Sample records for early stage growth

  1. Early stage of nanocrystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-01-01

    Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

  2. Growth Stages 2: Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    These lesson plans from Science NetLinks form a two-part series designed to introduce students (grades 3-5) to human growth and development from infancy through puberty. Each lesson contains detailed background information, discussion questions, and other resources that help students learn about the "key physical stages or milestones, which are research and science-supported indicators that help to track the progress of a child's physical development at different stages of life." Using these lesson plans in the classroom could prove a popular choice, as "research shows that children are fascinated by films and stories about early stages of human development and they are particularly intrigued by comparisons of themselves now and earlier." Each lesson plans comes with a comprehensive teaching guide.

  3. Experimental Study of the Early Stages of Dendritic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Andrew

    2000-03-01

    Recent theoretical and computational advances(Nikolas Provatas, Nigel Goldenfeld, and Jonathan Dantzig, Phys Rev. Lett.), 80, 3308 (1998); Alain Karma and Wouter-Jan Rappel, Phys. Rev. E, 60, 3614 (1999). have allowed more careful study of the early stages of dendritic crystal growth that go beyond steady state approximations and include time-dependent growth and sidebranching in a realistic way. Recent experiments(J.C. LaCombe, M.B. Koss, and M.E. Glicksman, Phys. Rev. Lett.), 83, 2997 (1999) also suggest a re-examination of the steady-state approach may be in order. I will describe experiments designed to study the very early stages of dendritic crystal growth. Starting with an initially spherical seed, we slowly lower the temperature and record the development of the initial dendrite tips, the initial development of sidebranches, and the approach towards steady state. Further details are available online at http://www.lafayette.edu/ doughera/talks/aps2000/.

  4. Implications of early stages in the growth of stress corrosion cracking on component reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1995-04-01

    Environment-induced crack growth generally progresses through several stages prior to component failure. Crack initiation, short crack growth, and stage 1 growth are early stages in crack development that are summarized in this paper. The implications of these stages on component reliability, derive from the extended time that the crack exists in the early stages because crack velocity is slow. The duration of the early stages provides a greater opportunity for corrective action if cracks can be detected. Several important factors about the value of understanding short crack behavior include: (1) life prediction requires a knowledge of the total life cycle of the crack including the early stages, (2) greater reliability is possible if the transition between short and long crack behavior is known component life after this transition is short and (3) remedial actions are more effective for short than long cracks.

  5. Early stage evolution of growth faults: 3D seismic insights from the Levant Basin, Eastern Mediterranean

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Early stage evolution of growth faults: 3D seismic insights from the Levant Basin, Eastern March 2008 Keywords: Growth fault Blind propagation Throw distribution Fault nucleation Segmentation a b s t r a c t The geometry and kinematic evolution of small growth faults were analysed from a high

  6. Early stage of critical clusters growth in phenomenological and molecular dynamics simulation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romuald Puzyrewski; Jaroslaw Rybicki; Micha? Bia?oskórski

    2006-01-01

    The growth of critical clusters is discussed in the paper according to the classical and molecular dynamics (MD) approaches. A new formula for molecule numbers in critical clusters has been derived within the framework of the classical approach. A set of equations controlling the early stage of growth in a neighborhood of a critical size is presented. As far as

  7. Melting point depression of Al clusters generated during the early stages of film growth: Nanocalorimetry measurements

    E-print Network

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Melting point depression of Al clusters generated during the early stages of film growth in microelectronics: i melt- ing point depression as related to the Al reflow process,7­10 ii coalescence during been learned about the size-dependent melting point depression in recent times. Studies in model

  8. Production of stilbenoids and phenolic acids by the peanut plant at early stages of growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea) is known to produce stilbene phytoalexins as a defensive response to exogenous stimuli. This research demonstrates the ability of different organs of the peanut plant at early stages of growth under axenic conditions to produce a stilbenoid, resveratrol, as well a...

  9. Tree crown detection in high resolution optical images during the early growth stages of Eucalyptus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Tree crown detection in high resolution optical images during the early growth stages of Eucalyptus resolution images aims to determine the tree positions and crown sizes. In this paper, we use a mathematical-date) has been tested for the first time, which estimates individual tree crown variation during these dates

  10. Analysis of the variability of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) growth during the early stages.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Agronomy Analysis of the variability of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) growth during the early stages (Received 15 January 1992; accepted 4 May 1992) Summary — The variability of sugar beet seedling size of sugar beet through seedling size distribution, as well as through emergence rate and duration. Beta

  11. Nanoscale duplex oxide growth during early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100).

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, G.; Fong, D. D.; Wang, L.; Fuoss, P. H.; Baldo, P. M.; Thompson, L. J.; Eastman, J. A.; Materials Science Division; State Univ. of New York; Univ. of Illinois

    2009-10-01

    A combination of real-time in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and ex situ transmission electron microscopy is utilized to investigate the early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100). Sequential formation of NiO and Cu{sub 2}O oxides was observed by increasing oxygen partial pressure, and the Cu{sub 2}O phase was identified to form preferentially on top of NiO nanoislands. The origin of this unexpected phenomenon is attributed to localized enrichment of Cu atoms accompanied with NiO growth, which thermodynamically drives the nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O/NiO duplex oxide growth.

  12. Understanding the early stages of growth of Ge on Si(001) from lattice based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Paramita; Nath, Pinku; Ranganathan, Madhav

    2015-09-01

    A modified lattice model is developed to study the growth of Ge on Si(001). In addition to the usual bond energies, surface reconstruction and elastic strain are explicitly taken into account in this study. We introduce an additional rebonding energy for formation of vacancies in the dimer chains. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of growth and annealing successfully reproduce several important features in the range of growth from a small fraction of a monolayer to about one monolayer thick. These include the formation of dimer chains, formation and alignment of vacancies in the dimer chains and the peak in the dimer chain length distribution. We carefully analyze separately the role of mismatch strain and surface reconstruction on this behavior. Through this work, we show a significantly simplified, but nevertheless quantitatively accurate model for the early stages of growth of Ge on Si(001).

  13. Plasma epidermal growth factor decreased in the early stage of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian-Wen; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Hou, Miao-Miao; Wang, Xi; Tang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Yi-Wen; Ma, Jian-Fang; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2015-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a neurotrophic factor that plays an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured plasma EGF level in PD, essential tremor (ET) and normal controls to investigate whether it changes in PD and whether it is associated with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. 100 patients with PD, 40 patients with ET as disease control and 76 healthy persons were enrolled in the present study. Motor and non-motor symptoms were assessed by different scales. Plasma EGF levels of three groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Spearman test and linear logistics regression model were used to test the correlation of EGF with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Plasma EGF level was significantly decreased in early PD patients compared with normal control, but not in advanced PD patients. Interestingly, plasma EGF level was significantly increased in advanced PD and total PD patients compared with ET patients, but not in early PD patients. In addition, plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores in PD. Also plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores and NMS scores in early PD. Our results suggested that plasma EGF decreased in the early stage of PD and increased later on in the PD disease course. Also, plasma EGF level was increased significantly in PD compared with ET patients and correlated with motor and non-motor symptoms in early PD. PMID:26029474

  14. Plasma Epidermal Growth Factor Decreased in the Early Stage of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qian-Wen; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Hou, Miao-Miao; Wang, Xi; Tang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Yi-Wen; Ma, Jian-Fang; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a neurotrophic factor that plays an important role in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We measured plasma EGF level in PD, essential tremor (ET) and normal controls to investigate whether it changes in PD and whether it is associated with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. 100 patients with PD, 40 patients with ET as disease control and 76 healthy persons were enrolled in the present study. Motor and non-motor symptoms were assessed by different scales. Plasma EGF levels of three groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Spearman test and linear logistics regression model were used to test the correlation of EGF with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Plasma EGF level was significantly decreased in early PD patients compared with normal control, but not in advanced PD patients. Interestingly, plasma EGF level was significantly increased in advanced PD and total PD patients compared with ET patients, but not in early PD patients. In addition, plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores in PD. Also plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores and NMS scores in early PD. Our results suggested that plasma EGF decreased in the early stage of PD and increased later on in the PD disease course. Also, plasma EGF level was increased significantly in PD compared with ET patients and correlated with motor and non-motor symptoms in early PD. PMID:26029474

  15. Early stage growth structure of indium tin oxide thin films deposited by reactive thermal evaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Amaral; P. Brogueira; C. Nunes de Carvalho; G. Lavareda

    2000-01-01

    The initial stage of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film growth, deposited by reactive thermal evaporation (RTE), was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Five ITO thin films were deposited by RTE of an In:Sn alloy in the presence of added oxygen on heated oxide substrates (Ts=440K), with film thickness as the deposition variable. Surface imaging as well as

  16. An assay to probe Plasmodium falciparum growth, transmission stage formation and early gametocyte development.

    PubMed

    Brancucci, Nicolas M B; Goldowitz, Ilana; Buchholz, Kathrin; Werling, Kristine; Marti, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    Conversion from asexual proliferation to sexual differentiation initiates the production of the gametocyte, which is the malaria parasite stage required for human-to-mosquito transmission. This protocol describes an assay designed to probe the effect of drugs or other perturbations on asexual replication, sexual conversion and early gametocyte development in the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Synchronized asexually replicating parasites are induced for gametocyte production by the addition of conditioned medium, and they are then exposed to the treatment of interest during sexual commitment or at any subsequent stage of early gametocyte development. Flow cytometry is used to measure asexual proliferation and gametocyte production via DNA dye staining and the gametocyte-specific expression of a fluorescent protein, respectively. This screening approach may be used to identify and evaluate potential transmission-blocking compounds and to further investigate the mechanism of sexual conversion in malaria parasites. The full protocol can be completed in 11 d. PMID:26134953

  17. Nanoscale duplex oxide growth during early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhou Guangwen; Dillon D. Fong; Paul H. Fuoss; Peter M. Baldo; Loren J. Thompson; Jeffrey A. Eastman; Wang Liang

    2009-01-01

    A combination of real-time in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and ex situ transmission electron microscopy is utilized to investigate the early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100). Sequential formation of NiO and CuO oxides was observed by increasing oxygen partial pressure, and the CuO phase was identified to form preferentially on top of NiO nanoislands. The origin of this unexpected phenomenon

  18. Hypoxia and Acidification Have Additive and Synergistic Negative Effects on the Growth, Survival, and Metamorphosis of Early Life Stage Bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Gobler, Christopher J.; DePasquale, Elizabeth L.; Griffith, Andrew W.; Baumann, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria), marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale ?=?7.4–7.6) reduced survivorship (by >50%), low oxygen (30–50 µM) inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%), and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%). Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40%) reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios. PMID:24416169

  19. Disruption of Smad-dependent signaling for growth of GST-P-positive lesions from the early stage in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimura, Ryohei, E-mail: red0828@hotmail.co.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Mizukami, Sayaka, E-mail: non_sugar_life@hotmail.co.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takahashi, Miwa, E-mail: mtakahashi@nihs.go.j [Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Taniai, Eriko, E-mail: taniaie@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Kemmochi, Sayaka, E-mail: msayaka@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Mitsumori, Kunitoshi, E-mail: mitsumor@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-08-01

    To clarify the involvement of signaling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} during the hepatocarcinogenesis, the immunohistochemical distribution of related molecules was analyzed in relation with liver cell lesions expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) during liver tumor promotion by fenbendazole, phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, or thioacetamide, using rats. Our study focused on early-stage promotion (6 weeks after starting promotion) and late-stage promotion (57 weeks after starting promotion). With regard to Smad-dependent signaling, cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated Smad (phospho-Smad)-2/3 - identified as Smad3 by later immunoblot analysis - increased in the subpopulation of GST-P{sup +} foci, while Smad4, a nuclear transporter of Smad2/3, decreased during early-stage promotion. By late-stage promotion, GST-P{sup +} lesions lacking phospho-Smad2/3 had increased in accordance with lesion development from foci to carcinomas, while Smad4 largely disappeared in most proliferative lesions. With regard to Smad-independent mitogen-activated protein kinases, GST-P{sup +} foci that co-expressed phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase increased during early-stage promotion; however, p38-downstream phospho-activating transcriptional factor (ATF)-2, ATF3, and phospho-c-Myc, were inversely downregulated without relation to promotion. By late-stage promotion, proliferative lesions downregulated phospho-ATF2 and phospho-c-Myc along with lesion development, as with downregulation of phospho-p38 in all lesions. These results suggest that from the early stages, carcinogenic processes were facilitated by disruption of tumor suppressor functions of Smad-dependent signaling, while Smad-independent activation of p38 was an early-stage phenomenon. GST-P{sup -} foci induced by promotion with agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} did not change Smad expression, suggesting an aberration in the Smad-dependent signaling prerequisites for induction of GST-P{sup +} proliferative lesions.

  20. Iron partitioning at an early growth stage impacts iron deficiency responses in soybean plants (Glycine max L.)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carla S.; Roriz, Mariana; Carvalho, Susana M. P.; Vasconcelos, Marta W.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) leads to leaf yellowing, stunted growth and drastic yield losses. Plants have been differentiated into ‘Fe-efficient’ (EF) if they resist to IDC and ‘Fe-inefficient’ (IN) if they do not, but the reasons for this contrasting efficiency remain elusive. We grew EF and IN soybean plants under Fe deficient and Fe sufficient conditions and evaluated if gene expression and the ability to partition Fe could be related to IDC efficiency. At an early growth stage, Fe-efficiency was associated with higher chlorophyll content, but Fe reductase activity was low under Fe-deficiency for EF and IN plants. The removal of the unifoliate leaves alleviated IDC symptoms, increased shoot:root ratio, and trifoliate leaf area. EF plants were able to translocate Fe to the aboveground plant organs, whereas the IN plants accumulated more Fe in the roots. FRO2-like gene expression was low in the roots; IRT1-like expression was higher in the shoots; and ferritin was highly expressed in the roots of the IN plants. The efficiency trait is linked to Fe partitioning and the up-regulation of Fe-storage related genes could interfere with this key process. This work provides new insights into the importance of mineral partitioning among different plant organs at an early growth stage. PMID:26029227

  1. Comparing the effects of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium) clades C1 and D on early growth stages of Acropora tenuis.

    PubMed

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades - including A and D - have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages. PMID:24914677

  2. [Construction of individual-based ecological model for Scomber japonicas at its early growth stages in East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Song; Chen, Xin-Jun; Yang, Hong

    2012-06-01

    By adopting FVCOM-simulated 3-D physical field and based on the biological processes of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicas) in its early life history from the individual-based biological model, the individual-based ecological model for S. japonicas at its early growth stages in the East China Sea was constructed through coupling the physical field in March-July with the biological model by the method of Lagrange particle tracking. The model constructed could well simulate the transport process and abundance distribution of S. japonicas eggs and larvae. The Taiwan Warm Current, Kuroshio, and Tsushima Strait Warm Current directly affected the transport process and distribution of the eggs and larvae, and indirectly affected the growth and survive of the eggs and larvae through the transport to the nursery grounds with different water temperature and foods. The spawning grounds in southern East China Sea made more contributions to the recruitment to the fishing grounds in northeast East China Sea, but less to the Yangtze estuary and Zhoushan Island. The northwestern and southwestern parts of spawning grounds had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Cheju and Tsushima Straits, whereas the northeastern and southeastern parts of the spawning ground had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Kyushu and Pacific Ocean. PMID:22937663

  3. Early stages in the growth of small silver clusters in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janata, E.

    2012-09-01

    In this mini-review, the growth of silver nanoclusters following the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution is studied and some clusters are characterized. A model for the molecular structure of trimer silver clusters is discussed as well as the role of aliphatic alcohol radicalsin the growth of silver nanoclusters.

  4. Multiscale simulations of the early stages of the growth of graphene on copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, P.; Chanier, T.; Henrard, L.; Moskovkin, P.; Lucas, S.

    2015-07-01

    We have performed multiscale simulations of the growth of graphene on defect-free copper (111) in order to model the nucleation and growth of graphene flakes during chemical vapour deposition and potentially guide future experimental work. Basic activation energies for atomic surface diffusion were determined by ab initio calculations. Larger scale growth was obtained within a kinetic Monte Carlo approach (KMC) with parameters based on the ab initio results. The KMC approach counts the first and second neighbours to determine the probability of surface diffusion. We report qualitative results on the size and shape of the graphene islands as a function of deposition flux. The dominance of graphene zigzag edges for low deposition flux, also observed experimentally, is explained by its larger dynamical stability that the present model fully reproduced.

  5. Early stages of growth of gold layers sputter deposited on glass and silicon substrates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Extremely thin gold layers were sputter deposited on glass and silicon substrates, and their thickness and morphology were studied by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods. The deposited layers change from discontinuous to continuous ones for longer deposition times. While the deposition rate on the silicon substrate is constant, nearly independent on the layer thickness, the rate on the glass substrate increases with increasing layer thickness. The observed dependence can be explained by a simple kinetic model, taking into account different sticking probabilities of gold atoms on a bare glass substrate and regions with gold coverage. Detailed analysis of the shape of the RBS gold signal shows that in the initial stages of the deposition, the gold layers on the glass substrate consist of gold islands with significantly different thicknesses. These findings were confirmed by AFM measurements, too. Gold coverage of the silicon substrate is rather homogeneous, consisting of tiny gold grains, but a pronounced worm-like structure is formed for the layer thickness at electrical continuity threshold. On the glass substrate, the gold clusters of different sizes are clearly observed. For later deposition stages, a clear tendency of the gold atoms to aggregate into larger clusters of approximately the same size is observed. At later deposition stages, gold clusters of up to 100?nm in diameter are formed. PMID:22559151

  6. Androgens stimulate early stages of follicular growth in the primate ovary.

    PubMed Central

    Vendola, K A; Zhou, J; Adesanya, O O; Weil, S J; Bondy, C A

    1998-01-01

    The concept that androgens are atretogenic, derived from murine ovary studies, is difficult to reconcile with the fact that hyperandrogenic women have more developing follicles than normal-cycling women. To evaluate androgen's effects on primate follicular growth and survival, normal-cycling rhesus monkeys were treated with placebo-, testosterone-(T), or dihydrotestosterone-sustained release implants, and ovaries were taken for histological analysis after 3-10 d of treatment. Growing preantral and small antral follicles up to 1 mm in diameter were significantly and progressively increased in number and thecal layer thickness in T-treated monkeys from 3-10 d. Granulosa and thecal cell proliferation, as determined by immunodetection of the Ki67 antigen, were significantly increased in these follicles. Preovulatory follicles (> 1 mm), however, were not increased in number in androgen-treated animals. Follicular atresia was not increased and there were actually significantly fewer apoptotic granulosa cells in the T-treated groups. Dihydrotestosterone treatment had identical effects, indicating that these growth-promoting actions are mediated by the androgen receptor. These findings show that, over the short term at least, androgens are not atretogenic and actually enhance follicular growth and survival in the primate. These new data provide a plausible explanation for the pathogenesis of "polycystic" ovaries in hyperandrogenism. PMID:9637695

  7. Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed. PMID:22363438

  8. The Yellow Brick Road and the Emerald City: Benefit Finding, Positive Reappraisal Coping, and Posttraumatic Growth in Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon R. Sears; Annette L. Stanton; Sharon Danoff-Burg

    2003-01-01

    Predictors and outcomes of benefit finding, positive reappraisal coping, and posttraumatic growth were examined using interviews and questionnaires from a longitudinal study of women with early-stage breast cancer followed from primary medical treatment completion to 3 (n = 92) and 12 months (n = 60) later. Most women (83%) reported at least 1 benefit of their breast cancer experience. Benefit

  9. Role of fibroblast growth factor 21 in the early stage of NASH induced by methionine- and choline-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoki; Takahashi, Shogo; Zhang, Yuan; Krausz, Kristopher W; Smith, Philip B; Patterson, Andrew D; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a modulator of energy homeostasis and is increased in human nonalcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) and after feeding of methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD), a conventional inducer of murine nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the significance of FGF21 induction in the occurrence of MCD-induced NASH remains undetermined. C57BL/6J Fgf21-null and wild-type mice were treated with MCD for 1week. Hepatic Fgf21 mRNA was increased early after commencing MCD treatment independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and farnesoid X receptor. While no significant differences in white adipose lipolysis were seen in both genotypes, hepatic triglyceride (TG) contents were increased in Fgf21-null mice, likely due to the up-regulation of genes encoding CD36 and phosphatidic acid phosphatase 2a/2c, involved in fatty acid (FA) uptake and diacylglycerol synthesis, respectively, and suppression of increased mRNAs encoding carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase 1?, PPAR? coactivator 1?, and adipose TG lipase, which are associated with lipid clearance in the liver. The MCD-treated Fgf21-null mice showed increased hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Exposure of primary hepatocytes to palmitic acid elevated the mRNA levels encoding DNA damage-inducible transcript 3, an indicator of ER stress, and FGF21 in a PPAR?-independent manner, suggesting that lipid-induced ER stress can enhance hepatic FGF21 expression. Collectively, FGF21 is elevated in the early stage of MCD-induced NASH likely to minimize hepatic lipid accumulation and ensuing ER stress. These results provide a possible mechanism on how FGF21 is increased in NAFLD/NASH. PMID:25736301

  10. Structural style and early stage growth of inversion structures: 3D seismic insights from the Egersund Basin, offshore Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C. A.-L.; Chua, S.-T.; Bell, R. E.; Magee, C.

    2013-01-01

    High-quality three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection and borehole data from the Egersund Basin, offshore Norway are used to characterise the structural style and determine the timing of growth of inversion-related anticlines adjacent to a segmented normal fault system. Two thick-skinned normal faults, which offset Permian clastics and evaporites, delineate the north-eastern margin of the basin. These faults strike NNW-SSE, have up to 1900 m of displacement and are separated by an ESE-dipping, c. 10 km wide relay ramp. Both of these faults display exclusively normal separation at all structural levels and tip out upwards into the upper part of the Lower Cretaceous succession. At relatively shallow structural levels in the hangingwalls of these faults, a series of open, low-amplitude, fault-parallel anticlines are developed. These anticlines, which are asymmetric and verge towards the footwalls of the adjacent faults, are interpreted to have formed in response to mild inversion of the Egersund Basin. The amplitude of and apparent shortening associated with the anticlines vary along strike, and these variations mimic the along-strike variations in throw observed on the adjacent fault segments. We suggest that this relationship can be explained by along-strike changes in the propensity of the normal faults to reactivate during shortening; wider damage zones and lower angles of internal friction, coupled with higher pore fluids pressures at the fault centre, mean that reactivation is easier at this location than at the fault tips or in the undeformed country rock. Seismic-stratigraphic analysis of growth strata indicate that the folds initiated in the latest Turonian-to-earliest Coniacian (c. 88.6 Ma) and Santonian (c. 82.6 Ma); the control on this c. 6 Myr diachroneity in the initiation of fold growth is not clear, but it may be related to strain partitioning during the early stages of shortening. Anticline growth ceased in the Maastrichtian and the inversion event is therefore interpreted to have lasted at least c. 20 Myr. This study indicates that 3D seismic reflection data is a key tool to investigate the role that normal fault segmentation can play in controlling the structural style and timing of inversion in sedimentary basins. Furthermore, our results highlight the impact that this structural style variability may have on the development of structural and stratigraphic hydrocarbon traps in weakly-inverted rifts.

  11. Viscosity and dissipation - early stages

    E-print Network

    P. Bozek

    2009-01-15

    A very early start up time of the hydrodynamic evolution is needed in order to reproduce observations from relativistic heavy-ion collisions experiments. At such early times the systems is still not locally equilibrated. Another source of deviations from local equilibrium is the viscosity of the fluid. We study these effects at very early times to obtain a dynamical prescription for the transition from an early 2-dimensional expansion to a nearly equilibrated 3-dimensional expansion at latter stages. The role of viscosity at latter stages of the evolution is also illustrated.

  12. Early Stages Of Biome Shift in Boreal Alaska: Climate Sensitivity of Tree Growth and Accelerated Tree Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juday, G. P.; Grant, T.; Alix, C. M.; Spencer, D. L.; Beck, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    The boreal forest region of Alaska is characterized by a major east-west climate gradient, in addition to a widely appreciated north-south gradient. Low elevations of the eastern and central Interior experience warm summer temperatures and low annual precipitation, while coastal western Alaska has cool summer temperatures and greater precipitation. In the Interior the four dominant tree species of white and black spruce, aspen, and Alaska birch on low elevation sites nearly all register a strong negative radial growth relationship to summer temperatures, concentrated in May and July. Precipitation, particularly in late winter and midsummer, plays a supplemental role as a positive factor in growth. Floodplain white spruce along the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers transition from negative temperature response to positive response in western Alaska near the tree limit. Populations of white spruce on treeline sites display both negative growth response to July temperature and positive response to spring temperatures, with the negative response dominant in the east and the positive response dominant in the west. Across boreal Alaska summer temperatures increased abruptly in 1974, and have remained at historically high levels since. Correspondingly, climatic favorability for radial growth of Interior trees on most low elevation sites has been at extreme low levels particularly in the 21st century. Satellite-based NDVI coverage confirms that forest growth reduction is widespread in boreal Alaska since the 1980s. Defoliating and wood boring insects have reached outbreak population levels across most of boreal Alaska, partly from release of direct temperature control on the insects and partly from increased tree host susceptibility. Major outbreak species include aspen leaf miner, spruce engraver beetle, and spruce budworm. About a dozen tall willow species have been subjected to widespread attack by willow leaf blotch miner, and a new disease and defoliating insect have spread rapidly in alder shrubs, so nearly all woody species face health challenges. Temperatures and precipitation on many Interior sites are now at or beyond tolerance limits for white spruce, aspen, and Alaska birch. Two episodes of acute drought injury were widespread in birch during the last decade. Deficits in climate predicted tree growth are synchronous with the major insect outbreaks as recorded in insect trapping records and aerial surveys of area affected. Over the past 25 years tree mortality of 50% or more occurred in nearly all long-term monitoring plots in mature stands on productive sites in the Interior, but to date trees have successfully regenerated on most disturbed sites. These environmental changes and tree responses, including opposite responses, are coherent, and consistent with early stages of a biome shift eliminating boreal forest on dry Interior sites, and emergence of a new climate optimum zone in western Alaska currently only sparsely populated with forest.

  13. DAMAGE POTENTIAL OF GRASSHOPPERS (ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE) ON EARLY GROWTH STAGES OF SMALL-GRAINS AND CANOLA UNDER SUBARCTIC CONDITIONS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small-grains, such as barley and oats, have been successfully grown under subarctic conditions but little is known about their response to herbivory by grasshoppers, especially during seedling stages. A growth chamber study quantified and characterized damage to above- and below-ground plant parts ...

  14. Influence of beta instabilities on the early stages of nucleation and growth of alpha in beta titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Soumya

    Microstructural evolution in beta Titanium alloys is an important factor that governs the properties exhibited by them. Intricate understanding of complex phase transformations in these alloys is vital to tailor their microstructures and in turn their properties to our advantage. One such important subject of study is the nucleation and growth of alpha precipitates triggered by the compositional instabilities in the beta matrix, instilled in them during non equilibrium heat treatments. The present work is an effort to investigate such a phenomenon. Here studies have been conducted primarily on two different beta-Titanium alloys of commercial relevance- Ti5553 (Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-0.5Fe), an alloy used in the aerospace industry for landing gear applications and, TNZT (Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta), a potential load bearing orthopedic implant alloy. Apart from the effect of thermal treatment on these alloys, the focus of this work is to study the interplay between different alpha and beta stabilizers present in them. For this, advanced nano-scale characterization tools such as High Resolution STEM, High Resolution TEM, EFTEM and 3D Atom Probe have been used to determine the structure, distribution and composition of the non equilibrium instabilities such as beta' and o, and also to investigate the subsequent nucleation of stable alpha. Thus in this work, very early stages of phase separation via spinodal decomposition and second phase nucleation in titanium alloys are successfully probed at an atomic resolution. For the first time, atomically resolved HRSTEM 'Z'-contrast image is recorded showing modulated structures within the as-quenched beta matrix. Also in the same condition HRTEM results showed the presence of nanoscale alpha regions. These studies are revalidated by conventional selected area diffraction and 3D atom probe reconstruction results. Also TEM dark field and selected are diffraction studies are conducted to understand the effect of quenching and subsequent aging of o precipitates. Using 3D atom probe tomography, the elemental partitioning involved in coarsening of o is investigated in detail. Finally by performing a series of well planned heat treatments, an effort is made to reason out the influence of these instabilities on the morphology, volume fraction and nucleation site of alpha.

  15. Growth and feeding patterns of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) early life stages in the Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Ignacio A.; Folkvord, Arild; Palomera, Isabel; Quílez-Badía, Gemma; Kallianoti, Fotini; Tselepides, Anastasios; Kallianotis, Argyris

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to describe inter- and intra-annual variations in the environmental characteristics of the North-eastern Aegean Sea and to relate these changes to the egg and larval distributions, growth and feeding of larval anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus). Four cruises, two in July and two in September in 2003 and 2004 were performed. The distributions of eggs and larvae were associated with i) salinity fronts related to the Black Sea Water and ii) shallow areas of high productivity over the continental shelf, some of them with high riverine influence. The first published description of the anchovy larval diet in the Eastern Mediterranean was conducted in individuals ranging from 2.2 to 17 mm standard length. The number of non-empty guts was relatively high (between 20% and 30%), and the diet was described through 15 main items. The mean size of the prey increased with larval size, and was generally dominated by prey widths smaller than 80 ?m (mainly the nauplii and copepodite stages of copepods). Small larvae positively selected copepod nauplii. As larvae grew, they shifted to larger copepod stages. At all sizes, larvae rejected abundant taxa like cladocerans. The average trophic level calculated for anchovy of all size ranges was 2.98 ± 0.16 (SE). Growth rates varied from 0.41 to 0.75 mm d -1, with the highest growth rates generally observed in September. Variability in the Black Sea Water influence and the recorded inter- and intra-annual changes in primary and secondary production, combined with marked changes in temperature over the first 20 m depth, are used to frame the discussion regarding the observed significant differences in growth rates in terms of both length and weight.

  16. The growth factor receptors HER-2/neu and EGFR, their relationship, and their effects on the prognosis in early stage (FIGO I-II) epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Skirnisdóttir, I; Sorbe, B; Seidal, T

    2001-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease and many biologic and molecular factors are important for its development and progression, including growth rate, metastatic potential, chemo- and radiosensitivity, and prognosis. Even in the early stages (FIGO I-II), many questions persist about the biologic behavior, optimal treatment, and prognosis. In a series of 106 patients with epithelial ovarian cancers in FIGO stages IA-IIC, a number of known prognostic factors (age, FIGO stage, histopathologic type, and tumor grade) were studied in relation to two important growth factor receptors for oncogenesis (HER-2/neu and EGFR). Immunohistochemical techniques were used. All patients received adjuvant radiotherapy 4-6 weeks after the primary surgery. In a univariate analysis, the expression of the HER-2/neu receptor was not associated with any of the clinicopathologic factors studied or survival status. Positive EGFR staining was associated with poor survival in a univariate analysis. Co-expression of HER-2/neu and EGFR was most frequently seen in serous tumors and positive staining for HER-2/neu alone was associated with mucinous tumors. Both endometrioid and clear cell tumors belonged to the largest subgroup with concomitant negativity for both HER-2/neu and EGFR. In a multivariate Cox analysis, the tumor grade and EGFR status of the tumors were independent and significant prognostic factors. A therapeutic strategy for epithelial ovarian cancer might be to decrease EGFR expression by gene therapy in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy. PMID:11328410

  17. Regulation of Transforming Growth Factor ?1, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor by Silicone Gel Sheeting in Early-Stage Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaehoon; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Sang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic scars and keloids are associated with abnormal levels of growth factors. Silicone gel sheets are effective in treating and preventing hypertrophic scars and keloids. There has been no report on the change in growth factors in the scar tissue following the use of silicone gel sheeting for scar prevention. A prospective controlled trial was performed to evaluate whether growth factors are altered by the application of a silicone gel sheet on a fresh surgical scar. Methods Four of seven enrolled patients completed the study. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were investigated immunohistochemically in biopsies taken from five scars at 4 months following surgery. Results In both the epidermis and the dermis, the expression of TGF-?1 (P=0.042 and P=0.042) and PDGF (P=0.043 and P=0.042) was significantly lower in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars. The expression of bFGF in the dermis was significantly higher in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars (P=0.042), but in the epidermis, the expression of bFGF showed no significant difference between the groups (P=0.655). Conclusions The levels of TGF-?1, PDGF, and bFGF are altered by the silicone gel sheet treatment, which might be one of the mechanisms of action in scar prevention. PMID:25606485

  18. The Stages of Economic Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Rostow

    1960-01-01

    A third edition of The Stages of Economic Growth brings this classic work up to date with current economic and political changes. In a new preface and appendix, Professor Rostow extends his analysis to include recent economic and political developments as well as the advances in theory concerning nonlinear and chaotic phenomena. For those coming to his work for the

  19. Low PSI content limits the photoprotection of PSI and PSII in early growth stages of chlorophyll b-deficient wheat mutant lines.

    PubMed

    Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Kunderlikova, Kristyna; Sytar, Oksana; Shao, Hongbo; Kalaji, Hazem M; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2015-08-01

    In vivo analyses of electron and proton transport-related processes as well as photoprotective responses were carried out at different stages of growth in chlorophyll b (Chl b)-deficient mutant lines (ANK-32A and ANK-32B) and wild type (WT) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In addition to a high Chl a-b ratio, ANK mutants had a lower content of photo-oxidizable photosystem I (PSI, P m), and several parameters indicated a low PSI/PSII ratio. Moreover, simultaneous measurements of Chl fluorescence and P700 indicated a shift of balance between redox poise of the PSII acceptor side and the PSII donor side, with preferential reduction of the plastoquinone pool, resulting in an over reduced PSI acceptor side (high ? NA values). This was the probable reason for PSI inactivation observed in the ANK mutants, but not in WT. In later growth phases, we observed partial relief of "chlorina symptoms," toward WT. Measurements of ?A 520 decay confirmed that, in early growth stages, the ANK mutants with low PSI content had a limited capacity to build up the transthylakoid proton gradient (?pH) needed to trigger non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and to regulate the electron transport by cytochrome b 6/f. Later, the increase in the PSI/PSII ratio enabled ANK mutants to reach full NPQ, but neither over reduction of the PSI acceptor side nor PSI photoinactivation due to imbalance between the activity of PSII and PSI was mitigated. Thus, our results support the crucial role of proper regulation of linear electron transport in the protection of PSI against photoinhibition. Moreover, the ANK mutants of wheat showing the dynamic developmental changes in the PSI/PSII ratio are presented here as very useful models for further studies. PMID:25648638

  20. Biochemical composition during growth and starvation of early larval stages of cultured spiny lobster (Jasus edwardsii) phyllosoma.

    PubMed

    Ritar, Arthur J; Dunstan, Graeme A; Crear, Bradley J; Brown, Malcolm R

    2003-10-01

    We examined biochemical changes accompanying feeding and starvation from hatch to Stage VI (day 74 after hatch) in spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, phyllosoma larvae. Larval dry weights (dw) increased 17-fold from hatch (80+/-1 microg) to Stage VI (1415+/-44 microg). Larvae starved for 6-11 days at Stages II, IV and VI were 14-40% lighter than their fed counterparts fed enriched Artemia. The increases and losses in total dry weight during feeding and starvation were associated with changes in the content of protein (constituting 31.4-41.7% of dw) and carbohydrate (constituting 2.6-5.3% of dw), while larger changes in lipid content indicated its greater importance as an energy substrate. Lipid content increased from 7.9% of dw at hatch to its highest of 12.5% at Stage IV, but declined by 50% or more during starvation. This suggests that protein, carbohydrate and lipid are all important energy stores, although lipids are catabolized at a greater rate during food deprivation. The principal lipid class was polar lipid (PL; 79-92% of total lipid), followed by sterol (ST; 6-20%), with triacylglycerol and other lipid classes at <2%. PL were catabolized and ST were conserved during starvation. Changes in the fatty acid (FA) profile had mostly occurred before the first moult at day 8 after hatch, with gradual changes thereafter to Stage VI, reflecting their abundance in the Artemia diet. There was some conservation of the major essential FAs, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 22:6n-3, and the FA profile showed large gains in the C(18) polyunsaturated FA, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6. Ascorbic acid content increased 10-fold from hatch to the end of Stage I (36 and 333 microgg(-1) dw, respectively), while the content at the end of Stage II was higher in fed than that in starved larvae (439 and 174 microgg(-1) dw, respectively). Our study will assist in the development of alternatives to nutritionally incomplete diets, such as live ongrown Artemia, to meet the requirements of phyllosoma in culture. PMID:14511754

  1. Estrogen receptor ? and epidermal growth factor receptor as early-stage prognostic biomarkers of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Laura Valeria; Dalurzo, Mercedes; Carlini, María José; Smith, David; Nuñez, Myriam; Simian, Marina; Lastiri, José; Vasallo, Bartolomé; Bal de Kier Joffé, Elisa; Pallotta, María Guadalupe; Puricelli, Lydia

    2010-11-01

    As 20% of stage I NSCLC patients develop recurrent and often incurable cancer, the identification of prognostic markers has a meaningful clinical application. The biological significance of steroid hormone and EGF receptors, able to regulate key physiological functions, remains elusive in NSCLC. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic input of estrogen receptors (ER?, ER?), progesterone receptors (PR) and EGFR in tumors from 58 stage I NSCLC patients. Antigen expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Prognostic evaluation was performed with the multivariate Cox model. We found that about 70 and 40% of samples expressed ER? or ER? at cytoplasmic or nuclear level, respectively. Besides, only 12.1% of samples weakly expressed nuclear PR and 62.7% showed membrane EGFR staining. Correlation studies indicated an inverse association between EGFR expression and smoking status (p<0.01). Multivariate studies showed that the lack of nuclear ER? or the loss of EGFR expression were independent prognosis markers associated with shorter overall survival. We also found that patients whose tumors were negative for these two biomarkers presented the worst outcome. In conclusion, our findings could be useful for selecting stage I NSCLC patients with poor prognosis to apply an earlier treatment that impacts on survival. PMID:20878128

  2. Early Stages of Pulsed-Laser Growth of Silicon Microcolumns and Microcones in Air and SF6

    SciTech Connect

    Lowndes, D.H.; Fowlkes, J.D.; Pedraza, A.J.

    1999-07-29

    Dense arrays of high-aspect-ratio silicon microcolumns and microcones are formed by cumulative nanosecond pulsed excimer laser irradiation of single-crystal silicon in oxidizing atmospheres such as air and SF6. Growth of such surface microstructures requires a redeposition model and also involves elements of self-organization. The shape of the microstructures, i.e. straight columns vs steeply sloping cones and connecting walls, is governed by the type and concentration of the oxidizing species, e.g. oxygen vs fluorine. Growth is believed to occur by a ?catalyst-free? VLS (vapor-liquid-solid) mechanism that involves repetitive melting of the tips of the columns/cones and deposition there of the ablated flux of Si-containing vapor. Results are presented of a new investigation of how such different final microstructures as microcolumns or microcones joined by walls nucleate and develop. The changes in silicon surface morphology were systematically determined and compared as the number of pulsed KrF (248 nm) laser shots was increased from 25 to several thousand in both air and SF6. The experiments in air and SF6 reveal significant differences in initial surface cracking and pattern formation. Consequently, local protrusions are first produced and column or cone/wall growth is initiated by different processes and at different rates. Differences in the spatial organization of column or cone/wall growth also are apparent.

  3. On developing business architectures : a multi-framework evaluation of an early-stage enterprise

    E-print Network

    Montoya, Mario, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Early-stage enterprises are characterized by leveraging limited resources during periods of accelerating industry growth and relatively high uncertainty. This thesis is an examination of an early-stage enterprise within ...

  4. Dislocation generation during early stage sintering.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, J. E.; Lenel, F. V.; Ansell, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of capillarity-induced stresses on dislocations during early stage sintering. A special version of Hirth's (1963) theoretical calculation procedures modified to describe dislocation nucleation on planes meeting the sintering body's neck surface obliquely is shown to predict plastic flow at stress levels know to exist between micron size metal particles in the early stages of sintering.

  5. Increased gene expression of growth associated protein-43 in skin of patients with early-stage peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Scheytt, Sarah; Riediger, Nadja; Braunsdorf, Silvia; Sommer, Claudia; Üçeyler, Nurcan

    2015-08-15

    Growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) is one of the neural proteins associated with nerve injury that is upregulated after nerve injury. To investigate whether GAP-43 quantification in skin biopsies would differentiate subtypes of peripheral neuropathies, we analyzed GAP-43 expression in skin from the lateral thigh and the distal leg. We prospectively enrolled 130 patients with peripheral neuropathies and compared data with healthy controls. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) was determined using antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5); anti-GAP-43 antibodies were applied to visualize regenerating nerve fibers. PGP 9.5 and GAP-43 gene expression was analyzed using qRT-PCR. Patients with neuropathies had a generalized reduction of IENFD and GAP-43 immunoreactive fibers compared to controls (p<0.01). In contrast, cutaneous GAP-43 gene expression was increased in proximal skin in patients (p<0.05), particularly when disease duration was short (<3years; p<0.01). While fiber density for both markers decreased with age in healthy skin (p<0.01), age-dependent reduction of skin innervation was absent in neuropathies. Diagnostic subgroups and neuropathic pain had no influence on skin innervation. We conclude that peripheral neuropathies lead to an initial increase in GAP-43 gene expression as a potential mechanism of regeneration, which is not sustained in neuropathies of long duration. PMID:26071889

  6. Growth stage estimation. [crop calendars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, V. S.; Phinney, D. E.; Crea, W. E. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    Of the three candidate approaches to adjustment of the crop calendar to account for year-to-year weather differences, the Robertson triquadratic unit, a function of a nonlinear function of maximum and minimum temperature and day length, best described the rate of phenological development of wheat. The adjustable crop calendar (ACC) as implemented for LACIE is used to calculate the daily increment of development through six physiological stages of growth. Topics covered include dormancy modeling, the spring restart model, spring wheat starter model, winter starter model, winter wheat starter model, inclusion of the moisture variable, and display of crop stage estimation results. Assessment of the ACC accuracy over the period of LACIE operation indicates that the adjustable crop calendars used provided more accurate information than would have been available using historical norms. The models performed best under the conditions from which they were derived (Canadian spring wheat) and most poorly for the dwarf varieties and Southern Hemisphere applications.

  7. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

  8. Treatment of early stage vocal cord carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, G.

    1989-03-01

    The cure rates for early stage vocal cord cancer are excellent with primary radiotherapy. Voice quality remains as good or becomes better than prior to treatment. For the local failures that do occur, surgical salvage will yield ultimate cure rates of about 95% for T1 and 90% for T2 tumors.

  9. PUTATIVE YIELD LOSS IN FIELD-GROWN SOYBEAN UNDER ELEVATED OZONE CAN BE AVOIDED AT THE EXPENSE OF LEAF GROWTH DURING EARLY REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH STAGES IN FAVORABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent which is responsible for more damage to vegetation than any other air pollutant. In this study, we analyzed leaf growth, photosynthesis and carbohydrate content during the seed filling growth stage of field-grown soybeans exposed to ambient air and 1.2 times ambi...

  10. Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1993-12-01

    Processes in growth of short cracks and stage I of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl{sup {minus}}, with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl{sup {minus}} or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage I behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK{sup m} where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

  11. Open architecture framework for improved early stage submarine design

    E-print Network

    Sewell, Eli A. (Eli Anthony)

    2010-01-01

    Could transparency between current disparate methods improve efficiency in early stage submarine design? Does the lack of transparency between current design methods hinder the effectiveness of early stage submarine design? ...

  12. Maternal warming affects early life stages of an invasive thistle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Gallagher, R S; Shea, K

    2012-03-01

    Maternal environment can influence plant offspring performance. Understanding maternal environmental effects will help to bridge a key gap in the knowledge of plant life cycles, and provide important insights for species' responses under climate change. Here we show that maternal warming significantly affected the early life stages of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans. Seeds produced by plants grown in warmed conditions had higher germination percentages and shorter mean germination times than those produced by plants under ambient conditions; this difference was most evident at suboptimal germination temperatures. Subsequent seedling emergence was also faster with maternal warming, with no cost to seedling emergence percentage and seedling growth. Our results suggest that maternal warming may accelerate the life cycle of this species via enhanced early life-history stages. These maternal effects on offspring performance, together with the positive responses of the maternal generation, may exacerbate invasions of this species under climate change. PMID:22404764

  13. Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Josh

    2010-05-01

    The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch date distributions predicted by flow-independent (84-93%) and flow-dependent (82-91%) incubation loss models were similar. Age-0 abundance was generally independent of viable egg deposition, except in one year when egg deposition was 10-fold lower due to reduced spawning activity. There was no evidence from the hatch date or stock-recruitment analysis that flow-dependent incubation losses, although large in experimental years, affected the abundance of the age-0 population. The data indicate that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of flow-dependent losses. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that the March 2008 high flow experiment (HFE) resulted in a large increase in early survival rates (fertilization to ~1-2 months from emergence) of age-0 trout due an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis indicated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over four-fold higher than expected given the number of viable redds that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about two months after the HFE. These cohorts, which were fertilized after the HFE, were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better quality habitat. Inter annual differences in growth of age-0 trout based on otolith microstructure support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm·day-1) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm·day-1), the highest recorded over six years, even though abundance was eight-fold greater in 2008. I speculate that high flows in 2008 increased interstitial spaces in the substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth during summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was over two-fold higher than expected, possibly indicating that the effect of the HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent.

  14. Towards the identification of early stage osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Alberto; Massafra, Umberto

    2014-05-01

    A variety of genetic and environmental factors contribute to the progressive develop of OA. It is necessary to identify people who are developing initial changes in cartilage and/or subchondral bone before onset of classical radiological features in order to detect early phase of OA. Recent quantitative MRI techniques can evaluate the structural, mechanical and biochemical characteristics of cartilage. T2 mapping is able to assess cartilage volume and defects measurement, delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI (dGEMRIC) and Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) can reveal Cartilage GAG content. Accurate and reliable serum, urine and synovial fluid biomarkers are also requested. Several biomarkers have been studied and proposed, but there are many critical issues to consider for inferring useful data from studies on biomarkers in early OA such as phase of disease, specific joint sites, systemic concentrations, circadian rhythm, their clearance from the joint, etc. Recently proteomics has produced great expectations to improve the early diagnosis of OA. These discoveries may open opportunities for the identification of early stage of OA leading to manage the symptoms and ultimately slow the progression of OA. PMID:25285138

  15. New antimalarial indolone-N-oxides, generating radical species, destabilize the host cell membrane at early stages of Plasmodium falciparum growth: role of band 3 tyrosine phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Pantaleo, Antonella; Ferru, Emanuela; Vono, Rosa; Giribaldi, Giuliana; Lobina, Omar; Nepveu, Françoise; Ibrahim, Hany; Nallet, Jean-Pierre; Carta, Franco; Mannu, Franca; Pippia, Proto; Campanella, Estela; Low, Philip S.; Turrini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Although indolone-N-oxide (INODs) genereting long-lived radicals possess antiplasmodial activity in the low-nanomolar range, little is known about their mechanism of action. To explore the molecular basis of INOD activity, we screened for changes in INOD-treated malaria-infected erythrocytes (Pf-RBCs) using a proteomics approach. At early parasite maturation stages, treatment with INODs at their IC50 concentrations induced a marked tyrosine phosphorylation of the erythrocyte membrane protein band 3, whereas no effect was observed in control RBCs. After INOD treatment of Pf-RBCs we also observed: (i) accelerated formation of membrane aggregates containing hyperphosphorylated band 3, Syk kinase, and denatured hemoglobin; (ii) dose-dependent release of microvesicles containing the membrane aggregates; (iii) reduction in band 3 phosphorylation, Pf-RBC vesiculation, and antimalarial effect of INODs upon addition of Syk kinase inhibitors; and (iv) correlation between the IC50 and the INOD concentrations required to induce band 3 phosphorylation and vesiculation. Together with previous data demonstrating that tyrosine phosphorylation of oxidized band 3 promotes its dissociation from the cytoskeleton, these results suggest that INODs cause a profound destabilization of the Pf-RBC membrane through a mechanism apparently triggered by the activation of a redox signaling pathway rather than direct oxidative damage. PMID:22142474

  16. DESCRIPTION OF EARLY STAGE ZOEAE OF SPIRONTOCARIS MURDOCHI

    E-print Network

    . Stage I Zoea Mean total length of Stage I zoea (Fig. lA). 3.4 mm (range 3.2-3.6 mm; six specimens). EyesDESCRIPTION OF EARLY STAGE ZOEAE OF SPIRONTOCARIS MURDOCHI (DECAPODA, HIPPOLYTIDAE) REARED. murdochi through Stage III. The first three zoeal stages of S. murdochi are described, illustrated

  17. Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    High-flow experiments (HFEs) from Glen Canyon Dam are primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River as it flows through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. These experimental flows also have the potential to affect the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach immediately below the dam, which supports a highly valued recreational fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Understanding how flow regimes affect the survival and growth of juvenile rainbow trout is critical to interpreting trends in adult abundance. This study reports on the effects of HFEs in 2004 and 2008 on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lees Ferry reach on the basis of monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance of the age-0 trout (fertilization to about 1 to 2 months from emergence) and their growth during a 7-year period between 2003 and 2009. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the March 2008 HFE resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 trout because of an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis demonstrated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was more than fourfold higher than expected, given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch-date analysis showed that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the 2008 HFE (about April 15, 2008) relative to those fish that hatched before this date. These cohorts, fertilized after the 2008 HFE, would have emerged into a benthic invertebrate community that had recovered, and was possibly enhanced by, the HFE. Interannual differences in growth of age-0 trout, determined on the basis of otolith microstructure, support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm/day) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm/day), the highest recorded during 6 years, even though abundance was eightfold greater in 2008. We speculate that the 60-hour-long 2008 HFE (with peak magnitude about twice that of the annual peak flow during the previous 4 years) increased interstitial spaces in the gravel bed substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth of these fish through summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was more than twofold higher than expected, given the estimated number of viable eggs deposited in that year, perhaps indicating that the effect of the 2008 HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent. In a 3-week interval that spanned the November 2004 HFE, abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 7 months old from hatch experienced about a threefold decline, compared to the approximately twofold decrease observed between November and December 2008. Abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 10 months old from hatch was very similar across sampling trips that spanned the March 2008 HFE. It is uncertain whether the decline in abundance after the November 2004 HFE was the result of higher flow-induced mortality or higher flow-induced downstream dispersal. A focused monitoring effort in Marble Canyon (the reach immediately downstream of the Lees Ferry tailwater) before and after future HFEs is recommended to resolve this uncertainty. Relatively detailed monitoring of early life stages-such as the program described in this study-is essential to establish linkages between Glen Canyon Dam operations, or possibly other factors, and trends in the abundance of important nonnative and native fish populations living downstream within Grand Canyon National Park.

  18. Response of peanuts to irrigation management at different crop growth stages

    E-print Network

    Dahmen, Pieter George

    1980-01-01

    for peanuts at. different crop growth stages for tne Spanish and the Florunner varieties. The yield of the two varieties was evaluated under seven different irrigation treatments including a "no stress" check treatment and a dryland treatment. Each... treatment had a different schedule of either irrigating or stressing the peanut plant during one or more of three crop growth stages . The three crop growth stages were: (1) pegging; (2) early maturation; and (3) late maturation. Rainfall during...

  19. GENOMIC RESOURCES FOR STUDYING EARLY LIFE STAGE SALMONID HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic approaches are being used to study pathological and normal processes in early life stage salmonids. Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), a disease associated with low egg thiamine levels, causes early life stage mortality and low recruitment of Great Lakes salmonids including lake trout. We use...

