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Sample records for early stage growth

  1. Early stage of nanocrystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

  2. Stabilizing Silicon-Ribbon Growth At Early Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Paul K.; Fortier, Edward P.

    1988-01-01

    Device mechanically stabilizes buttons from which silicon ribbons grown by dendritic-web process. Eliminates tendency for button to tip and interrupt pull because of asymmetry. Silicon seed hangs from holder through stabilizing tube. While button growing, tube elevated above melt surface. When ready for pulling of ribbon, tube comes to rest on button and prevents tipping. Large button used. Even if button assumes highly-asymmetrical weight distrubtion in early stages of growth, little danger of tipping and breakage of nascent ribbon.

  3. Production of stilbenoids and phenolic acids by the peanut plant at early stages of growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea) is known to produce stilbene phytoalexins as a defensive response to exogenous stimuli. This research demonstrates the ability of different organs of the peanut plant at early stages of growth under axenic conditions to produce a stilbenoid, resveratrol, as well a...

  4. Early stages of growth of Si nanowires by metal assisted chemical etching: A scaling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Arindam; Ghosh, Ramesh; Giri, P. K.

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the kinetic roughening in the growth of Si nanowires (NWs) by metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) process as a function of the etching time using atomic force microscopy imaging. In the early stage of growth of Si NWs by Ag assisted MACE process, we have determined the scaling exponents ?, ?, and 1/z. In the formation of Si NWs, nascent Ag+ ions play an important role in diffusing through the Si surface by means of excess holes that control the size of the NWs. In this system, kinetic roughening of the growth front within the detectable range of lengths of Si NWs was observed. We have observed an ? = 0.74 ± 0.01 at the early stage of growth of Si NWs. Interface width w increases as a power law of etching time (t), w ˜ t ? , with growth exponent ? = 0.30 ± 0.05 and lateral correlation length ? grows as ? ˜ t 1 / z with 1/z = 0.32 ± 0.05. These exponents ?, ?, and 1/z determine the universality class in which the system belongs to. The growth mechanism is explained by conventional shadowing instability model, which is common for columnar type of surface growth.

  5. Early stages of ramified growth in quasi-two-dimensional electrochemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruyn, John R.

    1996-06-01

    I have measured the early stages of the growth of branched metal aggregates formed by electrochemical deposition in very thin layers. The growth rate of spatial Fourier modes is described qualitatively by the results of a linear stability analysis [D.P. Barkey, R.H. Muller, and C.W. Tobias,

    J. Electrochem. Soc. 136, 2207 (1989)
    ]. The maximum growth rate is proportional to (I/c)? where I is the current through the electrochemical cell, c the electrolyte concentration, and ?=1.37±0.08. Differences between my results and the theoretical predictions suggest that electroconvection in the electrolyte has an influence on the instability leading to ramified growth.

  6. Physiological and morphological changes during early and later stages of fruit growth in Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Aparna; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Ljung, Karin; Offringa, Remko; Heuvelink, Ep

    2013-03-01

    Fruit-set involves a series of physiological and morphological changes that are well described for tomato and Arabidopsis, but largely unknown for sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). The aim of this paper is to investigate whether mechanisms of fruit-set observed in Arabidopsis and tomato are also applicable to C. annuum. To do this, we accurately timed the physiological and morphological changes in a post-pollinated and un-pollinated ovary. A vascular connection between ovule and replum was observed in fertilized ovaries that undergo fruit development, and this connection was absent in unfertilized ovaries that abort. This indicates that vascular connection between ovule and replum is an early indicator for successful fruit development after pollination and fertilization. Evaluation of histological changes in the carpel of a fertilized and unfertilized ovary indicated that increase in cell number and cell diameter both contribute to early fruit growth. Cell division contributes more during early fruit growth while cell expansion contributes more at later stages of fruit growth in C. annuum. The simultaneous occurrence of a peak in auxin concentration and a strong increase in cell diameter in the carpel of seeded fruits suggest that indole-3-acetic acid stimulates a major increase in cell diameter at later stages of fruit growth. The series of physiological and morphological events observed during fruit-set in C. annuum are similar to what has been reported for tomato and Arabidopsis. This indicates that tomato and Arabidopsis are suitable model plants to understand details of fruit-set mechanisms in C. annuum. PMID:22889158

  7. Growth rate of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    An, Chansik; Choi, Youn Ah; Choi, Dongil; Paik, Yong Han; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Paik, Seung Woon; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The goal of this study was to estimate the growth rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identify the host factors that significantly affect this rate. Methods Patients with early-stage HCC (n=175) who underwent two or more serial dynamic imaging studies without any anticancer treatment at two tertiary care hospitals in Korea were identified. For each patient, the tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) of HCC was calculated by comparing tumor volumes between serial imaging studies. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Results The median TVDT was 85.7 days, with a range of 11 to 851.2 days. Multiple linear regression revealed that the initial tumor diameter (a tumor factor) and the etiology of chronic liver disease (a host factor) were significantly associated with the TVDT. The TVDT was shorter when the initial tumor diameter was smaller, and was shorter in HCC related to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection than in HCC related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (median, 76.8 days vs. 137.2 days; P=0.0234). Conclusions The etiology of chronic liver disease is a host factor that may significantly affect the growth rate of early-stage HCC, since HBV-associated HCC grows faster than HCV-associated HCC. PMID:26523271

  8. Plasma Epidermal Growth Factor Decreased in the Early Stage of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qian-Wen; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Hou, Miao-Miao; Wang, Xi; Tang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Yi-Wen; Ma, Jian-Fang; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a neurotrophic factor that plays an important role in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We measured plasma EGF level in PD, essential tremor (ET) and normal controls to investigate whether it changes in PD and whether it is associated with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. 100 patients with PD, 40 patients with ET as disease control and 76 healthy persons were enrolled in the present study. Motor and non-motor symptoms were assessed by different scales. Plasma EGF levels of three groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Spearman test and linear logistics regression model were used to test the correlation of EGF with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Plasma EGF level was significantly decreased in early PD patients compared with normal control, but not in advanced PD patients. Interestingly, plasma EGF level was significantly increased in advanced PD and total PD patients compared with ET patients, but not in early PD patients. In addition, plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores in PD. Also plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores and NMS scores in early PD. Our results suggested that plasma EGF decreased in the early stage of PD and increased later on in the PD disease course. Also, plasma EGF level was increased significantly in PD compared with ET patients and correlated with motor and non-motor symptoms in early PD. PMID:26029474

  9. Adsorption-induced restructuring and early stages of carbon-nanotube growth on Ni nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuexia; Barcaro, Giovanni; Negreiros, Fabio R; Visart de Bocarmé, Thierry; Moors, Mathieu; Kruse, Norbert; Hou, Marc; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Carbon adsorption on various Ni surfaces is investigated as a function of coverage via a combination of first-principles simulations and field emission microscope experiments. It is found that carbon can be efficiently stored as subsurface carbides, but with different energetics on differently oriented surfaces depending on their compactness and density of adsorption sites. In the resulting morphological reshaping, {113} facets are predicted to grow at the expense of {111} and {100} facets, in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Moreover, at high coverage on the {113} surface the carbon adsorption energy passes through a maximum after which a structural crossover is realized such that carbon atoms tend to ascend to the surface to form one-dimensional chains (which are the precursors of graphitic nanostructures). This rationalizes the experimental observation of an incubation time between carbon storage and the beginning of catalytic growth, and provides insight into the early stages (nucleation mechanism) of carbon nanotubes on Ni nanoparticles. PMID:23169259

  10. Whole-body protein turnover in chicks at early stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, T; Okumura, J

    1985-04-01

    Changes in whole-body protein turnover rate in young chicks were measured during very early stages of chicken growth. Day-old single comb White Leghorn male chicks were fed an adequate purified diet. Whole-body protein turnover was determined weekly for 4 wk. Fractional rates of protein synthesis (percent/day) in the whole body decreased from 1 to 4 wk of age while those of degradation remained unchanged. When expressed in terms of body weight per se, no significant change in absolute protein turnover rate (grams/day) was found during the experimental period; however, when expressed in terms of metabolizable body weight (kilograms 0.75), turnover rates increased slightly. Thus, during the first 4 wk of life no decrease in the whole-body protein turnover rate was found in chickens on the basis of units or metabolic body size. Twenty to 28% of the total heat production was accounted for by the energy expenditure due to whole-body protein synthesis. PMID:3981267

  11. Early-Stage Caregiving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you can do is help the person with early-stage Alzheimer's get legal, financial and care plans in place. Doing so allows ... longer an option. Learn more: Planning Ahead Safety Financial and Legal Resources ... engaged. People with early-stage Alzheimer's want to stay as engaged and ...

  12. Early life-stage test in zebrafish versus a growth test in rainbow trout to evaluate toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bresch, H. )

    1991-05-01

    The aim of the work presented in this paper was to compare toxic threshold concentrations of three substances obtained from growth test in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with data from early life-stages in zebrafish. The growth test was conducted over a period of 7 wk in case of 4-chloroaniline and 4 wk in case of 3,4-dichloroaniline and diazinon. The data from the experiment in zebrafish originate from life-cycle studies; here, only the results obtained within the first 6 wk of development after fertilization are considered. These time limits have been set, as in the FRG a growth test in rainbow trout extending over 4 wk and an early life-stage test in zebrafish extending over 6 wk are being discussed for the Chemical Act.

  13. An assay to probe Plasmodium falciparum growth, transmission stage formation and early gametocyte development.

    PubMed

    Brancucci, Nicolas M B; Goldowitz, Ilana; Buchholz, Kathrin; Werling, Kristine; Marti, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    Conversion from asexual proliferation to sexual differentiation initiates the production of the gametocyte, which is the malaria parasite stage required for human-to-mosquito transmission. This protocol describes an assay designed to probe the effect of drugs or other perturbations on asexual replication, sexual conversion and early gametocyte development in the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Synchronized asexually replicating parasites are induced for gametocyte production by the addition of conditioned medium, and they are then exposed to the treatment of interest during sexual commitment or at any subsequent stage of early gametocyte development. Flow cytometry is used to measure asexual proliferation and gametocyte production via DNA dye staining and the gametocyte-specific expression of a fluorescent protein, respectively. This screening approach may be used to identify and evaluate potential transmission-blocking compounds and to further investigate the mechanism of sexual conversion in malaria parasites. The full protocol can be completed in 11 d. PMID:26134953

  14. An assay to probe Plasmodium falciparum growth, transmission stage formation and early gametocyte development

    PubMed Central

    Brancucci, Nicolas M B; Goldowitz, Ilana; Buchholz, Kathrin; Werling, Kristine; Marti, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Conversion from asexual proliferation to sexual differentiation initiates the production of the gametocyte, which is the malaria parasite stage required for human-to-mosquito transmission. This protocol describes an assay designed to probe the effect of drugs or other perturbations on asexual replication, sexual conversion and early gametocyte development in the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Synchronized asexually replicating parasites are induced for gametocyte production by the addition of conditioned medium, and they are then exposed to the treatment of interest during sexual commitment or at any subsequent stage of early gametocyte development. Flow cytometry is used to measure asexual proliferation and gametocyte production via DNA dye staining and the gametocyte-specific expression of a fluorescent protein, respectively. This screening approach may be used to identify and evaluate potential transmission-blocking compounds and to further investigate the mechanism of sexual conversion in malaria parasites. The full protocol can be completed in 11 d. PMID:26134953

  15. Hypoxia and acidification have additive and synergistic negative effects on the growth, survival, and metamorphosis of early life stage bivalves.

    PubMed

    Gobler, Christopher J; DePasquale, Elizabeth L; Griffith, Andrew W; Baumann, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria), marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale ?=?7.4-7.6) reduced survivorship (by >50%), low oxygen (30-50 µM) inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%), and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%). Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40%) reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios. PMID:24416169

  16. Hypoxia and Acidification Have Additive and Synergistic Negative Effects on the Growth, Survival, and Metamorphosis of Early Life Stage Bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Gobler, Christopher J.; DePasquale, Elizabeth L.; Griffith, Andrew W.; Baumann, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria), marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale  = 7.4–7.6) reduced survivorship (by >50%), low oxygen (30–50 µM) inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%), and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%). Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40%) reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios. PMID:24416169

  17. Growth pattern switch of renal cells and expression of cell cycle related proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yanling; Shi Yonghong; Liu Yaling; Dong Hui; Liu, Maodong; Li Ying; Duan Huijun

    2007-11-09

    Renal hypertrophy, partly due to cell proliferation and hypertrophy, has been found correlated to renal function deterioration in diabetes mellitus. We screened the up-regulated cell cycle related genes to investigate cell growth and the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy using STZ-induced diabetic rats. Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2} and P{sup 27} were found significantly up-regulated in diabetic kidney. Increased cell proliferation in the kidney was seen at day 3, peaked at day 5, and returned to normal level at day 30. Cyclin E and CDK{sub 2} expression also peeked at day 5 and P{sup 27} activity peaked at day 14. These findings indicate that a hyperplastic growth period of renal cells is followed by a hypertrophic growth period at the early stage of diabetes. The growth pattern switch may be regulated by cell cycle regulating proteins, Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2}, and P{sup 27}.

  18. Disruption of Smad-dependent signaling for growth of GST-P-positive lesions from the early stage in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimura, Ryohei; Mizukami, Sayaka; Takahashi, Miwa; Taniai, Eriko; Kemmochi, Sayaka; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2010-08-01

    To clarify the involvement of signaling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} during the hepatocarcinogenesis, the immunohistochemical distribution of related molecules was analyzed in relation with liver cell lesions expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) during liver tumor promotion by fenbendazole, phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, or thioacetamide, using rats. Our study focused on early-stage promotion (6 weeks after starting promotion) and late-stage promotion (57 weeks after starting promotion). With regard to Smad-dependent signaling, cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated Smad (phospho-Smad)-2/3 - identified as Smad3 by later immunoblot analysis - increased in the subpopulation of GST-P{sup +} foci, while Smad4, a nuclear transporter of Smad2/3, decreased during early-stage promotion. By late-stage promotion, GST-P{sup +} lesions lacking phospho-Smad2/3 had increased in accordance with lesion development from foci to carcinomas, while Smad4 largely disappeared in most proliferative lesions. With regard to Smad-independent mitogen-activated protein kinases, GST-P{sup +} foci that co-expressed phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase increased during early-stage promotion; however, p38-downstream phospho-activating transcriptional factor (ATF)-2, ATF3, and phospho-c-Myc, were inversely downregulated without relation to promotion. By late-stage promotion, proliferative lesions downregulated phospho-ATF2 and phospho-c-Myc along with lesion development, as with downregulation of phospho-p38 in all lesions. These results suggest that from the early stages, carcinogenic processes were facilitated by disruption of tumor suppressor functions of Smad-dependent signaling, while Smad-independent activation of p38 was an early-stage phenomenon. GST-P{sup -} foci induced by promotion with agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} did not change Smad expression, suggesting an aberration in the Smad-dependent signaling prerequisites for induction of GST-P{sup +} proliferative lesions.

  19. Iron partitioning at an early growth stage impacts iron deficiency responses in soybean plants (Glycine max L.)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carla S.; Roriz, Mariana; Carvalho, Susana M. P.; Vasconcelos, Marta W.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) leads to leaf yellowing, stunted growth and drastic yield losses. Plants have been differentiated into ‘Fe-efficient’ (EF) if they resist to IDC and ‘Fe-inefficient’ (IN) if they do not, but the reasons for this contrasting efficiency remain elusive. We grew EF and IN soybean plants under Fe deficient and Fe sufficient conditions and evaluated if gene expression and the ability to partition Fe could be related to IDC efficiency. At an early growth stage, Fe-efficiency was associated with higher chlorophyll content, but Fe reductase activity was low under Fe-deficiency for EF and IN plants. The removal of the unifoliate leaves alleviated IDC symptoms, increased shoot:root ratio, and trifoliate leaf area. EF plants were able to translocate Fe to the aboveground plant organs, whereas the IN plants accumulated more Fe in the roots. FRO2-like gene expression was low in the roots; IRT1-like expression was higher in the shoots; and ferritin was highly expressed in the roots of the IN plants. The efficiency trait is linked to Fe partitioning and the up-regulation of Fe-storage related genes could interfere with this key process. This work provides new insights into the importance of mineral partitioning among different plant organs at an early growth stage. PMID:26029227

  20. Comparing the effects of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium) clades C1 and D on early growth stages of Acropora tenuis.

    PubMed

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades - including A and D - have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages. PMID:24914677

  1. Early stages of soldering reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, R.A.; Umantsev, A.

    2005-09-15

    An experiment on the early stages of intermetallic compound layer growth during soldering and its theoretical analysis were conducted with the intent to study the controlling factors of the process. An experimental technique based on fast dipping and pulling of a copper coupon in liquid solder followed by optical microscopy allowed the authors to study the temporal behavior of the sample on a single micrograph. The technique should be of value for different areas of metallurgy because many experiments on crystallization may be described as the growth of a layer of intermediate phase. Comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical calculations allowed one to identify the kinetics of dissolution as the rate-controlling mechanism on the early stages and measure the kinetic coefficient of dissolution. A popular model of intermetallic compound layer structure coarsening is discussed.

  2. Evolution of Hydraulic Roughness During Early Stages of Conduit Growth: Effects on Conduit Enlargement Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulley, J. D.; Spellman, P.; Covington, M. D.; Martin, J. B.; Benn, D.; Catania, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic roughness exerts an important but poorly constrained control on the hydraulic capacity and enlargement rates of subglacial conduits. In an ideal, inviscid fluid, energy and mass are conserved along a flow line and the sum of the velocity, pressure and elevation heads equals the potential energy of the system, as described by the Bernoulli Equation. In real fluid flows, however, some of this energy is dissipated as heat due to friction and turbulence, resulting in a total head that is lower than predicted by the Bernoulli Equation. This departure from ideal is termed head loss, which is accounted for in simple hydrological models, such as the Manning or Darcy Weisbach equations, through the use of a roughness coefficient (n -s m1/3) or a friction factor (f - dimensionless), respectively. Both f and n relate hydraulic roughness to a relative roughness, or the ratio of the height that projections extend from the floor or wall of a conduit to the conduit hydraulic diameter. Such relationships, however, are empirically derived and only valid for relative roughness values that are <5%. Relative roughness values that are >5% likely occur in subglacial conduits, particularly during early stages of conduit enlargement, which may limit ability to use relative roughness to calculate values of n or f. Understanding changes in roughness in the early stages of conduit enlargement is crucial for accurate modeling of glacier hydrological systems because nearly all glacier hydrological models rely on a hydraulic roughness parameterization to drive conduit melting. To address this knowledge gap, we calculated hydraulic roughness values from dye traces conducted at Rieperbreen, in Svalbard, Norway. Because conduit area and hydraulic gradients were constrained by direct mapping, and average flow velocities were obtained from dye traces, we were able to calculate f and n for each trace. Values of f and n declined from 75.01 and 0.68 s m1/3, respectively, to 0.97 and 0.04 s m1/3 over the melt season. Values of f and n calculated from dye tracing data exceeded values of f and n calculated solely from direct measurements of relative roughness by several orders of magnitude. Despite these discrepancies, values of f and n that were calculated from dye tracing data were highly correlated to measured relative roughness values using a power law, suggesting that new relationships may be developed for glacier hydrological systems. When we paramaterized a simple conduit enlargement model using our newly-discovered relationship between f, n and relative roughness, we found that the timescale required for conduits to grow from 0.5 m in diameter to a diameter where relative roughness was <5% was 4-9 times longer than enlargement times obtained using roughness parameterization schemes commonly used in glacier hydrological models.

