplified Tai Chi resistance training program (TCRT, n = 40), or a blank control group (routine activity, n = 39). The TTC involved traditional Yang Style Tai Chi. The primary outcome was the change of lumbar bone mass density (L2–L4) at 12 months over the baseline. Femoral neck and Ward's triangle were also measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. The L2–L4 density was significantly lower at 12 months in comparison to the baseline in the blank control group. In both the TCRT and TTC groups, the L2–L4 density was comparable to the baseline. There was a trend for less bone loss in the TCRT than in the TTC group. Similar findings were observed with femoral neck and Ward's triangle. Conclusion. Simplified Tai Chi resistance training could slow bone loss in menopausal women. The results also suggested, but did not confirm, superiority to traditional Tai Chi. PMID:26136808

  10. What is the influence of hormone therapy on homocysteine and crp levels in postmenopausal women?

    PubMed Central

    Lakryc, Eli Marcelo; Machado, Rogério Bonassi; Soares, José Maria; Fernandes, César Eduardo; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of estrogen therapy and estrogen-progestin therapy on homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In total, 99 postmenopausal women were included in this double-blind, randomized clinical trial and divided into three groups: Group A used estrogen therapy alone (2.0 mg of 17β-estradiol), Group B received estrogen-progestin therapy (2.0 mg of 17 β-estradiol +1.0 mg of norethisterone acetate) and Group C received a placebo (control). The length of treatment was six months. Serum measurements of homocysteine and C-reactive protein were carried out prior to the onset of treatment and following six months of therapy. RESULTS: After six months of treatment, there was a 20.7% reduction in homocysteine levels and a 100.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels in the group of women who used estrogen therapy. With respect to the estrogen-progestin group, there was a 12.2% decrease in homocysteine levels and a 93.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that hormone therapy (unopposed estrogen or estrogen associated with progestin) may have a positive influence on decreasing cardiovascular risk due to a significant reduction in homocysteine levels. PMID:25789519

  11. Identification of B cells participated in the mechanism of postmenopausal women osteoporosis using microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Bing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    To further understand the molecular mechanism of lymphocytes B cells in postmenopausal women osteoporosis. Microarray data (GSE7429) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, in which B cells were separated from the whole blood of postmenopausal women, including 10 with high bone mineral density (BMD) and 10 with low BMD. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between high and low BMD women were identified by Student’s t-test, and P < 0.01 was used as the significant criterion. Functional enrichment analysis was performed for up- and down-regulated DEGs using KEGG, REACTOME, and Gene Ontology (GO) databases. Protein-protein interaction network (PPI) of up- and down-regulated DEGs was respectively constructed by Cytoscape software using the STRING data. Total of 169 up-regulated and 69 down-regulated DEGs were identified. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that the genes (ITPA, ATIC, UMPS, HPRT1, COX10 and COX15) might participate in metabolic pathways, MAP3K10 and MAP3K9 might participate in the activation of JNKK activity, COX10 and COX15 might involve in mitochondrial electron transport, and ATIC, UMPS and HPRT1 might involve in transferase activity. MAPK3, ITPA, ATIC, UMPS and HPRT1 with a higher degree in PPI network were identified. MAPK3, MAP3K10, MAP3K9, COX10, COX15, ATIC, UMPS and HPRT1 might participate in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. PMID:25785089

  12. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on hemodynamic responses of postmenopausal women to passive heating.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, S L; Kenney, W L

    2000-07-01

    To examine the influence of chronic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the central and peripheral cardiovascular responses of postmenopausal women to direct passive heating, seven women taking estrogen replacement therapy, seven women taking estrogen and progesterone therapy, and seven women not taking HRT were passively heated with water-perfused suits to their individual limit of thermal tolerance. Measurements included heart rate (HR), cardiac output, blood pressure, skin blood flow, splanchnic blood flow, renal blood flow, esophageal temperature, and mean skin temperature. Cardiac output was higher in women taking estrogen and progesterone therapy than in women not taking HRT (7.12 +/- 0.70 vs. 5.02 +/- 0. 57 l/min at the limit of thermal tolerance, respectively; P < 0.05) because of a higher HR. However, when the HR data were plotted as a percentage of the maximum HR or percentage of HR reserve, there were no differences among the three groups of women. Neither splanchnic nor renal blood flow differed among the groups of women. These data suggest that HRT has little effect on the cardiovascular responses to direct passive heating. PMID:10904040

  13. High Levels of Serum DPP-4 Activity Are Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase 4/CD26 (DPP-4) is a widely expressed cell surface serine protease. DPP-4 inhibitors, one of common anti-diabetic agents play a protective role in bone metabolism in recent studies. A soluble form of DPP-4 is found in serum, and exhibits DPP-4 enzymatic activity. However, the physiological role of serum or soluble DPP-4 and its relationship with DPP-4 enzymatic function remain poorly understood. The aims of current study were to determine the association between serum DPP-4 activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Methods We recruited data and serum samples from 124 consecutive healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. We divided study subjects into obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <25 kg/m2) postmenopausal women and examined the correlation between serum DPP-4 activity and clinical variables in each groups. Results A total of 124 postmenopausal women was enrolled, with a mean age of 59.9±7.1 years. The mean BMI of the study patients was 24.4±2.8 kg/m2. Regarding bone turnover markers, serum DPP-4 activity was positively correlated with serum calcium concentrations, intact parathyroid hormone, and serum C-telopeptide levels in all of the study subjects. However, there was no association between serum DPP-4 activity and BMD in the spine or femoral neck in all of the study subjects. Serum DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated (R=−0.288, P=0.038) with BMD of the spine in obese postmenopausal women. Conclusion This study demonstrated for the first time that serum soluble DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated with BMD in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:26676330

  14. Impact of Estrogen Therapy on Lymphocyte Homeostasis and the Response to Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Flora; Rivera, Andrea; Park, Byung; Messerle-Forbes, Marci; Jensen, Jeffrey T.; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that changes in levels of ovarian steroids modulate severity of autoimmune disease and immune function in young adult women. These observations suggest that the loss of ovarian steroids associated with menopause could affect the age-related decline in immune function, known as immune senescence. Therefore, in this study, we determined the impact of menopause and estrogen therapy (ET) on lymphocyte subset frequency as well as the immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine in three different groups: 1) young adult women (regular menstrual cycles, not on hormonal contraception); 2) post-menopausal (at least 2 years) women who are not receiving any form of hormone therapy (HT) and 3) post-menopausal hysterectomized women receiving ET. Although the numbers of circulating CD4 and CD20 B cells were reduced in the post-menopausal group receiving ET, we also detected a better preservation of naïve B cells, decreased CD4 T cell inflammatory cytokine production, and slightly lower circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Following vaccination, young adult women generated more robust antibody and T cell responses than both post-menopausal groups. Despite similar vaccine responses between the two post-menopausal groups, we observed a direct correlation between plasma 17β estradiol (E2) levels and fold increase in IgG titers within the ET group. These findings suggest that ET affects immune homeostasis and that higher plasma E2 levels may enhance humoral responses in post-menopausal women. PMID:26859566

  15. Vaginal Microbiome and Epithelial Gene Array in Post-Menopausal Women with Moderate to Severe Dryness

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jo-Anne; McMillan, Amy; Vongsa, Rebecca; Koenig, David; Gloor, Gregory B.; Reid, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    After menopause, many women experience vaginal dryness and atrophy of tissue, often attributed to the loss of estrogen. An understudied aspect of vaginal health in women who experience dryness due to atrophy is the role of the resident microbes. It is known that the microbiota has an important role in healthy vaginal homeostasis, including maintaining the pH balance and excluding pathogens. The objectives of this study were twofold: first to identify the microbiome of post-menopausal women with and without vaginal dryness and symptoms of atrophy; and secondly to examine any differences in epithelial gene expression associated with atrophy. The vaginal microbiome of 32 post-menopausal women was profiled using Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Sixteen subjects were selected for follow-up sampling every two weeks for 10 weeks. In addition, 10 epithelial RNA samples (6 healthy and 4 experiencing vaginal dryness) were acquired for gene expression analysis by Affymetrix Human Gene array. The microbiota abundance profiles were relatively stable over 10 weeks compared to previously published data on premenopausal women. There was an inverse correlation between Lactobacillus ratio and dryness and an increased bacterial diversity in women experiencing moderate to severe vaginal dryness. In healthy participants, Lactobacillus iners and L. crispatus were generally the most abundant, countering the long-held view that lactobacilli are absent or depleted in menopause. Vaginal dryness and atrophy were associated with down-regulation of human genes involved in maintenance of epithelial structure and barrier function, while those associated with inflammation were up-regulated consistent with the adverse clinical presentation. PMID:22073175

  16. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) as a criterion for the identification of the healthy obesity phenotype in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lwow, Felicja; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Milewicz, Andrzej; Szmigiero, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and its complications constitute a major health problem in postmenopausal women. The identification of the obesity phenotype, especially that of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) patients, is a necessary part of obesity treatment protocols. There are several methods to define MHO, but unfortunately, all of them are arbitrary and inconsistent. The aim of this work was to determine whether lipid accumulation product (LAP) could be used as a marker of the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. A sample of 345 Polish postmenopausal women aged 50-60years old participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese when their BMI was >27. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to estimate the best cutoff for the LAP index value to identify postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome components. We found that the best cutoff value was LAP ≤29.9, and this value was used to define MHO individuals. With this definition, the identification of MHO individuals could be made when both of the following criteria were met: LAP index ≤29.9 and no arterial hypertension (SBP<130mmHg, DBP<85mmHg). The anthropometric and body fat distribution measurements, as well as the metabolic characteristics of MHO women identified according to the above definition, were compared with those of MHO women identified by two other methods in the literature. These methods and our definition identified similar proportions of MHO women ranging from 11.6% to 16.9%. We found that MHO women identified by all of the definitions used in this study possessed a similar metabolic status, and they did not differ in anthropometric indices or body fat distribution measurements. We concluded that the combination of LAP estimation and arterial blood pressure measurement appear to constitute a useful method for identifying the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. PMID:27329927

  17. Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Jones, Rena R.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cerhan, James R.; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Weyer, Peter J.; Ward, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potential human carcinogens. We evaluated the association of nitrate and nitrite ingestion with postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Among 28,555 postmenopausal women, we identified 315 incident epithelial ovarian cancers from 1986 to 2010. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were assessed at baseline using food frequency questionnaire data. Drinking water source at home was obtained in a 1989 follow-up survey. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels for Iowa public water utilities were linked to residences and average levels were computed based on each woman’s duration at the residence. We computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We tested interactions of nitrate with TTHMs and dietary factors known to influence NOC formation. Ovarian cancer risk was 2.03 times higher (CI=1.22–3.38, ptrend=0.003) in the highest quartile (≥2.98 mg/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤0.47 mg/L; reference) of NO3-N in public water, regardless of TTHM levels. Risk among private well users was also elevated (HR=1.53, CI=0.93–2.54) compared with the same reference group. Associations were stronger when vitamin C intake was postmenopausal women. PMID:25430487

  18. Excretion balance and metabolism of the progestagen Org 30659 in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, C H; Gloudemans, R H; Groothuis, G M; Rietjens, I M; Vos, R M

    2000-05-01

    Metabolism of Org 30659 ((17alpha)-17-hydroxy-11-methylene-19-norpregna-4, 15-dien-20-yn-3-one), a new potent progestagen currently under clinical development by NV Organon for use in oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy, was studied in vivo after oral administration to healthy postmenopausal women. After oral administration of [14C]-Org 30659 to postmenopausal women, the compound was extensively metabolized. The dosed radioactivity was predominantly excreted via urine. Org 30659 was to a large extent metabolized at the C3- and the C17-positions. Phase II metabolism, and in particular conjugation with glucuronic acid at the 17beta-hydroxy group, is the major metabolic route for Org 30659 in vivo. Not only phase II metabolism was observed for Org 30659 after oral administration to postmenopausal volunteers, but also metabolism in the A-ring occurred, especially reduction of the 3-keto-Delta(4) moiety to give 3alpha-hydroxy, 5alpha(beta)-dihydro and 3beta-hydroxy, 5alpha-dihydro derivatives. Oxidative metabolism (6beta-hydroxylation) observed in human liver preparations in vitro, was not observed to a significant extent in vivo. So, in vitro human metabolism is different from the in vivo metabolism, indicating that the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation is far from straightforward, at least when only liver preparations are used. The proper choice of the in vitro system (e.g., microsomes, hepatocytes, slices or individually expressed enzymes) and the substrate concentration can be very important determinative factors for the predictability of the in vitro system for the in vivo situation. Species comparison of the metabolic routes of Org 30659 after oral administration indicated that the monkey seems to be a better representative species than the rat for the metabolism of Org 30659 in humans. PMID:10822023

  19. Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Candida among Postmenopausal Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    You, Hannah M.; Hedberg, E. C.; Jordan, Jeanne A.; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Candida among community-dwelling postmenopausal women in the United States and determine their change with age, using estimates based on Waves 1 and 2 of the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP). Method : Self-administered vaginal swabs were collected in-home from women aged 57–85 (n = 1,016) in Wave 1 and again 5 years later in Wave 2 (n = 883). Gram-stained specimens were evaluated for BV using the Nugent score as well as presence of Candida. Results: BV was prevalent in 23% and 38% of postmenopausal women in Waves 1 and 2 and increased with age. Women initially categorized with BV in Wave 1 were more than 10 times as likely to be categorized with BV in Wave 2, relative risk ratio (RRR) = 10.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) (4.45–24.7); p < .001, whereas women initially categorized as intermediate in Wave 1 were five times more likely to have a BV categorization, RRR = 5.0; 95% CI (2.56–9.75); p < .001. Although the presence of Candida was similar in both waves (6% and 5%), its relationship with age only became evident in Wave 2, with odds of detecting Candida decreasing by 7% with each year of age, OR = 0.93, 95% CI (0.88, 0.98); p = .010. Discussion: In Wave 2, the prevalence of BV was higher and increased with age while the prevalence of Candida was low and declined with age. A 5-year age increase contributed to the prevalence change across waves. Methods refinements in Wave 2 improved the detection of BV and Candida and clarified their relationship with age. PMID:25360022

  20. Lifelong bound feet in China: a quantitative ultrasound and lifestyle questionnaire study in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Ming; Xu, Mian; Lao, Hanchang; O'Laughlin, Michael C; Tong, Shan; Zhao, Yanling; Hung, VWY; Cheng, JCY; Guo, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The phenomenon of foot binding, also known as ‘lotus feet’, has an enduring and influential history in China. To achieve a man-made smaller foot size, lifelong foot binding may have had adverse effects on the skeleton. We investigated bone properties in postmenopausal women with bound feet, which may provide new information for developing countermeasures for prevention of fragility fractures. Design Population-based cohort study. Participants This study involved 254 postmenopausal women aged 65–80, including 172 with bound feet and 82 age- and gender-matched control subjects, living in a remote region of China. Outcomes Anthropometric, SF-36 Lifestyle Questionnaire and heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS) data were collected for the whole study population. A small subset of two cases was also invited for assessment of bone mineral density and microarchitecture at the distal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) and gait and balance tests. Results Women with bound feet had significantly lower QUS values than age-matched women with normal feet; this was supported by HR-pQCT data. However, SF-36 Questionnaire results did not reveal any statistically significant differences in any categorical responses, including physical functioning, general health vitality and physical component summary score, and number of previous fractures. No impairment of body balance was found in the small subset. Conclusions The man-made changes caused by foot binding led to reduced physical activity, making the subjects prone to osteoporosis. Women with bound feet and osteoporosis did not have a higher incidence of fragility fractures than controls. This might be explained by compensation in physical activity to improve body balance, implying the importance of improving or maintaining body balance in overall prevention strategies against fragility fractures. PMID:25783423

  1. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Puszczewicz, Mariusz Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17β-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously) on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC), therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications. PMID:26327864

  2. The Role of Vitamin D in Blood Pressure, Endothelial and Renal Function in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Woo, Jean; Wu, Sheng-Hui; Ho, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that plays an essential role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Aims: To review the extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D on blood pressure, endothelial and renal function with emphasis on recent findings in postmenopausal women. Methods: Included in this review was a PubMed database search for English language articles through March 2013. This review discussed the physiology and definition of vitamin D deficiency, the recent evidence for the role vitamin D in blood pressure, vascular and renal function. Results: Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that vitamin D plays an important role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Low vitamin D concentrations appear to significantly associate with hypertension, endothelial and renal dysfunction. However, the results of clinical trials have generally been mixed. Studies specifically conducted among postmenopausal women are limited and findings are still inconsistent. Conclusions: Definitive studies are warranted to elucidate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on vascular and renal function and a more detailed work is needed to outline the route, duration and optimal dose of supplementation. It is premature to recommend vitamin D as a therapeutic option in the improvement of vascular and renal function at the current stage. PMID:23839167

  3. Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women Heterozygous for the C282Y HFE Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Frances; Fulcher, Greg R.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the HFE gene may be associated with increased tissue iron stores reflected in an elevated serum ferritin. With homozygous mutation C282Y, the increase in serum ferritin may be associated with tissue damage in the liver, pancreas, and pituitary and with a reduced bone mineral density. With heterozygous mutation C282Y, the degree of iron retention is less but information relating to how a heterozygous C282Y mutation might impact bone mineral density is uncertain. The present study was undertaken to study the relationships between bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and the serum ferritin and serum iron in postmenopausal women heterozygous for the C282Y mutation. The spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, was significantly less than age matched community controls (P = 0.016). There was no significant change in the femoral neck bone mineral density compared to age matched community controls. The correlation between the spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, the femoral neck bone mineral density, and the serum ferritin was not significant. The serum iron correlated significantly inversely with the femoral neck bone mineral density (P = 0.048). The heterozygous C282Y mutation may be associated with impairment of bone cell function in postmenopausal women when only small increases in the serum iron or serum ferritin have occurred. PMID:27123357

  4. Diets and hormonal levels in postmenopausal women with or without breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Hämäläinen, Esa; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The role of diet in breast cancer (BC) risk is unclear. Fiber could reduce BC risk, through the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens. We examined the relationship between diet and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with or without BC. Thirty-one postmenopausal women (10 omnivores, 11 vegetarians, and 10 BC omnivores) were recruited. Dietary records (5 days) and hormone levels (3 days) were evaluated on 4 occasions over 1 yr. Vegetarians showed a lower fat/fiber ratio, a higher intake of total and cereal fiber (g/d)/body weight (kg), a significantly lower level of plasma estrone-sulfate, estradiol, free-estradiol, free-testosterone, and ring D oxygenated estrogens, and a significantly higher level of sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. Fiber was consumed in slightly larger amounts by omnivores than by BC subjects. Omnivores had significantly lower plasma testosterone and estrone-sulfate but higher sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. No difference was found for the urinary 16-oxygenated estrogens. However, the 2-MeO-E1/2-OH-E1 ratio was significantly lower in omnivores than in BC group. This ratio is positively associated with the fat/fiber ratio. In conclusion, testosterone may contribute to causing alterations in the levels of catechol estrogens and 16-oxygenated estrogens. The fat/fiber ratio appears to be useful in evaluating dietary effects on estrogen metabolism. PMID:21500098

  5. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elsalam, Eman Abd-Elkader; Ismaeil, Nadia A; Abd-Alsalam, Hoda Sibai

    2015-08-01

    Many studies reported that vitamin D can protect against various types of cancers. The mechanism of vitamin D action is mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR may have anti-stress function because it has been identified as p53 direct target gene. This research was designed to investigate the role of VDR polymorphisms BsmI (rs 1544410), ApaI (rs 7975232), TaqI (rs 731236), and FokI (rs 10735810) in pathogenesis of breast cancer using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The study included 130 postmenopausal breast cancer cases aged 49 to 65 years and 100 controls aged 50 to 72 years. A significantly increased risk of breast cancer among carriers of BsmI bb genotype was observed (OR = 2.5 (1.1-5.6), P = 0.025). Also, a significantly increased risk of breast cancer was detected among women carrying ApaI aa genotype (OR = 2.2 (1.02-4.5), P = 0.04), while no significant associations were observed between breast cancer risk and genotypes and allele frequencies of FokI and TaqI polymorphisms (P > 0.05). Our study showed that VDR gene polymorphisms (BsmI and ApaI) may contribute to breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:25804799

  6. Hip cortical thickness assessment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and strontium ranelate effect on hip geometry.

    PubMed

    Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude Laurent; Roux, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the relationship between hip geometry and the 5-yr risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and the effects of strontium ranelate on these parameters. Using the 5-yr data of a randomized placebo-controlled trial of strontium ranelate (Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis Study [TROPOS]), we reanalyzed the hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to determine the role of hip geometry in the risk of hip fractures (placebo group, n=636) and to analyze the effects of strontium ranelate (n=483). The outcomes included the hip structure analysis (HSA) parameters: cross-sectional area (CSA), section modulus, cortical thickness, and buckling ratio, measured at femoral neck, intertrochanteric (IT) region, and proximal shaft. The geometric parameters associated with an increased risk of hip fracture over 5yr were IT CSA and femoral shaft cortical thickness independent of age and total-hip bone mineral density (BMD). Using Bonferroni adjustment, IT cortical thickness was associated with the risk of hip fracture. Over 5yr, significant decreases in some femoral dimensions of the placebo group contrast with significant increases in strontium ranelate group after adjustment for age and BMD. Using Bonferroni adjustment, differences between placebo and strontium ranelate groups were no longer significant after adjustment on 5-yr BMD changes. Some HSA parameters have predictive value for hip fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Strontium ranelate improves some HSA parameters, through the BMD increase. PMID:22321661

  7. Effects of Tai Chi Training on Antioxidant Capacity in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Margaritis, Irène; Soogarun, Suphan; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC) training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session) would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n = 8) and postmenopausal (n = 7) sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1) increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity—an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme—and plasma total antioxidant status and (2) decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention. PMID:21584229

  8. Clinical performance of seven prescreening tools for osteoporosis in Iranian postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Keshtkar, Abbas; Tabatabaie, Omidreza; Matin, Nassim; Mohammadi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Khashayar, Patricia; Asadi, Mojgan

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate seven prescreening osteoporosis models in postmenopausal Iranian women. This study was performed on 8644 postmenopausal women who have been referred for bone mineral densitometry (BMD) in BMD center of Shariati hospital in Tehran between 2001 and 2011. Diagnostic properties of seven prescreening instruments were evaluated. With regard to area under curve (AUC), these models have low accuracy (AUC ≤ 0.65). Considering only femoral neck or total femur area, these models had low accuracy but were more sensitive. Except for three models with sensitivities of ≤65 % in both osteoporosis and fracture threshold, other models were around 70 % sensitive. However, these models were not considered clinically useful regarding their positive predictive values (PPV) especially in BMDs ≤02.5. With regard to different measures of diagnostic property, none of these models were good screening tools for osteoporosis or fracture threshold. Although some of them are sensitive, considering other measures such as PPV indicates that they are not completely useful for clinical use. Attempts should be made for developing newer prescreening methods and calibration of the existing models with regard to the studied population. PMID:25980683

  9. Evidence that estrogens inhibit LH secretion through opioids in postmenopausal women using naloxone.

    PubMed

    Melis, G B; Paoletti, A M; Gambacciani, M; Mais, V; Fioretti, P

    1984-07-01

    To evaluate whether ovarian steroid environment may modify endogenous opioid activity at hypothalamic-pituitary level, the effects of naloxone infusion (1.2 mg/h for 4 h) on gonadotropin secretion were studied in 5 postmenopausal women who had natural menopause 3-5 years before the study. In addition, naloxone infusion was repeated in the same subjects after chronic oral treatment with conjugated estrogens (1.25 mg/day in two divided doses for 20 days). Before treatment, both the circulating levels of estrogens and plasma gonadotropins were in the normal range for postmenopausal women and naloxone infusion did not induce any significant modification of gonadotropin secretion. In contrast, after estrogen therapy, and the consequent rise in estrogen plasma levels, naloxone infusion induced a significant LH increase (p less than 0.01) starting during the last hour of treatment. These findings seem to confirm that endogenous opioid peptides may modulate the inhibitory effect exerted by estrogens on LH secretion, in humans. PMID:6087184

  10. Brachial artery Doppler flux parameters before and after hot flush in Mexican postmenopausal women: preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Karina Vázquez; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse brachial artery flux parameters in postmenopausal women before and after hot flush. Material and methods Two groups of postmenopausal women were studied: Group I, without vasomotor symptoms (n = 10) and Group II, with vasomotor symptoms (n = 10). In all them a brachial artery Doppler ultrasound was done, measuring before and after hyperaemic stimulus of the arterial diameter (AD), the pulsatility index (PI), and the resistive index (RI). In Group I, measurements were done at baseline and five minutes after. In Group II, measurements were at baseline, and one and five minutes after the hot-flush. Comparison between the groups was done with Mann-Whitney U test, and within the groups with Wilcoxon test. Results No differences were found among the groups in Doppler parameters. When comparing each group separately, in Group I, at baseline and at five minutes measurements, the AD was greater after the hyperaemic stimulus than before it. In group II at baseline, the PI was significantly greater after the hyperaemic stimulus than before to it. At the first and fifth minute, the AD was significantly greater after the hyperaemic stimulus than before to it. Conclusions No differences were found between those who did not have and those who had hot flushes. PMID:27095957

  11. Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guibin; Liu, Guibin; Liu, Liu Hongmei; Zhao, Huanli; Zhang, Fengfang; Li, Shufa; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhenchun

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between oolong tea drinking and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Han Chinese women, while living and diet habits, fertility, disease elements and other baseline conditions were controlled. One group included 124 cases who routinely drank oolong tea, and the other included 556 who did not drink tea. Data were collected on participant age, lifestyle habits, fertility condition, disease elements, and lumbar, and hip bone densities. It was found that the bone densities of the greater trochanteric bone in tea drinkers were higher (0.793 ± 0.119 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.759 ± 0.116 kg/cm(2), F = 6.248, p = 0.013). Similarly, the bone density of Ward's triangular bone in tea drinkers was higher (0.668 ± 0.133 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.637 ± 0.135 kg/cm(2), F = 6.152, p = 0.013). Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Chinese women. PMID:24989680

  12. The beneficial effects of massage therapy for insomnia in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hachul, H; Oliveira, D S; Bittencourt, L R A; Andersen, M L; Tufik, S

    2014-06-01

    With increases life expectancy, the incidence of undesirable manifestations of menopause has increased as well. The effects of lost ovarian function include progressive decrease in estradiol secretion, trophic changes in the breast, vasomotor symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Insomnia, which has physiological consequences and can result in a loss of quality of life, is prevalent in women after menopause. Hormone therapy has been widely used to reduce menopausal symptoms, but its use in recent years has been questioned because of the reported risks of cardiovascular events and increased incidence of tumors. This controversy has generated significant interest in non-hormonal treatments among both physicians and patients. Our previous research has shown a positive effect of massage therapy on menopausal symptoms. We explored the hypothesis that massage therapy would produce beneficial effects in postmenopausal women through inflammatory and immunological changes. Recent results from self-report questionnaires have shown improvements in sleep pattern and quality of life following massage therapy. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms, particularly insomnia, and indicate that it is a promising line of research. PMID:26483913

  13. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use

    PubMed Central

    Boucetta, Kenza Qiraouani; Charrouf, Zoubida; Derouiche, Abdelfattah; Rahali, Younes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Material and methods Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30) and the control group olive oil (n = 30). Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a sixty days’ period. Evaluation of skin hydration, i.e. transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and water content of the epidermis (WCE) on both volar forearms of the two groups, were performed during three visits at D0, D30 and after sixty days (D60) of oils treatment. Results The consumption of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.023) and a significant increase in WCE (p = 0.001). The application of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.01) and a significant increase in WCE (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and application of argan oil have improved the skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity. PMID:26327867

  14. Dietary calcium intake, serum copper concentration and bone density in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Strause, L.; Andon, M.B.; Howard, G.; Smith, K.T.; Saltman, P. Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH )

    1991-03-11

    Data from experimental animal nutrition and animal husbandry indicate that several trace minerals, including copper (Cu) are involved in bone metabolism. In addition, a large body of data suggests that low dietary calcium (Ca) intake is a risk factor for age related bone loss. The authors measured the serum (Cu), dietary Ca intake (dCa) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine of 225 postmenopausal women. The median dCa and serum (Cu) were 562 mg/d and 9.73 umoles/L, respectively. Serum (Cu) but, not dCa, was greater in subjects with a history of estrogen therapy (ERT). BMD was higher in subjects with above median dCa and serum (Cu) (group 1) compared to those with below median values (group 2). BMD was intermediate for subjects with either Low serum (Cu):High dCa or High serum (Cu):Low dCa. This relationship was observed in the subject group as a whole, as well as in subgroups partitioned according to history of ERT. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in basic demographic characteristics such as age, age at menopause, body weight and height. These data support the hypothesis that Ca and Cu nutriture are determinants of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