  20. Safety and Tolerability of Docetaxel, Cyclophosphamide, and Trastuzumab Compared to Standard Trastuzumab-Based Chemotherapy Regimens for Early-Stage Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jitawatanarat, Potjana; O'Connor, Tracey L.; Kossoff, Ellen B.; Levine, Ellis G.; Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the tolerability and cardiac safety of docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, and trastuzumab (TCyH) for the treatment of early-stage human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer and compared to the standard trastuzumab-based chemotherapy regimens doxorubicin with cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel and trastuzumab (AC-TH) and docetaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab (TCaH). Methods We retrospectively reviewed early-stage, resectable, HER2-positive breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy at a single comprehensive cancer center between 2004 and 2011. Patient characteristics, comorbidities, relative dose intensity (RDI) of each regimen, tolerability, and cardiac toxicity were evaluated. Results One hundred seventy-seven patients were included in the study (AC-TH, n=114; TCaH, n=39; TCyH, n=24). TCyH was solely administered in the adjuvant setting, whereas two-thirds of the AC-TH and TCaH groups were administered postoperatively. Patients treated with TCyH tended to have a more significant underlying cardiac history, higher Charlson comorbidity index, and were of an earlier stage. All patients treated with TCyH received granulocyte colony stimulating factor primary prophylaxis. No febrile neutropenia or grade ?3 hematologic toxicity was observed in the TCyH group as compared to the AC-TH and TCaH groups. There were no significant differences in the rates of early termination, hospitalization, dose reduction, or RDI between the regimens. The symptomatic congestive heart failure rate between AC-TH, TCaH, and TCyH groups was not significantly different (4.4% vs. 2.6% vs. 8.3%, respectively, p=0.57). There was also no significant difference in the rate of early trastuzumab termination between patients treated with each regimen. Conclusion TCyH is well tolerated and should be investigated as an alternative adjuvant chemotherapy option for patients who are not candidates for standard trastuzumab-containing regimens. Larger clinical trials are necessary to support the wider use of TCyH as an adjuvant regimen. PMID:25548584

  1. Metanx and Early Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haitao; Tang, Jie; Lee, Chieh Allen; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. l-Methylfolate, pyridoxal 5?-phosphate, and methylcobalamin, individually have been reported to have beneficial effects on diabetes-induced defects. The possibility that combining these therapeutic approaches might have additional benefit led us to investigate the effect of Metanx against development of early stages of diabetic retinopathy in a mouse model. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin, and some were given Metanx (a combination food product) mixed in the food at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight. Mice were killed at 2 months and 10 months of study for assessment of retinal function, retinal vascular histopathology, accumulation of albumin in neural retina, and biochemical and physiological abnormalities in retina. Results. Two months of diabetes significantly increased leukostasis within retinal vessels and superoxide generation by the retina. Diabetes also significantly increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and phosphorylation of I?B. Daily consumption of Metanx significantly inhibited all of these abnormalities. Ten months of diabetes significantly increased the degeneration of retinal capillaries and impaired visual function (spatial frequency threshold (SFT) and a parameter of contrast sensitivity) compared to nondiabetic controls. Daily consumption of Metanx for 10 months inhibited impairment of SFT but had no significant beneficial effect on capillary degeneration, pericyte loss, or the estimate of contrast sensitivity. Conclusions. Metanx inhibited a diabetes-induced defect in retinal spatial frequency threshold and inhibited measures of oxidative stress and inflammation. It had no significant effect on contrast sensitivity or retinal capillary degeneration. Nutritional management with Metanx may help inhibit diabetes-induced defects in visual function. PMID:25574044

  2. Early stages of epitaxial growth of vanadium oxide at the TiO2(110) surface studied by photoelectron diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sambi; G. Sangiovanni; G. Granozzi; F. Parmigiani

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports experimental evidence for an incipient epitaxial growth of vanadium oxide at the TiO2(110) surface. This finding is based on a x-ray photoelectron diffraction and low-energy electron diffraction study of a submonolayer of vanadium deposited at the TiO2(110) surface, performed after annealing at 473 K in ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The data unambiguously show that vanadium atoms occupy selected

  3. SENSITIVITY OF RAINBOW TROUT EARLY LIFE STAGES TO NICKEL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four acute tests (96-h) with juvenile fish and four early life stage tests with embryos and larvae were completed with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Ninety-six-hour flow-through LC50 values for juveniles ranged from 8.1 to 10.9 mg/l nickel. Two early life stage tests were star...

  4. Synergistic induction of early stage of bone formation by combination of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and epidermal growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Jang, Soo-Jeong; Baek, Hae-Ri; Lee, Kyung Mee; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates whether the combination of the rhBMP-2 and various types of growth factors including EGF, FGF, PDGF and VEGF increases osteoinductivity compared to the single use of rhBMP-2 through in vitro and in vivo study. Cultured human MSCs were treated with rhBMP-2 only or in combination with growth factors. For in vivo evaluation, rhBMP-2 only or with growth factors was implanted into the calvarial defect made on SD rats. Both EGF and PDGF significantly increased both ALP activity and expression level in hMSCs when treated in combination with rhBMP-2 at 3 and 7 days of differentiation and significantly raised the accumulation of the calcium at day 14. Furthermore, micro-CT scanning revealed that the EGF an FGF groups show significantly increased new bone surface ratio compared to the rhBMP-2 only group and, the EGF treatment significantly up regulated percent bone volume and trabecular number at two weeks after the surgery. VEGF treatment also significantly raised trabecular number and FGF treatment significantly increased the trabecular thickness. Histological examination revealed that the EGF combination group showed enhanced bone regeneration than the rhBMP-2 only group two weeks after the implantation. Even though the treatment of rhBMP-2 with PDGF and FGF failed to show enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo simultaneously, these results suggest that the positive effect of the combination of EGF and rhBMP-2 is expected to induce the bone formation earlier compared to the single use of rhBMP-2 in vitro and in vivo. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24764222

  5. Flame acceleration in the early stages of burning in tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Fru, Gordon; Petchenko, Arkady [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Akkerman, V'yacheslav [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE) of Russian Academy of Sciences, B. Tulskaya 52, 115191 Moscow (Russian Federation); Eriksson, Lars-Erik [Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    Acceleration of premixed laminar flames in the early stages of burning in long tubes is considered. The acceleration mechanism was suggested earlier by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105 (1996) 225]. Acceleration happens due to the initial ignition geometry at the tube axis when a flame develops to a finger-shaped front, with surface area growing exponentially in time. Flame surface area grows quite fast but only for a short time. The analytical theory of flame acceleration is developed, which determines the growth rate, the total acceleration time, and the maximal increase of the flame surface area. Direct numerical simulations of the process are performed for the complete set of combustion equations. The simulations results and the theory are in good agreement with the previous experiments. The numerical simulations also demonstrate flame deceleration, which follows acceleration, and the so-called ''tulip flames''. (author)

  6. Early stage FPGA interconnect leakage power estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shilpa Bhoj; Dinesh Bhatia

    2008-01-01

    Increasing transistor densities, rising popularity in mobile applications and migration towards eco-friendly computing systems have made power dissipation a key FPGA design issue. To meet stringent budgets, system architects need accurate estimates of power distribution at various design stages. In this work, we make several key contributions to FPGA leakage power estimation. First, we develop an accurate and efficient model

  7. Giftedness in Hispanic English Language Learners: Early Stages of Identification 

    E-print Network

    Esquierdo, Joy J.; Irby, Beverly; Lara-Alecio, Rafael

    2010-10-22

    Giftedness in Hispanic English Language Learners: Early Stages of Identification Dr. J. Joy Esquierdo, University of Texas-Pan American esquierdo@utpa.edu Dr. Beverly Irby, Sam Houston State University irby@shsu.edu Dr. Rafael Lara...

  8. 8. Early stage of power house construction at Dam No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Early stage of power house construction at Dam No. 4, showing two stiff leg derricks used to excavate limestone for power house building. Photo c. 1907. Credit PEM. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  9. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko (Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

    1989-09-01

    It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

  10. Early-Stage Dementia Diagnosis and Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor G. Valcour; Patricia L. Blanchette

    2012-01-01

    Dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease and other factors is taking a tremendous toll on elders and their families. According to the author however, if the disease is diagnosed and treated early, many patients can avoid or delay secondary medical and social complications.

  11. [Properties of Bacillus pumilus subtilisin like proteinase secreted from recombinant strain on different growth stages].

    PubMed

    Balaban, N P; Danilova, Iu V; Shamsutdinov, T R; Mardanova, A M; Cheremin, A M; Rudenskaia, G N; Sharipova, M R

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus 3-19 glutamylendopeptidase has been isolated from culture liquid of Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain on different growth stages: growth retardation (early enzyme) and stationary phase (late enzyme). The effect of purified proteinase of different growth stages on insulin beta-chain, protein and oligopeptide substrates has been studied. Comparative study of physicochemical properties of early and late proteinases was carried out. Two protein fractions were different in catalytic characteristics and demonstrated different sensitivity to the presence of metal cations. PMID:23844506

  12. Modeling TGF-? in Early Stages of Cancer Tissue Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ascolani, Gianluca; Liò, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Recent works have highlighted a double role for the Transforming Growth Factor (-): it inhibits cancer in healthy cells and potentiates tumor progression during late stage of tumorigenicity, respectively; therefore it has been termed the “Jekyll and Hyde” of cancer or, alternatively, an “excellent servant but a bad master”. It remains unclear how this molecule could have the two opposite behaviours. In this work, we propose a - multi scale mathematical model at molecular, cellular and tissue scales. The multi scalar behaviours of the - are described by three coupled models built up together which can approximatively be related to distinct microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic scales, respectively. We first model the dynamics of - at the single-cell level by taking into account the intracellular and extracellular balance and the autocrine and paracrine behaviour of -. Then we use the average estimates of the - from the first model to understand its dynamics in a model of duct breast tissue. Although the cellular model and the tissue model describe phenomena at different time scales, their cumulative dynamics explain the changes in the role of - in the progression from healthy to pre-tumoral to cancer. We estimate various parameters by using available gene expression datasets. Despite the fact that our model does not describe an explicit tissue geometry, it provides quantitative inference on the stage and progression of breast cancer tissue invasion that could be compared with epidemiological data in literature. Finally in the last model, we investigated the invasion of breast cancer cells in the bone niches and the subsequent disregulation of bone remodeling processes. The bone model provides an effective description of the bone dynamics in healthy and early stages cancer conditions and offers an evolutionary ecological perspective of the dynamics of the competition between cancer and healthy cells. PMID:24586338

  13. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil developmental stages on herbaceous plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mount Fuji

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaaki Fujiyoshi; Atsushi Kagawa; Takayuki Nakatsubo; Takehiro Masuzawa

    2006-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was conducted to examine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and soil developmental stages on the growth and nutrient absorption of pioneer plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mt. Fuji. Four herbaceous plants, Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae), Miscanthus oligostachyus (Gramineae), Aster ageratoides var. ovatus (Compositae), and Hedysarum vicioides (Leguminosae), were grown from

  14. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1180 - Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1180 Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs. (a) Distribution requirement. If you are an Early Stage SBIC with outstanding...2) of this section. (4) From the result in...

  16. 13 CFR 107.1180 - Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1180 Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs. (a) Distribution requirement. If you are an Early Stage SBIC with outstanding...2) of this section. (4) From the result in...

  17. 13 CFR 107.1845 - Determination of Capital Impairment Percentage for Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Impairment Percentage for Early Stage SBICs. This section applies to Early Stage SBICs only. Except as modified...107.1840 apply to an Early Stage SBIC. (a) To determine...and (2) of this section. (4) SBA may reconsider its...

  18. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  19. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  20. Discovering colorons at the early stage LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Dicus, Duane A. [Center for Particles and Fields and Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Kao, Chung; Sayre, Joshua [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy and Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Nandi, S. [Department of Physics and Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Prospects are investigated for the discovery of massive hypergluons using data from the early runs of the Large Hadron Collider. A center of mass energy of 7 TeV and an integrated luminosity of 1 fb{sup -1} or 5 fb{sup -1} are assumed. A phenomenological Lagrangian is adopted to evaluate the cross section of a pair of colored vector bosons (colorons, {rho}-tilde) decaying into four colored scalar resonances (hyperpions, {pi}-tilde), which then decay into eight gluons. The dominant eight-jet background from the production of 8g, 7g1q, 6g2q, and 5g3q is included. We find an abundance of signal events and that realistic cuts reduce the background enough to establish a 5{sigma} signal for the coloron mass of up to 733 GeV with 1 fb{sup -1} or 833 GeV with 5 fb{sup -1}.

  1. Discovering Colorons at the Early Stage LHC

    E-print Network

    Duane A. Dicus; Chung Kao; S. Nandi; Joshua Sayre

    2010-12-28

    We investigate the prospects for the discovery of massive hyper-gluons using data from the early runs of the CERN Large Hadron Collider with $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV and assuming an integrated luminosity of 1 fb$^{-1}$. A phenomenological Lagrangian is adopted to evaluate the cross section of a pair of colored vector bosons (coloron, $\\tilde{\\rho}$) decaying into four colored scalar resonances (hyper-pion, $\\tilde{\\pi}$), which then decay into eight gluons. We include the dominant physics background from the production of $8g$, $7g1q$, $6g2q$, and $5g3q$. We find an abundance of signal events and that realistic cuts reduce the background enough to establish a $5\\sigma$ signal for $m_{\\tilde{\\pi}} \\alt 220$ GeV or $m_{\\tilde{\\rho}} \\alt 733$ GeV.

  2. Production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in early stage B-CLL: suppression by interferons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Bauvois; J Dumont; C Mathiot; J-P Kolb

    2002-01-01

    Besides vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play critical roles in angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. Increased angiogenesis is observed in chronic B lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and published data reported VEGF and bFGF production in this disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate MMP expression in early stage B-CLL. Elevated

  3. Definitive radiotherapy for early-stage hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kaname; Kubota, Akira; Furukawa, Madoka; Kitani, Yousuke; Nakayama, Yuko; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Mizoguchi, Nobutaka; Shiomi, Miho

    2015-08-01

    The present study analyzed the outcomes of patients with early-stage hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC) treated with radical radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 33 patients with early-stage HPSCC who underwent RT or CCRT between January 1999 and December 2011. Of the 33 patients who were treated, 12 had Stage I and 21 had Stage II disease. Patients with Stage I were typically treated with RT, while patients with Stage II were treated with CCRT (concurrent chemotherapy: 5FU, cisplatin or TS-1). The median follow-up period was 81 months, ranging from 15 to 155 months. The 5-year overall survival rates, cause specific survival rates, locoregional control rates, and progression-free survival rates were 58, 75, 56, and 49 %, respectively. Of the 33 patients, 51 % experienced second primary malignancies. Esophageal carcinoma occurred in several cases, and was diagnosed either during screening after treatment for the second primary malignancy or simultaneously with the second primary malignancy. Advanced-stage second malignancies significantly influenced the survival of the patients and the control rate for HPSCC. Treatment emphasizing the quality of life after treatment is needed, if a poor prognosis is expected because of advanced-stage second primary malignancy. PMID:24939176

  4. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Goyal; Robert E. Mansel

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the current standard of care for nodal staging in early-stage breast cancer patients\\u000a who are clinically nodenegative. Data from three randomised controlled trials conclusively demonstrates that SLNB is associated\\u000a with less arm morbidity and better quality of life than axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Large observational studies\\u000a have shown that SLNB is associated with

  5. Sympathetic skin response asymmetry in early stage idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Fusina; S Conte; L Bertolasi; E Fincati; E Nardelli; L. G Bongiovanni

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral plantar sympathetic skin response (SSR) was studied in 25 patients with early stage idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), characterized by monolateral motor involvement (Hoehn and Yahr, stage <2) and without clinical evidence of autonomic dysfunctions. Thirteen (mean age: 68.69±7.70, range 55–76) had extrapyramidal clinical signs only at the left body side, 12 (mean age 66.60±7.43, range 51–73) at the

  6. Early morphea simulating patch-stage mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Masakazu; Basko-Plluska, Juliana L; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna; Shea, Christopher R

    2015-05-01

    Morphea is a rare fibrosing condition of the skin and underlying tissues characterized histopathologically by thickened collagen bundles throughout the dermis, loss of adnexal structures, and "fat trapping." In the early stages of morphea, the absence of the fully developed characteristic findings may cause diagnostic confusion for the practicing pathologist. The authors report an unusual case of early morphea misdiagnosed as patch-stage poikilodermatous mycosis fungoides (MF) based on the initial clinical, histopathologic, and molecular findings. However, as time elapsed, well-developed lesions revealed clinical and histopathologic features diagnostic of morphea. The authors report this case to illustrate that lesions of early morphea may simulate MF. Given the similarities in clinicopathologic presentation, dermatologists and dermatopathologists should be cautious not to inadvertently misinterpret early morphea as MF. PMID:25768945

  7. Attentional Modulation of Early-Stage Visual Processing in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    van der Stelt, Odin; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Belger, Aysenil

    2007-01-01

    This study shows that paying attention to the color of a visual stimulus is manifested by an early endogenous scalp-positive event-related brain potential (ERP) component, referred to as “selection positivity”, that occurs within the first 100 ms after stimulus onset in healthy observers. In contrast, recently ill and chronically ill schizophrenia patients as well as patients at high risk for schizophrenia all failed to show this early ERP component while attending to color. These results suggest that a relatively early stage of visual-selective processing in posterior extrastriate cortex is disrupted in schizophrenia. PMID:17087921

  8. INTRODUCTION Although the early stages of commitment to the cardiac

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Mike

    INTRODUCTION Although the early stages of commitment to the cardiac phenotype have been extensively transgenic animals harboring the human alkaline phosphatase (HAP) gene driven by the proximal 840 bp of the ventricles. Key words: Mouse embryo, Heart, Sinus venosa, Atrium, Ventricle, Retinoic acid SUMMARY A retinoic

  9. DENIM: an informal tool for early stage web site design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Lin; Mark W. Newman; Jason I. Hong; James A. Landay

    2001-01-01

    DENIM is a system that helps web site designers in the early stages of design. DENIM supports sketching input; allows design at different refinement levels--site map, storyboard, and individual page; and unifies the levels through zooming. The design of DENIM was informed by a study of web site design practice, in which we observed that web site designers design sites

  10. Social security arrangements and early-stage entrepreneurial activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André van Stel; Peter Brouwer; Sander Wennekers; Jolanda Hessels

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study defines a number of propositions regarding the relation between social security arrangements and the rate of early-stage entrepreneurial activity at the country level. We state that in investigating this relation it may be relevant to distinguish between social security contributions paid by employers and employees, and to look at micro-based indicators (replacement rates) for the benefits an

  11. Detecting Internet Worms at Early Stage Shigang Chen Sanjay Ranka

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shigang

    1 Detecting Internet Worms at Early Stage Shigang Chen Sanjay Ranka Department of Computer of Internet economy. Arising as a leading threat, worms repetitively caused enormous damage to the Internet community during the past years. A new security service that monitors the ongoing worm activities

  12. Modeling routing demand for early-stage FPGA architecture development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Mark Fang; Jonathan Rose

    2008-01-01

    Architecture development for FPGAs has typically been a very empirical discipline, requiring the synthesis of benchmark circuits into candidate architectures. This is difficult to do in the early stages of architecture development, however, because there is no complete architecture to synthesize circuits into. The effort required to create prototype tools for nascent architectures is far too great for every new

  13. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.I. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark). Dept. of Ecotoxicology; Kristensen, P. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. for Cleaner Technology

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

  14. Seeding from early stage gallbladder carcinoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, L; Artese, L; Innocenti, P

    2001-01-01

    In the last years laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the "gold standard therapy" in the treatment of symptomatic cholelitiasis, but it is necessary to keep into account some problems and risks that can arise from laparoscopic technique. One of these risks is represented surely by the disregarding of a gallbladder carcinoma. The authors report a case of peritoneal seeding of an unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The first histologic diagnosis was chronic ulcerous cholecystitis with adenomiosis but 2 months later the metastasis developed at the umbilical port site, at another port site and to the right lobe of the liver. Another histological sampling of the gallbladder specimen was performed and this time a little intra mucous gallbladder adenocarcinoma was found (T1 stage). While the most part of literature data concern advanced stage of the disease at the time of operation (T2, T3) only few reports regard early stage neoplasm. Therefore this risk is present not only in advanced stages of gallbladder carcinoma but even in cases of early stage cancers. After a laparoscopic cholecystectomy all specimen should be opened and inspected. If there is a gallbladder wall irregularity and if there was a bile spillage it is advisable to perform a preoperative histologic examination. PMID:12061225

  15. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu; Long, Jiang; Li, Hai; Chen, Shuhong; Liu, Qiqi; Zhang, Bei; He, Xiaomin; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongyi; Li, Yimei; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Chenzhen; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Minli; Li, Qing; Cao, Bangwei; Bai, Zhigang; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Zhongtao; Zhu, Shengtao; Zheng, Jiasheng; Ou, Xiaojuan; Ma, Hong; Jia, Jidong; You, Hong; Wang, Shengqi; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is prevalent worldwide and early diagnosis of HCC is critical for effective treatment and optimal prognosis. Methods Serum was screened first by immunoproteomic analysis for HCC-related tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Selected TAAs were clinically evaluated retrospectively in patients with HCC, liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and healthy controls. Levels of autoantibody to the selected TAAs were measured by protein microarrays containing protein antigens of the candidate TAAs. Analyses were done by using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to calculate diagnostic accuracy. Findings Twenty-two candidate TAAs were assessed by protein microarray analysis in 914 participants with serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP) available. Twelve candidate TAAs were statistically different in signal intensity between HCC and controls. Among them, CENPF, HSP60 and IMP-2 showed AUC (area under the curve) values of 0.826, 0.764 and 0.796 respectively for early HCC. The highest prevalence of autoantibody positivity was observed in HCC cases with BCLC tumor stage A, well-differentiated histology and Child-Pugh grade C. Specifically, 73.6% or 79.3% cases of early HCC with negative AFP were positive for autoantibody to CENPF or HSP60. Interpretation Tumor-associated autoimmune reactions may be triggered by early stage HCCs. Measurement of serum autoantibody to TAAs may be complementary to AFP measurements and improve diagnosis of early HCC. PMID:26137588

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Heather L; Hudis, Clifford A

    2007-04-01

    Systemic chemotherapy is an integral component of the adjuvant treatment strategy for women who have early-stage breast cancer and accounts for significant improvements in breast cancer-specific mortality. Decisions regarding adjuvant therapy are increasingly complex with the advent of new therapeutic strategies, a growing body of literature on the molecular biology and natural history of breast cancer, and advances in therapeutic techniques and early detection. Ultimately, the risk-benefit calculus will continue to evolve in response to these advances and one hopes that clinicians will soon be able to tailor treatment recommendations to the biology of an individual cancer and the needs of the affected individual. PMID:17512445

  17. Effects of defoliating Stipa tenuis and Piptochaetium napostaense at different phenological stages: root growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Becker; C. A. Busso; T. Montani; M. A. Burgos; A. C. Flemmer; M. B. Toribio

    1997-01-01

    During 1991–1993, root growth after a single annual defoliation at different phenological stages (vegetative or during early, late or post-internode elongation) to 5–7 cm stubble height was determined on field-grown plants ofStipa tenuisandPiptochaetium napostaense, two important forage grasses in the semi-arid, temperate rangelands of Central Argentina. Nondefoliated plants served as controls. Root growth was estimated by root length density measurements

  18. UVB effects on early developmental stages of commercially important macroalgae in southern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Navarro; A. Mansilla; M. Palacios

    2008-01-01

    High levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) could represent a danger to seaweeds by affecting their physiological processes\\u000a and development. The aim of this work was to study the effects of UVB radiation on early developmental stages of commercially\\u000a and ecologically important marine algal species in southern Chile, considering spores survival and embryos growth. Spores\\u000a of Mazzaella laminarioides, Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia

  19. UVB effects on early developmental stages of commercially important macroalgae in southern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Navarro; A. Mansilla; M. Palacios

    High levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) could represent a danger to seaweeds by affecting their physiological processes\\u000a and development. The aim of this work was to study the effects of UVB radiation on early developmental stages of commercially\\u000a and ecologically important marine algal species in southern Chile, considering spores survival and embryos growth. Spores\\u000a of Mazzaella laminarioides, Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia

  20. The Development of Children's Early Numeracy through Key Stage 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a limited longitudinal study of young children's early numeracy development within three testing cycles, at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-of-age), located within the broader context of progress through to Key Stage 1 SAT…

  1. Nonlinear effects on the early stage of phase ordering kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Copetti, M.I.M. [LANA, Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97119-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Krein, G.; Marques de Carvalho, R.S. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona, 145, 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Machado, J.M. [Instituto de Biociencias, Letras e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Cristovao Colombo, 2265, 15054, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2004-12-02

    Nonlinear effects on the early stage of phase ordering of a non conserved order parameter are studied using Adomian's decomposition method for the Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this method, the solution is systematically calculated in the form of a polynomial expansion for the order parameter. The method is very accurate for short times, which allows to incorporate the short-time dynamics of the nonlinear terms in a analytical and controllable way.

  2. Biomarkers of early stage osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and musculoskeletal health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Usman; Anwar, Attia; Savage, Richard S.; Costa, Matthew L.; Mackay, Nicola; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Watts, Richard A.; Winyard, Paul G.; Tarr, Joanna; Haigh, Richard C.; Thornalley, Paul J.; Rabbani, Naila

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no biochemical test for detection of early-stage osteoarthritis (eOA). Tests for early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies require refinement to improve clinical utility. We developed robust mass spectrometric methods to quantify citrullinated protein (CP) and free hydroxyproline in body fluids. We detected CP in the plasma of healthy subjects and surprisingly found that CP was increased in both patients with eOA and eRA whereas anti–CCP antibodies were predominantly present in eRA. A 4-class diagnostic algorithm combining plasma/serum CP, anti-CCP antibody and hydroxyproline applied to a cohort gave specific and sensitive detection and discrimination of eOA, eRA, other non-RA inflammatory joint diseases and good skeletal health. This provides a first-in-class plasma/serum-based biochemical assay for diagnosis and type discrimination of early-stage arthritis to facilitate improved treatment and patient outcomes, exploiting citrullinated protein and related differential autoimmunity. PMID:25788417

  3. [NSCLC of early stage. The place of surgery].

    PubMed

    Riquet, M; Scotte, F

    2008-10-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of early stage (stage I and II) form a wide variety of numerous heterogeneous tumors in respect to the T, the N and the histology. However, they share the common characteristic of being resectable, so providing the best chances of cure in patients amenable to surgery. A wide range of resections is available and the tendency at the present time is to favour resections permitting to avoid performing pneumonectomy, an operation whose postoperative mortality may be considerable, particularly on the right side. The place of surgery is of paramount importance in view of cure on condition that the resection is complete, that is without any tumor left behind, and includes a radical mediastinal lymphadenectomy. The place of surgery is also often diagnostic as well as therapeutic, and surgery provides the best histologic classification, the most accurate staging, and thus the best adapted adjuvant therapy and global management. PMID:18971828

  4. Early growth trajectories affect sexual responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Who-Seung; Metcalfe, Neil B; Réale, Denis; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2014-02-22

    The trajectory of an animal's growth in early development has been shown to have long-term effects on a range of life-history traits. Although it is known that individual differences in behaviour may also be related to certain life-history traits, the linkage between early growth or development and individual variation in behaviour has received little attention. We used brief temperature manipulations, independent of food availability, to stimulate compensatory growth in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. Here, we examine how these manipulated growth trajectories affected the sexual responsiveness of the male fish at the time of sexual maturation, explore associations between reproductive behaviour and investment and lifespan and test whether the perceived time stress (until the onset of the breeding season) influenced such trade-offs. We found a negative impact of growth rate on sexual responsiveness: fish induced (by temperature manipulation) to grow slowest prior to the breeding season were consistently quickest to respond to the presence of a gravid female. This speed of sexual responsiveness was also positively correlated with the rate of development of sexual ornaments and time taken to build a nest. However, after controlling for effects of growth rate, those males that had the greatest sexual responsiveness to females had the shortest lifespan. Moreover, the time available to compensate in size before the onset of the breeding season (time stress) affected the magnitude of these effects. Our results demonstrate that developmental perturbations in early life can influence mating behaviour, with long-term effects on longevity. PMID:24403342

  5. Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. Results A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Conclusion Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group. PMID:25142621

  6. Involvement of 15-lipoxygenase in early stages of atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase which is expressed in atherosclerotic lesions is implicated in the oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins during atherogenesis. To obtain experimental in vivo evidence for this hypothesis, we analyzed the structure of oxygenated lipids isolated from the aorta of rabbits fed with a cholesterol-rich diet for different time periods and compared the pattern of oxygenation products with that isolated from low density lipoproteins treated in vitro with the pure rabbit 15-lipoxygenase and with oxygenated lipids isolated from advanced human atherosclerotic lesions. In early atherosclerotic lesions (12-wk cholesterol feeding), specific lipoxygenase products were detected whose structure was similar to those isolated from lipoxygenase-treated low density lipoproteins. The appearance of these products did coincide with the lipid deposition in the vessel wall. In later stages of atherogenesis (26-wk cholesterol feeding) the degree of oxidative modification of the tissue lipids did increase but the share of specific lipoxygenase products was significantly lower, suggesting an increasing overlay of the specific lipoxygenase products by nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation. In advanced human atherosclerotic lesions, large amounts of oxygenation products were detected whose structure suggests a nonenzymatic origin. These data suggest that the arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase is of pathophysiological importance during the early stages of atherogenesis. In later stages of plaque development nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation becomes more relevant. PMID:8195716

  7. Kinetic study of model reactions in the gas phase at the early stage of coke formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nohara, D.; Sakai, T. (Dept. of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City Univ., Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467 (JP))

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the most probable gas-phase reactions at the early stage of coke formation were elucidated by kinetic study on the model reactions adopted for formation of cyclic compounds and growth of ring. It was revealed that the formation and growth of ring proceeded mainly through cycloaddition of butadiene or allyl radicals to unsaturated hydrocarbons at relatively low temperatures ({approximately}600{degrees}C), i.e., through a Diels-Alder type reaction. On the other hand, such growth of ring as formation of biphenyl accompanying dehydrogenation from benzene can proceed only at the higher temperatures. It was also revealed that in the growth of the ring, cycloaddition of butadiene favors a cyclic olefin molecule that possesses a nonconjugated double bond and a nearly planar structure.

  8. Point pressure sensitivity in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Gandhi, Shifa S; Osman, Allen; Hurtig, Howard I; Pawasarat, Ian; Beals, Evan; Chung, Inna; Dubroff, Jacob; Newberg, Andrew; Ying, Gui-Shang; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2015-01-01

    A number of sensory changes occur in the earliest stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), some of which precede the expression of the classic motor phenotype by years (e.g., olfactory dysfunction). Whether point pressure sensitivity (PPS), a cutaneous measure of light touch mediated by myelinated A? fibers, is altered in early PD is not clear. Prior studies on this point are contradictory and are based on non-forced-choice threshold tests that confound the sensitivity measure with the response criterion. While ?-synuclein pathology, a defining feature of PD, is present in the skin of PD patients, it is restricted to unmyelinated nerve fibers, suggesting PPS may be spared in this disease. We determined PPS thresholds using a state-of-the-art forced-choice staircase threshold test paradigm in 29 early stage PD patients and 29 matched controls at 11 body sites: the center of the forehead and the left and right forearms, index fingers, palms, medial soles of the feet, and plantar halluces. The patients were tested, in counterbalanced sessions, both on and off dopamine-related medications (DRMs). PPS was not influenced by PD and did not correlate with DRM l-DOPA equivalents, scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, side of the major motor disturbances, or SPECT imaging of the striatal dopamine transporter, as measured by technetium-99m TRODAT. However, PPS thresholds were lower on the left than on the right side of the body (p=0.008) and on the upper extremities relative to the toes and feet (ps<0.0001). Positive correlations were evident among the thresholds obtained across all body sectors, even though disparate regions of the body differed in terms of absolute sensitivity. This study indicates that PPS is not influenced in early stage PD regardless of whether patients are on or off DRMs. PMID:25447476

  9. Early growth and devlopment response to corn to canola competition and shade stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-weed competition studies indicate that resource limitation slows normal corn growth and development and often results in lower yields. However there is minimal information on the physiological basis of crop competition, especially at the early growth stages when resources would be expected to b...

  10. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  11. Inflammation in the early stages of neurodegenerative pathology

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Preeti J.; Herman, Alexander M.; Moussa, Charbel E-H

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is secondary to protein accumulation in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Emerging evidence indicate sustained inflammatory responses, involving microglia and astrocytes in animal models of neurodegeneration. It is unknown whether inflammation is beneficial or detrimental to disease progression and how inflammatory responses are induced within the CNS. Persistence of an inflammatory stimulus or failure to resolve sustained inflammation can result in pathology, thus, mechanisms that counteract inflammation are indispensable. Here we review studies on inflammation mediated by innate and adaptive immunity in the early stages of neurodegeneration and highlight important areas for future investigation. PMID:21820744

  12. Sentinel Node Biopsy for Early-Stage Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Donald L.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Thompson, John F.; Elashoff, Robert; Essner, Richard; Glass, Edwin C.; Mozzillo, Nicola; Nieweg, Omgo E.; Roses, Daniel F.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Karakousis, Constantine P.; Reintgen, Douglas S.; Coventry, Brendon J.; Wang, He-jing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate, in an international multicenter phase III trial, the accuracy, use, and morbidity of intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy (LM/SNB) for staging the regional nodal basin of patients with early-stage melanoma. Summary Background Data: Since our introduction of LM/SNB in 1990, this technique has been widely adopted and has become part of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Eleven years ago, the authors began the international Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (MSLT-I) to compare 2 treatment approaches: wide excision (WE) plus LM/SNB with immediate complete lymphadenectomy (CLND) for sentinel node (SN) metastases, and WE plus postoperative observation with CLND delayed until the subsequent development of clinically evident nodal metastases. Methods: After each center achieved 85% accuracy of SN identification during a 30-case learning phase, patients with primary cutaneous melanoma (?1 mm with Clark level ?III, or any thickness with Clark level ?IV) were randomly assigned in a 4:6 ratio to WE plus observation (WEO) with delayed CLND for nodal recurrence, or to WE plus LM/SNB with immediate CLND for SN metastasis. The accuracy of LM/SNB was determined by comparing the rates of SN identification and the incidence of SN metastases in the LM/SNB group versus the subsequent development of nodal metastases in the regional nodal basin of those patients with tumor-negative SNs. Early morbidity of LM/SNB was evaluated by comparing complication rates between the 2 treatment groups. Trial accrual was completed on March 31, 2002, after enrollment of 2001 patients. Results: Initial SN identification rate was 95.3% overall: 99.3% for the groin, 95.3% for the axilla, and 84.5% for the neck basins. The rate of false-negative LM/SNB during the trial phase, as measured by nodal recurrence in a tumor-negative dissected SN basin, decreased with increasing case volume at each center: 10.3% for the first 25 cases versus 5.2% after 25 cases. There were no operative mortalities. The low (10.1%) complication rate after LM/SNB increased to 37.2% with the addition of CLND; CLND also increased the severity of complications. Conclusions: LM/SNB is a safe, low-morbidity procedure for staging the regional nodal basin in early melanoma. Even after a 30-case learning phase and 25 additional LM/SNB cases, the accuracy of LM/SNB continues to increase with a center's experience. LM/SNB should become standard care for staging the regional lymph nodes of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma. PMID:16135917

  13. Defective skeletogenesis and oversized otoliths in fish early stages in a changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Marta S; Faleiro, Filipa; Dionísio, Gisela; Repolho, Tiago; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Machado, Jorge; Rosa, Rui

    2014-06-15

    Early life stages of many marine organisms are being challenged by rising seawater temperature and CO? concentrations, but their physiological responses to these environmental changes still remain unclear. In the present study, we show that future predictions of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (?pH=0.5 units) may compromise the development of early life stages of a highly commercial teleost fish, Solea senegalensis. Exposure to future conditions caused a decline in hatching success and larval survival. Growth, metabolic rates and thermal tolerance increased with temperature but decreased under acidified conditions. Hypercapnia and warming amplified the incidence of deformities by 31.5% (including severe deformities such as lordosis, scoliosis and kyphosis), while promoting the occurrence of oversized otoliths (109.3% increase). Smaller larvae with greater skeletal deformities and larger otoliths may face major ecophysiological challenges, which might potentiate substantial declines in adult fish populations, putting in jeopardy the species' fitness under a changing ocean. PMID:24625652

  14. 13 CFR 107.1182 - Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based on Capital Impairment Percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based...An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1182 Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based...party, acceptable to SBA, to prepare valuations of some or all of your Loans and...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1182 - Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based on Capital Impairment Percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based...An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1182 Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based...party, acceptable to SBA, to prepare valuations of some or all of your Loans and...

  16. 76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...making equity investments in early stage small businesses. This initiative...content of the proposed Early Stage SBIC rule, SBA will host several...to SBA no later than January 4, 2012. If there is time at...participants. Since the Early Stage SBIC rule is in the...

  17. Modelling the initial stage of porous alumina growth during anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryslanova, E. M.; Alfimov, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Artificially on the surface of aluminum there may be build a thick layer of Al2O3, which has a porous structure. In this paper we present a model of growth of porous alumina in the initial stage of anodizing, identifying dependencies anodizing parameters on the rate of growth of the film and the distance between the pores and as a result of the created model equations were found for changes in the disturbance of alumina for the initial stage of anodizing aluminum oxide porous border aluminum-alumina and alumina-electrolyte, with the influence of surface diffusion of aluminum oxide.

  18. Phycomyces: irregular growth patterns in stage IVb sporangiophores

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Net rotation and net elongation of a stage IVb Phycomyces growing zone were simultaneously measured minute by minute with a photographic apparatus coupled with a rotating stage. A direct correlation between a growth response and a twist response after either a light stimulus or a house stimulus was found. There were significant irregularities in growth rate in both the elongation and rotation that were not a result of measurement error; these irregularities were poorly, if at all, correlated. We believe that these fluctuations reflect the underlying molecular mechanism of cell wall synthesis. PMID:7205194

  19. Early life-stage and multigeneration toxicity study with bisphenol A and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Staples, Charles A; Tilghman Hall, A; Friederich, Urs; Caspers, Norbert; Klecka, Gary M

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory guidelines for long term testing to assess the toxicity of xenobiotic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) with fish have focused on survival, growth, and development in early life stages. Early life stages are critical windows of exposure, but do not address later phases in the life cycle, such as reproduction, that are equally important for the continued survival of the organisms. Residual amounts of BPA are released to surface water. BPA has, therefore, been the subject of considerable toxicity testing with fish and other aquatic organisms. A long term multigeneration test with fish has been conducted to better interpret the environmental relevance of detectable levels of BPA. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 444 days over the course of three generations that included F0 reproducing adults, F1 eggs grown to be reproducing adults, and F2 eggs. Endpoints included survival, growth, reproduction, and vitellogenin concentrations. Concentrations tested ranged from 1 to 1,280 ?g/L. No observed effect concentrations (NOEC) of 640 ?g/L and higher for growth parameters show few differences between age or generation. Reproductive NOEC in F0 and F1 breeding pairs were 640 and 160 ?g/L, respectively. The lowest NOEC related to survival, growth and development or reproduction was 16 ?g/L for F2 hatching success. This long term study covered both early life and adult reproduction stages that allowed examination of all critical windows of exposure. Overall, NOEC ranging from 16 to 1,280 ?g/L were found, which are well above median and upper 95th percentile concentrations of BPA in fresh waters in North America and Europe (0.081 and 0.47 ?g/L and 0.01 and 0.035 ?g/L, respectively). The likelihood is low that measured concentrations of BPA in surface water would affect fish, even if exposed over more than one generation. PMID:21700340

  20. Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy for early stage cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Daniela D; Medeiros, Lídia RF; Edelweiss, Maria I; Pohlmann, Paula R; Stein, Airton T

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3. Most women with early cervical cancer (stages I to IIA) are cured with surgery or radiotherapy, or both. We performed this review originally because it was unclear whether cisplatin-based chemotherapy after surgery, radiotherapy or both, in women with early stage disease with risk factors for recurrence, was associated with additional survival benefits or risks. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of platinum-based chemotherapy after radical hysterectomy, radiotherapy, or both in the treatment of early stage cervical cancer. Search methods For the original 2009 review, we searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS and CancerLit, the National Research Register and Clinical Trials register, with no language restriction. We handsearched abstracts of scientific meetings and other relevant publications. We extended the database searches to November 2011 for this update. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy (after radical surgery, radiotherapy or both) with no adjuvant chemotherapy, in women with early stage cervical cancer (stage IA2-IIA) with at least one risk factor for recurrence. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted data independently. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, with death and disease progression as outcomes. Main results For this updated version, we identified three additional ongoing trials but no new studies for inclusion. Three trials including 368 evaluable women with early cervical cancer were included in the meta-analyses. The median follow-up period in these trials ranged from 29 to 42 months. All women had undergone surgery first. Two trials compared chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy to radiotherapy alone; and one trial compared chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy to radiotherapy alone. It was not possible to perform subgroup analyses by stage or tumour size. Compared with adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy significantly reduced the risk of death (two trials, 297 women; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36 to 0.87) and disease progression (two trials, 297 women; HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.74), with no heterogeneity between trials (I2 = 0% for both meta-analyses). Acute grade 4 toxicity occurred significantly more frequently in the chemotherapy plus radiotherapy group than in the radiotherapy group (risk ratio (RR) 5.66, 95% CI 2.14 to 14.98). We considered this evidence to be of a moderate quality due to small numbers and limited follow-up in the included studies. In addition, it was not possible to separate data for bulky early stage disease. In the one small trial that compared adjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy with adjuvant radiotherapy alone there was no significant difference in disease recurrence between the groups (HR = 1.34; 95% CI 0.24 to 7.66) and OS was not reported. We considered this evidence to be of a low quality. No trials compared adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy with no adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for early cervical cancer with risk factors for recurrence. Authors’ conclusions The addition of platinum-based chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy (chemoradiation) may improve survival in women with early stage cervical cancer (IA2-IIA) and risk factors for recurrence. Adjuvant chemoradiation is associated with an increased risk of severe acute toxicity, although it is not clear whether this toxicity is significant in the long-term due to a lack of long-term data. This evidence is limited by the small numbers and poor methodological quality of included studies. We await the results of three ongoing trials, that are likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this evidence. PMID:22

  1. Contribution of defect on early stage of LIPSS formation.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hisashi; Yada, Shuhei; Obara, Go; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2014-07-28

    We investigated an early stage of laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) formation to elucidate the contribution of defects on the formation. 4H-SiC crystals were irradiated by multiple pulses of femtosecond laser with different laser spot sizes. We observed the decrease in formation thresholds of high-spatial-frequency LIPSS (HSFL) and low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL) with the increased irradiated laser spot size. For smaller laser spot size, HSFL was only formed at the periphery of LSFL formation area, whereas for larger spot size, HSFL was randomly distributed within the laser spot. Our results are coincident with the hypothesis that the existence of defects in crystal contributes to the early stage on the formation of LIPSS, in which the electron excitation via one or two photon absorption in a defect site cause local nanoablation at a laser fluence under the intrinsic ablation threshold, followed by the formation of a nanovoid, which act as a scatterer, and interference of scattered wave and laser pulses lead to HSFL formation. PMID:25089418

  2. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Gene expression profiling for early-stage NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Frunze; Daw, Hamed; Haddad, Abdo; Spiro, Timothy; Sood, Ruchi

    2015-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both developed and developing countries with unacceptably high mortality even for early-stage cancers. Present guidelines do not recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma and prompts a search for a prognostic marker that would separate stage I patients into 2 groups, those who would benefit and those who would not benefit from adjuvant treatment. Studies during the last decade showed that the gene expression profiling can be the biomarker being sought. Many gene expression profiling have been found and reported from the analysis of surgical specimens of resected lung cancers during the last decade, and many of them had been shown to have an excellent predictive accuracy. These profiles used in the studies had not only different gene combinations but also different number of genes and methods of identification. Researchers have used microarray assays, RT-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and more recently microRNA-based techniques to achieve this goal. Unfortunately, most of the profiles were not sufficiently validated and/or were not used in prospective phase III studies. This review focuses on major studies in the field, future prospects, as well as the lessons learned so far. It is shown that the gene expression profiles have a good chance of being implemented in future everyday practice. PMID:23608827

  4. Ear growth, developmental stages and yield in winter wheat

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ear growth, developmental stages and yield in winter wheat Jean-François LEDENT Volkmar STOY Helena in length (R,) of ear primordia was measured in collections of winter wheats (Triticum aestivum (L.) em or morphological characters. However, genotypes with faster growing ear primordia tended to have smaller cars

  5. Generic features of late-stage crystal growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fong Liu; Nigel Goldenfeld

    1990-01-01

    A cell dynamical system model, which realistically incorporates diffusion, is developed to study various aspects of late-stage crystal growth. The algorithm is computationally efficient, allowing the development of complex spatial structures to be studied, and is motivated by renormalization group considerations. We establish the existence of an asymptotic dense branching morphology and relate it to diffusion-limited aggregation. Our findings indicate

  6. Initial investigation of a hypothesized link between thyroid peroxidase inhibition and fish early-life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  7. Correlative control of early stages of flower bud initiation in 'bourse' shoots of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh. cv.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Correlative control of early stages of flower bud initiation in 'bourse' shoots of apple (Malus x leaves whose axillary buds differen- tiate and may grow out as shoots. The bourse shoot can flower again- tive growth. Our objectives were to determine what treatments could cause 90-100% of bourse buds

  8. Dissolved iron supply limits early growth of estuarine mangroves.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Daniel M

    2010-11-01

    Three mesocosm experiments were performed in an outdoor facility to quantify the responses of five mangrove species grown from seedling to sapling stage to increasing rates of dissolved iron supply. Stem extension and biomass of mangroves were measured in the first two experiments, and in the third experiment, rates of microbial iron reduction were measured in relation to stem extension of two mangrove species. In all experiments, mangrove growth was enhanced by increasing iron supply, although some species showed iron toxicity at the higher supply rates. In the first two experiments, stem extension rates of Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Xylocarpus moluccensis best fit Gaussian curves with maximal growth at supply rates of 50-60 mmol Fe x m(-2) x d(-1), whereas growth of Avicennia marina and Ceriops tagal increased to the highest rate (100 mmol Fe x m(-2) x d(-1)) of iron supply. Changes in leaf chlorophyll concentrations and iron content of roots mirrored the growth responses. In the third experiment, rates of microbial iron reduction were greater with R. apiculata and A. marina than in controls without plants; for both species, there was a positive relationship between stem extension and iron reduction. The rates of iron reduction and rates of iron supplied to the plants were well within the range of interstitial iron concentrations and rates of iron reduction found in the natural mangrove soils from which the seedlings were obtained. The responses of these species show that mangroves growing from seedling to sapling stage have a strong nutritional requirement for iron, and that there is a close relationship between plant roots and the activities of iron-reducing bacteria. These results suggest that mangrove growth may be limited in some natural forests by the rate at which iron is solubilized by iron-reducing bacteria. Such biogeochemical conditions have significant implications for successful recruitment, establishment, and early growth of mangroves. PMID:21141184

  9. Generic Difference Between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Litvak, Maxim L.; Anfimov, Dimitrij S.; Sanin, Anton B.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Preece, Robert D.; Meegan, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  10. General Differences between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Anfimov, D. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Briggs, M. S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Preece, R. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  11. Model atmospheres for novae during the early stages

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrse, R.; Hauschildt, P.H. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Astrophysik); Shaviv, G. (Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Physics); Starrfield, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    Continuum and line blanketing models for the photospheres of novae in the early stages of their outbursts are presented. The expanding envelopes are characterized by a very slow increase of density with decreasing radius which leads to very large geometrical extensions and large temperature differences between the inner and outer parts. The spectra show a large IR excess and a small Balmer jump which may be either in absorption or in emission. For the parameters considered (T{sub eff} = 10{sup 4}, 1.5 {times} 10{sup 4}, 2 {times} 10{sup 4}K, R = 10{sup 11} cm, solar composition), most lines are in absorption. The effects of both modifications in the temperature structure (e.g. by heating from shock fronts) and changes in the abundances of the heavy elements on the emergent spectra are briefly discussed. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Zebrafish spata2 is expressed at early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Moro, Enrico; Maran, Claudio; Slongo, M Liliana; Argenton, Francesco; Toppo, Stefano; Onisto, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    Spata2 (spermatogenesis-associated protein 2) was originally described as a novel gene involved in the spermatogenic process. In this study, we cloned a potential zebrafish spata2 orthologue. The consensus open reading frame (1650 bp) encodes a polypeptide of 550 amino acids which shares 37% identity with the human SPATA2. Bioinformatic analysis reveals a small pattern PW [KR] KE [YF][RK] which seems to be of particular interest in the light of its strong conservation between SPATA2 and the recently discovered TAMO protein of D. melanogaster. RT-PCR analysis in adult zebrafish tissues revealed that spata2 mRNA has a broad distribution. Whole-mount in situ hybridization demonstrated that spata2 transcripts are maternally derived and becomes strongly localized in the central nervous system at early developmental stages. From 5 dpf, spata2 expression becomes detectable in the gut and pronephric duct epithelium, suggesting a wide tissue function during vertebrate development. PMID:17486545

  13. Ultra-sensitive protein detection via Single Molecule Arrays towards early stage cancer monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Stephanie M; Arendt, Lisa M; Zhou, Wenhui; Baig, Shazia; Walter, Stephanie R; Buchsbaum, Rachel J; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Walt, David R

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of cancers and continued monitoring of tumor growth would be greatly facilitated by the development of a blood-based, non-invasive, screening technique for early cancer detection. Current technologies for cancer screening and detection typically rely on imaging techniques or blood tests that are not accurate or sensitive enough to definitively diagnose cancer at its earliest stages or predict biologic outcomes. By utilizing Single Molecule Arrays (SiMoA), an ultra-sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we were able to measure increasing levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) within murine serum over time, which we attribute to tumor development. The measured concentrations of PSA were well below the detectable limits of both a leading clinical diagnostic PSA ELISA assay as well as a commercial ultra-sensitive PSA assay. Our work benchmarks the role of SiMoA as a vital tool in monitoring previously non-detectable protein biomarkers in serum for early cancer detection and offers significant potential as a non-invasive platform for the monitoring of early stage cancer. PMID:26052106

  14. Ultra-sensitive protein detection via Single Molecule Arrays towards early stage cancer monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Stephanie M.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Zhou, Wenhui; Baig, Shazia; Walter, Stephanie R.; Buchsbaum, Rachel J.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Walt, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of cancers and continued monitoring of tumor growth would be greatly facilitated by the development of a blood-based, non-invasive, screening technique for early cancer detection. Current technologies for cancer screening and detection typically rely on imaging techniques or blood tests that are not accurate or sensitive enough to definitively diagnose cancer at its earliest stages or predict biologic outcomes. By utilizing Single Molecule Arrays (SiMoA), an ultra-sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we were able to measure increasing levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) within murine serum over time, which we attribute to tumor development. The measured concentrations of PSA were well below the detectable limits of both a leading clinical diagnostic PSA ELISA assay as well as a commercial ultra-sensitive PSA assay. Our work benchmarks the role of SiMoA as a vital tool in monitoring previously non-detectable protein biomarkers in serum for early cancer detection and offers significant potential as a non-invasive platform for the monitoring of early stage cancer. PMID:26052106

  15. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

  16. Alpha Oscillations and Early Stages of Visual Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Klimesch, Wolfgang; Fellinger, Robert; Freunberger, Roman

    2011-01-01

    For a long time alpha oscillations have been functionally linked to the processing of visual information. Here we propose an new theory about the functional meaning of alpha. The central idea is that synchronized alpha reflects a basic processing mode that controls access to information stored in a complex long-term memory system, which we term knowledge system in order to emphasize that it comprises not only declarative memories but any kind of knowledge comprising also procedural information. Based on this theoretical background, we assume that during early stages of perception, alpha “directs the flow of information” to those neural structures which represent information that is relevant for encoding. The physiological function of alpha is interpreted in terms of inhibition. We assume that alpha enables access to stored information by inhibiting task-irrelevant neuronal structures and by timing cortical activity in task relevant neuronal structures. We discuss a variety findings showing that evoked alpha and phase locking reflect successful encoding of global stimulus features in an early post-stimulus interval of about 0–150?ms. PMID:21687470

  17. Early Life Stage Mortality Rates of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

    2010-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the early life history of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens is critical for rehabilitation of this species. Recruitment of lake sturgeon is known to be variable, but the extent of that variation and mortality rates experienced by early life stages are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify early life stage mortality and explore the

  18. Decision Making about Surgery for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Clara N; Chang, Yuchiao; Adimorah, Nesochi; Belkora, Jeff; Moy, Beverly; Partridge, Ann; Ollila, David W.; Sepucha, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background Practice variation in breast cancer surgery has raised concerns about the quality of treatment decisions. We sought to evaluate the quality of decisions about surgery for early stage breast cancer by measuring patient knowledge, concordance between goals and treatments, and involvement in decisions. Study Design A mailed survey of Stage I/II breast cancer survivors was conducted at four sites. The Decision Quality Instrument measured knowledge, goals, and involvement in decisions. A multivariable logistic regression model of treatment was developed. The model-predicted probability of mastectomy was compared to treatment received for each patient. Concordance was defined as having mastectomy and predicted probability >=0.5 or partial mastectomy and predicted probability <0.5. Frequency of discussion about partial mastectomy was compared to discussion about mastectomy using chi-squared tests. Results 440 patients participated (59% response rate). Mean overall knowledge was 52.7%. 45.9% knew that local recurrence risk is higher after breast conservation. 55.7% knew that survival is equivalent for the two options. Most participants (89.0%) had treatment concordant with their goals. Participants preferring mastectomy had lower concordance (80.5%) than those preferring partial mastectomy (92.6%, p=0.001). Participants reported more frequent discussion of partial mastectomy and its advantages than of mastectomy. 48.6% reported being asked their preference. Conclusions Breast cancer survivors had major knowledge deficits, and those preferring mastectomy were less likely to have treatment concordant with goals. Patients perceived that discussions focused on partial mastectomy, and many were not asked their preference. Improvements in the quality of decisions about breast cancer surgery are needed. PMID:22056355

  19. ARIPIPRAZOLE VERSUS HALOPERIDOL TREATMENT IN EARLY-STAGE SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Girgis, Ragy R.; Merrill, David B.; Vorel, Stanislav R.; Kim, Edward; Portland, Kimberly; You, Min; Pikalov, Andrei; Whitehead, Richard; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a secondary analysis of a completed study of the differential efficacy and side effects of aripiprazole versus haloperidol in early-stage schizophrenia (ESS), a subpopulation of patients which does not include first episode or chronic patients. A subpopulation of 360 individuals with ESS were identified from a randomized, multi-center, double-blind study of 1294 individuals with schizophrenia at different stages of illness who were randomized to treatment with aripiprazole (ESS=237) or haloperidol (ESS=123) for one year. The primary outcome measure was response rate based on a 50% reduction of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores. Secondary outcomes included several efficacy and safety measures, as well as treatment discontinuation. More individuals in the aripiprazole group (48%) than in the haloperidol group (28%; p<0.01) completed the study. Response rates were greater in the aripiprazole group (38% [N=91]) than in the haloperidol group (22% [N=27]; p<0.01). Aripiprazole was associated with fewer extrapyramidal side effects. ESS subjects in the haloperidol group were more likely than those in the aripiprazole group to discontinue the study drug due to an adverse event other than worsening illness (29% and 11%, respectively; p<0.01), and efficacy differences were reduced by interventions to mitigate side effects (decreasing antipsychotic dose with or without adding antiparkinsonian medication). Aripiprazole has a favorable efficacy/safety profile in ESS and appeared to be superior to haloperidol on a number of efficacy and safety outcomes. However, excessive dosing of the antipsychotic medications, in particular haloperidol, may have played an important role in accounting for the differences between aripiprazole and haloperidol in this study. PMID:20937506

  20. The COX-2 pathway is essential during early stages of skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bondesen, Brenda A; Mills, Stephen T; Kegley, Kristy M; Pavlath, Grace K

    2004-08-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration comprises several overlapping cellular processes, including inflammation and myogenesis. Prostaglandins (PGs) may regulate muscle regeneration, because they modulate inflammation and are involved in various stages of myogenesis in vitro. PG synthesis is catalyzed by different isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX), which are inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Although experiments employing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have implicated PGs in tissue repair, how PGs regulate muscle regeneration remains unclear, and the potentially distinct roles of different COX isoforms have not been investigated. To address these questions, a localized freeze injury was induced in the tibialis anterior muscles of mice chronically treated with either a COX-1- or COX-2-selective inhibitor (SC-560 and SC-236, respectively), starting before injury. The size of regenerating myofibers was analyzed at time points up to 5 wk after injury and found to be decreased by SC-236 and in COX-2(-/-) muscles, but unaffected by SC-560. In contrast, SC-236 had no effect on myofiber growth when administered starting 7 days after injury. The attenuation of myofiber growth by SC-236 treatment and in COX-2(-/-) muscles is associated with decreases in the number of myoblasts and intramuscular inflammatory cells at early times after injury. Together, these data suggest that COX-2-dependent PG synthesis is required during early stages of muscle regeneration and thus raise caution about the use of COX-2-selective inhibitors in patients with muscle injury or disease. PMID:15084473

  1. Communication: Stable carbon nanoarches in the initial stages of epitaxial growth of graphene on Cu(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wesep, Robert G [ORNL; Chen, Hua [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhu, Wenguang [ORNL; Zhang, Zhwnyu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    To fully exploit the device potential of graphene, reliable production of large-area, high-quality samples is required. Epitaxial growth on metal substrates have shown promise in this regard, but further improvement would be facilitated by a more complete understanding of the atomistic processes involved in the early growth stages. Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we have investigated the energetics and kinetics of graphene nucleation and growth on a Cu(111) surface. Our calculations have revealed an energetic preference for the formation of stable one-dimensional carbon nanoarches consisting of 3 13 atoms when compared to twodimensional compact islands of equal sizes. We also estimate the critical cluster size that marks the transition from nanoarch dominance to island dominance in the growth sequence. Our findings may provide the structural link between nucleated carbon dimers and larger carbon nanodomes, and are expected to stimulate future experimental efforts.