  3. Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo; Politi, Pierluigi; Bianchi, Marika; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Bertona, Marco; Geroldi, Diego

    2006-04-01

    Our current knowledge of the neurobiology of romantic love remains scanty. In view of the complexity of a sentiment like love, it would not be surprising that a diversity of biochemical mechanisms could be involved in the mood changes of the initial stage of a romance. In the present study, we have examined whether the early romantic phase of a loving relationship could be associated with alterations in circulating levels of neurotrophins (NTs). Plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4 were measured in a total of 58 subjects who had recently fallen in love and compared with those of two control groups, consisting of subjects who were either single or were already engaged in a long-lasting relationship. NGF level was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the subjects in love [mean (SEM): 227 (14) pg/ml] than in either the subjects with a long-lasting relationship [123 (10) pg/ml] or the subjects with no relationship [149 (12) pg/ml]. Notably, there was also a significant positive correlation between levels of NGF and the intensity of romantic love as assessed with the passionate love scale (r = 0.34; p = 0.007). No differences in the concentrations of other NTs were detected. In 39 subjects in love who-after 12-24 months-maintained the same relationship but were no longer in the same mental state to which they had referred during the initial evaluation, plasma NGF levels decreased and became indistinguishable from those of the control groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that some behavioural and/or psychological features associated with falling in love could be related to raised NGF levels in the bloodstream. PMID:16289361

  4. Formation and Growth of Intermetallic Compound Cu6Sn5 at Early Stages in Lead-Free Soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M. S.; Arroyave, R.

    2010-12-01

    In this work, the early stages of the formation and growth of the intermetallic compound Cu6Sn5 during soldering reactions between a Cu substrate and liquid Sn are examined through phase-field simulations. The liquid Sn-based solder (L phase) and the copper substrate (? phase) are considered to be under metastable equilibrium conditions that eventually lead to nucleation of the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC) (? phase) at the solid/liquid interface. Nucleation is incorporated into the model through a classical treatment considering that individual nucleation events follow a Poisson distribution function. The driving forces for the nucleation and phase transformations are obtained by coupling the phase-field simulations to CALPHAD models. In the phase-field simulations, physical properties such as liquid surface as well as IMC interfacial energies are treated parametrically to probe the behavior of the system under various growth conditions. The simulations are compared with previous works and are shown to have good (qualitative) agreement with recent detailed studies on the early stages of the interaction between Cu and liquid Sn.

  5. The Effect of Growth-Mimicking Continuous Strain on the Early Stages of Skeletal Development in Micromass Culture

    PubMed Central

    Klumpers, Darinka D.; Smit, Theo H.; Mooney, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic skeletogenesis involves proliferation, condensation and subsequent chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells, and the strains and stresses inherent to these processes have been hypothesized to influence skeletal development. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of growth-mimicking strain on the process of early skeletal development in vitro. To this end, we applied continuous uniaxial strain to embryonic skeletal precursor cells in micromass culture. Strain was applied at different times of culture to specifically address the effect of mechanical loading on the sequential stages of cellular proliferation, condensation and differentiation. We found that growth-mimicking strain at all three times did not affect proliferation or chondrogenic differentiation under the tested conditions. However, the timing of the applied strain did play a role in the density of mesenchymal condensations. This finding suggests that a mechanically dynamic environment, and specifically strain, can influence skeletal patterning. The growth-mimicking micromass model presented here may be a useful tool for further studies into the role of mechanical loading in early skeletal development. PMID:25915898

  6. Early stages of Ostwald ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.

    2013-07-01

    The Becker-Döring (BD) nucleation equation is known to predict a narrow double-exponential front (DEF) in the distribution of growing particles over sizes, which is due to early transient effects. When mass conservation is included, nucleation is eventually exhausted while independent growth is replaced by ripening. Despite the enormous difference in the associated time scales, and the resulting demand on numerics, within the generalized BD model the early DEF is shown to be crucial for the selection of the unique self-similar Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner asymptotic regime. Being preserved till the latest stages of growth, the DEF provides a universal part of the initial conditions for the ripening problem, regardless of the mass exchange mechanism between the nucleus and the matrix.

  7. Nucleation and Early Stages of Layer-by-Layer Growth of Metal Organic Frameworks on Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to resolve the evolution of crystallites of a metal organic framework (HKUST-1) grown on Au(111) using a liquid-phase layer-by-layer methodology. The nucleation and faceting of individual crystallites is followed by repeatedly imaging the same submicron region after each cycle of growth and we find that the growing surface is terminated by {111} facets leading to the formation of pyramidal nanostructures for [100] oriented crystallites, and triangular [111] islands with typical lateral dimensions of tens of nanometres. AFM images reveal that crystallites can grow by 5–10 layers in each cycle. The growth rate depends on crystallographic orientation and the morphology of the gold substrate, and we demonstrate that under these conditions the growth is nanocrystalline with a morphology determined by the minimum energy surface. PMID:26709359

  8. Intra and interspecific competition among invasive and native species during early stages of plant growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant competition is considered to be the primary ecological process limiting the success of grassland restoration. Appropriate restoration techniques require an understanding of the degree to which intra and/or interspecific competition controls native plant growth. The objective of this study wa...

  9. Modeling of early stages of island growth during pulsed deposition: Role of closed compact islands

    SciTech Connect

    Kotrla, M.; Masin, M.

    2011-03-24

    After a brief review of recent modeling of growth during Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD), we present the study of a role of adatom interactions on growth of surface islands during PLD in submonolayer regime. We employ kinetic Monte Carlo simulation with reversible growth. Attachment of monomers to islands is irreversible at low temperatures while it becomes reversible at higher temperatures, small islands become unstable with growing temperature. In the case of real system we have to take into account not only diffusion of monomers but also diffusivity of dimers and larger clusters and theirs stability. Our new code allows us to study processes which proceed on different time scales which are typical in PLD experiments: fast deposition (on scale order of 10{sup -5} s) during individual pulses, and relaxation of a system between pulses (on scale order of 0.1 s). We calculate and compare the temperature dependence of island density for two modes pulsed deposition and continuous Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth. The island densities in PLD mode are substantially higher than in MBE mode, provided the temperature is sufficiently high. In the case of PLD, we observe anomalous temperature dependence of the island density in a certain temperature interval. It is due to the interplay between a cluster decay time and an interval between pulses. The cluster decay time depends not only on temperature but also on clusters size and shape. The anomalous behavior is caused by the temperature limited stability of the closed--compact clusters. This scenario was revealed for the simplified model with only nearest-neighbor interaction. Now, it is elucidated further and we also include interaction to second and third neighbors. We analyze role of the closed-compact surface island in kinetics of both growth modes. Furthermore, by varying interactions energies, diffusion barrier and parameters of deposition, we compare results of simulations with the PLD experiment for Fe/Mo system.

  10. Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed. PMID:22363438

  11. Ultrasonic monitoring of early-stage biofilm growth on polymeric surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kujundzic, Elmira; Fonseca, A Cristina; Evans, Emily A; Peterson, Michael; Greenberg, Alan R; Hernandez, Mark

    2007-03-01

    Biofilm growth on polymeric surfaces was monitored using ultrasonic frequency-domain reflectometry (UFDR). The materials utilized for this study included nonporous polycarbonate (PC) sheets, polyamide (PA) nanofiltration composite membranes and porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes (nominal pore size: 0.65 microm). Coupons of each material were placed in a biologically active annular reactor for up to 300 days, and subjected to a constant shear field (0.12 N m(-2)), which induced sessile microbial growth from acetate amended municipal tap water. Acoustic monitoring was non-destructively executed by traversing coupons in a constant temperature water bath using a spherically focused 20-MHz immersion transducer. This semi-automated system was configured to obtain reflections from 50 regions (c.a. 120x10(3) microm2) distributed evenly near the centerline of each coupon. The resulting reflected power distributions were compared with standard biochemical and microscopic assays that described surface associated biofilms. When compared to clean (virgin) conditions, biofilms growing on coupons induced consistent attenuations in reflection amplitude, which caused statistically significant shifts in reflected power (p<0.01). Using exocellular polysaccharides as a surrogate measure of total biofilm mass, UFDR was able to detect biofilms developing on any of the materials tested at surface-averaged masses < or = 150 microg cm(-2). Above these threshold levels, increasing amounts of exocellular polysaccharides correlated with significant decreases in total reflected power (TRP). The distribution of biomass on the coupon surfaces determined by acoustic spectra was consistent with that observed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). These results suggest that UFDR may be used as a non-destructive tool to monitor biofouling in a wide variety of applications. PMID:17141898

  12. Growth and population dynamics during early stages of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay, North Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Ha, Hoang; Duarte, Carlos M.; Tri, Nguyen Hoang; Terrados, Jorge; Borum, Jens

    2003-11-01

    Quantifying the dynamics of the early stages in the life cycle of mangroves is essential to predict the distribution, species composition and structure of mangrove forests, and their maintenance and recovery from perturbations. The growth and population dynamics of two stands of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay (Viet Nam) were examined for 1 year. Growth was highly seasonal, with high growth rates and fast internode formation in the summer, dropping to extremely low growth during January-February, the coldest and driest months in the year. In addition, growth and internode formation rates showed important inter-annual variability during the last decade. The complete reproductive period required 7-8 months. Flower initiation was maximal in June and peak propagule maturity occurred in December-January. Only one mature propagule developed for every 67 and 127 inflorescence buds formed at Site 1 and Site 2, respectively. Kandelia candel propagules begun to sink 10 days after being released, and after 18 days all propagules had negative buoyancy. The propagules developed roots within 19-68 days, depending on whether they were held on the water or sediment, and were capable of long range dispersal, for 15-20% of them dispersed more than 100 m within 1 day. The median age of K. candel plants ranged between 8.7 and 5.6 years, with a density of 1900 and 470 plants ha -1, in Sites 1 and 2. Plant mortality was high, with 64 and 74% of the plants surviving after a year at Sites 1 and 2. Life expectancy (i.e. median age-at-death) of only 2.2 and 2.7 years at Sites 1 and 2, respectively, indicates that mortality of young K. candel plants was specially high. Recruitment occurred in early spring, and did not suffice to balance the mortality within the annual period examined. These results suggest that the K. candel stands in Halong Bay might be maintained by a few years of high recruitment which would compensate for generally high mortality rates.

  13. Impact of Pretreatment Tumor Growth Rate on Outcome of Early-Stage Lung Cancer Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, Soha; Cho, B.C. John; Allibhai, Zishan; Taremi, Mojgan; Giuliani, Meredith; Le, Lisa W.; Brade, Anthony; Sun, Alexander; Bezjak, Andrea; Hope, Andrew J.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of pretreatment tumor growth rate on outcomes in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A review was conducted on 160 patients with T1-T2N0M0 NSCLC treated with SBRT at single institution. The patient's demographic and clinical data, time interval (t) between diagnostic and planning computed tomography (CT), vital status, disease status, and cause of death were extracted from a prospectively kept database. Differences in gross tumor volume between diagnostic CT (GTV1) and planning CT (GTV2) were recorded, and growth rate was calculated by use of specific growth rate (SGR). Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for overall survival (OS). Differences between groups were compared with a log-rank test. Multivariate analyses were performed by use of the Cox proportional hazard model with SGR and other relevant clinical factors. Cumulative incidence was calculated for local, regional, and distant failures by use of the competing risk approach and was compared with Gray's test. Results: The median time interval between diagnostic and planning CT was 82 days. The patients were divided into 2 groups, and the median SGR was used as a cut-off. The median survival times were 38.6 and 27.7 months for the low and high SGR groups, respectively (P=.03). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (P=.01), sex (P=.04), SGR (P=.03), and GTV2 (P=.002) were predictive for OS in multivariable Cox regression analysis and, except sex, were similarly predictive for failure-free survival (FFS). The 3-year cumulative incidences of regional failure were 19.2% and 6.0% for the high and low SGR groups, respectively (P=.047). Conclusion: High SGR was correlated with both poorer OS and FFS in patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with SBRT. If validated, this measurement may be useful in identifying patients most likely to benefit from adjuvant therapy after SBRT.

  14. Ab initio study of early stage Nb growth on MgO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Yunsic; Amar, Jacques G.

    2016-03-01

    Using density functional theory calculations we have examined the effects of cluster shape and a neutral O vacancy on the energetics and stability of Nb monomers and clusters on the MgO(001) surface. The relative stability of different monolayer structures is also examined. As found in other cases of metal adsorbates on MgO(001), our results indicate that an O site is the preferred adsorption site for a Nb atom. In addition, O-vacancy sites tend to increase the binding energy of small clusters and thus act as nucleation sites, while the effect of a nearby O vacancy on the binding energy of a Nb cluster is much weaker. In particular, we find that the binding energy for a Nb monomer at an O site (O-vacancy site) is 1.5 eV (2.2 eV) while the corresponding activation barriers for Nb monomer diffusion are 0.58 eV (0.80 eV). We also find that, in the absence of O vacancies, the preferred planar structure for tetramers and pentamers is an isotropic (100)-like structure. In contrast, the presence of an O vacancy transforms the isotropic tetramer into an anisotropic (110)-like structure. In addition, due to strain effects as well as strong Nb-Nb interactions, for large clusters (e.g. a complete monolayer) the anisotropic (110) structure is favored over the (100) structure. These results appear to explain recent experimental observations for the dependence of thin-film orientation on deposition conditions. However, we also find that for small (100)-like and (110)-like clusters, three-dimensional (rather than planar) structures are energetically preferred due to the strong Nb-Nb interaction. These results suggest that the pathway to form a coherent (100) or (110) structure during the growth of Nb films on Mg(001) may be relatively complex.

  15. Contrasting Strategies of Alfalfa Stem Elongation in Response to Fall Dormancy in Early Growth Stage: The Tradeoff between Internode Length and Internode Number

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zongli; Sun, Qizhong

    2015-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be described using 11 FD ratings, is widely used as an important indicator of stress resistance, productive performance and spring growth. However, the contrasting growth strategies in internode length and internode number in alfalfa cultivars with different FD rating are poorly understood. Here, a growth chamber study was conducted to investigate the effect of FD on plant height, aboveground biomass, internode length, and internode number in alfalfa individuals in the early growth stages. In order to simulate the alfalfa growth environment in the early stage, 11 alfalfa cultivars with FD ratings from one to 11 were chosen and seeded at the greenhouse, and then were transplanted into an artificial growth chamber. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. Plant height, above-ground biomass, internode length, and internode number were measured in early growth stage in all individuals. Our findings showed that plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa did not significantly differ among 11 different FD rated cultivars. Also, internode length and internode number positively affected plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa individuals and the average internode length significantly increased with increasing FD rating. However, internode number tended to sharply decline when the FD rating increased. Moreover, there were no correlations, slightly negative correlations, and strongly negative correlations between internode length and internode number in alfalfa individuals among the three scales, including within-FD ratings, within-FD categories and inter-FD ratings, respectively. Therefore, our results highlighted that contrasting growth strategies in stem elongation were adopted by alfalfa with different FD ratings in the early growth stage. Alfalfa cultivars with a high FD rating have longer internodes, whereas more dormant alfalfa cultivars have a larger number of internodes. There were tradeoffs between internode length and internode number in response to FD in alfalfa, which reflected certain scale-dependence. PMID:26281014

  16. Early Stages Of Biome Shift in Boreal Alaska: Climate Sensitivity of Tree Growth and Accelerated Tree Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juday, G. P.; Grant, T.; Alix, C. M.; Spencer, D. L.; Beck, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    The boreal forest region of Alaska is characterized by a major east-west climate gradient, in addition to a widely appreciated north-south gradient. Low elevations of the eastern and central Interior experience warm summer temperatures and low annual precipitation, while coastal western Alaska has cool summer temperatures and greater precipitation. In the Interior the four dominant tree species of white and black spruce, aspen, and Alaska birch on low elevation sites nearly all register a strong negative radial growth relationship to summer temperatures, concentrated in May and July. Precipitation, particularly in late winter and midsummer, plays a supplemental role as a positive factor in growth. Floodplain white spruce along the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers transition from negative temperature response to positive response in western Alaska near the tree limit. Populations of white spruce on treeline sites display both negative growth response to July temperature and positive response to spring temperatures, with the negative response dominant in the east and the positive response dominant in the west. Across boreal Alaska summer temperatures increased abruptly in 1974, and have remained at historically high levels since. Correspondingly, climatic favorability for radial growth of Interior trees on most low elevation sites has been at extreme low levels particularly in the 21st century. Satellite-based NDVI coverage confirms that forest growth reduction is widespread in boreal Alaska since the 1980s. Defoliating and wood boring insects have reached outbreak population levels across most of boreal Alaska, partly from release of direct temperature control on the insects and partly from increased tree host susceptibility. Major outbreak species include aspen leaf miner, spruce engraver beetle, and spruce budworm. About a dozen tall willow species have been subjected to widespread attack by willow leaf blotch miner, and a new disease and defoliating insect have spread rapidly in alder shrubs, so nearly all woody species face health challenges. Temperatures and precipitation on many Interior sites are now at or beyond tolerance limits for white spruce, aspen, and Alaska birch. Two episodes of acute drought injury were widespread in birch during the last decade. Deficits in climate predicted tree growth are synchronous with the major insect outbreaks as recorded in insect trapping records and aerial surveys of area affected. Over the past 25 years tree mortality of 50% or more occurred in nearly all long-term monitoring plots in mature stands on productive sites in the Interior, but to date trees have successfully regenerated on most disturbed sites. These environmental changes and tree responses, including opposite responses, are coherent, and consistent with early stages of a biome shift eliminating boreal forest on dry Interior sites, and emergence of a new climate optimum zone in western Alaska currently only sparsely populated with forest.

  17. DAMAGE POTENTIAL OF GRASSHOPPERS (ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE) ON EARLY GROWTH STAGES OF SMALL-GRAINS AND CANOLA UNDER SUBARCTIC CONDITIONS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small-grains, such as barley and oats, have been successfully grown under subarctic conditions but little is known about their response to herbivory by grasshoppers, especially during seedling stages. A growth chamber study quantified and characterized damage to above- and below-ground plant parts ...

  18. Origins of carbon sustaining the growth of whitefish Coregonus lavaretus early larval stages in Lake Annecy: insights from fatty-acid biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Perga, M-E; Bec, A; Anneville, O

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that diatom carbon (C) produced during the spring peak supported spring zooplankton production and, ultimately, the growth of Coregonus lavaretus early larval stages from March to May 2006 in Lake Annecy, France, was tested using gut content analyses and fatty acid biomarkers. Gut content results showed that C. lavaretus larvae from stages 1 to 4 preferentially fed on copepods with Daphnia sp. only a minor proportion of larval diet. The levels of diatom-marker fatty acids (C16:1n-7 and C20:5n-3) were high in Daphnia sp., but lower in both copepods and C. lavaretus larvae from stages 0 to 4. These results indicated that the spring diatom biomass was actually grazed by Daphnia sp., but, contrary to what was expected, the spring bloom was not the only C source supporting copepods secondary production and, consequently, the growth of C. lavaretus early larval stages. In contrast, levels of terrestrial fatty acid marker (C24:0) were low in Daphnia sp. but high in copepods and C. lavaretus larvae, indicating a significant contribution of terrestrial carbon to copepods and, ultimately, to the growth of C. lavaretus early larval stages. PMID:20735521

  19. Identification of serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 as diagnostic biomarker for early-stage alcohol-induced liver disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is a major cause of liver disease in humans. The use and monitoring of biomarkers associated with early, pre-clinical stages of alcohol-induced liver disease (pre-ALD) could facilitate diagnosis and treatment, leading to improved outcomes. Methods We investigated the pathological, transcriptomic and protein changes in early stages of pre-ALD in mice fed the Lieber-Decarli liquid diet with or without alcohol for four months to identify biomarkers for the early stage of alcohol induced liver injury. Mice were sampled after 1, 2 and 4 months treatment. Results Pathological examination revealed a modest increase in fatty liver changes in alcohol-treated mice. Transcriptomics revealed gene alterations at all time points. Most notably, the Igfbp1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1) was selected as the best candidate gene for early detection of liver damage since it showed early and continuously enhanced induction during the treatment course. Consistent with the microarray data, both Igfbp1mRNA expression in the liver tissue and the IGFBP1 serum protein levels showed progressive and significant increases over the course of pre-ALD development. Conclusions The results suggest that in conjunction with other tests, serum IGFBPI protein could provide an easily measured biomarker for early detection of alcohol-induced liver injury in humans. PMID:24152801

  20. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, E.V., Jr.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  1. Molecular beam epitaxy of SrTiO{sub 3} on Si (001): Early stages of the growth and strain relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, G.; Saint-Girons, G.; Vilquin, B.; Delhaye, G.; Botella, C.; Robach, Y.; Hollinger, G.