  15. Relation between visceral fat and carotid intimal media thickness in Mexican postmenopausal women: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Azpilcueta, Yessica Mireya Moreno; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To investigate the relationship between visceral fat and carotid IMT (intima media thickness) in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods In 71 postmenopausal women divided in two groups: group 1, IMT > 1 mm and group 2, IMT ≤ 1 mm, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), visceral and subcutaneous fats and carotid IMT were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used and the comparison among those with abnormal and normal IMT was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test; also Spearman's correlation analysis was done. Results When comparing group 1 (n = 9, 12.7%) with group 2 (n = 62, 87.3%), it was found that the subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater in group 1 (p < 0.018, p < 0.001 and p < 0.006, respectively), and also in this group there was a correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat (ρ = 0.686, p < 0.041) and between visceral fat and the systolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.712, p < 0.031). In group 2, there was a correlation between IMT and diastolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.251, p < 0.049). Conclusion Subcutaneous and visceral fat have an unfavorable effect in the carotid IMT and in blood pressure. PMID:27582681

  16. Supplementation of milled chia seeds increases plasma ALA and EPA in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fuxia; Nieman, David C; Sha, Wei; Xie, Guoxiang; Qiu, Yunping; Jia, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Ten postmenopausal women (age 55.6 ± 0.8 years, BMI 24.6 ± 1.1 kg/m²) ingested 25 g/day milled chia seed during a 7-week period, with six plasma samples collected for measurement of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Subjects operated as their own controls with overnight fasted blood samples taken at baseline (average of two samples), and then after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 weeks supplementation. Plasma ALA increased significantly after one week supplementation and was 138 % above baseline levels by the end of the study (overall time effect, P < 0.001). EPA increased 30 % above baseline (overall time effect, P = 0.019) and was correlated across time with ALA (r = 0.84, P = 0.02). No significant change in plasma DPA levels was measured (overall time effect, P = 0.067). Plasma DHA decreased slightly by the end of the study (overall time effect, P = 0.030) and was not correlated with change in ALA. In conclusion, ingestion of 25 g/day milled chia seeds for seven weeks by postmenopausal women resulted in significant increases in plasma ALA and EPA but not DPA and DHA. PMID:22538527

  17. Association between the metabolome and bone mineral density in pre- and post-menopausal Chinese women using GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Qi, Huanhuan; Bao, Jun; An, Guohua; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Pengling; Wang, Chao; Ying, Hanjie; Ouyang, Pingkai; Ma, Bo; Zhang, Qi

    2016-06-21

    The present study describes for the first time, a metabolic profile reflecting the osteoporosis progression in 364 pre- and postmenopausal Chinese women using GC-MS. In order to accurately evaluate the dynamic changes of metabolites along with estrogen deficiency and osteoporosis progression, we divided these subjects into the following four groups: premenopausal women with normal bone mass density (BMD, group I), postmenopausal women with normal BMD (group II), postmenopausal women with osteopenia (group III) and postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (group IV), according to their menopause or low BMD status. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to evaluate the associations of metabolic changes with low BMD or estrogen deficiency. Twelve metabolites identified by the PLS-DA model were found to be able to differentiate low BMD groups from normal BMD groups. Of the 12 metabolites, five free fatty acids (LA, oleic acid, AA and 11,14-eicosadienoic acid) have the most potential to be used as osteoporosis biomarkers due to their better correlations with BMD, and high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing the low BMD groups from the normal BMD groups calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The lipid profile may be useful for osteoporosis prediction and diagnosis. PMID:27168060

  18. Exercise frequency and calcium intake predict 4-year bone changes in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cussler, Ellen C; Going, Scott B; Houtkooper, Linda B; Stanford, Vanessa A; Blew, Robert M; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G; Metcalfe, Lauve L; Choi, Ji-Eun; Lohman, Timothy G

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of exercise frequency and calcium intake (CI) with change in regional and total bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of postmenopausal women completing 4 years of progressive strength training. One hundred sixty-seven calcium-supplemented (800 mg/day) sedentary women (56.1+/-4.5 years) randomized to a progressive strength training exercise program or to control were followed for 4 years. Fifty-four percent of the women were using hormone therapy (HT) at baseline. At 1 year, controls were permitted to begin the exercise program (crossovers). The final sample included 23 controls, 55 crossovers, and 89 randomized exercisers. Exercisers were instructed to complete two sets of six to eight repetitions of exercises at 70-80% of one repetition maximum, three times weekly. BMD was measured at baseline and thereafter annually using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Four-year percentage exercise frequency (ExFreq) averaged 26.8%+/-20.1% for crossovers (including the first year at 0%), and 50.4%+/-26.7% for exercisers. Four-year total CI averaged 1,635+/-367 mg/day and supplemental calcium intake, 711+/-174 mg/day. In adjusted multiple linear regression models, ExFreq was positively and significantly related to changes in femur trochanter (FT) and neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS), and total body (TB) BMD. Among HT users, FT BMD increased 1.5%, and FN and LS BMD, 1.2% (p<0.01) for each standard deviation (SD) of percentage ExFreq (29.5% or 0.9 days/week). HT non-users gained 1.9% and 2.3% BMD at FT and FN, respectively, (p<0.05) for every SD of CI. The significant, positive, association between BMD change and ExFreq supports the long-term usefulness of strength training exercise for the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, especially HT users. The positive relationship of CI to change in BMD among postmenopausal women not using HT has clinical implications in light of recent evidence of an increased health risk

  19. The prevalence of vertebral fractures and health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rostom, S; Allali, F; Bennani, L; Abouqal, R; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N

    2012-04-01

    Vertebral fractures are the hallmark of osteoporosis, responsible for increased back pain, impairment of mobility and functional limitations. These factors have an impact on patients' health-related quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vertebral fractures in Moroccan postmenopausal women and to assess their QOL, using an Arabic validated version of QUALEFFO. The study recruited 347 postmenopausal women in obvious good health. We excluded women who had used a drug or who had chronic diseases affecting bone metabolism. All patients had density measurements and spinal radiography. Each vertebral body (T4-L5) was graded using the semiquantitative method of Genant. The mean age was 60 years. Forty-six percent of patients had at least one vertebral fracture. The prevalence ranged from 31% in patients 50-55 years to 69% in patients 65 years and older. Patients with vertebral fractures were older (61.6 ± 8 vs 57 ± 7 years, P < 0.001), had more frequent history of nonvertebral fractures, and had spine and hip BMD values significantly lower (P < 0.001) than patients without vertebral fractures. In multivariate analysis, older age and a history of nonvertebral fractures were the two independent clinical factors of vertebral fractures. The number of fractures was a determinant of a low QOL, as indicated by an increased score in physical function, social function, mental function, and general health [for all (P < 0.05)]. Patients with higher grades of vertebral deformities, i.e., more severe fractures, had low QOL in these four domains. Patient with thoracolumbar fractures had a worse general health than patients with thoracic or lumbar fractures. We found a high prevalence of vertebral fractures probably explained by socioeconomic factors in Morocco. QOL, assessed by an osteoporosis-specific instrument, is decreased in postmenopausal women as a function of both the number and the severity of the vertebral fractures. Treating women

  20. Internet-delivered applied relaxation for vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women: lessons from a failed trial.

    PubMed

    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta; Holm, Anna-Clara Spetz; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per; Nedstrand, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Internet-delivered therapies have a short history and promising results have been shown for several health problems, particularly for psychiatric conditions. This study was a first attempt to evaluate whether Internet-delivered applied relaxation for hot flushes in postmenopausal women may be useful. Due to a high drop-out rate the study was prematurely terminated after inclusion of approximately two thirds of calculated women. The Internet-delivered applied relaxation must probably be modified for such populations and settings before it can be used further. This article will discuss the benefits and pitfalls to learn in order to meet the challenges of future studies. Clinical trial registration number: NCT01245907. PMID:25700856

  1. Response of Bone Resorption Markers to Aristolochia longa Intake by Algerian Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Benarba, Bachir; Meddah, Boumedienne; Tir Touil, Aicha

    2014-01-01

    Aristolochia longa is widely used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. According to the A. longa intake, breast cancer patients were grouped into A. longa group (Al) (n = 54) and non-A. longa group (non-Al) (n = 24). 32 women constituted the control group. Bone resorption markers (from urine) pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were determined by HPLC. Serum and urinary creatinine, uric acid, and urea were measured. 1 g of A. longa intake resulted in significant rise of renal serum markers and a pronounced increase of bone resorption markers. The intake of A. longa roots is detrimental for kidney function and resulted in high bone resorption, maybe due to the reduction in renal function caused by the aristolochic acids contained in the roots. PMID:24876833

  2. Excess weight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal Brazilian women: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The menopause is associated with a tendency to gain weight. Several alterations in fat deposits occur, leading to changes in the distribution of body fat. There are strong indications that, in middle age, obesity is associated with increased mortality. This study set out to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women in a population-based study in Brazil. Methods The sample included 456 women, aged 45–69 years, residing in the urban area of Maringa, Parana. Systematic sampling, with a probability proportional to the size of the census sector, was performed. Behavioral, economic, and sociodemographic data were collected, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined. Results According to BMI criteria (≥25.0 kg/m2), 72.6% of the women were overweight, and according to WC (≥88 cm), 63.6% had abdominal obesity. Based on logistic regression analysis, the factors that were most closely associated with overweight were: having three or more children (odds ratio (OR): 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.00); and not taking hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was positively associated with greater parity (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.72) and age older than 65 years (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19). Conclusions This study found that the prevalences of overweight and abdominal obesity were higher for postmenopausal women who had three or more children. Age over 65 years was also a risk factor for abdominal obesity and no use of hormonal replacement therapy was a risk factor for overweight. PMID:24228934

  3. Cardiovascular Risks in Relation to Daidzein Metabolizing Phenotypes among Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Chen, Yu-ming; Liu, Jun; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggested that the inter-individual differences in metabolizing isoflavone daidzein to equol or O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA) might explain the inconsistency of the soy/isoflavones efficacy on cardiovascular health. Objectives The study aims to evaluate the relationship between equol and ODMA phenotypes and cardiovascular risks with habitual isoflavone consumption in Chinese postmenopausal women. Methods This is a cross-sectional study among 726 prehypertensive postmenopal women who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. 648 women returned a daidzein-challenged urine samples for determination of equol and O-DMA production. 595 attended clinic visits for assessment of cardiovascular risks including body composition, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, uric acid, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fasting glucose and free fatty acid (FFA). Results The prevalences of equol and O-DMA producers were 53.2% and 60.9% respectively. Equol producers had higher fat free mass (p = 0.001), lower systolic (p = 0.01) and diastolic (p = 0.01) BP, serum triglyceride (p = 0.023), hs-CRP (p = 0.015) and FFA (p = 0.001) than non-producers. O-DMA producers had lower body fat% (p = 0.032), SBP (p = 0.02), total cholesterol (p = 0.002) than non-producers. The significant differences remained after further adjustment for potential confounders. The habitual soy isoflavones intake had little relation to cardiovascular risk factors in either equol/O-DMA producer phenotypes. Conclusion Equol/O-DMA producers had more favorable cardiovascular risk profiles than non-producers in prehypertensive postmenopausal women. PMID:24533060

  4. Vitamin D Status and Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Indian Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Subarna; Agrawal, Sarita; Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Nanda, Rachita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of chronic and non-communicable health disorders like cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide including in India. The various risk factors for these health issues need to be addressed. The role of vitamin D deficiency in the causation of all these abnormal health conditions among postmenopausal women is a matter of debate now-a-days. Aim To determine the correlation of serum vitamin D levels with various cardio-metabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women (PMW). Materials and Methods Total of 64 PMW were included in this cross-sectional study. Clinical (waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure) and biochemical (fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile and serum 25-hydroxyl vitamin D levels) parameters were measured. MetS was defined using modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP-III) guidelines. Serum 25-hydroxyl vitamin D levels <50 nmol/l, between 52.5-72.5 nmol/l and >75 nmol/l were classified as deficient, insufficient and sufficient, respectively. Results MetS was prevalent in 33 (52%) subjects. There were no differences in serum vitamin D levels or proportion of vitamin D deficient individuals in those with and without MetS. 33 women (52%) had vitamin D deficiency. Cardio-metabolic risk profile was similar in both vitamin D deficient and replete women. Conclusion Despite a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and MetS in Indian PMW, serum vitamin D concentrations do not correlate with the cardio-metabolic risk factors or MetS. PMID:27134948

  5. Circulating osteogenic cells: characterization and relationship to rates of bone loss in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Undale, Anita; Srinivasan, Bhuma; Drake, Matthew; McCready, Louise; Atkinson, Elizabeth; Peterson, James; Riggs, B Lawrence; Amin, Shreyasee; Modder, U I; Moedder, U I; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that osteogenic cells are present not only in bone marrow (BM) but also in peripheral blood (PB). Since staining for alkaline phosphatase (AP) identifies osteoprogenitor cells in BM, we sought to further characterize BM versus PB hematopoietic lineage negative (lin-)/AP+ cells and to compare gene expression in PB lin-/AP+ cells from postmenopausal women undergoing rapid versus slow bone loss. PB lin-/AP+ cells were smaller than their BM counterparts, and both were negative for the pan-hematopoietic marker, CD45. BM and PB lin-/AP+ cells were capable of mineralization in vitro. Using whole genome linear amplification followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis, we found that relative to the BM cells, PB lin-/AP+ cells expressed similar levels of a number of key osteoblast marker genes (runx2, osterix, osteopontin, OPG, periostin), consistent with the PB cells being in the osteoblastic lineage. Importantly, however, compared to the BM cells, PB lin-/AP+ cells expressed lower levels of mRNAs for AP, type I collagen, and for a panel of proliferation markers, but higher levels of osteocalcin, osteonectin, and PTHR1 mRNAs, as well as those for RANKL and ICAM-1, both of which are important in supporting osteoclastogenesis. Using microarray followed by QPCR analysis, we further demonstrated that, compared to postmenopausal women undergoing slow bone loss, PB lin-/AP+ cells from women undergoing rapid bone loss expressed lower levels of mRNAs for hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, interferon regulator factor 3, Wnt1-induced secreted protein 1, and TGFbeta2, but higher levels of the Smad3 interacting protein, zinc finger DHHC-type containing 4 and col1alpha2. These data thus demonstrate that while PB lin-/AP+ cells express a number of osteoblastic genes and are capable of mineralization, they are a relatively quiescent cell population, both in terms of cell proliferation and matrix synthesis. However, their higher

  6. Circulating Osteogenic Cells: Characterization and Relationship to Rates of Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Undale, Anita; Srinivasan, Bhuma; Drake, Matthew; McCready, Louise; Atkinson, Elizabeth; Peterson, James; Riggs, B. Lawrence; Amin, Shreyasee; Mödder, Ulrike; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that osteogenic cells are present not only in bone marrow (BM) but also in peripheral blood (PB). Since staining for alkaline phosphatase (AP) identifies osteoprogenitor cells in BM, we sought to further characterize BM versus PB hematopoietic lineage negative (lin−)/AP+ cells and to compare gene expression in PB lin−/AP+ cells from postmenopausal women undergoing rapid versus slow bone loss. PB lin−/AP+ cells were smaller than their BM counterparts, and both were negative for the pan-hematopoietic marker, CD45. BM and PB lin−/AP+ cells were capable of mineralization in vitro. Using whole genome linear amplification followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis, we found that relative to the BM cells, PB lin−/AP+ cells expressed similar levels of a number of key osteoblast marker genes (runx2, osterix, osteopontin, OPG, periostin), consistent with the PB cells being in the osteoblastic lineage. Importantly, however, compared to the BM cells, PB lin−/AP+ cells expressed lower levels of mRNAs for AP, type I collagen, and for a panel of proliferation markers, but higher levels of osteocalcin, osteonectin, and PTHR1 mRNAs, as well as those for RANKL and ICAM-1, both of which are important in supporting osteoclastogenesis. Using microarray followed by QPCR analysis, we further demonstrated that, compared to postmenopausal women undergoing slow bone loss, PB lin−/AP+ cells from women undergoing rapid bone loss expressed lower levels of mRNAs for hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, interferon regulator factor 3, Wnt1-induced secreted protein 1, and TGFβ2, but higher levels of the Smad3 interacting protein, zinc finger DHHC-type containing 4 and col1α2. These data thus demonstrate that while PB lin−/AP+ cells express a number of osteoblastic genes and are capable of mineralization, they are a relatively quiescent cell population, both in terms of cell proliferation and matrix synthesis. However, their

  7. Relation between anthropometric measures of fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Perry, A C; Applegate, E B; Allison, M L; Miller, P C; Signorile, J F

    1997-10-01

    This study compared three different measures of central adiposity: waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WSHT), and waist circumference with cardiovascular risk factors, including serum lipoproteins and blood pressure in overweight pre- (n = 115) and postmenopausal (n = 46) women. Premenopausal women had a mean age of 35.6 +/- 6.79 y and a mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) of 37.08 +/- 6.01. Postmenopausal women had a mean age of 52.5 +/- 8.19 y and a mean BMI of 38.75 +/- 6.9. Although several correlations between central adiposity and serum lipoproteins and blood pressure were significant, they were unaffected by menopausal status. There were also no significant differences among the three measures of central adiposity in relation to cardiovascular risk factors within premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. An analysis of covariance controlling for BMI showed that after stratifying WSHT into tertiles, a significant interaction of WSHT group by menopausal status was found for systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P = 0.019). Postmenopausal women had a significantly greater SBP than premenopausal women in the lowest and highest tertiles (P = 0.001); however, this pattern was not shown in the middle WSHT tertile. The relation between central adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors appears to be unchanged after menopause, except when WSHT is used to indicate SBP. Because increased central adiposity may also indicate an increase in cardiovascular risk factors, measurements of central adiposity can be used to supplement the routine clinical evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors in both pre- and postmenopausal overweight women. PMID:9322557

  8. Hematologic parameters as the predictors for metabolic syndrome in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women living in urban area: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Sirirat, Siriwan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases drastically during menopausal transition. Chronic inflammation is proposed as the basic pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aim of the study To compare mean white blood cell count between perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with and without MetS and find the prevalence of MetS in this patient group. Material and methods A total of 140 healthy perimenopausal and postmenopausal women were interviewed and underwent anthropometric measurements, biochemical investigations for MetS and hematologic parameters. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement 2009 criteria. The outcome measures were the hematologic parameters between women with and without MetS, correlation of hematologic parameters with MetS components and optimum cutoff for MetS prediction. Results The mean age of participants was 50 years. 63.6% were perimenopausal and 36.4% were postmenopausal ones. The prevalence of MetS was 21.4% (95% CI: 15.0-27.9). The women with MetS had a significantly higher level of white blood cell (WBC) counts (7,466.7 and 6,514.6; p = 0.006) and total lymphocyte counts (2,572.0 and 2,207.7; p = 0.003). The optimum cutoff of WBC counts and total lymphocyte counts for prediction of metabolic syndrome was 6,750 cells/ml (sensitivity = 0.633; specificity = 0.591, p = 0.019) and 2,232 cells/ml (sensitivity = 0.667; specificity = 0.518, p = 0.016), respectively. Conclusion White blood cell and total lymphocyte counts were higher in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with MetS. However, both hematologic parameters were poor predictors for MetS in peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:27582683

  9. Dietary Patterns Predict Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease Risk In Postmenopausal Women : The Women’s Health Initiative Observational Cohort Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Evidence suggests that dietary patterns predispose to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). The relationship between dietary patterns and CHD risk was assessed in postmenopausal women participating in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Methods: Case-co...

  10. A cross-sectional study to evaluate the associations between hypertension and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Keqin; Shi, Haiming; Tang, Zihui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This relationship between hypertension (HTN) and osteoporosis (OP) is not well documented among the population in China. The study sought to study the relationship between HTN and OP in Chinese postmenopausal women. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 1878 Chinese postmenopausal women with an average age of 62.38 years. OP was diagnosed by standardized quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus and HTN was defined by blood pressure data and/or the use of antihypertensive medication. The relationship for OP and HTN were calculated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: The prevalence of OP was 28.17% in the postmenopausal women, and there was a significant difference in the prevalence of OP between the two groups according to HTN (P value = 0.003). Univariate analysis demonstrates a positive correlation between HTN and OP. After adjustment for relevant potential confounding factors, multivariate logistic regression analyses detected significant associations between HTN and OP (P value = 0.096). In participants with HTN, the OR for OP was 1.209 (95% CI: 0.967-1.513). Conclusion: The prevalence of OP was more frequent in Chinese postmenopausal women with HTN, and HTN was independently and significantly associated with OP. PMID:26885054

  11. Combined whole-body vibration training and l-citrulline supplementation improves pressure wave reflection in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexei; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Jaime, Salvador J; Kinsey, Amber W; Spicer, Maria T; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Figueroa, Arturo

    2016-03-01

    Postmenopausal women have increased wave reflection (augmentation pressure (AP) and index (AIx)) and reduced muscle function that predispose them to cardiac diseases and disability. Our aim was to examine the combined and independent effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) and l-citrulline supplementation on aortic hemodynamics and plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) in postmenopausal women. Forty-one obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 3 groups: l-citrulline, WBVT+l-citrulline and WBVT+Placebo for 8 weeks. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, AP, AIx, AIx adjusted to 75 beats/min (AIx@75), and NOx were measured before and after 8 weeks. All groups similarly decreased (P < 0.05) brachial and aortic pressures as well as AP, and similarly increased (P < 0.05) NOx levels. AIx and AIx@75 decreased (P < 0.01) in the WBVT+l-citrulline and WBVT+Placebo groups, but not in the l-citrulline group. The improvement in AIx@75 (-10.5% ± 8.8%, P < 0.05) in the WBVT+l-citrulline group was significant compared with the l-citrulline group. l-Citrulline supplementation and WBVT alone and combined decreased blood pressures. The combined intervention reduced AIx@75. This study supports the effectiveness of WBVT+l-citrulline as a potential intervention for prevention of hypertension-related cardiac diseases in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:26863234

  12. Reduction in the level of antibodies against heat shock proteins 60 during different hormonal protocols in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kacalska-Janssen, Olga; Zmaczyński, Andrzej; Wyroba, Jakub; Tomczyk, Rita; Wiatr, Joanna; Gałuszka-Bednarczyk, Anna; Bereza, Tomasz; Milewicz, Tomasz; Krzysiek, Józef

    2015-01-01

    antibodies against HSP60 in all treated groups vs. the control group. Conclusions All of the investigated estrogen protocols have a favorable impact on the blood level of HSP60 antibodies in early postmenopausal women who have no cardiovascular risk factors. It triggers a better condition of endothelium. PMID:26848292

  13. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways and Prevalent Hypertension Among Postmenopausal Women: Results From the Women's Health Initiative San Diego Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kirwa, Kipruto; Eliot, Melissa N.; Wang, Yi; Adams, Marc A.; Morgan, Cindy G.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Norman, Gregory J.; Eaton, Charles B.; Allison, Matthew A.; Wellenius, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Living near major roadways has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular events and worse prognosis. Residential proximity to major roadways may also be associated with increased risk of hypertension, but few studies have evaluated this hypothesis. Methods and Results We examined the cross‐sectional association between residential proximity to major roadways and prevalent hypertension among 5401 postmenopausal women enrolled into the San Diego cohort of the Women's Health Initiative. We used modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to estimate the association between prevalence of hypertension and residential distance to nearest major roadway, adjusting for participant demographics, medical history, indicators of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status, and for local supermarket/grocery and fast food/convenience store density. The adjusted prevalence ratios for hypertension were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.39), 1.13 (1.00, 1.27), and 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) for women living ≤100, >100 to 200, and >200 to 1000 versus >1000 m from a major roadway (P for trend=0.006). In a model treating the natural log of distance to major roadway as a continuous variable, a shift in distance from 1000 to 100 m from a major roadway was associated with a 9% (3%, 16%) higher prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions In this cohort of postmenopausal women, residential proximity to major roadways was positively associated with the prevalence of hypertension. If causal, these results suggest that living close to major roadways may be an important novel risk factor for hypertension. PMID:25274494

  14. Mammographic density in relation to daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes in overweight, postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; McTiernan, Anne; Aiello, Erin J; Thomas, Wendy K; LaCroix, Kristin; Schramm, Judy; Schwartz, Stephen M; Holt, Victoria L; Lampe, Johanna W

    2004-07-01

    Circulating hormones are associated with mammographic density, an intermediate marker of breast cancer risk. Differences in circulating hormones, including estrone and testosterone, have been observed in premenopausal women based on their capacity to metabolize daidzein, an isoflavone found predominantly in soybeans. Equol and O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) are products of intestinal bacterial metabolism of daidzein. There is interindividual variability in the capacity to produce daidzein metabolites; individuals can be equol producers or non-producers and O-DMA producers or non-producers. We tested the hypothesis that daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes are associated with mammographic density. Participants were recruited from among 92 sedentary, postmenopausal women, ages 50 to 75 years, who participated in a 1-year physical activity intervention. Pre-intervention mammographic density was determined using a computer-assisted, gray-scale thresholding technique. Fifty-five of these women consumed supplemental soy protein (>10 mg daidzein/d) for 3 days and collected a first-void urine sample on the fourth day to determine daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes. Equol and O-DMA concentrations were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Associations between daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes and percent mammographic density were adjusted for age, maximum adult weight, gravidity, family history of breast cancer, and serum follicle-stimulating hormone and free testosterone concentrations. Mammographic density was 39% lower in equol producers compared with non-producers (P = 0.04). O-DMA producers had mammographic density 69% greater than non-producers (P = 0.05). These results suggest that particular intestinal bacterial profiles are associated with postmenopausal mammographic density, and these associations are not entirely explained by differences in reproductive or anthropometric characteristics or circulating hormones. PMID:15247126

  15. Effect of smoking status on coronary artery disease among Chinese post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinling; Wang, Xiujie; Gao, Meng; Ding, Yu; Guan, Yadong

    2016-06-01

    Smoking is a prominent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The occurrence of myocardial infarction and mortality in smokers with cardiovascular diseases is several times higher than that in non-smokers. Smoking is associated with gender-independent enhanced mortality. We determined the effect of smoking status on coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in Chinese post-menopausal women. Among these patients, those with significant CAD (≥50 % luminal narrowing) were further classified into one-, two-, or three-vessel disease according to CCTA results. The following events were recorded: all-cause mortality, non-fatal infarction and unstable angina. 2332 patients evaluated with CCTA included 1668 never smokers (71.5 %), 475 former smokers (20.4 %), and 189 current smokers (8.1 %). The current smokers exhibit greater luminal narrowing as observed on CCTA (p < 0.001) than the other subjects. During the median 685 ± 269.8 days follow-up period, never-smoking women have a low incidence of events, whereas former and current smokers are associated with an increased incidence of such event (p < 0.001). Furthermore, current smoking and the presence of multiple-vessel disease on CCTA are independently associated with the events in the logistic regression analysis. Smoking status is related to significant CAD and luminal narrowing on CCTA in the Chinese post-menopausal smoking women. In addition, current smoking and the presence of multiple-vessel disease on CCTA can independently predict events of all-cause mortality, non-fatal infarction or unstable angina. PMID:26498659

  16. Low bone mineral density is related to atherosclerosis in postmenopausal Moroccan women

    PubMed Central

    Hmamouchi, Ihsane; Allali, Fadoua; Khazzani, Hamza; Bennani, Loubna; Mansouri, Leila EL; Ichchou, Linda; Cherkaoui, Mohammed; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2009-01-01

    Background Some studies have implicated several possible metabolic linkages between osteoporosis and vascular calcification, including estrogen deficiency, vitamin D excess, vitamin K deficiency and lipid oxidation products. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are related to each other or are independent processes, both related to aging. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the correlation between arterial thickening and bone status in a sample of apparently healthy Moroccan women. Methods Seventy-two postmenopausal women were studied. All patients were without secondary causes that might affect bone density. Bone status was assessed by bone mineral density (BMD) in lumbar spine and all femoral sites. Arterial wall thickening was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT) in carotid artery (CA) and femoral artery (FA). Prevalent plaques were categorized into four groups ranging from low echogenicity to high echogenicity. Results The mean age was 59.2 ± 8.3 years. 84.7% had at least one plaque. By Spearman Rank correlation, CA IMT was negatively correlated to Femoral total BMD (r = -0.33), Femoral neck BMD (r = -0.23), Ward triangle BMD (r = -0.30) and Trochanter BMD (r = -0.28) while there was no association with lumbar BMD. In multiple regression analysis, CA IMT emerged as an independent factor significantly associated with all femoral sites BMD after adjusting of confounding factors. FA IMT failed to be significantly associated with both Femoral and Lumbar BMD. No significant differences between echogenic, predominantly echogenic, predominantly echolucent and echolucent plaques groups were found concerning lumbar BMD and all femoral sites BMD Conclusion Our results demonstrate a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) qnd carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in postmenopausal women, independently of confounding factors. We suggest that bone status should be evaluated in patients with vascular

  17. Pericardial Fat Loss in Postmenopausal Women under Conditions of Equal Energy Deficit

    PubMed Central

    BRINKLEY, TINA E.; DING, JINGZHONG; CARR, J. JEFFREY; NICKLAS, BARBARA J.