  2. Communication: Stable carbon nanoarches in the initial stages of epitaxial growth of graphene on Cu(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wesep, Robert G [ORNL; Chen, Hua [ORNL; Zhu, Wenguang [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To fully exploit the device potential of graphene, reliable production of large-area, high-quality samples is required. Epitaxial growth on metal substrates have shown promise in this regard, but further improvement would be facilitated by a more complete understanding of the atomistic pro- cesses involved in the early growth stages. Using first-principles calculations within density func- tional theory, we have investigated the energetics and kinetics of graphene nucleation and growth on a Cu(111) surface. Our calculations have revealed an energetic preference for the formation of stable one-dimensional carbon nanoarches consisting of 3 13 atoms when compared to two- dimensional compact islands of equal sizes. We also estimate the critical cluster size that marks the transition from nanoarch dominance to island dominance in the growth sequence. Our findings may provide the structural link between nucleated carbon dimers and larger carbon nanodomes, and are expected to stimulate future experimental efforts. 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Counterbalancing effects of maternal mercury exposure during different stages of early ontogeny in American toads

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, William A.

    Counterbalancing effects of maternal mercury exposure during different stages of early ontogeny. The negative effect in the embryonic stage and positive effect in the larval stage counterbalanced one another exposure. Our findings demonstrate that maternal effects on survival manifesting at different stages

  4. Early life stage (ELS) toxicity of sucralose to fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, K I; Huggett, D B

    2014-10-01

    Sucralose, an intense artificial sweetener, has been detected in wastewater and surface waters at concentrations ranging from ng/L to low µg/L. Although over a hundred studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of sucralose for human consumption, few studies have focused on the chronic ecotoxicological effects of this compound in fish. As a remedy to this data gap, an early-life stage toxicity test was conducted to assess the effects of sucralose on hatching, survival, and growth of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Hatching, survival, and growth were unaffected by 98 mg/L of sucralose. The Lowest-Observed-Effect Concentration (LOEC) and the No-Observed-Effect Concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows determined by this study are >98 and 98 mg/L, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the concentrations of sucralose detected in the environment are well below those required to cause adverse effects to developing aquatic organisms. PMID:25120258

  5. Nucleation and early growth of heteroepitaxial diamond on Ir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarski-Meinke, Connie; Zhongning, Dai; Golding, Brage

    2003-03-01

    We have studied the early stages of diamond growth on epitaxial (001) thin film Ir, with experiments carried out in a CVD microwave methane/hydrogen plasma. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir surface was used to create a carbon-rich environment that led to diamond nucleation at extremely high densities, typically 10^12 cm-2. Simultaneous termination of the bombardment and plasma resulted in a rapid quenching of the surface, which was then examined by SEM. We observe dense, oriented crystallites, with typical linear dimensions 6-8 nm and mean separation 14 nm. The uniform size and spacing suggests that nucleation takes place synchronously with the termination of the plasma. The high density implies that the nucleation sites are weakly coupled to the underlying substrate. The diamond crystallites are highly correlated and exhibit 6-fold coordination on average. These observations are at variance with presently accepted models of diamond epitaxy. We introduce a model of nucleation and early growth that is consistent with these observations.

  6. After Runaway: The Trans-Hill Stage of Planetesimal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the "trans-Hill stage"—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ("big bodies") become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ~10? Lt 1, where ? ~ 0.005(a/AU)-1 is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>?-1 × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies. This mode of growth may explain the observed size distributions of small bodies in the solar system and is explored in our subsequent work. Second, if the big bodies' orbits become separated by their Hill radius, oligarchy commences. This mode likely precedes the formation of fully fledged planets.

  7. After runaway: The trans-Hill stage of planetesimal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lithwick, Yoram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA and Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the 'trans-Hill stage'—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ('big bodies') become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ?10? << 1, where ? ? 0.005(a/AU){sup –1} is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>?{sup –1} × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies. This mode of growth may explain the observed size distributions of small bodies in the solar system and is explored in our subsequent work. Second, if the big bodies' orbits become separated by their Hill radius, oligarchy commences. This mode likely precedes the formation of fully fledged planets.

  8. Chronic effects of acetone on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) during early life-stage development

    SciTech Connect

    Mank, M.; Swigert, J. [Wildlife International Ltd., Easton, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A 28-day post-hatch early life-stage development toxicity test was conducted to determine the chronic effects of acetone on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). In this study, less than 24-hour old fathead minnow embryos were exposed to 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mL acetone/L and a negative control for a 4-day pre-hatch period and 28 days following hatch. During the pre-hatch period, no adverse effects on embryo survival or hatching success were observed in any of the treatment groups tested when compared to the negative control. From completion of matching to test termination, fathead minnows exposed to 4.0 mL acetone/L, experienced reduced survival, a statistically significant reduction in growth and impairment of critical behavioral functions when compared to the negative control group. Growth of fathead minnows exposed to 2.0 mL acetone/L also experienced a statistically significant effect upon growth when compared to the negative control, however, survival and behavior were not affected during the post-hatch period. Survival, growth, and behavior of fathead minnows exposed to 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 mL acetone/L from hatching to test termination was comparable to the control group. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows exposed to acetone during early life-stage development was 1.0 mL acetone/L, and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 2.0 mL acetone/L. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was calculated to be 1.4 mL acetone/L.

  9. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha and CD34 Expressions in Early-Stage Gastric Tumors: Relationship with Pathological Factors and Prognostic Impact on Survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devrim Cabuk; Gul Basaran; Cigdem Celikel; Faysal Dane; P. Fulden Yumuk; M. Salih Iyikesici; Meltem Ekenel; N. Serdar Turhal

    2007-01-01

    Background: Angiogenesis is one of the key steps in solid tumor growth and metastasis. We planned to investigate the prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and CD34 expressions as markers of angiogenesis in gastric cancer. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 51 gastric cancer patients who had total or subtotal

  10. Isolation and transplantation of sturgeon early-stage germ cells.

    PubMed

    Pšeni?ka, Martin; Saito, Taiju; Linhartová, Zuzana; Gazo, Ievgeniia

    2015-04-01

    We report, for the first time, a series of baseline techniques comprising isolation and transplantation of female and male early-stage germ cells in sturgeon to generate a germline chimera as a potential tool for surrogate reproduction and gene banking. Cells were dissociated from testis, characterized by mostly spermatogonia, and from ovary, exclusively comprising oogonia and previtellogenic oocytes, of Acipenser baerii, using 0.3% trypsin (2 hours, 23 °C) dissolved in PBS, isotonic with blood plasma. The dissociated germ cells were sorted by Percoll gradient centrifugation followed by immunolabeling with germ cell-specific vasa antibody DDX4, while 10% to 30% Percoll solution contained 79.4% and 70.8% labeled testicular and ovarian cells. Sorted germ cells were transplanted into a cavity close to a presumptive genital ridge of newly hatched heterospecific Acipenser ruthenus larvae with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled endogenous primordial germ cells. The transplanted germ cells were randomly distributed in the body cavity through 30-day posttransplantation (dpt). Subsequently, the cells were organized into genital ridges 50 dpt and proliferated 90 dpt. The number of both transplanted and endogenous germ cells significantly increased from 18.1, 22.2, and 29.1 (30 dpt) to 108.5, 90.8, and 118.5 (90 dpt) in ovarian, testicular, and endogenous germ cells, respectively (P < 0.05). The efficiency of transplantation was 60% (counted 90 dpt). PMID:25559841

  11. Biology of early life stages in cephalopod molluscs.

    PubMed

    von Boletzky, S

    2003-01-01

    Recent literature on embryonic and post-embryonic development, biology and behavioural ecology of juvenile cephalopods is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on biological processes. Life-history patterns and phylogenetic systematics, which are important for a proper understanding of the evolutionary history of the cephalopods, are only briefly touched upon. Egg sizes in cephalopods range from less than 1 mm to about 30 mm in diameter, so the hatchlings emerging from the largest eggs are bigger than the adults of pygmy squid, the smallest known cephalopods. Developmental durations from spawning to hatching range from a few days (for very small eggs developing at high temperatures) to one or possibly several years (for very large eggs developing at low temperatures). Such important differences notwithstanding, the morphogenetic processes are very similar in all cephalopod embryos, the major variant being the size of the so-called outer yolk sac, which may be rudimentary in extremely small embryos. Several questions concerning the timing of hatching in relation to the developmental stage attained, especially in terms of yok absorption, need clarification. These questions concern the elimination of the transient closure of the mouth, the final differentiation of digestive gland cells, and the removal of the tranquilliser effect of the perivitelline fluid necessary for the onset of the hatching behaviour. Cephalopod hatchlings are active predators. They refine their behavioural repertoires by learning from individual experience in dealing with prey and would-be predators. There is no truly larval phase, and the ecologically defined term paralarva should be used with caution. Given the considerable resource potential of cephalopods, investigations into dispersal and recruitment are of particular interest to fishery biology, but they are also important for ecological biogeography. The related studies of feeding and growth involve field sampling and tentative age determination of caught specimens, in combination with laboratory studies to test food quality, measure feeding rates, and validation of periodicities in accretional growth structures (e.g. "daily rings" in statoliths). PMID:12846042

  12. Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).

    PubMed

    Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

    2014-08-01

    The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture. PMID:23534899

  13. Formation of Jupiter's Core and Early Stages of Envelope Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Weidenschilling, S.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bodenheimer, P.; Hubickyj, O.

    2012-12-01

    We are performing calculations of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core starts as a seed body of a few hundred kilometers in radius and orbits within a swarm of planetesimals whose initial size distribution ranges from ~10 m to ~100 km. The planetesimals are immersed in a gaseous disk, representative of an early solar nebula. The evolution of the swarm of planetesimals accounts for collisions and gravitational stirring due to mutual interactions among bodies, and for migration and velocity damping due to interactions with the nebula gas. Collisions among planetesimals lead to growth and/or fragmentation, altering the size distribution of the swarm over time. Collisions of planetesimals with the seed body lead to its growth, resulting in the formation of a planetary core. Gas capture by the core leads to the accumulation of a tenuous atmosphere, which later becomes a massive envelope, increasing the size-dependent effective cross-section of the planet for planetesimals' accretion. Planetesimals that travel through the core's envelope release energy, affecting the thermal budget of the envelope, and deliver mass, affecting the opacity of the envelope. The calculation of dust opacity, which is especially important for envelope contraction, is performed self-consistently, accounting for coagulation and sedimentation of dust and small particles that are released in the envelope as passing planetesimals are ablated. We find that, in a disk of planetesimals with a surface density of about 10 g/cm2 at 5.2 AU, a one Earth mass core accumulates in less than 1e5 years, and that it takes over 1.5e6 years to accumulate a core of 3 Earth masses, when the core's geometrical cross-section is used for the accretion of planetesimals. Gas drag in the core's envelope increases the ability of the planet to accrete planetesimals. Smaller planetesimals are affected to a greater extent than are larger planetesimals. We find that the effective, envelope-enhanced cross-section leads to the growth of a core of 3 Earth masses in less than 1e5 years and of a core of 5 Earth masses in less than 2e5 years. By the time the total planet mass reaches about 6 Earth masses, the accretion rate of solids has dropped below ~1e-6 Earth masses per year. Support for this research from NASA Outer Planets Research Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Stage-dependent effect of deferoxamine on growth of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, S; Peto, T E

    1990-09-15

    Deferoxamine (DF) has antimalarial activity that can be demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. This study is designed to examine the speed of onset and stage dependency of growth inhibition by DF and to determine whether its antimalarial activity is cytostatic or cytocidal. Growth inhibition was assessed by suppression of hypoxanthine incorporation and differences in morphologic appearance between treated and control parasites. Using synchronized in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum, growth inhibition by DF was detected within a single parasite cycle. Ring and nonpigmented trophozoite stages were sensitive to the inhibitory effect of DF but cytostatic antimalarial activity was suggested by evidence of parasite recovery in later cycles. However, profound growth inhibition, with no evidence of subsequent recovery, occurred when pigmented trophozoites and early schizonts were exposed to DF. At this stage in parasite development, the activity of DF was cytocidal and furthermore, the critical period of exposure may be as short as 6 hours. These observations suggest that iron chelators may have a role in the treatment of clinical malaria. PMID:2205310

  15. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia. PMID:25140503

  16. Growth Stage Modulates Salinity Tolerance of New Zealand Spinach ( Tetragonia tetragonioides, Pall.) and Red Orach ( Atriplex hortensis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clyde Wilson; Scott M. Lesch; Catherine M. Grieve

    2000-01-01

    The response of two speciality vegetable crops, New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides Pall.) and red orach (Atriplex hortensis L.), to salt application at three growth stages was investigated. Plants were grown with a base nutrient solution in outdoor sand cultures and salinized at 13 (early), 26 (mid), and 42 (late) d after planting (DAP). For the treatment salt concentrations, we

  17. Neuromuscular deterioration in the early stage of sepsis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cankayali, Ilkin; Dogan, Yusuf Hakan; Solak, Ilhami; Demirag, Kubilay; Eris, Oguz; Demirgoren, Serdar; Moral, Ali Resat

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) is a clinical condition frequently seen in patients being treated in critical care units in the final stage of sepsis. The etiopathology of CIP is still unclear, and the onset time of appearance of the electrophysiological findings has not been elucidated. The very little research that has been carried out on this topic is limited to clinical electrophysiological and histopathological studies. In this study, electrophysiological alterations in the early stage of experimentally induced sepsis were investigated in septic rats. Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study in an animal basic science laboratory with 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 200 to 250 g. All of the rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the sepsis group (n = 20), cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was performed to induce experimental sepsis. In the sham-operated group (n = 10), laparotomy without CLP was performed. Before and 24 hours after CLP and laparotomy, the right sciatic nerve was stimulated from the sciatic notch and compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were recorded from the gastrocnemius muscle. Recordings of latency, amplitude, and duration of the CMAP were evaluated. Results CMAP durations before and 24 hours after surgery were 0.45 ± 0.05 ms and 0.48 ± 0.05 ms, respectively, in the sham-operated group and 0.46 ± 0.05 ms and 0.55 ± 0.01 ms, respectively, in the sepsis group. Latency measurements in the sham-operated group were 0.078 ± 0.010 ms and 0.080 ± 0.015 ms, respectively, whereas measurements were found to be prolonged in the sepsis group: 0.094 ± 0.015 ms and 0.149 ± 0.054 ms before and 24 hours after surgery, respectively (p < 0.05). CMAP amplitudes in the sham-operated group before and 24 hours after surgery were 8.41 ± 0.79 mV and 8.28 ± 1.92 mV, respectively, whereas in the sepsis group the amplitude measurements decreased to 7.60 ± 1.75 mV and 4.87 ± 3.44 mV, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion The results of the study indicate that electrophysiological alterations appear in the first 24 hours after experimental sepsis and are characterized by an increase in latency and a decrease in CMAP amplitude. The results also suggest that electrophysiological findings seen in patients with CIP might appear before clinical signs of CIP. PMID:17204135

  18. STAGING EARLY EMBRYOS FROM POULTRY: THE WHY'S AND HOW'S

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The staging of embryos involves the classification of their normal development from the first cleavage divisions through hatching. Individual stages are based on discrete yet often quite subtle developmental changes in embryo morphology. The collective sequence of stages describing embryo developmen...

  19. Stage at diagnosis and early mortality from cancer in England

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, S; Johnson, S; Greenberg, D; Peake, M; Rous, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stage at diagnosis is a key predictor of overall cancer outcome. For the first time, stage completeness is high enough for robust analysis for the whole of England. Methods: We analysed data from the National Cancer Registration Service's (NCRS) Cancer Analysis System on persons diagnosed with breast, colorectal, lung, prostate or ovarian cancers in England in 2012. One-year relative survival (followed-up to the end of 2013) was calculated along with adjusted excess rate ratios, for mortality within 1 year. Results: One-year relative survival decreased with increasing stage at diagnosis. For breast, prostate and colorectal cancers survival showed a major reduction for stage 4 cancers, whereas for lung and ovarian cancers there were substantial decreases in relative survival for each level of increase in stage. Excess rate ratios for mortality within 1 year of diagnosis showed that stage and age were the most important cofactors, but they also identified the statistically significant effects of sex, income deprivation and geographic area of residence. Conclusions: Further reductions in mortality may be most effectively achieved by diagnosing all cancers before they progress to stage 4, but for lung and ovarian cancers there is also a need for a stage shift to earlier stages together with efforts to improve stage-specific survival at all stages. PMID:25734389

  20. Analysis in Serum-Free Culture of the Targets of Recombinant Human Hemopoietic Growth Factors: Interleukin 3 and Granulocyte\\/Macrophage-Colony-Stimulating Factor are Specific for Early Developmental Stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiaki Sonoda; Yu-Chung Yang; Gordon G. Wong; Steven C. Clark; Makio Ogawa

    1988-01-01

    We have used a serum-free culture system for enriched human hemopoietic progenitors to analyze the developmental stages and lineage specificities of the human hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors. None of the individual factors alone efficiently supported hemopoietic colony formation. Neither interleukin 3 nor granulocyte\\/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor alone or in combination effectively supported proliferation of progenitor cells. However, when combined with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor or

  1. Stainless steel pitting and early-stage stress corrosion cracking under ultra-low elastic load

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Stainless steel pitting and early-stage stress corrosion cracking under ultra-low elastic load at the early stages of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under ultra-low elastic load were studied. Pits. At the ultra-low elastic stress levels it is essential for the stress corrosion cracks to emanate from the pits

  2. Evolutionary Patterns of Gene Families Generated in the Early Stage of Vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xun

    Evolutionary Patterns of Gene Families Generated in the Early Stage of Vertebrates Yufeng Wang, Xun- brate gene families that were generated in the early stage of vertebrates and/or shortly before occurred before the divergence be- tween vertebrate and Drosophila, indicating a possible misleading

  3. The Toxicity of Diquat, Endothall, and Fluridone to the Early Life Stages of Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Paul; Howard A. Simonin; John Symula; Robert W. Bauer

    1994-01-01

    While most aquatic herbicides have undergone some toxicity testing for effects on non-target aquatic organisms, little of this testing has been conducted on early life stages of gamefish found in lakes undergoing treatment. Commercial formulations of diquat, endothall, and fluridone were selected for acute toxicity testing using very early life stages of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and

  4. TOXICITY OF TRIVALENT CHROMIUM TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF STEELHEAD TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and early life stage toxicity tests were conducted with trivalent chromium and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). A 96-h LC50 of 4,400 micrograms/l chromium was obtained with two-month-old juvenile fish. Early life stage exposure from newly fertilized eggs to 30-d post-swim...

  5. Reliability of InGaAs focal plane array imaging of wheat germination at early stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hicran Koç; Virgil W. Smail; David L. Wetzel

    2008-01-01

    To assist our Kansas breeding program, we have developed nondestructive methods to test new lines of wheat for resistance to premature germination. The high sensitivity of subsurface imaging, compared with visual detection, ?-amylase determination, or viscosity testing, permits germination detection at early stages. This report is concerned with detection reliability via chemical imaging of intact wheat kernels at early stages

  6. Theoretical Studies of the Early Stage Coagulation Kinetics for a Charged Colloidal Dispersion

    E-print Network

    Articles Theoretical Studies of the Early Stage Coagulation Kinetics for a Charged Colloidal the early stage coagulation kinetics for a charged colloidal dispersion which is here modeled of coagulation process was driven by the addition of an indifferent electrolyte and assumed to proceed in two

  7. Direct Simulation of Early-Stage Sec-Facilitated Protein Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Miller, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Direct simulations reveal key mechanistic features of early-stage protein translocation and membrane integration via the Sec-translocon channel. We present a novel computational protocol that combines non-equilibrium growth of the nascent protein with microsecond-timescale molecular dynamics trajectories. Analysis of multiple, long-timescale simulations elucidates molecular features of protein insertion into the translocon, including signal-peptide docking at the translocon lateral gate (LG), large-lengthscale conformational rearrangement of the translocon LG helices, and partial membrane integration of hydrophobic nascent-protein sequences. Furthermore, the simulations demonstrate the role of specific molecular interactions in the regulation of protein secretion, membrane integration, and integral membrane protein topology. Salt-bridge contacts between the nascent-protein N-terminus, cytosolic translocon residues, and phospholipid head groups are shown to favor conformations of the nascent protein upon early-stage insertion that are consistent with the Type II (Ncyt/Cexo) integral membrane protein topology; and extended hydrophobic contacts between the nascent protein and the membrane lipid bilayer are shown to stabilize configurations that are consistent with the Type III (Nexo/Ccyt) topology. These results provide a detailed, mechanistic basis for understanding experimentally observed correlations between integral membrane protein topology, translocon mutagenesis, and nascent-protein sequence. PMID:22852862

  8. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage air-liquid interface biofilm formation in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Sochorová, Zuzana; Petrá?ková, Denisa; Sita?ová, Barbora; Buriánková, Karolína; Bezoušková, Silvia; Benada, Old?ich; Kofro?ová, Olga; Jane?ek, Ji?í; Halada, Petr; Weiser, Jaroslav

    2014-07-01

    We studied the early stages of pellicle formation by Mycobacterium smegmatis on the surface of a liquid medium [air-liquid interface (A-L)]. Using optical and scanning electron microscopy, we showed the formation of a compact biofilm pellicle from micro-colonies over a period of 8-30 h. The cells in the pellicle changed size and cell division pattern during this period. Based on our findings, we created a model of M. smegmatis A-L early pellicle formation showing the coordinate growth of cells in the micro-colonies and in the homogeneous film between them, where the accessibility to oxygen and nutrients is different. A proteomic approach utilizing high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, in combination with mass spectrometry-based protein identification, was used to analyse the protein expression profiles of the different morphological stages of the pellicle. The proteins identified formed four expression groups; the most interesting of these groups contained the proteins with highest expression in the biofilm development phase, when the floating micro-colonies containing long and more robust cells associate into flocs and start to form a compact pellicle. The majority of these proteins, including GroEL1, are involved in cell wall synthesis or modification, mostly through the involvement of mycolic acid biosynthesis, and their expression maxima correlated with the changes in cell size and the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall observed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:24760966

  9. Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. PMID:20161971

  10. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  11. Investigation of condensed and early stage gas phase hypergolic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Jacob Daniel

    Traditional hypergolic propellant combinations, such as those used on the space shuttle orbital maneuvering system first flown in 1981, feature hydrazine based fuels and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) based oxidizers. Despite the long history of hypergolic propellant implementation, the processes that govern hypergolic ignition are not well understood. In order to achieve ignition, condensed phase fuel and oxidizer must undergo simultaneous physical mixing and chemical reaction. This process generates heat, intermediate condensed phase species, and gas phase species, which then may continue to react and generate more heat until ignition is achieved. The process is not well understood because condensed and gas phase reactions occur rapidly, typically in less than 200 ?s, on much faster timescales than traditional diagnostic methods can observe. A detailed understanding of even the gas phase chemistry is lacking, but is critical for model development. Initial research has provided confidence that a study of condensed phase hypergolic reactions is useful and possible. Results obtained using an impinging jet apparatus have shown a critical residence time of 0.3 ms is required for the reaction between monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and red fuming nitric acid (RFNA, ~85% HNO3 + 15% N2O4) to achieve conditions favorable for ignition. This critical residence time spans the time required for liquid phase reactions to occur at the fuel/oxidizer interface and can give some insight into the reaction rates for this propellant combination. Experiments performed in a forced mixing constant volume reactor have demonstrated that the chamber pressurization rate for MMH/RFNA can be significantly reduced by diluting the MMH with deionized water. This result indicates that propellant dilution can slow the chemical reaction rates to occur over observable time scales. The research described in this document consists of two efforts that contribute knowledge to the propulsion community regarding the hypergolic liquid propellant combination of MMH and RFNA or pure nitric acid. The first and most important effort focuses on furthering the understanding of condensed phase reactions between MMH and nitric acid. To accomplish this goal diluted MMH and nitric acid were studied in a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. By tracking the generation or destruction of specific chemical species in the reacting fluid we can measure the reaction progress as a function of reactant concentration and temperature. This work provides the propulsion community with a quantitative global condensed phase reaction rate equation for MMH/nitric acid. The second effort focuses on improving understanding the recently proposed gas phase hypergolic reaction mechanisms using a streak camera based ultraviolet and visible spectrometer. The time resolution on the streak camera system allows for detailed investigation of the pre-ignition and early stage gas phase species present during the reaction between MMH and RFNA.

  12. Active compressive intraoceanic deformation: early stages of ophiolites emplacement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Delescluse, Matthias; Montési, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Oceanic lithosphere is strong and continental lithosphere is weak. As a result, there is relatively little deformation in the oceanic domain away from plate boundaries. However, the interior of oceanic lithosphere does deform when highly stressed. We review here places where intraoceanic compression is at work. In the more than 30 years since the first observations of active compressive intraplate deformation in the Central Indian Ocean through seismic profiling (Eittreim et al., 1972), compressive deformation has been identified in a variety of other oceanic tectonic settings: as a result of small differential motion between large plates (between North America and South America in the Central Atlantic; between Eurasia and Nubia offshore Gibraltar; between Macquarie and Australia plates in the Southern Ocean), within back-arcs (northwest Celebes Sea, Okushiri Ridge in the Japan Sea, on the eastern border of the Caroline plate), and ahead of subduction (Zenisu Ridge off Nankai Trough). Deformation appears to be more diffuse when larger plates are involved, and more localized for younger plates, perhaps in relation with the increasing rigidity of oceanic plates with age. The best example of diffuse deformation studied so far remains the Central Indian Ocean. Numerous marine data have been collected in this area, including shallow and deep seismic, heat flow measurements, multibeam bathymetry. The present-day deformation field has been modeled using GPS and earthquakes as far field and near field constraints respectively. Reactivation of the oceanic fabric (including for portions of the Indo-Australian plate which are now in subduction as evidenced by the September 2009 Padang earthquake), selective fault abandonment (Delescluse et al., 2008) and serpentinization (Delescluse and Chamot-Rooke, 2008) are some of the important processes that shape the present-day pattern of deformation. These rare intraplate deformation areas constitute excellent natural laboratories to investigate the very early stages of formation of faulted oceanic bodies that may further be incorporated into mountain belts as ophiolites. They allow to discuss rates and duration of deformation, diffuse vs localized deformation, re-activation vs neo-formed faults, serpentinization and thermal regime, spacing of minor and major thrust faults. Delescluse, M., L. G. J. Montesi, and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Fault reactivation and selective abandonment in the oceanic lithosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 35. Delescluse, M., and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Serpentinization pulse in the actively deforming Central Indian Basin. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 276, p. 140-151. Eittreim, S. L., and J. Ewing (1972), Mid-Plate Tectonics in the Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 77(32), 6413-6421.

  13. Transforming growth factor-? superfamily ligand trap ACE-536 corrects anemia by promoting late-stage erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Suragani, Rajasekhar N V S; Cadena, Samuel M; Cawley, Sharon M; Sako, Dianne; Mitchell, Dianne; Li, Robert; Davies, Monique V; Alexander, Mark J; Devine, Matthew; Loveday, Kenneth S; Underwood, Kathryn W; Grinberg, Asya V; Quisel, John D; Chopra, Rajesh; Pearsall, R Scott; Seehra, Jasbir; Kumar, Ravindra

    2014-04-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates proliferation of early-stage erythrocyte precursors and is widely used for the treatment of chronic anemia. However, several types of EPO-resistant anemia are characterized by defects in late-stage erythropoiesis, which is EPO independent. Here we investigated regulation of erythropoiesis using a ligand-trapping fusion protein (ACE-536) containing the extracellular domain of human activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) modified to reduce activin binding. ACE-536, or its mouse version RAP-536, produced rapid and robust increases in erythrocyte numbers in multiple species under basal conditions and reduced or prevented anemia in murine models. Unlike EPO, RAP-536 promoted maturation of late-stage erythroid precursors in vivo. Cotreatment with ACE-536 and EPO produced a synergistic erythropoietic response. ACE-536 bound growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) and potently inhibited GDF11-mediated Smad2/3 signaling. GDF11 inhibited erythroid maturation in mice in vivo and ex vivo. Expression of GDF11 and ActRIIB in erythroid precursors decreased progressively with maturation, suggesting an inhibitory role for GDF11 in late-stage erythroid differentiation. RAP-536 treatment also reduced Smad2/3 activation, anemia, erythroid hyperplasia and ineffective erythropoiesis in a mouse model of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). These findings implicate transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily signaling in erythroid maturation and identify ACE-536 as a new potential treatment for anemia, including that caused by ineffective erythropoiesis. PMID:24658078

  14. Bacterial Interactions in Early Life Stages of Marine Cold Water Fish.

    PubMed

    Hansen; Olafsen

    1999-07-01

    > Abstract The intensive rearing of various fish species in aquaculture has revealed intimate relationships between fish and bacteria that eventually may affect establishment of a "normal" mucosal microflora or result in disease epizootics. Interactions between bacteria and mucosal surfaces play important roles both at the egg and larval stages of marine fish. Bacterial adhesion and colonization of the egg surface occur within hours after fertilization. The diverse flora which eventually develops on the egg appears to reflect the bacterial composition and load of the ambient water, but species-specific adhesion at the egg surface may also play a role in development of the egg epiflora. Proteolytic enzymes produced by members of the adherent epiflora may cause serious damage to the developing egg and may also affect further adhesion of the epiflora. Ingestion of bacteria at the yolk sac stage results in establishment of a primary intestinal microflora which seems to persist beyond first feeding. Establishment of a gut microflora is likely to undergo several stages, resulting in an "adult" microflora weeks to months after first feeding. Ingested bacteria may serve as an exogenous supply of nutrients or essential factors at an early life stage. Early exposure to high bacterial densities is probably important for immune tolerance, and thus for the establishment of a protective intestinal microflora. Successful rearing of early life stages of several marine fish species depends on knowledge of the complex interactions among the cultured organisms and the bacterial communities which develop at the mucosal surfaces and in the ambient water and rearing systems. The routine use of antibiotics during rearing of fish larvae is not advisable, since it may increase the risk of promoting antibiotic resistance and adversely affect the indigenous microflora of the larvae. The use of probiotics has proven advantageous in domestic animal production, and the search for effective probiotics may have a great potential in aquaculture of marine organisms. Bacteria with antagonistic effects against fish pathogens have been successfully administered to several fish species, resulting in decreased mortality or increased growth rate.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00248/bibs/38n1p1.html PMID:10384006

  15. Effects of Mixture of Pharmaceuticals on Early Life Stages of Tench (Tinca tinca)

    PubMed Central

    Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60??g·L?1 for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60??g·L?1). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2??g·L?1) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench. PMID:24772417

  16. Effects of mixture of pharmaceuticals on early life stages of tench (Tinca tinca).

    PubMed

    Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 ?g · L(-1) for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 ?g · L(-1)). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 ?g · L(-1)) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench. PMID:24772417

  17. Involvement of reactive oxygen species during early stages of ectomycorrhiza establishment between Castanea sativa and Pisolithus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Paula; Martins, Anabela; Pais, Maria Salomé; Tavares, Rui M; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2007-05-01

    Evidence for the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) establishment is lacking. In this paper, we evaluated ROS production and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) during the early contact of the ECM fungus Pisolithus tinctorius with the roots of Castanea sativa (chestnut tree). Roots were placed in contact with P. tinctorius mycelia, and ROS production was evaluated by determining the levels of H(2)O(2) and O(2) (.-) during the early stages of fungal contact. Three peaks of H(2)O(2) production were detected, the first two coinciding with O(2) (.-) bursts. The first H(2)O(2) production peak coincided with an increase in SOD activity, whereas CAT activity seemed to be implicated in H(2)O(2) scavenging. P. tinctorius growth was evaluated in the presence of P. tinctorius-elicited C. sativa crude extracts prepared during the early stages of fungal contact. Differential hyphal growth that matched the H(2)O(2) production profile with a delay was detected. The result suggests that during the early stages of ECM establishment, H(2)O(2) results from an inhibition of ROS-scavenging enzymes and plays a role in signalling during symbiotic establishment. PMID:17216276

  18. Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Results Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low seed set in R. pseudoacacia. PMID:24655746

  19. Setting the Stage for Lifetime Physical Activity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Holly; Lounsbery, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale and suggestions for emphasizing health-related physical education in preschool settings. In order to accomplish this, it will examine what is currently known about early childhood physical activity, as well as the existing professional preparation and accreditation standards for early childhood…

  20. Genome-Wide Study of the Adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the Early Stages of Wine Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Novo, Maite; Mangado, Ana; Quirós, Manuel; Morales, Pilar; Salvadó, Zoel; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    This work was designed to identify yeast cellular functions specifically affected by the stress factors predominating during the early stages of wine fermentation, and genes required for optimal growth under these conditions. The main experimental method was quantitative fitness analysis by means of competition experiments in continuous culture of whole genome barcoded yeast knockout collections. This methodology allowed the identification of haploinsufficient genes, and homozygous deletions resulting in growth impairment in synthetic must. However, genes identified as haploproficient, or homozygous deletions resulting in fitness advantage, were of little predictive power concerning optimal growth in this medium. The relevance of these functions for enological performance of yeast was assessed in batch cultures with single strains. Previous studies addressing yeast adaptation to winemaking conditions by quantitative fitness analysis were not specifically focused on the proliferative stages. In some instances our results highlight the importance of genes not previously linked to winemaking. In other cases they are complementary to those reported in previous studies concerning, for example, the relevance of some genes involved in vacuolar, peroxisomal, or ribosomal functions. Our results indicate that adaptation to the quickly changing growth conditions during grape must fermentation require the function of different gene sets in different moments of the process. Transport processes and glucose signaling seem to be negatively affected by the stress factors encountered by yeast in synthetic must. Vacuolar activity is important for continued growth during the transition to stationary phase. Finally, reduced biogenesis of peroxisomes also seems to be advantageous. However, in contrast to what was described for later stages, reduced protein synthesis is not advantageous for the early (proliferative) stages of the fermentation process. Finally, we found adenine and lysine to be in short supply for yeast growth in some natural grape musts. PMID:24040173

  1. Sensitivity of the early life stages of macroalgae from the Northern Hemisphere to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Roleda, Michael Y; Wiencke, Christian; Hanelt, Dieter; Bischof, Kai

    2007-01-01

    The reproductive cells of macroalgae are regarded as the life history stages most susceptible to various environmental stresses, including UV radiation (UVR). UVR is proposed to determine the upper depth distribution limit of macroalgae on the shore. These hypotheses were tested by UV-exposure experiments, using spores and young thalli of the eulittoral Rhodophyceae Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus and various sublittoral brown macroalgae (Phaeophyceae) with different depth distribution from Helgoland (German Bight) and Spitsbergen (Arctic). In spores, the degree of UV-induced inhibition of photosynthesis is lower in eulittoral species and higher in sublittoral species. After UV stress, recovery of photosynthetic capacity is faster in eulittoral compared to sublittoral species. DNA damage is lowest while repair of DNA damage is highest in eulittoral compared to sublittoral species. When the negative impact of UVR prevails, spore germination is inhibited. This is observed in deep water kelp species whereas the same UVR doses do not inhibit germination of shallow water kelp species. A potential acclimation mechanism to increase UV tolerance of brown algal spores is the species-specific ability to increase the content of UV-absorbing phlorotannins in response to UV-exposure. Growth rates of young Mastocarpus and Chondrus gametophytes exposed to experimental doses of UVR are not affected while growth rates of all young kelp sporophytes exposed to UVR are significantly lowered. Furthermore, morphological UV damage in Laminaria ochroleuca includes tissue deformation, lesion, blistering and thickening of the meristematic part of the lamina. The sensitivity of young sporophytes to DNA damage is correlated with thallus thickness and their optical characteristics. Growth rate is an integrative parameter of all physiological processes in juvenile plants. UV inhibition of growth may affect the upper distribution depth limit of adult life history stages. Juveniles possess several mechanisms to minimize UVR damage and, hence, are less sensitive but at the expense of growth. The species-specific susceptibility of the early life stages of macroalgae to UVR plays an important role for the determination of zonation patterns and probably also for shaping up community structure. PMID:17645656

  2. Efficient embryonic culture method for the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata, and its early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Atsushi; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2014-10-01

    The morphogenesis of snake embryos is an elusive yet fascinating research target for developmental biologists. However, few data exist on development of early snake embryo due to limited availability of pregnant snakes, and the need to harvest early stage embryos directly from pregnant snakes before oviposition without knowing the date of fertilization. We established an ex vivo culture method for early snake embryos using the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata. This method, which we named "sausage-style (SS) culture", allows us to harvest snake embryos at specific stages for each experiment. Using this SS culture system, we calculated somite formation rate at early stages before oviposition. The average somite formation rate between 6/7 and 12/13 somite stages was 145.9 min, between 60/70 and 80/91 somite stages 42.4 min, and between 113-115 and 126/127 somite stages 71 min. Thus, somite formation rate that we observed during early snake embryogenesis was changed over time. We also describe a developmental staging series for E. quadrivirgata. This is the first report of a developmental series of early snake embryogenesis prior to oviposition by full-color images with high-resolution. We propose that the SS culture system is an easy method for treating early snake embryos ex vivo. PMID:25315231

  3. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Šev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L?1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250??g?L?1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15??g?L?1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50??g?L?1 died soon after hatching; at 25??g?L?1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5??g?L?1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  4. Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  5. Radiotherapy Alone for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx and Hypopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, Robert L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States)], E-mail: foote.robert@mayo.edu

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To describe and illustrate examples of early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Review of the NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines. Representative examples are included. Results: Early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer is defined by tumor extent based on physical and imaging examination. Conclusions: Radiotherapy alone is appropriate treatment for properly selected early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. The NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines can be an aid to the clinician in identifying favorable cancers that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone with preservation of organ function.

  6. Early-Stage Primary School Children Attending a School in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) Have Better Reversal Learning and Lean Muscle Mass Growth Than Those Attending a Non-SFP School12

    PubMed Central

    Nkhoma, Owen W. W.; Duffy, Maresa E.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Davidson, Philip W.; McSorley, Emeir M.; Strain, J. J.; O’Brien, Gerard M.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6–8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction <0.0001). The results indicate that the SFP in Malawi is associated with an improvement in reversal learning and catch-up growth in lean muscle mass in children in the SFP school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children. PMID:23803471

  7. Early-stage primary school children attending a school in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) have better reversal learning and lean muscle mass growth than those attending a non-SFP school.

    PubMed

    Nkhoma, Owen W W; Duffy, Maresa E; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Davidson, Philip W; McSorley, Emeir M; Strain, J J; O'Brien, Gerard M

    2013-08-01

    In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6-8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction <0.0001). The results indicate that the SFP in Malawi is associated with an improvement in reversal learning and catch-up growth in lean muscle mass in children in the SFP school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children. PMID:23803471

  8. Evaluation for Early Life Stage Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium from a Contaminated Groundwater Source

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2007-09-01

    We conducted a laboratory evaluation to assess the risk to early life stage (i.e., eyed egg to swim up) fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for exposure to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source. Local populations of fall Chinook salmon were exposed to Hanford Site source groundwater that was diluted with Columbia River water. Specific endpoints included survival, development rate, and growth. Tissue burdens of fish were also measured to estimate uptake and elimination rates of chromium. Survival, development, and growth of early life stage fall Chinook salmon were not adversely affected by extended exposures (i.e., 98 day) to hexavalent chromium ranging from 0.79 to 260 ?g/L. Survival for all treatment levels and controls exceeded 98% at termination of the test. In addition, there were no differences among the mean lengths and weights of fish among all treatment groups. Whole-body concentrations of chromium in early life stage fall Chinook salmon had a typical dose-response pattern; i.e., those subjected to highest exposure concentrations and longest exposure intervals had higher tissue concentrations. Given the spatial extent of chromium concentrations at the Hanford Site, and the dynamics of the groundwater - river water interface, the current cleanup criterion of 10 µg/L chromium appear adequate to protect fall Chinook salmon populations.

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF HIERARCHICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hierarchical methods are often used in the conceptual stages of process design to synthesize and evaluate process alternatives. In this work, the methods of hierarchical process design will be focused on environmental aspects. In particular, the design methods will be coupled to ...

  10. Surface reactions during the early stages of weathering of albite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Wollast; Lei Chou

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the nature and distribution of surface species occurring during the initial stage of weathering of albite. Instead of the classical acidbase titration experiments used extensively in previous work, the surface of freshly ground mineral was titrated by adding increasing amounts of solid to pure water. The aqueous phase

  11. Resting no more: re-defining telogen, the maintenance stage of the hair growth cycle.

    PubMed

    Geyfman, Mikhail; Plikus, Maksim V; Treffeisen, Elsa; Andersen, Bogi; Paus, Ralf

    2014-11-19

    The hair follicle (HF) represents a prototypic ectodermal-mesodermal interaction system in which central questions of modern biology can be studied. A unique feature of these stem-cell-rich mini-organs is that they undergo life-long, cyclic transformations between stages of active regeneration (anagen), apoptotic involution (catagen), and relative proliferative quiescence (telogen). Due to the low proliferation rate and small size of the HF during telogen, this stage was conventionally thought of as a stage of dormancy. However, multiple lines of newly emerging evidence show that HFs during telogen are anything but dormant. Here, we emphasize that telogen is a highly energy-efficient default state of the mammalian coat, whose function centres around maintenance of the hair fibre and prompt responses to its loss. While actively retaining hair fibres with minimal energy expenditure, telogen HFs can launch a new regeneration cycle in response to a variety of stimuli originating in their autonomous micro-environment (including its stem cell niche) as well as in their external tissue macro-environment. Regenerative responses of telogen HFs change as a function of time and can be divided into two sub-stages: early 'refractory' and late 'competent' telogen. These changing activities are reflected in hundreds of dynamically regulated genes in telogen skin, possibly aimed at establishing a fast response-signalling environment to trauma and other disturbances of skin homeostasis. Furthermore, telogen is an interpreter of circadian output in the timing of anagen initiation and the key stage during which the subsequent organ regeneration (anagen) is actively prepared by suppressing molecular brakes on hair growth while activating pro-regenerative signals. Thus, telogen may serve as an excellent model system for dissecting signalling and cellular interactions that precede the active 'regenerative mode' of tissue remodeling. This revised understanding of telogen biology also points to intriguing new therapeutic avenues in the management of common human hair growth disorders. PMID:25410793

  12. Improvements to building energy usage modeling during early design stages and retrofits

    E-print Network

    Mandelbaum, Andrew (Andrew Joseph)

    2014-01-01

    A variety of improvements to the MIT Design Advisor, a whole-building energy usage modeling tool intended for use during early design stages, are investigated. These include changes to the thermal mass temperature distribution ...

  13. RESPONSES OF EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF THE STRIPED BASS, 'MORONE SAXATILIS' TO CHLORINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of total residual chlorination (TRC) to early life stages of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, was determined using percent embryo hatchability, incipient LC50 bioassays, histopathology, and avoidance responses. Beginning 8 to 9 hours after fertilization, developin...

  14. Redescription of Paraliparis holomelas Gilbert, 1896 (Teleostei: Liparidae), with a description of early life history stages

    E-print Network

    of early life history stages Morgan S. Busby* and Rachael L. Cartwright National Oceanic and Atmospheric and Conservation Engineering Division, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Building 4, Seattle, WA 98115, USA (e-mail: Morgan.Busby

  15. Nutrition, acid-base status and growth in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kalhoff, H; Manz, F

    2001-10-01

    Optimal growth is only possible in a well-balanced "inner milieu". Premature infants are especially vulnerable for disturbances of acid-base metabolism with a predisposition to metabolic acidosis due to a transient disproportion between age-related low renal capacity for net acid excretion (NAE) and an unphysiologically high actual renal NAE on nutrition with standard formulas. During a 50 month period, 452 low birth-weight infants were screened for spontaneous development of incipient late metabolic acidosis (ILMA), an early stage during the development of retention acidosis, characterized by maximum renal acid stimulation (MRAS, urine-pH < 5.4) on two consecutive days but still compensated systemic acid-base status. Compared with controls, patients with ILMA showed higher serum creatinine values, an increased urinary excretion of sodium, aldosterone and nitrogen, but only slightly lower blood pH (7.38 vs 7.41) and base excess (-2.8 vs. 0.2 mmol/l) with respiratory compensation (PCO2 35 vs 37 mm Hg). Patients with altogether 149 episodes of ILMA were subsequently randomly allocated to either treatment with NaHCO3 2 mmol/kg/d for 7 days or no special therapy in protocol I, or NaHCO3 vs NaCl each 2 mmol/kg/d for 7 days in protocol II. Patients of protocol I with persistent MRAS for 7 days showed lowest weight gain and a tendency for a further increase in urinary aldosterone and nitrogen excretion. NaCl supplementation (protocol II) seemed to promote weight gain without affecting either impaired mineralization or suboptimal nitrogen retention. Patients with alkali therapy under both protocols showed normal weight gain and normalization of hormonal stimulation, mineralization (protocol II) and nitrogen assimilation. Modification of the mineral content of a standard preterm formula decreased renal NAE to the low level seen on alimentation with human milk and reduced the incidence of ILMA in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants to 1%. The data show that ILMA is associated with impaired growth. Activation of secondary homeostatic mechanisms (extracellular volume contraction, depletion of disposable net base pools) might be important for impaired growth. Production of new formulas for reduced renal NAE could be an effective general preventive measure to reduce the clinical importance of one component of mixed acid-base disorders in early childhood. PMID:11842947

  16. Early Years Foundation Stage: How Much Does It Count?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The final report of the Williams committee (DCSF, 2008: 68) argues that the revised mathematics Framework (DfES, 2006) "should be reconsidered to achieve a more suitable, user-friendly form." It might also have added that there is not much help and support in it for early years teachers. A much more useful document is the "Practice guidance for…

  17. Transient increases in p53-responsible gene expression at early stages of Epstein-Barr virus productive replication.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshitaka; Shirata, Noriko; Murata, Takayuki; Nakasu, Sho; Kudoh, Ayumi; Iwahori, Satoko; Nakayama, Sanae; Chiba, Shigeki; Isomura, Hiroki; Kanda, Teru; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2010-02-15

    Expression of Epstein-Barr Virus BZLF1, a key protein initiating the switch from latent to lytic infection, is known to cause cell growth arrest by accumulating p53 and p21(WAF1/CIP1) in epithelial cells, but its molecular mechanism remains elusive. We found here that the BZLF1 protein stimulates p53 binding to its recognition sequence. The BZLF1 accelerated the rate of p53-DNA complex formation through the interaction with p53 protein and also enhanced p53-specific transcription in vitro. Furthermore, p53 protein was found to bind to its target promoter regions specifically in the early stages of lytic replication. Overexpression of p53 at the early stages of lytic replication enhanced viral genome replication, supporting the idea that p53 plays an important role in the initiation steps of EBV replication. Taking the independent role of BZLF1 on p53 degradation into consideration, we propose that the BZLF1 protein regulates p53 and its target gene products in two distinctive manners; transient induction of p53 at the early stages for the initiation of viral productive replication and p53 degradation at the later stages for S-phase like environment preferable for viral replication. PMID:20139729

  18. Effects of silver nanocolloids on early life stages of the scleractinian coral Acropora japonica.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Ryota; Kataoka, Chisato; Kashiwada, Shosaku

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the effects of silver nanocolloids (SNCs) on the early life stages of the reef-building coral Acropora japonica were investigated. The tolerance of this species to SNC contamination was estimated by exposing gametes, larvae, and primary polyps to a range of SNC concentrations (0, 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 ?g l(-1)). Pure SNCs were immediately ionized to Ag(+) in seawater and concentrations of ?50 ?g l(-1) SNC had a significant detrimental effect on fertilization, larval metamorphosis, and primary polyp growth. Exposure to 50 ?g l(-1) SNC did not significantly affect larval survival; however, the larvae were deformed and lost their ability to metamorphose. At the highest concentration (500 ?g l(-1) SNC), all gametes, larvae, and primary polyps died. These experiments provide the first data on the effects of silver-nanomaterial-contaminated seawater on cnidarians, and suggest that silver nanomaterials can influence the early development of corals through anthropogenic wastewater inputs. PMID:25047545

  19. Apoptosis is required during early stages of tail regeneration in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ai-Sun; Adams, Dany S.; Qiu, Dayong; Koustubhan, Punita; Levin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Xenopus tadpole is able to regenerate its tail, including skin, muscle, notochord, spinal cord and neurons and blood vessels. This process requires rapid tissue growth and morphogenesis. Here we show that a focus of apoptotic cells appears in the regeneration bud within 12 h of amputation. Surprisingly, when caspase-3 activity is specifically inhibited, regeneration is abolished. This is true of tails both before and after the refractory period. Programmed cell death is only required during the first 24 h after amputation, as later inhibition has no effect on regeneration. Inhibition of caspase-dependent apoptosis results in a failure to induce proliferation in the growth zone, a mispatterning of axons in the regenerate, and the appearance of ectopic otoliths in the neural tube, in the context of otherwise normal continued development of the larva. Larvae amputated during the refractory stage exhibit a much broader domain of caspase-3-positive cells, suggesting a window for the amount of apoptosis that is compatible with normal regeneration. These data reveal novel roles for apoptosis in development and indicate that a degree of apoptosis is an early and obligate component of normal tail regeneration, suggesting the possibility of the existence of endogenous inhibitory cells that must be destroyed by programmed cell death for regeneration to occur. PMID:17150209

  20. Staging of the early embryonic brain in the baboon ( Papio cynocephalus ) and rhesus monkey ( Macaca mulatta )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Davignon; Robert M. Parker; Andrew G. Hendrickx

    1980-01-01

    Early morphogenesis of the brain and its derivatives was studied in sixty-nine baboon and rhesus monkey embryos representing developmental stages 8–16, and compared with the staged human embryo. The baboon and rhesus monkey embryos develop in a similar temporal sequence when compared with human embryos with the following exceptions: 1) The respective developmental events for otic disc, adenohypophyseal pouch, and

  1. Comparative toxicity of inorganic contaminants released by placer mining to early life stages of salmonids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Buhl; S. J. Hamilton

    1990-01-01

    The acute toxicities of four trace inorganics associated with placer mining were determined, individually and in environmentally relevant mixtures, to early life stages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Alaska and Montana, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from Alaska and Washington, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Montana. The descending rank order of toxicity to all species and life stages was

  2. Identification and Validation of Novel Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Staging Early Alzheimer's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Perrin; Rebecca Craig-Schapiro; James P. Malone; Aarti R. Shah; Petra Gilmore; Alan E. Davis; Catherine M. Roe; Elaine R. Peskind; Ge Li; Douglas R. Galasko; Christopher M. Clark; Joseph F. Quinn; Jeffrey A. Kaye; John C. Morris; David M. Holtzman; R. Reid Townsend; Anne M. Fagan; Mark P. Mattson

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundIdeally, disease modifying therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD) will be applied during the ‘preclinical’ stage (pathology present with cognition intact) before severe neuronal damage occurs, or upon recognizing very mild cognitive impairment. Developing and judiciously administering such therapies will require biomarker panels to identify early AD pathology, classify disease stage, monitor pathological progression, and predict cognitive decline. To discover such

  3. TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE GREEN SUNFISH (LEPOMIS CYANELLUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity of ammonia to early life stages of green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus was studied. One chronic and four acute exposure studies were conducted. During the chronic study green sunfish were exposed to a series of ammonia concentrations from the blastula stage through 40 days p...