    2009-08-10

    The molecular beam epitaxy of SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) layers on Si (001) is studied, focusing on the early stages of the growth and on the strain relaxation process. Evidence is given that even for optimized growth conditions, STO grows initially amorphous on silicon and recrystallizes, leading to the formation of an atomically abrupt heterointerface with silicon. Just after recrystallization, STO is partially strained. Further increase in its thickness leads to the onset of a progressive plastic relaxation mechanism. STO recovers its bulk lattice parameter for thicknesses of the order of 30 ML.

  2. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  3. De Novo Analysis of Wolfiporia cocos Transcriptome to Reveal the Differentially Expressed Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes) Genes During the Early Stage of Sclerotial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaopeng; Hu, Bingxiong; Wei, Wei; Xiong, Ying; Zhu, Wenjun; Peng, Fang; Yu, Yang; Zheng, Yonglian; Chen, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The sclerotium of Wolfiporia cocos has been used as an edible mushroom and/or a traditional herbal medicine for centuries. W. cocos sclerotial formation is dependent on parasitism of the wood of Pinus species. Currently, the sclerotial development mechanisms of W. cocos remain largely unknown and the lack of pine resources limit the commercial production. The CAZymes (carbohydrate-active enzymes) play important roles in degradation of the plant cell wall to provide carbohydrates for fungal growth, development, and reproduction. In this study, the transcript profiles from W. cocos mycelium and 2-months-old sclerotium, the early stage of sclerotial growth, were specially analyzed using de novo sequencing technology. A total of 142,428,180 high-quality reads of mycelium and 70,594,319 high-quality reads of 2-months-old sclerotium were obtained. Additionally, differentially expressed genes from the W. cocos mycelium and 2-months-old sclerotium stages were analyzed, resulting in identification of 69 CAZymes genes which were significantly up-regulated during the early stage of sclerotial growth compared to that of in mycelium stage, and more than half of them belonged to glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) family, indicating the importance of W. cocos GHs family for degrading the pine woods. And qRT-PCR was further used to confirm the expression pattern of these up-regulated CAZymes genes. Our results will provide comprehensive CAZymes genes expression information during W. cocos sclerotial growth at the transcriptional level and will lay a foundation for functional genes studies in this fungus. In addition, our study will also facilitate the efficient use of limited pine resources, which is significant for promoting steady development of Chinese W. cocos industry. PMID:26870032

  4. De Novo Analysis of Wolfiporia cocos Transcriptome to Reveal the Differentially Expressed Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes) Genes During the Early Stage of Sclerotial Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaopeng; Hu, Bingxiong; Wei, Wei; Xiong, Ying; Zhu, Wenjun; Peng, Fang; Yu, Yang; Zheng, Yonglian; Chen, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The sclerotium of Wolfiporia cocos has been used as an edible mushroom and/or a traditional herbal medicine for centuries. W. cocos sclerotial formation is dependent on parasitism of the wood of Pinus species. Currently, the sclerotial development mechanisms of W. cocos remain largely unknown and the lack of pine resources limit the commercial production. The CAZymes (carbohydrate-active enzymes) play important roles in degradation of the plant cell wall to provide carbohydrates for fungal growth, development, and reproduction. In this study, the transcript profiles from W. cocos mycelium and 2-months-old sclerotium, the early stage of sclerotial growth, were specially analyzed using de novo sequencing technology. A total of 142,428,180 high-quality reads of mycelium and 70,594,319 high-quality reads of 2-months-old sclerotium were obtained. Additionally, differentially expressed genes from the W. cocos mycelium and 2-months-old sclerotium stages were analyzed, resulting in identification of 69 CAZymes genes which were significantly up-regulated during the early stage of sclerotial growth compared to that of in mycelium stage, and more than half of them belonged to glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) family, indicating the importance of W. cocos GHs family for degrading the pine woods. And qRT-PCR was further used to confirm the expression pattern of these up-regulated CAZymes genes. Our results will provide comprehensive CAZymes genes expression information during W. cocos sclerotial growth at the transcriptional level and will lay a foundation for functional genes studies in this fungus. In addition, our study will also facilitate the efficient use of limited pine resources, which is significant for promoting steady development of Chinese W. cocos industry. PMID:26870032

  5. Shape changes and growth trajectories in the early stages of three species of the genus Diplodus (Perciformes, Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Loy, A; Bertelletti, M; Costa, C; Ferlin, L; Cataudella, S

    2001-10-01

    The larvae of three species of the genus Diplodus (Diplodus vulgaris, D. sargus, and D. puntazzo) colonize shallow waters along the Mediterranean coasts and, after a short period spent in the water column, they settle. For all three species this habitat transition is characterized by important shape changes mostly related to swimming capacity and feeding behavior. In this study, geometric morphometrics are used to characterize shape changes during the early juvenile life of specimens collected in a single locality in order to compare growth curves and allometric relationships. Size-related shape changes proved to be similar for all three species and are consistent with the ecological transition. A nonparametric smoothing technique (Loess) was used to fit the scatter of shape on size. The graphical representation (of most size-related shape variability) of this fitting technique shows how major shape changes are rapid for small sizes and slow down successively. The approach allows for the visualization of allometry and the fitting technique might help in defining the allometric growth pattern, thus contributing to the study of the autoecology of the species and in establishing terms for comparison with other ecologically or phylogenetically related species. PMID:11599013

  6. The stationary-phase morphogene bolA from Escherichia coli is induced by stress during early stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Santos, J M; Freire, P; Vicente, M; Arraiano, C M

    1999-05-01

    The Escherichia coli morphogene bolA causes round morphology when overexpressed. The expression of bolA is mainly regulated by a sigmas-dependent gearbox promoter bolA1p. Such regulation results in increased relative levels of expression at slow growth rates, as seen with those attained at the onset of stationary phase. We demonstrate that bolA1p is also induced during early logarithmic growth in response to several forms of stress, and that this induction can be partially sigmas independent. Sudden carbon starvation results in a 17-fold increase in mRNA levels derived from bolA1p 1 h after stress imposition. Increased osmolarity results in a more than 20-fold increase after the same period. Considerable increases in bolA1p mRNA levels were also detected as a result of heat shock, acidic stress and oxidative stress, which has been shown to inhibit sigmas translation. The orders of magnitude of bolA1p induction in log phase due to sudden starvation, osmotic shock and oxidative stress surpass the levels reached in stationary phase. Under sudden carbon starvation and osmotic shock, the cells changed their morphology, resembling those cells in which bolA is overexpressed in stationary phase. Increased expression and morphological changes due to sudden carbon starvation and osmotic shock still occur when sigmaS is not present in a rpoS- background. The results show that expression of bolA is not confined to stationary phase, but it can also play an important role in general stress response. We propose that bolA1p stress induction overrides the normal regulation imposed by growth rate, which is strictly the result of sigmaS-directed transcription. PMID:10361282

  7. Stage-Specific Profiling of Transforming Growth Factor-?, Fibroblast Growth Factor and Wingless-int Signaling Pathways during Early Embryo Development in The Goat

    PubMed Central

    HosseinNia, Pouria; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Hajian, Mehdi; Ostadhosseini, Somayeh; Nasiri, Mohammad Reza; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective This research intends to unravel the temporal expression profiles of genes in- volved in three developmentally important signaling pathways [transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and wingless/int (WNT)] during preand peri-implan- tation goat embryo development. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we examined the transcripts that encoded the ligand, receptor, intracellular signal transducer and modifier, and the down- stream effector, for each signaling pathway. In vitro mature MII oocytes and embryos at three distinctive stages [8-16 cell stage, day-7 (D7) blastocysts and day-14 (D14) blas- tocysts] were separately prepared in triplicate for comparative real-time reverse tran- scriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the selected gene sets. Results Most components of the three signaling pathways were present at more or less stable levels throughout the assessed oocyte and embryo developmental stages. The transcripts for TGF-?, FGF and WNT signaling pathways were all induced in unfertilized MII-oocytes. However, developing embryos showed gradual patterns of decrease in the activities of TGF-?, FGF and WNT components with renewal thereafter. Conclusion The results suggested that TGF-?, FGF and WNT are maternally active signaling pathways required during earlier, rather than later, stages of preand peri- implantation goat embryo development. PMID:26862524

  8. Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

  9. Damage potential of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on early growth stages of small-grains and canola under subarctic conditions.

    PubMed

    Begna, Sultan H; Fielding, Dennis J

    2003-08-01

    We characterized the type and extent of grasshopper injury to above- and below-ground plant parts for four crops [barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oats (Avena sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and canola (Brassica campestris L.)] commonly grown, or with potential to grow, in central Alaska. Cages were placed on 48 pots containing plants in second to third leaf stages and stocked with 0, 2, 4, and 6 first-instar Melanoplus sanguinipes F. pot(-1). Plants were harvested 22 d after planting. Stem growth of barley and oats was not affected except at the highest grasshopper treatment. In canola, stem biomass was reduced at the medium and high grasshopper treatments, when most of the leaves had been consumed. The highest grasshopper treatment reduced leaf area in barley and oats by approximately 55%, and caused a significant reduction in dry weight of leaves, stems, and roots (41-72%). Wheat and canola plants were smaller than barley and oats across all treatments and, at the highest grasshopper density, above-ground portions of wheat and canola were completely destroyed. Length and surface area of roots of barley and oats were reduced by 20-28% again at the highest grasshopper density, whereas the reduction for wheat and canola ranged from 50 to 90%. There was little or no difference among all grasshopper densities for C-N ratio in leaf and stem tissues of all crops. The results suggest that wheat and canola are more susceptible than barley and oats and that densities > or = 2 pot(-1) (approximately > or = 50 m(-2)) of even very small grasshoppers could cause significant damage in small-grain and oilseed crop production. PMID:14503591

  10. Evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Prognostic Marker for Local Relapse in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Meena S.; Yang Qifeng; Goyal, Sharad; Harris, Lyndsay; Chung, Gina; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important protein involved in the process of angiogenesis that has been found to correlate with relapse-free and overall survival in breast cancer, predominantly in locally advanced and metastatic disease. A paucity of data is available on the prognostic implications of VEGF in early-stage breast cancer; specifically, its prognostic value for local relapse after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to assess VEGF expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with BCT and to correlate the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes with overexpression of VEGF. Methods and Materials: After obtaining institutional review board approval, the paraffin specimens of 368 patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT between 1975 and 2005 were constructed into tissue microarrays with twofold redundancy. The tissue microarrays were stained for VEGF and read by a trained pathologist, who was unaware of the clinical details, as positive or negative according the standard guidelines. The clinical and pathologic data, long-term outcomes, and results of VEGF staining were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 6.5 years. VEGF expression was positive in 56 (15%) of the 368 patients. Although VEGF expression did not correlate with age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, histologic type, family history, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or HER-2 status, a trend was seen toward increased VEGF expression in the black cohort (26% black vs. 13% white, p = .068). Within the margin-negative cohort, VEGF did not predict for local relapse-free survival (RFS) (96% vs. 95%), nodal RFS (100% vs. 100%), distant metastasis-free survival (91% vs. 92%), overall survival (92% vs. 97%), respectively (all p >.05). Subset analysis revealed that VEGF was highly predictive of local RFS in node-positive, margin-negative patients (86% vs. 100%, p = .029) on univariate analysis, but it did not retain its significance on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.804-7.920, p = .113). No other subgroups were identified in which a correlation was found between VEGF expression and local relapse. Conclusion: To our knowledge, our study is the first to assess the prognostic value of VEGF with the endpoint of local relapse in early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT, an important question given the recent increased use of targeted antiangiogenic agents in early-stage breast cancer. Our study results suggest that VEGF is not an independent predictor of local RFS after BCT, but additional, larger studies specifically analyzing the endpoint of VEGF and local relapse are warranted.

  11. Effect of application rate of commercial lignite-derived amendments on early-stage growth of Medicago sativa and soil health, in acidic soil conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Antonio; Little, Karen; Rose, Michael; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Tim

    2013-04-01

    Commercially available lignite-derived amendments, sold mainly as humate preparations, have been promoted as plant growth stimulants leading to higher crop yields. These products are also claimed to improve soil properties such as pH. This study investigated the effect of application rate of three lignite-derived amendments on the early-stage growth of a pasture legume, lucerne (Medicago sativa), and soil health in a soil type common to south eastern Australia, in a glasshouse setting. An organic-mineral humate product and 'run of mine' lignite coal did not improve shoot or root growth despite application at a range of rates at, and in excess of, the manufacturers recommendation. Application of soluble K-humate product at 20 kg/ha (9.5 kg/ha C equivalent) produced an observable positive effect in shoot growth. At this application rate, a significant delay in the appearance of chlorotic symptoms was observed along with an increase in soil pH concurrent with decreased availability of soil Mn and Al. Higher root dry weight was associated with lower microbial biomass carbon which may indicate an effect on allocation of resources between the microbial community and the plant. An assessment of the effectiveness of lignite-derived amendments on plant growth, as well as their potential to improve the health of an acidic soil will assist farmers in making decisions regarding the use of these products.

  12. Detection of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in plasma as a biomarker in Chinese patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kai; Zhang, ZhiPei; Han, Lu; Han, Jing; Wang, Jian; Zhou, YongAn; Liu, HongGang; Tong, LiPing; Li, XiaoFei; Yan, XiaoLong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This preplanned exploratory analysis was conducted to reveal the true status of correlation between tissue and plasma detection for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, knowing that specific subgroups of NSCLC patients may be potential candidates for EGFR mutation analysis by using plasma samples. Materials and methods Tissue samples were surgically resected from 198 patients with stage I–IV NSCLC, where stage IA to IIIA accounted for 92.4%. EGFR mutations in all these tissues were positive. Paired plasma EGFR mutations were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction; concentration of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma was measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Results EGFR-activating mutation was detected in 34 plasma samples, and their mutation types were matched with that in tissue. The sensitivity of EGFR mutation for the 198 paired tissue and plasma samples was 17.2%. The sensitivity positively correlated with disease stage and negatively correlated with tumor differentiation. The sensitivity of stage IA, IB, IIA, IIB, and IIIA was 1.6%, 7.9%, 11.1%, 20%, and 33.3%, respectively; the sensitivity of high differentiation was 0% versus 36.8% for poor differentiation. There was no correlation between plasma cfDNA concentration and patient characteristics. Conclusion We recommend using plasma cfDNA as a biomarker in stage IIIA or poorly differentiated tumors for gene diagnosis, especially in patients whose tissue samples cannot be obtained by surgery. Plasma samples can really reflect the patients’ EGFR mutation types and may contain comprehensive genotypic information that comes from different parts of the tumor than tissue specimens. The concentration of plasma cfDNA does not vary with patient characteristics. PMID:26609241

  13. [Effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter at its early stage of decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu-Hua; Li, Yi-Qiao; Hu, Ting-Xing; Chen, Bao-Jun; Yang, Yong-Gui; Chen, Hong; Hu, Hong-Ling

    2013-07-01

    From March to May, 2010, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter at its early stage of decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus. Four treatments with different application rate of the leaf litter, i.e., 0 g x pot(-1) (CK), 30 g x pot(-1) (A1), 60 g x pot(-1) (A2), and 90 g x pot(-1) (A3), were installed. Each pot contained 12 kg soil mixed with the leaf litter, and then, C. intybus was sown. The growth indicators of the C. intybus were measured at the 30, 45, 60, and 75 d after sowing, and the photosynthetic characteristics of the C. intybus in treatment A3 were studied after the seedlings third leaf fully expanded. At each measured time, the biomass accumulation and leaf area growth of C. intybus in treatments A1, A2, and A3 were inhibited significantly. At the early stage of the leaf litter decomposition, the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments of the C. intybus seedlings was inhibited significantly, and the inhibition effect was getting stronger with the increasing amount of the leaf litter addition. The diurnal change of the seedlings photosynthetic rate in all treatments showed a bimodal curve with midday depression, the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency had the same variation trend with the net photosynthetic rate, and the total diurnal photosynthesis decreased in the order of CK > A1 > A2 > A3. The GC-MS analysis showed there were 33 kinds of small molecule compounds released gradually with the decomposition of the leaf litter, among which, allelopathic substance terpenoid dominated. PMID:24175509

  14. Stimulating seedling growth in early stages of secondary forest succession: a modeling approach to guide tree liberation.

    PubMed

    van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P R; Oomen, Roelof J; Schieving, Feike

    2014-01-01

    Excessive growth of non-woody plants and shrubs on degraded lands can strongly hamper tree growth and thus secondary forest succession. A common method to accelerate succession, called liberation, involves opening up the vegetation canopy around young target trees. This can increase growth of target trees by reducing competition for light with neighboring plants. However, liberation has not always had the desired effect, likely due to differences in light requirement between tree species. Here we present a 3D-model, which calculates photosynthetic rate of individual trees in a vegetation stand. It enables us to examine how stature, crown structure, and physiological traits of target trees and characteristics of the surrounding vegetation together determine effects of light on tree growth. The model was applied to a liberation experiment conducted with three pioneer species in a young secondary forest in Vietnam. Species responded differently to the treatment depending on their height, crown structure and their shade-tolerance level. Model simulations revealed practical thresholds over which the tree growth response is heavily influenced by the height and density of surrounding vegetation and gap radius. There were strong correlations between calculated photosynthetic rates and observed growth: the model was well able to predict growth of trees in young forests and the effects of liberation there upon. Thus, our model serves as a useful tool to analyze light competition between young trees and surrounding vegetation and may help assess the potential effect of tree liberation. PMID:25101100

  15. Stimulating seedling growth in early stages of secondary forest succession: a modeling approach to guide tree liberation

    PubMed Central

    van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P. R.; Oomen, Roelof J.; Schieving, Feike

    2014-01-01

    Excessive growth of non-woody plants and shrubs on degraded lands can strongly hamper tree growth and thus secondary forest succession. A common method to accelerate succession, called liberation, involves opening up the vegetation canopy around young target trees. This can increase growth of target trees by reducing competition for light with neighboring plants. However, liberation has not always had the desired effect, likely due to differences in light requirement between tree species. Here we present a 3D-model, which calculates photosynthetic rate of individual trees in a vegetation stand. It enables us to examine how stature, crown structure, and physiological traits of target trees and characteristics of the surrounding vegetation together determine effects of light on tree growth. The model was applied to a liberation experiment conducted with three pioneer species in a young secondary forest in Vietnam. Species responded differently to the treatment depending on their height, crown structure and their shade-tolerance level. Model simulations revealed practical thresholds over which the tree growth response is heavily influenced by the height and density of surrounding vegetation and gap radius. There were strong correlations between calculated photosynthetic rates and observed growth: the model was well able to predict growth of trees in young forests and the effects of liberation there upon. Thus, our model serves as a useful tool to analyze light competition between young trees and surrounding vegetation and may help assess the potential effect of tree liberation. PMID:25101100

  16. A multiscale approach for modeling the early stage growth of single and multiwall carbon nanotubes produced by a metal-catalyzed synthesis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, James A.; Hamm, Marc; Shibuta, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    A parametrized mesoscale model for the early stage growth of isolated single or multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been developed in order to investigate the effects of metal catalyst particle size and composition on CNT growth mechanism during synthesis via a substrate-supported, catalytic chemical vapor deposition process. The model is based on a coarse-grained graphene sheet, represented by a two-dimensional simply connected triangular mesh, with parameters for the surface curvature, bond stretching, carbon-carbon interaction, and carbon-catalyst interaction determined by classical molecular dynamics simulations using a bond-order potential derived from ab initio calculations. The mesoscale simulations show that the initial type of CNT growth is strongly influenced by the surface interaction energy between the graphene sheet and metal catalyst particle, rate of carbon deposition, and particle size. As expected, single wall tubes are produced from small catalyst particles at low deposition rates, but increasing the strength of carbon-catalyst interaction energy or carbon deposition rate results in double or even multiwall CNT structures, formed by folding or involution of the graphene sheet. For the range of model parameters investigated, all single wall CNTs with a diameter greater than 6.6 nm exhibited a kink-collapse transition once a certain critical tube length was reached.