    2013-01-01

    Weight loss induced by caloric restriction (CR) or aerobic exercise can reduce pericardial fat, and these reductions may help improve cardiovascular health. Purpose We examined whether combining CR with aerobic exercise enhances pericardial fat loss compared with a CR-only intervention designed to elicit equivalent reductions in body weight. We also examined the relationship between changes in pericardial fat and changes in maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max), a measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods Thirty-two abdominally obese postmenopausal women (mean age = 58 yr; 78% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to one of three interventions of equal energy deficit (~2800 kcal·wk−1) for 20 wk: CR only (n = 8), CR + moderate-intensity exercise (n = 15), or CR + vigorous-intensity exercise (n = 9). The volume of pericardial fat around the coronary arteries was measured by computed tomography. Results Women in the CR, CR + moderate-intensity, and CR + vigorous-intensity groups had similar baseline characteristics. The mean ± SD value for pericardial fat before weight loss was 79.07 ± 32.90 cm3 (range = 34.04–152.74 cm3), with no difference among groups (P = 0.89). All three interventions significantly reduced body weight (15%), waist circumference (10%), and abdominal visceral fat (28%) to a similar degree. There was also a 17% reduction in pericardial fat (−12.75 ± 6.29 cm3, P < 0.0001), which did not differ among groups (P = 0.84). Changes in pericardial fat were inversely correlated with changes in V̇O2max (r = −0.37, P = 0.05), but not after adjusting for intervention group and change in body weight. Conclusions Weight loss interventions of equal energy deficit have similar effects on pericardial fat in postmenopausal women, regardless of whether the energy deficit is due to CR alone or CR plus aerobic exercise. PMID:20881884

  18. Alterations in Adhesion Molecules, Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Cell-Derived Microparticles Contribute to Intima-Media Thickness and Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Vega, Nicté; Moreno-Frías, Carmen; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Menopause, the cessation of menses, occurs with estrogens decline, low-grade inflammation, and impaired endothelial function, contributing to atherosclerotic risk. Intima-media thickness (IMT) is an early subclinical biomarker of atherosclerosis. Inflammation may have a role on symptoms: hot flashes, anxiety, and depressive mood, which also are related to endothelial dysfunction, increased IMT and cardiovascular risk. In this study we compared several inflammatory markers in early vs. late postmenopausal women and studied the association of IMT and symptoms with these markers in the full sample. In a cross-sectional design including 60 women (53.1±4.4 years old) at early and late postmenopause, we evaluated the expression of CD62L, ICAM-1, PSGL-1, CD11b, CD11c, and IL-8R on PBMC by flow cytometry. Serum soluble ICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sCD62E, sCD62P, CXCL8, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were quantified by ELISA. Plasma levels of microparticles (MPs) were determined by FACS. Finally, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound. We observed that ICAM-1 expression by lymphocytes and serum sVCAM-1 levels were augmented at late postmenopause. Late postmenopause women with severe hot flashes had increased expression of CD62L and IL-8R on neutrophils. By multivariate analysis, the carotid IMT was strongly associated with membrane-bound TNF-α, CD11b expression, Annexin V+ CD3+ MPs, LPS-induced NO production, HDL-cholesterol and age. Depressive mood was associated negatively with PSGL-1 and positively with LPS-induced NO. Finally, Log(AMH) levels were associated with carotid IMT, IL-8R expression and time since menopause. IMT and depressive mood were the main clinical features related to vascular inflammation. Aging, hormonal changes and obesity were also related to endothelial dysfunction. These findings provide further evidence for a link between estrogen deficiency and low-grade inflammation in endothelial impairment in mature women. PMID:25993480

  19. [Dietary isolated isoflavone supplements for peri- and postmenopausal women: risks and questionable benefits].

    PubMed

    Andres, S; Lampen, A

    2013-02-01

    Isolated isoflavones are frequently offered as dietary supplements for the alleviation of peri- and postmenopausal complaints. These mainly soy-based secondary plant compounds are marketed with the claim of having numerous beneficial effects such as protection against breast cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Currently, there is no conclusive evidence for most of these health impacts. In addition, there is a controversial ongoing discussion about the safety of these products. After a long-term intake of high isoflavone doses, adverse effects on the breast tissue, the endometrium, and the thyroid, the last one especially under iodine-deficient conditions, cannot be excluded. Owing to their estrogenic effects, isoflavones may promote the growth of estrogen-sensitive malignant cells. The risk assessment of isoflavones is especially focused on peri- and postmenopausal women because they are the target group for dietary supplements based on isolated isoflavones and have, anyway, a higher risk for breast cancer. Since long-term treatment with isolated isoflavones, especially at high doses, is considered critical, we recommend that patients consume isoflavone-based supplements only after advice and under medical supervision. PMID:23232539

  20. High-volume resistance training reduces postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Correa, Cleiton Silva; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Cobos, Roberto Carlos Rebolledo; Macedo, Rodrigo Cauduro Oliveira; Kruger, Renata Lopes; Carteri, Randall Bruce Kreismann; Radaelli, Régis; Gross, Julia Silveira; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 11 weeks of low-volume resistance training (LVRT) and high-volume resistance training (HVRT) on muscle strength, muscle thickness (MT), and postprandial lipaemia (PPL) in postmenopausal women. Thirty-six healthy and untrained postmenopausal women (age, 58.9 ± 5.8 years; 68.6 ± 10.3 kg; and BMI, 26.9 ± 4.8 kg · m(-2)) participated in resistance training 3× per week for 11 weeks (HVRT = 12; LVRT = 13; and control group = 11). Biochemical variables, both pretraining and post-training, were evaluated 16 h after the administration of an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and metabolic variable during [energy expenditure (EE)] and after training session [excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)]. Muscle strength (1 RM) and MT were also calculated, and no significant differences were observed between the groups for PPL (mmol · L(-1) per 5 h) as measured by glucose, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol. EE total (EE + EPOC; 6.12 ± 1.21 MJ vs. 2.26 ± 0.85 MJ), resting fat oxidation (5.52 ± 1.69 g · h(-1) vs. 4.11 ± 1.12 g · h(-1)); MT (vastus medialis, 21.4 ± 1.8 mm vs. 18.4 ± 1.2 mm and vastus lateralis 22.3 ± 1.2 mm vs. 20.8 ± 1.3 mm); triacylglycerol (TAG) 0, 1, 2, 4; and 5 h after OFTT, TAG area under the curve (AUC) (5.79 ± 0.42 vs. 7.78 ± 0.68), and incremental AUC (-46.21 ± 14.42% vs. 7.78 ± 4.68%) were all significantly different post-training for HVRT versus LVRT, respectively (P < 0.05). The results of this investigation suggest that HVRT reduces PPL in postmenopausal women. PMID:25794044

  1. Treatments for post-menopausal osteoporotic women, what's new? How can we manage long-term treatment?

    PubMed

    Herrero, Soledad; Pico, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Since the mid-1980s, postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) has been considered a serious public health concern because of the associated fractures. Pharmacological therapies that effectively reduce the number of fractures by improving bone mass have been and are being developed continuously. Most current agents inhibit bone loss by reducing bone resorption, but emerging therapies may increase bone mass by stimulating bone formation. Furthermore, nowadays, the most representative pharmaceuticals have been prescribed long enough to include the reporting of some adverse effects. This review discusses osteoporotic drugs that are approved or are under investigation for the treatment of post-menopausal women (PMW), paying particular attention to long-term treatments. PMID:26923729

  2. Endocrine, neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of oral dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate supplementation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Stomati, M; Rubino, S; Spinetti, A; Parrini, D; Luisi, S; Casarosa, E; Petraglia, F; Genazzani, A R

    1999-02-01

    Aging in women and men is characterized by a progressive decline of circulating dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels and its sulfate ester (DHEAS). The improvement of wellbeing described in postmenopausal women treated with DHEA suggests that this steroid may exert specific actions on the central nervous system (CNS). The postmenopausal period is associated with several neuroendocrine modifications. The decrease of circulating levels of beta-endorphin is considered a hormonal marker of those changes. The aim of the present study was to investigate neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of three months of DHEAS supplementation in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women (n = 22) were divided in three groups: the first group was treated with oral DHEAS (n = 8) (50 mg/day), the second treated with the same dose of oral DHEAS + transdermal estradiol (n = 8) (DHEAS) 50 mg/day, estradiol 50 micrograms/patch) and the third with transdermal estradiol alone (n = 6) (50 micrograms/day). Before and after 1, 2 and 3 months of therapy, the following circulating steroid and protein hormone levels were evaluated: DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone, estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), beta-endorphin, growth hormone (GH) and cortisol, and a Kupperman score was performed. Before and after treatments, plasma beta-endorphin levels were evaluated in response to three neuroendocrine tests: (a) clonidine, an alpha 2-presynaptic adrenergic agonist (1.25 mg i.v.) (b) naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist (4 mg i.v.) and (c) fluoxetine, a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor (30 mg p.o.). In both groups of women treated with DHEAS, mean basal serum DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, and testosterone levels significantly increased after treatment, while no changes were shown in the group receiving estradiol alone. Serum estradiol, estrone, GH and plasma beta-endorphin levels

  3. Associations between healthy eating patterns and indicators of metabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since human diets contain many components that may work synergistically to prevent or promote disease, assessing diet quality may be informative. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between quality diet, by using Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and metabolic risk indicators in postmenopausal women. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 173 Brazilian women, aged 45-75 years, seeking healthcare at a public outpatient center. Food consumption assessed by 24 h-recall food inquiry was used to calculate HEI scores: >80 implied diet good, 80-51 diet "needed improvement", and <51 diet poor. Anthropometric data included: body mass index (BMI = weight/height2), waist-circumference (WC), body fat (%BF) and lean mass (%LM). Data on total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and triglycerides (TG) were also collected. Fisher's Exact test, and logistic regression method (to determine odds ratio, OR) were used in the statistical analysis. Results Overweight and obesity were observed in 75.7% of the participants. Excessive %BF (> 35%) was observed in 56.1%, while %LM was reduced (< 70%) in 78.1%. WC was elevated (≥88 cm) in 72.3%. Based on HEI values, diet quality was good in 3% (5/173), needed improvement in 48.5% (84/173), and was poor in 48.5% (84/173) of the cases. In this group, 75% of women had high intakes of lipids (> 35%), predominantly saturated and monounsaturated fat. On average, plasma TC, LDLC, and TG levels were higher than recommended in 57.2%, 79.2% and 45.1% of the women, respectively, while HDLC was low in 50.8%. There was association between HEI scores and the %BF that it was higher among women with HEI score < 80 (p = 0.021). There were not observed significant risk associations between HEI and lipid profile. Conclusion Among the Brazilian postmenopausal women attending a public outpatient clinic, diet was considered to need improvement or

  4. Comparison of the effect of sorbitol and glucose on calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.M.; Peacock, M.; Barkworth, S.A.; Marshall, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that the oral administration of sorbitol promotes calcium absorption, while glucose has no effect. We have therefore compared the effect of oral sorbitol and glucose on the absorption of radiocalcium from low and high carrier loads in healthy postmenopausal women. In a control group of 20 women given neither sorbitol nor glucose, the mean +/- SEM fractional radiocalcium absorption rate from a low carrier load was 0.65 +/- 0.05 (fraction of dose/h). In a second group of 10 women the fractional absorption rate from the low carrier load was lower (p less than 0.05) with 10 g sorbitol (0.48 +/- 0.05) than with 10 g glucose (0.65 +/- 0.08). Fractional absorption of radiocalcium from a high carrier load measured in a third group of seven women using two isotopes (oral 45Ca, IV 47Ca) was also lower (p less than 0.001) with 10 g sorbitol (0.22 +/- 0.01, fraction/3 h) than with 10 g glucose (0.29 +/- 0.02). The results suggest that calcium absorption from a low carrier load is unaltered by glucose but that absorption of calcium from both low and high carrier loads is lower with sorbitol than with glucose.

  5. Physical exercise and osteoporosis: effects of different types of exercises on bone and physical function of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Oliveira, Mônica Longo de; Lirani-Galvão, Ana Paula; Marin-Mio, Rosângela Villa; Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco dos; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise is an important stimulus for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. However, it is not clear yet which modality would be better to stimulate bone metabolism and enhance physical function of postmenopausal women. This review paper aims to summarize and update present knowledge on the effects of different kinds of aquatic and ground physical exercises on bone metabolism and physical function of postmenopausal women. Moderate to intense exercises, performed in a high speed during short intervals of time, in water or on the ground, can be part of a program to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mechanical vibration has proven to be beneficial for bone microarchitecture, improving bone density and bone strength, as well as increasing physical function. Although impact exercises are recognized as beneficial for the stimulation of bone tissue, other variables such as muscle strength, type of muscle contraction, duration and intensity of exercises are also determinants to induce changes in bone metabolism of postmenopausal women. Not only osteoanabolic exercises should be recommended; activities aimed to develop muscle strength and body balance and improve the proprioception should be encouraged to prevent falls and fractures. PMID:25166042

  6. Obesity-related phenotypes and the beta3-adrenoceptor gene variant in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tchernof, A; Starling, R D; Walston, J D; Shuldiner, A R; Dvorak, R V; Silver, K; Matthews, D E; Poehlman, E T

    1999-07-01

    We examined the hypothesis that postmenopausal women with the beta3-adrenoceptor gene variant (Trp64Arg) have reduced total daily energy expenditure (TEE), altered free fatty acid kinetics, and increased intra-abdominal fat. A secondary objective was to examine whether the obese state masks the effect of the variant on resting metabolic rate (RMR). There were 23 obese heterozygous women with the genetic variant (age 58 +/- 6 years; BMI 36 +/- 7 kg/m2) who were compared with 19 homozygous obese women with the normal allele (age 56 +/- 4 years; BMI 36 +/- 3 kg/m2). Daily energy expenditure was determined from doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry, lipolysis from infusion of [1-13C]palmitate, and body fat distribution from computed tomography. No significant differences were found in TEE, RMR, energy expenditure of physical activity, the thermic effect of a meal, fat oxidation as estimated by fasting and postprandial respiratory quotients (RQs), or rate of lipolysis. Similarly, no difference was found in visceral adipose tissue and abdominal subcutaneous fat areas. When RMR was compared between obese (n = 23) and never-obese women with the Trp64Arg variant (n = 16), we found a 317 kcal/day lower RMR in never-obese women after controlling for fat mass, fat-free mass, and age (P < 0.0017). These results do not support the hypothesis that already obese women with the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene have lower daily energy expenditure, altered lipolysis, and increased abdominal obesity. On the other hand, the lower RMR in never-obese women suggests that the obese state may mask a moderate effect of the Trp64Arg variant on energy expenditure. Although these results need to be confirmed in other populations, the obese state may have been a confounding factor in previous studies of the beta3-adrenoceptor Trp64Arg variant and energy expenditure. PMID:10389848

  7. Changes in Physical Activity and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women over Time

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Stacy T.; Kubo, Jessica; Desai, Manisha; Bea, Jennifer; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Allison, Matthew; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Chen, Zhao; Michael, Yvonne L.; Sullivan, Shannon D.; Beresford, Shirley; Stefanick, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Higher physical activity (PA) has been associated with greater attenuation of body-fat gain and preservation of lean mass across the lifespan. These analyses aimed to determine relationships of change in PA to changes in fat and lean body mass in a longitudinal prospective study of postmenopausal women. Methods Among 11,491 women enrolled at three Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) clinical centers were selected to undergo dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), 8,352 had baseline body composition measurements, with at least one repeated measure at yr 1, 3, and 6. PA data were obtained by self-report at baseline, 3 and 6 yr of follow-up. Time-varying PA impact on change in lean and fat mass during the six-yr study period for age groups (50–59y, 60–69y, 70–79y) was estimated using mixed effects linear regression. Results Baseline PA and body composition differed significantly among the three age groups. The association of change in fat mass from baseline and time-varying PA differed across the three age groups (p=0.0006). In women aged 50–59, gain in fat mass from baseline was attenuated with higher levels of physical activity. Women aged 70–79 lost fat mass at all PA levels. In contrast, change in lean mass from baseline and time-varying PA did not differ by age group (p=0.1935). Conclusions The association between PA and change in fat mass varies by age group, with younger, but not older, women benefitting from higher levels of aerobic PA. Higher levels of aerobic activity are not associated with changes in lean mass, which tends to decrease in older women regardless of activity level. Greater attention to resistance training exercises may be needed to prevent lean mass loss as women age. PMID:23439422

  8. Optimal Cutoffs of Obesity Measures in Relation to Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health Initiative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; Strickler, Howard D.; Lin, Juan; Hou, Lifang; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Rohan, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obesity is a risk factor for several cancers in postmenopausal women. We attempted to determine cutoffs of adiposity measures in relation to risk of obesity-related cancers among postmenopausal women and to examine the effects of hormone therapy (HT) use on the cutoffs, neither of which has been broadly studied. Methods: We used data from the Women's Health Initiative cohort (n=144,701) and applied Cox-proportional hazards regressions to each combination of 17 cancer types and 6 anthropometric measures (weight, body mass index [BMI], weight to height ratio, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio [WHR], and waist to height ratio). Interactions between the anthropometric measures and HT use were also examined. Cutoffs were determined by applying a grid search followed by a two-fold cross validation method. Survival ROC analysis of 5- and 10-year incidence followed. Results: Breast, colorectal, colon, endometrium, kidney, and all cancers combined were significantly positively associated with all six anthropometric measures, whereas lung cancer among ever smokers was significantly inversely associated with all measures except WHR. The derived cutoffs of each obesity measure varied across cancers (e.g., BMI cutoffs for breast and endometrium cancers were 30 kg/m2 and 34 kg/m2, respectively), and also depended on HT use. The Youden indices of the cutoffs for predicting 5- and 10-year cancer incidence were higher among HT never users. Conclusion: Using a panel of different anthropometric measures, we derived optimal cut-offs categorizing populations into high- and low-risk groups, which differed by cancer type and HT use. Although the discrimination abilities of these risk categories were generally poor, the results of this study could serve as a starting point from which to determine adiposity cutoffs for inclusion in risk prediction models for specific cancer types. PMID:25587642

  9. Vasomotor symptoms and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin-resistance in Korean postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dae Hui; Lee, Ju Hak; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Park, Hyun-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and insulin resistance, which can be postulated by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index. This study involved 1,547 Korean postmenopausal women (age, 45 to 65 years) attending a routine health check-up at a single institution in Korea from January 2010 to December 2012. A menopause rating scale questionnaire was used to assess the severity of VMS. The mean age of participants was 55.22±4.8 years and 885 (57.2%) reported VMS in some degree. The mean HOMA index was 1.79±0.96, and the HOMA index increased with an increase in severity of VMS (none, mild, moderate and severe) in logistic regression analysis (β=0.068, t=2.665, P =0.008). Insulin resistance needs to be considered to understand the linkage between VMS and cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:26866035

  10. Position of the Spanish Menopause Society regarding vaginal health care in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; Manubens, Montserrat; Navarro, Maria Concepción; Cancelo, Ma Jesús; Beltrán, Estanislao; Duran, Magda; Orte, Teresa; Baquedano, Laura; Palacios, Santiago; Mendoza, Nicolás

    2014-06-01

    Vaginal health, defined as the vaginal state in which the physiological condition remains stable, being protected from the onset of symptoms and facilitating a satisfying sex life, is one of the most common and less valued concerns in postmenopausal women. Many of the conditions that affect the vagina are related to its trophism and susceptibility to infection by unusual germs, which are phenomena strongly influenced by estrogen impregnation and the microbiota composition, ultimately affecting sexuality and the quality of life. An expert panel of the Spanish Menopause Society met to establish criteria for diagnosing and treating the processes that affect overall vaginal health and to decide the optimal timing and methods based on the best evidence available. PMID:24720907

  11. Short-term weight gain and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor classification among pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Bernard; Eliassen, A Heather; Toriola, Adetunji T; Hankinson, Susan E; Willett, Walter C; Natarajan, Loki; Colditz, Graham A

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is well established as a cause of postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and mortality. In contrast, adiposity in early life reduces breast cancer incidence. However, whether short-term weight change influences breast cancer risk is not well known. We followed a cohort of 77,232 women from 1980 to 2006 (1,445,578 person-years), with routinely updated risk factor information, documenting 4196 incident cases of invasive breast cancer. ER and PR status were obtained from pathology reports and medical records yielding a total of 2033 ER+/PR+ tumors, 595 ER-/PR- tumors, 512 ER+/PR- tumors. The log incidence breast cancer model was used to assess the association of short-term weight gain (over past 4 years) while controlling for average BMI before and after menopause. Short-term weight change was significantly associated with breast cancer risk (RR 1.20; 95 % CI 1.09-1.33) for a 4-year weight gain of ≥15 lbs versus no change (≤5 lbs) (P_trend < 0.001). The association was stronger for premenopausal women (RR 1.38; 95 % CI 1.13-1.69) (P_trend = 0.004) than for postmenopausal women (RR 1.10; 95 % CI 0.97-1.25) (P_trend = 0.063). Short-term weight gain during premenopause had a stronger association for ER+/PR- (RR per 25 lb weight gain = 2.19; 95 % CI 1.33-3.61, P = 0.002) and ER-/PR- breast cancer (RR per 25 lb weight gain = 1.61; 95 % CI 1.09-2.38, P = 0.016) than for ER+/PR+ breast cancer (RR per 25 lb weight gain = 1.13; 95 % CI 0.89-1.43, P = 0.32). There are deleterious effects of short-term weight gain, particularly during pre-menopause, even after controlling for average BMI before and after menopause. The association was stronger for ER+/PR- and ER-/PR- than for ER+/PR+ breast cancer. PMID:25796612

  12. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth.We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders.The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors.Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  13. Association of estrogen receptor β and estrogen-related receptor α gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shoukry, Amira; Shalaby, Sally M; Etewa, Rasha L; Ahmed, Hanan S; Abdelrahman, Hossam M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association of AluI and RsaI polymorphisms of estrogen receptor β (ER-β) gene and 23-bp nucleotide repeat polymorphism of estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) gene with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Egyptian women. Two-hundred postmenopausal osteoporotic women as cases and 180 healthy age-matched postmenopausal women as controls were genotyped by PCR fragment length polymorphism for AluI, allele-specific PCR for RsaI, and by sizing of PCR products on agarose gels for ERRα repeats. sRANKL levels were estimated by ELISA. BMD measurements for spine and femoral neck were performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A significant difference between women with osteoporosis and controls regarding allele and genotype distributions of AluI G/A (OR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.77-3.18 and p < 0.001 for A allele) and ERRα polymorphisms (for the two repeats allele OR 2.08, 95 % CI 1.09-4.00, and p = 0.02). Osteoporotic women with the AluI AA + GA genotype or with the EERα 2,2 genotype had significantly lower BMD than did women with the other genotypes. Moreover, there was a significant increase of the mean values of sRANKL in carriers of AluI A, RsaI A alleles and in patients having 2,2 genotypes of ERRα (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). We demonstrated an association of ER-β AluI G/A and ERRα 23-repeats polymorphisms with BMD in postmenopausal Egyptian women. A possible effect of ER-β and ERRα polymorphisms on the levels of sRANKL was estimated. PMID:25903400

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Pharmaceutical Interventions to Prevent Osteoporotic Fractures in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jin-Won; Park, Hae-Young; Kim, Ye Jee; Moon, Seong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the cost-effectiveness of drug therapy to prevent osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with osteopenia in Korea. Methods A Markov cohort simulation was conducted for lifetime with a hypothetical cohort of postmenopausal women with osteopenia and without prior fractures. They were assumed to receive calcium/vitamin D supplements only or drug therapy (i.e., raloxifene or risedronate) along with calcium/vitamin D for 5 years. The Markov model includes fracture-specific and non-fracture specific health states (i.e. breast cancer and venous thromboembolism), and all-cause death. Published literature was used to determine the model parameters. Local data were used to estimate the baseline incidence rates of fracture in those with osteopenia and the costs associated with each health state. Results From a societal perspective, the estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for the base cases that had T-scores between -2.0 and -2.4 and began drug therapy at the age of 55, 60, or 65 years were $16,472, $6,741, and -$13,982 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, respectively. Sensitivity analyses for medication compliance, risk of death following vertebral fracture, and relaxing definition of osteopenia resulted in ICERs reached to $24,227 per QALY gained. Conclusions ICERs for the base case and sensitivity analyses remained within the World Health Organization's willingness-to-pay threshold, which is less than per-capita gross domestic product in Korea (about $25,700). Thus, we conclude that drug therapy for osteopenia would be a cost-effective intervention, and we recommend that the Korean National Health Insurance expand its coverage to include drug therapy for osteopenia. PMID:27294078

  15. Factors That Contribute to Low Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women in Different Amazonian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Borba-Pinheiro, Cláudio Joaquim; Drigo, Alexandre Janotta; de Alencar Carvalho, Mauro César Gurgel; da Silva, Nádia Souza Lima; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to verify socioeconomic differences, nutrition, body balance and quality of life (QoL) in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD) in two Amazonian communities. Methods: A total of 42 female volunteers participated in the study. The volunteers were separated into two groups: Villa (n = 20; 53 ± 5.5 years) and City (n = 22; 56 ± 7.9 years). The following evaluation instruments were used: dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); a socioeconomic questionnaire; a QoL questionnaire; a dietary habits questionnaire; and a balance test. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used. Results: The data showed significant differences in socioeconomic level (Δ%=+15.9%, p = 0.000), lumbar spine L2-L4 (Δ% = +0.10%, p = 0.007), balance (Δ% = +4.3%, p = 0.03) and some important aspects of nutrition, such as the consumption of milk (Δ%=+34%, p = 0.01) and alcohol (+14.8%, p = 0.0001). These significant differences also contributed to the total QoL score (Δ%=+76.2%, p = 0.000) and the majority of the QoL-related functions. Conclusion: This study verified that socioeconomic level, nutritional status, physical activity levels and QoL can influence the BMD of postmenopausal women. The study suggests new strategies for official health organizations to use in order to prevent and treat osteoporosis. In addition, this study can provide an orientation to physical activity, nutrition and medical professionals. PMID:22870468

  16. Association of chemerin levels and bone mineral density in Chinese obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Mao, Chaoming; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Rencong; Li, Lin; Mou, Xiao; Xu, Ping; Li, Hongli; Xu, Chengcheng; Yuan, Guoyue; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests the association between obesity and bone metabolism. However, whether excessive fat accumulation has a beneficial or adverse effect on bone health remains controversial. Chemerin is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone and a chemoattractant cytokine that regulates adipogenesis. This study was performed to investigate the associations of serum chemerin with bone mineral density (BMD) and serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in 543 Chinese obese postmenopausal women. BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine, lean mass, and fat mass were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric assessment and laboratory measurements were performed. The age, time after menopause, and fat mass were negatively correlated with femoral and lumbar BMD, whereas lean mass was positively correlated with aforementioned variables. Furthermore, BMD at the lumbar spine was inversely associated with serum chemerin and TNF-α levels (r = -0.155, P = 0.001; r = -0.147, P = 0.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that serum chemerin levels were negatively correlated with BMD at the lumbar site after controlling for the age, lean, and fat mass (β = -0.125, P = 0.001). Chronic low-grade inflammation state in obese population has an inverse effect on bone mass. Chemerin as an adipocytokine and chemoattractant negatively affects the bone mass of Chinese obese postmenopausal women. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential role of chemerin in the crosstalk between bone and fat accumulation in obese population. PMID:27583869

  17. Denosumab or Zoledronic Acid in Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis Previously Treated With Oral Bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Pannacciulli, N.; Brown, J. P.; Czerwinski, E.; Nedergaard, B. S.; Bolognese, M. A.; Malouf, J.; Bone, H. G.; Reginster, J.-Y.; Singer, A.; Wang, C.; Wagman, R. B.; Cummings, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Denosumab and zoledronic acid (ZOL) are parenteral treatments for patients with osteoporosis. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the effect of transitioning from oral bisphosphonates to denosumab or ZOL on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover. Design and Setting: This was an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial. Participants: A total of 643 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis previously treated with oral bisphosphonates participated in the study. Interventions: Subjects were randomized 1:1 to sc denosumab 60 mg every 6 months plus iv placebo once or ZOL 5 mg iv once plus sc placebo every 6 months for 12 months. Main Outcome Measures: Changes in BMD and bone turnover markers were measured. Results: BMD change from baseline at month 12 was significantly greater with denosumab compared with ZOL at the lumbar spine (primary end point; 3.2% vs 1.1%; P < .0001), total hip (1.9% vs 0.6%; P < .0001), femoral neck (1.2% vs −0.1%; P < .0001), and one-third radius (0.6% vs 0.0%; P < .05). The median decrease from baseline was greater with denosumab than ZOL for serum C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen at all time points after day 10 and for serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide at month 1 and at all time points after month 3 (all P < .05). Median percentage changes from baseline in serum intact PTH were significantly greater at months 3 and 9 with denosumab compared with ZOL (all P < .05). Adverse events were similar between groups. Three events consistent with the definition of atypical femoral fracture were observed (two denosumab and one ZOL). Conclusions: In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis previously treated with oral bisphosphonates, denosumab was associated with greater BMD increases at all measured skeletal sites and greater inhibition of bone remodeling compared with ZOL. PMID:27270237

  18. The effect of carbohydrates in milk on the absorption of calcium by postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Schuette, S.A.; Yasillo, N.J.; Thompson, C.M. )

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the presence of carbohydrate in milk, either lactose or its hydrolysis products, enhance the bioavailability of calcium (Ca) in milk. Two studies were performed. In study A, fractional Ca absorption was measured in 11 lactose-tolerant postmenopausal women after an oral dose of {sup 47}Ca-equilibrated milk formula containing no carbohydrate (NOCHO), lactose (LACTOSE), or an equivalent amount of glucose plus galactose (SUGAR); all participated in three absorption studies in random order. The NOCHO formula contained 10.0 g protein and 217 mg Ca from a combination of milk mineral and protein isolates; the LACTOSE and SUGAR formulae contained in addition 12 g lactose or 6 g glucose plus 6 g galactose, respectively. In study B, fractional Ca absorption was measured in five postmenopausal women after an oral dose of {sub 47}Ca-equilibrated skim milk (217 mg Ca) and lactase-treated milk, each with sufficient carbohydrate added to equal 12 g. For both studies, the increase in forearm radioactivity 4 and 8 hours after oral {sup 47}Ca administration relative to the increase observed after IV administration was used to estimate fractional Ca absorption. The addition of lactose but not glucose plus galactose to the NOCHO formula enhanced Ca absorption (p less than 0.05). Fractional absorption at 4 hours was 0.386 from the LACTOSE formula compared with 0.310 for both the NOCHO and SUGAR formulae. Those individuals with the lowest absorption in the absence of carbohydrate had the greatest increase with lactose. In contrast, Ca absorption was the same from skim milk as from lactase-treated skim milk (study B).