  4. Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

  5. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early

  6. Phenotypic Features of Peripheral Blood Leucocytes During Early Stages of Human Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sathler-Avelar; E. M. Lemos; D. D. Reis; N. Medrano-Mercado; T. C. Araujo-Jorge; P. R. Z. Antas; R. Correa-Oliveira; A. Teixeira-Carvalho; S. M. Eloi-Santos; D. Favato; O. A. Martins-Filho

    2003-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to evaluate human immunologic status during early stages of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in children. We identified major immunological features corresponding to three proposed phases of disease: early acute (EA) phase, late acute (LA) phase and recent chronic (RC) phase. EA phase was accompanied by expansion of conventional B

  7. Three Biomarkers Identified from Serum Proteomic Analysis for the Detection of Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Zhang; Robert C. Bast; Yinhua Yu; Jinong Li; Lori J. Sokoll; Alex J. Rai; Jason M. Rosenzweig; Bonnie Cameron; Young Y. Wang; Xiao-Ying Meng; Andrew Berchuck; Carolien van Haaften-Day; Neville F. Hacker; Henk W. A. de Bruijn; Ian J. Jacobs; Eric T. Fung; Daniel W. Chan

    2004-01-01

    Early detection remains the most promising approach to improve long-term survival of patients with ovarian cancer. In a five-center case- control study, serum proteomic expressions were analyzed on 153 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 42 with other ovarian cancers, 166 with benign pelvic masses, and 142 healthy women. Data from patients with early stage ovarian cancer and healthy women

  8. Reduced early life growth and survival in a fish in direct response to increased carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Hannes; Talmage, Stephanie C.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Absorption of anthropogenic carbon dioxide by the world's oceans is causing mankind's `other CO2 problem', ocean acidification. Although this process will challenge marine organisms that synthesize calcareous exoskeletons or shells, it is unclear how it will affect internally calcifying organisms, such as marine fish. Adult fish tolerate short-term exposures to CO2 levels that exceed those predicted for the next 300 years (~2,000ppm ref. ), but potential effects of increased CO2 on growth and survival during the early life stages of fish remain poorly understood. Here we show that the exposure of early life stages of a common estuarine fish (Menidia beryllina) to CO2 concentrations expected in the world's oceans later this century caused severely reduced survival and growth rates. When compared with present-day CO2 levels (~400ppm), exposure of M. beryllina embryos to ~1,000ppm until one week post-hatch reduced average survival and length by 74% and 18%, respectively. The egg stage was significantly more vulnerable to high CO2-induced mortality than the post-hatch larval stage. These findings challenge the belief that ocean acidification will not affect fish populations, because even small changes in early life survival can generate large fluctuations in adult-fish abundance.

  9. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  10. Oxidation of vanadium with reactive oxygen plasma: A photoelectron spectroscopy study of the initial stages of the oxide growth process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andriy Romanyuk; Peter Oelhafen

    2007-01-01

    We report on the oxidation of vanadium surface in a low-temperature oxygen plasma studied by in-situ photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS). Pure vanadium foil was exposed to the oxygen plasma for different time intervals allowing to investigate early stages of the oxide–metal interface formation process and the oxide film growth. Upon increasing the exposure time to the oxygen plasma we identify

  11. Formal Verification Toolkit for Requirements and Early Design Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, Julia M.; Miller, Sheena Judson

    2011-01-01

    Efficient flight software development from natural language requirements needs an effective way to test designs earlier in the software design cycle. A method to automatically derive logical safety constraints and the design state space from natural language requirements is described. The constraints can then be checked using a logical consistency checker and also be used in a symbolic model checker to verify the early design of the system. This method was used to verify a hybrid control design for the suit ports on NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Exploration Vehicle against safety requirements.

  12. EARLY GROWTH PATTERNS IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    PubMed Central

    Surén, Pål; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Hirtz, Deborah; Lie, Kari Kveim; Lipkin, W. Ian; Magnus, Per; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Susser, Ezra; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Li, Leah; Hornig, Mady

    2013-01-01

    Background Case-control studies have found increased head growth during the first year of life in children with autism spectrum disorder. Length and weight have not been as extensively studied, and there are few studies of population-based samples. Methods The study was conducted in a sample of 106,082 children from the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The children were born in 1999-2009; by the end of follow-up on 31 December 2012, the age range was 3.6 through 13.1 years (mean 7.4 years). Measures were obtained prospectively until age 12 months for head circumference and 36 months for length and weight. We compared growth trajectories in autism spectrum disorder cases and non-cases using Reed first-order models. Results Subjects included 376 children (310 boys and 66 girls) with specialist-confirmed autism spectrum disorder. In boys with autism spectrum disorder, mean head growth was similar to that of other boys, but variability was greater, and 8.7% had macrocephaly (head circumference>97th cohort percentile) by 12 months of age. Autism spectrum disorder boys also had slightly increased body growth, with mean length 1.1 cm above and mean weight 300 g above the cohort mean for boys at age 12 months. Throughout the first year, the head circumference of girls with autism spectrum disorder was reduced – by 0.3 cm at birth and 0.5 cm at 12 months. Their mean length was similar to that of other girls, but their mean weight was 150-350 g below at all ages from birth to three years. The reductions in mean head circumference and weight in girls with autism spectrum disorder appear to be driven by those with intellectual disability, genetic disorders and epilepsy. Discussion Growth trajectories in children with autism spectrum disorder diverge from those of other children and the differences are sex-specific. Previous findings of increased mean head growth were not replicated. PMID:23867813

  13. Effects of Phosphate Binder Therapy on Vascular Stiffness in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Michael E.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Rothstein, Marcos; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Bierhals, Andrew J.; Cheng, Steven C.; Ross, Will; Windus, David; Dávila-Román, Víctor G.; Hruska, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and contributed to by the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The CKD-MBD begins in early CKD and its vascular manifestations begin with vascular stiffness proceeding to increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and vascular calcification (VC). Phosphorus is associated with this progression and is considered a CVD risk factor in CKD. We hypothesized that modifying phosphorus balance with lanthanum carbonate (LaCO3) in early CKD would not produce hypophosphatemia and may affect vascular manifestations of the CKD-MBD. Methods We randomized 38 subjects with normophosphatemic stage 3 CKD to a fixed dose of LaCO3 or matching placebo without adjusting dietary phosphorus in a 12-month randomized, double-blind, pilot and feasibility study. The primary outcome was the change in serum phosphorus. Secondary outcomes were changes in measures of phosphate homeostasis and vascular stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), cIMT and VC over 12 months. Results There were no statistically significant differences between LaCO3 and placebo with respect to the change in serum phosphorus, urinary phosphorus, tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, PWV, cIMT, or VC. Biomarkers of the early CKD-MBD such as plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and sclerostin were increased 2–3-fold at baseline but were not affected by LaCO3. Conclusion 12 months of LaCO3 had no effect on serum phosphorus and did not alter phosphate homeostasis, PWV, cIMT, VC, or biomarkers of the CKD-MBD. PMID:23941761

  14. Noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of the developing vasculature during early tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, Yeqi; Xing, Da; Yang, Sihua; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we monitor the progress of vasculature in early tumor growth using photoacoustic imaging over a 20 day period after subcutaneous inoculation of breast cancer tumor cells in a mouse. With 532 nm laser pulses employed as an irradiation source, the photoacoustic images were obtained through the photoacoustic signals received by a hydrophone in orthogonal mode. The morphological characteristics of vasculature in tumor region are clearly resolved in the photoacoustic images, and the change in structure as well as the increase in density can be identified. Moreover, the average photoacoustic signal strength of vasculature in tumor region, which is highly correlated with the total hemoglobin concentration of blood, is enhanced during early tumor growth. These results indicate the feasibility of detecting early stage tumor and monitoring the progress of anti-angiogenic therapy by photoacoustic imaging.

  15. Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

    2012-11-01

    According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. PMID:23036413

  16. Genomic changes at the early stage of somatic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Xu, C H; Wang, M Q; Zhi, D Y; Xia, G M

    2014-01-01

    A broad spectrum of genetic and epigenetic changes is induced by wide hybridization and subsequent polyploidization, but the timing of these events remains obscure because early hybrid cells are very difficult to harvest and analyze. Here, we used both cytological and genetic marker approaches to analyze the constitution of very young somatic hybrid cells between japonica rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp japonica) and indica rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp indica) and between japonica rice and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Chromatin elimination, simple sequence repeats, and retrotransposon profile deletions were already apparent within six days of the fusion event. The evidence we have presented suggests that genomic changes induced by genomic shock occur soon after the formation of hybrid cells. PMID:24668681

  17. Cost analysis of adjuvant management strategies in early stage (stage I) testicular seminoma

    PubMed Central

    Cox, John A; Gajjar, Shefali R; Lanni, Thomas B; Swanson, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Background Acceptable post-orchiectomy adjuvant therapy strategies for stage I seminoma patients include surveillance, para-aortic radiation therapy (RT), dog-leg RT, and a single cycle of carboplatin. The required follow-up recommendations were amended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) in 2012. Given a cause-specific survival of nearly 100%, a closer analysis of the reimbursement for each treatment strategy is warranted. Methods NCCN guidelines were used to design treatment plans for each acceptable adjuvant treatment strategy. Follow-up charges were generated for 10 years based on 2012 (version 1.2012; unchanged in current version 1.2013) and 2011 NCCN (version 2.2011) surveillance recommendations. The 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates were used to calculate each treatment strategy and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios to compare the treatment options. Results Under the current NCCN follow-up recommendations, the total reimbursements generated over 10 years of surveillance, para-aortic RT, dog-leg RT, and carboplatin were $10,643, $11,678, $9,662, and $10,405, respectively. This is compared with the reimbursements as per the 2011 NCCN recommendations: $20,986, $11,517, $9,394, and $20,365 respectively. Factoring the rates of relapse into a salvage model, observation was found to be more costly and less effective ($–1,831, $?7,318, $–7,010) in the adjuvant management of stage I seminoma patients Conclusion Based on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, para-aortic RT, dog-leg RT, and carboplatin are cost-effective options for the treatment of stage I seminoma when compared with observation; however, surveillance could potentially spare as many as 80%–85% of men diagnosed with stage I seminoma from additional therapy after radical inguinal orchiectomy. Such cost and reimbursement analyses are becoming increasingly relevant, but are not meant to usurp sound clinical judgment. Further studies are required to validate these findings. PMID:25610815

  18. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  19. Heterogeneous Directional Mobility in the Early Stages of Polymer Crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Lacevic, N; Fried, L E; Gee, R H

    2008-11-01

    Recently we demonstrated via large large-scale molecular dynamics simulations a 'coexistence period' in polymer melt ordering before crystallization, where nucleation and growth mechanisms coexist with a phase phase-separation mechanism. Here we present an extension of this work, where we analyze the directional displacements as a measure of the mobility of monomers as they order during crystallization over more than 100 ns of simulation time. It is found that the polymer melt, after quenching, rapidly separates into many ordered hexagonal domains separated by amorphous regions, where surprisingly, the magnitude of the monomer's displacement in the ordered state, parallel to the domain axial direction, is similar to its magnitude in the melt. T. The monomer he displacements in the domain's lateral direction are found to decrease during the time of the simulation. The ordered hexagonal domains do not align into uniform lamellar structures during the timescales of our simulations.

  20. Toxicity of the booster biocide Sea-Nine to the early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan

    2007-06-01

    The toxicity of the alternative antifouling compound Sea-Nine to the early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus was investigated. The inhibition of the fertilization rate and the induction of transmissible damages to the offspring, measured as inhibition of embryonic development and larval growth, were studied by preexposure of gametes to a range of Sea-Nine concentrations. Sperm and egg exposures resulted in a significant decrease of the fertilization rate and induced a transmissible damage to the offspring. The effects of Sea-Nine throughout the embryonic development were also studied by a 48 h exposure of fertilized eggs. The larval growth was the most sensitive response tested, with toxic effects detected at 8.6 nM=2.4 microg/L (EC(10)). The inhibition of P. lividus embryonic development and larval growth was also used to study the loss of toxicity in Sea-Nine solutions exposed for 8h to direct sunlight and maintained for 28 h in dark conditions. The results showed that the toxicity of Sea-Nine solutions did not decrease but a slight increase in toxicity was observed in comparison with control solutions. The risk of Sea-Nine maximum concentrations measured in marinas around Europe to P. lividus early developmental stages was calculated and the obtained risk quotient was 5.5, indicating that adverse ecological effects of this compound are likely to occur. PMID:17434607

  1. Early stages in the high temperature cyclic oxidation of {beta}-NiAl: An x-ray reflectivity study

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, G.; You, Hoydoo; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Early stages in the cyclic oxidation of {beta}-NiAl at 500{degrees}C, 600{degrees}C, 700{degrees}C and 800{degrees}C were investigated using the technique of x-ray reflectivity. By fitting the data to a model function, oxide layer thickness, roughness of the oxide-vapor interface, and the roughness of the oxide-substrate interface were obtained as a function of oxidation time and temperature of oxidation. The time dependence of the oxide thickness was observed to be logarithmic at lower temperatures (500{degrees}C and 600{degrees}C) while a conventional t{sup 0.5} kinetics was observed at the higher temperatures. Comparison of the roughness of the oxide-substrate interface with that of the oxide-vapor interface shows that for comparable oxide thicknesses and identical substrate conditions, the oxide-vapor interface was rougher than the oxide-substrate interface at all temperatures. This is consistent with the previously postulated growth mechanism (outward diffusion of cations) for oxide growth during the early stages of oxidation at these temperatures. Thus, x-ray reflectivity offers a convenient way of determining the oxide growth rates, and the roughness of the interfaces when the oxide layer is thin; this regime cannot be easily studied with the techniques that are currently used for oxidation studies.

  2. The potential role of bevacizumab in early stages and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schettino, Clorinda; Bareschino, Maria Anna; Rossi, Antonio; Maione, Paolo; Castaldo, Vincenzo; Mazzeo, Nicole; Sacco, Paola Claudia; Ferrara, Marianna Luciana; Palazzolo, Giovanni; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Gridelli, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Improving outcomes for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major research area considering that a significant percentage of such patients develop recurrent disease within 5 years of complete lung resection. Adjuvant chemotherapy prolongs survival, with an absolute improvement in 5-year overall survival of about 5% with drawbacks such as treatment toxicity. Approximately, one third of patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC have locally advanced disease not amenable for surgical resection – in this setting of patients concurrent chemoradiation is the standard of therapy. However, the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC is still controversial and clinical outcomes are disappointing, and so new approaches are required to improve the clinical benefit in this setting of patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key angiogenic factor implicated in tumor blood vessels formation and permeability, and tumor VEGF overexpression in patients with early stage lung cancer has been associated with worse relapse free and overall survival. Several agents have been developed that inhibit VEGF or its receptor signalling system. Bevacizumab is the first recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody binding VEGF to demonstrate clinical benefit or rather a survival prolongation in combination with chemotherapy in the treatment of non-squamous advanced NSCLC patients. These positive results led to a large number of clinical trials to evaluate bevacizumab in combination with other targeted agents in advanced disease, and to define the role of this agent in early stage NSCLC such as the impact of bevacizumab integration in chemoradiotherapy strategy for locally advanced disease. PMID:21789109

  3. Chemical structural changes in the early stages of coalification

    SciTech Connect

    Given, P.H.; Ryan, M.J.; Spackman, W.; Stout, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Brandon lignite in Vermont (20-30 M. years old) consists mostly of gelified coal but contains also much material to be described as woody material or coalified logs. Faces on lumps of woody material have been polished and examined with a hand lens. Various zones could be distinguished: thus one zone (IV) contained well preserved vessel cells, while another associated zone (III) did not. There was a darker zone (II) with no cells visible, and a dark rim (I) around the margin (oxidation.). Fourier Transform infrared spectra of the corresponding zones III and IV from two different specimens of woody material were almost identical with each other; zone II was quite similar in showing a large number of sharp, well-defined, bands quite closely resembling those in the spectrum of dicotyledon lignin. The authors conclude that (i) chemical differences in zones of woody material are considerably smaller than visible differences in degree of preservation of wood indicate, (ii) there are processes in the earliest stages of coalification that usually, but not invariably, destroy both cellular anatomy and lignin structure, (iii) the effect of these processes begins to be evident in the outer zones of coalified logs and is fully seen in the gelified matrix. Woody material from the Morwell lignite, Victoria, Australia gave spectra having some lignin character, but much less marked that in those of the Brandon samples.

  4. A mechanical model of early salt dome growth 

    E-print Network

    Irwin, Frank Albert

    1988-01-01

    A MECHANICAL MODEL OF EARLY SALT DOME GROWTH A Thesis by FRANK ALBERT IRWIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988... Major Subject: Geology A MECHANICAL MODEL OF EARLY SALT DOME GROWTH A Thesis by FRANK ALBERT IRWIN Approved as to style and content by: aymond C. Fletcher (Chair of Committee) John H. Spang (Member) Wi tamR. B ant (Mem ) John H. Sp g (Head...

  5. Onion ipmPIPE -Diagnostic Pocket Series Bulb Growth Stages of Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    E-print Network

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    Onion ipmPIPE - Diagnostic Pocket Series Bulb Growth Stages of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Allium Type: Fresh Market and Storage Onion Both pre- and post-bulb planting (seeds, transplants, sets). Pre-Bulb Growth Stages 1 ­ radical and flag leaf emergence (10-30 days

  6. Effects of nicotine on a rat model of early stage osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qiangrong; Li, Dong; Wei, Bo; Guo, Yang; Yan, Junwei; Mao, Fengyong; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of nicotine on articular cartilage degeneration and inflammation in a rat model of early stage osteoarthritis (OA), using T2 mapping. In this study, a rat model of early stage OA was established by immobilizing the left knee joints of adult male rats for two weeks. Subsequently, rats were fed with nicotine for two and four weeks. Changes in the articular cartilage from the medial femoral condylar region of the knee were evaluated by gross observation and histological grading with the contents of cartilage matrix detected. T2 values of the articular cartilage were estimated through high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (7.0T). Levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were assessed by ELISA. The expression of TNF-? and the cholinergic receptor, ?7nAChR, in the synovial tissue was measured by RT-PCR. Nicotine treatment ameliorated cartilage destruction, promoted matrix production, reduced the serum level of TNF-? and the expression of TNF-? in the synovial tissue, and increased the expression of ?7nAChR in the synovial tissue in the rat model of early stage OA. In conclusion, nicotine prevented cartilage damage and had an anti-inflammatory effect in a rat model of early stage OA. Thus nicotine may have potential as a therapeutic strategy for early stage OA.

  7. Cortical gyrification and sulcal spans in early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Lipnicki, Darren M; Zhu, Wanlin; Tao, Dacheng; Zhang, Chengqi; Cui, Yue; Jin, Jesse S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an insidious onset of progressive cerebral atrophy and cognitive decline. Previous research suggests that cortical folding and sulcal width are associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals, and the aim of the present study was to investigate these morphological measures in patients with AD. The sample contained 161 participants, comprising 80 normal controls, 57 patients with very mild AD, and 24 patients with mild AD. From 3D T1-weighted brain scans, automated methods were used to calculate an index of global cortex gyrification and the width of five individual sulci: superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure. We found that global cortex gyrification decreased with increasing severity of AD, and that the width of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus was greater in patients with mild AD than in controls. We also found that cognitive functioning, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, decreased as global cortex gyrification decreased. MMSE scores also decreased in association with a widening of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus. The results suggest that abnormalities of global cortex gyrification and regional sulcal span are characteristic of patients with even very mild AD, and could thus facilitate the early diagnosis of this condition. PMID:22363554

  8. Early and Late Stage Metals and Sulfides in Diogenites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sideras, L. C.; Domanik, K. J.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Diogenites are typically highly brecciated orthopyroxenites that contain 84-100 vol.% orthopyroxene. Common accessory minerals include olivine, chromite, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase, silica, troilite and Fe-Ni metal. Metal and sulfides are minor phases in diogenites with an average abundance of < 1 vol.% and 0-2 vol.% respectively. However their presence is important, as they could provide information on T-fO2-fS2 conditions and the evolution of the diogenite parent magma during crystallization and/or later metamorphism. We have examined the occurrence of Fe-Ni metal and sulfides in thin sections of several diogenites including, Johnstown, Manegaon, Roda, Shalka, Bilanga, and Tatahouine using optical microscopy and the electron microprobe. Here, we describe three features of metals and sulfides that are common in most of these diogenites. These are: i) The widespread occurrence of pentlandite associated with copper and copper sulfide minerals; ii) Textural evidence that at least some of the metal and sulfide occurring interstitially between, and as inclusions within, orthopyroxene formed from an early immiscible sulfide-oxide liquid; iii) That this sulfide- oxide liquid subsequently fractionated into assemblages containing either Fe-Ni metal, troilite, and chromite or pentlandite, troilite, and copper-bearing sulfide.

  9. Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion–deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case–control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5–4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4–5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7–5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

  10. Storage oil hydrolysis during early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Quettier, Anne-Laure; Eastmond, Peter J

    2009-06-01

    Storage oil breakdown plays an important role in the life cycle of many plants by providing the carbon skeletons that support seedling growth immediately following germination. This metabolic process is initiated by lipases (EC: 3.1.1.3), which catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) to release free fatty acids and glycerol. A number of lipases have been purified to near homogeneity from seed tissues and analysed for their in vitro activities. Furthermore, several genes encoding lipases have been cloned and characterised from plants. However, only recently has data been presented to establish the molecular identity of a lipase that has been shown to be required for TAG breakdown in seeds. In this review we briefly outline the processes of TAG synthesis and breakdown. We then discuss some of the biochemical literature on seed lipases and describe the cloning and characterisation of a lipase called SUGAR-DEPENDENT1, which is required for TAG breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. PMID:19136267

  11. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. PMID:25910905

  12. Maturation Stages of Mouse Dendritic Cells in Growth Factor-dependent Long-Term Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Winzler; Patrizia Rovere; Maria Rescigno; Francesca Granucci; Giuseppe Penna; Luciano Adorini; Valerie S. Zimmermann; Jean Davoust; Paola Ricciardi-Castagnoli

    Summary The signals controlling the checkpoints of dendritic cells (DC) maturation and the correlation between phenotypical and functional maturational stages were investigated in a defined model system of growth factor-dependent immature mouse DC. Three sequential stages of DC mat- uration (immature, mature, and apoptotic) were defined and characterized. Immature DC (stage 1) had low expression of costimulatory molecules, highly organized

  13. Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties to increase their thermal tolerance windows. PMID:22701620

  14. Improving the early growth and nitrogen status of Lespedeza cuneata for surface mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Methods were investigated for improving the early growth, establishment and N/sub 2/ fixation of Lespedeza cuneata (Dumont) G. Don (sericea lespedeza), a perennial forage legume used in revegetation of surface mined land. Plants were grown in plastic pouches containing a nutrient solution with 0.5 or 5.0 ppm N as NH/sub 4//sup +/ or NO/sub 3//sup -/ in the growth chamber. Plants were inoculated with effective rhizobia at seeding or at the first trifoliate leaf stage. Inoculation at planting led to higher plant dry weight and tissue N content 40 days after seeding than when inoculation was delayed. The slow growth rate of the seedlings apparently prevented the carbohydrate deficiency, which has been reported to result from the nodulation process in some other legumes. Delayed inoculation reduced the time interval between inoculation and the beginning of acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and at 40 days after planting these plants had higher nitrogenase activity than those inoculated at planting. The lower N content at 40 days, however, indicates that delaying inoculation is not beneficial for early growth and establishment of L. cuneata. Ammonium N in solution retarded plant growth while NO/sub 3/-N at the same rates was stimulatory. Growth was related to the level of N supplied. Ammonium N in conjunction with inoculation at planting had a synergistic effect on plant growth and N accumulation.

  15. Seismic anisotropy and texture development during early stages of subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Leo, Jeanette; Walker, Andrew; Li, Zhong-Hai; Wookey, James; Ribe, Neil; Kendall, J.-Michael; Tommasi, Andréa

    2014-05-01

    Shear wave splitting measurements are frequently used to infer upper mantle flow trajectory, based on the fact that, under strain, olivine develops lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) textures in the convecting mantle. However, such inferences ought to be made carefully, since the relationship between splitting fast polarisation and olivine LPO depends on several factors, one of them being the deformation history of the volume of mantle in question. This is especially the case in regions such as subduction zones, where complex and time-dependent mantle flow occurs. Here, we present an integrated model to simulate strain-history-dependent LPO development and measure the resulting shear wave splitting in a subduction setting. We do this for a subduction model that approximates the geometry of the double-sided Molucca Sea subduction system in eastern Indonesia. We test a single-sided and a double-sided subduction case, and compare the results to shear wave splitting observations of this region. Since the subduction zone is fairly young, early textures from the slab's descent from the near-surface to the bottom of the mantle transition zone - which we simulate in our models - have not yet been overprinted by subsequent continuous flow. It further allows us to test the significance of the double-sided geometry, i.e., the need for a rear barrier to achieve trench-parallel sub-slab mantle flow. We simulate olivine LPO evolution in polycrystalline aggregates as they move and deform along pathlines extracted from a 3-D mantle flow model. Interactions between crystals are described using the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) approach. Unlike previous studies, we consider the entire subduction history from subduction initiation onwards. After calculating elastic properties associated with LPO textures, we estimate the resulting splitting parameters (fast direction ?, delay time ?t) for synthetic SKS phases. Our models demonstrate that complex, backazimuth-dependent behaviour in ? appears in even apparently simple models of subduction zone mantle flow. We also show that although a rear barrier amplifies trench-parallel sub-slab anisotropy due to mantle flow, it is not essential for producing trench-parallel fast directions. In a simple model of one-sided subduction and deformation dominated by the motion of dislocations belonging to the (010)[100] slip system, trench-parallel fast directions result from a combination of simple shear and deformation by axial compression in the sub-slab mantle.

  16. Delirium in early-stage alzheimer's disease: enhancing cognitive reserve as a possible preventive measure.

    PubMed

    Fick, Donna M; Kolanowski, Ann; Beattie, Elizabeth; McCrow, Judith

    2009-03-01

    Delirium is a disorder of acute onset with fluctuating symptoms and is character ized by inattention, disorganized thinking and altered levels of consciousness. The risk for delirium is greatest in individual with dementia, and the incidence of both is increasing worldwide because of the aging of our population. Although s clinical trials have tested interventions f delirium prevention in individuals without dementia, little is known about the m anisms for the prevention of delirium i early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Th purpose of this article is to explore ways o preventing delirium and slowing the ra of cognitive decline in early-stage AD enhancing cognitive reserve. An agenda for future research on interventions to prevent delirium in individuals with early-stage AD is also presented. PMID:19326827

  17. Unique MRI findings for differentiation of an early stage of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takanori; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Yabuki, Hidehiko; Ito, Akira

    2015-01-01

    CT scan and ultrasonography images revealed two small uniformly low-density and hypoechoic lesions in the liver, respectively, 7 years after curative resection of rectal cancer, in a 74-year-old man. The area of the liver including the two lesions was segmentally resected. Two lesions were histopathologically confirmed as early but active stage alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis. This case is very unique and rare, since early stage hepatic AE cases have only accidentally been confirmed from cases in which malignant hepatic tumours were suspected, and because two independent AE lesions were detected. Abdominal MRI showed two isointense tumour lesions with small areas of high-signal intensity in their centres on T2-weighted images. MRI findings appear to reflect the macroscopic view and microscopic findings of early stage AE with active cyst in the centre of each hepatic lesion well. PMID:25697300

  18. Keishibukuryogan Reduces Renal Injury in the Early Stage of Renal Failure in the Remnant Kidney Model

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Takako; Tashiro, Izumi; Fujimoto, Makoto; Jo, Michiko; Sakai, Shinya; Oka, Hiroshi; Goto, Hirozo; Shimada, Yutaka; Shibahara, Naotoshi

    2011-01-01

    The effects of keishibukuryogan on the early stage of progressive renal failure were examined in rats subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy. Keishibukuryogan, one of the traditional herbal formulations, was given orally at a dose of 1% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) in chow. Administration of keishibukuryogan was started at 1 week after 5/6 nephrectomy and was continued for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, Azan staining did not reveal any severe histological changes in the kidneys of the nephrectomized rats. On the other hand, significant increases in mRNA expressions of transforming growth factor-?1 and fibronectin related to tissue fibrosis, as examined by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction, were observed in nephrectomized rats, and they were significantly suppressed by 3% keishibukuryogan treatment. Against gene expressions related to macrophage infiltration, 3% keishibukuryogan treatment significantly suppressed osteopontin mRNA levels, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA levels showed a tendency to decrease, but without statistical significance. It was also observed that 3% keishibukuryogan attenuated serum urea nitrogen and urinary protein excretion levels. From these results, it was suggested that keishibukuryogan exerts beneficial effects that result in slowing the progression of chronic renal failure. PMID:19633031

  19. Toxicity of oil sands to early life stages of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Colavecchia, Maria V; Backus, Sean M; Hodson, Peter V; Parrott, Joanne L

    2004-07-01

    The present study examines the effects of exposure to oil sands on the early life stages (ELS) of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Sediments within and outside natural oil sand deposits were collected from sites along the Athabasca River (AB, Canada). The ELS toxicity tests were conducted with control water, natural oil sands, reference sediments, and oil-refining wastewater pond sediments. Eggs and larvae were exposed to 0.05 to 25.0 g sediment/L and observed for mortality, hatching, malformations, growth, and cytochrome P4501A induction as measured by immunohistochemistry. Natural bitumen and wastewater pond sediments caused significant hatching alterations and exposure-related increases in ELS mortality, malformations, and reduced size. Larval deformities included edemas, hemorrhages, and spinal malformations. Exposure to reference sediments and controls showed negligible embryo mortality and malformations and excellent larval survival. Sediment analyses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed high concentrations of alkyl-substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared to unsubstituted PAHs in natural oil sands (220-360 microg/g) and oil-mining wastewater pond sediments (1,300 microg/g). The ELS sediment toxicity tests are rapid and sensitive bioassays that are useful in the assessment of petroleum toxicity to aquatic organisms. PMID:15230323

  20. Nurses' experiences using a nursing information system: early stage of technology implementation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Adoption of information technology in nursing practice has become a trend in healthcare. The impact of this technology on users has been widely studied, but little attention has been given to its influence at the beginning stage of implementation. Knowing the barriers to adopting technology could shorten this transition stage and minimize its negative influences. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' experiences in the early stage of implementing a nursing information system. Focus groups were used to collect data at a medical center in Taiwan. The results showed that nurses had problems with the system's content design, had insufficient training, were concerned about data security, were stressed by added work, and experienced poor interdisciplinary cooperation. To smooth this beginning stage, the author recommends involving nurses early in the system design, providing sufficient training in keyboard entry skills, redesigning workflow, and improving interdisciplinary communication. PMID:17827993

  1. A Prospective Evaluation of Positron Emission Tomography Scanning, Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy, and Standard Axillary Dissection for Axillary Staging in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Lovrics; Vicky Chen; Geoff Coates; Sylvie D. Cornacchi; Charlie H. Goldsmith; Calvin Law; Mark N. Levine; Ken Sanders; Ved R. Tandan

    2004-01-01

    Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive imaging modality that can detect malignant lymph nodes. This study determined the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of PET scanning compared with standard axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in staging the axilla in women with early stage breast cancer.Methods: Women with clinical stage I

  2. Initial Medical Attention on Patients with Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xing; Gorlov, Ivan P.; Ying, Jun; Merriman, Kelly W.; Kimmel, Marek; Lu, Charles; Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C.; Gorlova, Olga Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Detection of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is commonly believed to be incidental. Understanding the reasons that caused initial detection of these patients is important for early diagnosis. However, these reasons are not well studied. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients diagnosed with stage I or II NSCLC between 2000 and 2009 at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. Information on suggestive LC-symptoms or other reasons that caused detection were extracted from patients' medical records. We applied univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate the association of suggestive LC-symptoms with tumor size and patient survival. Results Of the 1396 early stage LC patients, 733 (52.5%) presented with suggestive LC-symptoms as chief complaint. 347 (24.9%) and 287 (20.6%) were diagnosed because of regular check-ups and evaluations for other diseases, respectively. The proportion of suggestive LC-symptom-caused detection had a linear relationship with the tumor size (correlation 0.96; with p<.0001). After age, gender, race, smoking status, therapy, and stage adjustment, the symptom-caused detection showed no significant difference in overall and LC-specific survival when compared with the other (non-symptom-caused) detection. Conclusion Symptoms suggestive of LC are the number one reason that led to detection in early NSCLC. They were also associated with tumor size at diagnosis, suggesting early stage LC patients are developing symptoms. Presence of symptoms in early stages did not compromise survival. A symptom-based alerting system or guidelines may be worth of further study to benefit NSCLC high risk individuals. PMID:22412901

  3. A growth stage and heat unit model for Hedysarum Boreale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A system for staging sweetvetch (Hedysarum boreale Nutt. [Fabaceae]) through vegetative and reproductive plant development was developed that corresponds with a heat-unit or growing degree day (GDD) model. This system designates 14 finite stages, V1 through V6 (pre-flowering or vegetative), and R1 ...

  4. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period. PMID:25866430

  5. Psychometric Evidence of Intellectual Growth Spurts in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Styles, Irene

    1994-01-01

    Examined quantitative evidence of an intellectual growth spurt during early adolescence by combining modern psychometric modeling, computerized testing with the Raven progressive matrices, and longitudinal socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. Found that gender difference was not significant. Notes the impact of this evidence on educational…

  6. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baris Karakullukcu; Kim van Oudenaarde; Marcel P. Copper; W. M. C. Klop; Robert van Veen; Maarten Wildeman; I. Bing Tan

    2011-01-01

    The indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason\\u000a is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage\\u000a oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis-T2) to identify the success rates for each subgroup according to T stage, primary\\u000a or non-primary treatment

  7. Statistical dictionaries for hypothetical in silico model of the early-stage intermediate in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Fabian, Piotr; St?por, Katarzyna; Roterman, Irena

    2015-07-01

    The polypeptide chain folding process appears to be a multi-stage phenomenon. The scientific community has recently devoted much attention to early stages of this process, with numerous attempts at simulating them-either experimentally or in silico. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the predicted and observed results of folding simulations. The proposed technique, based on statistical dictionaries, yields a global accuracy of 57 %-a marked improvement over older approaches (with an accuracy of approximately 46 %). PMID:25808133

  8. Toward less-invasive management of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Amy

    2015-05-01

    Patients with early-stage breast cancer today are benefitting from a growing trend toward less-invasive disease staging and management. This is occurring as a result of molecular profiling to refine treatment, surgical approaches that improve cosmesis, radiotherapy approaches that are more convenient and less likely to produce toxicity, and the discontinuation of routine axillary dissection. Less-aggressive treatments yield better quality of life, which is very important in a malignancy with excellent long-term outcomes. PMID:25995419

  9. Outcomes in Patients With Early-Stage Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi, E-mail: ysmrmrad@tmd.ac.j [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology, Head and Neck Reconstruction Division, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu; Ito, Yoshinori [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, Masao [Division of Head and Neck Surgery, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sumi, Minako; Itami, Jun [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome in patients with early-stage hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between February 1988 and February 2007, 77 patients with Stage I or Stage II HPC underwent definitive RT in the Division of Radiation Oncology at the National Cancer Center Hospital. Eleven of the patients received local irradiation, and the other 66 patients received elective bilateral neck irradiation and booster irradiation to the primary lesion. The median follow-up period for all the patients was 33 months from the start of RT, ranging from 3 to 229 months. Results: The rates of overall survival, HPC-specific survival, HPC recurrence-free survival, and local control with laryngeal voice preservation for the 77 patients at 5 years were 47%, 74%, 57%, and 70%, respectively. The survival rates were not affected by the patient characteristics or treatment factors, but the RT field was significantly correlated with local control in a multivariate analysis. Seven of the patients had Grade 3 or greater complications, but these complications occurred after salvage surgery in 6 of the patients. Of the 77 patients, 83% had synchronous or metachronous malignancies, but these malignancies did not influence the survival of the patients if the malignancies were detected at an early stage. Conclusion: RT is an appropriate treatment method for early-stage HPC. However, because synchronous or metachronous malignancies occur at a relatively high frequency, careful follow-up and the early detection of such malignancies are critical.

  10. The association between height and prostate cancer grade in the Early Stage Prostate Cancer Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wildon R. Farwell; Christopher Lourenco; Erika Holmberg; Robert B. Hall; Leonard D’Avolio; Elizabeth V. Lawler; J. Michael Gaziano

    Objective  We examined the relationship between height and prostate cancer grade.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The Early Stage Prostate Cancer Cohort Study is an observational cohort of 1,037 men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer,\\u000a T0–3NxM0. High-grade prostate cancer was defined as a biopsy Gleason score ? 7 (4 + 3). Logistic regression models were created to\\u000a calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the cross-sectional relationship

  11. Global gene analysis of oocytes from early stages in human folliculogenesis shows high expression of novel genes in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Markholt, S; Grøndahl, M L; Ernst, E H; Andersen, C Yding; Ernst, E; Lykke-Hartmann, K

    2012-02-01

    The pool of primordial follicles in humans is laid down during embryonic development and follicles can remain dormant for prolonged intervals, often decades, until individual follicles resume growth. The mechanisms that induce growth and maturation of primordial follicles are poorly understood but follicles once activated either continue growth or undergo atresia. We have isolated pure populations of oocytes from human primordial, intermediate and primary follicles using laser capture micro-dissection microscopy and evaluated the global gene expression profiles by whole-genome microarray analysis. The array data were confirmed by qPCR for selected genes. A total of 6301 unique genes were identified as significantly expressed representing enriched specific functional categories such as 'RNA binding', 'translation initiation' and 'structural molecule activity'. Several genes, some not previously known to be associated with early oocyte development, were identified with exceptionally high expression levels, such as the anti-proliferative transmembrane protein with an epidermal growth factor-like and two follistatin-like domains (TMEFF2), the Rho-GTPase-activating protein oligophrenin 1 (OPHN1) and the mitochondrial-encoded ATPase6 (ATP6). Thus, the present study provides not only a technique to capture and perform transcriptome analysis of the sparse material of human oocytes from the earliest follicle stages but further includes a comprehensive basis for our understanding of the regulatory factors and pathways present during early human folliculogenesis. PMID:22238370

  12. The experience of cancer during early and advanced stages: the views of patients and their mates.

    PubMed

    Gotay, C C

    1984-01-01

    Problems, coping mechanisms and problem resolution were assessed in 112 individuals: patients with early stage cervical cancer or pre-cancer (N = 42) and their mates (N = 19), and patients with advanced stage breast or gynecological cancer (N = 31) and their mates (N = 20). The most common source of concern for all groups was the disease itself; the men were also more likely than the patients to be disturbed by the possibility of the women dying. Taking firm action was the most frequently-mentioned coping strategy; information-seeking was also common among the early stage groups, and religious faith often cited by the advanced stage respondents. Analysis of a particular problem--fear of cancer--showed different coping strategies to be predominant; mates, in contrast to patients, were likely to take direct action and advanced stage groups more likely to discuss their fear of cancer with others. Problem resolution did not vary from group to group. Overall, the similarities among reactions of early and advanced stage patients and mates were more striking than differences, indicating the profound impact of cancer over the course of the disease on patient and family alike. PMID:6719154

  13. Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research.

    PubMed

    Mentz, Robert J; Becker, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the development of a personalized research trajectory, which optimizes the potential for career success. PMID:23860882

  14. Self-Consistent Simulation of the Brownian Stage of Dust Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, S.; Pfalzner, S.; Henning, Th.

    1996-01-01

    It is a widely accepted view that in proto-planetary accretion disks the collision and following sticking of dust particles embedded in the gas eventually leads to the formation of planetesimals (coagulation). For the smallest dust grains, Brownian motion is assumed to be the dominant source of their relative velocities leading to collisions between these dust grains. As the dust grains grow they eventually couple to the turbulent motion of the gas which then drives the coagulation much more efficiently. Many numerical coagulation simulations have been carried out to calculate the fractal dimension of the aggregates, which determines the duration of the ineffective Brownian stage of growth. Predominantly on-lattice and off-lattice methods were used. However, both methods require simplification of the astrophysical conditions. The aggregates found by those methods had a fractal dimension of approximately 2 which is equivalent to a constant, mass-independent friction time. If this value were valid for the conditions in an accretion disk, this would mean that the coagulation process would finally 'freeze out' and the growth of a planetesimal would be impossible within the lifetime of an accretion disk. In order to investigate whether this fractal dimension is model independent, we simulate self-consistently the Brownian stage of the coagulation by an N-particle code. This method has the advantage that no further assumptions about homogeneity of the dust have to be made. In our model, the dust grains are considered as aggregates built up of spheres. The equation of motion of the dust grains is based on the probability density for the diffusive transport within the gas atmosphere. Because of the very low number density of the dust grains, only 2-body-collisions have to be considered. As the Brownian stage of growth is very inefficient, the system is to be simulated over long periods of time. In order to find close particle pairs of the system which are most likely to undergo a collision, we use a particle-in-cell (PIC) method for the early stages of the simulation where the system is still very homogeneous and a tree method later when the particles are more clustered.

  15. The roles of finance at different growth stages of startups

    E-print Network

    Fu, Yue, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to develop a framework that summarizes the finance-related problems faced by entrepreneurs at different development stages of their startups, as well as the possible solutions ...

  16. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  17. Response of peanuts to irrigation management at different crop growth stages 

    E-print Network

    Dahmen, Pieter George

    1980-01-01

    ); (3) from 71 to 105 days after planting (pegging and early maturation); and (4) from 105 to 145 days after planting (late maturation). In all treatments, the plants were never stressed during the vegetative stage. The treat- ment with moisture...

  18. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

    2014-07-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 ?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 ?-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. PMID:24713117

  19. Responses to various exposure durations of levonorgestrel during early-life stages of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Overturf, Matthew D; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are routinely detected in the environment; and several of these compounds have been extensively researched due to their potential impacts to the endocrine system of aquatic organisms. The negative reproductive consequences of synthetic progestins in teleost species have only recently been investigated. The current study examined different exposure periods that may be most sensitive for levonorgestrel (LNG) in early-life stages of fathead minnow larvae. Larvae were exposed to a single concentration of LNG (125ng/L) for different durations from fertilized egg through 28 days post hatch (dph) with growth and mRNA expression of FSH, 3?-HSD, 20?-HSD, and CYP19a1 measured. Regardless of the duration of exposure, LNG significantly decreased growth in the fathead minnow larvae at day 28. For both 20?-HSD and CYP19a1, mRNA expression was decreased following LNG exposure durations ?7 days. 3?-HSD and FSH showed similar trends after exposure to LNG with later stages of development exhibiting decreased expression. 20?-HSD and 3?-HSD were the only transcripts to remain down regulated once larvae were moved to clean water after the 7-14dph LNG exposure. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure time to a synthetic progestin on developing fish. Future research is needed to understand what impacts these changes have on adult stages of development. PMID:25661708

  20. [Effectiveness of combined application of ursosan and anxiolytic 2-mercaptobenzimidazole in early stage of cholelithiasis].

    PubMed

    Vakhrushev, Ia M; Khokhlacheva, N A

    2010-01-01

    We spent the complex investigation of therapeutic efectiveness of ursosan and afobasol in 125 patients with gallstone disease on early stage (before stones). After the course of treatment we revealed positive changes of clinical symptoms and improvement of biochemical bile compound. Besides we found the positive changes in hormone levels correlated with decreasing of bile lithogenity. PMID:20623958

  1. A review of "Staging Slander and Gender in Early Modern England" by Ina Habermann 

    E-print Network

    Nancy M. Bunker

    2004-01-01

    , fruitfully I am sure, with this book for a long time. Ina Habermann. Staging Slander and Gender in Early Modern England. Hants: Ashgate, 2003. 202 pp. $79.95. Review by NANCY M. BUNKER, MACON STATE COLLEGE. Breaking new ground in the critical debate...

  2. Computational Specification of Building Requirements in theEarly Stages of Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omer Akin; Zeyno Aygen; Michael Cumming; Magd Donia; Rana Sen; Ye Zhang

    1998-01-01

    We have been exploring computational techniques to help building designers to specify design requirements during the early stages of design. In the past, little has been accomplished in this area either in terms of innovative computational technologies or the improvement of design performance. The prospect of improving design productivity and creating a seamless process between requirements specification and formal design

  3. Brief Communications Stress Potentiates Early and Attenuates Late Stages of Visual

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    that stress and anxiety shift the balance of attention away from a task-directed mode, governed by prefrontal that stress and anxiety shift the balance of attention away from a task-directed mode, governed by prefrontalBrief Communications Stress Potentiates Early and Attenuates Late Stages of Visual Processing

  4. Predation on Early Life Stages of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

    2010-01-01

    Mortality of early life stages can limit recruitment of fishes, and understanding the impacts of various sources of mortality has long been a goal of fisheries management. The impacts of predation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify sources of predation that affect lake sturgeon eggs, larvae, and

  5. A Linear Chain Markov Model for Detection and Localization of Cells in Early Stage Embryo Development

    E-print Network

    Gould, Stephen

    A Linear Chain Markov Model for Detection and Localization of Cells in Early Stage Embryo to find individual cell candidates within the em- bryo. These cell candidates are combined into embryo hy applications such as predicting blas- tocyst and can be used for assessing embryos in in vitro fertilization

  6. Introduction At early stages of development, the embryo needs to establish

    E-print Network

    Stern, Claudio

    3381 Introduction At early stages of development, the embryo needs to establish bilateral symmetry al., 1989; Harland and Gerhart, 1997; Zernicka-Goetz, 2002). By contrast, amniote embryos do not appear irreversibly to fix their polarity until much later, when gastrulation begins and the embryo may

  7. TOXICITY OF ACENAPHTHENE AND ISOPHORONE TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF FATHEAD MINNOWS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow-through 96-hr and early-life stage toxicity tests were conducted with acenaphthene and isophorone, using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test animals. The 96-hr LC50's were 608 micro/L for acenaphthene and 145 and 255 micro/L for isophorone, depending on fish age. N...

  8. The Early Stages of Native Enamel Dissolution Studied with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Finke; Klaus D. Jandt; David M. Parker

    2000-01-01

    Food-induced demineralization (erosion) is one of the key factors in surface structural changes of tooth enamel, with soft drinks being a significant etiological agent. The objective of this study was to measure early stages of enamel loss with high accuracy on native enamel surfaces combined with qualitative observations of changes in the surface morphology using the atomic force microscope (AFM).

  9. Comparison of turnover in the olfactory organ of early juvenile stage and adult Caribbean spiny lobsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles D. Derby; Holly S. Cate; Pascal Steullet; Paul J. H. Harrison

    2003-01-01

    Proliferation and turnover of neurons occurs in the olfactory systems of many animals. In this study, we examined developmental changes in turnover in the olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus by examining two life-history stages—early juveniles and young adults. Turnover was compared using external morphology of the olfactory organ before and after molting to determine addition and

  10. Modeling the Early Stages of Thin Film Formation by Energetic Atom Deposition

    E-print Network

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    on a surface with energies far in excess of the thermal energy of an average lattice atom. The simultaneousModeling the Early Stages of Thin Film Formation by Energetic Atom Deposition C.A. STONE and N of discrete kinetic rate equations to a Fokker-Planck (FP)-type continuum. Unique features of the atomic

  11. REQUEST FOR INFORMATION -NASA OFFICE OF THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST EARLY STAGE

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    Flight Plans Committee, October 22, 2009, http://legislative.nasa.gov/396093main_HSF_Cmte_FinalReport Program, 2008, http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12471 . · Report of the President's CommissionREQUEST FOR INFORMATION - NASA OFFICE OF THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST EARLY STAGE INNOVATION DIVISION

  12. REQUEST FOR INFORMATION -NASA OFFICE OF THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST EARLY STAGE

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    22, 2009, http://legislative.nasa.gov/396093main_HSF_Cmte_FinalReport.pdf . · A Constrained Space://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12471 . · Report of the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space ExplorationREQUEST FOR INFORMATION - NASA OFFICE OF THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST EARLY STAGE INNOVATION DIVISION

  13. DENIM: An Informal Sketch-based Tool for Early Stage Web Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Lin; Mark W. Newman; Jason I. Hong; James A. Landay

    DENIM is a system that helps web site designers in the early stages of design. DENIM supports sketching input and gestures for operations like pan, cut, copy, and paste; allows design at different refinement levels—site map, storyboard, and individual page; and unifies the levels through zoom- ing. DENIM uses very little sketch recognition, and when recognition is used, the sketched

  14. Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a phase III clinical trial.

  15. Some Remarks on Modeling of the Early Stage of Cloud Formation in a Simulation Chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel N. Saad; Josef Podzimek; John C. Carstens

    1976-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed to describe the early stage of cloud formation in a relatively small simulation chamber. The results for adiabatic expansion show a tendency for the cloud droplet spectrum to narrow, similar to the results obtained by other authors. The influence of updraft fluctuations is not as important as the fluctuation of temperature which depends upon

  16. Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura: Bufonidae)

    E-print Network

    Lailvaux, Simon

    Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura a laboratory trial with Incilius nebulifer (synonym: Bufo nebulifer) to determine at what level salinity negatively affects hatching and metamorphosis, and how exposure to salinity during development affects

  17. The Early Stages of Financial Innovation and Money Demand in France and Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL P. DOOLEY; Franco Spinelli

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed account of the early stages of the process of financial innovation in France and Italy and its consequences on the demand for traditional monetary aggregates. For the two countries, the need to finance large budget deficits emerges as the most important factor that started that process. Nevertheless, its consequences on money demand were different. In

  18. Propagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design

    E-print Network

    Yang, Maria

    Propagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design. This work is conducted in the context of an amorphous photovoltaic (PV) panel, using data gathered from the National Solar Radiation Database, as well as realistic data collected from an experimental hardware setup

  19. Adding Radiation to Chemotherapy May Improve Outcomes in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not known.

  20. EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX

    E-print Network

    EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX D. W. RICE, JR.,l F. L. HARRISON,l AND A. JEARLD, JR.2 ABSTRACT The sensitivity to copper of embryonic and larval total copper concentrations and the percent copper in labile forms were determined. From the cumulative

  1. The Chromosomal Control of Leaf Characteristics of Early-Stage Plants in Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cun-dong LI; Zhi-ying BAI; G Ye; M Miyagi; S Chapman; SM Reader; Chun-ji LIU

    2011-01-01

    Rapid expansion of leaves of early-stage plants in wheat produced by chromosomal control of characteristics related to rapid expansion of the first six leaves of wheat were investigated using a set of single chromosome substitution lines under two different temperature regimes (TRs). Results from this study indicated that several chromosomes could be responsible for each of the four characteristics studied

  2. Alternatives to Mechanical Drills for the Early Stages of Language Practice in Foreign Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aski, Janice M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that mechanical drills do not facilitate the development of explicit or implicit knowledge. This study identifies the inadequate aspects of mechanical drills and offers alternative activities for the early stages of language practice, whose formats and features comply with recent research in the…

  3. Invasion by Ligustrum lucidum(Oleaceae) in NW Argentina: early stage characteristics in different habitat types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roxana Aragón; Martha Groom

    2003-01-01

    Currently biological invasions are considered one of the world's most serious conservation problems. Ligustrum lucidum is the most abundant exotic tree in secondary forest patches of montane forests of NW Argentina. We studied the determinants of success of the early stages of its life cycle in distinct habitat types, with the hope of identifying vulnerabilities that could be exploited to

  4. Prospective Memory and Apolipoprotein E in Healthy Aging and Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease

    E-print Network

    Prospective Memory and Apolipoprotein E in Healthy Aging and Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease Janet The present study examined whether prospective memory performance discriminates healthy aging from very mild subjects, and subjects with very mild DAT) engaged in an event-based prospective memory task wherein

  5. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

  6. Fiber Optic Micro-endoscopy for Detection of Bacteria in Early Stages of Infection

    E-print Network

    Mufti, Nooman Sadat

    2012-02-14

    site located in the lungs of an animal model, thereby enabling detection of fluorescent bacteria during the early stages of infection. In this thesis, I present a contact probe fiber bundle fluorescence micro-endoscope with a range of LED based...