  17. Endoscopic options for early stage esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Pari M.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery has traditionally been the preferred treatment for early stage esophageal cancer. Recent advances in endoscopic treatments have been shown to be effective and safe. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allow endoscopists to remove small, superficial lesions, providing tumor specimen that can be examined for accurate pathologic tumor staging and assessment of adequacy of resection. Endoscopic ablation procedures, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radio frequency ablation (RFA), have also been shown to safely and effectively treat esophageal dysplasia and early stage neoplasia, with excellent long-term disease control. Both approaches are becoming more widely available around the world, and provide an alternative, safe, low risk strategy for treating early stage disease, making combined endoscopic therapy the recommended treatment of choice for early stage esophageal cancers. PMID:25642334

  18. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

  19. Molecular responses to 17?-estradiol in early life stage salmonids.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Sun, Jinying; Curran, Cat A; Bailey, Howard C; Kennedy, Chris K; Elphick, James R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2014-07-01

    Environmental estrogens (EE) are ubiquitous in many aquatic environments and biological responses to EEs in early developmental stages of salmonids are poorly understood compared to juvenile and adult stages. Using 17?-estradiol (E2) as a model estrogen, waterborne exposures were conducted on early life stage rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; egg, alevin, swim-up fry) and both molecular and physiological endpoints were measured to quantify the effects of E2. To investigate developmental stage-specific effects, laboratory exposures of 1 ?g/L E2 were initiated pre-hatching as eyed embryos or post-hatching upon entering the alevin stage. High mortality (?90%) was observed when E2 exposures were initiated at the eyed embryo stage compared to the alevin stage (?35% mortality), demonstrating stage-specific sensitivity. Gene expression analyses revealed that vitellogenin was detectable in the liver of swim-up fry, and was highly inducible by 1 ?g/L E2 (>200-fold higher levels compared to control animals). Experiments also confirmed the induction of vitellogenin protein levels in protein extracts isolated from head and tail regions of swim-up fry after E2 exposure. These findings suggest that induction of vitellogenin, a well-characterized biomarker for estrogenic exposure, can be informative measured at this early life stage. Several other genes of the reproductive endocrine axis (e.g. estrogen receptors and androgen receptors) exhibited decreased expression levels compared to control animals. In addition, chronic exposure to E2 during the eyed embryo and alevin stages resulted in suppressive effects on growth related genes (growth hormone receptors, insulin-like growth factor 1) as well as premature hatching, suggesting that the somatotropic axis is a key target for E2-mediated developmental and growth disruptions. Combining molecular biomarkers with morphological and physiological changes in early life stage salmonids holds considerable promise for further defining estrogen action during development, and for assessing the impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals in vivo in teleosts. PMID:24698784

  20. Ingestion of eicosapentaenoic acid in the early stage of social isolation reduces a fibroblast growth factor 21 resistant state independently of body weight in KKA(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Yamazaki, Tomoe; Murakami, Mari; Kaji, Takao

    2015-08-21

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is a mediator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Although exogenous administration of FGF21 exerts beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, circulating FGF21 levels are elevated in ob/ob and db/db mice, diet-induced obese mice and obese human. Here we show that ingestion of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for 6 days after individually-housing significantly suppressed the hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia associated with decreases in plasma insulin and FGF21 levels in KKA(y) mice while having no effects on food intake, body weight or plasma active GLP-1 levels. The ingestion of EPA had no significant effects on the expression of FGF21 in the liver, epididymal white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Moreover, the ingestion of EPA significantly decreased the expression of hepatic peroxisome sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c), carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), stearoyl-CoA deaturase and periostin, which are involved in hepatic lipogenesis and hepatosteaotosis, in KKA(y) mice. On the other hand, the ingestion of EPA had no significant effects on expression of hepatic gp78, Notch, forkhead box protein O1 or glucose-6-phosphatase. These findings suggest that EPA ingestion in the early stage of social isolation suppresses hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia associated with reduced FGF21 and insulin resistance without altering food intake and body weight, and that the EPA ingestion suppresses hepatic lipogenesis by suppressing Notch- and gp78-independent SEREBP1c and ChREBP pathways in KKA(y) mice. PMID:26187667

  1. Expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fibroblast growth factor 2, phosphatidyl inositol 3 phosphate kinase and their clinical and prognostic significance in early and advanced stage of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Usul Afsar, Cigdem; Sahin, Berksoy; Gunaldi, Meral; K?l?c Bagir, Emine; Gumurdulu, Derya; Burgut, Refik; Erkisi, Melek; Kara, Ismail Oguz; Paydas, Semra; Karaca, Feryal; Ercolak, Vehbi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer related to death in the world. Squamous cell lung carcinoma (SqCLC) is the second most frequent histological subtype of lung carcinomas. Recently, growth factors, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction system-related gene amplifications and mutations are extensively under investigation to estimate the prognosis and to develop individualized therapies in SqCLC. In this study, besides the signal transduction molecule phosphatidyl inositol-3-phosphate kinase (IP3K) p110?, we explored the expressions of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and receptor-1 (FGFR1) in tumor tissue and also their clinical and prognostic significance in patients with early/advanced SqCLC. Materials and methods: From 2005 to 2013, 129 patients (23 early, 106 advanced disease) with a histopathological SqCLC diagnosis were selected from the hospital files of Cukurova University Medical Faculty for this study. Two independent pathologists evaluated FGFR1, FGF2, and PI3K (p110?) expressions in both tumor and stromal tissues from 99 of the patients with sufficient tissue samples, using immunohistochemistry. Considering survival analysis separately for patients with both early and advanced stage diseases, the relationship between the clinical features of the patients and expressions were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: FGFR1 expression was found to be low in 59 (60%) patients and high in 40 (40%) patients. For FGF2; 12 (12%) patients had high, 87 (88%) patients had low expression and for IP3K; 31 (32%) patients had high and 66 (68%) patients had low expressions. In univariate analysis, overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with stage of the disease and the performance status of the patient (P<0.0001 and P<0.001). There was no significant difference in OS of the patients with either low or high expressions of FGFR1, FGF2, and IP3K. When the patients with early or advanced stage disease were separately taken into consideration, the relationship did not differ, either. Any of FGFR1, FGF2 or IP3K expressions was not found predictive for the treatment of early or advanced staged patients. On the other hand, the expressions of both FGFR1 and FGF2 were significantly different with respect to smoking, scar of tuberculosis and scar of radiotherapy (P=0.002; P=0.06 and P=0.05, respectively). Discussion: There has not been identified an effective individualized treatment for SqCLC yet. Therefore, in order to be able to develop such a treatment in the future, it is essential to identify the genetic abnormalities that are responsible for the biological behaviors and carcinogenesis of SqCLC. Although we could not show the prognostic and predictive significance of FGFR1, FGF2 and IP3K expressions in SqCLC, we determined the expression rates of FGFR1, FGF2 and IP3K as a reference for Turkish patients. In conclusion, we want to put some emphasis on the fact that, pulmonary fibrosis which is a late complication of radiotherapy at stage III disease, and the scar of tuberculosis could be associated with FGFR1 and FGF2 expressions. PMID:26617686

  2. Lead (Pb)-induced regulation of growth, photosynthesis, and mineral nutrition in maize (Zea mays L.) plants at early growth stages.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Tabassam, Qaisra; Hussain, Mumtaz; Firdous, Humaira

    2011-12-01

    The phytotoxic effects of lead (Pb) on seed germinability, seedling growth, photosynthetic performance, and nutrient accumulation (K(+) and Cu(2+)) in two maize genotypes (EV-1098 and EV-77) treated with varying levels of PbSO(4) (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg L(-1)) were appraised in this study. In the seed germination experiment, lead stress significantly reduced seed germination percentage and index, plumule and radicle lengths as well as fresh and dry weights in both genotypes. In the second experiment, lengths and fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots decreased due to Pb in both genotypes with increase in plant age. Higher Pb levels also decreased photosynthetic rate (A), water use efficiency (A/E), and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/g(s)), but increased transpiration rate (E) and C(i)/C(a) ratio as a result of increase in stomatal conductance (g(s)). The concentrations of K(+) and Cu(2+) decreased in root, stem, and leaves of both genotypes, which could be a direct consequence of multifold increase in Pb concentration in these tissues. Overall, cv. EV-1098 had better Pb tolerance potential than EV-77 because the former genotype showed less reduction in seed germinability parameters, photosynthetic performance, and K(+) and Cu(2+) accumulation in shoot and root under lead stress. PMID:21647755

  3. Growth hormone and early treatment.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, F; Cavarzere, P; Gaudino, R

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for GH deficiency (GHD) but also for other childhood growth disorders with growth failure and/or short stature. GHD is the most frequent endocrine disorder presenting with short stature in childhood. During neonatal period, metabolic effects due to congenital GHD require a prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. In childhood and adolescence, growth impairment is the most evident effect of GHD and early treatment has the aim of restore normal growth and to reach normal adult height. We reassume in this review the conditions causing GHD and the diagnostic challenge to reach an early diagnosis, and an early treatment, necessary to obtain the best results. Finally, we summarize results obtained in clinical studies about pediatric patients with GHD treated at an early age, in which a marked early catch-up growth and a normalization of adult height were obtained. PMID:25734895

  4. Treatment of early stage vocal cord carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, G.

    1989-03-01

    The cure rates for early stage vocal cord cancer are excellent with primary radiotherapy. Voice quality remains as good or becomes better than prior to treatment. For the local failures that do occur, surgical salvage will yield ultimate cure rates of about 95% for T1 and 90% for T2 tumors.

  5. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  6. Initial stages of C 60 thin film growth on graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, M. F.; Li, Z. Y.; Allison, W.

    1998-05-01

    The growth mechanism of a C 60 thin film on graphite substrate has been investigated by a quantitative analysis of electron energy-loss spectra, together with low-energy electron diffraction and thermal annealing measurements. It is found that the early stages of growth at room temperature are best described through two-dimensional island ripening in a fixed structure and predominantly by a layer-by-layer fashion.

  7. CD11b+Ly6G+ cells inhibit tumor growth by suppressing IL-17 production at early stages of tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhong; O'Leary, Claire E.; Wang, Liang-Chuan S.; Bhatti, Tricia R.; Dai, Ning; Kapoor, Veena; Liu, Peihui; Mei, Junjie; Guo, Lei; Oliver, Paula M.; Albelda, Steven M.; Worthen, G. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are important innate immune cells involved in microbial clearance at the sites of infection. However, their role in cancer development is unclear. We hypothesized that neutrophils mediate antitumor effects in early tumorigenesis. To test this, we first studied the cytotoxic effects of neutrophils in vitro. Neutrophils were cytotoxic against tumor cells, with neutrophils isolated from tumor-bearing mice trending to have increased cytotoxic activities. We then injected an ELR+ CXC chemokine-producing tumor cell line into C57BL/6 and Cxcr2−/− mice, the latter lacking the receptors for neutrophil chemokines. We observed increased tumor growth in Cxcr2−/− mice. As expected, tumors from Cxcr2−/− mice contained fewer neutrophils. Surprisingly, these tumors also contained fewer CD8+ T cells, but more IL-17-producing cells. Replenishment of functional neutrophils was correlated with decreased IL-17-producing cells, increased CD8+ T cells, and decreased tumor size in Cxcr2−/− mice, while depletion of neutrophils in C57BL/6 mice showed the opposite effects. Results from a non-ELR+ CXC chemokine producing tumor further supported that functional neutrophils indirectly mediate tumor control by suppressing IL-17A production. We further studied the correlation of IL-17A and CD8+ T cells in vitro. IL-17A suppressed proliferation and IFNγ production of CD8+ T cells, while CD11b+Ly6G+ neutrophils did not suppress CD8+ T cell function. Taken together, these data demonstrate that, while neutrophils could control tumor growth by direct cytotoxic effects, the primary mechanism by which neutrophils exert antitumor effects is to regulate IL-17 production, through which they indirectly promote CD8+ T cell responses. PMID:26942073

  8. Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. H.; Simonen, E. P.

    Processes in growth of short cracks and stage 1 of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl(-), with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl(-) or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage 1 behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK(sup m) where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

  9. Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1993-12-01

    Processes in growth of short cracks and stage I of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl{sup {minus}}, with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl{sup {minus}} or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage I behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK{sup m} where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

  10. Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Josh

    2010-05-01

    The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch date distributions predicted by flow-independent (84-93%) and flow-dependent (82-91%) incubation loss models were similar. Age-0 abundance was generally independent of viable egg deposition, except in one year when egg deposition was 10-fold lower due to reduced spawning activity. There was no evidence from the hatch date or stock-recruitment analysis that flow-dependent incubation losses, although large in experimental years, affected the abundance of the age-0 population. The data indicate that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of flow-dependent losses. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that the March 2008 high flow experiment (HFE) resulted in a large increase in early survival rates (fertilization to ~1-2 months from emergence) of age-0 trout due an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis indicated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over four-fold higher than expected given the number of viable redds that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about two months after the HFE. These cohorts, which were fertilized after the HFE, were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better quality habitat. Inter annual differences in growth of age-0 trout based on otolith microstructure support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm·day-1) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm·day-1), the highest recorded over six years, even though abundance was eight-fold greater in 2008. I speculate that high flows in 2008 increased interstitial spaces in the substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth during summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was over two-fold higher than expected, possibly indicating that the effect of the HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent.

  11. Moderate Drinking May Benefit Early Stage Alzheimer's Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 156186.html Moderate Drinking May Benefit Early Stage Alzheimer's Patients 2 to 3 alcoholic drinks daily linked ... of premature death in people with early stage Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study. The study ...

  12. Race, Poverty May Affect Early Stage Breast Cancer Management

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 157904.html Race, Poverty May Affect Early Stage Breast Cancer Management Black and low-income patients less likely ... affect treatment for some patients with early stage breast cancer, a new study suggests. The study looked at ...

  13. Water-sensitivity of cotton growth stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All irrigations during a season are not equal in terms of providing economic return on the money spent to irrigate cotton. This article provides a brief description of the effect of water stress on cotton during the different growth stages of the plant and the relative benefit of irrigating to relie...

  14. Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    High-flow experiments (HFEs) from Glen Canyon Dam are primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River as it flows through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. These experimental flows also have the potential to affect the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach immediately below the dam, which supports a highly valued recreational fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Understanding how flow regimes affect the survival and growth of juvenile rainbow trout is critical to interpreting trends in adult abundance. This study reports on the effects of HFEs in 2004 and 2008 on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lees Ferry reach on the basis of monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance of the age-0 trout (fertilization to about 1 to 2 months from emergence) and their growth during a 7-year period between 2003 and 2009. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the March 2008 HFE resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 trout because of an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis demonstrated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was more than fourfold higher than expected, given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch-date analysis showed that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the 2008 HFE (about April 15, 2008) relative to those fish that hatched before this date. These cohorts, fertilized after the 2008 HFE, would have emerged into a benthic invertebrate community that had recovered, and was possibly enhanced by, the HFE. Interannual differences in growth of age-0 trout, determined on the basis of otolith microstructure, support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm/day) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm/day), the highest recorded during 6 years, even though abundance was eightfold greater in 2008. We speculate that the 60-hour-long 2008 HFE (with peak magnitude about twice that of the annual peak flow during the previous 4 years) increased interstitial spaces in the gravel bed substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth of these fish through summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was more than twofold higher than expected, given the estimated number of viable eggs deposited in that year, perhaps indicating that the effect of the 2008 HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent. In a 3-week interval that spanned the November 2004 HFE, abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 7 months old from hatch experienced about a threefold decline, compared to the approximately twofold decrease observed between November and December 2008. Abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 10 months old from hatch was very similar across sampling trips that spanned the March 2008 HFE. It is uncertain whether the decline in abundance after the November 2004 HFE was the result of higher flow-induced mortality or higher flow-induced downstream dispersal. A focused monitoring effort in Marble Canyon (the reach immediately downstream of the Lees Ferry tailwater) before and after future HFEs is recommended to resolve this uncertainty. Relatively detailed monitoring of early life stages-such as the program described in this study-is essential to establish linkages between Glen Canyon Dam operations, or possibly other factors, and trends in the abundance of important nonnative and native fish populations living downstream within Grand Canyon National Park.

  15. Enhancement in leaf photosynthesis and upregulation of rubisco in the C4 sorghum plant at elevated growth carbon dioxide and temperature occur at early stages of leaf ontogeny.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum was grown at 350 and 700 (high) ppm CO2, and at daytime maximum/nighttime minimum temperatures of 30/20 and 36/26C. Gas exchange rates, activities of Rubisco and PEP carboxylase (PEPC), leaf area, and biomass of various plant components were determined at different stages of leaf and p...

  16. Impact of cation stoichiometry on the early stage of growth of SrTiO3 deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chencheng; Moors, Marco; Dittmann, Regina

    2015-12-01

    By performing in situ growth studies during pulsed laser deposition, we observed a strong reduction of the surface diffusion coefficients for slightly non-stoichiometric SrTiO3. Both, stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric thin films exhibit 2D layer by layer growth. However, in the non-stoichiometric case the 2D island coalescence is significantly delayed, which goes along with a shift of the reflection high electron energy diffraction (RHEED) minimum. We could explain this shift of the RHEED minimum by developing a model for the step density evolution taking into account finite surface diffusion.

  17. Information in the early stages after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Braakman, R; Orbaan, J C; Dishoeck, M B

    1976-05-01

    The information of the patient in the early stages after his spinal cord injury is often deficient. The opinion of 60 patients regarding some aspects of the information given to them during these early stages is discussed. The actual approach of patients with acute traumatic para- or tetraplegia, providing early detailed information and including a psychological interview, is presented. PMID:934697

  18. Effect of Curcumin on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth and Expression of Major Genes Involved in the Early and Late Stages of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Jahanshiri, Z; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M; Allameh, A; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of curcumin as a natural safe compound with different biological activities was examined on fungal growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999. Methods: The fungus was cultured in presence of serial two-fold concentrations of curcumin (125–2000 ?g/ml) in yeast extract sucrose broth for 3 days at 28°C. Mycelia dry weight was determined as an index of fungal growth, while aflatoxin production was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The expression of ver-1, nor-1, pksA, omtA and aflR genes in aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway was evaluated by real time PCR. Results: Curcumin strongly inhibited aflatoxin B1 production in the range of 26.6 to 94.9% by serial two-fold concentrations from 125 to 2000 ?g/ml. Fungal growth was also inhibited by the compound in the range of 34.0 to 60.8%. Analysis of the expression of aflatoxin pathway genes by real time PCR showed that curcumin inhibited the expression of ver-1, nor-1, pksA, omtA and aflR genes at concentrations of 250 and 1000 ?g/ml. In concentration of 1000 ?g/ml, gene expression was reduced by 31.3%, 44.6%, 57.1% 110.9% and 286.7% accordingly. Reduction in the expression of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes was significant only for aflR. In ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay, curcumin showed strong antioxidant activity at all concentrations tested. Conclusion: Curcumin may be employed successfully as a good candidate in controlling of toxigenic fungal growth on food and feed and subsequent contamination with aflatoxins in practice. PMID:23113196

  19. Nucleation and growth characteristics of cavities during the early stages of tensile creep deformation in a superplastic zirconia-20 wt% alumina composite

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, D.M.; Chokshi, A.H.; Nutt, S.R.

    1997-09-01

    Constant-stress tensile creep experiments on a superplastic 3-mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia composite with 20 wt% alumina revealed that cavities nucleate relatively early during tensile deformation. The number of cavities nucleated increases with increasing imposed stress. The cavities nucleate at triple points associated largely with an alumina grain, and then grow rapidly in a cracklike manner to attain dimensions on the order of the grain facet size. It is suggested that coarser-grained superplastic ceramics exhibit lower ductility due to the ease in formation of such grain boundary facet-cracks and their interlinkage to form a macroscopic crack of critical dimensions.