  19. Association of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and pathogenic oral bacteria in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Michelle W; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Ram, Pavani K; LaMonte, Michael J.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Genco, Robert J.; Andrews, Christopher A.; Millen, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous findings of an association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and periodontal disease, may be partially explained by vitamin D’s antimicrobial properties. To our knowledge, no study has investigated the association between 25(OH)D and pathogenic oral bacteria, a putative cause of periodontal disease. Methods We examined the association between plasma 25(OH)D concentrations and pathogenic oral bacteria among postmenopausal women in the Buffalo Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease Study (1997–2000), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Subgingival plaque samples were assessed using immunofluorescence for the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Campylobacter rectus. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prevalent bacteria by quintile (Q) of 25(OH)D concentrations adjusting for age and body mass index. Results Of the 855 participants, 288 (34%) had deficient/inadequate (<50 nmol/L) 25(OH)D concentrations and 497 (58%) had at least one species of pathogenic bacteria. No significant association was found between 25(OH)D and presence of any of these bacteria (adjusted OR for high (Q5) compared to low (Q1) 25(OH)D=0.96; 95% CI: 0.61–1.50, p for trend=0.50). Inverse, although not statistically significant, associations were found between 25(OH)D and more than one species of pathogenic bacteria (adjusted OR for adequate compared to deficient/inadequate 25(OH)D=0.85; 95% CI: 0.60–1.19). Conclusions No association was observed between pathogenic oral bacteria and 25(OH)D concentrations in postmenopausal women. This may be due to the species of bacteria assessed, small effect size or a true absence of an association. PMID:24261910

  20. Dose effect of cardiorespiratory exercise on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Earnest, Conrad P; Johannsen, Neil M; Swift, Damon L; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Church, Timothy S

    2013-06-15

    As an ancillary report to a large National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded trial, we examined the effects of 6 months of exercise training at 50%, 100%, and 150% of the NIH Consensus Recommendations for physical activity (i.e., 4, 8, and 12 kcal/kg of energy expenditure/wk [KKW]) versus a nonexercise control group on the metabolic syndrome (MS) in sedentary, overweight, moderately hypertensive, postmenopausal women. We examined the clinically defined National Cholesterol Education Program MS, individual components scores, and summed z-scores, expressed as a continuous variable (zMS), using chi-square and general linear models to assess the clinical and progressive nature of MS, respectively. Our results showed significant improvements in zMS for all exercise groups and MS for the 8- and 12 KKW groups only (all, p for trend = 0.02). Post hoc analyses showed that 12 KKW for zMS and 8 and 12 KKW for MS was significant versus the control group (all, p <0.05). When examining the composite scores, we observed significant trends for improvement in waist circumference (p for trend = 0.001), fasting glucose (p for trend = 0.01), and systolic blood pressure (p for trend = 0.02), which appeared to be dose dependent, given the additive nature for incorporating the within-group improvements in waist circumference (4, 8, and 12 KKW), fasting glucose (8 and 12 KKW), and systolic blood pressure (12 KKW). Our results suggest that low-to-moderate intensity cardiorespiratory exercise appears to improve components of the MS in postmenopausal women at levels at or greater than NIH recommendations and that zMS improves at half the NIH recommendations. Greater levels of energy expenditure appear to enhance this effect by incorporating a greater number of requisite MS composite scores. PMID:23578351

  1. Effects of a safflower tea supplement on antioxidative status and bone markers in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jeong-Hee; Yoon, Ji Young; Han, Chi-Dong; Choi, Youngsun; Choi, Sang-Won

    2011-01-01

    We conducted this study to examine the effects of safflower seed granular tea containing physiologically active polyphenols on antioxidative activities and bone metabolism. Forty postmenopausal women ages 49 to 64-years were recruited from Daegu and Gyeongbuk and were randomly assigned to either a safflower tea supplement (Saf-tea) group (n = 27) or a placebo group (n = 13). The Saf-tea group received 20 g of safflower seed granule tea per day containing a 13% ethanol extract of defatted safflower seeds, whereas the placebo group received a similar type of tea that lacked the ethanol extract. No significant changes in nutrient intake for either the placebo or Saf-tea groups were observed before or after the study period, except vitamin A intake increased after 6 months in the Saf-tea group. Dietary phytoestrogen intakes were similar in the Saf-tea group (60.3 mg) and placebo group (52.5 mg). Significant increases in plasma genistein and enterolactone were observed in the Saf-tea group. After 6 months of supplementation, serum levels of antioxidant vitamins such as α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid increased significantly, and TBARS levels decreased in the Saf-tea group compared to the placebo group. Serum osteocalcin levels were reduced (P < 0.05) in the Saf-tea group after 6 months, whereas serum osteocalcin did not change in the placebo group. Urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine excretion was not different between the two groups at baseline, and did not change in either group after 6 months. Bone mineral density decreased significantly in the placebo group (P < 0.01) but not in the supplemented group. It was concluded that polyphenols (72 mg/day), including serotonin derivatives, in the Saf-tea had both antioxidant and potential bone protecting effects in postmenopausal women without liver toxicity. PMID:21487492

  2. Association of chemerin levels and bone mineral density in Chinese obese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang; Mao, Chaoming; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Rencong; Li, Lin; Mou, Xiao; Xu, Ping; Li, Hongli; Xu, Chengcheng; Yuan, Guoyue; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Increasing evidence suggests the association between obesity and bone metabolism. However, whether excessive fat accumulation has a beneficial or adverse effect on bone health remains controversial. Chemerin is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone and a chemoattractant cytokine that regulates adipogenesis. This study was performed to investigate the associations of serum chemerin with bone mineral density (BMD) and serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in 543 Chinese obese postmenopausal women. BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine, lean mass, and fat mass were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric assessment and laboratory measurements were performed. The age, time after menopause, and fat mass were negatively correlated with femoral and lumbar BMD, whereas lean mass was positively correlated with aforementioned variables. Furthermore, BMD at the lumbar spine was inversely associated with serum chemerin and TNF-α levels (r = −0.155, P = 0.001; r = −0.147, P = 0.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that serum chemerin levels were negatively correlated with BMD at the lumbar site after controlling for the age, lean, and fat mass (β = −0.125, P = 0.001). Chronic low-grade inflammation state in obese population has an inverse effect on bone mass. Chemerin as an adipocytokine and chemoattractant negatively affects the bone mass of Chinese obese postmenopausal women. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential role of chemerin in the crosstalk between bone and fat accumulation in obese population. PMID:27583869

  3. Treating postmenopausal osteoporosis in women at increased risk of fracture - critical appraisal of bazedoxifene: a review.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Peter; Thomsen, Susanna Vid Streym

    2010-01-01

    Several categories of drugs to treat osteoporosis exist in the form of bisphosphonates, strontium, parathyroid hormone, and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM). Advantages and disadvantages exist for each category as some patients may, for example, not tolerate bisphosphonates for gastrointestinal side effects, and especially in women in whom osteoporosis is frequent, several options for treatment are needed. The objectives of this review were to critically appraise the effects of bazedoxifene on risk of fractures especially in women at high risk of fractures. A systematic literature search was conducted for studies, especially randomized controlled trials with fractures as end-points. Bazedoxifene is a new member of the SERM group. The literature search identified one randomized controlled trial with fractures as end-point. This was a 3-year randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial in which 7492 postmenopausal women aged 55 to 85 years were randomly allocated to 1) bazedoxifene (20 [n = 1886] or 40 [n = 1872] mg/day); 2) raloxifene (60 mg/day, n = 1849); or 3) placebo (n = 1885). The risk of vertebral fractures decreased with both 20 (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.89) and 40 (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.96) mg of bazedoxifene per day compared to placebo. There was no reduction in non-vertebral fractures. A subgroup of women with a priori high risk of fractures was identified post hoc. In this subgroup there was a reduction in the risk of non-vertebral fractures with the 20 mg dose of bazedoxifene compared to placebo (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.90). In the 40 mg bazedoxifene group no significant reduction in non-vertebral fractures was seen in this subgroup (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.20). In general post-hoc defined subgroup analyses should be interpreted with caution. However, the results indicate that bazedoxifene may be effective in preventing vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. PMID:21072279

  4. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Myasoedova, Veronika A; Kirichenko, Tatyana V; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Orekhova, Varvara A; Ravani, Alessio; Poggio, Paolo; Sobenin, Igor A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6) were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT) were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS); high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038); triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 7.1% in

  5. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Myasoedova, Veronika A.; Kirichenko, Tatyana V.; Melnichenko, Alexandra A.; Orekhova, Varvara A.; Ravani, Alessio; Poggio, Paolo; Sobenin, Igor A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6) were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT) were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS); high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038); triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 7.1% in

  6. Fish intake, marine omega-3 fatty acids, and mortality in a cohort of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Folsom, Aaron R; Demissie, Zewditu

    2004-11-15

    Intake of fish or omega-3 fatty acids may decrease risk of total and coronary heart disease death, but evidence from low-risk populations is less convincing. The authors assessed intake by using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline in a cohort of Iowa women aged 55-69 years. Among women initially free of heart disease and cancer (4,653 deaths over 442,965 person-years), there was an inverse age- and energy-adjusted association between total mortality and fish intake, with a relative risk of 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.91) for the highest versus lowest quintile. Age- and energy-adjusted associations also were inverse (p for trend < 0.05), although not entirely monotonic, for cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and cancer mortality. Adjustment for multiple other risk factors attenuated all associations to statistically nonsignificant levels. Estimated marine omega-3 fatty acid intake also was not associated with total or cause-specific mortality. In comparison, plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid was inversely associated with mortality after multivariable adjustment. Intake of neither fish nor marine omega-3 fatty acids was associated with breast cancer incidence. These findings do not argue against recommending fish as part of a healthy diet, as other evidence suggests benefit. Nevertheless, the authors of this 1986-2000 study could not verify that fish and marine omega-3 fatty acid intake had independent health benefits in these postmenopausal women. PMID:15522857

  7. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27416518

  8. Clinical risk factors for fracture in postmenopausal Canadian women: a population-based prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Leslie, William D; Anderson, William A; Metge, Colleen J; Manness, Lori-Jean

    2007-04-01

    Clinical risk factor assessment can be used to enhance fracture risk estimation based upon bone densitometry alone. Population- and age-specific risk factor prevalence data are required for the construction of these risk models. Our objective was to derive population-based prevalence estimates of specific clinical risk factors for postmenopausal women resident in the Province of Manitoba, Canada. A random sample of 40,300 women age 50 or older identified from the provincial health plan was mailed a validated self-report risk factor survey. The response rate was 8747 (21.7%) with a final study population of 8027 women after exclusions. The individual prevalence for each clinical risk factor ranged from 5.8% for hyperthyroidism to 33.0% for a fall in the preceding 12 months. Most point prevalence estimates were similar to other large cohort studies, though the prevalences of inactivity and poor mobility were higher than expected while height at age 25 and the prevalence of any fracture after age 50 were lower than expected. Most of the respondents (86.9%) had at least one non-age clinical risk factor, 60.6% had two or more, and 33.5% had three or more. Age affected risk factor prevalence, and older age was associated with a higher rate of multiple risk factors. The availability of age-specific risk factor prevalence rates in this population may allow for more accurate fracture risk modeling. PMID:17182296

  9. The effect of estrogen-progestin treatment on opioid control of gonadotropin and prolactin secretion in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Dawood, M Y; Khan-Dawood, F S; Ramos, J

    1986-12-01

    Naloxone (10 mg) was given intravenously to seven postmenopausal women not receiving hormone treatment and to six postmenopausal women receiving Premarin-Provera treatment during the Premarin phase and also during the Premarin-Provera phase of therapy. Baseline estrone and estradiol levels (mean +/- SEM) were significantly lower in the group not receiving hormones (46.0 +/- 5.2 pg/ml and 28.4 +/- 3.1 pg/ml, respectively) than in the group in the Premarin phase of therapy (154 +/- 14 pg/ml and 79 +/- 13 pg/ml) and the group in the Premarin-Provera phase (135.1 +/- 8.3 pg/ml and 57.5 +/- 3.0 pg/ml) (p less than 0.005). Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were 118.7 +/- 5.3 mIU/ml, 118.7 +/- 9.5 mIU/ml, and 9.2 +/- 0.7 ng/ml, respectively, with no significant change after naloxone administration in untreated women. With hormone therapy the basal follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels decreased significantly while basal plasma estrone and estradiol increased significantly. In both the group in the Premarin phase of therapy and the group in the Premarin-Provera phase, luteinizing hormone levels increased significantly at 30 (135% +/- 10%, 144% +/- 8%), 45 (150% +/- 12%, 133% +/- 11%), 60 (149% +/- 15%, 128% +/- 11%), and 90 (139% +/- 15%, 132% +/- 13%) minutes after naloxone administration (p less than 0.01 to p less than 0.001). Follicle-stimulating hormone levels did not change significantly whereas prolactin levels showed a trend toward a decrease. These findings indicate that opioid inhibition of gonadotropins is reduced in postmenopausal women but increased with Premarin-Provera treatment. The effect of sex steroid on the opioid system in the postmenopausal women differs from that in the premenopausal women. PMID:3024488

  10. Immunoassay and Nb2 lymphoma bioassay prolactin levels and mammographic density in premenopausal and postmenopausal women the Nurses' Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Rice, Megan S; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Higher circulating prolactin levels have been associated with higher percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women in some, but not all studies. However, few studies have examined associations with dense area and non-dense breast area breast or considered associations with prolactin Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,124 premenopausal and 890 postmenopausal women who were controls in breast cancer case-control studies nested in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990 (NHS) or 1996-1999 (NHSII) and mammograms were obtained from around the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear models were used to assess the associations between prolactin levels (measured by immunoassay or bioassay) with percent density, dense area, and non-dense area. Among 1,124 premenopausal women, percent density, dense area, and non-dense area were not associated with prolactin immunoassay levels in multivariable models (p trends = 0.10, 0.18, and 0.69, respectively). Among 890 postmenopausal women, those with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest versus lowest quartile had modestly, though significantly, higher percent density (difference = 3.01 percentage points, 95 % CI 0.22, 5.80) as well as lower non-dense area (p trend = 0.02). Among women with both immunoassay and bioassay levels, there were no consistent differences in the associations with percent density between bioassay and immunoassay levels. Postmenopausal women with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest quartile had significantly higher percent density as well as lower non-dense area compared to those in the lowest quartile. Future studies should examine the underlying biologic mechanisms, particularly for non-dense area. PMID:25503962

  11. Immunoassay and Nb2 lymphoma bioassay prolactin levels and mammographic density in premenopausal and postmenopausal women the Nurses’ Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Megan S; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher circulating prolactin levels have been associated with higher percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women in some, but not all studies. However, few studies have examined associations with dense area and non-dense breast area breast or considered associations with prolactin Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay levels. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1124 premenopausal and 890 postmenopausal women who were controls in breast cancer case-control studies nested in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants provided blood samples in 1989–1990 (NHS) or 1996–1999 (NHSII) and mammograms were obtained from around the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear models were used to assess the associations between prolactin levels (measured by immunoassay or bioassay) with percent density, dense area, and non-dense area. Results Among 1124 premenopausal women, percent density, dense area, and non-dense area were not associated with prolactin immunoassay levels in multivariable models (p-trends=0.10, 0.18, and 0.69, respectively). Among 890 postmenopausal women, those with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest versus lowest quartile had modestly, though significantly, higher percent density (difference=3.01 percentage points, 95%CI: 0.22, 5.80) as well as lower non-dense area (p-trend=0.02). Among women with both immunoassay and bioassay levels, there were no consistent differences in the associations with percent density between bioassay and immunoassay levels. Conclusions Postmenopausal women with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest quartile had significantly higher percent density as well as lower non-dense area compared to those in the lowest quartile. Impact Future studies should examine the underlying biologic mechanisms, particularly for non-dense area. PMID:25503962

  12. Effects of exercise dose on endogenous estrogens in postmenopausal women: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Friedenreich, Christine M; Neilson, Heather K; Wang, Qinggang; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Yasui, Yutaka; Duha, Aalo; MacLaughlin, Sarah; Kallal, Ciara; Forbes, Cynthia C; Courneya, Kerry S

    2015-10-01

    Exercise dose comparison trials with biomarker outcomes can identify the amount of exercise required to reduce breast cancer risk and also strengthen the causal inference between physical activity and breast cancer. The Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA) tested whether or not greater changes in estradiol (E2), estrone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations can be achieved in postmenopausal women randomized to 12 months of HIGH (300 min/week) vs MODERATE (150 min/week) volumes of aerobic exercise. BETA included 400 inactive postmenopausal women aged 50-74 years with BMI of 22-40 kg/m(2). Blood was drawn at baseline and 6 and 12 months. Adiposity, physical fitness, diet, and total physical activity were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed using linear mixed models. At full prescription, women exercised more in the HIGH vs MODERATE group (median min/week (quartiles 1,3): 253 (157 289) vs 137 (111 150); P<0.0001). Twelve-month changes in estrogens and SHBG were <10% on average for both groups. No group differences were found for E2, estrone, SHBG or free E2 changes (treatment effect ratios (95% CI) from linear mixed models: 1.00 (0.96-1.06), 1.02 (0.98-1.05), 0.99 (0.96-1.02), 1.01 (0.95, 1.06), respectively, representing the HIGH:MODERATE ratio of geometric mean biomarker levels over 12 months; n=382). In per-protocol analyses, borderline significantly greater decreases in total and free E2 occurred in the HIGH group. Overall, no dose effect was observed for women randomized to 300 vs 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous intensity exercise who actually performed a median of 253 vs 137 min/week. For total and free E2, the lack of differential effect may be due to modest adherence in the higher dose group. PMID:26338699

  13. Bone marrow fat composition as a novel imaging biomarker in postmenopausal women with prevalent fragility fractures.

    PubMed

    Patsch, Janina M; Li, Xiaojuan; Baum, Thomas; Yap, Samuel P; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Schwartz, Ann V; Link, Thomas M

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study was to quantify vertebral bone marrow fat content and composition in diabetic and nondiabetic postmenopausal women with fragility fractures and to compare them with nonfracture controls with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sixty-nine postmenopausal women (mean age 63 ± 5 years) were recruited. Thirty-six patients (47.8%) had spinal and/or peripheral fragility fractures. Seventeen fracture patients were diabetic. Thirty-three women (52.2%) were nonfracture controls. Sixteen women were diabetic nonfracture controls. To quantify vertebral bone marrow fat content and composition, patients underwent MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the lumbar spine at 3 Tesla. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip and lumbar spine (LS) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the LS. To evaluate associations of vertebral marrow fat content and composition with spinal and/or peripheral fragility fractures and diabetes, we used linear regression models adjusted for age, race, and spine volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) by QCT. At the LS, nondiabetic and diabetic fracture patients had lower vBMD than controls and diabetics without fractures (p = 0.018; p = 0.005). However, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by DXA did not differ between fracture and nonfracture patients. After adjustment for age, race, and spinal vBMD, the prevalence of fragility fractures was associated with -1.7% lower unsaturation levels (confidence interval [CI] -2.8% to -0.5%, p = 0.005) and +2.9% higher saturation levels (CI 0.5% to 5.3%, p = 0.017). Diabetes was associated with -1.3% (CI -2.3% to -0.2%, p = 0.018) lower unsaturation and +3.3% (CI 1.1% to 5.4%, p = 0.004) higher saturation levels. Diabetics with fractures had the lowest marrow unsaturation and highest saturation. There were no associations of marrow fat content with diabetes or fracture. Our results

  14. Obesity, Physical Activity, and Their Interaction in Incident Atrial Fibrillation in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Azarbal, Farnaz; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Salmoirago‐Blotcher, Elena; Manson, JoAnn E.; Albert, Christine M.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Larson, Joseph C.; Li, Wenjun; Martin, Lisa W.; Nassir, Rami; Garcia, Lorena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Tharp, Katie M.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Perez, Marco V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with increased risk of stroke and death. Obesity is an independent risk factor for AF, but modifiers of this risk are not well known. We studied the roles of obesity, physical activity, and their interaction in conferring risk of incident AF. Methods and Results The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study was a prospective observational study of 93 676 postmenopausal women followed for an average of 11.5 years. Incident AF was identified using WHI‐ascertained hospitalization records and diagnostic codes from Medicare claims. A multivariate Cox's hazard regression model adjusted for demographic and clinical risk factors was used to evaluate the interaction between obesity and physical activity and its association with incident AF. After exclusion of women with prevalent AF, incomplete data, or underweight body mass index (BMI), 9792 of the remaining 81 317 women developed AF. Women were, on average, 63.4 years old, 7.8% were African American, and 3.6% were Hispanic. Increased BMI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12 per 5‐kg/m2 increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.14) and reduced physical activity (>9 vs. 0 metabolic equivalent task hours per week; HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) were independently associated with higher rates of AF after multivariate adjustment. Higher levels of physical activity reduced the AF risk conferred by obesity (interaction P=0.033). Conclusions Greater physical activity is associated with lower rates of incident AF and modifies the association between obesity and incident AF. PMID:25142057

  15. Osteoporosis and vascular calcification in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lampropoulos, C E; Kalamara, P; Konsta, M; Papaioannou, I; Papadima, E; Antoniou, Z; Andrianopoulou, A; Vlachoyiannopoulos, P G

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To estimate the correlation between osteoporosis and vascular calcification in postmenopausal women and the influence of calcium/vitamin D supplements on vascular calcification. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed including 29 women with osteoporosis (15 not taking supplements) and 18 age-matched, non-osteoporotic women. They were evaluated for cardiovascular risk factors and blood tests, lateral X-ray of lumbar spine (assessment of abdominal aorta calcification, AAC) and carotid ultrasound (increased intima media thickness (iIMT) or calcified plaques) were performed. Results In univariate analysis, osteoporotic women were 16 times more likely to develop AAC (odds ratio (OR) 15.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-135.4) and seven times more likely to develop iIMT (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.8-25.4) compared to normal individuals. The odds of developing AAC and iIMT were increased each year after menopause (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.2 and OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.3, respectively) and with aging (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.1-1.47 and OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.3, respectively). Calcified plaques were significantly correlated with osteoporosis (p = 0.014). In multivariate analysis, osteoporosis was an independent risk factor for AAC (OR 13.3, 95% CI 1.3-134.4) and iIMT (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.1-19.9). Low doses of supplements did not appear to affect vascular calcification (p = 0.6). Conclusions Osteoporosis is associated with increased calcification of the abdominal aorta and carotids. Low doses of supplements do not appear to cause any increase in vascular calcification in osteoporotic women. PMID:27045323

  16. Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Angela M; Tile, Lianne; Lee, Yuna; Tomlinson, George; Hawker, Gillian; Scher, Judy; Hu, Hanxian; Vieth, Reinhold; Thompson, Lilian; Jamal, Sophie; Josse, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background Vitamin K has been widely promoted as a supplement for decreasing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but the long-term benefits and potential harms are unknown. This study was conducted to determine whether daily high-dose vitamin K1 supplementation safely reduces bone loss, bone turnover, and fractures. Methods and Findings This single-center study was designed as a 2-y randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, extended for earlier participants for up to an additional 2 y because of interest in long-term safety and fractures. A total of 440 postmenopausal women with osteopenia were randomized to either 5 mg of vitamin K1 or placebo daily. Primary outcomes were changes in BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip at 2 y. Secondary outcomes included changes in BMD at other sites and other time points, bone turnover markers, height, fractures, adverse effects, and health-related quality of life. This study has a power of 90% to detect 3% differences in BMD between the two groups. The women in this study were vitamin D replete, with a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 77 nmol/l at baseline. Over 2 y, BMD decreased by −1.28% and −1.22% (p = 0.84) (difference of −0.06%; 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.67% to 0.54%) at the lumbar spine and −0.69% and −0.88% (p = 0.51) (difference of 0.19%; 95% CI −0.37% to 0.75%) at the total hip in the vitamin K and placebo groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in changes in BMD at any site between the two groups over the 2- to 4-y period. Daily vitamin K1 supplementation increased serum vitamin K1 levels by 10-fold, and decreased the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin and total osteocalcin levels (bone formation marker). However, C-telopeptide levels (bone resorption marker) were not significantly different between the two groups. Fewer women in the vitamin K group had clinical fractures (nine versus 20, p = 0.04) and fewer had cancers (three versus 12, p = 0

  17. Non-hormonal treatment of vulvo-vaginal atrophy-related symptoms in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tersigni, C; Di Simone, N; Tempestilli, E; Cianfrini, F; Russo, R; Moruzzi, M C; Amar, I D; Fiorelli, A; Scambia, G; Villa, P

    2015-01-01

    In post-menopausal period vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA)-related symptoms may seriously affect women's quality of life. Hormonal replacement therapy effectively relieves these symptoms but it is not always safe or accepted, and a non-hormonal treatment is often needed instead. Over a period of 12 weeks, we tested the effect of a twice-a-week vulvo-vaginal application of a hyaluronic acid, AC collagen, isoflavones and vitamins-based cream (Perilei Pausa) on 35 women in post-menopausal period, reporting VVA-related symptoms. After 12 weeks of treatment with Perilei Pausa a significant improvement in vaginal dryness, vulvo-vaginal itching, dyspareunia (P < 0.001), dysuria (P = 0.02), nocturia (P = 0.009) and pollakiuria (P = 0.005) was reported by the women. Colposcopical score assessing the intensity of atrophic colpitis, cervico-vaginal paleness and petechiae was also reduced (P = 0.037, P = 0.016 and P = 0.032, respectively). No significant difference in terms of maturation value of cervico-vaginal epithelium was observed. In conclusion, Perilei Pausa may represent an effective and safe alternative treatment of symptomatic VVA in post-menopausal women. PMID:25968636

  18. Resistance training over 2 years increases bone mass in calcium-replete postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D; Ackland, T; Maslen, B; Morton, A; Prince, R

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the stress/strain relationship between exercise and bone is critical to understanding the potential benefit of exercise in preventing postmenopausal bone loss. This study examined the effect of a 2-year exercise intervention and calcium supplementation (600 mg) on bone mineral density (BMD) in 126 postmenopausal women (mean age, 60 +/- 5 years). Assignment was by block randomization to one of three groups: strength (S), fitness (F), or nonexercise control (C). The two exercise groups completed three sets of the same nine exercises, three times a week. The S group increased the loading, while the F group had additional stationary bicycle riding with minimal increase in loading. Retention at 2 years was 71% (59% in the S group, 69% in the F group, and 83% in the C group), while the exercise compliance did not differ between the exercise groups (S group, 74 +/- 13%; F group, 77 +/- 14%). BMD was measured at the hip, lumbar spine, and forearm sites every 6 months using a Hologic 4500. Whole body BMD also was measured every 6 months on a Hologic 2000. There was no difference between the groups at the forearm, lumbar spine, or whole body sites. There was a significant effect of the strength program at the total (0.9 +/- 2.6%; p < 0.05) and intertrochanter hip site (1.1 +/- 3.0%; p < 0.01). There was a significant time and group interaction (p < 0.05) at the intertrochanter site by repeated measures. This study shows the effectiveness of a progressive strength program in increasing bone density at the clinically important hip site. We concluded that a strength program could be recommended as an adjunct lifestyle approach to osteoporosis treatment or used in combination with other therapies. PMID:11149482