  7. AdS/CFT for the early stages of heavy ion collisions

    E-print Network

    Romuald A. Janik

    2014-09-26

    I give a brief introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence targeted at heavy-ion physicists. I also review some insights to our understanding of the early stages of heavy-ion collisions coming from selected studies made using methods of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  8. Acoustic emission technique used for detecting early stages of precipitation during aging of Inconel 625

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Mittra; J. S. Dubey; S. Banerjee

    2003-01-01

    Aging behavior of Inconel 625 has been studied at 540 °C. The Ni2(Cr,Mo) phase, found in this material only after a long service life, has been detected along with the ?? phase after a short aging. Acoustic emission technique has been found sensitive enough to detect early stages of precipitation.

  9. Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaap de Leeuw; Nick van der Beek; W. Dieter Neugebauer; Peter Bjerring; H. A. Martino Neumann

    2009-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including actinic keratosis (AK) is in- creasing all over the world. The detection and diagnosis of NMSC is not optimal in clinical practice. Complementary methods for detection and accurate demarcation of NMSC at an early stage are needed in order to limit the damage caused by tumours. Objective: The purpose of the

  10. Cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral toxicity of carbofuran on Oreochromis niloticus early life stages.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, P C; Luchmann, K H; Ribeiro, A B; Veras, M M; Correa, J R M B; Nogueira, A J; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2011-10-01

    Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 9 days post-hatch were exposed in semi-static experiments to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which is applied in agricultural systems in Brazil. Although the molecular mechanism of carbofuran toxicity is well known, a detailed understanding of the ecological mechanisms through which carbofuran effects can propagate towards higher levels of biological organization in fish is incomplete. Mortality rates were quantified for larvae exposed for 96 h to 8.3, 40.6, 69.9, 140, 297 and 397 ?g/L carbofuran, and the LC(50) 96 h was 214.7 ?g/L. In addition, the biochemical biomarker cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral biomarkers related to vision, swimming, prey capture and predator avoidance were quantified in individual larvae, as well as their growth in weight. The behavioral parameters were quantified by analysis of digitally recorded videos of individual larvae within appropriate experimental setups. The activity of the enzyme cholinesterase decreased after exposure to carbofuran with a lowest observed effects concentration (LOEC) of 69.9 ?g/L. Visual acuity deficits were detected after carbofuran exposure with a LOEC of 40.6 ?g/L. Swimming speed decreased with carbofuran exposure, with a LOEC of 397.6 ?g/L. The number of attacks to prey (Daphnia magna nauplii) decreased in larvae exposed to carbofuran, with a LOEC of 397.6 ?g/L. Growth in weight was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner, and all carbofuran groups exhibited a statistically significant decrease in growth when compared to controls (p<0.05). The number of predator attacks necessary to capture larvae decreased after exposure to carbofuran, and the LOEC was 69.9 ?g/L. These results show that exposure of sensitive early life stages of tilapia O. niloticus to sublethal concentrations of carbofuran can affect fundamental aspects of fish larval ecology that are relevant to recruitment of fish populations, and that can be better understood by the application of behavioral biomarkers. PMID:21794226

  11. Analysis of Turbulent flow in early stages of atherosclerosis of coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaganagar, Kiran

    2005-11-01

    During the early stages of atherosclerotic heart disease, fatty material accumulates in the coronary artery resulting in development of streaks of plaque and creating high levels of turbulence, and with significantly modified flow parameters. Diagnostic measures performed during this early stage may not show any evidence of coronary artery disease, because the lumen of the coronary artery has not decreased in caliber. These streaks do not obstruct the flow of blood but alter the flow characteristics, even at this preclinical stage. This talk presents the preliminary results for the analysis of turbulent flow characteristics for a range of atherosclerotic plaque configurations in the left main coronary artery. For this purpose a CAD/medical imaging based direct-simulation (DNS) tool has been developed. The Navier-stokes equations are solved in the vertical vorticity-velocity formulation. The plaque is introduced using immersed body technique. The geometric acquisition of the artery geometry and plaque morphology is obtained using CAD based commercial software.

  12. Dissection and downstream analysis of zebra finch embryos at early stages of development.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jessica R; Stanciauskas, Monika E; Aralere, Tejas S; Saha, Margaret S

    2014-01-01

    The zebra finch (Taeniopygiaguttata) has become an increasingly important model organism in many areas of research including toxicology, behavior, and memory and learning. As the only songbird with a sequenced genome, the zebra finch has great potential for use in developmental studies; however, the early stages of zebra finch development have not been well studied. Lack of research in zebra finch development can be attributed to the difficulty of dissecting the small egg and embryo. The following dissection method minimizes embryonic tissue damage, which allows for investigation of morphology and gene expression at all stages of embryonic development. This permits both bright field and fluorescence quality imaging of embryos, use in molecular procedures such as in situ hybridization (ISH), cell proliferation assays, and RNA extraction for quantitative assays such as quantitative real-time PCR (qtRT-PCR). This technique allows investigators to study early stages of development that were previously difficult to access. PMID:24999108

  13. The early stage of formation of self-organized nanocolumns in thin films: Monte Carlo simulations versus atomic-scale observations in Ge-Mn

    SciTech Connect

    Mouton, I.; Talbot, E., E-mail: etienne.talbot@univ-rouen.fr; Pareige, C.; Lardé, R.; Blavette, D. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux (GPM) UMR 6634, Normandie Université, Université et INSA de Rouen - CNRS, Av. de l'Université, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2014-02-07

    Formation kinetics of self-organized nanocolumns during epitaxial growth of a thin film composed of immiscible elements (A,B) has been investigated using Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Simulated nanostructures show a good agreement with those observed in Ge-Mn using Atom Probe Tomography and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Self organisation is observed although the rigid lattice simulations used do not account for misfit elastic strain. Simulations reveal that the final nanostructure, in term of number density and diameter of nanocolumns, is controlled by the early stages of growth of the film. The influence of both growth temperature and solute concentration on the nanostructure features is discussed in details.

  14. The nutritive value for sheep of quackgrass and timothy hays harvested at two stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Christen, A M; Seoane, J R; Leroux, G D

    1990-10-01

    Thirty-two wethers were used to compare the nutritive value of Climax timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and quackgrass (Agropyron repens L. Beauv.) harvested at two stages of maturity, joint and early heading, and fed as hay. Crude protein was higher for quackgrass than for timothy (P less than .01). As maturity advanced, CP decreased (P less than .01), but NDF and ADL increased (P less than .01). Dry matter intake was similar between species but decreased by 8% with increasing maturity (P less than .01). Intake of NDF (g/kg.75) was similar for all hays. With increasing plant maturity, apparent digestibility decreased, the effect being more pronounced for quackgrass. Apparent digestibilities of DM and energy were slightly higher (P less than .06) for timothy, and those of CP and hemicellulose were higher for quackgrass (P less than .01). Apparent digestibilities of NDF, ADF, ADL, crude fiber and cellulose were similar between species. Dry matter intake and digestibility were correlated negatively with the ADL/ADF ratio of the hay (r = -.99, P less than .01), whereas CP intake and CP digestibility were correlated with CP of the hay (r = .99, P less than .01). The Lucas test estimated true protein digestibility at 88.1% and metabolic fecal protein at 29.4 g per kg of DM intake. During the growth trial, DM intake was similar between hays, but ADG of sheep was lower (P less than .01) for those fed hays at early heading vs those receiving hays at the joint stage of maturity. The feed to gain ratio was slightly lower for hays at joint (P less than .08). Under the climatic conditions of the 1988 growing season, the nutritive value of quackgrass was similar to that of Climax timothy. PMID:2174849

  15. Fate mapping of gallbladder progenitors in posteroventral foregut endoderm of mouse early somite-stage embryos.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Mami; Igarashi, Hitomi; Ozawa, Aisa; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kanai, Yoshiakira

    2015-06-01

    In early embryogenesis, the posteroventral foregut endoderm gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the liver, ventral pancreas and gallbladder during early somitogenesis. Despite the detailed fate maps of the liver and pancreatic progenitors in the mouse foregut endoderm, the exact location of the gallbladder progenitors remains unclear. In this study, we performed a DiI fate-mapping analysis using whole-embryo cultures of mouse early somite-stage embryos. Here, we show that the majority of gallbladder progenitors in 9-11-somite-stage embryos are located in the lateral-most domain of the foregut endoderm at the first intersomite junction level along the anteroposterior axis. This definition of their location highlights a novel entry point to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of initial specification of the gallbladder. PMID:25648459

  16. Exploration of novel predictive markers in rat plasma of the early stages of chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Yuriko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Kouichi; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-02-01

    To identify blood markers for early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), blood samples were collected from rats with adenine-induced CKD over 28 days. Plasma samples were subjected to metabolomic profiling by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by multivariate analyses. In addition to already-identified uremic toxins, we found that plasma concentrations of N6-succinyl adenosine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine 20:4, and glycocholic acid were altered, and that these changes during early CKD were more sensitive markers than creatinine concentration, a universal indicator of renal dysfunction. Moreover, the increase in plasma indoxyl sulfate concentration occurred earlier than increases in phenyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate. These novel metabolites may serve as biomarkers in identifying early stage CKD. PMID:24232639

  17. Fate mapping of gallbladder progenitors in posteroventral foregut endoderm of mouse early somite-stage embryos

    PubMed Central

    UEMURA, Mami; IGARASHI, Hitomi; OZAWA, Aisa; TSUNEKAWA, Naoki; KUROHMARU, Masamichi; KANAI-AZUMA, Masami; KANAI, Yoshiakira

    2015-01-01

    In early embryogenesis, the posteroventral foregut endoderm gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the liver, ventral pancreas and gallbladder during early somitogenesis. Despite the detailed fate maps of the liver and pancreatic progenitors in the mouse foregut endoderm, the exact location of the gallbladder progenitors remains unclear. In this study, we performed a DiI fate-mapping analysis using whole-embryo cultures of mouse early somite-stage embryos. Here, we show that the majority of gallbladder progenitors in 9–11-somite-stage embryos are located in the lateral-most domain of the foregut endoderm at the first intersomite junction level along the anteroposterior axis. This definition of their location highlights a novel entry point to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of initial specification of the gallbladder. PMID:25648459

  18. Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Early-Stage Lung Cancer Based on Longitudinal and Balanced Data

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Zhang, Regina; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Xia; Guo, Xiuhua

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer resulting in over a million deaths per year worldwide. Typically, the problem can be approached by developing more discriminative diagnosis methods. In this paper, computer-aided diagnosis was used to facilitate the prediction of characteristics of solitary pulmonary nodules in CT of lungs to diagnose early-stage lung cancer. Methods The synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) was used to account for raw data in order to balance the original training data set. Curvelet-transformation textural features, together with 3 patient demographic characteristics, and 9 morphological features were used to establish a support vector machine (SVM) prediction model. Longitudinal data as the test data set was used to evaluate the classification performance of predicting early-stage lung cancer. Results Using the SMOTE as a pre-processing procedure, the original training data was balanced with a ratio of malignant to benign cases of 1?1. Accuracy based on cross-evaluation for the original unbalanced data and balanced data was 80% and 97%, respectively. Based on Curvelet-transformation textural features and other features, the SVM prediction model had good classification performance for early-stage lung cancer, with an area under the curve of the SVMs of 0.949 (P<0.001). Textural feature (standard deviation) showed benign cases had a higher change in the follow-up period than malignant cases. Conclusions With textural features extracted from a Curvelet transformation and other parameters, a sensitive support vector machine prediction model can increase the rate of diagnosis for early-stage lung cancer. This scheme can be used as an auxiliary tool to differentiate between benign and malignant early-stage lung cancers in CT images. PMID:23691066

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Surface-Associated Growth of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    PubMed Central

    Gödeke, Julia; Binnenkade, Lucas; Thormann, Kai M.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation starts with single cells attaching to a surface, however, little is known about the initial attachment steps and the adaptation to the surface-associated life style. Here, we describe a hydrodynamic system that allows easy harvest of cells at very early biofilm stages. Using the metal ion-reducing gammaproteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a model organism, we analyzed the transcriptional changes occurring during surface-associated growth between 15 and 60 minutes after attachment. 230 genes were significantly upregulated and 333 were downregulated by a factor of ?2. Main functional categories of the corresponding gene products comprise metabolism, uptake and transport, regulation, and hypothetical proteins. Among the genes highly upregulated those implicated in iron uptake are highly overrepresented, strongly indicating that S. oneidensis MR-1 has a high demand for iron during surface attachment and initial biofilm stages. Subsequent microscopic analysis of biofilm formation under hydrodynamic conditions revealed that addition of Fe(II) significantly stimulated biofilm formation of S. oneidensis MR-1 while planktonic growth was not affected. Our approach to harvest cells for transcriptional analysis of early biofilm stages is expected to be easily adapted to other bacterial species. PMID:22860070

  20. Effects of temperature on embryonic and early larval growth and development in the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa).

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoffrey D; Hopkins, Gareth R; Mohammadi, Shabnam; M Skinner, Heather; Hansen, Tyler; Brodie, Edmund D; French, Susannah S

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of temperature on the growth and development of embryonic and early larval stages of a western North American amphibian, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). We assigned newt eggs to different temperatures (7, 14, or 21°C); after hatching, we re-assigned the newt larvae into the three different temperatures. Over the course of three to four weeks, we measured total length and developmental stage of the larvae. Our results indicated a strong positive relationship over time between temperature and both length and developmental stage. Importantly, individuals assigned to cooler embryonic temperatures did not achieve the larval sizes of individuals from the warmer embryonic treatments, regardless of larval temperature. Our investigation of growth and development at different temperatures demonstrates carry-over effects and provides a more comprehensive understanding of how organisms respond to temperature changes during early development. PMID:25965021

  1. Response of Peanuts to Irrigation Management at Different Crop Growth Stages 

    E-print Network

    Howell, T. A.; McFarland, M. J.; Reddell, D. L.; Brown, K. W.; Newton, R. J.; Dahmen, P.

    1980-01-01

    Past irrigation research on peanuts has shown that when the plant is exposed to soil moisture stress at different crop growth stages, different responses seem to exist between the Spanish and the Florunner peanut varieties. The Spanish peanuts...

  2. Influence of Plant Growth Stage and Environmental Factors on the Response of Honey Mesquite to Herbicides.

    E-print Network

    Meyer, R. E.; Bovey, R. W.; McKelvy, W. T.; Riley, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    their leaflets from the rachises before either dying on the plant or abscising. Influence of Plant Growth Stage and Environmental Factors on the RESPONSE of HONEY MESQUITE to HERBICIDES ONEY MESQUITE [Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. var. glandulosa (Tom...

  3. Response of Peanuts to Irrigation Management at Different Crop Growth Stages

    E-print Network

    Howell, T. A.; McFarland, M. J.; Reddell, D. L.; Brown, K. W.; Newton, R. J.; Dahmen, P.

    for peanuts at different crop growth stages for the Spanish and the Florunner varieties. The yield of the two varieties was evaluated under seven different irrigation treatments including a "no stress" check treatment and a dryland treatment. Each treatment...

  4. Young female incest victims in treatment: Stages of growth seen with a group art therapy model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis M. Carozza; Catherine L. Heirsteiner

    1982-01-01

    This article describes a treatment model for female child incest victims combining art and group therapy. Five stages of growth are identified: gathering, self-disclosure, regression, reconstruction, and ending.

  5. Phosphorus uptake rates of cotton roots at different growth stages from different soil layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Nayakekorala; H. M. Taylor

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine P uptake at different growth stages by cotton plants from upper and lower\\u000a 30 cm layers of 60 cm deep uniform soil columns. A radioisotope tracer technique was used to separate uptake from the two\\u000a soil layers. Root lengths were measured in both layers at each growth stage. P fluxes were calculated for

  6. [Assay of trace elements and heavy metals in different growth stages of Ganoderma lucidum].

    PubMed

    Xing, Z; Zhou, C; Zhang, J; Tang, Q; Pan, Y

    2001-07-01

    The trace elements and heavy metals in the different growth stages of Ganoderma lucidum were analyzed by ICP-MS, AFS and AAS. The fermented mycelia, fruiting bodies and spore contained all kinds of detected trace elements and heavy metals, the contents of which were higher in spore. The content of Se was same in different growth stages. Ganoderma lucidum had the ability of bio-enrichment of Ge. PMID:11668733

  7. Effects of a homologous series of linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactants on fathead minnow early life stages.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, R E; Wong, D C; Dorn, P B; Rodgers, J H

    1999-11-01

    Effects of a homologous series of three primarily linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactants were studied in laboratory flow-through 28-day early-life-stage tests with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque). Surfactants were a C(9-11), C(12-13), and C(14-15) with an average of 6, 6.5, and 7 ethylene oxide units per mole of alcohol, respectively. Average measured surfactant recoveries were 103%, 81%, and 79% of nominal concentrations for the C(9-11) EO 6, C(12-13) EO 6.5, and C(14-15) EO 7 studies, respectively. Embryo survival at 48 h was not adversely affected at any of the concentrations tested. Impaired hatching and deformed fry were observed only in the C(12-13) EO 6.5 study. The 28-day LC50 values were 4.87, 2.39, and 1.02 mg/L for the C(9-11) EO 6, C(12-13) EO 6.5, and C(14-15) EO 7 surfactants, respectively. The corresponding NOECs for survival were 1.01, 1.76, and 0.74 mg/L. Posthatch fry growth was more sensitive than survival for the C(12-13) EO 6.5 and C(14-15) EO 7 surfactants. Survival of posthatch fry decreased with increasing surfactant alkyl chain length. Twenty-eight-day laboratory data were compared to 96-h laboratory, 10-day laboratory and 30-day stream mesocosm data for fathead minnow previously determined for these surfactants. Survival endpoints from the different exposures were comparable and only varied within a factor of two. Similarity of results suggests that it is possible to effectively use 96-h, 10-day, or 28-day laboratory data to predict environmental effects concentrations of these surfactants for fish. http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n4p536.html

  8. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin activity at the early growing stage in foals.

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, M; Asano, M; Tagami, M; Tsukiyama, K; Fujinaga, T

    1998-01-01

    Serum concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P), as well as antigenic ceruloplasmin (Cp) and oxidase activity as a functional index for copper metabolism, were measured in 10 foals (5 males and 5 females) and their dams. Samples were harvested from the foals within 1 wk after birth and monthly from 1 to 17 mo of age. Samples were collected from their dams in the perinatal period (monthly from 2 mo before delivery to 5 mo postpartum). Serum oxidase activity, antigenic Cp and Cu in foals were extremely low at 1 wk. Serum Cp had the lowest value of 17.0 +/- 8.0 (mean +/- SD) mg/dL within the 1st wk, then increased rapidly up to 43.7 +/- 5.8 mg/dL at 1 mo, and maintained this level until the 17th mo. Serum Zn in foals had the highest value of 73.2 +/- 13.1 micrograms/dL within 1 wk, then decreased to 38.3 +/- 5.9 micrograms/dL by 17 mo. Serum Mn, Ca and P in mares were almost stable and within established reference ranges for our laboratory in the perinatal period, and these values in foals were also in the normal range. Even on appropriate feeding, serum Cu, Cp and oxidase activity were quite low a few weeks after birth, while a higher proportion of Cp-binding copper was found in the foals. This might be caused by the limited synthesis of ceruloplasmin in this period. These data suggest that newborn foals are in a critical situation of marginal copper status in the early stage of growth. PMID:9553711

  9. Characterization of early stage cartilage degradation using diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. P.; Jayadev, C.; Glyn-Jones, S.; Carr, A. J.; Murray, D. W.; Price, A. J.; Gill, H. S.

    2011-04-01

    Interest in localized and early stage treatment technologies for joint conditions such as osteoarthritis is growing rapidly. It has therefore become important to develop objective measures capable of characterizing the earliest (non-visible) changes associated with degeneration to aid treatment procedures. In addition to assessing tissue before treatment, it is further important to develop an effective, non-destructive means of monitoring post-treatment tissue healing, and of providing the high-quality data needed for trials of developing treatment methods. To investigate its ability to detect the early stages of degeneration in cartilage-on-bone, diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy was applied to normal and osteoarthritic joints. A discriminating function was developed to relate absorbance peaks of interest and track degradation around focal osteoarthritic defects. The function could distinguish between normal and degraded tissue (100% separation of normal tissue from that within 25 mm of a defect) and between different stages of osteoarthritic progression (p < 0.05). This technique allows simple, practical and non-destructive assessment of component-level properties over the full depth of the tissue. It has the potential to increase our understanding of the underlying etiologic and pathogenic processes in early stage degeneration, to assist classification and the development of new treatment methods.

  10. Bridging the gap: facilities and technologies for development of early stage therapeutic mAb candidates.

    PubMed

    Munro, Trent P; Mahler, Stephen M; Huang, Edwin P; Chin, David Y; Gray, Peter P

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently dominate the biologics marketplace. Development of a new therapeutic mAb candidate is a complex, multistep process and early stages of development typically begin in an academic research environment. Recently, a number of facilities and initiatives have been launched to aid researchers along this difficult path and facilitate progression of the next mAb blockbuster. Complementing this, there has been a renewed interest from the pharmaceutical industry to reconnect with academia in order to boost dwindling pipelines and encourage innovation. In this review, we examine the steps required to take a therapeutic mAb from discovery through early stage preclinical development and toward becoming a feasible clinical candidate. Discussion of the technologies used for mAb discovery, production in mammalian cells and innovations in single-use bioprocessing is included. We also examine regulatory requirements for product quality and characterization that should be considered at the earliest stages of mAb development. We provide details on the facilities available to help researchers and small-biotech build value into early stage product development, and include examples from within our own facility of how technologies are utilized and an analysis of our client base. PMID:21822050

  11. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  12. The Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine in Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hui-Seung; Han, Kyung-Hoon; Shin, Jeoung-A; Park, Joo-Hyun; Song, Kwan-Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to elucidate neuroprotective effect of carnosine in early stage of stroke. Methods Early stage of rodent stroke model and neuroblastoma chemical hypoxia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and antimycin A. Neuroprotective effect of carnosine was investigated with 100, 250, and 500 mg of carnosine treatment. And antioxidant expression was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in brain and blood. Results Intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg carnosine induced significant decrease of infarct volume and expansion of penumbra (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant increase than in saline group in blood and brain (p<0.05). In the analysis of chemical hypoxia, carnosine induced increase of neuronal cell viability and decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Conclusion Carnosine has neuroprotective property which was related to antioxidant capacity in early stage of stroke. And, the oxidative stress should be considered one of major factor in early ischemic stroke. PMID:24851146

  13. Selecting optimal eggs and embryonic developmental stages of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for early life-stage toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Marentette, Julie R; Chiorean, Sorina; Lavalle, Christine; Sullivan, Cheryl; Parrott, Joanne L

    2014-02-01

    Aquaculture research has indicated that fish embryo hatching success and larval survival can sometimes be predicted by embryo characteristics, such as blastomere cleavage patterns. An analogous strategy of individual assessment of spawned eggs could also be used to improve the quality of toxicity tests using early life-stages of fish where control-group survival determines experimental validity. Here we explored whether a simple method of assessing fathead minnow eggs and embryos for abnormalities could predict hatch success, and larval size at hatch, as indicators of embryo larval quality. Embryos were classified according to both their developmental stage and the presence of any abnormalities: uneven blastomere cleavage, atypical embryo size or shape, and the presence of inclusions in the yolk. Clutch size and fertilization rate did not predict embryo larval quality. Fewer abnormalities in embryos with ?32 cells correlated with longer larvae at hatch. Normal embryos were more likely to hatch successfully than abnormal embryos of the same clutch, but because abnormality rates were generally low, much of the variation in hatch success could not be attributed to visible embryo malformations. Blastomere symmetry may be a useful selection criterion in embryos <3 h postfertilization. Where toxicant exposures early in embryonic development are not required or possible, hatch success could be increased by using older embryos that have survived gastrulation. Purposeful selection of embryos with at least two blastomeres, blastomere symmetry, and few inclusions can improve control survival and improve the quality of any generated (sub)lethality data. In our laboratory, application of the egg-selection criteria significantly improved control group hatch success increasing it from a mean of 84.4 to 94.2%. PMID:24346244

  14. Reproductive Meristem22 is a unique marker for the early stages of stamen development.

    PubMed

    Romanel, Elisson; Das, Pradeep; Amasino, Richard M; Traas, Jan; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2011-01-01

    Stamens undergo a very elaborate development program that gives rise not only to many specific tissue types, but also to the male gametes. The specification of stamen identity is coordinated by a group of homeotic genes such as APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI), AGAMOUS (AG) and SEPALLATA (SEP1-4) genes. Genome-wide transcriptomic comparisons between floral buds of wild-type and ap3 mutants led to the identification of the REM22 gene, which is expressed in the early stages of stamen development. This gene is member of the plant-specific B3 DNA-binding superfamily. In this work, we dissect the spatio-temporal expression pattern of REM22 during the early stages of stamen development. To this end, both in situ hybridization analyses as well as in vivo fluorescence strategies were employed. At stage 4 of flower development, REM22 is expressed exclusively in those undifferentiated cells of the floral meristem that will give rise to the stamen primordia. At stage 5, REM22 expression is restricted to the epidermal and the subepidermal layers of anther primordia. Later, this expression is confined to the middle layer and the differentiating tapetal cells. After stage 10 when all the tissues of the anther have differentiated, REM22 expression is no longer detectable. Furthermore, we examined the pREM22::GUS-GFP marker line in an inducible system where the ectopic AG function is used to promote microsporogenesis. The data support the idea that REM22 expression is a useful marker to study the early stages of stamen development. PMID:21948714

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRANIAL AND MANDIBULAR GROWTH AND THE STAGES OF MATURATION OF THE CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

    PubMed Central

    Damian, Melissa Feres; Cechinato, Fernando; Molina, Rafael Dagnese; Woitchunas, Fábio Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Quantification of the expectation of craniofacial growth during the pubertal growth spurt (PGS) is helpful in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Thus, this study investigated whether the stages of the vertebral maturation index (VMI) would be valid for estimating cranial and mandibular growth during the initial stages of PGS, testing the null hypothesis that these structures do not demonstrate differential growth dependent on the maturation stage. A study population of 45 patients of both genders with 2 lateral cephalometric radiographs, taken at a 12-month interval, was selected from files. All patients should not have been previously submitted to orthodontic treatment and should be before or during the peak stage of PGS. The S-N and Co-Gn cephalometric measurements were traced on both radiographs of each patient, by computed cephalometric tracings, for evaluation of skull and mandible, respectively. The growth of these structures was established by the difference between the measurements obtained on both tracings. The VMI stage was also estimated on the radiographs, determining the position of patients on the PGS curve at two periods, baseline and after 12 months. Cephalometric tracings and VMI estimates were performed by two calibrated examiners. Descriptive statistics revealed that both cephalometric measurements increased during the study period, especially Co-Gn, which demonstrated (ANOVA and Tukey's test; 5% significance level), a statistically significant peak of development (p = 0.001), when the patient was in the VMI stage representing the PGS peak. It was concluded that the VMI stages were valid for the analysis of cranial growth and especially of mandibular growth at the initial stages of PGS, thus rejecting the null hypothesis. PMID:19089113

  16. TOXICITY OF 3,4-DICHLOROANILINE TO FATHEAD MINNOWS, 'PIMEPHALES PROMELAS', IN ACUTE AND EARLY LIFE-STAGE EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 3,4-dichloroaniline in three acute exposures and two early life-stage exposures. Mean LC50's were 10.8, 9.37, and 7.58 mg/l at 24, 48, and 96 hr, respectively. In the first early life-stage test, control fish were smaller than...

  17. The Second 'Equity Gap': Exit Problems for Seed and Early Stage Venture Capitalists and Their Investee Companies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Murray

    1994-01-01

    DR. GORDON MURRAY IS WITH THE WARWICK Business School, University of Warwick, England. The availability of venture capital funds for early stage investment (such as seed capital and start-up equity finance) remains limited in the United Kingdom. This paper investigates one element of the relationship between early stage venture capital investors and their larger, development capital counterparts. It is hypothesised

  18. The mobilization of defence mechanisms in the early stages of pea seed germination against Ascochyta pisi.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Marczak, Lukasz; Stobiecki, Maciej; Bednarski, Waldemar

    2013-02-01

    Ascochyta pisi is a necrotrophic pathogenic fungus, which mainly survives between seasons through infected seeds. Defence responses of pea embryo axes to A. pisi were investigated in the heterotrophic phase of seed germination and during the transition from the heterotrophic to the autotrophic phase. Germinated pea seeds, both non-inoculated and inoculated with A. pisi, were cultured in perlite for 96 h. Polarographic studies performed on intact embryo axes of germinating pea seeds infected with A. pisi showed a high respiratory intensity in time from 48 to 96 h after inoculation. Forty-eight-hour embryo axes of germinating pea seeds exhibited the highest respiration rate, which in infected axes was maintained at the following time points after inoculation. Moreover, at 72 and 96 h after inoculation, respiratory intensity was by 64% and 73% higher than in the control. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis revealed a higher concentration of semiquinone free radicals with g values of g (||) = 2.0031 ± 0.0004 and g (?) = 2.0048 ± 0.0004 in infected axes than in the control. Generation of superoxide anion radical was also higher in infected axes than in the control but stronger at 72 and 96 h after inoculation. Starting from 72 h after infection, the level of Mn(2+) ions in infected axes decreased in relation to the control. At the same time, the highest activity of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) was observed in 72-h infected axes. In turn, the activity of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) up to 72 h after infection was lower than in the control. In 48-h infected embryo axes, a very high level of pterocarpan pisatin was observed. Infection of germinating pea seeds with A. pisi restricted mainly the growth of the epicotyl, but did not inhibit the increase in length and fresh weight of root embryo axes versus cultivation time. These results indicate that in pea during the stages of seed germination and early seedling growth, protective mechanisms are induced in embryo axes against A. pisi. PMID:22274650

  19. Notch and Delta mRNAs in early-stage and mid-stage Drosophila embryos exhibit complementary patterns of protein producing potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Andrew; Wesley, Uma; Wesley, Cedric

    2010-01-01

    Notch and Delta proteins generate Notch signaling that specifies cell fates during animal development. There is an intriguing phenomenon in Drosophila embryogenesis that has not received much attention and whose significance to embryogenesis is unknown. Notch and Delta mRNAs expressed in early-stage embryos are shorter than their counterparts in mid-stage embryos. We show here that the difference in sizes is due to mRNA 3? processing at alternate polyadenylation sites. While the early-stage Notch mRNA has a lower protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Notch mRNA, the early-stage Delta mRNA has a higher protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Delta mRNA. Our data can explain the complementary patterns of Notch and Delta protein levels in early-stage and mid-stage embryos. Our data also raise the possibility that the manner and regulation of Notch signaling change in the course of embryogenesis and that this change is effected by 3? UTR and mRNA 3? processing factors. PMID:20201103

  20. THE STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF LELY SEEDS DURING THE INITIAL STAGES OF SiC SUBLIMATION GROWTH

    E-print Network

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    THE STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF LELY SEEDS DURING THE INITIAL STAGES OF SiC SUBLIMATION GROWTH V. D Science and Engineering Pittsburgh PA 15213, USA ABSTRACT The as-grown surfaces of 6H SiC seed crystals. The surfaces were then used to seed the sublimation growth of SiC at 2300'C, in 650 torr of Ar, with a gradient

  1. Mitochondrial response to oxidative and nitrosative stress in early stages of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Noriega-Cisneros, Ruth; Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Manzo-Avalos, Salvador; Clemente-Guerrero, Mónica; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Boldogh, Istvan; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2013-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; consequently, an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in antioxidants resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. Using a rat model of DM induced by streptozotocin, we show the opposite: an increase in NO levels, S-nitrosylation, aconitase activity, and total glutathione and a decrease in lipid peroxidation at early stages of diabetes. These data imply that the decrease in lipid peroxidation is a vital early response to hyperglycemia to prevent escalation of ROS generation in mitochondria. These results also suggest a need for novel therapeutic targets to prevent the neurological consequences of diabetes. PMID:23751425

  2. [Early gastric cancer staging by radiology, endoscopy, trans-endoscopic ultrasonography and its anatomo-pathological correlation].

    PubMed

    Bracho Mosquera, V E; Yanai, H; Tada, M; Hatano, S; Okita, K

    1994-01-01

    Early gastric cancer detection is still in its more elementary step in the western hemisphere, while in Japan gastric cancer is detected mainly in its early stage. The aim of this article is to analyze the Japanese method for early gastric cancer detection and staging, by sketch of certain morphologic criterions and a report of a typical case. In our case the lesion's staging was predicted as submucosal by means of endoscopy and double contrast roentgenography. Endoscopic ultrasonography complemented the analysis. The standard anatomopathological work up for early gastric cancer in Japan is also analysed. By this former method the accuracy of the initial staging by endoscopy, and radiologic means was ensured. By a correct early gastric cancer diagnosis and staging a better selection of the surgical strategy and survival can be achieved. PMID:7774792

  3. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Koyama; Chiho Nakamura; Kozo Nakamura

    Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants\\u000a of buckwheat grown up to 10–15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the\\u000a most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated\\u000a by hydroponic culture.

  4. Mechanical properties of the porcine growth plate vary with developmental stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roxanne Wosu; Kim Sergerie; Martin Lévesque; Isabelle Villemure

    The objectives of this study were to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of the growth plate at four different stages\\u000a of growth and to compare two different methods of extracting these properties. Porcine distal ulnar growth plate samples were\\u000a obtained from newborn, 4-, 8-, and 18-week (W) pigs and were tested using stress relaxation tests under unconfined compression.\\u000a A four-parameter

  5. Turning visual shapes into sounds: early stages of reading acquisition revealed in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Bertolotti, M; Vidal, J R; de Palma, L; Hamamé, C M; Ossandon, T; Kahane, P; Minotti, L; Bertrand, O; Lachaux, J-P

    2014-04-15

    The exact role of the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) during the initial stages of reading acquisition is a hotly debated issue, especially regarding the comparative effect of learning on early stimulus-dependent vs. later task-dependent processes. We show that this controversy can be solved with high-temporal resolution intracerebral EEG recordings of the VOTC. We measured High-Frequency Activity (50-150 Hz) as a proxy of population-level spiking activity while participants learned Japanese Katakana symbols, and found that learning primarily affects top-down/task-dependent neural processing, after a few minutes only. In contrast, adaptation of early bottom-up/stimulus-dependent processing takes several days to adapt and provides the basis for fluent reading. Such evidence that two consecutive stages of neural processing, stimulus- and task-dependent are differentially affected by learning, can reconcile seemingly opposite hypotheses on the role of the VOTC during reading acquisition. PMID:24370818

  6. Limited-Field Radiation Therapy in the Management of Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. Vicini; Larry Kestin; Peter Chen; Pamela Benitez; Neal S. Goldstein; Alvaro Martinez

    2003-01-01

    Background: Several phase III trials have demonstrated equivalent long-term survival between breast conserving surgery plus radiation therapy and mastectomy in patients with early-stage breast cancer but have not provided infor- mation on the optimal volume of breast tissue requiring post-lumpectomy radiation therapy. Therefore, we exam- ined the 5-year results of a single institution's experience with radiation therapy limited to the

  7. Medical comorbidities predict mortality in women with a history of early stage breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth E. Patterson; Shirley W. Flatt; Nazmus Saquib; Cheryl L. Rock; Bette J. Caan; Barbara A. Parker; Gail A. Laughlin; Kirsten Erickson; Cynthia A. Thomson; Wayne A. Bardwell; Richard A. Hajek; John P. Pierce

    2010-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to determine whether comorbid medical conditions predict additional breast cancer events and all-cause\\u000a mortality in women with a history of early stage breast cancer. Women (n = 2,542) participating in a randomized diet trial completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding whether they were\\u000a currently being treated for a wide variety of diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, gallbladder, gastrointestinal, arthritis,\\u000a and osteoporosis)

  8. Early stages of secondary succession on abandoned cropland in north-east Borneo Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Ohtsuka

    1999-01-01

    A study on community structure and floristic change in the early stages of the tropical old-field succession in an intensive shifting cultivation area, Sabah, north-east Borneo Island, was conducted in March and September 1997. Dense therophytic communities were established soon after abandonment, and rapidly changed: namely, from Galinsoga parviflora (in approximately 1–2 months) to Crassocephalum crepidioides (in approximately 3–5 months)

  9. Staging and treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer. How small is an early pancreatic cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsukasa Tsunoda; Yasuhisa Yamamoto; Masatoshi Kimoto; Hiroyuki Imai; Sueharu Iwamoto; Seiji Kawasaki; Kunihiro Kawashima; Yoshiyuki Tadaoka; Toshimitsu Majima; Eishi Onuma; Katsumichi Iki; Tadahiko Kubozoe; Toshifumi Eto

    1998-01-01

    :   To determine the tumor size that constitutes early pancreatic cancer, we reviewed and analyzed the English-language and Japanese\\u000a literature (a total of 25 publications) on small pancreatic cancers less than 2 cm in diameter and\\/or stage 1 cancers. Reports\\u000a on in situ carcinoma and intraductal carcinoma of the pancreas were also evaluated. The results were: (1) A total of

  10. Responses of early life history stages of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis to chlorination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas P. Middaugh; John A. Couch; Allan M. Crane

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of total residual chlorination (TRC) to early life stages of the striped bass,Morone saxatilis, was determined using percent embryo hatchability, incipient LC50 bioassays, histopathology, and avoidance responses.\\u000a \\u000a Beginning 8 to 9 hours after fertilization, developing embryos were exposed continuously to TRC in flowing water at 1.0–3.0\\u000a ppt salinity and 18±1C. Fifty-six percent of the control group (no TRC

  11. Pregnancies after radical vaginal trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Roy; Marie Plante

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of fertility-preserving surgery in the treatment of early-stage cervical cancer. Study Design: We retrospectively reviewed our first 30 patients treated by laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy, followed by radical vaginal trachelectomy, from October 1991 to April 1998. Results: The median age of the patients was 32 years (range 22-42 years); 15

  12. Evidence supporting nutritional interventions for persons in early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    PubMed

    Burgener, S C; Buettner, L; Coen Buckwalter, K; Beattie, E; Bossen, A L; Fick, D M; Fitzsimmons, S; Kolanowski, A; Richeson, N E; Rose, K; Schreiner, A; Pringle Specht, J K; Testad, I; Yu, F; McKenzie, S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to grade research evidence supporting nutritional interventions for persons with early stage dementias and to report the recommendations of a consensus panel. Thirty four studies were reviewed in the areas of dietary restriction, antioxidants, and Mediterranean diet with strong support from epidemiological studies found in all three areas. The body of evidence to support nutritional interventions in the prevention and treatment of AD is growing and has potential as a treatment modality following translational studies. PMID:18165840

  13. Comparison of Favorable Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatments: A Single-Institution Review

    SciTech Connect

    Samant, Rajiv, E-mail: rsamant@ottawahospital.on.c [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Alomary, Ibraheem [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Alsaeed, Eyad [King Faisal Specialty Hospital, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-jasir, Badr [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cross, Peter; Genest, Paul [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Huebsch, Lothar [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained. Results: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL (49% men, 51% women, median age 33 [range 17-82] years). Treatment was as follows: extended-field radiotherapy alone (EFRT) 49%; chemotherapy alone (CTA) 13%; and CMT 38%. Among CMT patients, 36% received abbreviated doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy (three to four cycles) followed by involved-field radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 8.3 years, the estimated 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for the entire cohort were 78% and 85%, respectively. The 10-year RFS and OS rates for the various groups were as follows: 69% and 81% for EFRT; 78% and 84% for CTA; and 87% and 89% for CMT. The 10-year RFS rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) among CMT patients. The use of EFRT has diminished from approximately 90% in the 1980s to virtually no use at present, whereas the use of CTA and CMT has increased significantly (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Early-stage HL treatment has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, and our results support the superiority and continued use of CMT, specifically abbreviated-course chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy, as an appropriate treatment approach.

  14. New methodology for early-stage, microarchitecture-level power-performance analysis of microprocessors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Brooks; Pradip Bose; Viji Srinivasan; Michael Gschwind; Philip G. Emma; Michael G. Rosenfield

    2003-01-01

    The PowerTimer toolset has been developed for use in early-stage, microarchitecture-level power-performance analysis of microprocessors. The key component of the toolset is a parameterized set of energy functions that can be used in conjunction with any given cycle-accurate microarchitectural simulator. The energy functions model the power consumption of primitive and hierarchically composed building blocks which are used in microarchitecture-level performance

  15. The SNARE Ykt6 is released from yeast vacuoles during an early stage of fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars E. P. Dietrich; Karolina Peplowska; Tracy J. LaGrassa; Haitong Hou; Jan Rohde; Christian Ungermann

    2005-01-01

    The farnesylated SNARE (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) Ykt6 mediates protein palmitoylation at the yeast vacuole by means of its amino-terminal longin domain. Ykt6 is localized equally to membranes and the cytosol, although it is unclear how this distribution is mediated. We now show that Ykt6 is released efficiently from vacuoles during an early stage of yeast vacuole fusion. This

  16. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P Flavin; Suzanne M Dostaler; Kelly Simpson; Robert J Brison; William Pickett

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6). There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences

  17. RNA and RNA Binding Proteins Participate in Early Stages of Cell Spreading through Spreading Initiation Centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen L. de Hoog; Leonard J. Foster; Matthias Mann

    2004-01-01

    Focal adhesions are specialized attachment and signaling centers that form at sites of cell-matrix contacts. We employed a quantitative mass spectrometry-based method called SILAC to identify and quantify proteins interacting in an attachment-dependent manner with focal adhesion proteins. Subsequent confocal microscopy revealed a previously undescribed structure, which we have termed a spreading initiation center (SIC), existing only in early stages

  18. Investigation of non-linear properties of multichannel EEG in the early stages of Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Pezard; Robert Jech; Evžen R?ži?ka

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: Modifications of brain activity in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) are difficult to detect using electroencephalography (EEG) signals and are often biased by l-DOPA treatment. We compare here the performances of both linear and non-linear methods in differentiating EEG of l-DOPA naive PD patients from that of control subjects.Methods: Resting multichannel EEG (20 electrodes, 30 s epochs)

  19. Characterisation of early precipitation stages in 6xxx series aluminium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Håkon S. Hasting; John Walmsley; Calin D. Marioara; ATJ van Helvoort; Randi Holmestad; Frederic Danoix; Williams Lefebvre

    2006-01-01

    Advanced microscopy techniques such as high angular annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy are being explored to study early precipitation stages of 6XXX-series aluminium alloys. Observations are combined with those from 3 dimensional atom probe studies of the same materials. GP-zones are imaged by annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and plasmon

  20. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Negri; Claudia Vollhardt; Craig Humphrey; Andrew Heyward; Ross Jones; Geoff Eaglesham; Katharina Fabricius

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000?gl?1. Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300?gl?1 diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with early stages of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi Chaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Salehi, Bahman; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neurological disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to compare it with healthy children. Methods: Seventy five 5-16-year-old children with early stages of CKD (stage 1, 2 and 3) and 75 healthy children without CKD were included in this case – control study as case and control groups, respectively. The participants were selected from those children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak (Iran) in the form of simple probability and based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed using Conner's Parent Rating Scale – 48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV criteria and was confirmed by a psychologist consultant. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS18. Results: ADHD inattentive type was observed in 8 cases (10.6%) with CKD and 2 controls (2.6%) (p= 0.109). Moreover, in the case and control groups, 7 (9.3%) and 6 (8%) children were affected by ADHD hyperactiveimpulsive type (p= 0.997), and 9 (12%) and 12 (16%) children were affected by ADHD mixed type (p= 0.664), respectively. Conclusion: No differences were found between the prevalence of ADHD in the children with early stages of CKD and the control group. However, due to the importance of the relationships between different types of psychiatric disorders and CKD and lack of enough evidence concerning the relationship between ADHD and different stages of CKD in children, conducting further studies in this field is recommended.

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Defines Critical Prognostic Genes of Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagasaki, Masao; Shimamura, Teppei; Imoto, Seiya; Saito, Ayumu; Ueno, Kazuko; Hatanaka, Yousuke; Yoshida, Ryo; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Masaharu; Beer, David G.; Yokota, Jun; Miyano, Satoru; Gotoh, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis who will benefit from adjuvant therapy. Patients and Methods Whole gene expression profiles were obtained at 19 time points over a 48-hour time course from human primary lung epithelial cells that were stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the presence or absence of a clinically used EGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-specific inhibitor, gefitinib. The data were subjected to a mathematical simulation using the State Space Model (SSM). “Gefitinib-sensitive” genes, the expressional dynamics of which were altered by addition of gefitinib, were identified. A risk scoring model was constructed to classify high- or low-risk patients based on expression signatures of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes in lung cancer using a training data set of 253 lung adenocarcinomas of North American cohort. The predictive ability of the risk scoring model was examined in independent cohorts of surgical specimens of lung cancer. Results The risk scoring model enabled the identification of high-risk stage IA and IB cases in another North American cohort for overall survival (OS) with a hazard ratio (HR) of 7.16 (P?=?0.029) and 3.26 (P?=?0.0072), respectively. It also enabled the identification of high-risk stage I cases without bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC) histology in a Japanese cohort for OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) with HRs of 8.79 (P?=?0.001) and 3.72 (P?=?0.0049), respectively. Conclusion The set of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes includes many genes known to be involved in biological aspects of cancer phenotypes, but not known to be involved in EGF signaling. The present result strongly re-emphasizes that EGF signaling status in cancer cells underlies an aggressive phenotype of cancer cells, which is useful for the selection of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis. Trial Registration The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) GSE31210 PMID:23028479

  3. Risk of Fatal Cerebrovascular Accidents after External Beam Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Glottic Larynx Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Lin, Alexander; Ahn, Peter; Wan, Fei; O’Malley, Bert; Weinstein, Gregory S.; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compared the risk of fatal cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials Using a competing risks survival analysis, we compared the risk of death due to CVA among patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or EBRT in the SEER database. Results The cumulative incidence of fatal CVA at 15 years was higher in patients receiving EBRT (2.8 %; 95% CI 2.3%–3.4%) compared to surgery (1.5 %; 95% CI 0.8 %–2.3%, p= 0.024). In multivariable competing risks regression models, EBRT remained associated with an increased risk of fatal CVA compared to surgery (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% CI 1.04–2.96, p= 0.037). Conclusion Treatment of early stage glottic larynx cancer with EBRT was associated with a small increase in the risk of late fatal CVA events relative to surgery. PMID:23595858

  4. Recurrence of Early Stage Colon Cancer Predicted by Expression Pattern of Circulating microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Shivapurkar, Narayan; Weiner, Louis M.; Marshall, John L.; Madhavan, Subha; Deslattes Mays, Anne; Juhl, Hartmut; Wellstein, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Systemic treatment of patients with early-stage cancers attempts to eradicate occult metastatic disease to prevent recurrence and increased morbidity. However, prediction of recurrence from an analysis of the primary tumor is limited because disseminated cancer cells only represent a small subset of the primary lesion. Here we analyze the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRs) in serum obtained pre-surgically from patients with early stage colorectal cancers. Groups of five patients with and without disease recurrence were used to identify an informative panel of circulating miRs using quantitative PCR of genome-wide miR expression as well as a set of published candidate miRs. A panel of six informative miRs (miR-15a, mir-103, miR-148a, miR-320a, miR-451, miR-596) was derived from this analysis and evaluated in a separate validation set of thirty patients. Hierarchical clustering of the expression levels of these six circulating miRs and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the risk of disease recurrence of early stage colon cancer can be predicted by this panel of miRs that are measurable in the circulation at the time of diagnosis (P?=?0.0026; Hazard Ratio 5.4; 95% CI of 1.9 to 15). PMID:24400111

  5. Nonlinear optical microscopy of early stage (ICRS Grade-I) osteoarthritic human cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Grønhaug, Kirsten M.; Davies, Catharina L.; Drogset, Jon O.; Lilledahl, Magnus B.

    2015-01-01

    In a synovial joint, the articular cartilage is directly affected during the progression of Osteoarthritis (OA). The characterization of early stage modification in extra-cellular matrix of cartilage is essential for detection as well as understanding the progression of disease. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the potential and capability of nonlinear optical microscopy for the morphological investigation of early stage osteoarthritic cartilage. ICRS Grade-I cartilage sections were obtained from the femoral condyle of the human knee. The surface of articular cartilage was imaged by second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy. Novel morphological features like microsplits and wrinkles were observed, which would otherwise not be visible in other clinical imaging modalities (e.g., CT, MRI, ultrasound and arthroscope. The presence of superficial layer with distinct collagen fibrils parallel to the articular surface in 4 specimens out of 14 specimens, indicates that different phases of OA within ICRS Grade-I can be detected by SHG microscopy. All together, the observed novel morphologies in early stage osteoarthritic cartilage indicates that SHG microscopy might be a significant tool for the assessment of cartilage disorder. PMID:26137389

  6. Predictors of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Jones, Katherine; Cabanban, Romeo; Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify mild cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) prior to extensive neurodegeneration and to evaluate the extent to which dopamine depletion and other disease-related predictors can explain cognitive profiles. Methods Neuropsychological performances of 40 nondemented early-stage PD patients and 42 healthy controls were compared across on or off dopaminergic medications. Stepwise regression evaluated cognitive predictors of early-stage PD and disease-related predictors of PD cognition (levodopa dose, disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score, sleep, quality of life, and mood) across on and off states. Results Neuropsychological performance was lower in PD patients across cognitive domains with significant memory, naming, visuomotor, and complex attention/executive deficits, but with intact visuospatial, simple attention, and phonemic fluency functions. However, medication effects were absent except for simple attention. Regression analyses revealed age, working memory, and memory recall to be the best cognitive predictors of PD, while age, quality of life, disease duration, and anxiety predicted PD cognition in the off state. Conclusion Nondemented early-stage PD patients presented with extensive mild cognitive deficits including prominent memory impairment. The profile was inconsistent with expected isolated frontostriatal dysfunction previously attributed to dopamine depletion and this highlights the need to further characterize extranigral sources of mild cognitive impairment in PD. PMID:23741229

  7. Morphological and morphometric aspects of early life stages of piabanha Brycon gouldingi (Characidae).

    PubMed

    Faustino, F; Makino, L C; Neumann, E; Nakaghi, L S O

    2015-05-01

    Adult specimens of piabanha Brycon gouldingi were collected from Rio das Mortes (Mato Grosso, Brazil), adapted to captivity and induced to spawn at Buriti Fisheries (Nova Mutum, MT, Brazil). The early developmental stages of B. gouldingi were then characterized. Samples were collected at pre-determined times from oocyte extrusion to total yolk absorption. Oocyte diameter, total larval length (LT ) and yolk-sac volume were measured. The mean ± s.d. duration of embryo developmental of B. gouldingi was 13·90 ± 0·06 h at 26·40 ± 1·13° C. The mean ± s.d. oocyte diameter was 1·13 ± 0·06 mm with 54% of oocytes ranging from 1·11 to 1·20 mm. Seven stages characterized the early developmental phase of this species: zygote, cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, histogenesis-organogenesis and hatching, with unique features related to each stage. At hatching, the larvae measured 3·40 ± 0·07 mm, presented an elongated shape with yolk-sac volume of 0·46 ± 0·08 µl, non-pigmented eyes and exhibited swimming ability. When the yolk was completely absorbed at 55 h post-hatch, mean ± larval LT was 6·68 ± 0·65 mm, the eyes were highly pigmented and the teeth were visible. These are the first reported findings on the initial developmental stages of B. gouldingi and could be used to improve captive breeding management and conservation practices. PMID:25809317

  8. Prognostic importance of DNA ploidy and p53 in early stages of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Skirnisdóttir, I; Sorbe, B; Karlsson, M; Seidal, T

    2001-12-01

    Patients with early stages (FIGO stages IA-IIC) of ovarian cancer continue to experience tumor relapses and they succumb due to their disease after seemingly adequate adjuvant therapy. In a series of 113 patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy 4-6 weeks after primary surgery, the DNA content and p53 status of the tumors were studied and related to other known prognostic factors (age, FIGO stage, histopathologic type, and tumor grade). The DNA analyses were done by flow cytometry and p53 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. DNA analyses of 103 tumors could be made and the p53 status was determined in 106 cases. Univariate analyses showed that both p53-positivity and aneuploidy of the ovarian tumors were strongly associated with tumor grade. There was also a strong association between p53 expression of the tumors and DNA aneuploidy (DNA index >1.10 and S-phase fraction >11.5%). P53-positivity and tumor grade were the only significant factors for the risk of tumor recurrence. DNA and p53 status alone were not adequate predictive factors to identify clinically relevant subgroups of patients who would benefit from adjuvant postoperative therapy. Tumor grade remains the most important prognostic factor with regard to the risk of tumor recurrence and the cancer-specific survival rate in early stage ovarian carcinoma. Overexpression of p53 also increases the risk of tumor recurrence. PMID:11713603

  9. The role of surface chemistry and VCI`s in early stages of metal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, G.R.; Chandler, C. [Cortec Corp., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Despite massive efforts to control corrosion, it still has major affects on costs, quality, and performance. Unfortunately, corrosion protection is emphasized far too late in manufacturing. Corrosion control before or during earlier stages of manufacturing and processing is not considered. Yet many product failures are caused by contamination or poor corrosion control at stages well before final packaging. Modern surface analytical methods, ISS (Ion Scattering Spectroscopy) and SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy), can monitor surface corrosion and contamination to trace product failures at early stages of metal working. This includes detection of very thin layers of corrosion on components and within surface layers prior to final coating, lamination, shipping, or assembly. This information includes quantitative analysis of iron oxide on the surface of iron phosphates or other ``conversion`` layers such as Cr, Zn, and Fe phosphates. Application of Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors (VCI`s) at early stages in processing is accomplished using special cleaners and metal working fluids. Surface contamination in corrosion and adhesion problems is not well acknowledged. Methods and considerations for cleaning, investigating, and monitoring surface chemistry and effects of contaminants on corrosion are presented with qualitative and quantitative information about contaminants commonly encountered in processing metals. Effectiveness of cleaning operations and cleaners is discussed for environmentally safe water based cleaners. The terms ``surface`` and ``cleaning`` are presented for greater understanding of how to approach common industrial corrosion and cleaning problems.