  20. Synergistic induction of early stage of bone formation by combination of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and epidermal growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Jang, Soo-Jeong; Baek, Hae-Ri; Lee, Kyung Mee; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates whether the combination of the rhBMP-2 and various types of growth factors including EGF, FGF, PDGF and VEGF increases osteoinductivity compared to the single use of rhBMP-2 through in vitro and in vivo study. Cultured human MSCs were treated with rhBMP-2 only or in combination with growth factors. For in vivo evaluation, rhBMP-2 only or with growth factors was implanted into the calvarial defect made on SD rats. Both EGF and PDGF significantly increased both ALP activity and expression level in hMSCs when treated in combination with rhBMP-2 at 3 and 7 days of differentiation and significantly raised the accumulation of the calcium at day 14. Furthermore, micro-CT scanning revealed that the EGF an FGF groups show significantly increased new bone surface ratio compared to the rhBMP-2 only group and, the EGF treatment significantly up regulated percent bone volume and trabecular number at two weeks after the surgery. VEGF treatment also significantly raised trabecular number and FGF treatment significantly increased the trabecular thickness. Histological examination revealed that the EGF combination group showed enhanced bone regeneration than the rhBMP-2 only group two weeks after the implantation. Even though the treatment of rhBMP-2 with PDGF and FGF failed to show enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo simultaneously, these results suggest that the positive effect of the combination of EGF and rhBMP-2 is expected to induce the bone formation earlier compared to the single use of rhBMP-2 in vitro and in vivo. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24764222

  1. The Small Subunit 1 of the Arabidopsis Isopropylmalate Isomerase Is Required for Normal Growth and Development and the Early Stages of Glucosinolate Formation

    PubMed Central

    Imhof, Janet; Huber, Florian; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wiegreffe, Christoph; Lächler, Kurt; Binder, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana the evolutionary and functional relationship between Leu biosynthesis and the Met chain elongation pathway, the first part of glucosinolate formation, is well documented. Nevertheless the exact functions of some pathway components are still unclear. Isopropylmalate isomerase (IPMI), an enzyme usually involved in Leu biosynthesis, is a heterodimer consisting of a large and a small subunit. While the large protein is encoded by a single gene (ISOPROPYLMALATE ISOMERASE LARGE SUBUNIT1), three genes encode small subunits (ISOPROPYLMALATE ISOMERASE SMALL SUBUNIT1 to 3). We have now analyzed small subunit 1 (ISOPROPYLMALATE ISOMERASE SMALL SUBUNIT1) employing artificial microRNA for a targeted knockdown of the encoding gene. Strong reduction of corresponding mRNA levels to less than 5% of wild-type levels resulted in a severe phenotype with stunted growth, narrow pale leaf blades with green vasculature and abnormal adaxial-abaxial patterning as well as anomalous flower morphology. Supplementation of the knockdown plants with leucine could only partially compensate for the morphological and developmental abnormalities. Detailed metabolite profiling of the knockdown plants revealed changes in the steady state levels of isopropylmalate and glucosinolates as well as their intermediates demonstrating a function of IPMI SSU1 in both leucine biosynthesis and the first cycle of Met chain elongation. Surprisingly the levels of free leucine slightly increased suggesting an imbalanced distribution of leucine within cells and/or within plant tissues. PMID:24608865

  2. The small subunit 1 of the Arabidopsis isopropylmalate isomerase is required for normal growth and development and the early stages of glucosinolate formation.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Janet; Huber, Florian; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wiegreffe, Christoph; Lächler, Kurt; Binder, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana the evolutionary and functional relationship between Leu biosynthesis and the Met chain elongation pathway, the first part of glucosinolate formation, is well documented. Nevertheless the exact functions of some pathway components are still unclear. Isopropylmalate isomerase (IPMI), an enzyme usually involved in Leu biosynthesis, is a heterodimer consisting of a large and a small subunit. While the large protein is encoded by a single gene (isopropylmalate isomerase large subunit1), three genes encode small subunits (isopropylmalate isomerase small subunit1 to 3). We have now analyzed small subunit 1 (isopropylmalate isomerase small subunit1) employing artificial microRNA for a targeted knockdown of the encoding gene. Strong reduction of corresponding mRNA levels to less than 5% of wild-type levels resulted in a severe phenotype with stunted growth, narrow pale leaf blades with green vasculature and abnormal adaxial-abaxial patterning as well as anomalous flower morphology. Supplementation of the knockdown plants with leucine could only partially compensate for the morphological and developmental abnormalities. Detailed metabolite profiling of the knockdown plants revealed changes in the steady state levels of isopropylmalate and glucosinolates as well as their intermediates demonstrating a function of IPMI SSU1 in both leucine biosynthesis and the first cycle of Met chain elongation. Surprisingly the levels of free leucine slightly increased suggesting an imbalanced distribution of leucine within cells and/or within plant tissues. PMID:24608865

  3. Treatment Choices for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Early-Stage Prostate Cancer This booklet is for men with early-stage prostate cancer who are facing a decision between active surveillance or treatment with surgery or radiation. While it is good to have choices, the decision can be hard to make. This booklet can help you learn ...

  4. Prognostic parameters in early stage Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mill, W.B.; Lee, F.A.

    1982-05-01

    This report is a retrospective study of 101 patients referred with the diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease, all of whom had a staging laparotomy and were treated initially with radiation therapy alone. The results of treatment are analyzed in terms of the relapse rate and 5-year actuarial survival by the following prognostic factors identified from the literature: age, stage, the presence or absence of systemic symptoms, histology, splenic involvement and intrathoracic involvement. There was a significant difference in the relapse rates and survival rates between those patients without the poor prognostic factors and those with one, or more than one.

  5. Flame acceleration in the early stages of burning in tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Fru, Gordon; Petchenko, Arkady; Akkerman, V'yacheslav; Eriksson, Lars-Erik

    2007-09-15

    Acceleration of premixed laminar flames in the early stages of burning in long tubes is considered. The acceleration mechanism was suggested earlier by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105 (1996) 225]. Acceleration happens due to the initial ignition geometry at the tube axis when a flame develops to a finger-shaped front, with surface area growing exponentially in time. Flame surface area grows quite fast but only for a short time. The analytical theory of flame acceleration is developed, which determines the growth rate, the total acceleration time, and the maximal increase of the flame surface area. Direct numerical simulations of the process are performed for the complete set of combustion equations. The simulations results and the theory are in good agreement with the previous experiments. The numerical simulations also demonstrate flame deceleration, which follows acceleration, and the so-called ''tulip flames''. (author)

  6. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haymond, Morey; Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Czernichow, Paul; Biller, Beverly MK; Takano, Koji; Kiess, Wieland

    2013-01-01

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. Conclusion This review summarizes currently available information on monitoring for short stature in children and conditions usually associated with short stature and summarizes the authors’ conclusions on the early recognition of growth disorders. PMID:23586744

  7. A stable single-chain variable fragment expressing transfectoma demonstrates induction of idiotype-specific cytotoxic T-cells during early growth stages of a murine B-lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Laxmanan, S; Stuart, G W; Ghosh, S K

    2001-10-01

    The idiotypic determinants associated with the variable regions of antibody molecules are known to function as tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). However, there is no clear-cut evidence documenting their efficacy in inducing TAA-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). In most previous studies, idiopeptides were implicated in elicitation of TAA-specific CD4+ T-cells. Using a murine B-cell lymphoma, 2C3, we earlier demonstrated induction of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes directed to idiotypic Ig of the tumor. In the present study, we provide more direct evidence of the existence of Id-specific CTLs in the spleens of 2C3 bearing BALB/c mice using an scFv-transfectoma, P815A4, as a target. While both P815A4 and 2C3 cells were equally susceptible to cytolysis by the effector cells, lysis was evident only during early tumor progression. Moribund animals at the late stage of tumor growth failed to demonstrate any significant cytotoxic immune response against either tumor. Antibodies to MHC class I alleles Kd, Dd, Ld, beta2m and CD8 molecules all inhibited cytotoxicity. The CTL population from early tumor-bearers recognized 2C3 tumor in the context of all major H-2d alleles; however, in case of P815A4 cells, it was restricted to Kd and Dd alleles only. Based on these antibody inhibition studies, it appears that the idiopeptides generated in both tumors are in some way different, yet they were recognized equally by CTLs not only from the tumor-bearers but also by CTLs from 2C3-hyperimmune mice. It appears that scFv-containing transfectomas expressing antibody variable region epitopes would be useful for both elucidating CTL-defined idiopeptides and monitoring TAA-specific CTL response in tumor-bearing animals. PMID:11726138

  8. U87MG glioma cells overexpressing IL-17 acclerate early-stage growth in vivo and cause a higher level of CD31 mRNA expression in tumor tissues

    PubMed Central

    HU, JINHUI; YE, HONGXING; ZHANG, DENGHAI; LIU, WEIWEI; LI, MIN; MAO, YING; LU, YUAN

    2013-01-01

    Immunological alterations have been reported to be involved in glioma, the most common malignant disease of the adult brain. Our recent study identified higher levels of IL-17 in glioma specimens. The present study investigated the role and possible mechanisms of IL-17 in glioma tumorigenesis. Human IL-17 cDNA was cloned and inserted into the eukaryotic pEGFP-N1 expression vector, which was used to transfect the glioma U87MG cell line, resulting in a high level of IL-17 expression in these cells. The cells were then transfected with IL-17 (pEGFP-N1-IL-17-U87MG) or mock (pEGFP-N1-U87MG) vector or left untransfected (U87MG) and subcutaneously inoculated into the right flank of nude mice. The results revealed that the pEGFP-N1-IL-17-U87MG cells grew more rapidly in the early stages (P<0.05, determined on day 32 post-inoculation compared with the other two groups). Quantitative (q)PCR detected higher mouse (m)CD31 mRNA levels in the IL-17-transfected group (P<0.01) compared with the mock-transfected and untransfected groups. IL-17 transfection altered the mRNA expression of a panel of molecules that are associated with immunity and inflammation in U87MG cells in vitro. An effect of the vector was identified, whereby the mock transfection strongly inhibited cell growth in vivo and dramatically altered the mRNA levels of multiple molecules in the cell culture in vitro compared with the untransfected cells. The present study confirmed that IL-17 overexpression may enhance glioma cell growth in vivo, which may be associated with accelerated angiogenesis. IL-17 overexpression may also alter the cellular mRNA expression of immune-related molecules. PMID:24137452

  9. Modelling early stages of human vision

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Gawronski, R.; Holly, F.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents the first results of an effort to model vision processes operating in the early layers of the human retina. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a robot vision system based on computational principles of human vision. These include massive parallelism, dynamic feedback, and multilayer pattern recognition. Two neural models were developed. The first represented early vision in terms of static two-dimensional linear equations using a linear matrix and limited feedback. The second considered dynamic two-dimensional nonlinear processes and used matrices of nonlinear differential equations. The first set of equations was parameterized using psychophysical data from subjective intensity judgements for visual illusions. Illusions were quantified by creating a digitized image representing the subjective effect of human perception when exposed to input patterns. A Fourier transform was made of the input and output patterns and used to solve for the coefficients of the retinal operator equations. The equations were then applied to new illusions and compared with human subjective results through three dimensional plots of output pixel intensities. The second model with dynamic equations was studied using a computer simulation developed to operate on varying input wave forms and variable neural connection topologies. 27 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates. PMID:12474895

  11. Discovering colorons at the early stage LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Dicus, Duane A.; Kao, Chung; Sayre, Joshua; Nandi, S.

    2011-05-01

    Prospects are investigated for the discovery of massive hypergluons using data from the early runs of the Large Hadron Collider. A center of mass energy of 7 TeV and an integrated luminosity of 1 fb{sup -1} or 5 fb{sup -1} are assumed. A phenomenological Lagrangian is adopted to evaluate the cross section of a pair of colored vector bosons (colorons, {rho}-tilde) decaying into four colored scalar resonances (hyperpions, {pi}-tilde), which then decay into eight gluons. The dominant eight-jet background from the production of 8g, 7g1q, 6g2q, and 5g3q is included. We find an abundance of signal events and that realistic cuts reduce the background enough to establish a 5{sigma} signal for the coloron mass of up to 733 GeV with 1 fb{sup -1} or 833 GeV with 5 fb{sup -1}.

  12. Models for the early stages of nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros, H.; Cabrera, E.; Gally, M.; Ruiz-Mejia, C.; Fujioka, J.

    1993-03-01

    The interactions in two-dimensional arrays of ions and dipoles, and the nucleation of two-dimensional clusters, are numerically simulated. Equilibrium configurations with non-lattice symmetries are obtained, in addition to the usual symmetries allowed in macroscopic crystals. The computer program reproduces the movements of the ions or dipoles, and calculates the energy of any configuration. The interaction between dipoles can be seen using magnets floating on water. It is found that for small clusters of particles (ions or dipoles) the addition of a single particle may produce the rearrangement of the whole cluster, and therefore, in those cases, it would be better to speak of a "nucleation" process, instead of a "growth" process.

  13. Modeling TGF-? in Early Stages of Cancer Tissue Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ascolani, Gianluca; Liò, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Recent works have highlighted a double role for the Transforming Growth Factor (-): it inhibits cancer in healthy cells and potentiates tumor progression during late stage of tumorigenicity, respectively; therefore it has been termed the “Jekyll and Hyde” of cancer or, alternatively, an “excellent servant but a bad master”. It remains unclear how this molecule could have the two opposite behaviours. In this work, we propose a - multi scale mathematical model at molecular, cellular and tissue scales. The multi scalar behaviours of the - are described by three coupled models built up together which can approximatively be related to distinct microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic scales, respectively. We first model the dynamics of - at the single-cell level by taking into account the intracellular and extracellular balance and the autocrine and paracrine behaviour of -. Then we use the average estimates of the - from the first model to understand its dynamics in a model of duct breast tissue. Although the cellular model and the tissue model describe phenomena at different time scales, their cumulative dynamics explain the changes in the role of - in the progression from healthy to pre-tumoral to cancer. We estimate various parameters by using available gene expression datasets. Despite the fact that our model does not describe an explicit tissue geometry, it provides quantitative inference on the stage and progression of breast cancer tissue invasion that could be compared with epidemiological data in literature. Finally in the last model, we investigated the invasion of breast cancer cells in the bone niches and the subsequent disregulation of bone remodeling processes. The bone model provides an effective description of the bone dynamics in healthy and early stages cancer conditions and offers an evolutionary ecological perspective of the dynamics of the competition between cancer and healthy cells. PMID:24586338

  14. Therapy in the Early Stage: Incretins

    PubMed Central

    Cernea, Simona; Raz, Itamar

    2011-01-01

    The complex pathological mechanisms responsible for development of type 2 diabetes are not fully addressed by conventional drugs, which are also associated with inconvenient side effects such as weight gain or hypoglycemia. Two types of incretin-based therapies are now in use: incretin mimetics (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] receptor agonists that bind specific receptors and mimic the action of natural GLP-1) and incretin enhancers (inhibitors of the enzyme that degrade the incretin hormones and thus prolong their activity). Both offer important advantages over previous agents. In addition to the proven glucose-lowering efficacy, they promote weight loss (or are weight neutral) by slowing gastric emptying and inducing satiety, inhibit glucagon secretion with maintenance of counterregulatory mechanisms, and exhibit cardiovascular benefits, while having a low risk profile. Importantly, short-term studies have shown that incretins/incretin-based therapies protect β-cells (by enhancing cell proliferation and differentiation and inhibiting apoptosis) and stimulate their function (by recruiting β-cells to the secretory process and increasing insulin biosynthesis/secretion). These therapies have the opportunity to interfere with the disease progression if used as an early intervention, when enough β-cell mass/function can still be preserved or restored. PMID:21525466

  15. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko )

    1989-09-01

    It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

  16. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...

  17. The effects of parasites on the early life stages of a damselfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Blomberg, S. P.; Cribb, T. H.; McCormick, M. I.; Grutter, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Early life history traits, such as larval growth, influence the success of coral reef fish in the transition from the larval to the juvenile life phase. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between parasites and growth in the early life history stages of such fishes. This study examined how parasite prevalence (% infected) and load, and the relationship between parasite presence and fish growth, differed among life stages of the damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis. Parasite prevalence decreased significantly between the larval stage, which was sampled immediately before settlement on the reef (97 %) and recently settled juveniles (60 %); prevalence was also high for 4-month-old juveniles (90 %), 7-month-old juveniles (100 %) and adult fish (100 %). Total numbers of parasites per fish decreased dramatically (fourfold) between larval and recently settled fish, and then increased in the older stages to levels similar to those observed in larvae, but they did so more gradually than did prevalence. One explanation for these patterns is that heavily infected larvae were preferentially removed from the population during or soon after settlement. Daily fish growth, determined from otolith increments, revealed that growth did not differ between parasitised and non-parasitised larval fish, whereas recently settled fish that were parasitised had faster growth; these parasitised recently settled fish also displayed faster growth prior to settlement. These data provide evidence that parasites may explain some of the variation in growth and survival observed among coral reef fishes after settlement and thereby have a greater impact on population dynamics than previously understood.

  18. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  19. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  20. Delirium in Early-Stage Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fick, Donna M.; Kolanowski, Ann; Beattie, Elizabeth; McCrow, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Delirium is a disorder of acute onset with fluctuating symptoms and is characterized by inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered levels of consciousness. The risk for delirium is greatest in individuals with dementia, and the incidence of both is increasing worldwide because of the aging of our population. Although several clinical trials have tested interventions for delirium prevention in individuals without dementia, little is known about the mechanisms for the prevention of delirium in early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The purpose of this article is to explore ways of preventing delirium and slowing the rate of cognitive decline in early-stage AD by enhancing cognitive reserve. An agenda for future research on interventions to prevent delirium in individuals with early-stage AD is also presented. PMID:19326827

  1. The Early Stages of Groundwater-fed River Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Robert; Seybold, Hansjoerg; Gibbins, Goodwin; Rothman, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Recent work shows, both theoretically and empirically, that river networks fed by subsurface flow bifurcate on average at an angle of 2?/5 (Devauchelle et al. 2012). However, the network's existence within a complex natural framework obscures the emergence of this pattern. Fortunately, this ambiguity betrays the presence of processes that have had some effect on the channels during the network's long history. In particular, we concern ourselves with the signature of the third dimension | the topographic relief | on the early stages of channel bifurcation. While, on average, channels grow in a direction dictated by the shape of the groundwater table, we hypothesize that the valley relief plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and its relaxation to 2?/5 in this regime. A network-wide averaging of several thousand channel bifurcations driven by subsurface flow on the Florida panhandle reveals that rivers on average branch initially at an angle wider than 2?/5, yet quickly relax to 2?/5 after a few meters. We hypothesize that this initial wide growth direction is governed by the shape of the topography. As these channels form independent valleys, the Laplacian field exerts its dominance, yielding a persistent 2?/5 branching angle. Our results therefore suggest that the path-selection of incipient channels fed by subsurface flow is coupled both to the local topography and the surrounding groundwater field.

  2. The Early Stages of Groundwater-fed River Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, R.; Seybold, H. F.; Gibbins, G.; Rothman, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work shows, both theoretically and empirically, that river networks fed by subsurface flow bifurcate on average at an angle of 2?/5 [1]. However, the network's existence within a complex natural framework obscures the emergence of this pattern. Fortunately, this ambiguity betrays the presence of processes that have had some effect on the channels during the network's long history. In particular, we concern ourselves with the signature of the third dimension - the topographic relief - on the early stages of channel bifurcation. While, on average, channels grow in a direction dictated by the shape of the groundwater table, we hypothesize that the valley relief plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and its relaxation to 2?/5 in this regime. A network-wide averaging of several thousand channel bifurcations driven by subsurface flow on the Florida Panhandle reveals that rivers on average branch initially at an angle wider than 2?/5, yet quickly relax to 2?/5 after a few meters. We hypothesize that this initial wide growth direction is governed by the shape of the topography. As these channels form independent valleys, the Laplacian field prevails, yielding an emergent 2?/5 branching angle. Our results therefore suggest that the path-selection of incipient channels fed by subsurface flow is coupled both to the local topography and the surrounding groundwater field. 1. Devauchelle, Olivier, et al. "Ramification of stream networks." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109.51 (2012): 20832-20836.