  19. Meta-analysis of breast cancer outcome and toxicity in adjuvant trials of aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aydiner, Adnan

    2013-04-01

    The present meta-analysis examines randomized trials of third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) as alternatives to tamoxifen in three treatment settings: monotherapy, sequenced therapy and extended therapy. Eleven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were chosen based on their similarity in terms of study design and included 34,070 post-menopausal women who had undergone surgery for estrogen-sensitive early breast cancer. DFS was significantly improved by AI monotherapy (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.89, p = 0.001), sequenced therapy (HR: 0.7, p < 0.00001) and extended therapy (HR: 0.62, p < 0.00001). All of the patients benefited significantly from sequenced therapy (HR: 0.81, p = 0.003), and hormone receptor-positive patients benefited from AI monotherapy (HR = 0.92, p = 0.046) with respect to OS. AI monotherapy conferred significantly lower risks for thromboembolic events (OR = 0.61; p < 0.001) and endometrial cancer (OR = 0.26; p < 0.001) compared with tamoxifen monotherapy; however, there was a greater risk of cardiovascular events (OR = 1.20; p = 0.030). Sequenced therapy was also superior in terms of endometrial cancer but was inferior with respect to fractures, thromboembolic and cardiovascular events. PMID:23462682

  20. Effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on vascular regulation and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pialoux, Vincent; Brown, Allison D; Leigh, Richard; Friedenreich, Christine M; Poulin, Marc J

    2009-11-01

    Increasing evidence exists suggesting an important role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and progression of hypertension in women via a decrease of NO production after menopause. Regular physical training has been shown to upregulate antioxidant enzymatic systems, which may slow down the usual increase of oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. The aims of this study were to determine the impact of fitness status on enzymatic antioxidant efficiency, oxidative stress, and NO production and to determine the associations among oxidative stress, enzymatic antioxidant and NO production, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), and cerebrovascular conductance (CVC) in postmenopausal women (n=40; 50 to 90 years old). Physical fitness, physical activity, resting MABP, and CVC were measured. End product of NO, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha), DNA oxidation (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine), protein nitration (nitrotyrosine), antioxidant glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were measured in plasma. We identified significant negative associations between oxidative stress and indices of physical fitness (malondialdehyde: r=-0.33, P<0.05; 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha: r=-0.39, P<0.05; 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine: r=-0.35, P<0.05) and physical activity (malondialdehyde: r=-0.30, P<0.05; 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha: r=-0.41, P<0.01; 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine: r=-0.39, P<0.05). Conversely, glutathione peroxidase was positively correlated with fitness level (r=0.55; P<0.01). Finally, MABP and CVC were significantly associated with 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (MABP: r=0.36, P<0.05; CVC: r=-0.36, P<0.05), nitrotyrosine (MABP: r=0.39, P<0.05; CVC: r=-0.32, P<0.05), and the end product of NO (MABP: r=-0.57, P<0.01; CVC: r=0.44, P<0.01). These findings demonstrate that, after menopause, fitness level and regular physical activity mediate against oxidative stress by maintaining antioxidant enzyme efficiency. Furthermore, these results

  1. Effects of Preoperative Local Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women With Prolapse: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Good, Meadow M.; Roshanravan, Shayzreen M.; Shi, Haolin; Schaffer, Joseph I.; Singh, Ravinder J.; Word, R. Ann

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) increases in prevalence with age; recurrence after surgical repair is common. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effects of local estrogen treatment on connective tissue synthesis and breakdown in the vaginal wall of postmenopausal women planning surgical repair of POP. Design: This was a randomized trial. Setting: The study was conducted at an academic tertiary medical center. Patients or Other Participants: Postmenopausal women with a uterus and symptomatic anterior and/or apical prolapse at stage 2 or greater participated in the study. Intervention: Estrogen (Premarin) or placebo cream for 6 weeks preoperatively was the intervention. Main Outcome Measures: Full-thickness anterior apical vaginal wall biopsies were obtained at the time of hysterectomy and analyzed for mucosa and muscularis thickness, connective tissue synthesis, and degradation. Serum levels of estrone and 17β-estradiol were analyzed at baseline and the day of surgery using highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Fifteen women per group (n = 30 total) were randomized; 13 per group underwent surgery. Among drug-adherent participants (n = 8 estrogen, n = 13 placebo), epithelial and muscularis thickness was increased 1.8- and 2.7-fold (P = .002 and P =.088, respectively) by estrogen. Collagen types 1α1 and 1α2 mRNA increased 6.0- and 1.8-fold in the vaginal muscularis (P < .05 for both); collagen type Ia protein increased 9-fold in the muscularis (P = .012), whereas collagen III was not changed significantly. MMP-12 (human macrophage elastase) mRNA was suppressed in the vaginal mucosa from estrogen-treated participants (P = .011), and matrix metalloprotease-9 activity was decreased 6-fold in the mucosa and 4-fold in the muscularis (P = .02). Consistent with menopausal norms, serum estrone and 17β-estradiol were low and did not differ among the two groups. Conclusions: Vaginal estrogen application for 6

  2. Obesity and Fractures in Postmenopausal Women: A Primary-care Cross-Sectional Study at Santa Maria, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Copês, Rafaela Martinez; Comim, Fabio Vasconcellos; Langer, Felipe Welter; Codevilla, Antonio Aurelio da Silveira; Sartori, Giovani Ruviaro; de Oliveira, Cristina; Cocco, Aline Rubin; de Almeida, Adriana Maria; de Almeida, Luciana Leiria; Dal Osto, Léo Canterle; Compston, Juliet Elizabeth; Premaor, Melissa Orlandin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are chronic disorders with increasing prevalence worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and fracture in postmenopausal women from Santa Maria, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out at Santa Maria (parallel 29° south), Brazil. Postmenopausal women aged ≥55 yr who had at least 1 appointment at the primary care in the 2 years before the study were recruited from March 1, 2013 to August 31, 2013. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women study questionnaire was applied with permission of The Center for Outcomes Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School. Height and weight were measured according to the World Health Organization protocol. Bone fractures (excluding hand, feet, and head) that occurred after the age of 45 yr were considered as the outcome. Overall, 1057 women completed the study, of whom 984 had body mass index measured. The mean (standard deviation) age and body mass index of the women included in the study were 67.1 (7.6) yr and 29.2 (5.5) kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of fractures in obese and nonobese women was similar (17.3% vs 16.0%); 41.4% of all fractures occurred in obese women. Obese postmenopausal women make a substantial contribution to the overall burden of prevalent fractures in this population. Our results provide further evidence in support of the concept that obesity is not protective against fracture. PMID:25534276

  3. Mediterranean diet for breast cancer prevention and treatment in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Potentas, Elżbieta; Witkowska, Anna Maria; Zujko, Małgorzata Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer has become a big oncological concern both in Poland and most countries around the world. Epidemiological studies show that women who are directly in danger of suffering from breast cancer are mainly postmenopausal women. Due to the seriousness of the problem more attention is devoted to preventative measures that should be undertaken. That is why, Mediterranean diet and its beneficial effects on health started to be discussed. This diet contains antioxidants and shows anti-inflammatory properties which are crucial in breast cancer prevention. Its components are fish, olive oil, unrefined cereals, herbs, fruits and vegetables. In 1960s there was research done on the influence of low fat diet, as a preventative measure, on coronary artery disease. In 1980s, an interest in this diet grew and there was a great come-back to the origins of the diet. It led to estimation of its influence on cardiological and cancer diseases. Many positive effects were observed among people living in the Mediterranean area as far as health qualities of the diet are concerned. Mediterranean diet was compared with high fat diet of people living in Northern Europe and the USA. It seems to create new dietary recommendations as a preventative measure in breast cancer disease. The following article presents most recent data on the importance of Mediterranean diet as a prevention against breast cancer. PMID:26848297

  4. Lead and osteoporosis: Mobilization of lead from bone in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Silbergeld, E.K. ); Schwartz, J. ); Mahaffey, K. )

    1988-10-01

    Although it has been known that humans accumulate lead in bone, mineralized tissue has been considered primarily as a sequestering compartment and not as a site of toxic action for lead. However, experimental data indicate that bone lead can be released during conditions of demineralization, such as pregnancy and lactation. We have examined lead status in women, before and after menopause, using the NHANES II dataset compiled between 1976 and 1980. In 2981 black and white women there was a highly significant increase in both whole blood and calculated plasma lead concentrations after menopause. The results indicate that bone lead is not an inert storage site for absorbed lead. Moreover, lead may interact with other factors in the course of postmenopausal osteoporosis, to aggravate the course of the disease, since lead is known to inhibit activation of vitamin D, uptake of dietary calcium, and several regulatory aspects of bone cell function. The consequences of this mobilization may also be of importance in assessing the risks of maternal lead exposure to fetal and infant health.

  5. Mediterranean diet for breast cancer prevention and treatment in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Potentas, Elżbieta; Witkowska, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has become a big oncological concern both in Poland and most countries around the world. Epidemiological studies show that women who are directly in danger of suffering from breast cancer are mainly postmenopausal women. Due to the seriousness of the problem more attention is devoted to preventative measures that should be undertaken. That is why, Mediterranean diet and its beneficial effects on health started to be discussed. This diet contains antioxidants and shows anti-inflammatory properties which are crucial in breast cancer prevention. Its components are fish, olive oil, unrefined cereals, herbs, fruits and vegetables. In 1960s there was research done on the influence of low fat diet, as a preventative measure, on coronary artery disease. In 1980s, an interest in this diet grew and there was a great come-back to the origins of the diet. It led to estimation of its influence on cardiological and cancer diseases. Many positive effects were observed among people living in the Mediterranean area as far as health qualities of the diet are concerned. Mediterranean diet was compared with high fat diet of people living in Northern Europe and the USA. It seems to create new dietary recommendations as a preventative measure in breast cancer disease. The following article presents most recent data on the importance of Mediterranean diet as a prevention against breast cancer. PMID:26848297

  6. DXA Utilization Between 2006 and 2012 in Commercially Insured Younger Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Overman, Robert A; Farley, Joel F; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Jie; Gourlay, Margaret L; Deal, Chad L

    2015-01-01

    Reimbursement for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans in the outpatient setting has declined significantly since 2006. Research through 2011 has suggested reimbursement reductions for DXA scans have corresponded with an overall decreased utilization of DXA. This study updates utilization estimates for DXAs through 2012 in patients with commercial insurance and compares DXA rates before and after reimbursement changes. We evaluated DXA utilization for women aged 50-64 yr from Marketscan Commercial Claims and Encounter database between January 2006 and December 2012 based on CPT codes. We estimated utilization rates per 1000 person years (PY). We also used segmented regression analysis of monthly rates to evaluate the change in utilization rates after a proposed reimbursement reduction in July 2009. In women aged 50-64 yr, 451,656 DXAs were performed in 2006, a rate of 144 DXAs per 1000 PY. This rate increased to 149 DXAs per 1000 PY in 2009 before decreasing to 110 DXAs per 1000 PY or 667,982 scans in 2012. DXA utilization increased by 2.24 per 1000 PY until July 2009 then declined by 12.98 DXAs per 1000 persons, resulting in 37.5 DXAs per PY fewer performed in 2012 compared with 2006. Since July 2009 a significant decline in DXA utilization occurred in a younger postmenopausal commercially insured population. This decline corresponds with a time period of reductions in Medicare DXA reimbursement. PMID:25700662

  7. Relationship of Height to Site-Specific Fracture Risk in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Miranda Eg; Kirichek, Oksana; Cairns, Benjamin J; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K

    2016-04-01

    Height has been associated with increased risk of fracture of the neck of femur. However, information on the association of height with fractures at other sites is limited and conflicting. A total of 796,081 postmenopausal women, who reported on health and lifestyle factors including a history of previous fractures and osteoporosis, were followed for 8 years for incident fracture at various sites by record linkage to National Health Service hospital admission data. Adjusted relative risks of fracture at different sites per 10-cm increase in height were estimated using Cox regression. Numbers with site-specific fractures were: humerus (3036 cases), radius and/or ulna (1775), wrist (9684), neck of femur (5734), femur (not neck) (713), patella (649), tibia and/or fibula (1811), ankle (5523), and clavicle/spine/rib (2174). The risk of fracture of the neck of femur increased with increasing height (relative risk [RR] = 1.48 per 10-cm increase, 99% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-1.57) and the proportional increase in risk was significantly greater than for all other fracture sites (pheterogeneity < 0.001). For the other sites, fracture risk also increased with height (RR = 1.15 per 10 cm, CI 1.12-1.18), but there was only very weak evidence of a possible difference in risk between the sites (pheterogeneity = 0.03). In conclusion, taller women are at increased risk of fracture, especially of the neck of femur. PMID:26572496

  8. Dietary polyamine intake and colorectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women12

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Ashley J; Ashbeck, Erin L; Wertheim, Betsy C; Wallace, Robert B; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thomson, Cynthia A; Thompson, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine (i.e., polyamines) are small cationic amines synthesized by cells or acquired from the diet or gut bacteria. Polyamines are required for both normal and colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth. Objective: We investigated the association between dietary polyamines and risk of CRC incidence and mortality. Design: The study was a prospective analysis in 87,602 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Multivariate Cox regression was used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs. Results: Total dietary polyamine intake (mean ± SD: 289.2 ± 127.4 μmol/d) was not positively associated with CRC in fully adjusted models. Instead, intake ≥179.67 μmol/d was associated with reduced risk of CRC [HR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.68, 1.00), 0.81 (0.66, 0.99), 0.91 (0.74, 1.12), and 0.80 (0.62, 1.02) for quintiles 2–5, respectively, compared with quintile 1]. Reduced risk was not significant across all quintiles. Polyamines were not significantly associated with CRC-specific mortality in fully adjusted models. When stratified by risk factors for CRC, only body mass index (BMI) and fiber intake significantly modified the association between polyamine intake and CRC. In women with BMI (in kg/m2) ≤25 or fiber consumption above the median, polyamine intake was associated with significantly lower risk of CRC. Conclusions: No positive association between dietary polyamines and CRC or CRC-specific mortality risk in women was observed. Instead, a protective effect of dietary polyamines was suggested in women with some CRC risk-lowering behaviors in particular. These results are consistent with emerging evidence that exogenous polyamines may be beneficial in colon health and warrant additional study. PMID:26135350

  9. Impact of the PPAR gamma-2 gene polymorphisms on the metabolic state of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Grygiel-Gorniak, Bogna; Mosor, Maria; Marcinkowska, Justyna; Przyslawski, Juliusz; Nowak, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    The relationship Pro12Ala (rs1801282) and C1431T (rs3856806) polymorphisms of PPAR gamma-2 with glucose and lipid metabolism is not clear after menopause. We investigated the impact of the Pro12Ala and C1431T silent substitution in the 6th exon in PPAR gamma-2 gene on nutritional and metabolic status in 271 postmenopausal women (122 lean and 149 obese). The general linear model (GLM) approach to the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to infer the interactions between the analysed genotypes. The frequency of the Pro-T haplotype was higher in obese than in lean women (p less than 0.0349). In the analysed GLM models according to obesity status, the C1431C genotype was related to a lower glucose concentration (beta=-0.2103) in lean women, and to higher folliculotropic hormone FSH levels (beta=0.1985) and lower waist circumferences (beta=-0.1511) in obese women. The influence of C1431C was present regardless of the occurrence of the Pro12Ala polymorphism. The co-existence of the C1431C and Pro12Pro genotypes was related to lower values for triceps skinfold thickness compared those for the T1241/X and Ala12/X polymorphisms (beta=-0.1425). The presence of C1431C decreased the differences between triceps values that were determined by Pro or Ala allele. In conclusion, C1431T polymorphism seems to have a more essential influence on anthropometric and biochemical parameters than is the case with Pro12Ala polymorphism. PMID:27581934

  10. [Current musculoskeletal symptoms in peri and postmenopausal women: results of a multicenter population epidemiological study. The EVOS Study Group].

    PubMed

    Raspe, A; Matthis, C; von Domarus, U; Scheidt-Nave, C; Abendroth, K; Reisinger, W; Ziegler, R; Raspe, H

    1994-01-01

    Within the European vertebral osteoporosis study four stratified systematic samples of German residents aged 50-79 in Lübeck, Heidelberg, Jena and East Berlin have been drawn. Overall 4628 subjects were included, of whom 4385 were contactable and 3106 (71%) responded to the postal questionnaire enquiring about rheumatic complaints "today". 2348 (54%) followed an invitation to a medical examination in which a specific gynaecological history was taken. The prevalence of current back-, neck- and joint-pain is consistently higher in females than in males in all age groups. Females show a peak prevalence in the age group 55-64. 104/1134 women were pre- or perimenopausal. 1030 women had not had their period for at least 13 months and were classified as "postmenopausal". Neither the menopausal status nor the duration of the postmenopause were statistically significantly associated with the frequency of the three rheumatic complaints. PMID:7817626

  11. Influence of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) use by postmenopausal women on total hepatic perfusion and liver functions.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Ahmed; Nafeh, Hanan

    2009-11-01

    In this prospective longitudinal clinical trial, 87 postmenopausal women receiving for 12 consecutive months a daily dose of 40 mg of a dry extract preparation of Cimicifuga racemosa (Klimadynon) for relief of vasomotor symptoms were followed up by evaluation of total hepatic blood flow, assessed by color Doppler ultrasound, as well as prothrombin time and concentration, serum albumin, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Because no significant changes in total hepatic blood flow or any of the liver functions tested were reported, we concluded that use of C. racemosa for 1 year by healthy postmenopausal women without evidence of liver disease does not seem to influence the liver. PMID:19539907

  12. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy of denosumab in Indian postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Pitale, Shailesh; Thomas, Mathew; Rathi, Gaurav; Deshmukh, Vaishali; Kumar, Prasanna; Reddy, Sanjay; Shetty, Naresh; Kakar, Atul; Babhulkar, Sushrut; Mody, Bharat; Chacko, Jacob; Acharya, Sudeep; Joglekar, Sadhna; Halbe, Vipul; Kravitz, Barbara G.; Waterhouse, Brian; Nino, Antonio J.; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Osteoporosis is a serious condition affecting up to 50% of Indian postmenopausal women. Denosumab reduces bone resorption by targeting the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of denosumab in Indian postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind, multicenter, phase 3 study, 250 Indian postmenopausal women aged 55 to 75 years (T-score <-2.5 and >-4.0 at the lumbar spine or total hip; serum 25(OH) D levels ≥20 ng/mL) were randomized to receive one subcutaneous dose of denosumab 60 mg or placebo. All subjects received oral calcium ≥1000 mg and vitamin D3 ≥ 400 IU daily. The primary end point was mean percent change in bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine from baseline to Month 6. Secondary end points included mean percent change from baseline in BMD at total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter at Month 6 and median percent change from baseline in bone turnover markers at Months 1, 3, and 6. Results: Total 225 subjects (denosumab = 111, placebo = 114) completed the six-month study. Baseline demographics were similar between groups. A 3.1% (95% confidence interval, 1.9%, 4.2%) increase favoring denosumab versus placebo was seen for the primary end point (P < 0.0001). Denosumab demonstrated a significant treatment benefit over placebo for the secondary end points. There were no fractures or withdrawals due to adverse events. Conclusions: Consistent with results from studies conducted in other parts of the world, denosumab was well tolerated and effective in increasing BMD and decreasing bone turnover markers over a six-month period in Indian postmenopausal women. PMID:25593843

  13. Method development and analysis of free HS and HS in proteoglycans from pre- and postmenopausal women: Evidence for biosynthetic pathway changes in sulfotransferase and sulfatase enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Miller, Rebecca L.; Leary, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is one of the most complex and informative biopolymers found on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix as either free HS fragments or constituents of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs). Analysis of free HS and HSPG sugar chains in human serum at the disaccharide level has great potential for early disease diagnosis and prognosis, however, the low concentration of HS in human serum, together with the complexity of the serum matrix, limits the information on HS. In this study, we present and validate the development of a new sensitive method for in-depth compositional analysis of free HS and HSPG sugar chains. This protocol involved several steps including weak anion exchange chromatography, ultrafiltration and solid phase extraction for enhanced detection prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Using this protocol, a total of 51 serum samples from 26 premenopausal and 25 postmenopausal women were analyzed. Statistically significant differences in heparin/HS disaccharide profiles were observed. The proportion of N-acetylation and N-sulfation in both free HS and HSPG sugar chains were significantly different between pre- and postmenopausal women, indicating changes in N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferases (NDSTs), the enzymes involved in the initial step of the biosynthetic pathway. Differences in the proportion of 6-O-sulfation suggest that 6-O-sulfotransferase and/or 6-O-sulfatase enzymes may also be implicated. PMID:23659730

  14. Letrozole as upfront endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer: BIG 1-98

    PubMed Central

    Thuerlimann, Beat

    2007-01-01

    The BIG 1-98 trial is a large, randomized, independently conducted clinical trial designed to compare the efficacy of upfront letrozole versus tamoxifen monotherapy and to compare sequential or up-front use of letrozole and/or tamoxifen as an early adjuvant therapy for patients with early breast cancer. We report on the results from the primary core analysis of the BIG 1-98 trial of 8,010 patients, which compares monotherapy with letrozole versus tamoxifen. This pre-planned core analysis allowed the use of patient data from the monotherapy arms of letrozole and tamoxifen and from the sequential arms prior to the drug switch point. Patients randomized to letrozole had a 19% improved disease-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.81; P = 0.003), due especially to reduced distant metastases (HR = 0.73; P = 0.001). A 14% risk reduction of fatal events in favor of letrozole was also observed (P = NS). The results from the monotherapy arms alone confirmed the findings from the primary core analysis. Based on the results from this trial, the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Femara®) is currently recommended as a part of standard adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer and has recently been approved in the early adjuvant setting in both Europe and the United States. A subsequent analysis after additional follow-up will address the question of monotherapy versus sequential therapy. PMID:17912636

  15. Body size across the life course and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer in Black women, the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1993–2001

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Whitney R.; Tse, Chiu Kit; Olshan, Andrew F.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    It is believed that greater adiposity is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal but increased risk in postmenopausal women. However, few studies have evaluated these relationships among Black women or examined anthropometric measures other than near-diagnosis body mass index (BMI). PURPOSE This study investigated associations between measures of body size across the life course and breast cancer risk among Black and White women living in the U.S. South. METHODS We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study of invasive breast cancer in North Carolina women aged 20–74 years. We assessed nine body size variables, including age 10 relative weight; age 18 BMI; adult weight gain; “reference” BMI 1 year before interview; and post-diagnosis measured BMI and abdominal obesity measures. RESULTS Among premenopausal Whites, heavier childhood relative weight was associated with decreased cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]=0.48 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.33–0.70]). Among premenopausal Blacks, greater adult waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with increased risk (waist OR=1.40 [1.00–1.97] and high tertile WHR OR=2.03 [1.29–3.19]), with associations for WHR in a similar direction in Whites. Among postmenopausal women, recalled body size was not associated with risk, except for increased risk associated with adult weight gain among White non-hormone therapy users. ER/PR status and hormone therapy use also modified other associations. DISCUSSION In this population, greater adult BMI was not associated with increased breast cancer risk, but some measures of early-life body size and abdominal obesity were associated with risk. PMID:24924530

  16. Effects of Whole Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Bone Mineral Density and Anthropometry in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two exercise programs, whole body vibration and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometry in obese postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Eighty Egyptian obese postmenopausal women were enrolled in this study; their age ranged from 50 to 68 years. Their body mass index ranged (30–36 kg/m2). The exercise prescription consisted of whole body vibration (WBV) and resistance training. Bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometrical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. Changes from baseline to eight months in BMD and anthropometric parameters were investigated. Results. BMD at the greater trochanter, at ward's triangle, and at lumbar spine were significantly higher after physical training, using both WBV and resistive training. Moreover, both exercise programs were effective in BMI and waist to the hip ratio. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity duration and BMD at all sites. The highest values of R2 were found for the models incorporating WBV plus BMI. Conclusion. The study suggests that both types of exercise modalities had a similar positive effect on BMD at all sites in obese postmenopausal women. Significant association was noted between physical activity and anthropometric variables and BMD measures at all sites. PMID:25136473

  17. Exemestane Use in Postmenopausal Women at High Risk for Invasive Breast Cancer: Evaluating Biomarkers of Efficacy and Safety.

    PubMed

    Gatti-Mays, Margaret E; Venzon, David; Galbo, Claudia E; Singer, Andrea; Reynolds, James; Makariou, Erini; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M; Korde, Larissa; Isaacs, Claudine; Warren, Robert; Gallagher, Ann; Eng-Wong, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    This phase II trial evaluated clinical markers of efficacy and safety of exemestane in postmenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer. Postmenopausal women (n = 42) at risk for invasive breast cancer received 25 mg exemestane daily for 2 years along with calcium and vitamin D. The primary outcome was change in mammographic density (MD) after one year. Secondary outcomes included change in serum steroid hormones as well as change in trefoil protein 1 (TFF1) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in breast tissue. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. MD decreased at 1 year and was significant at 2 years [mean change = -4.1%; 95% confidence intervals (CI), -7.2 to -1.1; P = 0.009]. Serum estradiol and testosterone levels significantly decreased at 3 months and remained suppressed at 12 months. After 1 year of treatment, TFF1 intensity decreased (mean change -1.32; 95% CI, -1.87 to -0.76; P < 0.001). Exemestane was safe and well tolerated. Exemestane decreased MD and expression of breast tissue TFF1. It was well tolerated with few clinically relevant side effects. MD and breast tissue TFF1 are potential biomarkers of breast cancer-preventive effects of exemestane in high-risk postmenopausal women. PMID:26758879

  18. Lack of association of vitamin D receptor BsmI gene polymorphism with bone mineral density in Spanish postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Velasco, Francisco J.; Vera, Vicente; Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M.; Fernandez, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a polygenic disorder that is determined by the effects of several genes, each with relatively modest effects on bone mass. The aim of this study was to determine whether the vitamin D receptor single nucleotide polymorphism BsmI is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in Spanish postmenopausal women. A total of 210 unrelated healthy postmenopausal women aged 60 ± 8 years were genotyped using TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assays. Lumbar and femoral BMD were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Daily calcium and vitamin D intake were determined by a food questionnaire. No differences were found in the femoral neck, trochanter, Ward’s Triangle, L2, L3, L4, L2-L4, or between the femoral neck and total hip BMD after further adjustment for potential confounding factors (P > 0.05) (age, BMI, years since menopause and daily calcium intake). The BsmI polymorphism in the VDR gene was not associated with BMD in Spanish postmenopausal women. PMID:26157644

  19. Lack of association of vitamin D receptor BsmI gene polymorphism with bone mineral density in Spanish postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jose M; Pedrera-Canal, Maria; Rodriguez-Velasco, Francisco J; Vera, Vicente; Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M; Fernandez, Pilar; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a polygenic disorder that is determined by the effects of several genes, each with relatively modest effects on bone mass. The aim of this study was to determine whether the vitamin D receptor single nucleotide polymorphism BsmI is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in Spanish postmenopausal women. A total of 210 unrelated healthy postmenopausal women aged 60 ± 8 years were genotyped using TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping Assays. Lumbar and femoral BMD were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Daily calcium and vitamin D intake were determined by a food questionnaire. No differences were found in the femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's Triangle, L2, L3, L4, L2-L4, or between the femoral neck and total hip BMD after further adjustment for potential confounding factors (P > 0.05) (age, BMI, years since menopause and daily calcium intake). The BsmI polymorphism in the VDR gene was not associated with BMD in Spanish postmenopausal women. PMID:26157644

  20. Weight loss results in a small decrease in follicle stimulating hormone in overweight glucose-intolerant postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Randolph, John F.; Golden, Sherita H.; Labrie, Fernand; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objective To examine the impact of a weight loss intervention upon follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in postmenopause. Design and Methods Participants were postmenopausal, overweight, glucose-intolerant women not using exogenous estrogen (n=382) in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Women were randomized to intensive lifestyle change (ILS) with the goals of weight reduction of at least 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, metformin 850 mg, or placebo administered twice a day. Results Randomization to ILS led to small increases in FSH between baseline and 1-year follow-up vs. placebo (2.3 IU/l vs. -0.81 IU/l, p<0.01). Increases in FSH were correlated with decreases in weight (r=-0.165, p<0.01) and E2 (r=-0.464, p<0.0001) after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, and randomization arm. Changes in FSH were still significantly associated with changes in weight even after adjustment for E2 levels. Metformin users had reductions in weight but non-significant changes in FSH and E2 levels vs. placebo. Conclusions Weight loss leads to small increases in FSH among overweight, postmenopausal women, potentially through pathways mediated by endogenous estrogen as well as other pathways. PMID:25294746

  1. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47–78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  2. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47-78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  3. Food group preferences and energy balance in moderately obese postmenopausal women subjected to brisk walking program.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Sophie; Vallée, Karine; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Joffroy, Sandra; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Auneau, Gérard; Mauriège, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of a 16-week walking program on food group preferences and energy balance of sedentary, moderately obese (body mass index, 29-35 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal Caucasian women, aged 60 ± 5 years old. One hundred and fifty-six volunteers were subjected to 3 sessions/week of 45 min of walking at 60% of heart rate reserve. Total energy intake (TEI) and food group preferences (3-day dietary record), total energy expenditure (TEE, 3-day physical activity diary), cardiorespiratory fitness (2-km walking test), anthropometry, and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) were measured before and after walking. Data were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA with repeated measures on 1 factor (time). The modest increase in TEE of 151 ± 24 kcal/day (p < 0.0001) leads to body weight, fat mass losses, and waist girth reduction (p < 0.0001). TEI remained unchanged despite a slight decrease in carbohydrate intake and a minor increase in protein intake (p < 0.05). Analysis of food records revealed a decreased consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and sweet and fatty foods (p < 0.01), but an increase in oil consumption (p < 0.0001) after walking. Women with the highest body weight loss showed the greatest reduction in the consumption of fruits, sugar, sweet foods, and fatty foods (p < 0.05). Women with the greatest fat mass loss showed the highest decrease in fatty food intake (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although our walking program changed some food group consumption patterns, body weight loss was primarily because of the increased TEE. PMID:26140417

  4. UVB radiation and its role in the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenbach, A.; Sedlmeyer, Annette; Unkelbach, Uwe

    In humans, the serum concentration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is higher in winter than in summer. The increase of PTH can be suppressed by oral vitamin D supplements, which is considered beneficial to those with osteoporosis. The present study investigates whether this effect can also be achieved by serial ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the skin. In total, 34 women suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis were included in the open trial. In late winter, 20 patients were irradiated with a spectrum containing UVB, eight times over a period of 4 weeks. The serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], PTH, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (AP), calcium and phosphorus were measured before the first, and 2 days after the last, dose of radiation. The data were compared to the controls (n=14, no UV exposure), who were evaluated once at the start of the study and then again 4 weeks later. After UV irradiation the level of 25(OH)D was increased, whilst that of PTH remained unchanged. The serum level of osteocalcin decreased in the control group, but did not change in the group of women who had been exposed to UV radiation. The present study of osteoporotic women does not confirm previous findings in studies of healthy volunteers i.e. that PTH can be suppressed by exposure to UVB radiation in winter. Further studies are required to specify whether there are subgroups of osteoporotic people who may benefit from exposure to UVB radiation during winter.