  10. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    PubMed

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-01-01

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided.  PMID:25543723

  11. The Colorado River extensional corridor: An analog for the early stages of passive margin formation

    SciTech Connect

    Beratan, K.K. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)); Nelson, J.E. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States) Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Structural asymmetry of many passive continental margins has recently led to the concept that the initial stages of rifting (extension and thinning of continental crust) occur on large-scale, low-angle normal (detachment) faults. Similarities in geometry and evolution of passive margins and detachment-related basins in the Colorado River extensional corridor (CRec), California-Arizona, suggest that development of the CRec resembles early stages of passive margin formation. Two major sets of high-angle synrift faults have been described from the upper plates of passive margins - rotational normal faults and an orthogonal set of transfer faults. Transfer faults, oriented approximately parallel to extension direction, divide an extending terrane into structural blocks which are tilted by the rotational normal faults. Similarly, the generally rectilinear shapes of syn-detachment sedimentary basins or subbasins within the CRec suggest control by two orthogonal fault sets. One set, oriented perpendicular to tectonic transport direction, broke the region into half-graben. These faults, and thus the basins, terminated against faults oriented approximately parallel to tectonic transport direction. The CRec basins experienced a two-stage history, with an early stage of active extension, which brought mid-crustal rocks to near-surface positions, followed by an adjustment stage, during which topographic relief between the range cores and the basins increased. If this adjustment resulted from differential subsidence within the extended region rather than from uplift of range cores, then the two-part evolution resembles that of classic rifted margins: an initial active stage followed by subsidence.

  12. Identifying aspects at an early stage helps to achieve separation of crosscutting concerns in the initial system

    E-print Network

    Abstract Identifying aspects at an early stage helps to achieve separation of crosscutting concerns, having to perform costly refactorings. This paper describes the Early-AIM approach that utilises corpus to perform costly refactorings. An important step towards effectively supporting early aspects identification

  13. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  14. Mechanical properties of the porcine growth plate vary with developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Roxanne; Sergerie, Kim; Lévesque, Martin; Villemure, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of the growth plate at four different stages of growth and to compare two different methods of extracting these properties. Porcine distal ulnar growth plate samples were obtained from newborn, 4-, 8-, and 18-week (W) pigs and were tested using stress relaxation tests under unconfined compression. A four-parameter curve fitting procedure was developed to extract mechanical properties using the Transversely Isotropic Biphasic Elastic model(TIBPE) (Cohen et al. in J Biomech Eng Trans Asme 120(4):491-496, 1998) and the Differential Evolution (DE) optimization algorithm (Price et al. Natural computing series, Springer, Germany 2005). Optimization was done on all experimental curves for the first method and on one average experimental curve per developmental stage in the second. The 4-week stage was studied in two subgroups (a) and (b) due to distinct differences in mechanical properties. Intrinsic mechanical properties of the growth plate varied nonlinearly with developmental stage. Both methods showed that transverse and out-of-plane Young's moduli (E (1), E (3)) decrease with developmental stage, whereas transverse permeability (k (1)) increases. The exception is a sharp increase in stiffness and reduction in permeability at the 4W(a) stage, which may be associated with rapid porcine developmental changes at the 3-4 week period. The second method provides a more reliable representation of the average mechanical behavior, whereas the first method allows statistical comparison of optimized mechanical properties. This study characterizes, for the first time, the variation in growth plate mechanical properties for the same animal (porcine) and bone (ulna) model with developmental stage and provides new insight into the progression of musculoskeletal diseases during growth spurts in response to mechanical loading. PMID:21559968

  15. Narrowband Ultraviolet B Phototherapy of Early Stage Mycosis Fungoides in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min Soo; Baek, Jae Woo; Park, Jong Bin; Kang, Dong Young; Kang, Jin Seuk; Suh, Kee Suck

    2011-01-01

    Background Narrowband UVB (NBUVB) is currently used to treat early mycosis fungoides (MF). There are a number of reports on the efficacy and safety of NBUVB in Caucasians, but little data is available for Asians. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of NBUVB for early stage MF in Korean patients. Methods We enrolled 14 patients (12 men, 2 women; age range, 10~64 years) with clinically and histologically proven MF. Three patients were stage IA, and the others were stage IB. The patients received NBUVB phototherapy three times a week. The starting dose was 70% of the minimal erythema dose and was increased in 20 percent increments if the previous treatment did not cause erythema. Clinical response, total number of treatments, total cumulative dose, duration of remission and side effects were investigated. Results Eleven of 14 patients (78.6%) achieved complete remission within a mean of 15.36±5.71 weeks (range, 5~27 weeks), 31.0±7.4 treatments (range, 16~39 treatments) and a mean cumulative UVB dose of 31.31±12.16 J/cm2 (range, 11.4~46.8 J/cm2). Three of the 14 patients (21.4%) achieved a partial remission. After discontinuation of treatment, 6 of 11 patients (54.5%) with complete remission relapsed after a mean of 8.5±4.09 months. No serious adverse effects were observed except for hyperpigmentation (7/14, 50%). Conclusion Our data suggest that NBUVB therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of early stage MF in Korean patients. PMID:22148015

  16. Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

  17. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris. PMID:24100467

  18. Diversity and dynamics of bacterial communities in early life stages of the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Koty H; Distel, Dan; Paul, Valerie J

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine microbial communities of early developmental stages of the coral Porites astreoides by sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging. Bacteria are associated with the ectoderm layer in newly released planula larvae, in 4-day-old planulae, and on the newly forming mesenteries surrounding developing septa in juvenile polyps after settlement. Roseobacter clade-associated (RCA) bacteria and Marinobacter sp. are consistently detected in specimens of P. astreoides spanning three early developmental stages, two locations in the Caribbean and 3 years of collection. Multi-response permutation procedures analysis on the TRFLP results do not support significant variation in the bacterial communities associated with P. astreoides larvae across collection location, collection year or developmental stage. The results are the first evidence of vertical transmission (from parent to offspring) of bacteria in corals. The results also show that at least two groups of bacterial taxa, the RCA bacteria and Marinobacter, are consistently associated with juvenile P. astreoides against a complex background of microbial associations, indicating that some components of the microbial community are long-term associates of the corals and may impact host health and survival. PMID:22113375

  19. Large spinose microfossils in Ediacaran rocks as resting stages of early animals.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Phoebe A; Knoll, Andrew H; Kodner, Robin B

    2009-04-21

    Large (>100 microm), profusely ornamented microfossils comprise a distinctive paleontological component of sedimentary rocks deposited during the Ediacaran Period (635-542 million years ago). Smaller spinose fossils in Paleozoic rocks have commonly been interpreted as algal cysts or phycomata, but the Ediacaran populations differ from modern algal analogs in size, shape, ultrastructure, and internal contents. In contrast, cysts formed during the diapause egg-resting stages of many metazoans share features of size, ornamentation, and internal contents with large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs). Moreover, transmission electron microscopic observations of animal-resting cysts reveal a 3-layer wall ultrastructure comparable to that of LOEM taxa. Interpretation of these distinctive Ediacaran microfossils as resting stages in early metazoan life cycles offers additional perspectives on their functional morphology and stratigraphic distribution. Based on comparisons with modern marine invertebrates, the recalcitrant life stage represented by LOEMs is interpreted as an evolutionary response to prolonged episodes of bottom water anoxia in Ediacaran shelf and platform environments. As predicted by this hypothesis, the later Ediacaran disappearance of LOEM taxa coincides with geochemical evidence for a marked decline in the extent of oxygen-depleted waters impinging on continental shelves and platforms. Thus, the form, diversity, and stratigraphic range of LOEMs illuminate life cycle evolution in early animals as influenced by the evolving redox state of the oceans. PMID:19366668

  20. Genome-scale transcriptomic insights into early-stage fruit development in woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Shahan, Rachel; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

    2013-06-01

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid woodland strawberry with a small and sequenced genome, is an excellent model for studying fruit development. The strawberry fruit is unique in that the edible flesh is actually enlarged receptacle tissue. The true fruit are the numerous dry achenes dotting the receptacle's surface. Auxin produced from the achene is essential for the receptacle fruit set, a paradigm for studying crosstalk between hormone signaling and development. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying strawberry fruit set, next-generation sequencing was employed to profile early-stage fruit development with five fruit tissue types and five developmental stages from floral anthesis to enlarged fruits. This two-dimensional data set provides a systems-level view of molecular events with precise spatial and temporal resolution. The data suggest that the endosperm and seed coat may play a more prominent role than the embryo in auxin and gibberellin biosynthesis for fruit set. A model is proposed to illustrate how hormonal signals produced in the endosperm and seed coat coordinate seed, ovary wall, and receptacle fruit development. The comprehensive fruit transcriptome data set provides a wealth of genomic resources for the strawberry and Rosaceae communities as well as unprecedented molecular insight into fruit set and early stage fruit development. PMID:23898027

  1. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  2. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  3. Efficient and Rapid Isolation of Early-stage Embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Raissig, Michael T.; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

    2013-01-01

    In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays. PMID:23770918

  4. Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S.; di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Bianconi, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered.

  5. Membrane bound IL-15 is increased on CD14 monocytes in early stages of MS

    PubMed Central

    Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi; Brass, Steven; Gandhi, Roopali; Weiner, Howard L.

    2009-01-01

    IL-15 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose three-dimensional structure is similar to that of IL-2. IL-2 and IL-15 have similar as well as distinct biological functions. An active form of IL-15 that is membrane bound has also been described. Furthermore, IL-15 is known to play a role in autoimmune diseases. We thus investigated the expression of membrane bound IL-15 on monocytes (CD14+ cells) and studied its effect on T cell activation in MS patients. We found that unstimulated CD14+ cells from relapsing remitting MS patients had increased membrane bound IL-15. Those with high surface levels of IL-15 on monocytes were in the early stages of the disease. In addition, we found that T cells of MS patients had enhanced responsiveness to IL-15 and there was increased expression of IL-15 receptor on CD4+ T cells. Thus, IL-15 may be an important cytokine that drives Th1 responses early in the course of the disease and could serve as a target for immunotherapy and as an early marker in the immunologic staging of MS. PMID:18378324

  6. Experimental early-stage coalification of a peat sample and a peatified wood sample from Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Neuzil, S.G.; Lerch, H.E.; Cecil, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental coalification of a peat sample and a buried wood sample from domed peat deposits in Indonesia was carried out to examine chemical structural changes in organic matter during early-stage coalification. The experiment (125 C, 408 atm lithostatic pressure, and 177 atm fluid pressure for 75 days) was designed to maintain both lithostatic and fluid pressure on the sample, but allow by-products that may retard coalification to escape. We refer to this design as a geologically open system. Changes in the elemental composition, and 13C NMR and FTIR spectra of the peat and wood after experimental coalification suggest preferential thermal decomposition of O-containing aliphatic organic compounds (probably cellulose) during early-stage coalification. The elemental compositions and 13C NMR spectra of the experimentally coalified peat and wood were generally similar to those of Miocene coal and coalified wood samples from Indonesia. Yields of lignin phenols in the peat and wood samples decreased following experimental coalification; the wood sample exhibited a larger change. Lignin phenol yields from the experimentally coalified peat and wood were comparable to yields of lignin phenols from Miocene Indonesian lignite and coalified wood. Changes in syringyl/vanillyl and p-hydroxy/vanillyl ratios suggest direct demethoxylation as a secondary process to demethylation of methoxyl groups during early coalification, and changes in lignin phenol yields and acid/aldehyde ratios point to a coupling between demethoxylation processes and reactions in the alkyl side chain bonds of the ??-carbon in lignin phenols.

  7. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Only Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Maluta, Sergio [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Dall'Oglio, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.dalloglio@ospedaleuniverona.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Marciai, Nadia; Gabbani, Milena [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Franchini, Zeno [Department of Surgery 1, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Surgery 1, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Pietrarota, Paolo [Department of Surgery 2, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Surgery 2, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Meliado, Gabriele; Guariglia, Stefania; Cavedon, Carlo [Department of Health Physics, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Health Physics, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)

    2012-10-01

    Background: We report the results of a single-institution, phase II trial of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using a single dose of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) in patients with low-risk early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 226 patients with low-risk, early stage breast cancer were treated with local excision and axillary management (sentinel node biopsy with or without axillary node dissection). After the surgeon temporarily reapproximated the excision cavity, a dose of 21 Gy using IOERT was delivered to the tumor bed, with a margin of 2 cm laterally. Results: With a mean follow-up of 46 months (range, 28-63 months), only 1 case of local recurrence was reported. The observed toxicity was considered acceptable. Conclusions: APBI using a single dose of IOERT can be delivered safely in women with early, low-risk breast cancer in carefully selected patients. A longer follow-up is needed to ascertain its efficacy compared to that of the current standard treatment of whole-breast irradiation.

  8. The effects of salinity on the growth and survival of the postlarval stages of Gambusia affinis

    E-print Network

    Omundson, Glenn Erwin

    1963-01-01

    of MASTER OP SCIBNCB january l963 Ma Jor Subject: Biological Oceanography THE EFFECTS OF SALINIIY ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF THE POSI'LARVAL STAGES OF GAMBUSIA AFFINIS A Thesis Glenn Erwln Omundson h aved as to style and content by: Irman of Com... on the growth of the poetlarval stages of Gambusia affinis, This was accomplished by controlling all environmental factors other than salinity, l. e. , temperature, food, light, pH and fish per unit volume of water. CHAPTER II MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  9. Telomere dynamics in wild brown trout: effects of compensatory growth and early growth investment.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Joacim; Pauliny, Angela; Blomqvist, Donald; Johnsson, Jörgen I

    2015-04-01

    After a period of food deprivation, animals often respond with a period of faster than normal growth. Such responses have been suggested to result in decreased chromosomal maintenance, which in turn may affect the future fitness of an individual. Here, we present a field experiment in which a food deprivation period of 24 days was enforced on fish from a natural population of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the start of the high-growth season in spring. The growth of the food-deprived fish and a non-deprived control group was then monitored in the wild during 1 year. Fin tissue samples were taken at the start of the experiment and 1 year after food deprivation to monitor the telomere dynamics, using reduced telomere length as an indicator of maintenance cost. The food-deprived fish showed partial compensatory growth in both mass and length relative to the control group. However, we found no treatment effects on telomere dynamics, suggesting that growth-compensating brown trout juveniles are able to maintain their telomeres during their second year in the stream. However, body size at the start of the experiment, reflecting growth rate during their first year of life, was negatively correlated with change in telomere length over the following year. This result raises the possibility that rapid growth early in life induces delayed costs in cellular maintenance. PMID:25698140

  10. The Rapid Growth of Fibroids during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Benaglia, Laura; Cardellicchio, Lucia; Filippi, Francesca; Paffoni, Alessio; Vercellini, Paolo; Somigliana, Edgardo; Fedele, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Several studies aimed to disentangle whether pregnancy influences the growth of uterine fibroids but results were inconsistent. In this study, we speculated that fibroid enlargement during pregnancy may not be linear and we hypothesized that this phenomenon may mainly occur during initial pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, we set up a prospective cohort study of women with fibroids undergoing IVF. Cases were women achieving a viable pregnancy. Controls were the subsequent women with fibroids but failing to become pregnant. Twenty-five cases and 25 controls were recruited. The total number of fibroids in the two groups was 46 and 41, respectively. The mean ± SD diameter of the fibroids was 17±10 and 20±11 mm, respectively (p?=?0.18). A statistically significant enlargement emerged exclusively in pregnant women. The median (Interquartile Range) modification of the diameter of the lesions in cases and controls was +34% (+6%/+65%) and +2% (?6%/+12%), respectively (p<0.001). The median (Interquartile Range) modification of the volume of the lesions was +140% (+23%/+357%) and 0% (?18%/+37%), respectively (p<0.001). In pregnant women, we failed to document any significant correlation between the magnitude of the growth and ovarian responsiveness to hyper-stimulation, suggesting that steroids hormones are not the unique factors involved. In conclusion, fibroids undergo a rapid and remarkable growth during initial pregnancy. Reasons behind this phenomenon remain to be clarified. The early rise in steroids hormones during early pregnancy may not be sufficient to explain the process. Other pregnancy-related hormones and proteins may play also key roles. PMID:24465797

  11. Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of blood mononuclear cells link with cardiac disturbance in patients with early-stage heart failure.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Fang; Li, Yingsha; Li, Qiang; Lang, Hongmei; Zhao, Zhigang; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Yu; Shang, Qianhui; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiometabolic risk factors and asymptomatic cardiac hypertrophy are hallmarks of early-stage heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) may be associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in early-stage HF patients complicated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Totally 49 subjects were enrolled with 25 early-stage HF patients (stages A and B) having cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction and 24 healthy controls. It showed that excessive inflammation and reduced antioxidant capacity were closely associated with cardiac abnormalities in early-stage HF patients. Furthermore, the values of mitochondrial respiratory functional parameters R, CIOXPHOS, CIIOXPHOS, CI+IIOXPHOS, CI+IIETS and CIIETS were significantly lowered in early-stage HF patients. Interestingly, these respiratory parameters were correlated with inflammation and antioxidant capacity in participants. Finally, cardiometabolic risk factors such as salt intake and blood pressure were related to the mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions, which were further validated by in vitro experiments. Our study indicated that cardiometabolic risk factor-mediated mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of PBMCs link with the cellular inflammation / oxidative stress and cardiac disturbance in early-stage HF. PMID:26018291

  12. Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of blood mononuclear cells link with cardiac disturbance in patients with early-stage heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Fang; Li, Yingsha; Li, Qiang; Lang, Hongmei; Zhao, Zhigang; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Yu; Shang, Qianhui; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiometabolic risk factors and asymptomatic cardiac hypertrophy are hallmarks of early-stage heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) may be associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in early-stage HF patients complicated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Totally 49 subjects were enrolled with 25 early-stage HF patients (stages A and B) having cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction and 24 healthy controls. It showed that excessive inflammation and reduced antioxidant capacity were closely associated with cardiac abnormalities in early-stage HF patients. Furthermore, the values of mitochondrial respiratory functional parameters R, CIOXPHOS, CIIOXPHOS, CI+IIOXPHOS, CI+IIETS and CIIETS were significantly lowered in early-stage HF patients. Interestingly, these respiratory parameters were correlated with inflammation and antioxidant capacity in participants. Finally, cardiometabolic risk factors such as salt intake and blood pressure were related to the mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions, which were further validated by in vitro experiments. Our study indicated that cardiometabolic risk factor-mediated mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of PBMCs link with the cellular inflammation / oxidative stress and cardiac disturbance in early-stage HF. PMID:26018291

  13. Effects of water stress at different growth stage on greenhouse multiple-trusses tomato yield and quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Wang; Taisheng Du; Rangjian Qiu; Pingguo Dong

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore the effects of deficit irrigation (DI) on yield and quality of solar greenhouse multiple-trusses tomato and determinate optimal deficit irrigation scheduling, a field experiment was conducted with different water deficit levels applied at three growth stages, i.e. seedling stage, flowering and fruit development stage and fruit maturation and fruit harvesting stage. The results showed that based

  14. The Early Stages of Taxol Biosynthesis: An Interim Report on the Synthesis and Identification of Early Pathway Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Bubb, Jennifer; Croteau, Rodney; Williams, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the anti-cancer drug taxol (paclitaxel) has required the collaborative efforts of several research groups to tackle the synthesis and labeling of putative biosynthetic intermediates, in concert with the identification, cloning and functional expression of the biosynthetic genes responsible for the construction of this complex natural product. Based on a combination of precursor labeling and incorporation experiments, and metabolite isolation from Taxus spp., a picture of the complex matrix of pathway oxygenation reactions following formation of the first committed intermediate, taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene, is beginning to emerge. An overview of the current state of knowledge on the early-stages of taxol biosynthesis is presented. PMID:22547034

  15. In vivo Mn-enhanced MRI for early tumor detection and growth rate analysis in a mouse medulloblastoma model.

    PubMed

    Suero-Abreu, Giselle A; Praveen Raju, G; Aristizábal, Orlando; Volkova, Eugenia; Wojcinski, Alexandre; Houston, Edward J; Pham, Diane; Szulc, Kamila U; Colon, Daniel; Joyner, Alexandra L; Turnbull, Daniel H

    2014-12-01

    Mouse models have increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor that often forms in the cerebellum. A major goal of ongoing research is to better understand the early stages of tumorigenesis and to establish the genetic and environmental changes that underlie MB initiation and growth. However, studies of MB progression in mouse models are difficult due to the heterogeneity of tumor onset times and growth patterns and the lack of clinical symptoms at early stages. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is critical for noninvasive, longitudinal, three-dimensional (3D) brain tumor imaging in the clinic but is limited in resolution and sensitivity for imaging early MBs in mice. In this study, high-resolution (100 ?m in 2 hours) and high-throughput (150 ?m in 15 minutes) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) protocols were optimized for early detection and monitoring of MBs in a Patched-1 (Ptch1) conditional knockout (CKO) model. The high tissue contrast obtained with MEMRI revealed detailed cerebellar morphology and enabled detection of MBs over a wide range of stages including pretumoral lesions as early as 2 to 3 weeks postnatal with volumes close to 0.1 mm(3). Furthermore, longitudinal MEMRI allowed noninvasive monitoring of tumors and demonstrated that lesions within and between individuals have different tumorigenic potentials. 3D volumetric studies allowed quantitative analysis of MB tumor morphology and growth rates in individual Ptch1-CKO mice. These results show that MEMRI provides a powerful method for early in vivo detection and longitudinal imaging of MB progression in the mouse brain. PMID:25499213

  16. In Vivo Mn-Enhanced MRI for Early Tumor Detection and Growth Rate Analysis in a Mouse Medulloblastoma Model12

    PubMed Central

    Suero-Abreu, Giselle A.; Praveen Raju, G.; Aristizábal, Orlando; Volkova, Eugenia; Wojcinski, Alexandre; Houston, Edward J.; Pham, Diane; Szulc, Kamila U.; Colon, Daniel; Joyner, Alexandra L.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor that often forms in the cerebellum. A major goal of ongoing research is to better understand the early stages of tumorigenesis and to establish the genetic and environmental changes that underlie MB initiation and growth. However, studies of MB progression in mouse models are difficult due to the heterogeneity of tumor onset times and growth patterns and the lack of clinical symptoms at early stages. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is critical for noninvasive, longitudinal, three-dimensional (3D) brain tumor imaging in the clinic but is limited in resolution and sensitivity for imaging early MBs in mice. In this study, high-resolution (100 ?m in 2 hours) and high-throughput (150 ?m in 15 minutes) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) protocols were optimized for early detection and monitoring of MBs in a Patched-1 (Ptch1) conditional knockout (CKO) model. The high tissue contrast obtained with MEMRI revealed detailed cerebellar morphology and enabled detection of MBs over a wide range of stages including pretumoral lesions as early as 2 to 3 weeks postnatal with volumes close to 0.1 mm3. Furthermore, longitudinal MEMRI allowed noninvasive monitoring of tumors and demonstrated that lesions within and between individuals have different tumorigenic potentials. 3D volumetric studies allowed quantitative analysis of MB tumor morphology and growth rates in individual Ptch1-CKO mice. These results show that MEMRI provides a powerful method for early in vivo detection and longitudinal imaging of MB progression in the mouse brain. PMID:25499213

  17. Nod-Like Receptor Protein-3 Inflammasome Plays an Important Role during Early Stages of Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M.; Mirza, Rita E.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1? pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF-? compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1? partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1? production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1? treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1? has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1?-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing. PMID:25793779

  18. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    PubMed Central

    van Oudenaarde, Kim; Copper, Marcel P.; Klop, W. M. C.; van Veen, Robert; Wildeman, Maarten; Bing Tan, I.

    2010-01-01

    The indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis-T2) to identify the success rates for each subgroup according to T stage, primary or non-primary treatment and subsites. In total, 170 patients with 226 lesions are treated with PDT. From these lesions, 95 are primary neoplasms, 131 were non-primaries (recurrences and multiple primaries). The overall response rate is 90.7% with a complete response rate of 70.8%. Subgroup analysis identified oral tongue, floor of mouth sites with more favorable outcome. PDT has more favorable results with certain subsites and with previously untreated lesions. However, PDT can find its place for treating lesions in previously treated areas with acceptable results. PMID:20706842

  19. Increased Expression of Tumor Proliferation Genes in Hispanic Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalinsky, Kevin; Lim, Emerson A.; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Desai, Avni M.; Jin, Zhezhen; Tu, Yifan; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Wang, Antai; Greenlee, Heather; Crew, Katherine D.; Maurer, Matthew; Sparano, Joseph A.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic women have higher breast cancer mortality compared to non-Hispanic whites. We evaluated for Proliferation Axis Score differences, as determined by Oncotype Dx, in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. We matched 219 women, based upon age, stage, and nodal status. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, Hispanic women with hormone-sensitive, HER2-negative early-stage breast cancer had a higher Proliferation Axis Score. No differences were seen in Recurrence Score, ER, PR, or HER2 by Oncotype DX. CCNB1 and AURKA were significantly higher in Hispanic women. These tumor differences may help explain breast cancer outcome differences between the two ethnicities. PMID:25254601

  20. The Effects of Blocking Angiotensin Receptors on Early Stages of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gheissari, Alaleh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh H; Shirzadi, Roohollah; Amini, Masood; Khalili, Nooshin

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on markers of endothelial function in patients with early stage of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 32 participants with IDDM from January 2010 until May 2011 in Isfahan, Iran. The participants were candidate for receiving ARBs or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) to decrease microalbuminuria. The inclusion criteria were as follows: the age of onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)less than 15 years; normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR); normal blood pressure; normal cardiovascular examination; negative urine culture, receiving no medications except insulin. Microalbuminuria was measured in two fasting urine samples with a sampling interval of at least 1–2 months by ELISA method. Patients with two abnormal results were included. Microalbumin to creatinin ratio equal to or more than 30 mg/gm was considered abnormal. The fasting blood samples to determine serum nitric oxide (NO) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) were obtained at the time 0 (before starting the study), and after 2 months of receiving ARBmedication. Valsartan tablet (Diovan, Novartis Company) with a dose of 1 mg/kg/day up to 80 mg/day in a single dose was administered. Results: Urine microalbumin to creatinin ratio after valsartan consumption was lower than microalbumin level before the medication, P < 0.05. After valsartan consumption, serum VCAM-1 level reduced and NO level increased significantly, P < 0.05. Conclusion: Angiotensin receptor blockers may reduce VCAM-1 and microalbuminuria and may increase NO levels in early stages of DN. Thus administration of ARBs might be considered even in early stages of DN. PMID:22891149

  1. Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy for high-risk, early stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eastwick, Gary; Anne, Pramila Rani; Rosenblum, Norman G.; Schilder, Russell J.; Chalian, Raffi; Zibelli, Allison M.; Kim, Christine H.; Den, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report outcomes following adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) with or without chemotherapy for high-intermediate risk (HIR) and high-risk, early stage endometrial cancer as defined in Gynecologic Oncology Group trial 0249. Material and methods From May 2000 to January 2014, 68 women with HIR and high-risk endometrial cancer underwent surgical staging followed by VBT. Median VBT dose was 21 Gy delivered in three fractions prescribed to 0.5 cm depth. Paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and carboplatin area under the curve 6 was administered every 21 days in sequence with VBT. Actuarial survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Patient demographics included a median age of 66 years (range: 36-91) and stages IA (49%), IB (38%), and II (13%), respectively. Thirty-one (46%) patients had HIR disease with endometrioid histology, and 33 (48%) patients had serous or clear cell histology. Thirty-seven (54%) patients received a median 3 cycles (range: 3-6) of chemotherapy in addition to VBT, and 65 patients (96%) completed all prescribed therapy. During a median follow up of 33.1 months (range: 4.0-161.7), four patients have recurred, including one vaginal recurrence. The 3-year estimates of vaginal, pelvic, and distant recurrences were 1.9%, 2.4%, and 9.1%, respectively. The 3-year rates of disease-free and overall survival were 87.7% and 93.9%, respectively. Conclusions Early outcomes with adjuvant VBT with or without chemotherapy demonstrate high rates of vaginal and pelvic control for women with HIR disease. Early vaginal and pelvic relapses in high-risk patients suggest that pelvic external beam radiotherapy is warranted in this subgroup, but additional data from large phase III trials is warranted. PMID:25337127

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of Survival in Early-Stage Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Heist, Rebecca S.; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Lin, Xihong; Skaug, Vidar; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Haugen, Aage; Wu, Michael C.; Wang, Zhaoxi; Su, Li; Asomaning, Kofi; Christiani, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer, of which 85% is non–small-cell (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. We used genome-wide analysis of tumor tissue to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tumors are prognostic factors in early-stage NSCLC. Patients and Methods One hundred early-stage NSCLC patients from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) were used as a discovery set and 89 NSCLC patients collected by the National Institute of Occupational Health, Norway, were used as a validation set. DNA was extracted from flash-frozen lung tissue with at least 70% tumor cellularity. Genome-wide genotyping was done using the high-density SNP chip. Copy numbers were inferred using median smoothing after intensity normalization. Cox models were used to screen and validate significant SNPs associated with the overall survival. Results Copy number gains in chromosomes 3q, 5p, and 8q were observed in both MGH and Norwegian cohorts. The top 50 SNPs associated with overall survival in the MGH cohort (P ? 2.5 × 10?4) were selected and examined using the Norwegian cohort. Five of the top 50 SNPs were validated in the Norwegian cohort with false discovery rate lower than 0.05 (P < .016) and all five were located in known genes: STK39, PCDH7, A2BP1, and EYA2. The numbers of risk alleles of the five SNPs showed a cumulative effect on overall survival (Ptrend = 3.80 × 10?12 and 2.48 × 10?7 for MGH and Norwegian cohorts, respectively). Conclusion Five SNPs were identified that may be prognostic of overall survival in early-stage NSCLC. PMID:19414679

  3. Clinical implication of surgically treated early-stage cervical cancer with multiple high-risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Mabuchi, Seiji; Okazawa, Mika; Kawano, Mahiru; Kuroda, Hiromasa; Kamiura, Shoji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Presence of high-risk factor in cervical cancer is known to be associated with decreased survival outcomes. However, the significance of multiple high-risk factors in early-stage cervical cancer related to survival outcomes, recurrence patterns, and treatment implications is not well elucidated. Methods A retrospective study was conducted for surgically treated cervical cancer patients (stage IA2-IIB, n=540). Surgical-pathological risk factors were examined and tumors expressing ?1 high-risk factors (nodal metastasis, parametrial involvement, or positive surgical margin) were eligible for analysis (n=177, 32.8%). Survival analysis was performed based on the number of high-risk factors and the type of adjuvant therapy. Results There were 68 cases (38.4%) expressed multiple high-risk factors (2 high-risk factors: n=58, 32.8%; 3 high-risk factors: n=10, 5.6%). Multiple high-risk factors remained an independent prognosticator for decreased survival outcomes after controlling for age, histology, stage, and treatment type (disease-free survival: hazard ratio [HR], 2.34; p=0.002; overall survival: HR, 2.32; p=0.007). Postoperatively, 101 cases (57.1%) received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and 76 cases (42.9%) received radiotherapy (RT) alone. CCRT was beneficial in single high-risk factor cases: HRs for CCRT over RT alone for cumulative risk of locoregional and distant recurrence, 0.27 (p=0.022) and 0.27 (p=0.005), respectively. However, tumor expressing multiple high-risk factors completely offset the benefit of CCRT over RT alone for the risk of distant recurrence: HR for locoregional and distant recurrence, 0.31 (p=0.071) and 0.99 (p=0.980), respectively. Conclusion Special consideration for the significance of multiple high-risk factors merits further investigation in the management of surgically treated early-stage cervical cancer. PMID:25310856

  4. Targeted labeling of an early-stage tumor spheroid in a chorioallantoic membrane model with upconversion nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Holz, Jasmin A.; Ding, Yadan; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Youlin; Tu, Langping; Kong, Xianggui; Priem, Bram; Nadort, Annemarie; Lambrechts, Saskia A. G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Buma, Wybren Jan; Liu, Yichun; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    In vivo detection of cancer at an early-stage, i.e. smaller than 2 mm, is a challenge in biomedicine. In this work target labeling of an early-stage tumor spheroid (~500 ?m) is realized for the first time in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with monoclonal antibody functionalized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs-mAb).In vivo detection of cancer at an early-stage, i.e. smaller than 2 mm, is a challenge in biomedicine. In this work target labeling of an early-stage tumor spheroid (~500 ?m) is realized for the first time in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with monoclonal antibody functionalized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs-mAb). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures for the sample preparation and characterization, Chick CAM model, 3-D multicellular tumor spheroids, UCNPs circulating in CAM. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05638h

  5. Impact of the CE mark approval on exit opportunities and validation for early stage medical device companies

    E-print Network

    Kothari, Ashish (Ashish Shrikant)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to look at the impact of acquiring the CE marking approval on the outcome of early stage medical device companies, specifically its impact on strategic acquisition opportunities and on valuation. ...

  6. Applications of dissipative and anisotropic hydrodynamics in description of early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florkowski, Wojciech

    2015-05-01

    Kinetic and hydrodynamic models describing early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions are discussed. We emphasise the role of the shear-bulk coupling for the correct determination of the time dependence of the bulk viscous pressure.

  7. Cognitive–behavioral stress management increases benefit finding and immune function among women with early-stage breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie A McGregor; Michael H Antoni; Amy Boyers; Susan M Alferi; Bonnie B Blomberg; Charles S Carver

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study examined the effect of a cognitive–behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention on emotional well-being and immune function among women in the months following surgery for early-stage breast cancer.

  8. Medicines for Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults with Kidney Disease and Diabetes ....

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure" /> Consumer Summary – Oct. 11, 2012 Medicines for Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review ... and blood vessel diseases. About Your Options What medicines may help? There are four types of medicine ...

  9. To what extent is social media exposure correlated with financial performance for early stage digital consumer-facing startups?

    E-print Network

    Genre, Solene

    2014-01-01

    It is very hard to identify and evaluate very early stage investment opportunities in disruptive digital consumer-facing startups as they usually don't have any meaningful revenue data yet. However, these growing startups ...

  10. The Evolving Role of Radiotherapy in Early Stage Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ricardi, Umberto; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Piva, Cristina; Franco, Pierfrancesco

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy has a key role in the combined modality treatment of early-stage Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL). Nevertheless, late toxicity still remains an issue. A modern approach in HL radiotherapy includes lower doses and smaller fields, together with the implementation of sophisticated and dedicated delivery techniques. Aim of the present review is to discuss the current role of radiotherapy and its potential future developments, with a focus on major clinical trials, technological advances and their repercussion in the clinical management of HL patients. PMID:24959332

  11. Characterisation of early precipitation stages in 6xxx series aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasting, Håkon S.; Walmsley, John; Marioara, Calin D.; van Helvoort, ATJ; Holmestad, Randi; Danoix, Frederic; Lefebvre, Williams

    2006-02-01

    Advanced microscopy techniques such as high angular annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy are being explored to study early precipitation stages of 6XXX-series aluminium alloys. Observations are combined with those from 3 dimensional atom probe studies of the same materials. GP-zones are imaged by annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and plasmon mapping. Developed clusters are investigated and quantified by atom probe, and a high number density of clusters with a Mg/Si-ratio close to the alloy composition are confirmed to be present in the alloy.

  12. Some physiological effects of cadmium on the early life stages of the estuarine teleost Fundulus similis 

    E-print Network

    McCulloch, Wayne LeRoy

    1977-01-01

    . , Southern Illinois University Chairman of Advisory Conimi ttee: Dr, 8. N. Neff Acute I;oxicity studies on two early life stages of i-u?dulus simi )is indicated ". haI tivo week post hatch larvae are m~re sensitive o cadmium ~x"closure t, han 5-6 day... indebted to Dr Jerry M. Neff whose advise and support made the completion ~f this degree poss- ible. I would also like to thank the members of our lab who have given help and advise during the course of study. This study has been supported in part...

  13. Quantitative classification of primary progressive aphasia at early and mild impairment stages

    PubMed Central

    Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of early and mild disease in primary progressive aphasia are poorly understood. This report is based on 25 patients with aphasia quotients >85%, 13 of whom were within 2 years of symptom onset. Word-finding and spelling deficits were the most frequent initial signs. Diagnostic imaging was frequently negative and initial consultations seldom reached a correct diagnosis. Functionality was preserved, so that the patients fit current criteria for single-domain mild cognitive impairment. One goal was to determine whether recently published classification guidelines could be implemented at these early and mild disease stages. The quantitative testing of the recommended core and ancillary criteria led to the classification of ?80% of the sample into agrammatic, logopenic and semantic variants. Biological validity of the resultant classification at these mild impairment stages was demonstrated by clinically concordant cortical atrophy patterns. A two-dimensional template based on orthogonal mapping of word comprehension and grammaticality provided comparable accuracy and led to a flexible road map that can guide the classification process quantitatively or qualitatively. Longitudinal evaluations of initially unclassifiable patients showed that the semantic variant can be preceded by a prodromal stage of focal left anterior temporal atrophy during which prominent anomia exists without word comprehension or object recognition impairments. Patterns of quantitative tests justified the distinction of grammar from speech abnormalities and the desirability of using the ‘agrammatic’ designation exclusively for loss of grammaticality, regardless of fluency or speech status. Two patients with simultaneous impairments of grammatical sentence production and word comprehension displayed focal atrophy of the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior temporal lobe. These patients represent a fourth variant of ‘mixed’ primary progressive aphasia. Quantitative criteria were least effective in the distinction of the agrammatic from the logopenic variant and left considerable latitude to clinical judgement. The widely followed recommendation to wait for 2 years of relatively isolated and progressive language impairment before making a definitive diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia has promoted diagnostic specificity, but has also diverted attention away from early and mild disease. This study shows that this recommendation is unnecessarily restrictive and that quantitative guidelines can be implemented for the valid root diagnosis and subtyping of mildly impaired patients within 2 years of symptom onset. An emphasis on early diagnosis will promote a better characterization of the disease stages where therapeutic interventions are the most likely to succeed. PMID:22525158

  14. A Model of Knowledge Acquisition in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Laura E.; Mendlinger, Sheryl E.; Corso, Katherine A.; Greenberg, Caprice C.

    2012-01-01

    To meaningfully participate in the decision-making regarding a newly diagnosed breast cancer, a patient must acquire new knowledge. We describe a model of knowledge acquisition that can provide a framework for exploring the process and types of knowledge that breast cancer patients gain following their diagnosis. The four types of knowledge presented in this model—authoritative, technical, embodied, and traditional—are described and potential sources discussed. An understanding of knowledge acquisition in early stage breast cancer patients can provide healthcare practitioners with an important framework for optimizing decision-making in this population. PMID:22226068

  15. Origin of the directed movement of protocells in the early stages of the evolution of life.

    PubMed

    Melkikh, Alexey V; Chesnokova, Oksana I

    2012-08-01

    The origin of the directed motion of protocells during the early stages of evolution was discussed. The expenditures for movement, space orientation, and reception of information about the environment were taken into consideration, and it was shown that directed movement is evolutionarily advantageous in the following cases: when opposite gradients of different resources (for example, matter and energy) are great enough and when there is a rapid change in environmental parameters. It was also shown that the advantage of directed movement strategies depends greatly on how information about the environment is obtained by a protocell. PMID:22772806

  16. Non-linear Langevin model for the early-stage dynamics of electrospinning jets

    E-print Network

    Lauricella, Marco; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    We present a non-linear Langevin model to investigate the early-stage dynamics of electrified polymer jets in electrospinning experiments. In particular, we study the effects of air drag force on the uniaxial elongation of the charged jet, right after ejection from the nozzle. Numerical simulations show that the elongation of the jet filament close to the injection point is significantly affected by the non-linear drag exerted by the surrounding air. These result provide useful insights for the optimal design of current and future electrospinning experiments.

  17. Nucleotide Deficiency Promotes Genomic Instability in Early Stages of Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Bester, Assaf C.; Roniger, Maayan; Oren, Yifat S.; Im, Michael M.; Sarni, Dan; Chaoat, Malka; Bensimon, Aaron; Zamir, Gideon; Shewach, Donna S.; Kerem, Batsheva

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromosomal instability in early cancer stages is caused by stress on DNA replication. The molecular basis for replication perturbation in this context is currently unknown. We studied the replication dynamics in cells in which a regulator of S phase entry and cell proliferation, the Rb-E2F pathway, is aberrantly activated. Aberrant activation of this pathway by HPV-16 E6/E7 or cyclin E oncogenes significantly decreased the cellular nucleotide levels in the newly transformed cells. Exogenously supplied nucleosides rescued the replication stress and DNA damage and dramatically decreased oncogene-induced transformation. Increased transcription of nucleotide biosynthesis genes, mediated by expressing the transcription factor c-myc, increased the nucleotide pool and also rescued the replication-induced DNA damage. Our results suggest a model for early oncogenesis in which uncoordinated activation of factors regulating cell proliferation leads to insufficient nucleotides that fail to support normal replication and genome stability. PMID:21529715

  18. Selective attention to signs of success: social dominance and early stage interpersonal perception.

    PubMed

    Maner, Jon K; DeWall, C Nathan; Gailliot, Matthew T

    2008-04-01

    Results from two experiments suggest that observers selectively attend to male, but not female, targets displaying signs of social dominance. Participants overestimated the frequency of dominant men in rapidly presented stimulus arrays (Study 1) and visually fixated on dominant men in an eyetracking experiment (Study 2). When viewing female targets, participants attended to signs of physical attractiveness rather than social dominance. Findings fit with evolutionary models of mating, which imply that dominance and physical attractiveness sometimes tend to be prioritized preferentially in judgments of men versus women, respectively. Findings suggest that sex differences in human mating are observed not only at the level of overt mating preferences and choices but also at early stages of interpersonal perception. This research demonstrates the utility of examining early-in-the-stream social cognition through the functionalist lens of adaptive thinking. PMID:18192434

  19. A rapid method for the detection of early stages of atherosclerotic lesion formation.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, K. A.; Karnovsky, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, rapid technique for detecting early changes in the arterial vessels of rats and rabbits fed an atherogenic diet is described. After perfusion fixation, the descending thoracic aorta was cytochemically stained with oil red O to detect intracellular lipid and with Hoechst 33342 dye to detect nuclear DNA. The vessels were whole mounted and the luminal surface examined en face using both transmitted light and epifluorescence microscopy. With this technique it is possible to identify and quantitate mononuclear cells adhering to the vessel wall, determine the distribution and number of intimal foam cells within the intima, and determine the mitotic index of the endothelium. Tissue samples can be quickly prepared using this technique, thus allowing rapid analysis of the influence of various substances on the early stages of atherosclerotic lesion formation in animals fed an atherogenic diet. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3202115

  20. Glacial inception during the late Holocene without carbon emissions from early agriculture: lessons from the stage-19 glacial inception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, F.; Vavrus, S. J.; Kutzbach, J. E.; Ruddiman, W. F.; Tzedakis, P. C.

    2013-12-01

    Decreases in orbitally-forced summer insolation along with downward trends in greenhouse gases (GHG) have been precursors to incipient glaciation in the past. In the last several thousand years of the current interglacial, while summer insolation has decreased, there was a reversal of the downward trends in CH4 and CO2 concentration within the Holocene around 5,000 and 7,000 years ago. While the cause of this reversal remains unresolved, a leading hypothesis is Ruddiman's Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis that early agriculture, starting several thousand years ago, caused emissions of GHG large enough to reverse natural downward trends in CO2 and CH4 and kept Earth's climate anomalously warm, with the corollary that this may have prevented incipient glaciation during the late Holocene. Here we use the 1-degree, fully coupled Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) with climate forcings (orbital parameters and GHG) of a previous glacial inception to investigate whether glacial inception should have occurred prior to the industrial revolution if the concentrations of CH4 and CO2 had followed their natural downward trends throughout the Holocene. Tzedakis et al. [2012] show that for the previous eight interglacials, Stage 11 and Stage 19 are the best analogs of the Holocene because of their low eccentricities, and Stage 19 is a better analog than Stage 11 for the Holocene due to the in-phase relationship between obliquity and precession. Furthermore, their study suggests that 777 ka BP (777,000 years before present) is the timing of glacial inception for Stage 19, based on the occurrence of the earliest bipolar seesaw event associated with glacial melting. Not only do the orbital parameters at 777 ka BP resemble pre-industrial conditions, but the concentrations of CO2 at that time were essentially the same as their expected 'natural' pre-industrial values in the absence of anthropogenic greenhouse emissions. Our multi-millennial coupled CCSM4 simulations show that the 'natural' climatic forcings (GHG, orbital parameters) during pre-industrial (corresponding here to year 1850) produce essentially the same global climate as at the glacial inception of Stage 19. The simulation of 'natural' pre-industrial climate also produces similar Northern Hemisphere permanent snow cover as at the glacial inception of Stage 19, which is almost twice as large as the permanent snow in the CCSM4 control run with observed year-1850 GHG concentrations. We also found that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation slows down in the simulations of the glacial inceptions and contributes to the strong cooling and growth of permanent snow cover in Northern Hemisphere polar regions. Our study provides supports for the overdue glaciation hypothesis that early agriculture may have prevented incipient glaciation during the late Holocene. Tzedakis, P. C., J. E. T. Channell, D. A. Hodell, H. F. Kleiven, and L. C. Skinner (2012), Determining the natural length of the current interglacial, Nature Geoscience, 5(2), 138-141.

  1. Evidence of Altered Corticomotor System Connectivity in Early-Stage Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vidoni, Eric D.; Thomas, George P.; Honea, Robyn A.; Loskutova, Natalia; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose There is increasing evidence for subtle motor dysfunction early in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), including common motor behaviors that were once considered unaffected early in the disease process. Our objective was to assess if functional neural networks underlying motor behavior are altered by AD. Methods We investigated AD-related differences in regional brain activation during motor performance. Nine older adults with early-stage AD and 10 without dementia underwent fMRI while performing a visually-directed simple motor task (hand squeeze). Results Despite some similarity in brain activation during motor performance, we found that individuals without dementia exhibited greater activation in accessory motor regions supplementary motor area and cerebellum compared to those with AD. We also assessed disease-related differences in regions where activity was functionally integrated with primary motor cortex. Using a psycho-physiological interaction analysis, we found that those with AD displayed increased co-activation with primary motor cortex of bilateral motor and visual regions. Discussion and Conclusions These AD-related changes in regional co-activation during motor execution in may represent inefficiency in the motor network as a consequence of the disease process. Alternatively, they may represent compensatory activation. These findings provide further evidence that in early-stages of AD, neuromotor function is altered in AD even during simple motor behaviors. The results may have implications for performance of more complex tasks, and may be associated with the well-characterized decline in dual task performance in those with AD. PMID:22333920

  2. In vivo MRI of early stage mammary cancers and the normal mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sanaz A; Conzen, Suzanne D; Fan, Xiaobing; Markiewicz, Erica; Krausz, Thomas; Newstead, Gillian M; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2011-08-01

    Since the advent of screening mammography, approximately one-quarter of newly diagnosed breast cancers are at the earliest preinvasive stage of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Concomitant with this improvement in early detection has been a growing clinical concern that distinguishing aggressive from indolent DCIS is necessary to optimize patient management. Genetically engineered mouse models offer an appealing experimental framework in which to investigate factors that influence and predict progression of preinvasive neoplasias. Because of the small size of early stage carcinomas in mice, high-resolution imaging techniques are required to effectively observe longitudinal progression. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of MRI for assessment of in situ mammary neoplasias and early invasive mammary cancers that stochastically arise in mammary glands of C3(1) SV40 Tag transgenic mice. Additionally, images of normal mammary glands from wild-type FVB/N mice were acquired and compared with those from transgenic mice. Sixteen mice underwent MR examinations employing axial two-dimensional multi-slice gradient recalled echo scans (TR/TE =?1000/5.5 ms) with fat suppression in a two-step process targeting both the upper and lower mammary glands. MRI successfully detected in situ and early invasive neoplasias in transgenic mice with high sensitivity and specificity. The average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of in situ lesions on fat-suppressed high-resolution T(1) -weighted images was 22.9, which was lower than that of invasive tumors, lymph nodes and muscle (average SNR of 29.5-34.9, p < 0.0001) but significantly higher than that of normal mammary tissue (average SNR = 5.5, p < 0.0001). Evaluation of wild-type mammary glands revealed no cancerous or benign lesions, and comparable image contrast characteristics (average SNR = 5.2) as compared with normal tissue areas of transgenic mice. This present study demonstrates that MRI is an excellent candidate for performing longitudinal assessment of early stage mammary cancer disease progression and response to therapy in the transgenic model system. PMID:21264977

  3. Emotional curiosity: modulation of visuospatial attention by arousal is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin S. LaBar; M.-Marsel Mesulam; Darren R. Gitelman; Sandra Weintraub

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Alzheimer’s disease, even in its early stages, decreases novelty-seeking behaviors (curiosity) and impairs the shifting of spatial attention to extrapersonal targets. In this study, early-stage probable Alzheimer’s disease patients (PRAD) and young and aging controls were shown pairs of visual scenes, some of which contained emotionally-arousing material, while eye movements were recorded under free viewing

  4. Effects of Phosphorus and Nitrogen on Nodulation are Seen Already at the Stage of Early Cortical Cell Divisions in Alnus incana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANCESCO GENTILI; LUIS G. WALL; KERSTIN HUSS-DANELL

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aims The present work aimed to study early stages of nodulation in a chronological sequence and to study phosphorus and nitrogen effects on early stages of nodulation in Alnus incana infected by Frankia .A method was developed to quantify early nodulation stages in intact root systems in the root hair-infected actinorhizal plant A. incana. Plant tissue responses were

  5. Toxicity of uranium mine receiving waters to early life stage fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Pyle, G G; Swanson, S M; Lehmkuhl, D M

    2002-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, nickel, and molybdenum in aquatic systems around northern Saskatchewan uranium mines are an environmental concern. Early life stage fathead minnows were used to assess toxicity from several aquatic systems near the Key Lake and Rabbit Lake uranium operations. Hatching success of fish embryos exposed to waters receiving contaminants associated with uranium ore milling was reduced by 32-61% relative to controls. Mortality differed in two lakes receiving mill effluents because of opposing factors influencing metal toxicity (i.e. low pH and high hardness). In one mill receiving water (Fox Lake), larval mortality was 0%, whereas mortality was 85% in water collected from a downstream location (Unknown Lake). Fish embryos exposed to open-pit dewatering effluent receiving waters, or water from a flooded open pit (i.e. pit waters), hatched 26-39% earlier than those exposed to reference or control water. The combination of low water hardness and elevated nickel concentrations in pit waters contributed to the early hatching. Egg hatchability and hatching time were more sensitive indicators of toxicity than 'standard' endpoints, like larval mortality and growth. Current regulatory emphasis on single contaminants and standard toxicological endpoints should be re-evaluated in light of the complex interaction among confounding variables such as pH, hardness. conductivity, and multi-metal mixtures. PMID:11806452

  6. A Two-Stage-to-Orbit Spaceplane Concept With Growth Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.

    2001-01-01

    A two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) spaceplane concept developed in 1993 is revisited, and new information is provided to assist in the development of the next-generation space transportation vehicles. The design philosophy, TSTO spaceplane concept, and the design method are briefly described. A trade study between cold and hot structures leads to the choice of cold structures with external thermal protection systems. The optimal Mach number for staging the second stage of the TSTO spaceplane (with air-breathing propulsion on the first stage) is 10, based on life-cycle cost analysis. The performance and specification of a prototype/experimental (P/X) TSTO spaceplane with a turbo/ram/scramjet propulsion system and built-in growth potential are presented and discussed. The internal rate of return on investment is the highest for the proposed TSTO spaceplane, vis-A-vis a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle and a TSTO spaceplane without built-in growth. Additional growth potentials for the proposed spaceplane are suggested. This spaceplane can substantially decrease access-to-space cost and risk, and increase safety and reliability in the near term It can be a serious candidate for the next-generation space transportation system.