  3. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages

    PubMed Central

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Methods Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Key Results Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Conclusions Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. PMID:25452250

  4. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  5. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  6. Radiation Plus Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not

  7. Genome-Based Risk Prediction for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Adaniel, Christina; Jhaveri, Komal; Heguy, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Tests to better characterize tumor genomic architecture are quickly becoming a standard of care in oncology. For breast cancer, the use of gene expression assays for early stage disease is already common practice. These tests have found a place in risk stratifying the heterogeneous group of stage I–II breast cancers for recurrence, for predicting chemotherapy response, and for predicting breast cancer-related mortality. In the last 5 years, more assays have become available to the practicing oncologist. Given the rapidity with which this field has evolved, it is prudent to review the tests, their indications, and the studies from which they have been validated. We present a comprehensive review of the available gene expression assays for early stage breast cancer. We review data for several individual tests and comparative studies looking at risk prediction and cost-effectiveness. PMID:25187476

  8. New Insights into the Characteristics of Early Stage Crystallization of a Polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao,Z.; Akpalu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Small angle light scattering has been used to probe structure formation during isothermal crystallization of an ethylene-1-hexene copolymer (EH064, M{sub w} = 70,000 g/mol, {rho} = 0.900 g/cm{sup 3}, M{sub w}/M{sub n}{approx} 2, 6.4 mol% hexene). It is shown that clear structural information on size scales ranging from hundreds of nanometers to several micrometers during early stage crystallization can be obtained by this method when crystallizing the polyethylenes at the high temperatures (above the peak melting temperature of a rapidly crystallized polymer sample) required for resolving early stage crystallization without the influence of the crystal growth. The results show that the early stage crystallization is characterized by large scale orientation fluctuations that precede the formation of local crystalline order manifest in X-ray scattering and the initial collapse of these large scale anisotropic/ordered domains. The scattering intensity increases exponentially with time initially, and the wave vector dependence of the growth rate of fluctuations is consistent with predictions for initial stages of a phase transformation process. However, the detailed mechanism cannot be described by existing models. The implications of our results are discussed within the context of proposed models for early stage crystallization.

  9. On the transition of base flow recession from early stage to late stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debapi K.; Wang, Dingbao; Zhu, Tingju

    2016-02-01

    This paper is focused on the transition of base flow recession from early stage to late stage. The volume flow rate that takes place when such a transition occurs is identified for each of the twenty-three recession events observed at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW) in Georgia, USA, using a newly developed cumulative regression analysis method. Meanwhile, the flow at the watershed outlet, which was recorded when the discharge at the perennial stream head diminishes to zero, is identified for each recession event. As evidenced by a correlation coefficient of 0.90, these two characteristic flows are found to be highly correlated, suggesting a fundamental linkage between the transition of base flow recession from early stage to late stage and the drying up of ephemeral streams. During the early stage, the contraction of ephemeral streams largely controls the recession behavior, whereas in the late stage when perennial streams dominate the flowing streams, the contraction of flowing streams is minimal and groundwater hydraulics governs the recession behavior.

  10. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.I.; Kristensen, P.

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

  11. The Early Growth of the First Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur at super-Eddington rates. Finally, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.

  12. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu; Long, Jiang; Li, Hai; Chen, Shuhong; Liu, Qiqi; Zhang, Bei; He, Xiaomin; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongyi; Li, Yimei; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Chenzhen; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Minli; Li, Qing; Cao, Bangwei; Bai, Zhigang; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Zhongtao; Zhu, Shengtao; Zheng, Jiasheng; Ou, Xiaojuan; Ma, Hong; Jia, Jidong; You, Hong; Wang, Shengqi; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is prevalent worldwide and early diagnosis of HCC is critical for effective treatment and optimal prognosis. Methods Serum was screened first by immunoproteomic analysis for HCC-related tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Selected TAAs were clinically evaluated retrospectively in patients with HCC, liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and healthy controls. Levels of autoantibody to the selected TAAs were measured by protein microarrays containing protein antigens of the candidate TAAs. Analyses were done by using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to calculate diagnostic accuracy. Findings Twenty-two candidate TAAs were assessed by protein microarray analysis in 914 participants with serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP) available. Twelve candidate TAAs were statistically different in signal intensity between HCC and controls. Among them, CENPF, HSP60 and IMP-2 showed AUC (area under the curve) values of 0.826, 0.764 and 0.796 respectively for early HCC. The highest prevalence of autoantibody positivity was observed in HCC cases with BCLC tumor stage A, well-differentiated histology and Child-Pugh grade C. Specifically, 73.6% or 79.3% cases of early HCC with negative AFP were positive for autoantibody to CENPF or HSP60. Interpretation Tumor-associated autoimmune reactions may be triggered by early stage HCCs. Measurement of serum autoantibody to TAAs may be complementary to AFP measurements and improve diagnosis of early HCC. PMID:26137588

  13. Studying Cell Division Plane Positioning in Early-Stage Embryos.

    PubMed

    Belcram, Katia; Palauqui, Jean-Christophe; Pastuglia, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Unraveling the mechanisms that govern division plane orientation is a major challenge to understand plant development. In this respect, the Arabidopsis early embryo is a model system of choice since embryogenesis is relatively simple and cell division planes orientation is highly predictable. Here, we present an integrated set of protocols to study 3D cell division patterns in early-stage Arabidopsis embryos that combine both cellular and sub-cellular localization of selected protein markers with spatial organization of cells, cytoskeleton, and nuclei. PMID:26659963

  14. [Language impairment in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Karin Zazo; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira

    2005-06-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is usually associated with cognitive, language and behavioral impairments, which can get more and more serious as the disease progresses. The aim of this study is to verify language disorders in the early stages of this disease. Twelve patients meeting criteria for problable AD were evaluated by the Boston test, and all of them scored more than 23 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data acquired on this language evaluation were compared with the average of normal population data. All patients showed language disorders. Statistical differences were found in visual confrontating naming and auditory comphrension tasks. The patients performed well in writing and reading tasks. We believe that there might have had an interference in the patient's linguistic task performance due to their memory impairment. We could find language impairments in the early stages of AD. PMID:16100980

  15. The Development of Children's Early Numeracy through Key Stage 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a limited longitudinal study of young children's early numeracy development within three testing cycles, at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-of-age), located within the broader context of progress through to Key Stage 1 SAT…

  16. Nonlinear effects on the early stage of phase ordering kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Copetti, M.I.M.; Krein, G.; Marques de Carvalho, R.S.; Machado, J.M.

    2004-12-02

    Nonlinear effects on the early stage of phase ordering of a non conserved order parameter are studied using Adomian's decomposition method for the Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this method, the solution is systematically calculated in the form of a polynomial expansion for the order parameter. The method is very accurate for short times, which allows to incorporate the short-time dynamics of the nonlinear terms in a analytical and controllable way.

  17. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results suggest that genistein supplementation reduces oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant capacity and modulating proinflammatory cytokine expression during the early stage of wound healing.

  18. Growth of Planetary Embryos During the Oligarchic Growth Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Jennifer; Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David

    2014-11-01

    Here we update the classic model of oligarchic growth to include mass conservation. Planetesimals from the swarm are accreted onto embryos, decreasing the surface mass density of the planetesimal swarm. Therefore, the surface mass density of the planetesimal swarm can be described as the total initial surface mass density minus the surface mass density of the material accreting onto the surface of the embryo. However, since the surface mass density decreases, the average spacing between planetesimals must change as well. Therefore, the parameter for characteristic spacing between planetesimals, b, must also change. Using the isolation mass of an embryo, we approximate the final value of b to be about 10. We confirm that the eccentricity of a planetary embryo changes as a function of the mass of the growing embryo during oligarchic growth. We incorporate the changing eccentricity, surface mass density, and characteristic spacing of embryos into a model that describes the growth of a planetary embryo with mass conservation.

  19. Awareness of Memory Deficits in Early Stage Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Fénelon, Gilles; Benisty, Sarah; Boissé, Marie-Françoise; Jacquemot, Charlotte; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) are often described as unaware of their motor symptoms, their behavioral disorders or their cognitive deficits, including memory. Nevertheless, because patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain aware of their memory deficits despite striatal dysfunction, we hypothesize that early stage HD patients in whom degeneration predominates in the striatum can accurately judge their own memory disorders whereas more advanced patients cannot. In order to test our hypothesis, we compared subjective questionnaires of memory deficits (in HD patients and in their proxies) and objective measures of memory dysfunction in patients. Forty-six patients with manifest HD attending the out-patient department of the French National Reference Center for HD and thirty-three proxies were enrolled. We found that HD patients at an early stage of the disease (Stage 1) were more accurate than their proxies at evaluating their own memory deficits, independently from their depression level. The proxies were more influenced by patients' functional decline rather than by patients' memory deficits. Patients with moderate disease (Stage 2) misestimated their memory deficits compared to their proxies, whose judgment was nonetheless influenced by the severity of both functional decline and depression. Contrasting subjective memory ratings from the patients and their objective memory performance, we demonstrate that although HD patients are often reported to be unaware of their neurological, cognitive and behavioral symptoms, it is not the case for memory deficits at an early stage. Loss of awareness of memory deficits in HD is associated with the severity of the disease in terms of CAG repeats, functional decline, motor dysfunction and cognitive impairment, including memory deficits and executive dysfunction. PMID:23620779

  20. Biomarkers of early stage osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and musculoskeletal health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Usman; Anwar, Attia; Savage, Richard S.; Costa, Matthew L.; Mackay, Nicola; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Watts, Richard A.; Winyard, Paul G.; Tarr, Joanna; Haigh, Richard C.; Thornalley, Paul J.; Rabbani, Naila

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no biochemical test for detection of early-stage osteoarthritis (eOA). Tests for early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies require refinement to improve clinical utility. We developed robust mass spectrometric methods to quantify citrullinated protein (CP) and free hydroxyproline in body fluids. We detected CP in the plasma of healthy subjects and surprisingly found that CP was increased in both patients with eOA and eRA whereas anti–CCP antibodies were predominantly present in eRA. A 4-class diagnostic algorithm combining plasma/serum CP, anti-CCP antibody and hydroxyproline applied to a cohort gave specific and sensitive detection and discrimination of eOA, eRA, other non-RA inflammatory joint diseases and good skeletal health. This provides a first-in-class plasma/serum-based biochemical assay for diagnosis and type discrimination of early-stage arthritis to facilitate improved treatment and patient outcomes, exploiting citrullinated protein and related differential autoimmunity. PMID:25788417

  1. Biomarkers of early stage osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and musculoskeletal health.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Usman; Anwar, Attia; Savage, Richard S; Costa, Matthew L; Mackay, Nicola; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Watts, Richard A; Winyard, Paul G; Tarr, Joanna; Haigh, Richard C; Thornalley, Paul J; Rabbani, Naila

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no biochemical test for detection of early-stage osteoarthritis (eOA). Tests for early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies require refinement to improve clinical utility. We developed robust mass spectrometric methods to quantify citrullinated protein (CP) and free hydroxyproline in body fluids. We detected CP in the plasma of healthy subjects and surprisingly found that CP was increased in both patients with eOA and eRA whereas anti-CCP antibodies were predominantly present in eRA. A 4-class diagnostic algorithm combining plasma/serum CP, anti-CCP antibody and hydroxyproline applied to a cohort gave specific and sensitive detection and discrimination of eOA, eRA, other non-RA inflammatory joint diseases and good skeletal health. This provides a first-in-class plasma/serum-based biochemical assay for diagnosis and type discrimination of early-stage arthritis to facilitate improved treatment and patient outcomes, exploiting citrullinated protein and related differential autoimmunity. PMID:25788417

  2. Survival and developmental potential of stored human early cleavage stage embryos.

    PubMed

    Edgar, D H; Archer, J; Gook, D A; Jericho, H; Wilton, L; Bourne, H

    2004-07-01

    Human early cleavage stage embryos which survive cryopreservation and thawing fully intact demonstrate similar developmental potential to equivalent non frozen embryos when returned to the in vivo environment, whereas blastomere loss is directly related to the loss of potential for subsequent implantation in thawed embryos. This suggests that blastomere lysis during freezing and thawing does not occur preferentially in non viable blastomeres. Prefreeze growth rate rather than prefreeze blastomere number per se correlates with the developmental potential of stored embryos. When blastomere loss occurs as a consequence of cryopreservation, development of thawed early cleavage stage embryos to the blastocyst stage in vitro is impaired and the resultant blastocysts have a reduced total cell content. Blastomere loss is more prevalent in embryos which have been biopsied for preimplantation genetic diagnosis but this increased sensitivity can be circumvented by modification of the standard cryopreservation protocol. PMID:15196708

  3. Grain-growth law during Stage 1 sintering of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zeming; Ma, J.

    2002-09-01

    This work investigates the grain-growth behaviour of powder compact during Stage 1 sintering (<90{%} theoretical density). It is widely accepted that grain size is an important state variable in the constitutive modelling in material sintering. However, it is noted that all the existing grain-growth laws proposed in the literature do not incorporate the effect of externally applied stress independently. In this work, a grain-growth law with externally applied stress as a variable was proposed. Alumina powders were forge-sintered at different applied stresses to examine the proposed grain-growth relationship. The proposed grain-growth law was then applied to model the grain-growth process on the sinter forging of tool steel. It is shown that the present proposed grain-growth law provides a good description on the experimental results.

  4. Early growth trajectories affect sexual responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Who-Seung; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Réale, Denis; Peres-Neto, Pedro R.

    2014-01-01

    The trajectory of an animal's growth in early development has been shown to have long-term effects on a range of life-history traits. Although it is known that individual differences in behaviour may also be related to certain life-history traits, the linkage between early growth or development and individual variation in behaviour has received little attention. We used brief temperature manipulations, independent of food availability, to stimulate compensatory growth in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. Here, we examine how these manipulated growth trajectories affected the sexual responsiveness of the male fish at the time of sexual maturation, explore associations between reproductive behaviour and investment and lifespan and test whether the perceived time stress (until the onset of the breeding season) influenced such trade-offs. We found a negative impact of growth rate on sexual responsiveness: fish induced (by temperature manipulation) to grow slowest prior to the breeding season were consistently quickest to respond to the presence of a gravid female. This speed of sexual responsiveness was also positively correlated with the rate of development of sexual ornaments and time taken to build a nest. However, after controlling for effects of growth rate, those males that had the greatest sexual responsiveness to females had the shortest lifespan. Moreover, the time available to compensate in size before the onset of the breeding season (time stress) affected the magnitude of these effects. Our results demonstrate that developmental perturbations in early life can influence mating behaviour, with long-term effects on longevity. PMID:24403342

  5. Early growth and chronic disease: a public health overview.

    PubMed

    Law, Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Infant and childhood growth result from and reflect a range of influences in pre- and postnatal life. These include nutrition, burden of infection and the psycho-social environment. Nutrition in young children is dependent on individual level factors such as fetal experience, infant feeding and weaning practices, and on societal factors such as education of women and economic conditions. The relationship of early postnatal growth to adult disease may be indicative or causal, and may reveal both biological and sociological processes. Although non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and obesity are risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, the relationships of these three conditions to infant growth differ. Poor infant growth has been associated with higher levels of NIDDM and ischaemic heart disease, but lower levels of adult obesity. Most research has been of populations living in developed countries at different stages of nutritional transition. However, differences in context are not simply limited to the stage of the nutritional transition. They also need to consider the nature of that transition and its social correlates, which may result in the clustering of aetiological influences such as increased body mass and poverty. The size of effect of the relationship of infant growth to adult disease is important not only to determine its relative aetiological importance but also for its potential for public health policy. Such policy also needs to consider the relationships of infant growth to a range of outcomes, both health and human capital, which are not the subject of this workshop. PMID:16881897

  6. Modelling the initial stage of porous alumina growth during anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryslanova, E. M.; Alfimov, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Artificially on the surface of aluminum there may be build a thick layer of Al2O3, which has a porous structure. In this paper we present a model of growth of porous alumina in the initial stage of anodizing, identifying dependencies anodizing parameters on the rate of growth of the film and the distance between the pores and as a result of the created model equations were found for changes in the disturbance of alumina for the initial stage of anodizing aluminum oxide porous border aluminum-alumina and alumina-electrolyte, with the influence of surface diffusion of aluminum oxide.

  7. Metabolomic markers of altered nucleotide metabolism in early stage adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wikoff, William R; Grapov, Dmitry; Fahrmann, Johannes F; DeFelice, Brian; Rom, William N; Pass, Harvey I; Kim, Kyoungmi; Nguyen, UyenThao; Taylor, Sandra L; Gandara, David R; Kelly, Karen; Fiehn, Oliver; Miyamoto, Suzanne

    2015-05-01

    Adenocarcinoma, a type of non-small cell lung cancer, is the most frequently diagnosed lung cancer and the leading cause of lung cancer mortality in the United States. It is well documented that biochemical changes occur early in the transition from normal to cancer cells, but the extent to which these alterations affect tumorigenesis in adenocarcinoma remains largely unknown. Herein, we describe the application of mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis in one of the largest biomarker research studies to date aimed at distinguishing metabolic differences between malignant and nonmalignant lung tissue. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to measure 462 metabolites in 39 malignant and nonmalignant lung tissue pairs from current or former smokers with early stage (stage IA-IB) adenocarcinoma. Statistical mixed effects models, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and network integration, were used to identify key cancer-associated metabolic perturbations in adenocarcinoma compared with nonmalignant tissue. Cancer-associated biochemical alterations were characterized by (i) decreased glucose levels, consistent with the Warburg effect, (ii) changes in cellular redox status highlighted by elevations in cysteine and antioxidants, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, (iii) elevations in nucleotide metabolites 5,6-dihydrouracil and xanthine suggestive of increased dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidoreductase activity, (iv) increased 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine levels indicative of reduced purine salvage and increased de novo purine synthesis, and (v) coordinated elevations in glutamate and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine suggesting increased protein glycosylation. The present study revealed distinct metabolic perturbations associated with early stage lung adenocarcinoma, which may provide candidate molecular targets for personalizing therapeutic interventions and treatment efficacy monitoring. PMID:25657018

  8. Point pressure sensitivity in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Gandhi, Shifa S; Osman, Allen; Hurtig, Howard I; Pawasarat, Ian; Beals, Evan; Chung, Inna; Dubroff, Jacob; Newberg, Andrew; Ying, Gui-Shang; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2015-01-01

    A number of sensory changes occur in the earliest stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), some of which precede the expression of the classic motor phenotype by years (e.g., olfactory dysfunction). Whether point pressure sensitivity (PPS), a cutaneous measure of light touch mediated by myelinated Aβ fibers, is altered in early PD is not clear. Prior studies on this point are contradictory and are based on non-forced-choice threshold tests that confound the sensitivity measure with the response criterion. While α-synuclein pathology, a defining feature of PD, is present in the skin of PD patients, it is restricted to unmyelinated nerve fibers, suggesting PPS may be spared in this disease. We determined PPS thresholds using a state-of-the-art forced-choice staircase threshold test paradigm in 29 early stage PD patients and 29 matched controls at 11 body sites: the center of the forehead and the left and right forearms, index fingers, palms, medial soles of the feet, and plantar halluces. The patients were tested, in counterbalanced sessions, both on and off dopamine-related medications (DRMs). PPS was not influenced by PD and did not correlate with DRM l-DOPA equivalents, scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, side of the major motor disturbances, or SPECT imaging of the striatal dopamine transporter, as measured by technetium-99m TRODAT. However, PPS thresholds were lower on the left than on the right side of the body (p=0.008) and on the upper extremities relative to the toes and feet (ps<0.0001). Positive correlations were evident among the thresholds obtained across all body sectors, even though disparate regions of the body differed in terms of absolute sensitivity. This study indicates that PPS is not influenced in early stage PD regardless of whether patients are on or off DRMs. PMID:25447476

  9. Kinase profiling in early stage drug discovery: sorting things out.

    PubMed

    Defert, Olivier; Boland, Sandro

    2015-11-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest superfamilies of drugable targets and a major research area for both the pharmaceutical industry and academic groups. This has resulted in the emergence of numerous screening technologies and services dedicated to kinase profiling. In spite of this plentiful offering, the field is not without its own pitfalls, as the profusion of reported conditions and data can ultimately complicate interpretation of project results. Here, we discuss how kinase profiling was used in our early stage drug discovery efforts, from the perspective of a smaller biotech relying largely on assay outsourcing. PMID:26723893

  10. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  11. USANS investigation of early stages of metal foam formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellmann, D.; Clemens, H.; Banhart, J.