  5. Residential proximity to major roadways and incident hypertension in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, Samantha L; Eliot, Melissa N; Whitsel, Eric A; Wang, Yi; Coull, Brent A; Hou, Lifang; Margolis, Helene G; Margolis, Karen L; Mu, Lina; Wu, Wen-Chih C; Johnson, Karen C; Allison, Matthew A; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2015-10-01

    Living near major roadways has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, presumably from exposure to elevated levels of traffic-related air and/or noise pollution. This association may potentially be mediated through increased risk of incident hypertension, but results from prior studies are equivocal. Using Cox proportional hazards models we examined residential proximity to major roadways and incident hypertension among 38,360 participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Clinical Trial cohorts free of hypertension at enrollment and followed for a median of 7.9 years. Adjusting for participant demographics and lifestyle, trial participation, and markers of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status, the hazard ratios for incident hypertension were 1.13 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.28), 1.03 (0.95, 1.11), 1.05 (0.99, 1.11), and 1.05 (1.00, 1.10) for participants living ≤50, >50-200, >200-400, and >400-1000 m vs >1000 m from the nearest major roadway, respectively (ptrend=0.013). This association varied substantially by WHI study region with hazard ratios for women living ≤50 m from a major roadway of 1.61 (1.18, 2.20) in the West, 1.51 (1.22, 1.87) in the Northeast, 0.89 (0.70, 1.14) in the South, and 0.94 (0.75, 1.19) in the Midwest. In this large, national cohort of post-menopausal women, residential proximity to major roadways was associated with incident hypertension in selected regions of the U.S. If causal, these results suggest residential proximity to major roadways, as a marker for air, noise and other traffic-related pollution, may be a risk factor for hypertension. PMID:26282224

  6. Assessment of ghrelin and leptin receptor levels in postmenopausal women who received oral or transdermal menopausal hormonal therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Ruszkowska, Barbara; Sokup, Alina; Kulwas, Arleta; Socha, Maciej W.; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Góralczyk, Barbara; Rość, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In postmenopausal women, an increased leptin concentration and reduced levels of ghrelin and adiponectin were observed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of the active form of ghrelin, total ghrelin, leptin receptor, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in postmenopausal women who received oral or transdermal menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT). Methods: The study involved 76 healthy women: 46 women aged from 44 to 58 years who received oral (26) or transdermal (20) MHT; the control group consisted of 30 women aged from 44 to 54 years who did not receive MHT. The plasma concentrations of total ghrelin, the active form of ghrelin, Lp(a), and PAI-1:Ag were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentration of the leptin receptor was measured by enzyme immunometric assay (EIA). Results: We observed a significantly higher concentration of total ghrelin and the active form of ghrelin in women who received transdermal MHT in comparison with those who took oral MHT. We also found a significantly lower concentration of total ghrelin in women who received oral MHT compared with the control group. A higher concentration of PAI-1:Ag was found in the group of women who took transdermal MHT in comparison with those who took oral MHT and with the control group. The differences were statistically significant. Additionally, we found a significant negative correlation between the concentrations of total ghrelin and PAI-1:Ag and a positive correlation between the concentrations of total ghrelin and leptin receptor in women who received transdermal MHT. Conclusions: The study showed that women who used transdermal MHT had higher levels of total ghrelin than women who took oral MHT. This indicates a beneficial effect of the transdermal route of MHT. However, transdermal therapy was associated with adverse effects with regard to the observed higher levels of PAI-1:Ag, which in turn, can lead to

  7. Association between urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite and breast cancer risk: a prospective, case-cohort study of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmi; Taylor, Jack A; Milne, Ginger L; Sandler, Dale P

    2013-06-01

    Overweight or obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from breast cancer. Obesity-driven inflammation may stimulate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-mediated aromatase activation and estrogen biosynthesis in breast tissues. We hypothesized that increased production of PGE2 would contribute to elevated breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We carried out a case-cohort study with 307 incident breast cancer cases and 300 subcohort members from the Sister Study cohort. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the association between urinary levels of a major PGE2 metabolite (PGE-M) and breast cancer risk using Prentice's pseudo-likelihood approach. Several lifestyle factors were associated with urinary levels of PGE-M: smoking, high-saturated fat diet, and obesity increased urinary PGE-M, and use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) decreased urinary PGE-M. Although there was no association between urinary PGE-M and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the overall analysis or among regular users of NSAIDs, there was a positive association among postmenopausal women who did not regularly use NSAIDs with HRs of 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-4.3]; 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0-3.9); and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.3) for the second, third, and highest quartiles of PGE-M. Our findings suggest a link between systemic PGE2 formation and postmenopausal breast cancer, and a possible modification of the association by lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions. If confirmed in larger studies, these results may have useful implications for the development of preventive strategies. PMID:23636050

  8. Strong effect of SNP rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene on bone phenotype of Caucasian postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Péter; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János P; Tóbiás, Bálint; Szili, Balázs; Kirschner, Gyöngyi; Győri, Gabriella; Kató, Karina; Lakatos, Péter; Takács, István

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of the Wnt pathway and bone mineral density (BMD) of postmenopausal women. We chose this pathway due to its importance in bone metabolism that was underlined in several studies. DNA samples of 932 Hungarian postmenopausal women were studied. First, their BMD values at different sites (spine, total hip) were measured, using a Lunar Prodigy DXA scanner. Thereafter, T-score values and the patients' body mass indices (BMIs) were calculated, while information about the fracture history of the sample population was also collected. We genotyped nine SNPs of the following three genes: LRP5, GPR177, and SP7, using a Sequenom MassARRAY Analyzer 4 instrument. The genomic DNA samples used for genotyping were extracted from the buccal mucosa of the subjects. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS 21 and R package. The results of this analysis showed a significant association between SNP rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene and total hip BMD values. We could not reveal any associations between the markers of GPR177, SP7, and bone phenotypes. We found no effect of these genotypes on fracture risk. We could demonstrate a significant gene-gene interaction between two SNPs of LRP5 (rs4988300 and rs634008, p = 0.009) which was lost after Bonferroni correction. We could firmly demonstrate a significant association between rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene and bone density of the hip on the largest homogeneous postmenopausal study group analyzed to date. Our finding corroborates the relationship between LRP5 genotype and bone phenotype in postmenopausal women, however, the complete mechanism of this relationship requires further investigations. PMID:25762437

  9. Exogenous Estrogen as Mediator of Racial Differences in Bioactive Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Levels Among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Vitolins, Mara Z.; Paskett, Electra D.; Chang, Shine

    2015-01-01

    Background. The role of exogenous estrogen use in racial differences in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels which affect cancer risk is unclear. We investigated whether the relationship between race and circulating bioactive IGF-I proteins was mediated by exogenous estrogen and the extent to which exogenous estrogen influenced the race–IGF-I relationship in postmenopausal women. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 636 white and 133 African American postmenopausal women enrolled in an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. To assess exogenous estrogen use (nonusers [n = 262] vs users [n = 507]) as a mediator of the race–IGF-I relationship, we used the Baron–Kenny method and an estimation of the proportional change in the odd ratios for IGF-I levels on race plus a bootstrapping test for the significance of the mediation effect. Results. Compared with white women, African American women were more likely to have high IGF-I levels and less likely to use exogenous estrogen. After accounting for race, estrogen nonusers had higher IGF-I levels than estrogen users did. Among oral contraceptive ever users, exogenous estrogen had a strong mediation effect (67%; p = .018) in the race–IGF-I relationship. In the women with a history of hypertension, exogenous estrogen explained racial differences in IGF-I levels to a modest degree (23%; p = .029). Conclusions. Exogenous estrogen use has a potentially important role in disparities in IGF-I bioactivity between postmenopausal African American and white women. A history of oral contraceptive use and hypertension may be part of the interconnected hormonal pathways related to racial differences in IGF-I levels. PMID:25238773

  10. Higher Endogenous Estrogens Predict Four Year Decline in Verbal Fluency in Postmenopausal Women: The Rancho Bernardo Study

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Gail A.; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite overwhelming biological plausibility, evidence for a protective effect of estrogen on cognitive function in postmenopausal women is inconsistent. This study examines the association between endogenous estrogen levels and subsequent four-year decline in cognitive function test performance in community-dwelling older women. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study PARTICIPANTS 343 postmenopausal women (median age 70 yrs) MEASUREMENTS Between 1984 and 1987, serum for measurement of sex hormones was obtained along with relevant covariates. Cognitive function was assessed in 1988–91 and again in 1992–96 using the Category Fluency test, the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and Trail Making Test B (Trails B). RESULTS Women in the highest tertile of estrone and bioavailable estradiol had, respectively, 1.75 (95% CI 1.02, 3.07) and 1.79 (95% CI 1.04, 3.10) higher odds of 4 year decline in Category Fluency, a test of frontal lobe function, compared to those in the lowest tertile, independent of age and education. The 20% of women with highest tertile levels of both estrone and bioavailable estradiol had a two-fold higher odds of verbal fluency loss (OR=2.17; 95% CI 1.21, 3.89) Adjustment for testosterone levels or for obesity-related factors associated with high endogenous estrogens (higher BMI, waist girth, and triglycerides, and lower HDL cholesterol) did not alter results. Neither estrogen was associated with change in MMSE or Trails B scores. CONCLUSIONS Higher endogenous estrogen levels were associated with greater decline in verbal fluency in postmenopausal women. This association was not explained by elevated androgens or by obesity or obesity-related factors. PMID:19508596

  11. Attitudes About Sexual Activity Among Postmenopausal Women in Different Ethnic Groups: A Cross-sectional Study in Jahrom, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Javadpour, Shohreh; Mosalanejad, Leili; Parnian, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function is affected by personal and interpersonal factors, familial and social traditions, culture, religion, menopause, and aging. So, ethnicity is a determining factor in sexual function. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and attitudes towards sexuality in postmenopausal women among three different ethnic groups in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women between 50 and 89 years who referred to Honoree clinic, Jahrom in 2013. Among the study participants, 42.4% were Arab, 33.5% were Persian, and 24.1% were Lor. Data were collected about women's socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual function. The descriptive statistics were used for demographic variables. Moreover, ANOVA, post hoc (LSD) was used. Besides, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The participants' mean age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI <26.55) and only 147 women (18.5%) had normal sexual function (FSFI >26.55). Sexual dysfunction was 75.3% in Arabs, 83.2% in Persians, and 86.1% in Lors. Besides, the most prevalent sexual dysfunction was dyspareunia in Arabs and arousal disorder in Persians and Lors. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that sexual dysfunction is considerable among postmenopausal women. The most prevalent sexual dysfunction was dyspareunia in Arabs and arousal disorder in Persians and Lors. PMID:26962483

  12. Effects of calcium and phosphorus intake and excretion on bone density in postmenopausal women in Hermosillo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Méndez, R O; Gómez, M A; López, A M; González, H; Wyatt, C J

    2002-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) is important in bone formation and as aging progresses, bone loss gradually occurs. With the onset of menopause, reduced estrogen levels and insufficient Ca in the diet often create serious problems with fractures. Since little is known about the diet and other factors related to risk factors in postmenopausal women in northern Mexico, it was the objective of this study to determine the effects of dietary Ca and phosphorus (P) and their excretion, anthropometric measurements, and blood serum estradiol on bone density in women aged 45-63 years. No studies are available on the dietary intake of Ca and P and the effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in northern Mexico, so this study reports some of the first data on this population. Women with an average age of 55 years showed a positive relation of Ca intake and Ca excretion, however, dietary intake of Ca and P had no relation to bone density. Age, urinary Ca, Ca/creatinine and years of postmenopause had the highest negative correlation. Weight and body mass index had a positive correlation with BMD in the forearm and heel. Only 15% of the women met the recommendation of 1,500 mg/day of Ca. A high Ca/creatinine ratio has been proposed to indicate excess Ca excretion and subsequent bone density loss. Thirty-five percent of the women exceed the Ca/creatinine indicator of >0.16. In this study, 1% of the subjects were classified as osteoporotic and 37% as osteopenic. PMID:12464724

  13. Moderate magnesium deprivation results in calcium retention and altered potassium and phosphorus excretion by postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H; Milne, David B; Gallagher, Sandra; Johnson, LuAnn; Hoverson, Bonita

    2007-03-01

    Enzyme and or hormone actions have not been shown to be consistently changed by consuming a low-magnesium diet similar to one that may occur in the general population. Thus, a human metabolic study was performed to determine whether deficient intakes of magnesium similar to those that occur naturally have pathophysiological effects through altering calcium retention and the metabolism of other minerals (sodium, potassium, phosphorus) involved in cellular ionic balance. Fifteen postmenopausal Caucasian women were recruited by advertisement throughout the United States. Eleven women (ages 49 to 71 years) completed the study as designed. The women resided in a metabolic research unit and consumed a basal Western-type diet that resulted in a mean intake of 4.40 mmol (107 mg) magnesium/d. The women were fed the basal diet supplemented with 9.05 mmol (220 mg) magnesium/d for 18 d (equilibration) before being assigned to one of two groups in an experiment with a double blind, crossover design. One group was fed the basal diet and supplemented with a lactose placebo while the other group continued consuming the basal diet supplemented with 9.05 mmol magnesium/d for 72 d, then each group switched to the other's diet, which they consumed for 72 d. Magnesium was supplemented as magnesium gluconate. Magnesium deprivation resulted in a non-positive magnesium balance (-0.21 mmol or -5 mg/d) that was highly positive during magnesium supplementation (+2.22 mmol or +54 mg/d). Magnesium deprivation decreased red blood cell membrane magnesium (2.5 versus 2.7 nmol or 0.061 versus 0.065 microg/mg protein; p < or = 0.05). Magnesium deprivation increased calcium balance (+0.82 mmol or +35 mg/d versus -0.02 or -1 mg/d; p < or = 0.009); decreased the fecal excretion of phosphorus (28.9% versus 32.3% of intake; p < or =0.0001); increased the urinary excretion of phosphorus (73.4% versus 71.0%; p < 0.003); and decreased the urinary excretion of potassium (40.4 mmol or 1.58 g/d versus 41

  14. Acute Response of PGC-1α and IGF-1 Isoforms to Maximal Eccentric Exercise in Skeletal Muscle of Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Kiwata, Jacqueline L; Tuzon, Creighton T; Spektor, Tanya M; Sattler, Fred R; Rice, Judd C; Schroeder, Edward Todd

    2016-04-01

    Dieli-Conwright, CM, Kiwata, JL, Tuzon, C, Spektor, TM, Sattler, FR, Rice, JC, and Schroeder, ET. Acute response of PGC-1α and IGF-1 isoforms to maximal eccentric exercise in skeletal muscle of postmenopausal women. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 1161-1170, 2016-PGC-1α4, a novel isoform of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α, was recently postulated to modulate the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes and therefore regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Resting levels of PGC-1α4 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were found to increase in healthy adults after resistance training. However, the acute effect of resistance exercise (RE) on PGC-1α4 expression in populations prone to progressive muscle loss, such as postmenopausal women, has not been evaluated. Here, we investigated alterations in mRNA expression of PGC-1α4 and PGC-1α1, a regulator of muscle oxidative changes, in postmenopausal women after high-intensity eccentric RE and analyzed these findings with respect to changes in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and catabolic gene expression. Nine postmenopausal women (age, 57.9 ± 3.2 years) performed 10 sets of 10 maximal eccentric repetitions of single-leg extension with 20-second rest periods between sets. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of the exercised leg before and 4 hours after the RE bout with mRNA expression determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. No significant changes in the mRNA expression of either PGC-1α isoform were observed after acute eccentric RE (p > 0.05). IGF-1Ea mRNA expression significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05), whereas IGF-1Eb and mechano-growth factor (MGF) did not significantly change (p > 0.05). PGC-1α4 mRNA expression was associated with reduced mRNA expression of the catabolic gene myostatin (R = -0.88, p < 0.01), whereas MGF mRNA expression was associated with reduced mRNA expression of the catabolic gene FOXO3A (R = -0.81, p ≤ 0.05). These data demonstrate an

  15. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Abdul Kadir, Azidah; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohammad; Mohd, Dayang Marshitah; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; Hassan, Intan Idiana; Shukor, Norlela; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol) were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9 mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo). Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280 mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG) values. PMID:22701504

  16. Association between mean platelet volume and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Aypak, Cenk; Türedi, Özlem; Bircan, Mustafa A.; Civelek, Gul M.; Araz, Mine

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Osteoporosis is an inflammatory disease, and platelets play a critical role in bone remodeling. Mean platelet volume has been shown to be influenced by inflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between mean platelet volume and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] The records of female patients who had been referred to a tertiary hospital for bone mineral density analysis were retrospectively reviewed. [Results] A total of 175 patients (mean age: 61.3 ± 9.0 years) were enrolled. Overall, 72% (126/175) of patients met the criteria for osteoporosis. Mean platelet volume was found to be inversely correlated with body mass index. There was a significant positive correlation between mean platelet volume and femoral neck bone mineral density in our normal weight osteoporotic group, whereas there was a significant negative correlation in our overweight-obese osteoporotic group. The negative correlation between mean platelet volume and femoral neck bone mineral density in the overweight-obese osteoporotic group persisted after adjustment for confounding factors. Multivariate analyses revealed that mean platelet volume was significantly associated with femoral neck bone mineral density in osteoporotic patients in both our normal weight and overweight-obese groups. [Conclusion] Regardless of mechanisms, mean platelet volume might be used as a biomarker for osteoporosis in clinical settings. PMID:27390409

  17. Fruit and vegetable intake and urinary levels of prostaglandin E₂ metabolite in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmi; Rimando, Joseph; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an inflammatory mediator that plays key roles in promoting tumor development and progression. Urinary concentration of a major PGE2 metabolite (PGE-M) has been recently proposed as a promising cancer biomarker. Using dietary intake data from 600 postmenopausal women aged 50-74 years, we examined cross-sectional relationships between fruit and vegetable intake and urinary levels of PGE-M, determined using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, increasing consumption of fruits, but not vegetables, was associated with reduced levels of urinary PGE-M (P for linear trend = 0.02), with geometric means of 5.8 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.2-6.6] in the lowest quintile versus 4.8 (95% CI: 4.3-5.4) in the highest quintile (Q5) of fruit consumption. A better quality diet, indicated by higher scores on the Healthy Eating Index, was also associated with decreased PGE-M (P for linear trend <0.01). The lack of association with vegetable intake may be related to variation in antioxidant capacities of the major dietary sources of fruits and vegetables for the study participants. Our findings suggest that urinary PGE-M may be modifiable by a healthy diet that follows current national dietary guideline. Further studies are warranted to assess potential utility of urinary PGE-M in assessing cancer prevention efficacy. PMID:25811232

  18. A Structured Assessment to Decrease the Amount of Inconclusive Endometrial Biopsies in Women with Postmenopausal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Visser, N. C. M.; van Hanegem, N.; van der Wurff, A. A.; Opmeer, B. C.; van Doorn, H. C.; Mol, B. W. J.; Pijnenborg, J. M. A.; Timmermans, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether structured assessment of outpatient endometrial biopsies decreases the number of inconclusive samples. Design. Retrospective cohort study. Setting. Single hospital pathology laboratory. Population. Endometrial biopsy samples of 66 women with postmenopausal bleeding, collected during the usual diagnostic work-up and assessed as insufficient for a reliable histological diagnosis. Methods. Endometrial biopsy samples were requested from the pathology laboratories. The retrieved samples were systematically reassessed by a single pathologist specialized in gynecology. Main Outcome Measure. Disagreement between initial assessment and conclusion after structured reassessment. Results. We retrieved 36 of 66 endometrial biopsy samples from six different pathology laboratories. Structured reassessment of the retrieved samples by a single pathologist specialized in gynecology did not change the conclusion in 35 of the 36 samples. The remaining sample contained a large amount of endometrial tissue and the diagnosis at reassessment was endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All other samples contained insufficient material for a reliable diagnosis. Conclusion. A structured reassessment of endometrial biopsies samples, which were classified as inconclusive due to insufficient material, did not change the conclusion. Although it might be helpful for pathologists to have diagnostic criteria for adequacy and/or inadequacy of an endometrial biopsy sample, the gain in efficiency is likely to be small. PMID:27034826

  19. Effect of synbiotic fermented milk on oral bioavailability of isoflavones in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Timan, Porntip; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Manorot, Maleeya; Sangdee, Chaichan; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of synbiotic fermented milk, containing Lactobacillus paracasei and inulin, on oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women. The study was a one-group pre-post treatment study. Twelve subjects were assigned to consume a single oral dose of 375 mL of soy beverage. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at various time points until 32 hours after the administration of the soy beverage. After a washout period, subjects were requested to consume 180 mL of synbiotic fermented milk after breakfast and dinner for 14 days, followed by a single oral dose of 375 mL of soy beverage on the next day. Collection of blood samples after the administration of the soy beverage were performed at the same time points as the former phase. Plasma isoflavone concentrations were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. In conclusion, this study highlighted that continuous consumption of synbiotic fermented milk followed by a single oral administration of soy beverage significantly enhanced oral bioavailability of isoflavones compared with a single oral dose of soy beverage alone. PMID:24720601

  20. Effects of Resistance Training and Soy Isoflavone on Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Orsatti, Fábio Lera; Nahas, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; Maesta, Nailza; Orsatti, Cláudio Lera; Fernandes, Cesar Edurado

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the independent and additive effects of resistance training (RT) and soy isoflavone (ISO) on body composition in postmenopausal women (PW). Method. This study used a placebo-controlled, double-blind (soy), randomized (ISO versus placebo) × (RT versus No RT) design. A total of 80 PW, aged 45–70 years, were randomly (71 completed 9-months intervention): RT + ISO (n = 15), No RT + ISO (n = 20), RT + placebo (n = 18), and No RT + placebo (n = 18). ISO received 100 mg a day of isoflavone; and to RT attended supervised resistance training sessions. At baseline and 9-months, fat and muscle mass were estimated by DXA. ANOVA and test t were used. Results. RT groups showed significantly increased muscle strength (35.2%) and muscle mass (1.4%). Exercising attenuated gains in fat trunk and % body fat (P < .05). Significant decreases in muscle mass (−1.8%) and increases in fat mass of the whole-body (1.6%) and trunk (9.7%) was found in no-RT groups (P < .05). In ISO groups, there were no differences in body composition and muscle strength. ISO and RT had no additive effects. Conclusion. In PW: RT improved muscle mass and strength and attenuated gain of fat mass; ISO did not alter body composition and muscle strength; there were no additive effects of RT and ISO. PMID:20490353

  1. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Kadir, Azidah; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohammad; Mohd, Dayang Marshitah; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; Hassan, Intan Idiana; Shukor, Norlela; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol) were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9 mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo). Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280 mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG) values. PMID:22701504

  2. A walking intervention for postmenopausal women using mobile phones and Interactive Voice Response.

    PubMed

    David, Prabu; Buckworth, Janet; Pennell, Michael L; Katz, Mira L; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R; Paskett, Electra D

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a feasibility study of a 12-week walking intervention administered through an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system and mobile phones. We also examined the added benefit of a human coach. Post-menopausal women (n = 71) were given a daily-steps goal, which they monitored using a pedometer. Each day, they answered an automated call from the IVR system to their mobile phone and provided assessments of walking goals and mood. Every evening, they called the IVR system to report their steps, answered a brief questionnaire and received a message with a helpful hint. Participants took less time to complete a one-mile walk after the intervention, compared to baseline (0.77 min, SE = 0.22, P < 0.001). In addition, a significant loss in body weight (0.93 kg, SE = 0.31) and body-mass index (0.28 kg/m(2), SE = 0.11) were observed. The key psychometric measures of exercise goal setting (0.67 units, SE = 0.12) and exercise planning (0.48 units, SE = 0.09) also improved from baseline (both P < 0.001). However, results in the coach and no-coach conditions were not significantly different. The study suggests that mobile phones can be used to deliver an effective, low-cost walking intervention, irrespective of the addition of a human coach. PMID:22052963

  3. Effects of calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite on zinc and iron retention in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Seligson, F.H.; Hughes, V.A.

    1986-07-01

    We measured the effect of calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite on whole-body retention of zinc-65 in 11 and iron-59 in 13 healthy, postmenopausal women. In a single-blind, controlled, crossover study, each subject, on three occasions, ingested a standard test meal supplemented with iron-59 or zinc-65 and capsules containing placebo or 500 mg elemental calcium as calcium carbonate or hydroxyapatite. Whole-body countings were performed prior to, 30 min after, and 2 wk after each meal. Mean (SEM) zinc retention was 18.1 +/- 1.0% with placebo (control) and did not vary significantly with calcium carbonate (110.0 +/- 8.6% of control) or hydroxyapatite (106.0 +/- 7.9% of control). Iron retention, 6.3 +/- 2.0% with placebo, was significantly reduced with both calcium carbonate (43.3 +/- 8.8% of control, p = 0.002) and hydroxyapatite (45.9 +/- 10.0% of control, p = 0.003). Iron absorption may be significantly reduced when calcium supplements are taken with meals.

  4. Interaction of nitrate and folate on the risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Ward, Mary H.; Cerhan, James R.; Weyer, Peter J.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Robien, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Ingested nitrate can be endogenously reduced to nitrite, which may form N-nitroso compounds, known potent carcinogens. However, some studies have reported no or inverse associations between dietary nitrate intake and cancer risk. These associations may be confounded by a protective effect of folate, which plays a vital role in DNA repair. We evaluated the interaction of dietary and water nitrate intake with total folate intake on breast cancer risk in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Dietary intake was assessed at study baseline. Nitrate intake from public water was assessed using a historical database on Iowa municipal water supplies. After baseline exclusions, 34,388 postmenopausal women and 2,875 incident breast cancers were included. Overall, neither dietary nor water nitrate was associated with breast cancer risk. Among those with folate intake ≥400 μg/d, breast cancer risk was significantly increased in public water users with the highest nitrate quintile (HR=1.40, 95%CI=1.05–1.87) and private well users (HR=1.38, 95%CI=1.05–1.82) compared to public water users with the lowest nitrate quintile; in contrast, there was no association among those with lower folate intake. Our findings do not support a previous report of increased risk of breast cancer among individuals with high dietary nitrate but low folate intake. PMID:22642949

  5. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in postmenopausal women and relationship with pain and HRT.