  7. Environmental- and growth stage-related differences in the susceptibility of terrestrial isopods to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Rui; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Tourinho, Paula; Ribeiro, Fabianne; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Global environmental changes are nowadays one of the most important issues affecting terrestrial ecosystems. One of its most significant expressions is the increasing ultraviolet radiation (UVR) arising from the human-induced depletion in ozone layer. Therefore, to investigate the effects of UVR on the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus a multiple biomarker approach was carried out. Two experiments were performed in order to analyze the importance of the exposure environment and the growth stage on the UV-induced damages. First, adult individuals were exposed to UVR in three exposure environments (soil, soil with leaves, and plaster). Thereafter, three growth stages using soil as the exposure condition were tested. Integrated biomarker responses (IBR) suggested that UV effects were higher in plaster, and mostly identified by changes in acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferases activities, lipid peroxidation rates, and total energy available. The effects in soil and soil with leaves were not so clear. In the growth stages' experiment, juveniles and pre-adults were found to be more affected than adults, with the greatest differences between irradiated and non-irradiated isopods occurring in energy-related parameters. Our findings suggest that soil surface-living macrofauna may be prone to deleterious effects caused by UVR, highlighting the importance of taking the media of exposure and growth stage in account. PMID:23899792

  8. Fatty Acid Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue from Male Calves at Different Stages of Growth1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. O. Huerta-Leidenz; H. R. Cross; J. W. Savell; D. K. Lunt; J. F. Baker; S. B. Smith

    The objective of this investigation was to compare fatty acid composition of calves from Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows across different stages of growth. Hereford ( H ) and Brahman ( B ) embryos were transferred to H or B cows (n = 58) to produce purebred Brahman (BB), purebred Hereford (HH), Hereford × Brahman (HB), and Brahman ×

  9. Endorsement of Growth Factors and Its Relation to Stage of Group Development in Experiential Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiweewa, John M.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation utilized critical incidents methodology to examine participants' endorsement of twelve primary growth factors during a Master's level group counseling class. Additionally, the study examined whether some factors are more salient than others at each stage of development (i.e., forming, storming, norming, performing) as defined by…

  10. Determination of growth-stage specific crop coefficients (Kc) of cotton and wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of crop coefficient (Kc), the ratio of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) to reference evapotranspiration (ETo), can enhance ETc estimates in relation to specific crop phenological development. This research was conducted to determine growth-stage-specific Kc and crop water use for cotton (Go...

  11. Dimensions of innovation during the high growth stage of materials and energy production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Sekhar; M. C. Connelly; B. Davies; J. P. Dismukes

    2011-01-01

    Life-cycles studies provide a comprehensive insight into innovation behavior and innovation constants. The study has led to making the connections between Green energy and Green materials. The authors have noted in the past that production and patent activities may be correlated to such an extent that they may be superimposed to a large degree, for all growth stages, simply by

  12. Laser initiation and early stages of electrical breakdown in charge glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Akishin, A.I.; Zelikin, N.V.; Kornienko, L.S.; Radchenko, V.V.; Trukhanova, L.P.; Tyutrin, Yu.I.

    1989-01-01

    A single pulse from a neodymium laser is used to initiate electrical breakdown in glasses which accumulate and preserve a space charge induced by a beam of rapid monoenergetic electrons. Laser initiation permits use of high-speed recording apparatus and study of the initial stage of electrical breakdown in the charged glasses. A time delay in electrical breakdown relative to the initiating optical radiation was observed and measured, corresponding to the time of formation of a conductive channel between the region of space-charge localization and the specimen surface. Growth rates of the conductive channel are determined for surface and volume initiation, and possible mechanisms of laser initiation are considered.

  13. Growth response of seven perennial grass species to three temperature regimes applied at two growth stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudni Thorvaldsson; Ralph C. Martin

    2004-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the growth rate of shoots and roots for seven grass species was investigated in a growth chamber experiment. The following species were tested: Alopecurus pratensis L, Deschampsia caespitosa L (PB), Festuca pratensis Huds, Festuca rubra L, Lolium perenne L, Poa pratensis L and Phleum pratense L. Plants were grown in pots in a greenhouse, then

  14. Toxicity assessment of the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione using early developmental stages of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Bellas

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of zinc pyrithione (Zpt) on the early stages of development of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Larval morphological abnormalities were studied after the exposure of C. intestinalis embryos at different stages of development. The median effective concentrations (EC50) ranged from 226–590 nM. The larval settlement stage was the most sensitive to Zpt. Toxic effects of Zpt on

  15. Behavior of homologous chromosomes in early meiotic stages of human spermatocytes as revealed by FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Am, I.; Avivi, L. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel); Mukame, E. [Hasharon Hospital, Petah-Tikva (Israel)

    1994-09-01

    The process by which homologous chromosomes recognize each other at the beginning of meiosis, prior to synapsis, is poorly understood. To gain a better understanding as to when, where and how a given chromosome approaches its pairing partner, chromosome behavior at early stages of meiosis in human spermatocytes was studied. Using multi-color FISH with centromeric- and telomeric-specific probes, as well as with whole chromosome DNA libraries, it was clearly aligned. Rather, similarly to non-homologous chromosomes, they were well separated from each other. At the commencement of synapsis, during the process of homology search, homologues underwent a drastic conformational change, elongating into strands that approached each other by their telomeres. Just preceding the co-alignment of the homologous centromeres, telomeres changed their interphase random distribution and occupied a confined region of the nuclear periphery. Following synapsis, telomeres spread over the whole nuclear periphery. These dynamics in the telomeres distribution, which are unique to early stages of meiosis, are presumably related to the role that telomeres play in the process of homology search and the commencement of synapsis.

  16. ACR appropriateness Criteria® early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Videtic, Gregory M M; Chang, Joe Yujiao; Chetty, Indrin J; Ginsburg, Mark E; Kestin, Larry L; Kong, Feng-Ming Spring; Lally, Brian E; Loo, Billy W; Movsas, Benjamin; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Willers, Henning; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2014-04-01

    Early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is diagnosed in about 15% to 20% of lung cancer patients at presentation. In order to provide clinicians with guidance in decision making for early-stage NSCLC patients, the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria Lung Cancer Panel was recently charged with a review of the current published literature to generate up-to-date management recommendations for this clinical scenario. For patients with localized, mediastinal lymph node-negative NSCLC, optimal management should be determined by an expert multidisciplinary team. For medically operable patients, surgical resection is the standard of care, with generally no role for adjuvant therapies thereafter. For patients with medical comorbidities making them at high risk for surgery, there is emerging evidence demonstrating the availability of low toxicity curative therapies, such as stereotactic body radiotherapy, for their care. As a general statement, the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:25180631

  17. Molecular Mechanism of the Early Stage of Amyloidogenic Hexapeptides (NFGAIL) Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Bi-Yun; Zhou, Bo; Cai, Zhuo-Wei; Xiu, Peng; Yang, Zai-Xing

    2013-10-01

    Peptides/proteins aggregation can give rise to pathological conditions of many human diseases. Small partially ordered oligomers formed in the early stage of aggregation, rather than mature fibrils, are thought to be the main toxicity agent for the living cell. Thus, understanding the pathway and the underlying physical mechanism in the early stage of aggregation is very important for prevention and treatment of these protein functional diseases. Herein we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the aggregation of four NFGAIL hexapeptides (NFGAIL peptide is a core segment of human islet amyloid polypeptide and exhibits similar aggregation kinetics as the full-length polypeptide). We observe that the peptide monomers in water mainly adopt non-structural coil configurations; the four peptides which are randomly placed in water aggregate spontaneously to partially ordered oligomer (?-sheets) through dimerization or trimerization, with the dimerization predominated. Both parallel and anti-parallel ?-sheets are observed. The hydrophobic interactions drive the initial peptides associations, and the subsequent conformational fluctuations promote the formation of more hydrogen bonds between the dangling hydrogen sites in the main chains of peptides.

  18. Lymph Node Micrometastases in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer are Not Predictive of Survival.

    PubMed

    Stany, Michael P; Stone, Pamela J B; Felix, Juan C; Amezcua, Charles A; Groshen, Susan; Ye, Wei; Kyser, Kathy L; Howard, Robin S; Zahn, Chris M; Muderspach, Laila I; Lentz, Scott E; Chernofsky, Mildred R

    2015-07-01

    Although patients with early-stage cervical cancer have in general a favorable prognosis, 10% to 40% patients still recur depending on pathologic risk factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the presence of lymph node micrometastasis (LNmM) had an impact on patient's survival. We performed a multi-institutional retrospective review on patients with early-stage cervical cancer, with histologically negative lymph nodes, treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for the study period 1994 to 2004. Tissue blocks of lymph nodes from the patient's original surgery were recut and then evaluated for the presence of micrometastases. One hundred twenty-nine patients were identified who met inclusion criteria. LNmM were found in 26 patients (20%). In an average follow-up time of 70 mo, there were 11 recurrences (8.5%). Of the 11 recurrences, 2 (18%) patients had LNmM. Patients with LNmM were more likely to have received adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. In stratified log-rank analysis, LNmM were not associated with any other high-risk clinical or pathologic variables. Survival data analysis did not demonstrate an association between the presence of LNmM and recurrence or overall survival. The presence of LNmM was not associated with an unfavorable prognosis nor was it associated with other high-risk clinical or pathologic variables predicting recurrence. Further study is warranted to understand the role of micrometastases in cervical cancer. PMID:26061072

  19. Phenotypic and fitness consequences of maternal nest-site choice across multiple early life stages.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Timothy S; Warner, Daniel A; Janzen, Fredric J

    2013-02-01

    Identifying the relative contributions of genetic, maternal, and environmental factors to phenotypic variation is critical for evaluating the evolutionary potential of fitness-related traits. We employed a novel two-step cross-fostering experiment to quantify the relative contributions of clutch (i.e., maternal identity) and maternally chosen nest sites to phenotypic variation during three early life stages (incubation, hibernation, dispersal) of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). By translocating eggs between nests in the field, we demonstrated that both clutch and nest site contribute to phenotypic variation at hatching. Because hatchling C. picta hibernate inside nests, we performed a second cross-foster to decouple the effects of the incubation nest with that of the hibernation nest. Incubation nest explained little variation in phenotypes at spring emergence, but winter nest site was important. We found no evidence that mothers select nest sites specific to reaction norms of their own offspring, suggesting that females may select nest sites with microhabitats that broadly meet similar requirements across the population. After hibernation, we released hatchlings to assess performance and phenotypic selection during dispersal. Hibernation nest site influenced physiological performance during dispersal, and we detected nonlinear selection on hatchling carapace length. Our experiment demonstrates that nest-site choice has substantial effects on phenotypic variation and fitness across multiple early life stages. PMID:23691653

  20. Marital relationship quality in early-stage dementia: perspectives from people with dementia and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Clare, Linda; Nelis, Sharon M; Whitaker, Christopher J; Martyr, Anthony; Markova, Ivana S; Roth, Ilona; Woods, Robert T; Morris, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Spouse caregivers of people with dementia (PwD) report relatively poor marital relationship quality (RQ), but few studies have obtained the perspective of the PwD, examined discrepancies between spouses, or considered changes in RQ over time. This study explored caregiver and PwD perceptions of RQ, identified associated factors, and examined changes over an 18-month period. Participants were 54 couples where one spouse had early-stage dementia and 54 were control couples. RQ was assessed with the Positive Affect Index. Measures of mood, stress, and quality of life (QoL) were also administered. The clinical couples were followed up after 9 and 18 months. Caregivers gave significantly lower RQ ratings than controls. PwD ratings did not differ significantly from those of caregivers or controls. Dyadic discrepancies were significantly greater in the clinical than in the control group. Caregiver ratings were associated with stress, whereas PwD ratings were associated with depression and QoL. Discrepancies were associated with caregiver stress and with PwD mood, QoL, and age. Caregiver ratings declined significantly over time; PwD ratings did not decline significantly, but showed different trends for men and women. It is important to consider RQ when considering how to support couples where one partner has early-stage dementia. PMID:21685780

  1. A fiber damage model for early stage consolidation of metal-coated fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.; Elzey, D.M.; Wadley, H.N.G. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)] [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites (TMCs) possess combinations of specific modulus, strength, and creep resistance that are well suited for a variety of aerospace applications. Recent studies of the high temperature consolidation of titanium alloy coated {alpha}-alumina fiber tows and SiC monofilaments have both revealed the widespread occurrence of fiber bending and fracture during early stage consolidation. This damage was shown to arise from the bending of unaligned fibers during consolidation and was found to be affected by the mechanical behavior of the metal-metal contacts at fiber crossovers. To predict the incidence of fiber fracture during early stage high temperature consolidation, a time-temperature dependent micromechanical model incorporating the evolving contact geometry and mechanical behavior of both the metal matrix and the ceramic fibers has been combined with a statistical representation of crossovers in the pre-consolidated layup. The damage predictions are found to compare favorably with experimental results. The model has subsequently been used to explore the effects of fiber strength, matrix constitutive properties and the processing conditions upon the incidence of fiber fracture. It reveals the existence of a temperature dependent pressurization rate below which fracture is relatively unlikely. This critical pressure rate can be significantly increased by the enhanced superplasticity of the initially nanocrystalline coating.

  2. Analysis and evaluation of tasty components in the pileus and stipe of Lentinula edodes at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanchao; Li, Wen; Yang, Yan; Yu, Hailong; Zhou, Shuai; Feng, Jie; Li, Xiaobei; Liu, Yanfang

    2015-01-28

    Tasty components in Lentinula edodes pileus and stipe at different growth stages were studied. Mannitol, trehalose, arabitol, and glucose were the main soluble polyols and sugars, whereas succinic acid, malic acid, and citric acid were the main organic acids. Mannitol contents were the highest in the pileus and increased at mature growth stages, although arabitol contents were the highest in the stipe and peaked at stage 5. Succinic acid contents peaked at stage 5 in the pileus and stipe during mature growth stages. Threonine (sweet taste) values were the highest among all the detected amino acids, followed by glutamic acid (MSG-like taste). MSG-like 5'-nucleotide contents could account for nearly 50% of the total 5'-nucleotides. Equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values of stage 5 exhibited higher levels during mature growth stages. Tasty components in the stipe were rich and EUC values were high, which might be useful for further processing and byproduct development of L. edodes. PMID:25560993

  3. Cost calculations at early stages of nuclear research facilities in the nordic countries

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Klaus [Danish Decommissioning (Denmark); Salmenhaara, Seppo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1805 - Kemistintie 3, Espoo, FIN - 02044 VTT (Finland); Backe, Steinar [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Cato, Anna; Lindskog, Staffan [The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Klarabergsviadukten 90, SE-106 58 Stockholm (Sweden); Callander, Clas; Efraimsson, Henrik [The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Inga [Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Spinnarvaegen 10, 611 63 Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warranted and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with fundamental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones. Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflected in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities. Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for cost calculations. It also implies that this calculation process should include a well adopted learning process. Thus, a Nordic co-operation has been established for the exchange and evaluation of cost-related information on nuclear research facilities. The aim is to identify good practices, accumulate experience, compile data from actual plants and projects, and to derive methodology for cost calculations, especially for early stages. The work includes the following tasks which constitutes the bulk of the present paper: identification of good practice with regard to the following: - strategy and planning; - methodology selection; - radiological surveying; - uncertainty analysis. - descriptions of relevant plants, features and projects: - decommissioning of reactor DR 1 in Denmark; - decommissioning of reactor R 1 in Sweden; - decommissioning of the pilot scale uranium fuel; reprocessing plant in Norway - planning for the future decommissioning of the TRIGA reactor in Finland. - techniques for assessments of costs introduction. (authors)

  4. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Št?pánová, Stanislava; Plhalová, Lucie; Doleželová, Petra; Prokeš, Miroslav; Maršálek, Petr; Škori?, Miša; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P < 0.0001) were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160??g/L). The concentrations 520 and 820??g/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160??g/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) was 520??g/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae. PMID:22629165

  5. Endoscopic features of early-stage signet-ring-cell carcinoma of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Phalanusitthepha, Chainarong; Grimes, Kevin L; Ikeda, Haruo; Sato, Hiroki; Sato, Chiaki; Hokierti, Chananya; Inoue, Haruhiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify the features of early signet ring cell gastric carcinoma using magnification endoscopy with narrow band imaging (NBI). METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 12 cases of early signet ring cell gastric carcinoma who underwent treatment in a single institution between January 2009 and April 2013. All patients had magnification endoscopy with NBI and indigo carmine contrast to closely examine the mucosal architecture, including the microvasculature and arrangement of gastric pits. Histologic examination of the final endoscopic submucosal dissection or gastrectomy specimen was performed and compared with the endoscopic findings to identify patterns specific to signet ring cell carcinoma. RESULTS: Twelve patients with early signet ring cell gastric carcinoma were identified; 75% were male, and average age was 61 years. Most of the lesions were stage T1a (83%), while the remainder were T1b (17%). The mean lesion size was 1.4 cm2. On standard endoscopy, all 12 patients had a pale, flat lesion without any evidence of mucosal abnormality such as ulceration, elevation, or depression. On magnification endoscopy with NBI, all of the patients had irregularities in the glands and microvasculature consistent with early gastric cancer. In addition, all 12 patients exhibited the “stretch sign”, an elongation or expansion of the architectural structure. Histologic examination of the resected specimens demonstrated an expanded and edematous mucosal layer infiltrated with tumor cells. CONCLUSION: The “stretch sign” appears to be specific for signet ring cell carcinoma and may aid in the early diagnosis and treatment of this aggressive pathology. PMID:26140102

  6. Observations of bubble growth in rhyolite using hot-stage microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, J.; Tuffen, H.; James, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Bubble growth in rhyolitic melts is a primary control on some of the largest explosive eruptions, but growth dynamics remain controversial. We have used hot-stage microscopy to directly observe vesiculation of a Chaiten rhyolite melt (containing ~1.38 wt. % H 2O) at atmospheric pressure. Thin wafers of obsidian were held from 5 minutes up to 2 days in the hot-stage at temperatures between 575 oC and 875 oC. The growth of many individual bubbles was measured using image tracking code within MATLAB. We found that bubble growth rates increased with both temperature and bubble size. The average growth rate at the highest temperature of 875 oC is ~1.27 ?m s-1, compared with the lowest observed growth rate of ~0.02 ?m s-1 at 725 oC; below this temperature no growth was observed. Average growth rate V r follows an exponential relationship with temperature and melt viscosity where V r ~ exp (0.0169T) and V r ~ exp (-1.202?). Comparison of these measured rates with existing bubble growth models (e.g. Navon, Proussevitch and Sahagian) indicates slower growth than expected at the highest temperatures. The extent of diffusive degassing of H 2O and OH- from wafer surfaces during experiments was estimated with simple diffusion models. It was found to be negligible during brief high-temperature experiments but became increasingly important for slower, lower-temperature experiments. Several stages of bubble growth were directly observed, including initial relaxation of deformed existing bubbles into spheres, extensive growth of spheres, and, at higher temperatures, close packing and foam formation. An advantage of the imaging techniques used here is that bubble-bubble interactions can be observed in-situ at relatively high resolution. Bubble deformation due to bubble-bubble interaction and coalescence was observed in most experiments. Evolving bubble number densities (BND) with time were determined, allowing nucleation rates to be estimated. Maximum observed BNDs were 3.4 x 1012 m-3 with maximum increases of around 143 % observed in samples with a lower initial vesicularity <5.7 x 1011 m-3. The experiments described can be used to effectively retrace the vesiculation history of samples, providing a useful tool for aiding in the interpretation of end member products. Figure 1. Nucleation, growth and coalescence of bubbles Summary of findings from vesiculation experiments;

  7. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Velisek, Josef; Stara, Alzbeta; Koutnik, Dalibor; Machova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine's herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9?mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5?mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029?mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07?mg/L, 1.4?mg/L, and 3.5?mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) = 0.002?mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC) = 0.0001?mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5?mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found. PMID:24689046

  8. Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: jwong@lroc.harvard.edu; Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Keshaviah, Aparna [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Winer, Eric P. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

  9. Lack of miRNA Misregulation at Early Pathological Stages in Drosophila Neurodegenerative Disease Models

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Anita; Feuillette, Sébastien; Cassar, Marlène; Callens, Céline; Thomassin, Hélène; Birman, Serge; Lecourtois, Magalie; Antoniewski, Christophe; Tricoire, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Late onset neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health concern as the population in many countries ages. Both frequent diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD, 14% incidence for 80–84?year-old Europeans) or Parkinson disease (PD, 1.4% prevalence for >55?years old) share, with other low-incidence neurodegenerative pathologies such as spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs, 0.01% prevalence) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, 0.02% prevalence), a lack of efficient treatment in spite of important research efforts. Besides significant progress, studies with animal models have revealed unexpected complexities in the degenerative process, emphasizing a need to better understand the underlying pathological mechanisms. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs, have been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases. The current data supporting a role of miRNAs in PD, tauopathies, dominant ataxias, and FTLD will first be discussed to emphasize the different levels of the pathological processes which may be affected by miRNAs. To investigate a potential involvement of miRNA dysregulation in the early stages of these neurodegenerative diseases we have used Drosophila models for seven diseases (PD, 3 FTLD, 3 dominant ataxias) that recapitulate many features of the human diseases. We performed deep sequencing of head small RNAs after 3?days of pathological protein expression in the fly head neurons. We found no evidence for a statistically significant difference in miRNA expression in this early stage of the pathological process. In addition, we could not identify small non-coding CAG repeat RNAs (sCAG) in polyQ disease models. Thus our data suggest that transcriptional deregulation of miRNAs or sCAG is unlikely to play a significant role in the initial stages of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23115562

  10. Early-Stage Young Breast Cancer Patients: Impact of Local Treatment on Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Bantema-Joppe, Enja J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Munck, Linda de [Comprehensive Cancer Center North East, Groningen/Enschede (Netherlands); Visser, Otto [Comprehensive Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Willemse, Pax H.B. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Siesling, Sabine [Comprehensive Cancer Center North East, Groningen/Enschede (Netherlands); Department of Health Technology and Services Research, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Maduro, John H., E-mail: j.h.maduro@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: In young women, breast-conserving therapy (BCT), i.e., lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy, has been associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. Still, there is insufficient evidence that BCT impairs survival. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of BCT with mastectomy on overall survival (OS) in young women with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: From two Dutch regional population-based cancer registries (covering 6.2 million inhabitants) 1,453 women <40 years with pathologically T1N0-1M0 breast cancer were selected. Cox regression survival analysis was used to study the effect of local treatment (BCT vs. mastectomy) stratified for nodal stage on survival and corrected for tumor size, age, period of diagnosis, and use of adjuvant systemic therapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 10-year OS was 83% after BCT and 78% after mastectomy, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.72). In N0-patients, 10-year OS was 84% after BCT and 81% after mastectomy and local treatment was not associated with differences in OS (HR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89-1.58; p = 0.25). Within the N1-patient group, OS was better after BCT compared with mastectomy, 79% vs. 71% at 10 years (HR 1.91; 95% CI, 1.28-2.84; p = 0.001) and in patients treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy (HR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.66; p = 0.001). Conclusions: In this large population-based cohort of early-stage young breast cancer patients, 10-year OS was not impaired after BCT compared with mastectomy. Patients with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes had better prognosis after BCT than after mastectomy.

  11. Features of fatigue in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xianping; Zhou, Weihe; Zhang, Yuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the fatigue status and related factors in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) 1-5 years after surgery. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 254 patients with stage IA or IB NSCLC, who had undergone surgery. They completed several surveys, including the Brief Fatigue Inventory, Karnofsky Performance Scale, Physical Activity Questionnaire, Baseline Dyspnea Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The association between fatigue and functional status was assessed using Chi-square analysis. Spearman rank correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to assess the correlation between fatigue and various other factors. Results: The overall incidence of postoperative fatigue was 59.8%. Among patients with moderate to severe fatigue, 21.1% had obvious dysfunction, whereas only 9.6% of patients with mild or no fatigue (?2 = 5.369; P = 0.02) showed obvious dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that functional status (odds ratio [OR]: 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-6.19), concurrent lung disease (OR: 2.34; 95% CI: 1.08-4.99), depression (OR: 6.39; 95% CI: 2.42-17.35), and anxiety (OR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.13-4.87) were independent risk factors for fatigue, whereas physical activity (OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11-0.73) could prevent fatigue. Conclusion: More than half of the patients with early-stage NSCLC experienced fatigue 1-5 years after surgery, and moderate to severe fatigue was often associated with obvious dysfunction. The strong association of fatigue with anxiety, depression, and lung complications suggests that fatigue and other symptoms constitute a symptom cluster. Therefore, comprehensive treatment methods may achieve better therapeutic results.

  12. Toxicity of retene to early life stages of two freshwater fish species

    SciTech Connect

    Billiard, S.M.; Querbach, K.; Hodson, P.V.

    1999-09-01

    Larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed for 14 d to graded nominal concentrations of waterborne retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene) from 5 to 336 h postfertilization. Reduced growth, yolk sac edema, and mortality were observed before swim up at nominal concentrations of 320 {micro}g/L and higher in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, exposures of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to retene (32--320 {micro}g/L) for 42 d from the eyed egg stage to hatch and from hatch to the onset of swim up behavior caused exposure-related increases in blue sac disease posthatch. Symptoms included increased activity of cytochrome P4501A (CYPIA) enzymes, yolk sac edema, subcutaneous hemorrhaging, reduced growth, and craniofacial malformations. Chronic exposure to retene resulted in mortality before swim up. Blue sac symptoms were observed in fish exposed to nominal concentrations as low as 32 {micro}g/L, the lowest concentration tested, and fin erosion and opercular sloughing were evident in 100% of retene-exposed swim up larvae. No symptoms were observed in control fish or in fish exposed to acetone, the solvent carrier. The observed pathology resembles the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity to developing stages of fish, and results suggest that chronic exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may be responsible for recruitment failure associated with pulp mill effluents and oil spills.

  13. Left atrial enlargement in the early stage of hypertensive heart disease: a common but ignored condition.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanhua; Cao, Heng; Xu, Sudan; Lu, Yongxin; Shuai, Xinxin; Sun, Yufei; Liao, Yuhua; Li, Jingdong

    2014-03-01

    How to identify the early signs of hypertensive heart disease is the key to block or reverse the process of heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of left atrial (LA) enlargement in the early stage of hypertensive heart disease and to explore the correlations between LA enlargement and heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFnEF), as well as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Baseline clinical characteristics, biochemical indices, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic data were collected from 341 consecutive patients with essential hypertension. Among those patients, LA enlargement was more frequently presented than LV enlargement (57.2% vs 17.9%). Compared with patients without HFnEF, the prevalence of LA enlargement was higher in patients with HFnEF (82.9% vs 49.0%, P<.0001). From grade 2 to grade 3 hypertension, LA size was significantly larger in patients with MetS (P<.01) than those without. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that age, body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride level, and left ventricular diameter were independent predictors of LA enlargement. The simple measurement for identification of LA enlargement potentially allows early recognition of those patients at risk for heart failure, particularly among patients with MetS. PMID:24708380

  14. Growth and maturation in the zebrafish, Danio rerio: a staging tool for teaching and research.

    PubMed

    Singleman, Corinna; Holtzman, Nathalia G

    2014-08-01

    Zebrafish have been increasingly used as a teaching tool to enhance the learning of many biological concepts from genetics, development, and behavior to the understanding of the local watershed. Traditionally, in both research and teaching, zebrafish work has focused on embryonic stages; however, later stages, from larval through adulthood, are increasingly being examined. Defining developmental stages based on age is a problematic way to assess maturity, because many environmental factors, such as temperature, population density, and water quality, impact growth and maturation. Fish length and characterization of key external morphological traits are considered better markers for maturation state. While a number of staging series exist for zebrafish, here we present a simplified normalization table of post-embryonic maturation well suited to both educational and research use. Specifically, we utilize fish size and four easily identified external morphological traits (pigment pattern, tail fin, anal fin, and dorsal fin morphology) to describe three larval stages, a juvenile stage, and an adult stage. These simplified maturation standards will be a useful tool for both educational and research protocols. PMID:24979389

  15. Growth and hemodynamics after early embryonic aortic arch occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Stephanie E; Menon, Prahlad G; Kowalski, William J; Shekhar, Akshay; Yalcin, Huseyin C; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B; Butcher, Jonathan T; Pekkan, Kerem

    2015-08-01

    The majority of severe clinically significant forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) are associated with great artery lesions, including hypoplastic, double, right or interrupted aortic arch morphologies. While fetal and neonatal interventions are advancing, their potential ability to restore cardiac function, optimal timing, location, and intensity required for intervention remain largely unknown. Here, we combine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with in vivo experiments to test how individual pharyngeal arch artery hemodynamics alter as a result of local interventions obstructing individual arch artery flow. Simulated isolated occlusions within each pharyngeal arch artery were created with image-derived three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of normal chick pharyngeal arch anatomy at Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) developmental stages HH18 and HH24. Acute flow redistributions were then computed using in vivo measured subject-specific aortic sinus inflow velocity profiles. A kinematic vascular growth-rendering algorithm was then developed and implemented to test the role of changing local wall shear stress patterns in downstream 3D morphogenesis of arch arteries. CFD simulations predicted that altered pressure gradients and flow redistributions were most sensitive to occlusion of the IVth arches. To evaluate these simulations experimentally, a novel in vivo experimental model of pharyngeal arch occlusion was developed and implemented using two-photon microscopy-guided femtosecond laser-based photodisruption surgery. The right IVth arch was occluded at HH18, and resulting diameter changes were followed for up to 24 h. Pharyngeal arch diameter responses to acute hemodynamic changes were predicted qualitatively but poorly quantitatively. Chronic growth and adaptation to hemodynamic changes, however, were predicted in a subset of arches. Our findings suggest that this complex biodynamic process is governed through more complex forms of mechanobiological vascular growth rules. Other factors in addition to wall shear stress or more complex WSS rules are likely important in the long-term arterial growth and patterning. Combination in silico/experimental platforms are essential for accelerating our understanding and prediction of consequences from embryonic/fetal cardiovascular occlusions and lay the foundation for noninvasive methods to guide CHD diagnosis and fetal intervention. PMID:25416845

  16. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the early life stages.

    PubMed

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y?=?aX(b) . A total of 125 chitons (4?TL?40 mm, in total length "TL") were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed) and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females) and 19.51-26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females) and 23.45-32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females) and 25.45-32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management. PMID:23936353

  17. Effect of moderate electric field frequency and growth stage on the cell membrane permeability of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Loghavi, Laleh; Sastry, Sudhir K; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    Changes in growth kinetics and metabolic activity of microorganisms under the presence of a moderate electric field (MEF) have been hypothesized as being due to temporary permeabilization of cell membranes. We investigated herein the effects of frequency and growth stage on cell membrane permeabilization of Lactobacillus acidophilus OSU 133 during MEF fermentation. Cells were stained with two fluorescent nucleic acid stains: the green, nonselective, cell membrane permeable SYTO 9, and the red, cell membrane impermeable propidium iodide (PI). Fluorescence exhibition post-treatment was assessed using fluorescence microscopy. Total plate counting was done to determine whether or not the permeabilized population represented live cells. Fermentation treatments investigated were conventional (control) and MEF (2 V/cm, 45, 60, 1,000, 10,000 Hz) at 30 degrees C. Studies were conducted at 45 Hz for lag, exponential, and stationary phases of growth. Low frequency MEF treated cells exhibited significantly greater numbers of red cell counts than conventional treatments; further, no significant differences existed in viable counts between MEF and conventional treatments, suggesting that the red counts represent permeabilized live cells. MEF treatments at the early stage of bacterial growth at 45 Hz exhibited the maximum permeabilization followed by treatments at 60 Hz. MEF treated samples at frequencies higher than 60 Hz did not exhibit red fluorescence. Cells at lag phase showed the greatest susceptibility to permeabilization followed by those at exponential phase. No evidence of electroporation was observed during the stationary phase. To our knowledge, these observations provide the first evidence that cell membrane permeabilization occurs under the presence of electric fields as low as those under MEF. PMID:19224558

  18. Dual-stage growth factor release within 3D protein-engineered hydrogel niches promotes adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood-Goodwin, Midori; Teasley, Eric S; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2014-11-01

    Engineered biomimetic microenvironments from hydrogels are an emerging strategy to achieve lineage-specific differentiation in vitro. In addition to recapitulating critical matrix cues found in the native three-dimensional (3D) niche, the hydrogel can also be designed to deliver soluble factors that are present within the native inductive microenvironment. We demonstrate a versatile materials approach for the dual-stage delivery of multiple soluble factors within a 3D hydrogel to induce adipogenesis. We use a Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogel (MITCH) embedded with alginate microgels to deliver two pro-adipogenic soluble factors, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) with two distinct delivery profiles. We show that dual-stage delivery of FGF-1 and BMP-4 to human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) significantly increases lipid accumulation compared with the simultaneous delivery of both growth factors together. Furthermore, dual-stage growth factor delivery within a 3D hydrogel resulted in substantially more lipid accumulation compared to identical delivery profiles in 2D cultures. Gene expression analysis shows upregulation of key adipogenic markers indicative of brown-like adipocytes. These data suggest that dual-stage release of FGF-1 and BMP-4 within 3D microenvironments can promote the in vitro development of mature adipocytes. PMID:25309741

  19. Amygdalohippocampal MR volume measurements in the early stages of Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lehericy, S.; Baulac, M.; Chiras, J.; Pierot, L.; Martin, N.; Pillon, B.; Deweer, B.; Dubois, B.; Marsault, C. [Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of hippocampal and amygdala volume measurements in diagnosing patients in the early stages of Alzheimer disease. Measurements of the hippocampal formation, amygdala, amygdalohippocampal complex (the two measurements summed), caudate nucleus, and ventricles, normalized for total intracranial volume, were obtained on coronal sections (1.5 T, 400/13 [repetition time/echo time], 5 mm) of 13 patients in the mild (minimental status {ge} 21) and five patients in the moderate stages of Alzheimer disease (10 < minimental status < 21), and eight age-matched control subjects. For patients with a minimental status score of 21 or greater, atrophy was significant for the amygdala and hippocampal formation (-36% and -25% for amygdala/total intracranial volume and hippocampal formation/total intracranial volume, respectively), but not for the caudate nucleus. No significant ventricular enlargement was found. For patients with a minimental status score less than 21, atrophy was more severe in all structures studied (amygdala/total intracranial volume -40%; hippocampal formation/total intracranial volume, -45%; caudate nucleus/total intracranial volume, -21%), and ventricles were enlarged (63%). No overlap was found between Alzheimer disease and control values for the amygdalohippocampal volume, even in the mild stages of the disease. In Alzheimer disease patients, hippocampal formation volumes correlated with the minimental status. Hippocampal and amygdala atrophy is marked and significant in the mild stages of Alzheimer disease. Volumetric measurements of the amygdala and the amygdalohippocampal complex appear more accurate than those of the hippocampal formation alone in distinguishing patients with Alzheimer disease. 46 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Parentage testing for hatchery-produced abalone Haliotis discus hannai based on microsatellite markers: preliminary evaluation of early growth of selected strains in mixed family farming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoyuki Hara; Masashi Sekino

    2007-01-01

    This study dealt with the detection of parentage in a mixed family tank of abalone Haliotis discus hannai using microsatellite DNA markers. As a preliminary investigation, the early growth rate between selected and non-selected\\u000a abalone families, which were reared together in the mixed family tank from settlement stage to juvenile stage (7 months of\\u000a age), was also compared. The selected

  1. Why the proportion of transmission during early-stage HIV infection does not predict the long-term impact of treatment on HIV incidence.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Hallett, Timothy B

    2014-11-11

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the infectiousness of HIV-infected persons, but only after testing, linkage to care, and successful viral suppression. Thus, a large proportion of HIV transmission during a period of high infectiousness in the first few months after infection ("early transmission") is perceived as a threat to the impact of HIV "treatment-as-prevention" strategies. We created a mathematical model of a heterosexual HIV epidemic to investigate how the proportion of early transmission affects the impact of ART on reducing HIV incidence. The model includes stages of HIV infection, flexible sexual mixing, and changes in risk behavior over the epidemic. The model was calibrated to HIV prevalence data from South Africa using a Bayesian framework. Immediately after ART was introduced, more early transmission was associated with a smaller reduction in HIV incidence rate--consistent with the concern that a large amount of early transmission reduces the impact of treatment on incidence. However, the proportion of early transmission was not strongly related to the long-term reduction in incidence. This was because more early transmission resulted in a shorter generation time, in which case lower values for the basic reproductive number (R0) are consistent with observed epidemic growth, and R0 was negatively correlated with long-term intervention impact. The fraction of early transmission depends on biological factors, behavioral patterns, and epidemic stage and alone does not predict long-term intervention impacts. However, early transmission may be an important determinant in the outcome of short-term trials and evaluation of programs. PMID:25313068

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein is required for fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent later-stage osteoblastic differentiation in cranial suture cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Taoran; Ge, Shengfang; Shim, Yoong Hoon; Zhang, Ce; Cao, Dejun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Understanding the pathophysiological process of calvarial bones development is important for the treatments on relative diseases such as craniosynostosis. While, the role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and how they interacted in osteoblast differentiation remain unclear. Methods: we digested bone fragments around the coronal and sagittal sutures from newborn rats to harvest suture cells. Markers expression at different osteoblast differentiation stage was analyzed by increasing FGF2 concentration and BMP2 blocking in these cells. Results: BMP2 expression could be stimulated by FGF2 in a dose and time dependent manner. FGF2 stimulation may decrease early marker of osteoblast differentiation (collagen type-1, COL-1) and increase the expression of continuously-expressed or late markers (alkaline phosphatase, ALP; osteocalcin, OC and bone sialoprotein, BSP) to accelerate mineralization. Inhibition of BMP2 signaling by Noggin weakens the effect of FGF2 on induction of later-stage osteoblastic differentiation of cranial suture cells. Conclusion: Our data suggest that BMP2 signaling is required for FGF2-dependent induction of later-stage of cranial suture cell osteoblastic differentiation.

  3. Object based image analysis for the classification of the growth stages of Avocado crop, in Michoacán State, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Marpu, Prashanth; Morales Manila, Luis M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper assesses the suitability of 8-band Worldview-2 (WV2) satellite data and object-based random forest algorithm for the classification of avocado growth stages in Mexico. We tested both pixel-based with minimum distance (MD) and maximum likelihood (MLC) and object-based with Random Forest (RF) algorithm for this task. Training samples and verification data were selected by visual interpreting the WV2 images for seven thematic classes: fully grown, middle stage, and early stage of avocado crops, bare land, two types of natural forests, and water body. To examine the contribution of the four new spectral bands of WV2 sensor, all the tested classifications were carried out with and without the four new spectral bands. Classification accuracy assessment results show that object-based classification with RF algorithm obtained higher overall higher accuracy (93.06%) than pixel-based MD (69.37%) and MLC (64.03%) method. For both pixel-based and object-based methods, the classifications with the four new spectral bands (overall accuracy obtained higher accuracy than those without: overall accuracy of object-based RF classification with vs without: 93.06% vs 83.59%, pixel-based MD: 69.37% vs 67.2%, pixel-based MLC: 64.03% vs 36.05%, suggesting that the four new spectral bands in WV2 sensor contributed to the increase of the classification accuracy.

  4. Growth mechanism and controllable synthesis of graphene on Cu-Ni alloy surface in the initial growth stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Zongxian

    2015-07-01

    Catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on transition metals is a promising and versatile technique for graphene (and graphene film) growth. Recently, substrate alloying has been used to improve graphene synthesis by CVD. However, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. In this work, taking the Cu-Ni alloy surface as an example, we study the mechanism of carbon nucleation on the alloy surface in the initial stages using first-principles calculations. The energetics and kinetics of C-dimer formation are considered. Our calculations reveal that substrate alloying may strongly affect the carbon dimerization in CVD synthesis. Both the adsorption strength of C species and the dimerization barriers vary with the alloy composition. In addition, carbon migration, an important step in graphene growth, can also be controlled by alloying. Our findings may provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which alloying controls graphene (and graphene film) growth in CVD.

  5. Dynamic expression pattern of the growth hormone receptor during early development of the Chilean flounder.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Poblete, Erika; Reyes, Ariel E; Vera, María Inés; Alvarez, Marco; Molina, Alfredo

    2008-05-01

    The entire cDNA sequence of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) of the Chilean flounder (Paralichthys. adspersus) was cloned by RT-PCR and RNA ligase rapid amplification of 5' and 3'ends. The deduced amino acid sequence contains 641 residues and codes for the GHR1 form. The receptor includes all the structural domains and motifs responsible for its interaction with the growth hormone and growth signal transduction. Sequence comparison revealed 95 and 88% identity with other flat fish such as the Japanese flounder and Atlantic halibut respectively, but decreased to 41% with the GHR of other teleosts such as salmon. In addition we performed a phylogenetic analysis of this receptor in teleosts. RT-PCR experiments were performed to study the expression of GHR1 mRNA in different tissues of juvenile fish, detecting the transcripts in all tissues investigated with higher expressions in the liver, brain and gonads. Additionally, using whole-mount in situ hybridization in larvae stages, we observed an on and off GHR1 mRNA expression pattern. This novel finding evidences that during early development of a teleost, GHR1 is transiently expressed in somites, a source of muscle, bone and spinal chord precursors cells, suggesting a relevant role of GH in fish development. GHR1 was also temporally detected in the notochord, intestines, brain and retinal layers, before its ubiquitous establishment. PMID:18313961

  6. Amplification of oncogenes in early-stage, radiation-induced rat skin tumours

    SciTech Connect

    Ashkenazi-Kimmel, T.

    1989-10-01

    The effect of gene amplification on tumour size and growth was investigated in 39 samples collected from 23 radiation-induced rat skin tumours. The relationships of both the time from irradiation and the time from first appearance of the tumour to gene amplification were also examined. DNA from each tumour sample was extracted and probed for abl, fos, c-myc, N-myc, H-ras, and K-ras, and amplification of all but N-myc was detected. A single amplified gene was observed in 8 of 39 samples; multiple amplified genes were found in an additional 7. The amplification of c-myc, H-ras, or K-ras was found to be associated with increase in tumour size. c-myc amplification was also associated with an increase in growth rate. Amplification of c-myc was found to occur as a late-stage event in these tumours. The results suggest that both myc and ras genes play unique roles in the growth and development of radiation tumours, and they provide new information on the temporal aspects of c-myc activation. 77 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Measuring Physical Activity in Older Adults with and without Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Watts, Amber S; Vidoni, Eric D; Loskutova, Natalia; Johnson, David K; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    We compared subjective reports of physical activity with objective measures of physical fitness including cardiorespiratory capacity, body composition, and physical performance in 146 older adults with and without early stage Alzheimer's disease (ESAD). Respondents reported primarily unstructured and low-intensity activities, including walking and housework. Individuals with ESAD participated in fewer and lower intensity physical activities than those without ESAD. In those without ESAD, housework was related to lower body mass index, leisure walking was related to faster speed on a timed walking test, and participation in sports was related to higher peak oxygen intake. In individuals with ESAD, reported physical activities did not predict any of the physical fitness, body composition, or physical performance measures. We conclude that measures of physical activity require expansion of unstructured and low intensity activities to improve sensitivity in sedentary populations, especially in older adults with ESAD. PMID:24062599

  8. Influence of gas compression on flame acceleration in the early stage of burning in tubes

    E-print Network

    Valiev, Damir; Kuznetsov, Mikhail; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Law, Chung K; Bychkov, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of finger flame acceleration at the early stage of burning in tubes has been observed experimentally by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105: 225 (1996)] for slow propane-air flames, and elucidated analytically and computationally by Bychkov et al. [Combust. Flame 150: 263 (2007)] in the limit of an incompressible flow. We analytically, experimentally and computationally study herein the finger flame acceleration for fast burning flames, when the gas compressibility assumes an important role. Specifically, we have developed a theory through small Mach number expansion up to the first-order terms, demonstrating that gas compression reduces the acceleration rate and thereby moderates the finger flame acceleration noticeably. We have also conducted experiments for hydrogen-oxygen mixtures with considerable initial values of the Mach number, showing finger flame acceleration with the acceleration rate much smaller than those obtained previously for hydrocarbon flames. Furthermore, we have performed...

  9. Emission of spherical cesium-bearing particles from an early stage of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kouji; Kajino, Mizuo; Zaizen, Yuji; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident released radioactive materials into the environment over the entire Northern Hemisphere in March 2011, and the Japanese government is spending large amounts of money to clean up the contaminated residential areas and agricultural fields. However, we still do not know the exact physical and chemical properties of the radioactive materials. This study directly observed spherical Cs-bearing particles emitted during a relatively early stage (March 14–15) of the accident. In contrast to the Cs-bearing radioactive materials that are currently assumed, these particles are larger, contain Fe, Zn, and Cs, and are water insoluble. Our simulation indicates that the spherical Cs-bearing particles mainly fell onto the ground by dry deposition. The finding of the spherical Cs particles will be a key to understand the processes of the accident and to accurately evaluate the health impacts and the residence time in the environment. PMID:23989894

  10. The Utility of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing to Detect and Track Early-Stage Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Sundeep; Arena, Ross A.; Hansen, James E.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Myers, Jonathan N.; Sperling, Laurence S.; LaBudde, Brian D.; Wasserman, Karlman

    2010-01-01

    Evidence demonstrating the potential value of noninvasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to accurately detect exercise-induced myocardial ischemia is emerging. This case-based concept report describes CPET abnormalities in an asymptomatic at-risk man with suspected early-stage ischemic heart disease. When CPET was repeated 1 year after baseline assessment, his cardiovascular function had worsened, and an anti-atherosclerotic regimen was initiated. When the patient was retested after 3.3 years, the diminished left ventricular function had reversed with pharmacotherapy directed at decreasing cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Thus, in addition to identifying appropriate patients in need of escalating therapy for atherosclerosis, CPET was useful in monitoring progression and reversal of abnormalities of the coronary circulation in a safe and cost-effective manner without the use of radiation. Serial CPET parameters may be useful to track changes marking the progression and/or regression of the underlying global ischemic burden. PMID:20884826

  11. Collective interaction of QCD strings and early stages of high-multiplicity pA collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Shuryak, Edward

    2014-07-01

    We study the early stages of "central" pA and peripheral AA collisions. Several observables indicate that at a sufficiently large number of participant nucleons the system undergoes a transition into a new "explosive" regime. By defining a string-string interaction through the ? meson exchange and performing molecular dynamics simulation, we argue that one should expect a strong collective implosion of the multistring "spaghetti" state, creating significant compression of the system in the transverse plane. Another consequence is the collectivization of the "? clouds" of all strings into a chirally symmetric fireball. We find that these effects happen provided the number of strings Ns>30 or so, as only such a number can compensate a small ?-string coupling. These findings should help us to understand the subsequent explosive behavior observed for the particle multiplicities roughly corresponding to this number of strings.

  12. Perceived stigma in persons with early-stage dementia: Longitudinal findings: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Burgener, Sandy C; Buckwalter, Kathleen; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Liu, Megan F; Riley, Rebecca; Einhorn, Carol J; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne; Hahn-Swanson, Carolyn

    2013-12-01

    This longitudinal study examined perceived stigma in persons with dementia, with 50 persons with dementia, and 47 corresponding family caregivers. Data were collected at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months. Study results are reported in two parts, with findings regarding the stability of perceived stigma, measured using the modified Stigma Impact Scale, and relationship of stigma to person-centered variables being reported here. Findings included stability in perceived stigma, which did not show a downward trend until 18 months. Significant differences at baseline were found only for geographic location (rural vs. urban) with persons living in urban areas having higher levels of Stigma Impact Scale internalized shame compared to rural counterparts. Cognitive functioning was significantly, positively related to the Stigma Impact Scale social rejection and social isolation subscales. Findings support the enduring nature of perceived stigma over the early disease stages and the relationship of perceived stigma to some person-centered characteristics. PMID:24339122

  13. Abstract A positive correlation between egg size, early growth and nestling survival has been frequently reported

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Abstract A positive correlation between egg size, early growth and nestling survival has been not determine whether the relationship between egg size, early growth and nestling survival was confounded a life-history trait like egg size causally affects fit- ness. In a colony of the alpine swift Apus melba

  14. Identification and validation of new autoantibodies for the diagnosis of DCIS and node negative early-stage breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Jérôme; Mangé, Alain; Jarlier, Marta; Bascoul-Mollevi, Caroline; Rouanet, Philippe; Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Maudelonde, Thierry; Solassol, Jérôme

    2013-03-01

    Evidence of circulating autoantibodies in cancer patient sera has created opportunities for exploiting them as biomarkers. We report the identification and the clinical validation of an autoantibody panel in newly diagnosed patients with early-stage breast cancer. Proteomic approach and serological screening of a discovery set of sera (n = 80) were performed to identify tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Autoantibody levels were then measured in an independent validation set (n = 182) against a panel of five TAAs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sixty-seven antigens that elicited a specific humoral response in breast cancer were identified and five antigens (GAL3, PAK2, PHB2, RACK1 and RUVBL1) were selected for validation. GAL3 and RACK1 showed significantly increased reactivity in early-stage breast cancer. When combined, the five markers significantly discriminated early-stage cancer from healthy individuals (AUC = 0.81; 95% CI [0.74-0.86]). Interestingly, this value was high in both node-negative early-stage primary breast cancer (AUC = 0.81; 95% CI [0.72-0.88]) and ductal carcinoma in situ (AUC = 0.85; 95% CI [0.76-0.95]) populations. This autoantibody panel could be useful as a diagnostic tool in a screening strategy of early-stage invasive breast cancer and preinvasive breast cancer. It could be particularly appropriate in complement to mammography for women with high breast density. PMID:22886747

  15. Partial Breast Irradiation Versus Whole Breast Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Wittenberg, Eve [Institute for Technology Assessment, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Punglia, Rinaa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: rpunglia@lroc.harvard.edu

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To compare the quality-adjusted life expectancy between women treated with partial breast irradiation (PBI) vs. whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) for estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe health states in the 15 years after radiotherapy for estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. Breast cancer recurrences were separated into local recurrences and elsewhere failures. Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) risk was extracted from the Oxford overview, and rates and utilities were adapted from the literature. We studied two cohorts of women (aged 40 and 55 years), both of whom received adjuvant tamoxifen. Results: Assuming a no evidence of disease (NED)-PBI utility of 0.93, quality-adusted life expectancy after PBI (and WBRT) was 12.61 (12.57) and 12.10 (12.06) years for 40-year-old and 55-year-old women, respectively. The NED-PBI utility thresholds for preferring PBI over WBRT were 0.923 and 0.921 for 40-year-old and 55-year-old women, respectively, both slightly greater than the NED-WBRT utility. Outcomes were sensitive to the utility of NED-PBI, the PBI hazard ratio for local recurrence, the baseline IBTR risk, and the percentage of IBTRs that were local. Overall the degree of superiority of PBI over WBRT was greater for 55-year-old women than for 40-year-old women. Conclusions: For most utility values of the NED-PBI health state, PBI was the preferred treatment modality. This result was highly sensitive to patient preferences and was also dependent on patient age, PBI efficacy, IBTR risk, and the fraction of IBTRs that were local.