    Metallic foams are on the verge of being used in industrial applications. However, the mechanism of foam creation, especially the early stages, are still unexplored. Ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), performed with the double-crystal diffractometer (DCD) at the Geesthacht Neutron Facility (GeNF), is a promising method for obtaining a three-dimensional average of a pore size distribution in a wide size range from about 100 nm to about 20 ?m. Analysis of the neutron scattering curves yielded pore size distributions which conformed with the results obtained by microscopy.

  12. Late stages of accumulation and early evolution of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vityazev, Andrey V.; Perchernikova, G. V.

    1991-01-01

    Recently developed solutions of problems are discussed that were traditionally considered fundamental in classical solar system cosmogony: determination of planetary orbit distribution patterns, values for mean eccentricity and orbital inclinations of the planets, and rotation periods and rotation axis inclinations of the planets. Two important cosmochemical aspects of accumulation are examined: the time scale for gas loss from the terrestrial planet zone, and the composition of the planets in terms of isotope data. It was concluded that the early beginning of planet differentiation is a function of the heating of protoplanets during collisions with large (thousands of kilometers) bodies. Energetics, heat mass transfer processes, and characteristic time scales of these processes at the early stages of planet evolution are considered.

  13. Early Stages of the HIV-1 Capsid Protein Lattice Formation

    PubMed Central

    Grime, John M.A.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    The early stages in the formation of the HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein lattice are investigated. The underlying coarse-grained (CG) model is parameterized directly from experimental data and examined under various native contact interaction strengths, CA dimer interfacial configurations, and local surface curvatures. The mechanism of early contiguous mature-style CA p6 lattice formation is explored, and a trimer-of-dimers structure is found to be crucial for CA lattice production. Quasi-equivalent generation of both the pentamer and hexamer components of the HIV-1 viral CA is also demonstrated, and the formation of pentamers is shown to be highly sensitive to local curvature, supporting the view that such inclusions in high-curvature regions allow closure of the viral CA surface. The complicated behavior of CA lattice self-assembly is shown to be reducible to a relatively simple function of the trimer-of-dimers behavior. PMID:23083721

  14. [Effects of nighttime temperature increase at different growth stages on double season rice grain yield].

    PubMed

    Wei, Jin-Lian; Pan, Xiao-Hua; Deng, Qiang-Hui

    2010-02-01

    Two experimental glass-houses were utilized to study the effects of nighttime temperature increase (NTI) at different growth stages on the grain yield of double season rice. The NTI from the stage of sowing to panicle differentiation (primary branch differentiation) improved the tillering of rice, and increased the effective panicles. An average 1 degrees C rise in the minimum nighttime temperature (MNT) at this stage increased the grain yield of early and late rice by 10.02% - 13.18% and 6.52% - 7.78% (P < 0.01), respectively. The NTI from the stage of panicle differentiation to heading (10% panicle heading from flag leaf sheath) promoted the spikelet abortion, and reduced the number of developed spikelet. An average 1 degrees C rise in MNT at this stage decreased the grain yield of early and late rice by 3.76% - 6.67% and 3.66% - 6.94% (P < 0.01), respectively. NTI from the stage of heading to maturity decreased the filled grain rate of early rice remarkably, but had an opposite effect on late rice. An average 1 degrees C rise in MNT at this stage induced a grain yield loss by 2.07% - 5.61% (P < 0.05) and a grain yield gain by 1.63% - 2.28% (P < 0.05) for early and late rice, respectively. All the results illustrated that there existed obvious differences in the effects of NTI at different growth stages on the grain yield of double season rice. PMID:20462002

  15. Early influences of nutrition on postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Beyer, Jeanette; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans; Grote, Veit; Haile, Gudrun; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Weber, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood. Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life by about 20%, presumably partly due to the lower protein supply with human milk than conventional infant formula. In a large randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that reduced infant formula protein contents lower insulin-releasing amino acid concentrations and thereby decrease circulating insulin and IGF-I levels, resulting in lesser early weight gain and reduced later obesity risk (the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'). The results demonstrate that lowered protein in infant formula induces similar - but not equal - metabolic and endocrine responses and normalizes weight and BMI relative to breastfed controls at the age of 2 years. The results available should lead to enhanced efforts to actively promote, protect and support breastfeeding. For infants that are not breastfed or not fully breastfed, the use of infant formulas with lower protein contents but high protein quality appears preferable. Cows' milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy. PMID:23502135

  16. A patient with medulloblastoma in its early developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Shinojima, Naoki; Nakamura, Hideo; Tasaki, Masayoshi; Kameno, Kouki; Anai, Shigeo; Iyama, Ken-ichi; Ando, Yukio; Seto, Hiroshi; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

    2014-12-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor of the posterior fossa in children and is considered an embryonal tumor. It has been suggested that medulloblastomas be categorized into 4 distinct molecular subgroups- WNT (DKK1), SHH (SFRP1), Group 3 (NPR3), or Group 4 (KCNA1)-since each subgroup is distinct and there is no overlap. The authors report on a 13-year-old boy with medulloblastoma. He presented with sudden-onset nausea and vomiting due to intratumoral hemorrhage. The medulloblastoma was thought to be in an early developmental stage because the tumor volume was extremely small. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the tumor was mainly composed of DKK1- and NPR3-positive areas. The individual areas of the tumor stained only for DKK1 or NPR3, with no overlap-that is, DKK1 and NPR3 expression were mutually exclusive. Samples obtained by laser microdissection of individual areas and subjected to mass spectrometry confirmed that the expression patterns of proteins were different. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosome 6 showed there were 2 distinct types of cells that exhibited monosomy or disomy of chromosome 6. These results demonstrated that distinct subtypes of medulloblastoma may be present within a single tumor, an observation that has not been previously reported. Our findings in this case indicate that early-stage medulloblastoma may include more than 1 distinct subtype and hint at factors involved in the origin and development of medulloblastomas. PMID:25303160

  17. Contribution of defect on early stage of LIPSS formation.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hisashi; Yada, Shuhei; Obara, Go; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2014-07-28

    We investigated an early stage of laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) formation to elucidate the contribution of defects on the formation. 4H-SiC crystals were irradiated by multiple pulses of femtosecond laser with different laser spot sizes. We observed the decrease in formation thresholds of high-spatial-frequency LIPSS (HSFL) and low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL) with the increased irradiated laser spot size. For smaller laser spot size, HSFL was only formed at the periphery of LSFL formation area, whereas for larger spot size, HSFL was randomly distributed within the laser spot. Our results are coincident with the hypothesis that the existence of defects in crystal contributes to the early stage on the formation of LIPSS, in which the electron excitation via one or two photon absorption in a defect site cause local nanoablation at a laser fluence under the intrinsic ablation threshold, followed by the formation of a nanovoid, which act as a scatterer, and interference of scattered wave and laser pulses lead to HSFL formation. PMID:25089418

  18. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Cryoablation of Early-Stage Primary Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuka, Seishi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, and lobectomy is the gold-standard treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, many patients are poor surgical candidates for various reasons. Recently, image-guided ablation is being used for lung tumors. Cryoablation has been applied for the treatment of cancer in various nonaerated organs; recently it has been adapted to the treatment of lung tumors. Since an ice ball can be detected by computed tomography (CT), cryoablation of lung tumors is performed under CT guidance. Its first clinical application was reported in 2005, and it has been reported to be feasible in a few studies. Minor complications occurred at a high frequency (up to 70.5%), but major complications were rare (up to 1%). The most common complication is pneumothorax, and most cases need no further intervention. Local efficacy depends on tumor size and presence of a thick vessel close to the tumor. Midterm survival after cryoablation is 77%–88% at 3 years in patients with early-stage NSCLC. Although surgery is the gold-standard treatment for such patients, the initial results of cryoablation are promising. In this paper, the current status of cryoablation for primary lung tumors is reviewed. PMID:24991559

  20. Metamorphic density controls on early-stage subduction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Oberhänsli, Roland; Bousquet, Romain

    2013-04-01

    Subduction is primarily driven by the densification of the downgoing oceanic slab, due to dynamic P-T-fields in subduction zones. It is crucial to unravel slab densification induced by metamorphic reactions to understand the influence on plate dynamics. By analyzing the density and metamorphic structure of subduction zones, we may gain knowledge about the driving, metamorphic processes in a subduction zone like the eclogitization (i.e., the transformation of a MORB to an eclogite), the breakdown of hydrous minerals and the release of fluid or the generation of partial melts. We have therefore developed a 2D subduction zone model down to 250 km that is based on thermodynamic equilibrium assemblage computations. Our model computes the "metamorphic density" of rocks as a function of pressure, temperature and chemical composition using the Theriak-Domino software package at different time stages. We have used this model to investigate how the hydration, dehydration, partial melting and fractionation processes of rocks all influence the metamorphic density and greatly depend on the temperature field within subduction systems. These processes are commonly neglected by other approaches (e.g., gravitational or thermomechanical in nature) reproducing the density distribution within this tectonic setting. The process of eclogitization is assumed as being important to subduction dynamics, based on the very high density (3.6 g/cm3) of eclogitic rocks. The eclogitization in a MORB-type crust is possible only if the rock reaches the garnet phase stability field. This process is primarily temperature driven. Our model demonstrates that the initiation of eclogitization of the slab is not the only significant process that makes the descending slab denser and is responsible for the slab pull force. Indeed, our results show that the densification of the downgoing lithospheric mantle (due to an increase of pressure) starts in the early subduction stage and makes a significant contribution to the slab pull, where eclogitization does not occur. Thus, the lithospheric mantle acts as additional ballast below the sinking slab shortly after the initiation of subduction. Our calculation shows that the dogma of eclogitized basaltic, oceanic crust as the driving force of slab pull is overestimated during the early stage of subduction. These results improve our understanding of the force budget for slab pull during the intial and early stage of subduction. Therefore, the complex metamorphic structure of a slab and mantle wedge has an important impact on the development and dynamics of subduction zones. Further Reading: Duesterhoeft, Oberhänsli & Bousquet (2013), submitted to Earth and Planetary Science Letters

  1. Maternal, social and abiotic environmental effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Bateman, Andrew W; Mares, Rafael; Ozgul, Arpat; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-03-01

    Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue to have delayed effects at later stages, or whether social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, but did not influence mass at emergence (at 1 month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at 1 month of age and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment influences development in a cooperative mammal. Individuals are most sensitive to social and maternal factors during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, whereas direct environmental effects are relatively more important later in development. Understanding the way in which environmental sensitivity varies across life stages is likely to be an important consideration in predicting trait responses to environmental change. PMID:24102215

  2. Management of older women with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Punglia, Rinaa S; Hughes, Kevin S; Muss, Hyman B

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease of aging. The average age at diagnosis is 61, and the majority of deaths occur after age 65. Caring for older women with breast cancer is a major challenge, as many have coexisting illness that can preclude optimal breast cancer treatment and which frequently have greater effect than the breast cancer itself. Older patients with cancer should be screened or have a brief geriatric assessment to detect potentially remediable problems not usually assessed by oncologists (e.g., self-care, falls, social support, nutrition). Older women with early-stage breast cancer should be treated initially with surgery unless they have an exceedingly short life expectancy. Primary endocrine therapy should be considered for patients who have hormone receptor-positive tumors and a very short life expectancy, an acute illness that delays surgery, or tumors that need to be downstaged to be resectable. Sentinel node biopsy should be considered for patients in whom it might affect treatment decisions. Breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery may be omitted for selected older women, especially for those with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer that are compliant with adjuvant endocrine therapy. The majority of older women with stage I and II breast cancer have hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative tumors, and endocrine therapy provides them with optimal systemic treatment. If these patients have life expectancies exceeding at least 5 years, they should be considered for genetic assays to determine the potential value of chemotherapy. Partnering care with geriatricians or primary care physicians trained in geriatrics should be considered for all vulnerable and frail older patients. PMID:25993142

  3. Population resilience to catastrophic mortality events during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Langangen, Øystein

    2015-07-01

    Catastrophic mortality events that drastically reduce the abundance of a population or a particular life stage can have long-term ecological and economic effects, and are of great concern in species conservation and management. Severe die-offs may be caused by natural catastrophes such as disease outbreaks and extreme climates, or human-caused disturbances such as toxic spills. Forecasting potential impacts of such disturbances is difficult and highly uncertain due to unknown future conditions, including population status and environmental conditions at the time of impact. Here, we present a framework for quantifying the range of potential, population-level effects of catastrophic events based on a hindcasting approach. A dynamic population model with Bayesian parameter estimation is used to simulate the impact of severe (50-99%) mortality events during the early life stages of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), an abundant marine fish population of high economic value. We quantify the impact of such die-offs in terms of subsequent changes in population biomass and harvest through direct comparison of simulated and historical trends, and estimate the duration of the impact as a measure of population resilience. Our results demonstrate strong resilience to catastrophic events that affect early life stages owing to density dependence in survival and a broad population age structure. Yet, while population recovery is. relatively fast, losses in harvest and economic value can be substantial. Future research efforts should focus on long-term and indirect effects via food web interactions in order to better understand the ecological and economic ramifications of catastrophic mortality events. PMID:26485960

  4. An assessment of early mandibular growth.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, E F; L'Abbé, E N; Oettlé, A C

    2012-04-10

    Quantification of skeletal data has been shown to be an effective and reliable method of demonstrating variation in human growth as well as for monitoring and interpreting growth. In South Africa as well as internationally, few researchers have assessed mandibular growth in late fetal period and early childhood and therefore standards for growth and age determination in these groups are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth in the mandible from the period of 31 gestational weeks to 36 months postnatal. A total of 74 mandibles were used. Dried mandibles were sourced from the Raymond A. Dart Collection (University of Witwatersrand), and cadaveric remains were obtained from the Universities of Pretoria and the Witwatersrand. The sample was divided into four groups; 31-40 gestational weeks (group 1), 0-11 months (group 2), 12-24 months (group 3), and 25-36 months (group 4). Twenty-one osteological landmarks were digitized using a MicroScribe G2. Ten standard measurements were created and included: the maximum length of mandible, mandibular body length and width, mandibular notch width and depth, mental foramen to inferior border of mandible, mandibular basilar widths bigonial and biantegonial, bigonial width of mental foramen and mental angle. Data were analyzed using PAST statistical software and Morphologika2 v2.5. Statistically significant differences were noted in the linear measurements for all group comparisons except between groups 3 and 4. The mandible morphologically changed from a round, smooth contour anteriorly to adopt a more sharp and narrow adult shape. A progressive increase in the depth and definition of the mandibular arch was also noted. In conclusion, the mandible initially grows to accommodate the developing tongue (up to 11 months), progressive dental eruption and mastication from 12 to 36 months. Mastication is associated with muscle mass development; this would necessitate an increase in the dimensions of the mandibular notch and associated muscle attachment sites. These findings might be valuable in the estimation of age in unidentified individuals and to monitor prenatal growth of the mandible for the early diagnosis of conditions associated with stunted mandibular growth. PMID:22154436

  5. Early Stages of De Novo Designed Beta-Hairpin Peptide Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, Tuna; Schneider, Joel P.; Pochan, Darrin J.

    2007-03-01

    In aqueous solution, MAX 1 peptide is unfolded and does not self-assemble. The peptide intramolecularly folds into a beta-hairpin when the electrostatic interactions between charged residues are screened through increasing the ionic strength at neutral pH. Beta-hairpin molecules supramolecularly assemble via hydrophobic collapse and hydrogen bonding into a 3-D hydrogel network. By combining the results of CD, cryo-TEM, DLS, and oscillatory rheology, we understand that the self-assembly proceeds by nucleation of monodisperse (3 nm wide) beta-sheet fibrils, which elongate, branch and cross-link to form clusters of fibrils. Assembly kinetics at this early stage indicates power law growth with assembly time. Eventually, clusters of fibrils interpenetrate to form a percolated network, as evidenced by the increasing network rigidity. The early stage assembly process will be discussed and compared to published gelation models.

  6. Prognostic role of FGFR1 amplification in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cihoric, N; Savic, S; Schneider, S; Ackermann, I; Bichsel-Naef, M; Schmid, R A; Lardinois, D; Gugger, M; Bubendorf, L; Zlobec, I; Tapia, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) was discovered in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the lung with FGFR1 amplification described as a promising predictive marker for anti-FGFR inhibitor treatment. Only few data are available regarding prevalence, prognostic significance and clinico-pathological characteristics of FGFR1-amplified and early-stage non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). We therefore investigated the FGFR1 gene status in a large number of well-characterised early-stage NSCLC. Methods: FGFR1 gene status was evaluated using a commercially available fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) probe on a tissue microarray (TMA). This TMA harbours 329 resected, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, nodal-negative NSCLC with a UICC stage I–II. The FISH results were correlated with clinico-pathological features and overall survival (OS). Results: The prevalence of an FGFR1 amplification was 12.5% (41/329) and was significantly (P<0.0001) higher in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (20.7%) than in adenocarcinoma (2.2%) and large cell carcinoma (13%). Multivariate analysis revealed significantly (P=0.0367) worse 5-year OS in patients with an FGFR1-amplified NSCLC. Conclusions: FGFR1 amplification is common in early-stage SCC of the lung and is an independent and adverse prognostic marker. Its potential role as a predictive marker for targeted therapies or adjuvant treatment needs further investigation. PMID:24853178

  7. 77 FR 74908 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... investment dollars in early stage small businesses. For the purposes of this initiative, an ``early stage... not. The obligation of the Class B limited partners to the Early Stage SBIC is reduced dollar for dollar as the Parent Fund contributes capital to the SBIC. The Model LPA contains required provisions...

  8. 77 FR 25775 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... investment dollars in early stage small businesses. For the purposes of this initiative, an ``early stage... Early Stage SBIC is reduced dollar for dollar as the Parent Fund contributes capital to the SBIC. The... to the SBIC applicant must be expressed as a specific dollar amount (not just as the...

  9. Proliferative potential and p53 overexpression in precursor and early stage lesions of bronchioloalveolar lung carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, H.; Kameda, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Nakatani, Y.; Inayama, Y.; Iida, M.; Noda, K.; Ogawa, N.; Shibagaki, T.; Kanisawa, M.

    1995-01-01

    To elucidate the pathogenesis of bronchioloalveolar lung carcinoma (BAC), we evaluated the lesion size, growth fraction, and p53 overexpression of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) and early stage BAC. AAH was classified as showing low grade or high grade atypia. AAH-like carcinoma, presumably very early stage BAC, was distinguished from AAH in that it exhibited remarkable atypia suggestive of malignant potential and from overt BAC in that it lacked unequivocal malignant features, including invasive/destructive growth. The growth fraction was determined immunohistochemically in terms of the Ki-67 labeling index. The overexpression of p53 was evaluated by assessing the nuclear accumulation of immunoreactive p53 protein. Both the lesion size and the growth fraction increased from low grade AAH, to high grade AAH, to AAH-like carcinoma, and to overt adenocarcinoma. The overexpression of p53 in AAH-like carcinoma was similar to that in overt adenocarcinoma and was more frequent than that in AAH. Our findings indicate that AAH, AAH-like carcinoma, and overt BAC represent different categories, although the cellular events occurring in these lesions presumably represent a continuous spectrum of the changes that are reflected in the cytomorphology and lesion size. The findings here suggest that AAH and AAH-like carcinomas constitute a population of heterogeneous lesions representing different steps toward overt BAC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7717455

  10. Photosynthetic and canopy characteristics of different varieties at the early elongation stage and their relationships with the cane yield in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During sugarcane growth, the early elongation stage is critical to cane yield formation. In order to investigate the effects of photosynthetic and canopy characteristics on cane yield, parameters of 17 sugarcane varieties were determined at the early elongation stage using CI-301 photosynthesis meas...