    PubMed

    Lora, Victor Ricardo Manuel Muñoz; Canales, Giancarlo De la Torre; Gonçalves, Leticia Machado; Meloto, Carolina Beraldo; Barbosa, Celia Marisa Rizzatti

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is higher in females, reaching their high peak during reproductive years, probably because of the action of some female hormones, which alter pain threshold. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of TMD in postmenopausal women and its relationship with pain and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). In total, 284 patients were evaluated and classified using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Pain was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and patients were also asked about the use of HRT. All data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square test. In total, 155 subjects did not have TMD and 129 had TMD; TMD group patients were classified according to RDC/TMD axis I classification as follows: muscle disorder group (1.6%), disk displacement group (72.87%), and arthralgia, osteoarthritis, and osteoarthrosis group (37.98%). Pain was registered in 35 patients who belonged to the TMD group, while 48 patients reported the use of HRT. There was a similar percentage of TMD and non TMD patients; moreover, the use of exogenous hormones was no associated with TMD, suggesting that there is no influence on the pain threshold. PMID:27556676

  6. Effects of vitamin d plus calcium supplements on pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in thai postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Pongnad, Paveena; Rojanasthein, Noppamas; Manorot, Maleeya; Sangdee, Chaichan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin D(3) plus calcium supplements (D(3)-calcium) on pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in Thai postmenopausal women. This study was an open-labeled, randomized three-phase crossover study. Twelve healthy subjects were randomized to receive one of the following regimens: (a) a single dose of isoflavones, (b) a single dose of isoflavones, and D(3)-calcium, or (c) continuous D(3)-calcium for 7 days followed by a single dose of isoflavones on the 8th day. After a washout period, subjects were switched to receive the 2 remaining regimens according to their randomized sequences. Blood samples were collected before dose and at specific time points until 32 hours after isoflavone administration. Plasma was treated with β-glucuronidase/sulfatase to hydrolyze glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of daidzein and genistein. Plasma concentrations of daidzein and genistein were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The estimated pharmacokinetic parameters of isoflavones were time to maximal plasma concentration (T(max)), maximal plasma concentration (C(max)), half-life (t(1/2)) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). T(max) of daidzein and genistein after regimen B was significantly longer than that of regimen A. Other pharmacokinetic parameters of daidzein and genistein obtained following the three regimens were not significantly different. PMID:21687791

  7. Diabetes, metformin and incidence of and death from invasive cancer in postmenopausal women: Results from the women's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Aragaki, Aaron K; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Manson, JoAnn E; Rohan, Thomas E; Chen, Chu; Vitolins, Mara Z; Tinker, Lesley F; LeBlanc, Erin S; Kuller, Lewis H; Hou, Lifang; LaMonte, Michael J; Luo, Juhua; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2016-04-15

    Findings from studies of metformin use with risk of cancer incidence and outcome provide mixed results; with few studies examined associations by recency of diabetes diagnosis or duration of medication use. Thus, in the Women's Health Initiative, we examined these associations and further explored whether associations differ by recency of diabetes and duration of metformin use. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals. Diabetes was associated with higher risk of total invasive cancer (HR, 1.13; p < 0.001) and of several site-specific cancers (HR, 1.2-1.4, and up to over twofold). Diabetes was also associated with higher risk of death from cancer (HR, 1.46; p < 0.001). There was no overall difference in cancer incidence by diabetes therapy (p = 0.66). However, there was a lower risk of death from cancer for metformin users, compared to users of other medications, relative to women without diabetes, overall (HRs, 1.08 vs. 1.45; p = 0.007) and for breast cancer (HRs, 0.50 vs. 1.29; p = 0.05). Results also suggested that lower cancer risk associated with metformin may be evident only for a longer duration of use in certain cancer sites or subgroup populations. We provide further evidence that postmenopausal women with diabetes are at higher risk of invasive cancer and cancer death. Metformin users, particularly long-term users, may be at lower risk of developing certain cancers and dying from cancer, compared to users of other anti-diabetes medications. Future studies are needed to determine the long-term effect of metformin in cancer risk and survival from cancer. PMID:26616262

  8. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women. PMID:26251836

  9. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women. PMID:26251836

  10. Chosen risk factors for osteoporosis and the level of knowledge about the disease in peri- and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Teresa; Dziedzic, Małgorzata A.; Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis as a chronic disease, affecting especially women in postmenopausal age, is an important, social and economic health problem especially of women of today's world. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge of women in the peri- and postmenopausal period about the prevention of osteoporosis and show the influence of chosen risk factors on the level of this knowledge. Material and methods A group of 300 women aged 45-65, being patients of healthcare centres in Chełm, Lublin and Zamość (Lublin voivodeship, south-eastern Poland) were included in the study. The purposive sampling was used. Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) 2011 was the research tool. Gathered material was subjected to descriptive and statistical analysis. Tukey's test, t-student test and variance analysis (ANOVA) were all applied. An accepted p materiality level was < 0.05 and p < 0.01. Results Respondents presented the average level of knowledge about the role of physical activity in the prevention of osteoporosis (M = 13.93) and a low level of knowledge about well-balanced diet rich in calcium (M = 9.77). The knowledge about risk factors, screening and treatment remained on the average level (M = 8.00). An influence of socio-demographic factors on the level of knowledge was shown. Also some behaviours, associated with the lifestyle indeed influenced the level of this knowledge. Conclusions Professional educational programs on osteoporosis should be implemented in the population of Polish peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:26327885

  11. Use of antipsychotics and risk of venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women. A population-based nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng-Ting; Liou, Jun-Ting; Huang, Yun-Wen; Lin, Chen Wei; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Chu, Che-Li; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Wang, Yun-Han

    2016-06-01

    Despite continued uncertainty of venous thromboembolism (VTE) caused from antipsychotic agents, this safety issue has not been examined in postmenopausal women, a population with high usages of antipsychotics and at high risk for VTE. We assessed whether antipsychotic use was associated with an increased VTE risk in women after menopause. We conducted a nested case-control study of all Taiwanese women aged ≥ 50 years (n = 316,132) using a nationwide healthcare claims database between 2000 and 2011. All newly diagnosed VTE patients treated with an anticoagulant or thrombectomy surgery were identified as cases (n = 2,520) and individually matched to select controls (n = 24,223) by cohort entry date, age, cancer diagnosis and major surgery procedure. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of VTE associated with antipsychotics were estimated by multivariate conditional logistic regressions. Current use of antipsychotics was associated with a 1.90-fold (95 % CI = 1.64-2.19) increased VTE risk compared with nonuse in postmenopausal women. The VTE risk existed in a dose-dependent fashion (test for trend, p<0.001), with a more than quadrupled risk for high-dose antipsychotics (adjusted OR = 4.60; 95 % CI = 2.88-7.33). Current parenteral administration of antipsychotics also led to a 3.46-fold increased risk (95 % CI = 2.39-5.00). Conversely, there was no increased VTE risk when antipsychotics were discontinued for > 30 days. In conclusion, current use of antipsychotics is significantly associated with a dose-dependent increased risk of VTE in postmenopausal women, especially for those currently taking high-dose or receiving parenteral antipsychotics. PMID:26941052

  12. Relationship of Height to Site‐Specific Fracture Risk in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Kirichek, Oksana; Cairns, Benjamin J; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Height has been associated with increased risk of fracture of the neck of femur. However, information on the association of height with fractures at other sites is limited and conflicting. A total of 796,081 postmenopausal women, who reported on health and lifestyle factors including a history of previous fractures and osteoporosis, were followed for 8 years for incident fracture at various sites by record linkage to National Health Service hospital admission data. Adjusted relative risks of fracture at different sites per 10‐cm increase in height were estimated using Cox regression. Numbers with site‐specific fractures were: humerus (3036 cases), radius and/or ulna (1775), wrist (9684), neck of femur (5734), femur (not neck) (713), patella (649), tibia and/or fibula (1811), ankle (5523), and clavicle/spine/rib (2174). The risk of fracture of the neck of femur increased with increasing height (relative risk [RR] = 1.48 per 10‐cm increase, 99% confidence interval [CI] 1.39–1.57) and the proportional increase in risk was significantly greater than for all other fracture sites (p heterogeneity < 0.001). For the other sites, fracture risk also increased with height (RR = 1.15 per 10 cm, CI 1.12–1.18), but there was only very weak evidence of a possible difference in risk between the sites (p heterogeneity = 0.03). In conclusion, taller women are at increased risk of fracture, especially of the neck of femur. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR). PMID:26572496

  13. Susceptibility variants for waist size in relation to abdominal, visceral, and hepatic adiposity in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Albright, Cheryl L; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that can contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist-size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women was selected among study participants of The Multiethnic Cohort, who were aged 60 to 65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 18.5 and 40. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity, and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (P=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (P=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (P=0.03) and percent liver fat (P=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent of leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size might also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants can be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  14. Susceptibility Variants for Waist Size in Relation to Abdominal, Visceral and Hepatic Adiposity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Albright, Cheryl L.; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D.; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that may contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women were selected among study participants of Multiethnic Cohort, who were of ages 60–65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 40 kg/m2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (p=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (p=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (p=0.03) and percent liver fat (p=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size may also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants may be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  15. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and periodontal disease in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Swanson, Mya; Andrews, Christopher A.; Kluczynski, Melissa A.; Genco, Robert J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties that, together with its influence on bone health, may confer periodontal benefit. Methods We investigated cross-sectional associations (1997–2000) between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] and periodontal measure among 920 postmenopausal women. Chronic measures of disease were defined based on: 1) alveolar crestal height (ACH) measures from intraoral radiographs and tooth loss, and the 2) Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) criteria using measures of clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PD). Acute oral inflammation was assessed by the % of gingival sites that bled upon assessment with a probe. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for periodontal disease among participants with adequate ([25(OH)D]≥50 nmol/L) compared to deficient/inadequate ([25(OH)D]<50 nmol/L) vitamin D status adjusted for age, dental visit frequency, and body mass index. Results No association was observed between vitamin D status and periodontal disease defined by ACH and tooth loss (adjusted OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.68–1.35). In contrast, women with adequate compared to deficient/inadequate vitamin D status had a 33% lower odds (95% CI: 5%–53%) of periodontal disease defined using the CDC/AAP definition and a 42% lower odds (95% CI: 21%-58%) of having ≥50% of gingival sites that bled. Conclusion Vitamin D status was inversely associated with gingival bleeding, an acute measure of oral health and inflammation and inversely associated with clinical categories of chronic periodontal disease that incorporated PD, an indicator of oral inflammation. However, vitamin D was not associated with chronic periodontal disease based on measures of ACH in combination with tooth loss. PMID:23259413

  16. Interrelationship between alcohol intake and endogenous sex-steroid hormones on diabetes risk in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, Rachelle D.; Liu, Simin; You, Nai-Chieh; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Song, Yiqing

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones, including estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), were associated with alcohol intake or mediated the alcohol-type 2 diabetes (T2D) association. Methods Among women not using hormone replacement therapy and free of baseline cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes in the Women’s Health Study, 359 incident cases of T2D and 359 matched controls were chosen during 10 years of follow-up. Results Frequent alcohol intake (≥1 drink/day) was positively and significantly associated with higher plasma estradiol concentrations in an age-adjusted model (β=0.14, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.26), as compared with rarely/never alcohol intake. After adjusting for additional known covariates, this alcohol-estradiol association remained significant (β=0.19, 95% CI, 0.07, 0.30). Testosterone (β=0.13, 95% CI, −0.05, 0.31), SHBG (β=0.07, 95% CI, −0.07, 0.20), and DHEAS (β=0.14, 95% CI, −0.04, 0.31) showed positive associations without statistical significance. Estradiol alone or in combination with SHBG appeared to influence the observed protective association between frequent alcohol consumption and T2D risk, with a 12–21% reduction in OR in the multivariate-adjusted models. Conclusions Our cross-sectional analysis showed positive associations between alcohol intake and endogenous estradiol concentrations. Our prospective data suggested that baseline concentrations of estradiol, with or without SHBG, might influence the alcohol-T2D association in postmenopausal women. PMID:25759186

  17. Ospemifene 12-month safety and efficacy in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assessment of 12-month safety of ospemifene 60 mg/day for treatment of postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). Methods In this 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, women 40–80 years with VVA and an intact uterus were randomized 6 : 1 to ospemifene 60 mg/day or placebo. The primary objective was 12-month safety, particularly endometrial; 12-week efficacy was assessed. Safety assessments included endometrial histology and thickness, and breast and gynecological examinations. Efficacy evaluations included changes from baseline to week 12 in percentage of superficial and parabasal cells and vaginal pH. Results Of 426 randomized subjects, 81.9% (n = 349) completed the study with adverse events the most common reason for discontinuation (ospemifene 9.5%; placebo 3.9%). Most (88%) treatment-emergent adverse events with ospemifene were considered mild or moderate. Three cases (1.0%) of active proliferation were observed in the ospemifene group. For one, active proliferation was seen at end of study week 52, and diagnosed as simple hyperplasia without atypia on follow-up biopsy 3 months after the last dose. This subsequently resolved with progestogen treatment and dilatation and curettage. In six subjects (five ospemifene (1.4%), one placebo (1.6%)) endometrial polyps were found (histopathology); however, only one (ospemifene) was confirmed as a true polyp during additional expert review. Endometrial histology showed no evidence of carcinoma. Statistically significant improvements were seen for all primary and secondary efficacy measures and were sustained through week 52 with ospemifene vs. placebo. Conclusions The findings of this 52-week study confirm the tolerance and efficacy of oral ospemifene previously reported in short- and long-term studies. PMID:23984673

  18. Clinical and community risk models of incident tooth loss in postmenopausal women from the Buffalo Osteo Perio Study

    PubMed Central

    Bole, Christopher; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen; Genco, Robert J.; Hausmann, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Objectives While risk factors for tooth loss in adults have been identified, limited studies describing factors associated with incident tooth loss in postmenopausal women exist. This study assessed both clinical and non-clinical risk factors for incident tooth loss. Methods Postmenopausal women (N= 1,341) were recruited between 1997–2000 from 1847 eligible Observational Study participants of the Buffalo, NY center of the Women’s Health Initiative who had complete dental examinations to assess alveolar bone height, soft tissue attachment and general oral health, and completed questionnaires concerning demographics, general health, lifestyle and oral health (72.6% participation rate). Five years later (2002–2005), 1021 women (76.1%) repeated these examinations and questionnaires. Incident tooth loss was determined by oral examination Results After an average 5.1 years of follow-up (SD, 0.38), a total of 323 teeth were lost in 293 women, resulting in 28.7% of women with incident loss of at least one tooth. In multivariable models, diabetes history, gum disease history, smoking, previous tooth loss, BMI and plaque index, baseline clinical measures including alveolar crestal height (ACH) (OR=1.22 per mm loss, 95% CI 1.11, 1.35), clinical attachment loss (CAL) (OR=1.13 per mm loss, 95% CI 1.05, 1.23) and pocket depth (PD) (OR=1.26 per mm loss, 95% CI 1.13, 1.41) were significant risk factors of incident tooth loss. In a community model that included no clinical measures, diabetes history (OR=2.45, 95% CI 1.26, 4.77), prior gum disease (OR=1.97, 95% CI 1.43, 2.70), ever smoking (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1,06, 1.89), number of teeth lost at baseline (OR=1.05 per tooth, 95% CI 1.02, 1.08) and BMI (OR=1.15 per 5 km/m2 increase, 95% CI 1.01, 1.33) were associated with an increased risk of incident tooth loss. Conclusions Clinical and questionnaire based models were found to provide similar risk estimates for incident tooth loss in postmenopausal women. These models identified

  19. Time course of arthralgia among women initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy and a postmenopausal comparison group in a prospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Liana D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Mayer, Ingrid A.; Saville, Benjamin R.; Alvarez, JoAnn; Boomershine, Chad S.; Abramson, Vandana G.; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Friedman, Debra L.; Cella, David F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than 80,000 postmenopausal breast cancer patients in the US each year are estimated to begin a five-year course of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) to prevent recurrence. AI-related arthralgia (joint pain and/or stiffness) may contribute to nonadherence, but longitudinal data are needed on arthralgia risk factors, trajectories, and background in postmenopause. OBJECTIVES To describe one-year arthralgia trajectories and baseline covariates among AI patients and a postmenopausal comparison group. METHODS Patients initiating AIs (n=91) were surveyed at the time of AI initiation and at six repeated assessments over one year. A comparison group of postmenopausal women without breast cancer (n=177) completed concomitantly-timed surveys. Numeric rating scales (0–10) were used to measure pain in eight joint pair groups (bilateral fingers, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles, and toes). Poisson regression models were used to analyze arthralgia trajectories and risk factors. RESULTS By week six, the AI-initiating group had more severe arthralgia than did the comparison group (ratio of means=1.8, (95% CI 1.2–2.7, p=0.002), adjusting for baseline characteristics. Arthralgia then worsened further over a year in the AI group. Menopausal symptom severity and existing joint-related comorbidity at baseline among women initiating AI were associated with more severe longitudinal arthralgia. CONCLUSIONS Patients initiating AI should be told about the timing of arthralgia over the first year of therapy, and advised that it does not appear to resolve over the course of a year. Menopausal symptoms and joint-related comorbidity at AI initiation can help identify patients at risk for developing AI-related arthralgia. PMID:23575918

  20. Circulating oxidative stress parameters in pre- and post-menopausal healthy women and in women suffering from breast cancer treated or not with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Sánchez-López, Estefanía; Cueto-Ureña, Cristina; Dueñas, Basilio; Carrera-González, Pilar; Navarro-Cecilia, Joaquín; Mayas, María Dolores; Arias de Saavedra, José M; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Martínez-Martos, José M

    2014-10-01

    We evaluate here the redox status in pre- and post-menopausal healthy women and in women with breast cancer in order to understand the consequences of the hormonal alterations of menopause for the oxidative stress status, its modifications with breast cancer and the influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC). To that, serum oxidative stress parameters (total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation), non-enzyme antioxidant defenses (total glutathione, uric acid and bilirubin) and enzyme antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities) were measured in healthy women and in women with breast cancer divided according to their menopausal status and that received or not NC. Circulating estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH were also analyzed. We found that menopause itself modifies the redox status of healthy women, being most of these differences also reflected in women with breast cancer. However, several changes occur as a consequence of the disease. Furthermore, NC increases oxidative damage, decreases antioxidant defenses and eliminates the differences found in menopause. We conclude that the normal redox balance is disrupted by breast cancer but is also affected by the hormonal status promoted by menopause. In fact, NC nullifies the differences found between pre- and postmenopausal women in several antioxidant defense systems. PMID:25019472

  1. The accuracy of endometrial sampling in women with postmenopausal bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Hanegem, Nehalennia; Prins, Marileen M C; Bongers, Marlies Y; Opmeer, Brent C; Sahota, Daljit Singh; Mol, Ben Willem J; Timmermans, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) can be the first sign of endometrial cancer. In case of thickened endometrium, endometrial sampling is often used in these women. In this systematic review, we studied the accuracy of endometrial sampling for the diagnoses of endometrial cancer, atypical hyperplasia and endometrial disease (endometrial pathology, including benign polyps). We systematically searched the literature for studies comparing the results of endometrial sampling in women with postmenopausal bleeding with two different reference standards: blind dilatation and curettage (D&C) and hysteroscopy with histology. We assessed the quality of the detected studies by the QUADAS-2 tool. For each included study, we calculated the fraction of women in whom endometrial sampling failed. Furthermore, we extracted numbers of cases of endometrial cancer, atypical hyperplasia and endometrial disease that were identified or missed by endometrial sampling. We detected 12 studies reporting on 1029 women with postmenopausal bleeding: five studies with dilatation and curettage (D&C) and seven studies with hysteroscopy as a reference test. The weighted sensitivity of endometrial sampling with D&C as a reference for the diagnosis of endometrial cancer was 100% (range 100-100%) and 92% (71-100) for the diagnosis of atypical hyperplasia. Only one study reported sensitivity for endometrial disease, which was 76%. When hysteroscopy was used as a reference, weighted sensitivities of endometrial sampling were 90% (range 50-100), 82% (range 56-94) and 39% (21-69) for the diagnosis of endometrial cancer, atypical hyperplasia and endometrial disease, respectively. For all diagnosis studied and the reference test used, specificity was 98-100%. The weighted failure rate of endometrial sampling was 11% (range 1-53%), while insufficient samples were found in 31% (range 7-76%). In these women with insufficient or failed samples, an endometrial (pre) cancer was found in 7% (range 0-18%). In women with

  2. The Effect of Spiritual Intervention on Postmenopausal Depression in Women Referred to Urban Healthcare Centers in Isfahan: A Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee, Zohre; Zandiyeh, Zahra; Moeini, Mahin; Gholami, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Depression is not only common after menopause, but also affects postmenopausal women more than other women. Some studies show the positive effects of spiritual intervention on postmenopausal women and depressed patients. However, there is inadequate experimental data for supporting the effectiveness of such interventions. Objectives: This study investigated the effect of a spiritual intervention on postmenopausal depression in women referred to urban healthcare centers in Isfahan, Iran. Patients and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on postmenopausal women referred to the healthcare centers of Isfahan. Sixty-four women with postmenopausal depression were assigned randomly into an experimental group (n = 32) and a control group (n = 32). The experimental group received eight sessions of spiritual intervention while the control group received two sessions of training on healthy diet for postmenopausal women. All subjects in the experimental group and the control group responded to the Beck’s depression inventory at the start of the study, at the end of the fourth week, and a month after the last educational session. In addition to descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, independent samples t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results: Before the intervention, the study groups did not differ significantly in terms of mean depression scores (20.76 ± 4.61 vs. 19.58 ± 5.27, P = 0.33). However, immediately after intervention and after one month, the mean depression scores of 11.01 ± 7.85 and 11.21 ± 9.23 in the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group (19.22 ± 4.94 and 19.34 ± 4.92, respectively) (P = 0.001). In repeated measures analysis of variance, Mauchly’s test of sphericity was not significant (P = 0.672), and in the test of within-subjects effects, a significant interaction was found between the spiritual intervention and time. Conclusions

  3. Racial/Ethnic disparities in association between dietary quality and incident diabetes in postmenopausal women in the United States: The Women's Health Initiative 1993- 2005

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yongxia; Tinker, Lesley; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Hébert, James R.; Balasubramanian, Raji; Rosal, Milagros C.; Hingle, Melanie; Song, Yiqing; Schneider, Kristin L.; Liu, Simin; Sims, Stacy; Ockene, Judith K.; Sepavich, Deidre M.; Shikany, James M.; Persuitte, Gioia; Ma, Yunsheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of dietary quality and risk of incident diabetes overall and by race/ethnicity among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Research Methods & Procedures The WHI recruited 161,808 postmenopausal women between 1993 and 1998, and followed them until 2005. Incident diabetes was determined annually over an average of 7.6 years from enrollment. At baseline, all participants completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary quality was assessed by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, (AHEI) calculated from the baseline FFQ responses. Results There were 10,307 incident cases of self-reported treated diabetes over 1,172,761 person-years of follow-up. Most participants did not meet the AHEI dietary goals; i.e., only 0.1% of women met or exceeded the recommended consumption of vegetables, and few (17.3%) met or exceeded the recommended level for total fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, women in the highest quintile of the AHEI score were 24% less likely to develop diabetes relative to women in the lowest quintile of AHEI [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.76 (95% CI: 0.70-0.82)]. This association was observed in Whites [HR= 0.74 (95% CI: 0.68-0.82)] and Hispanics [HR= 0.68 (95% CI: 0.46-0.99)] but not in Blacks [HR= 0.85 (95% CI: 0.69-1.05)] or Asians [HR= 0.88 (95% CI: 0.57-1.38)]. Conclusion These findings support a protective role of healthful eating choices in reducing the risk of developing diabetes, after adjusting for other lifestyle factors, in White and Hispanic postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to investigate the relationship between dietary quality and risk of diabetes among Blacks and Asians in relationship to other lifestyle factors. PMID:23697968

  4. The theory of modulated hormone therapy for the treatment of breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Teresa S.; Haraldsen, Jason T.

    2012-03-01

    We present a theory that questions the standard of care for pre- and post-menopausal women with breast cancer. Through the use of modulated hormones to mimic the natural multiphasic fluctuations of estrogen and progesterone cycles of healthy young women, it can be expected that patients will not only exhibit increased quality of life such as better sleep, well-being, and libido, but also memory improvement and less joint pain. Additionally, this regimen may engage genetic pathways that protect women in youth from breast cancers. We present a mathematical basis for the coupling of the hormone cycles through the use of Gaussian curves that provides the foundation of a new format of hormone replacement in women.

  5. Even mildly elevated TSH is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in postmenopausal women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Geng, Houfa; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Chenggang; Zhao, Meng; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Bingchang; Wang, Yong; Ban, Bo; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Postmenopausal women, a population with increased risk of atherosclerosis, also have an appreciable risk of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). The current study sought an association between serum thyrotropin (TSH), the biomarker of SCH and atherosclerosis lipid profile changes. A total of 45 postmenopausal women with SCH and 27 healthy women matched by age and body mass index were enrolled in this observational study. Serum lipid profiles and thyroid function were assessed. Compared with healthy controls, the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-c and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in SCH were increased by ~22.8%, 29.6%, 30.5% and 23.2%, respectively. TSH was positively correlated with TC, LDL-c and oxLDL in all of the study subjects after adjusting for age and BMI. In particular, the positive correlation remained significant after adjusting for serum FT3 and FT4. When further stratified by TSH levels, both the subgroup of mildly elevated TSH (4.78-9.99 mU/L) and overtly elevated TSH (>10.00 mU/L) exhibited significantly higher serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-c and oxLDL compared to the normal TSH subgroup. Path analysis revealed that the total effects of TSH on TC (total effectsTC,TSH = 0.4323) included a significant direct effect (direct effectTC,TSH = 0.4932) and an indirect effect via an intermediary variable (FT3, FT4). Furthermore, TC exhibited a direct effect on LDL-c, as did LDL-c on oxLDL. In conclusion, even with a mild elevation of serum TSH, SCH is associated with atherogenic lipid profiles in postmenopausal women independent of thyroid hormones. PMID:24679183

  6. Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: July 2008 position statement of The North American Menopause Society

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To update for both clinicians and the lay public the evidence-based position statement published by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) in March 2007 regarding its recommendations for menopausal hormone therapy (HT) for postmenopausal women, with consideration for the therapeutic benefit-risk ratio at various times through menopause and beyond. Design An Advisory Panel of clinicians and researchers expert in the field of women’s health was enlisted to review the March 2007 NAMS position statement, evaluate new evidence through an evidence-based analysis, and reach consensus on recommendations. The Panel’s recommendations were reviewed and approved by the NAMS Board of Trustees as an official NAMS position statement. The document was provided to other interested organizations to seek their endorsement. Results Current evidence supports a consensus regarding the role of HT in postmenopausal women, when potential therapeutic benefits and risks around the time of menopause are considered. This paper lists all these areas along with explanatory comments. Conclusions that vary from the 2007 position statement are highlighted. Addenda include a discussion of risk concepts, a new component not included in the 2007 paper, and a recommended list of areas for future HT research. A suggested reading list of key references is also provided. Conclusions Recent data support the initiation of HT around the time of menopause to treat menopause-related symptoms; to treat or reduce the risk of certain disorders, such as osteoporosis or fractures in select postmenopausal women; or both. The benefit-risk ratio for menopausal HT is favorable close to menopause but decreases with aging and with time since menopause in previously untreated women. PMID:18580541

  7. Inverse relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Chinese women with normal blood glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu-qi; Ma, Xiao-jing; Hao, Ya-ping; Pan, Xiao-ping; Xu, Yi-ting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yu-qian; Jia, Wei-ping

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Osteocalcin is involved in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in animal models and humans. In this study we investigated the relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and NAFLD in postmenopausal Chinese women. Methods: A total of 733 postmenopausal women (age range: 41–78 years) with normal blood glucose levels were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Women taking lipid-lowering or anti-hypertensive drugs were excluded. Serum osteocalcin levels were assessed using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The degree of NAFLD progression for each subject was assessed through ultrasonography. The fatty liver index (FLI) of each subject was calculated to quantify the degree of liver steatosis. Results: The median level of serum osteocalcin for all subjects enrolled was 21.99 ng/mL (interquartile range: 17.84–26.55 ng/mL). Subjects with NAFLD had significantly lower serum osteocalcin levels (18.39 ng/mL; range: 16.03–23.64 ng/mL) compared with those without NAFLD (22.31 ng/mL; range: 18.55–27.06 ng/mL; P<0.01). Serum osteocalcin levels decreased with incre¬mental changes in the FLI value divided by the quartile (P-value for trend<0.01). The serum osteocalcin levels showed a negative correlation with the FLI values, even after adjusting for confounding factors (standardized β=−0.124; P<0.01). Binary logistic regression analysis identified an individual's serum osteocalcin level as an independent risk factor for NAFLD (odds ratio: 0.951; 95% confidence interval: 0.911–0.992; P=0.02). Conclusion: Serum osteocalcin levels are inversely correlated with NAFLD in postmenopausal Chinese women with normal blood glucose levels. PMID:26567728