  16. Risk of Hospitalization According to Chemotherapy Regimen in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barcenas, Carlos H.; Niu, Jiangong; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Yufeng; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Elting, Linda S.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Giordano, Sharon H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the risk of hospitalization between patients with early-stage breast cancer who received different chemotherapy regimens. Patient and Methods We identified 3,567 patients older than age 65 years from the SEER/Texas Cancer Registry-Medicare database and 9,327 patients younger than age 65 years from the MarketScan database who were diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer between 2003 and 2007. The selection was nonrandomized and nonprospectively collected. We categorized patients according to the regimens they received: docetaxel (T) and cyclophosphamide (C), doxorubicin (A) and C, TAC, AC + T, dose-dense AC + paclitaxel (P) or AC + weekly P. We compared the rates of chemotherapy-related hospitalizations that occurred within 6 months of chemotherapy initiation and used multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify the factors associated with these hospitalizations. Results Among patients younger than age 65 years, the hospitalization rates ranged from 6.2% (dose-dense AC + P) to 10.0% (TAC), and those who received TAC and AC + T had significantly higher rates of hospitalization than did patients who received TC. Among patients older than age 65 years, these rates ranged from 12.7% (TC) to 24.2% (TAC) and the rates of hospitalization of patients who received TAC, AC + T, AC, or AC + weekly P were higher than those of patients who received TC. Conclusion TAC and AC + T were associated with the highest risk of hospitalization in patients younger than age 65 years. Among patients older than age 65 years, all regimens (aside from dose-dense AC + P) were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization than TC. Results may be affected by selection biases where less aggressive regimens are offered to frailer patients. PMID:24868022

  17. Regenerative Therapeutic Potential of Adipose Stromal Cells in Early Stage Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhar, Gangaraju; Ramadan, Ahmed; Abburi, Chandrika; Callaghan, Breedge; Traktuev, Dmitry O.; Evans-Molina, Carmella; Maturi, Raj; Harris, Alon; Kern, Timothy S.; March, Keith L.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults. Early stage DR involves inflammation, vascular leakage, apoptosis of vascular cells and neurodegeneration. In this study, we hypothesized that cells derived from the stromal fraction of adipose tissue (ASC) could therapeutically rescue early stage DR features. Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic athymic nude rats received single intravitreal injection of human ASC into one eye and saline into the other eye. Two months post onset of diabetes, administration of ASC significantly improved “b” wave amplitude (as measured by electroretinogram) within 1–3 weeks of injection compared to saline treated diabetic eyes. Subsequently, retinal histopathological evaluation revealed a significant decrease in vascular leakage and apoptotic cells around the retinal vessels in the diabetic eyes that received ASC compared to the eyes that received saline injection. In addition, molecular analyses have shown down-regulation in inflammatory gene expression in diabetic retina that received ASC compared to eyes that received saline. Interestingly, ASC were found to be localized near retinal vessels at higher densities than seen in age matched non-diabetic retina that received ASC. In vitro, ASC displayed sustained proliferation and decreased apoptosis under hyperglycemic stress. In addition, ASC in co-culture with retinal endothelial cells enhance endothelial survival and collaborate to form vascular networks. Taken together, our findings suggest that ASC are able to rescue the neural retina from hyperglycemia-induced degeneration, resulting in importantly improved visual function. Our pre-clinical studies support the translational development of adipose stem cell-based therapy for DR to address both retinal capillary and neurodegeneration. PMID:24416262

  18. Trust During the Early Stages of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    FREIMUTH, VICKI S.; MUSA, DON; HILYARD, KAREN; QUINN, SANDRA CROUSE; KIM, KEVIN

    2013-01-01

    Distrust of the government often stands in the way of cooperation with public health recommendations in a crisis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the public’s trust in government recommendations during the early stages of the H1N1 pandemic and identify factors that might account for these trust levels. We surveyed 1543 respondents about their experiences and attitudes related to H1N1 influenza between June 3, 2009 and July 6, 2009, during the first wave of the pandemic using the Knowledge Networks (KN) online panel. This panel is representative of the US population, and uses a combination of random-digit dial and address-based probability sampling frames covering 99% of the US household population to recruit participants. To ensure participation of low-income individuals and those without Internet access, KN provides hardware and access to the Internet if needed. Measures included standard demographics, a trust scale, trust ratings for individual spokespersons, involvement with H1N1, experience with H1N1, and past discrimination in health care. We found that trust of government was low (2.3 out of 4) and varied across demographic groups. Blacks and Hispanics reported higher trust in government than did Whites. Of the spokespersons included, personal health professionals received the highest trust ratings and religious leaders the lowest. Attitudinal and experience variables predicted trust better than demographic characteristics. Closely following the news about the flu virus, having some self-reported knowledge about H1N1, self-reporting of local cases and previously experiencing discrimination were the significant attitudinal and experience predictors of trust. Using a second longitudinal survey, trust in the early stages of the pandemic did predict vaccine acceptance later but only for white, non-Hispanic individuals. PMID:24117390

  19. Molecular Dynamics of Channelrhodopsin at the Early Stages of Channel Opening

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Jumpei; Kamiya, Motoshi; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Maturana, Andrés D.; Deisseroth, Karl; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Channelrhodopsin (ChR) is a light-gated cation channel that responds to blue light. Since ChR can be readily expressed in specific neurons to precisely control their activities by light, it has become a powerful tool in neuroscience. Although the recently solved crystal structure of a chimeric ChR, C1C2, provided the structural basis for ChR, our understanding of the molecular mechanism of ChR still remains limited. Here we performed electrophysiological analyses and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to investigate the importance of the intracellular and central constrictions of the ion conducting pore observed in the crystal structure of C1C2. Our electrophysiological analysis revealed that two glutamate residues, Glu122 and Glu129, in the intracellular and central constrictions, respectively, should be deprotonated in the photocycle. The simulation results suggested that the deprotonation of Glu129 in the central constriction leads to ion leakage in the ground state, and implied that the protonation of Glu129 is important for preventing ion leakage in the ground state. Moreover, we modeled the 13-cis retinal bound; i.e., activated C1C2, and performed MD simulations to investigate the conformational changes in the early stage of the photocycle. Our simulations suggested that retinal photoisomerization induces the conformational change toward channel opening, including the movements of TM6, TM7 and TM2. These insights into the dynamics of the ground states and the early photocycle stages enhance our understanding of the channel function of ChR. PMID:26114863

  20. Pair-wise comparison analysis of differential expression of mRNAs in early and advanced stage primary colorectal adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Tze Pheng; Roslani, April Camilla; Lian, Lay Hoong; Chai, Hwa Chia; Lee, Ping Chin; Hilmi, Ida; Goh, Khean Lee; Chua, Kek Heng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the mRNA expression patterns of early and advanced stage colorectal adenocarcinomas of Malaysian patients. Design Comparative expression analysis. Setting and participants We performed a combination of annealing control primer (ACP)-based PCR and reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR for the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with early and advanced stage primary colorectal tumours. We recruited four paired samples from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) of Dukes’ A and B for the preliminary differential expression study, and a total of 27 paired samples, ranging from CRC stages I to IV, for subsequent confirmatory test. The tumouric samples were obtained from the patients with CRC undergoing curative surgical resection without preoperative chemoradiotherapy. The recruited patients with CRC were newly diagnosed with CRC, and were not associated with any hereditary syndromes, previously diagnosed cancer or positive family history of CRC. The paired non-cancerous tissue specimens were excised from macroscopically normal colonic mucosa distally located from the colorectal tumours. Primary and secondary outcome measures The differential mRNA expression patterns of early and advanced stage colorectal adenocarcinomas compared with macroscopically normal colonic mucosa were characterised by ACP-based PCR and reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR. Results The RPL35, RPS23 and TIMP1 genes were found to be overexpressed in both early and advanced stage colorectal adenocarcinomas (p<0.05). However, the ARPC2 gene was significantly underexpressed in early colorectal adenocarcinomas, while the advanced stage primary colorectal tumours exhibited an additional overexpression of the C6orf173 gene (p<0.05). Conclusions We characterised two distinctive gene expression patterns to aid in the stratification of primary colorectal neoplasms among Malaysian patients with CRC. Further work can be done to assess and compare the mRNA expression levels of these identified DEGs between each CRC stage group, stages I–IV. PMID:25107436

  1. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of Si on heavily boron-doped Si(111) surface: From initial stages to the growth of Si polytypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Fissel; Jan Krügener; Eberhard Bugiel; Tammo Block; Hans Jörg Osten

    2008-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of silicon on heavily boron-doped Si(111) surface was investigated. In our experiments, we found a new growth mode in the very initial stage for boron-coverage below 0.5 monolayer (ML) likely associated with defect-induced nucleation of Si islands. The initially stage of growth on boron-covered Si(111) could be interpreted by a quasi van der Waals like epitaxy, where Si

  2. Robotic-Assisted Thoracic Surgery for Early-Stage Lung Cancer: A Review.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Paula

    2015-07-01

    This review evaluates the benefits and disadvantages associated with the use of robotic-assisted technology in performing lobectomies in patients with early-stage lung cancer. The author conducted a literature search of Ovid®, MEDLINE®, PubMed®, and CINAHL® for articles published from 2005 to 2013. Search criteria included key terms such as robot, robotic, robotic-assisted lobectomy, and lung cancer. Of 922 articles, the author included a total of 12 research-based published studies in the analysis and incorporated the findings into an evidence table. Results showed that robotic-assisted lobectomies are feasible safe procedures for patients with stage 1A or 1B lung cancer; however, there is a steep learning curve and long-term randomized studies evaluating robotic-assisted lobectomy and conventional posterolateral thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracic lobectomy are needed. For patient safety, perioperative nurses should be aware of the length of time and experience required to perform these procedures, the costs, techniques, benefits, and disadvantages. PMID:26119608

  3. Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in early-stage chronic kidney disease: cause or association?

    PubMed

    Moody, William E; Edwards, Nicola C; Madhani, Melanie; Chue, Colin D; Steeds, Richard P; Ferro, Charles J; Townend, Jonathan N

    2012-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD); a graded inverse relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and cardiovascular event rates has emerged from large-scale observational studies. Chronic kidney disease is also associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) although the precise relationship with GFR and the "threshold" at which ED begins are contentious. Abnormal endothelial function is certainly present in late-stage CKD but data in early-stage CKD appear confounded by disease states such as diabetes and hypertension which themselves promote ED. Thus, the direct effect of a reduction in GFR on endothelial function and, therefore, cardiovascular (CV) risk is far from completely established. In human studies, the precise duration of kidney impairment is seldom known and the onset of CVD often insidious, making it difficult to determine exactly when CVD first appears in the context of CKD. Kidney donors provide a near-ideal experimental model of CKD; subjects undergo an acute change from normal to modestly impaired renal function at the time of nephrectomy and lack the confounding co-morbidity that has made observational studies of CKD patients so challenging to interpret. By examining changes in endothelial function in living kidney donors before and after nephrectomy, useful insight might be gained into the pathophysiology of CVD in CKD and help determine whether targeting ED or the renal disease itself has the potential to reduce CV risk. PMID:22349087

  5. Stereotactic radiotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Badellino, Serena; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) represents a consolidated treatment option for patients with medically inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The clinical evidence accumulated in the past decade supports its use as an alternative to surgery with comparable survival outcomes. Due to its limited toxicity, SBRT is also applicable to elderly patients with very poor baseline pulmonary function or other severe comorbidities. Recent comparative studies in operable patients raised the issue of the possible use of SBRT also for this subgroup, with quite promising results that still should be fully confirmed by prospective trials with long-term follow-up. Aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the major studies conducted over the years on SBRT and to provide data on the efficacy and toxicity of this radiotherapy technique for stage I NSCLC. Technical aspects and quality of life related issues are also discussed, with the goal to provide information on the current role and limitations of SBRT in clinical practice.

  6. Laser plasma plume structure and dynamics in the ambient air: The early stage of expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Cirisan, M.; Jouvard, J. M.; Lavisse, L. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS - Universite de Bourgogne, 1 allee des Granges Forestier, F-71100 Chalon-Sur-Saone (France); Hallo, L. [CELIA, UMR 5107 - Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 cours de La Liberation, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Oltra, R. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS - Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    Laser ablation plasma plume expanding into the ambient atmosphere may be an efficient way to produce nanoparticles. From that reason it would be interesting to study the properties of these laser induced plasmas formed under conditions that are known to be favorable for nanoparticles production. In general, plume behavior can be described as a two-stage process: a 'violent' plume expansion due to the absorption of the laser beam energy (during the laser pulse) followed by a fast adiabatic expansion in the ambient gas (after the end of the laser pulse). Plasma plume may last a few microseconds and may have densities 10{sup -6} times lower than the solid densities at temperatures close to the ambient temperature. Expansion of the plasma plume induced by the impact of a nanosecond laser beam ({lambda} 1064 nm) on the surface of metallic samples in the open air has been investigated by means of fast photography. Spatio-temporal evolution of the plume at the early stage of its expansion (first 330 ns) has been recorded. Structure and dynamics of the plasma plume have been investigated and compared to numerical simulations obtained with a hydro-code, as well as some scaling laws. In addition, measurements using different sample materials (Al, Fe, and Ti) have been performed in order to analyze the influence of target material on plume expansion.

  7. Exercise maintains blood-brain barrier integrity during early stages of brain metastasis formation.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Gretchen; Davidson, Sarah J; Wrobel, Jagoda K; Toborek, Michal

    2015-08-01

    Tumor cell extravasation into the brain requires passage through the blood-brain barrier, which is a highly protected microvascular environment fortified with tight junction (TJ) proteins. TJ integrity can be regulated under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. There is evidence that exercise can modulate oxidation status within the brain microvasculature and protect against tumor cell extravasation and metastasis formation. In order to study these events, mature male mice were given access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel (exercise) or access to a locked wheel (sedentary) for five weeks. The average running distance was 9.0 ± 0.2 km/day. Highly metastatic tumor cells (murine Lewis lung carcinoma) were then infused into the brain microvasculature through the internal carotid artery. Analyses were performed at early stage (48 h) and late stage (3 weeks) post tumor cell infusion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed fewer isolated tumor cells extravasating into the brain at both 48 h and 3 weeks post surgery in exercised mice. Occludin protein levels were reduced in the sedentary tumor group, but maintained in the exercised tumor group at 48 h post tumor cell infusion. These results indicate that voluntary exercise may participate in modulating blood-brain barrier integrity thereby protecting the brain during metastatic progression. PMID:26056010

  8. The Early Growth and Development Study: A Prospective Adoption Design

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ge, Xiaojia; Scaramella, Laura V.; Conger, Rand D.; Reid, John B.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David

    2014-01-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children (N = 350 triads) that was initiated in 2003. The primary study aims are to examine how family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences in order to aid in the identification of specific family processes that could serve as malleable targets for intervention. Participants in the study were recruited following the birth of the child through adoption agencies located throughout the United States. Assessments occur at 6-month intervals until child age 3 years. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: infant/toddler temperament, social behavior, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, psychopathology, competence, stress, and substance use; adoptive parenting and marital relations; and prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress. Preliminary analyses suggest the representativeness of the sample and minimal confounding effects of current trends in adoption practices, including openness and selective placement. Future plans are described. PMID:17539368

  9. Effects of harvesting method and growth stage on the flocculation of the green alga Botryococcus braunii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Lee; S.-B. Kim; J.-E. Kim; G.-S. Kwon; B.-D. Yoon; H.-M. Oh

    1998-01-01

    S.J. LEE, S.-B. KIM, J.-E. KIM, G.-S. KWON, B.-D. YOON AND H.-M. OH. 1998.Flocculating activity was determined to evaluate the effective harvesting method and an optimal growth stage for the recovery of the green alga Botryococcus braunii growing in batch cultures. Flocculating activity was highest at 2 weeks of incubation, regardless of harvesting methods. The degree of flocculation was different

  10. Combined chemical and optical methods for monitoring the early decay stages of surrogate human models.

    PubMed

    Statheropoulos, M; Agapiou, A; Zorba, E; Mikedi, K; Karma, S; Pallis, G C; Eliopoulos, C; Spiliopoulou, C

    2011-07-15

    As the body decays shortly after death, a variety of gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) constantly emanate. Ethical and practical reasons limit the use of human corpses in controlled, time-dependent, intervening experiments for monitoring the chemistry of body decay. Therefore the utilization of pig carcasses serves as a potential surrogate to human models. The aim of this work was to study buried body decay in conditions of entrapment in collapsed buildings. Six domestic pigs were used to study carcass decay. They were enclosed in plastic body bags after being partially buried with rubbles, resembling entrapment in collapsed buildings. Three experimental cycles were performed, employing two pig carcasses in each cycle; VOCs and inorganic gases were measured daily, along with daily visible and thermal images. VOCs were collected in standard sorbent tubes and subsequently analyzed using a Thermal Desorption/Gas Chromatograph/high sensitivity bench-top Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TD/GC/TOF-MS). A comprehensive, stage by stage, detailed information on the decay process is being presented based on the experimental macroscopic observations, justifying thus the use of pig carcasses as surrogate material. A variety of VOCs were identified including almost all chemical classes: sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen compounds (aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, acids and esters), hydrocarbons, fluorides and chlorides. Carcasses obtained from a pig farm resulted in more sulfur and nitrogen cadaveric volatiles. Carbon dioxide was by far the most abundant inorganic gas identified along with carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. Visual monitoring was based on video captured images allowing for macroscopic observations, while thermal camera monitoring which is mostly temperature dependent, resulted in highlighting the local micro-changes on the carcasses, as a result of the intense microbial activity. The combination of chemical and optical methods proved very useful and informative, uncovering hidden aspects of the early stages of decay and also guiding in the development of combined chemical and imaging methods for the detection of dead bodies. PMID:21450424

  11. Childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia and perspectives on risk assessment of early-life stage exposures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Andrea S; Eastmond, David A; Preston, R Julian

    2006-01-01

    Recognition that children are a potentially susceptible subpopulation has led to the development of child-specific sensitivity factors. Establishing reliable sensitivity factors in support of risk assessment of early-life stage exposures can be aided by evaluating studies that enhance our understanding both of the biological basis of disease processes and the potential role of environmental exposures in disease etiology. For these reasons, we evaluated childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) studies from the point of view of mechanism and etiology. ALL is the most common form of childhood cancer proposed to result from a prenatal primary event and a postnatal second event. This multi-stage model is supported by the observation that chromosomal translocations/fusion genes (e.g., TEL-AML1) involved in producing ALL are detected at birth (prenatal event), and a postnatal event (e.g., TEL deletion) is required for disease manifestation. It appears that a proportion of ALL cases are the result of environmental exposures, in which case preconceptional, prenatal, and postnatal stages are likely to be critical exposure windows. To this end, we recognized postnatal infection-related risk factors as potential candidates associated with the ALL second event. Additionally, we discuss use of ALL-associated fusion genes and genetic polymorphisms, together or separately, as indicators of ALL susceptibility and increased risk. The possibility of using fusion genes alone as biomarkers of response is also discussed because they can serve as predictors of key events in the development of a mode of action (a sequence of key events, starting with interaction of an agent with a cell, ultimately resulting in cancer formation) for particular environmental exposures. Furthermore, we discuss use of an initiated animal model for ALL, namely transgenic mice with TEL-AML1 expression, for exploring mechanisms by which different classes of environmental exposures could be involved in inducing the postnatal step in ALL formation. PMID:17049456

  12. Different effects of ER? and TROP2 expression in Chinese patients with early-stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ji-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Pei-Rong; Ou, Qing-Jian; Zhang, Mei-Fang; Jiang, Wu; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2012-12-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ER?) and TROP2 expressed in colon carcinoma and might play an important role there. We explored the relationship of ER? and TROP2 expression with the prognosis of early-stage colon cancer. ER? and TROP2 levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal mucosa and tumoral tissues from 220 Chinese patients with T(3)N(0)M(0) (stage IIa) and T(4)N(0)M(0) (stage IIb) colon cancer in the Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, who underwent curative surgical resection between 1995 and 2003. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to analyze the overall survival (OS) data, and the ROC curve, Kaplan-Meier estimate, log rank test, and Jackknife method were used to show the effect of ER? and TROP2 expression at different stages of cancer. The 5-year survival rates were not significantly different between the patients with stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer (83 vs. 80 %, respectively). The high expression of ER? was related to decreasing OS in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, while the high expression of TROP2 was related to decreasing OS in stage IIb colon cancer. The expression of ER? and TROP2 has tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effect in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, respectively. PMID:23055188

  13. No Value for Routine Chest Radiography in the Work-Up of Early Stage Cervical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hoogendam, Jacob P.; Zweemer, Ronald P.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; de Jong, Pim A.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.; Verheijen, René H. M.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Evidence supporting the recommendation to include chest radiography in the work-up of all cervical cancer patients is limited. We investigated the diagnostic value of routine chest radiography in cervical cancer staging. Methods All consecutive cervical cancer patients who presented at our tertiary referral center in the Netherlands (January 2006 – September 2013), and for whom ?6 months follow-up was available, were included. As part of the staging procedure, patients underwent a routine two-directional digital chest radiograph. Findings were compared to a composite reference standard consisting of all imaging studies and histology obtained during the 6 months following radiography. Results Of the 402 women who presented with cervical cancer, 288 (71.6%) underwent chest radiography and had ?6 months follow-up. Early clinical stage (I/II) cervical cancer was present in 244/288 (84.7%) women, while 44 (15.3%) presented with advanced disease (stage III/IV). The chest radiograph of 1 woman – with advanced pre-radiograph stage (IVA) disease – showed findings consistent with pulmonary metastases. Radiographs of 7 other women – 4 early, 3 advanced stage disease – were suspicious for pulmonary metastases which was confirmed by additional imaging in only 1 woman (with pre-radiograph advanced stage (IIIB) disease) and excluded in 6 cases, including all women with early stage disease. In none of the 288 women were thoracic skeletal metastases identified on imaging or during 6 months follow up. Radiography was unremarkable in 76.4% of the study population, and showed findings unrelated to the cervical carcinoma in 21.2%. Conclusion Routine chest radiography was of no value for any of the early stage cervical cancer patients presenting at our tertiary center over a period of 7.7 years. PMID:26135733

  14. Impact of GLUT1 and Ki-67 expression on early?stage lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed according to a new international multidisciplinary classification.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yuho; Soh, Junichi; Ichimura, Kouichi; Shien, Kazuhiko; Furukawa, Masashi; Muraoka, Takayuki; Tanaka, Norimitsu; Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Asano, Hiroaki; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Toyooka, Shinichi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2013-01-01

    High expression levels of glucose transporter isoform 1 (GLUT1) and Ki-67 are reportedly associated with malignancy-related clinicopathological factors in malignant tumors. Recently, a new histological IASLC/ATS/ERS classification for lung adenocarcinoma was proposed. In this study, we investigated the clinicopathological impact of GLUT1 and Ki-67 expression on early-stage lung adenocarcinoma classified according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification. One hundred and five patients with completely resected stage IA lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively classified into two groups, a 'non-invasive type' (n=31) or an 'invasive type' (n=74), based on the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification. GLUT1 and Ki-67 expression status was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutation status was determined using PCR-based assays. Positive GLUT1 and Ki-67 expression and EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 28 (27%), 33 (31%), 51 (49%) and 5 (8%) cases, respectively. Positive GLUT1 expression was significantly associated with a wild-type EGFR and mutant KRAS status. A multivariate analysis revealed that positive GLUT1 expression was independently associated with the 'invasive type'. In multivariate analyses for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), positive Ki-67 and GLUT1 expression was the only independent factor for a poor OS (P=0.012) and DFS (P=0.040), respectively. In addition, when stratified according to the GLUT1 and Ki-67 status, double-positive cases had the poorest DFS and OS times, compared with the other categories. Positive GLUT1 expression is associated with the invasive character of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma and with early disease relapse. Our results strongly suggest that GLUT1 and Ki-67 play important roles in acquiring biological malignant potential in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:23076555

  15. Protective effect of Tanshinone IIA on the early stage of experimental diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Kang; Jung, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Byung-Cheol

    2009-02-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the leading cause of end stage renal failure, and prevention or retardation of DN has become a major goal in biomedical research. In this study, Tanshinone IIA, a component extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza, was studied in experimental rats in which DN was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. The DN rats were treated with 10 mg/kg of Tanshinone IIA for 12 weeks to analyze its reno-protective effect with different parameters. Renal hypertrophy and 24-h urinary protein excretion were ameliorated by Tanshinone IIA. Moreover, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), angiotensin II (Ang II), transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)), collagen IV, and monocyte/macrophage (ED-1) either in the serum or kidney were significantly reduced. These results suggest that Tanshinone IIA might have protective effects on several pharmacological targets during the progression of DN, and could be a potential drug for the prevention of DN. PMID:19182379

  16. Hematopoietic cytokines as therapeutic players in early stages Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Kyle; Rudyk, Christopher; Prowse, Natalie A.; Hayley, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a devastating age related neurodegenerative disease that is believed to have a lengthy prodromal state. It is critical to find methods to harness compensatory recovery processes in order to slow or prevent the eventual progression of clinical symptoms. The current perspective paper argues that immune system signaling molecules represent such a promising therapeutic approach. Two cytokines of interest are granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and erythropoietin (EPO). These hematopoietic cytokines have been protective in models of stroke, neuronal injury, and more recently PD. It is our belief that these trophic cytokines can be used not only for cell protection but also regeneration. However, success is likely dependent on early intervention. This paper will outline our perspective on the development of novel trophic recovery treatments for PD. In particular, we present new data from our lab suggesting that EPO and GM-CSF can foster neural re-innervation in a “mild” or partial lesion PD model that could be envisioned as reflecting the early stages of the disease.

  17. A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (p<0.001), better memory functioning (p?=?0.01) and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p?=?0.018) than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r?=?0.54, p?=?0.005) and a lower social impact of fatigue (r?=??0.46, p?=?0.029) correlated with an increased number of working hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

  18. Visualization in an early stage of the problem-solving process in GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaser, Andreas D.; Sester, Monika; Egenhofer, Max J.

    2000-02-01

    Methods of user-computer interaction have remained largely unchanged since the introduction of graphical user interfaces and their popularization by the Apple Macintosh in the early 1980s. Most of today's applications rely on primitive modalities, such as typing and pointing for input generation, which works well for a host of common business applications, but falls short for more complex tasks. To improve the interaction between user and computer we propose a concept that allows people to visualize their ideas, problems, or instructions during the initial phase of an interaction with a computer by augmenting traditional interaction modalities with sketching, gesturing and talking. This approach leads to a more natural user-computer interaction and enhances a user's ability to find solutions to a problem. We suggest that computers become actively involved in the process of problem formulation and that they provide support and give advice where this is adequate. This leads to a process of incremental problem formulation where user and computer are able to better visualize the actual task and fewer misunderstandings occur. Geographic information systems (GIS) would benefit from improved user interaction techniques. GIS are inherently complex and an interaction is often tedious, mostly because such systems are based on sequential and nonspatial input methods that lack the capability of expressing spatial concepts appropriately. We advocate for a visualization in an early stage of the problem solving process in GIS and discuss its advantages and challenges. The paper gives application examples and discusses future research topics.

  19. A Report On Eight Early-Stage State And Regional Projects Testing Value-Based Payment

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Douglas; Grembowski, David; Gibbons, Claire; Marcus-Smith, Miriam; Hernandez, Susan E.; Chang, Judy; Renz, Anne; Lau, Bernard; Cruz, Erin dela

    2014-01-01

    To help contain health care spending and improve the quality of care, practitioners and policy makers are trying to move away from fee-for-service toward value-based payment, which links providers’ reimbursement to the value, rather than the volume, of services delivered. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, eight grantees across the country are designing and implementing value-based payment reform projects. For example, in Salem, Oregon, the Physicians Choice Foundation is testing “Program Oriented Payments,” which include incentives for providers who follow a condition-specific program of care designed to meet goals set jointly by patient and provider. In this article we describe the funding rationale and the specific objectives, strategies, progress, and early stages of implementation of the eight projects. We also share some early lessons and identify prerequisites for success, such as ensuring that providers have broad and timely access to data so they can meet patients’ needs in cost-effective ways. PMID:23650332

  20. Probing Very Early Stage of Radio Source Evolution in NGC 1275 with VERA

    E-print Network

    Chida, H; Akiyama, K; Kino, M; Honma, M; Nishijima, K

    2015-01-01

    We report on VLBI observations of NGC 1275 with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) during 2008 and 2013 at 15, 22 and 43 GHz. Our observations provide long-term variations in the radio flux and structure of the inner jet in NGC 1275 on sub-parsec scales, particularly at C3 which is a new radio component accountable for the recent active state in radio regime since early-2000s. We found the apparent velocity of C3 was $\\beta_{\\rm{app}} = 0.267 \\pm 0.007 $, which was consistent with typical velocities of the hot spot and/or radio lobes in the young radio sources. Furthermore, the radio flux and size of C3 had simultaneously increased during September 2007 and May 2012 with keeping optically-thin spectra, suggesting that the particle acceleration occurred inside C3 as generally seen in the hot spots of the radio lobes. Our new observations suggest that C3 is a new-born hot spot and/or radio lobe at a very early stage of its evolution. Our results imply the radio lobes...

  1. Ultraviolet-B phototherapy for early-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, D L; Lish, K M; Yalowitz, C B; Soter, N A

    1992-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND DESIGN--Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a slowly advancing disease that initially presents in the skin and may later progress to involve the lymph nodes and viscera. Since CTCL most often presents on non-sunlight-exposed regions of the body, a possible protective role for UVB irradiation has been suggested. Recent observations have also found that UVB irradiation serves an immunoregulatory role. Given that limited data are available regarding the use of UVB phototherapy in treating CTCL, a retrospective nonrandomized study of 37 nonconsecutive patients with early CTCL was performed to assess the efficacy of UVB phototherapy in the treatment of CTCL. RESULTS--Twenty-five (71%) of the 35 patients treated with UVB phototherapy (two were unavailable for follow-up) achieved a total clinical remission. Median time to remission was 5 months, and median duration of the remission was 22 months. Twenty-five (83%) of 30 patients with disease limited to patches achieved remission, whereas none of the patients with plaque-level disease achieved a remission. Of the 25 patients who achieved complete remission, five (20%) had a recurrence of CTCL. CONCLUSIONS--Phototherapy with UVB appears to be effective in patients with early patch-stage CTCL. PMID:1626959

  2. The placental mTOR-pathway: correlation with early growth trajectories following intrauterine growth restriction?

    PubMed

    Fahlbusch, F B; Hartner, A; Menendez-Castro, C; Nögel, S C; Marek, I; Beckmann, M W; Schleussner, E; Ruebner, M; Huebner, H; Dörr, H-G; Schild, R L; Dötsch, J; Rascher, W

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a result of impaired placental nutrient supply. Newborns with IUGR exhibiting postnatal catch-up growth are of higher risk for cardiovascular and metabolic co-morbidities in adult life. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was recently shown to function as a placental nutrient sensor. Thus, we determined possible correlations of members of the placental mTOR signaling cascade with auxologic parameters of postnatal growth. The protein expression and activity of mTOR-pathway signaling components, Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase ?, mTOR, p70S6kinase1 and insulin receptor substrate-1 were analysed via western blotting in IUGR v. matched appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) placentas. Moreover, mTOR was immunohistochemically stained in placental sections. Data from western blot analyses were correlated with retrospective auxological follow-up data at 1 year of age. We found significant catch-up growth in the 1st year of life in the IUGR group. MTOR and its activated form are immunohistochemically detected in multiple placental compartments. We identified correlations of placental mTOR-pathway signaling components to auxological data at birth and at 1 year of life in IUGR. Analysis of the protein expression and phosphorylation level of mTOR-pathway components in IUGR and AGA placentas postpartum, however, did not reveal pathognomonic changes. Our findings suggest that the level of activated mTOR correlates with early catch-up growth following IUGR. However, the complexity of signals converging at the mTOR nexus and its cellular distribution pattern seem to limit its potential as biomarker in this setting. PMID:25989725

  3. Predictors and Outcomes of Limited Resection for Early-Stage Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ayanian, John Z.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Nerenz, David R.; Jaklitsch, Michael T.; Rogers, Selwyn O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lobectomy is considered the standard treatment for early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, more limited resections are commonly performed. We examined patient and surgeon factors associated with limited resection and compared postoperative and long-term outcomes between sublobar and lobar resections. Methods A population- and health system–based sample of patients newly diagnosed with stage I or II NSCLC between 2003 and 2005 in five geographically defined regions, five integrated health-care delivery systems, and 15 Veterans Affairs hospitals was observed for a median of 55 months, through May 31, 2010. Predictors of limited resection and postoperative outcomes were compared using unadjusted and propensity score–weighted analyses. All P values are from two-sided tests. Results One hundred fifty-five (23%) patients underwent limited resection and 524 (77%) underwent lobectomy. In adjusted analyses of patient-specific factors, smaller tumor size (P = .004), coverage by Medicare or Medicaid, no insurance or unknown insurance (P = .02), more severe lung disease (P < .001), and a history of stroke (P = .049) were associated with receipt of limited resection. In adjusted analyses of surgeon characteristics, thoracic surgery specialty (P = .02), non–fee-for-service compensation (P = .008), and National Cancer Institute cancer center designation (P = .006) were associated with higher odds of limited resection. Unadjusted 30-day mortality was higher with limited resection than with lobectomy (7.1% vs 1.9%, difference = 5.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5% to 10.8%, P = .003), and the adjusted difference was not statistically significant (6.5% vs 2.9%, difference = 3.6%, 95% CI = ?.1% to 9.2%, P = .09). Postoperative complications did not differ by type of surgery (all P > .05). Over the course of the study, a non-statistically significant trend toward improved long-term survival was evident for lobectomy, compared with limited resection, in adjusted analyses (hazard ratio of death = 1.35 for limited resection, 95% CI = 0.99 to 1.84, P = .05). Conclusions Evidence is statistically inconclusive but suggestive that lobectomy, compared with limited resection, is associated with increased long-term survival for early-stage lung cancer. Clinical, socioeconomic, and surgeon factors appear to be associated with the choice of surgical resection. PMID:21960708

  4. Public–private partnerships improve health outcomes in individuals with early stage Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, James E; Tolea, Magdalena I; George, Nika; Wingbermuehle, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In a collaborative effort between the Missouri Department of Health, Area Agencies on Aging (AAA), Alzheimer Association, and academic researchers, we tested whether early dementia detection and comprehensive care consultations would improve health outcomes in care receivers (CRs) and their family caregivers (FCGs), therefore addressing an important public health concern. Participants and methods A total of 244 community-dwelling older adults screened for early-stage dementia by the AAA field staff were referred to the Alzheimer Association and participated in Project Learn MORE (Missouri Outreach and Referral Expanded) (PLM) – a 2-year, nonrandomized multisite intervention consisting of comprehensive care consultations to improve coping skills. PLM participants were compared against 96 controls receiving the Alzheimer Association’s “usual services” between January 2011 and December 2012. We examined CR and FCG outcomes, including burden, care confidence, and mood, as effects of PLM, on delaying transitions in level of care. Results CRs showed improved knowledge (P=0.002) and reduced depression (P=0.007), while FCGs demonstrated improved knowledge (P=0.003) and ability to identify sources of support for the CR (P=0.032) and for themselves (P=0.043). However, FCGs were more burdened after PLM (P=0.02), due to increased awareness of Alzheimer’s disease. PLM delayed transitions in care (odds ratio [OR] 3.32, 95% confidence level [CI]: 1.25–8.83) with the number needed to treat =6.82. Conclusion PLM was successful in improving detection of incident cases of dementia in the community and in connecting patients and their families with needed services. Our findings support the use of state agencies and community service partners to detect dementia. Early implementation of psychosocial interventions could have significant impact in improving patient- and family-centered outcomes, potentially providing a cost-efficient alternative to pharmacotherapy. PMID:24748780

  5. Repression of Inflammasome by Francisella tularensis during Early Stages of Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Rachel J.; Rabadi, Seham M.; Westcott, Elizabeth L.; Bradley, Stephen; Catlett, Sally V.; Banik, Sukalyani; Harton, Jonathan A.; Bakshi, Chandra Shekhar; Malik, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is an important human pathogen responsible for causing tularemia. F. tularensis has long been developed as a biological weapon and is now classified as a category A agent by the Centers for Disease Control because of its possible use as a bioterror agent. F. tularensis represses inflammasome; a cytosolic multi-protein complex that activates caspase-1 to produce proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. However, the Francisella factors and the mechanisms through which F. tularensis mediates these suppressive effects remain relatively unknown. Utilizing a mutant of F. tularensis in FTL_0325 gene, this study investigated the mechanisms of inflammasome repression by F. tularensis. We demonstrate that muted IL-1? and IL-18 responses generated in macrophages infected with F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) or the virulent SchuS4 strain are due to a predominant suppressive effect on TLR2-dependent signal 1. Our results also demonstrate that FTL_0325 of F. tularensis impacts proIL-1? expression as early as 2 h post-infection and delays activation of AIM2 and NLRP3-inflammasomes in a TLR2-dependent fashion. An enhanced activation of caspase-1 and IL-1? observed in FTL_0325 mutant-infected macrophages at 24 h post-infection was independent of both AIM2 and NLRP3. Furthermore, F. tularensis LVS delayed pyroptotic cell death of the infected macrophages in an FTL_0325-dependent manner during the early stages of infection. In vivo studies in mice revealed that suppression of IL-1? by FTL_0325 early during infection facilitates the establishment of a fulminate infection by F. tularensis. Collectively, this study provides evidence that F. tularensis LVS represses inflammasome activation and that F. tularensis-encoded FTL_0325 mediates this effect. PMID:23821549

  6. Repression of inflammasome by Francisella tularensis during early stages of infection.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Rachel J; Rabadi, Seham M; Westcott, Elizabeth L; Bradley, Stephen; Catlett, Sally V; Banik, Sukalyani; Harton, Jonathan A; Bakshi, Chandra Shekhar; Malik, Meenakshi

    2013-08-16

    Francisella tularensis is an important human pathogen responsible for causing tularemia. F. tularensis has long been developed as a biological weapon and is now classified as a category A agent by the Centers for Disease Control because of its possible use as a bioterror agent. F. tularensis represses inflammasome; a cytosolic multi-protein complex that activates caspase-1 to produce proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. However, the Francisella factors and the mechanisms through which F. tularensis mediates these suppressive effects remain relatively unknown. Utilizing a mutant of F. tularensis in FTL_0325 gene, this study investigated the mechanisms of inflammasome repression by F. tularensis. We demonstrate that muted IL-1? and IL-18 responses generated in macrophages infected with F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) or the virulent SchuS4 strain are due to a predominant suppressive effect on TLR2-dependent signal 1. Our results also demonstrate that FTL_0325 of F. tularensis impacts proIL-1? expression as early as 2 h post-infection and delays activation of AIM2 and NLRP3-inflammasomes in a TLR2-dependent fashion. An enhanced activation of caspase-1 and IL-1? observed in FTL_0325 mutant-infected macrophages at 24 h post-infection was independent of both AIM2 and NLRP3. Furthermore, F. tularensis LVS delayed pyroptotic cell death of the infected macrophages in an FTL_0325-dependent manner during the early stages of infection. In vivo studies in mice revealed that suppression of IL-1? by FTL_0325 early during infection facilitates the establishment of a fulminate infection by F. tularensis. Collectively, this study provides evidence that F. tularensis LVS represses inflammasome activation and that F. tularensis-encoded FTL_0325 mediates this effect. PMID:23821549

  7. Duration and Toxicity of Adjuvant Trastuzumab in Older Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz-Luis, Ines; Keating, Nancy L.; Lin, Nancy U.; Lii, Huichuan; Winer, Eric P.; Freedman, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Few data are available regarding adjuvant trastuzumab use in older women with early-stage breast cancer. We examined rates and predictors of adjuvant trastuzumab completion and cardiac events in this population. Patients and Methods We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data to identify patients age ? 66 years with stage I to III breast cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 who received trastuzumab. Completion of trastuzumab was defined as receipt of more than 270 days of therapy. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine patient, clinical, and geographic characteristics associated with trastuzumab completion. We also examined rates of hospital admissions for cardiac events. Results Among 2,028 women, most (71.2%) were younger than age 76 years and had a comorbidity score of 0 (66.8%); 85.2% received trastuzumab with chemotherapy. Overall, 1,656 women (81.7%) completed trastuzumab. Older patients and those with more comorbidity had lower odds of treatment completion (odds ratio [OR], 0.40 [95% CI, 0.30 to 0.55] for age ? 80 years v age 66 to 70 years; OR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.49 to 0.88] for comorbidity score of 2 v 0). During treatment, 73 patients (3.6%) were hospitalized for cardiac events (2.6% of those who completed trastuzumab v 8.1% of those who did not; P < .001). Conclusion Most older patients who initiated adjuvant trastuzumab completed therapy. Age and comorbidity were among factors that were associated with treatment completion, and rates of significant cardiac events were higher in those who did not complete therapy. Further exploration of toxicities and optimal treatments for older women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive breast cancer are warranted. PMID:24516021

  8. Neutrophils have a protective role during early stages of Leishmania amazonensis infection in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    SOUSA, L. M. A.; CARNEIRO, M. B. H.; RESENDE, M. E.; MARTINS, L. S.; DOS SANTOS, L. M.; VAZ, L. G.; MELLO, P. S.; MOSSER, D. M.; OLIVEIRA, M. A. P.; VIEIRA, L. Q.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Neutrophils are involved in the early stages of immune responses to pathogens. Here, we investigated the role of neutrophils during the establishment of Leishmania amazonensis infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. First, we showed an accumulation of neutrophils between 6 and 24 h post-infection, followed by a reduction in neutrophil numbers after 72 h. Next, we depleted neutrophils prior to infection using RB6-8C5 or 1A8 mAb. Neutrophil depletion led to faster lesion development, increased parasite numbers and higher arginase activity during the first week of infection in BALB/c mice, but not in C57BL/6 mice. Increased susceptibility was accompanied by augmented levels of anti-L. amazonensis IgG and increased production of IL-10 and IL-17. Because IL-10 is a mediator of susceptibility to Leishmania infection, we blocked IL-10 signalling in neutrophil-depleted mice using anti-IL-10R. Interestingly, inhibition of IL-10 signalling abrogated the increase in parasite loads observed in neutrophil-depleted mice, suggesting that parasite proliferation is at least partially mediated by IL-10. Additionally, we tested the effect of IL-17 in inflammatory macrophages and observed that IL-17 increased arginase activity and favoured parasite growth. Taken together, our data indicate that neutrophils control parasite numbers and limit lesion development during the first week of infection in BALB/c mice. PMID:24102495

  9. Neutrophils have a protective role during early stages of Leishmania amazonensis infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Sousa, L M A; Carneiro, M B H; Resende, M E; Martins, L S; Dos Santos, L M; Vaz, L G; Mello, P S; Mosser, D M; Oliveira, M A P; Vieira, L Q

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are involved in the early stages of immune responses to pathogens. Here, we investigated the role of neutrophils during the establishment of Leishmania amazonensis infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. First, we showed an accumulation of neutrophils between 6 and 24 h post-infection, followed by a reduction in neutrophil numbers after 72 h. Next, we depleted neutrophils prior to infection using RB6-8C5 or 1A8 mAb. Neutrophil depletion led to faster lesion development, increased parasite numbers and higher arginase activity during the first week of infection in BALB/c mice, but not in C57BL/6 mice. Increased susceptibility was accompanied by augmented levels of anti-L. amazonensis IgG and increased production of IL-10 and IL-17. Because IL-10 is a mediator of susceptibility to Leishmania infection, we blocked IL-10 signalling in neutrophil-depleted mice using anti-IL-10R. Interestingly, inhibition of IL-10 signalling abrogated the increase in parasite loads observed in neutrophil-depleted mice, suggesting that parasite proliferation is at least partially mediated by IL-10. Additionally, we tested the effect of IL-17 in inflammatory macrophages and observed that IL-17 increased arginase activity and favoured parasite growth. Taken together, our data indicate that neutrophils control parasite numbers and limit lesion development during the first week of infection in BALB/c mice. PMID:24102495

  10. The Difference in Prognostic Factors between Early Recurrence and Late Recurrence in Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: Nodal Stage Differently Impacts Early and Late Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung Gwe; Lee, Hak Min; Cho, Sang-Hoon; Bae, Suk Jin; Lee, Seung Ah; Hwang, Seung Hyun; Jeong, Joon; Lee, Hy-De

    2013-01-01

    Background Probability of recurrence in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer remains constant for long periods. We compared tumor burden impact on late versus early recurrence in our cohort with long-term follow-up. Methods Five hundred and ninety five patients diagnosed with ER-positive breast cancer between 1989 and 2001 were classified into three groups: early recurrence within 5 years, late recurrence after 5 years, and no recurrence. We identified prognostic factors among the groups using logistic regression analysis. Results At median follow-up of 11.7 years, among 595 ER-positive women, 98 (16.4%) had early recurrence and 58 (9.7%) had late recurrence. On multivariate analysis, higher nodal stage (N0 vs. N2, odds ratio [OR] 3.189; N0 vs. N3, OR 9.948), higher histologic grade (grade 1 vs. grade 2, OR 3.896; grade 1 vs. grade 3, OR 5.945), age >35 years (OR 0.295), and receiving endocrine therapy (OR 0.293) affected early recurrence. Compared to no recurrence, receiving endocrine therapy (OR 0.285) was solely related to decreased risk of late recurrence. Increased risk of early recurrence was noted with the higher nodal stage when early and no recurrences were compared. This phenomenon was not found in late recurrence. In the last comparison between the early and late recurrence, higher nodal stage (N0 vs. N3, OR 16.779) and higher histologic grade (grade 1 vs. grade 3, OR 18.111) repeatedly weighted for early recurrence. Conclusions Nodal burden had an attenuated influence on late recurrence, which suggests that, unlike early recurrence, tumor biology might have a more important role than tumor load for late recurrence in ER-positive disease. PMID:23717438

  11. [Mitosis in early invasive malignant melanoma. How reliable is histogenetic classification at stage pT1?].

    PubMed

    Bösmüller, H; Haitchi-Petnehazy, S; Hintringer, T; Mentzel, T

    2012-03-01

    Since early February 2010 we have been implementing the latest version of the 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification in our institution. Since, according to the guidelines for stage pT1 melanomas, the number of mitoses/mm(2) is of particular significance, we have been able to observe a notable shift from pT1a to pT1b. Highlighting the mitotic count as one of the key features of the diagnosis of malignant melanoma, we observed that the major part of stage-switched melanomas belonged to a minimally invasive subset of melanomas previously categorized as pT1a UICC (7(th) edition). A level of reasonable doubt remains regarding the distinct histogenetic classification of mitosis as early stage melanoma with regard to their epithelial or melanocytic origin. PMID:21845361

  12. Toxicity of Synthetic Musks to Early Life Stages of the Freshwater Mussel Lampsilis cardium

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, M.P.; Newton, T.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Hornbuckle, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic musk fragrances are common additives to many consumer products. As a result of their widespread use and slow degradation rates, they are widely found in aquatic environments. This study reports on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of the polycyclic musks AHTN (Tonalide®) and HHCB (Galaxolide®) to glochidial (larval) and juvenile life stages of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820). In glochidia, 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged from 454 to 850 ?g AHTN/L and from 1000 to >1750 ?g HHCB/L (water solubility). Results for 48-h tests were similar to the 24-h tests. In 96-h tests with juveniles, we did not observe a dose-response relation between mortality and either musk. However, growth rate was reduced by musk exposure. The median effective concentrations (EC50s, based on growth) were highly variable and ranged from 108 to 1034 ?g AHTN/L and 153 to 831 ?g HHCB/L. While all adverse effects occurred at concentrations that are much greater than those reported in natural waters (low ?g/L to ng/L), these results indicate the potential for adverse effects on these long-lived organisms from exposure to synthetic musk fragrances. PMID:16944041

  13. Refugees and Evacuees: Enhancing Historical Understanding through Irish Historical Fiction with Key Stage 2 and Early Key Stage 3 Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Paul; Gove-Humphries, Alison; Jackson, Darius

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the use of historical fiction as a means of undertaking a historical enquiry into the experiences of refugees and evacuees with Key Stage 2 and 3 pupils. The authors reflect on the reasons why people have come to Britain before focussing on specific circumstances associated with World War 2. This is undertaken through the use…

  14. A Vacuolar Processing Enzyme,  VPE, Is Involved in Seed Coat Formation at the Early Stage of Seed Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru Nakaune; Kenji Yamada; Maki Kondo; Tomohiko Kato; Satoshi Tabata; Mikio Nishimura; Ikuko Hara-Nishimura

    2005-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) is a Cys proteinase responsible for the maturation of vacuolar proteins. Arabidopsis thaliana dVPE, which was recently found in the database, was specifically and transiently expressed in two cell layers of the seed coat (ii2 and ii3) at an early stage of seed development. At this stage, cell death accompanying cell shrinkage occurs in the ii2

  15. Multivitamin use and breast cancer outcomes in women with early-stage breast cancer: the Life After Cancer Epidemiology study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn L. Kwan; Heather Greenlee; Valerie S. Lee; Adrienne Castillo; Erica P. Gunderson; Laurel A. Habel; Lawrence H. Kushi; Carol Sweeney; Emily K. Tam; Bette J. Caan

    Little is known about the relation of multivitamin use to breast cancer outcomes. 2,236 women diagnosed from 1997 to 2000\\u000a with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I ? 1 cm, II, or IIIA) were enrolled about 2 years post-diagnosis, primarily from the\\u000a Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry (83%). Multivitamin use pre-diagnosis and post-diagnosis was assessed\\u000a via mailed questionnaire. Outcomes were ascertained yearly by

  16. Early stages of carbonate mineralization revealed from molecular simulations: Implications for biomineral formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, A. F.; DeYoreo, J.; Banfield, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The carbonate mineral constituents of many biomineralized products, formed both in and ex vivo, grow by a multi-stage crystallization process that involves the nucleation and structural reorganization of transient amorphous phases. The existence of transient phases and cluster species has significant implications for carbonate nucleation and growth in natural and engineered environments, both modern and ancient. The structure of these intermediate phases remains elusive, as does the nature of the disorder to order transition, however, these process details may strongly influence the interpretation of elemental and isotopic climate proxy data obtained from authigenic and biogenic carbonates. While molecular simulations have been applied to certain aspects of crystal growth, studies of metal carbonate nucleation are strongly inhibited by the presence of kinetic traps that prevent adequate sampling of the potential landscape upon which the growing clusters reside within timescales accessible by simulation. This research addresses this challenge by marrying the recent Kawska-Zahn (KZ) approach to simulation of crystal nucleation and growth from solution with replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) techniques. REMD has been used previously to enhance sampling of protein conformations that occupy energy wells that are separated by sizable thermodynamic and kinetic barriers, and is used here to probe the initial formation and onset of order within hydrated calcium and iron carbonate cluster species during nucleation. Results to date suggest that growing clusters initiate as short linear ion chains that evolve into two- and three-dimensional structures with continued growth. The planar structures exhibit an obvious 2d lattice, while establishment of a 3d lattice is hindered by incomplete ion desolvation. The formation of a dehydrated core consisting of a single carbonate ion is observed when the clusters are ~0.75 nm. At the same size a distorted, but discernible calcite-type lattice is also apparent. Continued growth results in expansion of the dehydrated core, however, complete desolvation and incorporation of cations into the growing carbonate phase is not achieved until the cluster grows to ~1.2 nm. Exploration of the system free energy along the crystallization path reveals "special" cluster sizes that correlate with ion desolvation milestones. The formation of these species comprise critical bottlenecks on the energy landscape and for the establishment of order within the growing clusters.

  17. Formation of non-symmetric fractals during the first stage of dust growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, S.; Blum, J.; Wurm, G.

    2000-10-01

    It is now widely believed that the kilometer-size planetesimal grew from microscopic dust particles embedded in the dilute solar nebula gas. The relevant process for forming larger aggregates is the growth due to collisional sticking. For particles to collide and stick, there must be a relative velocity component between the grains. In the onset of dust growth, Brownian motion dominates other velocity sources. The most important quantity for the dust evolution is the structure of the growing aggregates, described by the fractal dimension. Much of the interest in the dynamics of the dust growth arises because the typical formation time scale of km-sized bodies as predicted by numerical studies is much too large for explaining the formation of planets within the lifetime of a proto-planetary disk. The recent Cosmic Dust Aggregation Experiment CODAG allows for the first time to verify the basic assumptions of the Brownian stage of dust growth. Perhaps the most important finding of the CODAG experiment was that, at least in the onset of the dust, growth needle-like fractal aggregates rather than symmetric fractals are formed. This suggests that the thermal rotation of the colliding aggregates causes significantly anisotropic cross sections. Here we discuss the implications of this effect for the theoretical description of the dust growth.

  18. Oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomši?, Sanja; Stankovi?, Suzana; Lucu, ?edomil

    2011-09-01

    Changes in oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity during early development were studied in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam. The oxygen consumption rate increased from 0.12 ?mol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 in unfertilized eggs to 0.38 ?mol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 25 min after fertilization. Specific activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase was significantly stimulated after fertilization, ranging up to 1.07 ?mol Pi h-1 mg protein-1 in the late blastula stage and slightly lower values in the early and late pluteus stages.

  19. Synchrony Between Growth and Reproductive Patterns in Human Females: Early Investment

    E-print Network

    Kramer, Karen L.

    Synchrony Between Growth and Reproductive Patterns in Human Females: Early Investment in Growth University, Cambridge, MA 02138 KEY WORDS life history; human growth; age at first birth; hunter of reproductive maturity and age at first birth is a critical demographic variable pre- dicting lifetime fertility

  20. Conditions of Core Formation in the Early Earth: Single Stage or Heterogeneous Accretion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Since approx.1990 high pressure and temperature (PT) experiments on metal-silicate systems have showed that partition coefficients [D(met/sil)] for siderophile (iron-loving) elements are much different than those measured at low PT conditions [1,2]. The high PT data have been used to argue for a magma ocean during growth of the early Earth [3,4]. In the ensuing decades there have been hundreds of new experiments carried out and published on a wide range of siderophile elements (> 80 experiments published for Ni, Co, Mo, W, P, Mn, V, Cr, Ga, Cu and Pd). At the same time several different models have been advanced to explain the siderophile elements in Earth's mantle: a) shallow depth magma ocean 25-30 GPa [3,5]; b) deep magma ocean; up to 50 GPa [6,7], and c) early reduced and later oxidized magma ocean [8,9]. Some studies have drawn conclusions based on a small subset of siderophile elements, or a set of elements that provides little leverage on the big picture (like slightly siderophile elements), and no single study has attempted to quantitatively explain more than 5 elements at a time. The purpose of this abstract is to identify issues that have lead to a difference in interpretation, and to present updated predictive expressions based on new experimental data. The resulting expressions will be applied to the siderophile element depletions in Earth's upper mantle.