  8. The Effect of the Modified Eighth Section of Eight-Section Brocade on Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bao-Xin; Chen, Shu-Peng; Li, Yu-Dong; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Bin; Lin, Ying; Guan, Jun-Hui; Cai, Ying-Feng; Liang, Zhu; Zheng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteoporosis and related fragility fractures represent a serious and global public health problem. To evaluate whether the modified eighth section of Eight-section Brocade (MESE) exercise could improve the symptom and indexes associated with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Guangzhou and Liuzhou hospital of traditional Chinese medicine in China. Women (n = 198) aged 50 to 75 years were randomized into Control, Ca, MESE, and MESE + Ca. Subjects in Ca and MESE groups were separately asked to consume thrice daily Calcium Carbonate Chewable D3 tablet and to perform thrice daily MESE exercise by 7 repetitions per time for 12 months. Subjects in MESE + Ca group performed such the combined treatment project for 12 months. Body height and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) scores of both knees, chronic back pain visual analogue scale scores (VAS), bone mineral density (BMD) at L2 to L4 and the left femoral neck, 3-feet Up and Go Test (3′) and one-leg Stance (OLS). In our study, the improvement in chronic back pain of the patients in Ca, MESE, and MESE + Ca group was better than that in control group. There was 1.9% and 1.7%, 2.3%, and 2.1% net profit in left femoral neck and lumbar BMD after the treatment for 12 months in MESE and MESE + Ca groups. For the balance capacity, the subjects in MESE and MESE + Ca groups secured much better performance than those in Ca and control group after the treatment for 12 months (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). The treatment of MESE exercise is the most effective for the improvement of the symptom and indexes in postmenopausal women. Importantly, the low attrition and the high exercise compliance indicate that MESE exercise is safe, feasible, and well tolerated by postmenopausal women. PMID:26107684

  9. Comparison of the Effects of Vaginal Royal Jelly and Vaginal Estrogen on Quality of Life, Sexual and Urinary Function in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Seyyedi, Fatemeh; Rafiean-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several causes can disturb the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Stress, urinary incontinence is one of the factors that can influence the quality of life of women, since they evade social activities and limit their behavior. Vulvovaginal disorders adversely impacts sexual action, psychosocial health, and partner relationships. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic properties of vaginal cream of royal jelly and estrogen on quality of life, sexual and urinary problems in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial that was done on 90 married postmenopausal women 50 to 65-year-old. A total of 90 women were randomly distributed to three groups and were treated with vaginal cream of royal jelly 15%, lubricant, and conjugated estrogens for three months. Before and after intervention, quality of life and vaginal cytology were evaluated. Data was analysed by SPSS 16 using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results The results expressed that vaginal royal jelly is considerably more effective than conjugated estrogens and lubricant in the improvement of quality of life, sexual and urinary function in postmenopausal women (p<0.05). Results of Pap smear showed that improvement of vaginal atrophy in conjugated estrogens group was better than other groups (p<0.001), and there was no significant difference between lubricant and royal jelly groups (p=0.89). Conclusion The effectiveness of vaginal royal jelly in treatment of sexual and urinary problems of postmenopausal women is related to its estrogenic properties and could be suitable in promotion of life quality in postmenopausal women. PMID:27437306

  10. Longitudinal association of hemostatic factors with risk for cancers of the breast, colorectum, and lung among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Salazar, Christian R; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Lane, Dorothy S; Rohan, Thomas E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether hemostatic factors associated with coagulation and inflammation pathways are associated with cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative study to examine the association of plasma fibrinogen levels, factor VII antigen activity, and factor VII concentration measured at baseline and during follow-up with the risk for cancers of the breast, colorectum, and lung. Among 5287 women who were followed up for a median of 11.4 years, 275 cases of breast cancer, 102 cases of colorectal cancer, and 90 cases of lung cancer were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of hemostatic factors with each cancer. Hemostatic factors were not associated with breast cancer in either baseline or longitudinal analyses. Baseline hemostatic factors showed weak associations with colorectal cancer; however, no association was seen in longitudinal analyses. Fibrinogen was positively associated with lung cancer in both baseline and longitudinal analyses; the association was seen only in never and former smokers, not in current smokers. We found no evidence of an association between hemostatic factors and breast or colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women. The positive association of fibrinogen levels with lung cancer requires confirmation in larger studies. PMID:26317383

  11. Clinical data mining related to the Japanese kampo concept "hie" (oversensitivity to coldness) in men and pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, H; Munakata, K; Katayama, K; Yamaguchi, R; Imoto, S; Miyano, S; Watanabe, K

    2014-01-01

    "Hie" is a subjective oversensitivity to cold and a condition experienced in 60% of Japanese citizens. The condition of hie has not been documented in Western medicine. However, in Kampo medicine, hie is an important target of treatment, because it has been considered one of the sources of all kinds of diseases. This study aimed to clarify the symptoms and findings associated with hie and contribute to increased precision in hie diagnosis. During 2005-2006, data from interviews of 1691 patients during their initial visit to the Kampo Clinic of Keio University Hospital were analyzed using a classification and regression tree (CART) analysis, a data mining technique. Symptoms and findings characteristic of each group are follows as, postmenopausal women: fatigability, absence of lower abdominal pain, and absence of hot flashes of feet: women with menstruation: leg swelling, knee pain, and abdominal pain; men: insomnia, leg weakness, and absence of excess saliva. From the perspective of Kampo medicine the result suggested that the feature of hie condition in postmenopausal women, women with menstruation, and men is statistically different. PMID:24707313

  12. Reported zinc, but not copper, intakes influence whole body bone density, mineral content and T score responses to zinc and copper supplementation in healthy postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A supplementation trial starting with 224 postmenopausal women provided with adequate vitamin D and calcium was conducted to determine whether increased copper and zinc intakes would reduce the risk for bone loss. Healthy women aged 51-80 years were recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled s...

  13. Lipids, Menopause and Early Atherosclerosis in SWAN Heart Women

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Genevieve A.; Brooks, Maria M.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Mackey, Rachel H.; Matthews, Karen A.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective The risk of cardiovascular disease increases after menopause. Recent evidence suggests that it is possible for HDL to become proatherogenic or dysfunctional in certain situations. Our objective was to evaluate whether the relationship of HDL-C to subclinical cardiovascular disease differed across the menopausal transition, which would provide insight for this increased risk. Methods Aortic calcification (AC), coronary artery calcification (CAC), carotid plaque and intima media thickness (IMT) were measured in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN Heart). Women, not using hormone therapy, were stratified into premenopausal or early-perimenopausal (Pre/EP, n=316) and late-perimenopausal or postmenopausal (LP/Post, n=224). Results The inverse relationship of HDL-C to subclinical atherosclerosis measures among Pre/EP women was weaker or reversed among LP/post women, adjusted for age, site, race, SBP, glucose, BMI, smoking, menopausal status and LDL-C. Specifically: Multivariable modeling demonstrated an inverse association between HDL-C and AC and IMT, among Pre/EP women; however, the protective effect of HDL-C for AC, left main CAC, carotid plaque and IMT was not seen in LP/Post women. In a small subset (n=53), LP/Post women had more total and small HDL particles, higher triglycerides and more total LDL particles compared to Pre/EP women (p<0.05). Conclusion These results suggest that the protective effect of HDL may be diminished as women transition the menopause. Future studies should examine whether this may be due to changes in HDL size, functionality, or related changes in other lipids or lipoproteins. PMID:21107300

  14. Associations between immune function and air pollution among postmenopausal women living in the Puget Sound airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Lori A.

    Air pollution is associated with adverse health outcomes, and changes in the immune system may be intermediate steps between exposure and a clinically relevant adverse health outcome. We analyzed the associations between three different types of measures of air pollution exposure and five biomarkers of immune function among 115 overweight and obese postmenopausal women whose immunity was assessed as part of a year-long moderate exercise intervention trial. For air pollution metrics, we assessed: (1) residential proximity to major roads (freeways, major arterials and truck routes), (2) fine particulate matter(PM2.5) at the nearest monitor to the residence averaged over three time windows (3-days, 30-days and 60-days), and (3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) modeled based on land use characteristics. Our immune biomarkers included three measures of inflammation---C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and interleukin-6---and two measures of cellular immunity---natural killer cell cytotoxicity and T lymphocyte proliferation. We hypothesized that living near a major road, increased exposure to PM2.5 and increased exposure to NO2 would each be independently associated with increased inflammation and decreased immune function. We observed a 21% lower average natural killer cell cytotoxicity among women living within 150 meters of a major arterial road compared to other women. For PM2.5 , we observed changes in 3 of 4 indicators of lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by anti-CD3---an antibody to the T cell receptor associated with increases in 3-day averaged PM2.5. For 30-day averaged PM 2.5 and 60-day averaged PM2.5 we did not observe any statistically significant associations. We observed an increase in lymphocyte proliferation index stimulated by the plant protein phytohemagglutinin (PHA) at 1 of 2 PHA concentrations in association with modeled NO2. For the three inflammatory markers, we observed no notable associations with any of our measures of air pollution. If confirmed, our

  15. Clinic and Home Blood Pressure Lowering Effect of an Angiotensin Receptor Blocker, Fimasartan, in Postmenopausal Women with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Song-Yi; Joo, Seung-Jae; Shin, Mi-Seung; Kim, Changsoo; Cho, Eun Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kang, Seok-Min; Kim, Dong-Soo; Lee, Seung Hwan; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Angiotensin receptor blockers may be an appropriate first-line agent for postmenopausal women with hypertension because the activation of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system is suggested as one possible mechanism of postmenopausal hypertension. However, there are few studies substantiating this effect. This study aimed to investigate clinic and home blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of fimasartan, a new angiotensin receptor blocker, in postmenopausal women with hypertension. Among patients with hypertension enrolled in K-Mets Study, 1373 women with fimasartan as a first antihypertensive drug and 3-months follow-up data were selected. They were divided into 2 groups; premenopausal women (pre-MPW; n = 382, 45.3 ± 4.6 years) and postmenopausal women (post-MPW; n = 991, 60.9 ± 8.2 years). Baseline clinic systolic BP was not different (pre-MPW; 152.9 ± 15.2 vs. post-MPW; 152.8 ± 13.5 mm Hg), but diastolic BP was lower in post-MPW (pre-MPW; 95.7 ± 9.4 vs. post-MPW; 91.9 ± 9.4 mm Hg, P <0.001). After 3-month treatment, clinic BP declined effectively without significant differences between 2 groups (Δsystolic/diastolic BP: pre-MPW; −25.7 ± 17.7/−14.2 ± 11.3 vs. post-MPW; −25.7 ± 16.3/−13.1 ± 10.9 mm Hg). Home morning and evening systolic BP decreased similarly in both groups (Δmorning/evening systolic BP: pre-MPW; −21.3 ± 17.9/−23.1 ± 15.8 vs. post-MPW; −20.4 ± 17.3/−20.2 ± 19.2 mm Hg). Fimasartan also significantly decreased the standard deviations of home morning and evening systolic BP of pre-MPW and post-MPW. Fimasartan was a similarly effective BP lowering agent in both post-MPW and pre-MPW with hypertension, and it also decreased day-to-day BP variability. PMID:27258507

  16. Breast cancer size in postmenopausal women is correlated with body mass index and androgen serum levels.

    PubMed

    Asseryanis, E; Ruecklinger, E; Hellan, M; Kubista, E; Singer, C F

    2004-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the effects of age, weight, body mass index (BMI), sex steroid receptor status and serum parameters such as estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and leptin on the size of a malignant breast tumor. A total of 62 premenopausal (median age 44.0 years) and 151 postmenopausal (median age 59.1 years) Caucasian women undergoing lumpectomy or mastectomy for invasive breast cancer were examined. Patient parameters (age, body weight, BMI), tumor parameters (tumor size, estrogen and progesterone receptor status) and serum parameters (estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, DHEAS and leptin) were measured. An increase of BMI and DHEAS levels was associated with larger tumors by partial correlation (rp) analysis (rp = 0.418, p = 0.008; and rp = 0.329, p = 0.041, respectively), whereas higher androstenedione levels corresponded with smaller tumors. Furthermore, BMI, androstenedione and DHEAS levels were correlated: an increase in DHEAS was associated with higher androstenedione serum concentrations (rp = 0.603, p < 0.001), but was also associated with a lower BMI (rp = -0.378, p < 0.001). BMI and androstenedione serum concentrations were also associated (rp = 0.242, p = 0.009), thus closing a circle of mutual interactions. We conclude that, although breast cancer progression is characterized by autonomous growth that has become independent of growth regulatory mechanisms, tumor size at the time of detection is influenced by a complex system of counter-regulatory feedback mechanisms that might represent the body's physiological attempt to control the size of a malignant tumor. PMID:15106362

  17. Effects of denosumab on bone density, mass and strength in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody which specifically blocks receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand and is a very potent antiresorptive drug. Its efficacy in reducing the risk of vertebral, hip and nonskeletal fracture has been proven in a large prospective, randomized multicenter study of 7808 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis [Fracture Reduction Evaluation of Denosumab in Osteoporosis Every 6 Months (FREEDOM) trial]. Denosumab causes somewhat greater increases in bone mineral density (BMD) than the class of bisphosphonate antiresorptives. Denosumab also causes an increase in bone mass and bone strength in the spine, ultradistal and diaphysis of the radius, proximal tibia and the hip. Recently long-term treatment with denosumab has been shown to cause a continued almost linear increase in total hip and femoral neck BMD beyond 3 years up to 8 years. In this respect, denosumab seems to differ from the bisphosphonate group in which the rate of improvement of BMD diminishes and for some drugs becomes negative after 3–4 years when the process of secondary mineralization flattens out. This unique property of an antiresorptive drug points towards mechanisms of action which differ from the bisphosphonate group. Both types of antiresorptives decrease cortical porosity but contrary to bisphosphonates the reduction in cortical porosity continues with denosumab which, in addition, also seems to cause a slight continuous modeling-based formation of new bone despite suppression of bone remodeling. The net effect is an increase in cortical thickening and bone mass, and increased strength of cortical bone. This may contribute substantially to the significant further reduction of the nonvertebral fracture risk which was found in the long-term denosumab arm of the FREEDOM extension trial during years 4–7. PMID:26029270

  18. Evaluation of dietary patterns among Norwegian postmenopausal women using plasma carotenoids as biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Markussen, Marianne S; Veierød, Marit B; Sakhi, Amrit K; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F

    2015-02-28

    A number of studies have examined dietary patterns in various populations. However, to study to what extent such patterns capture meaningful differences in consumption of foods is of interest. In the present study, we identified important dietary patterns in Norwegian postmenopausal women (age 50-69 years, n 361), and evaluated these patterns by examining their associations with plasma carotenoids. Diet was assessed by a 253-item FFQ. These 253 food items were categorised into forty-six food groups, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. We used the partial correlation coefficient (r(adj)) and multiple linear regression analysis to examine the associations between the dietary patterns and the plasma carotenoids α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin. Overall, four dietary patterns were identified: the 'Western'; 'Vegetarian'; 'Continental'; 'High-protein'. The 'Western' dietary pattern scores were significantly inversely correlated with plasma lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and total carotenoids (-0·25 ≤ r(adj) ≤ -0·13). The 'Vegetarian' dietary pattern scores were significantly positively correlated with all the plasma carotenoids (0·15 ≤ r(adj) ≤ 0·24). The 'Continental' dietary pattern scores were significantly inversely correlated with plasma lutein and α-carotene (r(adj) = -0·13). No significant association between the 'High-protein' dietary pattern scores and the plasma carotenoids was found. In conclusion, the healthy dietary pattern, the 'Vegetarian' pattern, is associated with a more favourable profile of the plasma carotenoids than our unhealthy dietary patterns, the 'Western' and 'Continental' patterns. PMID:25622727

  19. Genetic Analysis of High Bone Mass Cases from the BARCOS Cohort of Spanish Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Urreizti, Roser; Civit, Sergi; Cols, Neus; García-Giralt, Natàlia; Yoskovitz, Guy; Aranguren, Alvaro; Malouf, Jorge; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Río, Luís Del; Güerri, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Grinberg, Daniel; Balcells, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the study were to establish the prevalence of high bone mass (HBM) in a cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women (BARCOS) and to assess the contribution of LRP5 and DKK1 mutations and of common bone mineral density (BMD) variants to a HBM phenotype. Furthermore, we describe the expression of several osteoblast-specific and Wnt-pathway genes in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases. A 0.6% of individuals (10/1600) displayed Z-scores in the HBM range (sum Z-score >4). While no mutation in the relevant exons of LRP5 was detected, a rare missense change in DKK1 was found (p.Y74F), which cosegregated with the phenotype in a small pedigree. Fifty-five BMD SNPs from Estrada et al. [NatGenet 44:491-501,2012] were genotyped in the HBM cases to obtain risk scores for each individual. In this small group of samples, Z-scores were found inversely related to risk scores, suggestive of a polygenic etiology. There was a single exception, which may be explained by a rare penetrant genetic variant, counterbalancing the additive effect of the risk alleles. The expression analysis in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases and five controls suggested that IL6R, DLX3, TWIST1 and PPARG are negatively related to Z-score. One HBM case presented with high levels of RUNX2, while the other displayed very low SOX6. In conclusion, we provide evidence of lack of LRP5 mutations and of a putative HBM-causing mutation in DKK1. Additionally, we present SNP genotyping and expression results that suggest additive effects of several genes for HBM. PMID:24736728

  20. Association of morning illumination and window covering with mood and sleep among post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    YOUNGSTEDT, Shawn D; LEUNG, Amy; KRIPKE, Daniel F; LANGER, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The antidepressant and sleep-promoting effects of light exposure might be useful for treating age-related mood and sleep disorders. In view of recent evidence suggesting beneficial effects of morning light, this study examined the associations of mood and sleep with morning light exposure, 24 h environmental illumination, and the degree to which the volunteers’ bedroom windows were covered in the morning. We examined 459 postmenopausal women participating an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative conducted at the University of California, San Diego Clinical Center, San Diego, CA, USA. At baseline, volunteers completed a 4-week sleep-recall questionnaire. Volunteers were then assessed for 5–7 days in their home environments with actigraphic wrist monitors. During home recording, self-reported mood was assessed. Morning illumination during the first 4 h after arising, 24-h illumination mesor (cosine-fitted mean), and illumination acrophase (cosine-fitted peak time) were calculated. Sleep was scored each night using validated wrist actigraphic methods. A sleep diary was completed each morning. During two 24-h periods, urine was collected approximately every 2 h during wakefulness and following any voidings during the sleep period. Cosine-fitting established the acrophase of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) excretion. Morning illumination and 24-h illumination were modestly associated with better mood and sleep. Associations of light with mood and sleep were consistently greater for subjects whose body clocks were delayed relative to the group median. Less morning window covering in the subjects’ bedrooms was associated with more morning light and less depressed mood. The results suggest that both morning and 24-h light exposure may be beneficial for older adults. PMID:25374475

  1. Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota--a randomised controlled trial in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brahe, Lena K; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Prifti, Edi; Pons, Nicolas; Kennedy, Sean; Blædel, Trine; Håkansson, Janet; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Larsen, Lesli H

    2015-08-14

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and its progression towards metabolic disease. Dietary interventions that target the gut microbiota have been suggested to improve metabolic health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of interventions with Lactobacillus paracasei F19 or flaxseed mucilage on the gut microbiota and metabolic risk markers in obesity. A total of fifty-eight obese postmenopausal women were randomised to a single-blinded, parallel-group intervention of 6-week duration, with a daily intake of either L. paracasei F19 (9.4 × 1010 colony-forming units), flaxseed mucilage (10 g) or placebo. Quantitative metagenomic analysis of faecal DNA was performed to identify the changes in the gut microbiota. Diet-induced changes in metabolic markers were explored using adjusted linear regression models. The intake of flaxseed mucilage over 6 weeks led to a reduction in serum C-peptide and insulin release during an oral glucose tolerance test (P< 0.05) and improved insulin sensitivity measured by Matsuda index (P< 0.05). Comparison of gut microbiota composition at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention with flaxseed mucilage showed alterations in abundance of thirty-three metagenomic species (P< 0.01), including decreased relative abundance of eight Faecalibacterium species. These changes in the microbiota could not explain the effect of flaxseed mucilage on insulin sensitivity. The intake of L. paracasei F19 did not modulate metabolic markers compared with placebo. In conclusion, flaxseed mucilage improves insulin sensitivity and alters the gut microbiota; however, the improvement in insulin sensitivity was not mediated by the observed changes in relative abundance of bacterial species. PMID:26134388

  2. Intraindividual variation in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D measures 5 years apart among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jennifer E.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Andrews, Christopher A; LaMonte, Michael J.; Horst, Ronald L.; Genco, Robert J.; Millen, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Current literature examining associations between vitamin D and chronic disease generally use a single assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), assuming an individual’s 25(OH)D concentration is consistent over time. Methods We investigated the intraindividual variability between two measures of plasma 25(OH)D concentrations collected ~5 years apart (1997-2000 to 2002-2005) in 672 postmenopausal women participating in the Women’s Health Initiative. Plasma 25(OH)D was assessed using the DiaSorin LIAISON® chemiluminescence immunoassay. The within-pair coefficient of variation (CV) was 4.9% using blinded quality control samples. Mean and standard deviations (SD) of 25(OH)D at the two time points were compared using a paired t-test. An intraindividual CV and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to assess intraindividual variability. A Spearman correlation coefficient (r) assessed the strength of the association between the two measures and concordance in vitamin D status at two time points Results Mean 25(OH)D concentrations (nmol/L) significantly increased over time from 60.0 (SD=22.2) to 67.8 (SD=22.2) (p<0.05). The CV was 24.6%, the ICC (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) was 0.59 (0.54-0.64), and the Spearman r was 0.61 (95% CI=0.56-0.66). Greater concordance over 5 years was observed in participants with sufficient compared to deficient or inadequate baseline 25(OH)D concentrations (weighted kappa=0.39). Reliability measures were moderately influenced by season of blood draw and vitamin D supplement use. Conclusion There is moderate intraindividual variation in 25(OH)D concentrations over approximately 5 years. Impact These data support the use of a one-time measure of blood 25(OH)D in prospective studies with ≤ 5 years of follow-up. PMID:22523182

  3. Effects of Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy on Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    WALITT, BRIAN; PETTINGER, MARY; WEINSTEIN, ARTHUR; KATZ, JAMES; TORNER, JAMES; WASKO, MARY CHESTER; HOWARD, BARBARA V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT) on the incidence and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods The Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trials evaluated the effects of unopposed estrogen (E-alone) and estrogen plus progestin (E+P) compared with placebo on a diverse set of health outcomes over 7.1 and 5.6 years, respectively. RA cases were identified using historical and medication data. The hazard of developing RA was estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Disease symptom severity was estimated using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and self-reported joint pain scores at baseline and after 1 year. Mean changes in severity were compared using linear regression models. Results Of the 27,347 participants, 63 prevalent cases and 105 incident cases of RA were identified. A nonsignificant reduction in the risk of developing RA (hazard ratio 0.74; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.51, 1.10) was noted with PHT use. PHT use led to improved SF-36 scores in unadjusted analyses (percent change 12.5%; 95% CI −24.45, −0.57) but not after adjustment for relevant covariates (P = 0.33). Nonsignificant improvements in joint pain scores were seen with PHT use (odds ratio [OR] 4.10; 95% CI 0.83, 20.20). PHT did not improve swelling (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.08, 19.63) or prevent new joint pains (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.11, 4.68) in RA participants. Conclusion There were no statistically significant differences in the risk of developing RA or the severity of RA between the PHT and placebo groups. PMID:18311749

  4. Steady-state pharmacokinetics following application of a novel transdermal estradiol spray in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Morton, Terri L; Gattermeir, David J; Petersen, Craig A; Day, Wesley W; Schumacher, Robert J

    2009-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) of estradiol and its metabolites, estrone and estrone sulfate, following application of a novel estradiol transdermal spray to healthy postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned in parallel to receive 1-, 2-, or 3-spray doses (24 participants/dose level) of a 1.7% estradiol metered-dose transdermal spray (1.53 mg/spray) once daily for 14 days. Blood was collected predose on days 1 to 14 and over 7 days after the last dose. Serum concentrations for all 3 analytes reached steady state by day 7 or 8 and were still slightly above baseline on day 21. Estradiol, estrone, and estrone sulfate serum concentrations generally increased with increasing dose. Mean estradiol and estrone maximum serum concentration (C(max)) following 1, 2, or 3 sprays for 14 days were 36 and 50, 57 and 60, and 54 and 71 pg/mL, respectively. Estradiol time when maximum concentration occurred (t(max)) was 18 to 20 hours. The area under the serum concentration-time curve over 24 hours following the last dose of study drug (AUC(0-24 h)) on day 14 for the 1-, 2-, and 3-spray groups, respectively, was 471, 736, and 742 pg.h/mL for estradiol; 886, 1208, and 1367 pg x h/mL for estrone; and 16,501, 26,515, and 27,971 pg x h/mL for estrone sulfate. The metered-dose estradiol transdermal spray delivers estradiol at therapeutic levels and produces low serum estrone concentrations. PMID:19628730

  5. Role of vaginal estradiol pretreatment combined with vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening before operative hysteroscopy in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Eleonora; Manicuti, Claudia; Cardinale, Silvia; Collamarini, Matteo; Piccione, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of vaginal misoprostol after a pretreatment with vaginal estradiol to facilitate the hysteroscopic surgery in postmenopausal women. Methods In this observational comparative study, 35 control women (group A) did not receive any pharmacological treatment,26 women (group B) received 25 µg of vaginal estradiol daily for 14 days and 400 µg of vaginal misoprostol 12 hours before hysteroscopic surgery, 32 women (group C) received 400 µg of vaginal misoprostol 12 hours before surgery. Results Demographic data were well balanced and all variables were not significantly different among the three groups. The study showed a significant difference in the preoperative cervical dilatation among the group B (7.09±1.87 mm), the group A (5.82±1.85 mm; B vs. A, P=0.040) and the group C (5.46±2.07 mm; B vs. C, P=0.007). The dilatation was very easy in 73% of women in group B. The pain scoring post surgery was lower in the group B (B vs. A, P=0.001; B vs. C, P=0.077). In a small subgroup of women with suspected cervical stenosis, there were no statistically significant differences among the three groups considered. No complications during and post hysteroscopy were observed. Conclusion In postmenopausal women the pretreatment with oestrogen appears to have a crucial role in allowing the effect of misoprostol on cervical ripening. The combination of vaginal estradiol and vaginal misoprostol presents minor side effects and has proved to be effective in obtaining satisfying cervical dilatation thus significantly reducing discomfort for the patient. PMID:27200313

  6. Association of urinary sodium/creatinine ratio with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Woo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Choi, Yeon-Kyung; Lee, Won-Kee; Hwang, In-Ryang; Kim, Jung-Guk; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2015-08-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that high sodium chloride intake increases urinary calcium excretion and may be a risk factor for osteoporosis. However, the effect of oral sodium chloride intake on bone mineral density (BMD) and risk of osteoporosis has been inadequately researched. The aim of the present study was to determine whether urinary sodium excretion (reflecting oral sodium chloride intake) associates with BMD and prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study involved a nationally representative sample consisting of 2,779 postmenopausal women who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys in 2008-2011. The association of urinary sodium/creatinine ratio with BMD and other osteoporosis risk factors was assessed. In addition, the prevalence of osteoporosis was assessed in four groups with different urinary sodium/creatinine ratios. Participants with osteoporosis had significantly higher urinary sodium/creatinine ratios than the participants without osteoporosis. After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, urinary sodium/creatinine ratio correlated inversely with lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.001). Similarly, when participants were divided into quartile groups according to urinary sodium/creatinine ratio, the average BMD dropped as the urinary sodium/creatinine ratio increased. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to quartile 1, quartile 4 had a significantly increased prevalence of lumbar spine osteoporosis (odds ratios 1.346, P for trend = 0.044). High urinary sodium excretion was significantly associated with low BMD and high prevalence of osteoporosis in lumbar spine. These results suggest that high sodium chloride intake decreases lumbar spine BMD and increases the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:25614039

  7. Long-term effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet in obese postmenopausal women: a two-year randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Mellberg, Caroline; Sandberg, Susanne; Ryberg, Mats; Eriksson, Marie; Brage, Sören; Larsson, Christel; Olsson, Tommy; Lindahl, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Short-term studies have suggested beneficial effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet (PD) on body weight and metabolic balance. We now report long-term effects in obese postmenopausal women of a PD on anthropometric measurements and metabolic balance, in comparison with a diet according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Subjects/Methods Seventy obese postmenopausal women (mean age 60 years, body mass index 33 kg/m2) were assigned to an ad libitum PD or NNR diet in a 2-year randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was change in fat mass as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Both groups significantly decreased total fat mass at 6 months (−6.5 and −2.6 kg) and 24 months (−4.6 and −2