  11. Early growth and devlopment response to corn to canola competition and shade stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-weed competition studies indicate that resource limitation slows normal corn growth and development and often results in lower yields. However there is minimal information on the physiological basis of crop competition, especially at the early growth stages when resources would be expected to b...

  12. Early Stage Relapsing Polychondritis Diagnosed by Nasal Septum Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takaaki; Moody, Sandra; Komori, Masafumi; Jibatake, Akira; Yaegashi, Makito

    2015-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis is a rare inflammation of cartilaginous tissues, the diagnosis of which is usually delayed by a mean period of 2.9 years from symptom onset. We present the case of a 36-year-old man with nasal pain and fever. Physical examination of the nose was grossly unremarkable, but there was significant tenderness of the nasal bridge. Acute sinusitis was initially diagnosed due to thickened left frontal sinus mucosa on computed tomography (CT); however, there was no improvement after antibiotic intake. Repeat CT showed edematous inflammation of the nasal septum; biopsy of this site demonstrated erosion and infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils in the hyaline cartilage. Relapsing polychondritis was confirmed by the modified McAdam's criteria and can be diagnosed at an early stage by nasal septum biopsy; it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with nasal symptoms alone or persistent sinus symptoms. PMID:26843866

  13. Contingency Table Browser ? prediction of early stage protein structure

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table ? this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them ? analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity. PMID:26664034

  14. Frontiers in Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Christine M.; Rabinovitch, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The development of breast-conserving treatment for early-stage breast cancer is one of the most important success stories in radiation oncology in the latter half of the twentieth century. Lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy provides an appealing alternative to mastectomy for many women. In recent years, there has been a shift in clinical investigational focus toward refinements in the methods of delivering adjuvant radiotherapy that provide shorter, more convenient schedules of external-beam radiotherapy and interstitial treatment. Expedited courses of whole-breast treatment have been demonstrated to be equivalent to traditional lengthier courses in terms of tumor control and cosmetic outcome and to provide an opportunity for cost efficiencies. PMID:25113764

  15. Early stage of plastic deformation in thin films undergoing electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valek, B. C.; Tamura, N.; Spolenak, R.; Caldwell, W. A.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Bravman, J. C.; Batterman, B. W.; Nix, W. D.; Patel, J. R.

    2003-09-01

    Electromigration occurs when a high current density drives atomic motion from the cathode to the anode end of a conductor, such as a metal interconnect line in an integrated circuit. While electromigration eventually causes macroscopic damage, in the form of voids and hillocks, the earliest stage of the process when the stress in individual micron-sized grains is still building up is largely unexplored. Using synchrotron-based x-ray microdiffraction during an in-situ electromigration experiment, we have discovered an early prefailure mode of plastic deformation involving preferential dislocation generation and motion and the formation of a subgrain structure within individual grains of a passivated Al (Cu) interconnect. This behavior occurs long before macroscopic damage (hillocks and voids) is observed.

  16. Early-stage Hodgkin's disease: current approaches to treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Rusthoven, J J; MacKenzie, R

    1985-01-01

    Most patients with early-stage Hodgkin's disease can now be cured by one of several therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the developments in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease that have led to long-term survival rates greater than 90%. Past and present radio-therapy (RT) planning and treatment practices are discussed in the context of both clinical and pathological staging. The role of initial bimodal therapy (RT and chemotherapy [CT]) and the use of CT in patients who suffer relapse after initial treatment with RT alone are reviewed. On the basis of prognostic factors, subgroups of patients for whom bimodal therapy is recommended, including those with a bulky mediastinal mass, have now been identified. Although treatment is highly successful, debilitating consequences of RT and CT, such as infertility, infection and second malignant diseases, remain. Newer treatment regimens may reduce morbidity and have similar or better long-term results with respect to survival and quality of life. PMID:3893668

  17. Early recurrence of early stage endometrioid endometrial carcinoma: possible etiologic pathways and management options.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegkes, Ioannis D; Vrachnis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    The majority of endometrial cancers is early stage and of the endometrioid histological type, as the symptoms (mainly vaginal bleeding) of the disease lead to an early diagnosis. Close follow-up is nevertheless essential in such cancers staged early on, in which the rate of recurrence is relatively low. We retrieved the studies included in our narrative review after performing a systematic electronic search in the PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases. The incidence or recurrence of disease in such patients could be up to 2.6%, with the main sites of recurrence being the vaginal vault or metastases in distant parts of the body. Genetic factors such as p53 overexpression, inactivation of 14-3-3-sigma, KRAS amplification and KRAS mRNA expression, microsatellite instability and Lynch syndrome genes could be associated with such a recurrence. Black race is also correlated, as well as lymphovascular space involvement, lower uterine segment involvement and DNA aneuploidy. Longer hysteroscopy duration was not found to be associated. Close follow-up is suggested for early detection of recurrences, while surgical excision of isolated disease or exenteration of local disease as well as radiotherapy and chemotherapy are the main treatment options. This narrative review investigated the possible mechanisms of early recurrence in patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer as well as the further management of them. PMID:24815295

  18. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

  19. Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 sigma factor K in early-stage sporulation.

    PubMed

    Kirk, David G; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2012-07-01

    A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that σ(K) is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods. PMID:22544236

  20. Dissolved iron supply limits early growth of estuarine mangroves.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Daniel M

    2010-11-01

    Three mesocosm experiments were performed in an outdoor facility to quantify the responses of five mangrove species grown from seedling to sapling stage to increasing rates of dissolved iron supply. Stem extension and biomass of mangroves were measured in the first two experiments, and in the third experiment, rates of microbial iron reduction were measured in relation to stem extension of two mangrove species. In all experiments, mangrove growth was enhanced by increasing iron supply, although some species showed iron toxicity at the higher supply rates. In the first two experiments, stem extension rates of Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Xylocarpus moluccensis best fit Gaussian curves with maximal growth at supply rates of 50-60 mmol Fe x m(-2) x d(-1), whereas growth of Avicennia marina and Ceriops tagal increased to the highest rate (100 mmol Fe x m(-2) x d(-1)) of iron supply. Changes in leaf chlorophyll concentrations and iron content of roots mirrored the growth responses. In the third experiment, rates of microbial iron reduction were greater with R. apiculata and A. marina than in controls without plants; for both species, there was a positive relationship between stem extension and iron reduction. The rates of iron reduction and rates of iron supplied to the plants were well within the range of interstitial iron concentrations and rates of iron reduction found in the natural mangrove soils from which the seedlings were obtained. The responses of these species show that mangroves growing from seedling to sapling stage have a strong nutritional requirement for iron, and that there is a close relationship between plant roots and the activities of iron-reducing bacteria. These results suggest that mangrove growth may be limited in some natural forests by the rate at which iron is solubilized by iron-reducing bacteria. Such biogeochemical conditions have significant implications for successful recruitment, establishment, and early growth of mangroves. PMID:21141184

  1. Systematic characterization of small RNAome during zebrafish early developmental stages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During early vertebrate development, various small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) such as MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are dynamically expressed for orchestrating the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). Systematic analysis of expression profiles of zebrafish small RNAome will be greatly helpful for understanding the sRNA regulation during embryonic development. Results We first determined the expression profiles of sRNAs during eight distinct stages of early zebrafish development by sRNA-seq technology. Integrative analyses with a new computational platform of CSZ (characterization of small RNAome for zebrafish) demonstrated an sRNA class transition from piRNAs to miRNAs as development proceeds. We observed that both the abundance and diversity of miRNAs are gradually increased, while the abundance is enhanced more dramatically than the diversity during development. However, although both the abundance and diversity of piRNAs are gradually decreased, the diversity was firstly increased then rapidly decreased. To evaluate the computational accuracy, the expression levels of four known miRNAs were experimentally validated. We also predicted 25 potentially novel miRNAs, whereas two candidates were verified by Northern blots. Conclusions Taken together, our analyses revealed the piRNA to miRNA transition as a conserved mechanism in zebrafish, although two different types of sRNAs exhibit distinct expression dynamics in abundance and diversity, respectively. Our study not only generated a better understanding for sRNA regulations in early zebrafish development, but also provided a useful platform for analyzing sRNA-seq data. The CSZ was implemented in Perl and freely downloadable at: http://csz.biocuckoo.org. PMID:24507755

  2. Physiological effects of compensatory growth during the larval stage of the ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Pan, Chang; Li, Haosen; Zhang, Yuhong; Pang, Hong

    2015-12-01

    The growth rate of insects may vary in response to shifty environments. They may achieve compensatory growth after a period of food restriction followed by ad libitum food, which may further affect the reproductive performance and lifespan of the resulting phenotypes. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms associated with such growth acceleration in insects. The present study examined the metabolic rate, the antioxidant enzyme activity and the gene expression of adult Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) after experiencing compensatory growth during its larval stages. Starved C. montrouzieri individuals achieved a similar developmental time and adult body mass as those supplied with ad libitum food during their entire larval stage, indicating that compensatory growth occurred as a result of the switch in larval food regime. Further, the compensatory growth was found to exert effects on the physiological functions of C. montrouzieri, in terms of its metabolic rates and enzyme activities. The adults undergoing compensatory growth were characterized by a higher metabolic rate, a lower activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase and a lower gene expression of P450 and trehalase. Taken together, the results indicate that although compensatory growth following food restriction in early larval life prevents developmental delay and body mass loss, the resulting adults may encounter physiological challenges affecting their fitness. PMID:26546057

  3. After runaway: The trans-Hill stage of planetesimal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the 'trans-Hill stage'—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ('big bodies') become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ?10? << 1, where ? ? 0.005(a/AU){sup –1} is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>?{sup –1} × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies. This mode of growth may explain the observed size distributions of small bodies in the solar system and is explored in our subsequent work. Second, if the big bodies' orbits become separated by their Hill radius, oligarchy commences. This mode likely precedes the formation of fully fledged planets.

  4. Early-stage development of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Yuki; Koganezawa, Noriko; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Roppongi, Reiko T; Sato, Kaoru; Sekino, Yuko; Shirao, Tomoaki

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer new possibilities for biomedical research and clinical applications. Differentiated neurons from hiPSCs are expected to be useful for developing novel methods of treatment for various neurological diseases. However, the detailed process of functional maturation of hiPSC-derived neurons (hiPS neurons) remains poorly understood. This study analyzes development of hiPS neurons, focusing specifically on early developmental stages through 48 hr after cell seeding; development was compared with that of primary cultured neurons derived from the rat hippocampus. At 5 hr after cell seeding, neurite formation occurs in a similar manner in both neuronal populations. However, very few neurons with axonal polarization were observed in the hiPS neurons even after 48 hr, indicating that hiPS neurons differentiate more slowly than rat neurons. We further investigated the elongation speed of axons and found that hiPS neuronal axons were slower. In addition, we characterized the growth cones. The localization patterns of skeletal proteins F-actin, microtubule, and drebrin were similar to those of rat neurons, and actin depolymerization by cytochalasin D induced similar changes in cytoskeletal distribution in the growth cones between hiPS neurons and rat neurons. These results indicate that, during the very early developmental stage, hiPS neurons develop comparably to rat hippocampal neurons with regard to axonal differentiation, but the growth of axons is slower. PMID:26346430

  5. On the role of extracellular polymeric substances during early stages of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Lorite, Gabriela S; de Souza, Alessandra A; Neubauer, Daniel; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine; Cotta, Mônica A

    2013-02-01

    The structural integrity and protection of bacterial biofilms are intrinsically associated with a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by the bacteria cells. However, the role of these substances during biofilm adhesion to a surface remains largely unclear. In this study, the influence of EPS on Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation was investigated. This bacterium is associated with economically important plant diseases; it presents a slow growth rate and thus allows us to pinpoint more precisely the early stages of cell-surface adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show evidence of EPS production in such early stages and around individual bacteria cells attached to the substrate surface even a few hours after inoculation. In addition, EPS formation was investigated via attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To this end, X. fastidiosa cells were inoculated within an ATR liquid cell assembly. IR-ATR spectra clearly reveal EPS formation already during the early stages of X. fastidiosa biofilm formation, thereby providing supporting evidence for the hypothesis of the relevance of the EPS contribution to the adhesion process. PMID:23164974

  6. Ontogenetic development in the morphology and behavior of loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) during early life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Duan, Ming; Cheng, Fei; Xie, Songguang

    2014-09-01

    Loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) are a commercially important fish in China and an ideal aquaculture species. However, culturists experience high larval and juvenile mortality during mass production. To provide insight into ways to improve larviculture techniques, we describe the morphological characteristics and behavior of loach during the larval and early juvenile stages. Yolksac larvae ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 mm body length (BL) between days 0 to 4; preflexion larvae ranged from 3.6 to 5.5 mm BL between days 4 to 6; flexion larvae ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 mm BL between days 5 and 14; and postflexion larvae ranged from 7.1 to 15.7 mm BL between days 11 to 27; the minimum length and age of juveniles was 14.1 mm BL and 23 d, respectively. Loach are demersal from hatch through to the early juvenile stages. A suite of morphological characteristics (e.g., external gill filament and ventral mouth opening) and behavioral traits have developed to adapt to demersal living. We observed positive allometric growth in eye diameter, head length, head height, and pectoral fin length during the early larval stages, reflecting the priorities in the development of the organs essential for survival. Our results provide a basis for developing techniques to improve the survival of larval and juvenile loach during mass production.

  7. Initial investigation of a hypothesized link between thyroid peroxidase inhibition and fish early-life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  8. Ultra-sensitive protein detection via Single Molecule Arrays towards early stage cancer monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Stephanie M.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Zhou, Wenhui; Baig, Shazia; Walter, Stephanie R.; Buchsbaum, Rachel J.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Walt, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of cancers and continued monitoring of tumor growth would be greatly facilitated by the development of a blood-based, non-invasive, screening technique for early cancer detection. Current technologies for cancer screening and detection typically rely on imaging techniques or blood tests that are not accurate or sensitive enough to definitively diagnose cancer at its earliest stages or predict biologic outcomes. By utilizing Single Molecule Arrays (SiMoA), an ultra-sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we were able to measure increasing levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) within murine serum over time, which we attribute to tumor development. The measured concentrations of PSA were well below the detectable limits of both a leading clinical diagnostic PSA ELISA assay as well as a commercial ultra-sensitive PSA assay. Our work benchmarks the role of SiMoA as a vital tool in monitoring previously non-detectable protein biomarkers in serum for early cancer detection and offers significant potential as a non-invasive platform for the monitoring of early stage cancer. PMID:26052106

  9. Taste function in early stage treated and untreated Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Nsoesie, Michael T; Chung, Inna; Osman, Allen; Pawasarat, Ian; Caulfield, Julie; Hurtig, Howard; Silas, Jonathan; Dubroff, Jacob; Duda, John E; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Tekeli, Hakan; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2015-03-01

    Since brain stem regions associated with early Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology encroach upon those involved in taste function, the ability to taste may be compromised in PD. However, studies on this point have been contradictory. We administered well-validated whole-mouth and regional taste tests that incorporated multiple concentrations of sucrose, citric acid, caffeine, and sodium chloride to 29 early stage PD patients and 29 age-, sex-, and race-matched controls. Electrogustometry was also performed on the anterior tongue. The PD cohort was tested both on and off dopamine-related medications in counterbalanced test sessions. While whole-mouth taste identification test scores for all stimuli were, on average, nominally lower for the PD patients than for the controls, a trend in the opposite direction was noted for the intensity ratings at the lower stimulus concentrations for all stimuli except caffeine. Moreover, regional testing found that PD subjects tended to rate the stimuli, relative to the controls, as more intense on the anterior tongue and less intense on the posterior tongue. No significant associations were evident between taste test scores and UPDRS scores, L-DOPA medication equivalency values, or [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging of dopamine transporter uptake within the striatum and associated regions. Our findings suggest that suprathreshold measures of taste function are influenced by PD and that this disease differentially influences taste function on anterior (CN VII) and posterior (CN IX) tongue regions. Conceivably PD-related damage to CN IX releases central inhibition on CN VII at the level of the brainstem, resulting in enhanced taste intensity on the anterior tongue. PMID:25480568

  10. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill. PMID:26351964

  11. [New possibilities in the treatment of early stages of rosacea].

    PubMed

    Tsiskarishvili, N V; Katsitadze, A; Tsiskarishvili, Ts

    2013-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic skin disease of unknown etiology, affecting the central areas of the face skin (cheeks, chin, nose, forehead) and is characterized by periods of remission and exacerbation. Currently, about 10% of the world's population suffered from rosacea. Significant role in the pathogenesis of Rosacea, most researchers reffered to vascular disorders. Pathology of the skin capillaries can be attributed with several factors, which are united by a single result - a persistent vasodilation of the skin vessels and the subsequent blood stasis. Clinically the Rosacea manifested by erythema and telangiectasia. According to Morrison (2012) in the study of the autonomic nervous system (using the vegetative index of Kerdo) the prevalence of parasympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system has been found in Rosacea patients. The urgency of Rosacea correction in its initial stage of development is primarily due to the state of the skin blood vessels' walls, which has not only the outward manifestation, but also influencing the trophic, morphology and function of the skin in general, the progression of the disease and its transition to a more severe stage, up to rhinophym. Thus, it is advisable to carry out remedial measures in the early stages of Rosacea in order to correct the clinical manifestations of pre-rosacea and prevent development of more severe forms of the disease. Based on foregoing, objective of the study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of beta-blockers and drug Rozaliak in treatment of patients with Rosacea. We observed 25 patients (15 women and 10 men) aged 25 to 49 years with erythematous stage of Rrosacea. Depending on the treatment, all patients were divided into 2 groups. 13 patients (8 women and 5 men) were included in the control group who received a full comprehensive treatment complex, including short courses of antibiotics, systemic metronidazole, antihistamines, desensitizing agents, traditional external therapy (Rosamet, 0.75% metronidazole cream). 12 patients (7 women and 5 men) were included in the study group, which additionally, after the main course (up to the revealing of clinical effects), obtained Inderal (10 mg a day for 10-20 minutes before meals) and externally - Rozaliak cream (2 times a day). Patents of this group were under the close supervision of a cardiologist. The period of observation after treatment was 12 months. During this period the relapses in the group of study were not observed, while in the control group - relapses were detected already in the third month of observation. At the same time, a substantial reduction of erythema in patients with rosacea were not revealed. Thus, this study suggests that beta-blockers and Rozaliak are effective choice for the treatment of torpid relapsing forms of Rosacea on erythematous stage of disease, as well as for stable and long-term clinical remission. PMID:23388530

  12. Biology of early life stages in cephalopod molluscs.

    PubMed

    von Boletzky, S

    2003-01-01

    Recent literature on embryonic and post-embryonic development, biology and behavioural ecology of juvenile cephalopods is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on biological processes. Life-history patterns and phylogenetic systematics, which are important for a proper understanding of the evolutionary history of the cephalopods, are only briefly touched upon. Egg sizes in cephalopods range from less than 1 mm to about 30 mm in diameter, so the hatchlings emerging from the largest eggs are bigger than the adults of pygmy squid, the smallest known cephalopods. Developmental durations from spawning to hatching range from a few days (for very small eggs developing at high temperatures) to one or possibly several years (for very large eggs developing at low temperatures). Such important differences notwithstanding, the morphogenetic processes are very similar in all cephalopod embryos, the major variant being the size of the so-called outer yolk sac, which may be rudimentary in extremely small embryos. Several questions concerning the timing of hatching in relation to the developmental stage attained, especially in terms of yok absorption, need clarification. These questions concern the elimination of the transient closure of the mouth, the final differentiation of digestive gland cells, and the removal of the tranquilliser effect of the perivitelline fluid necessary for the onset of the hatching behaviour. Cephalopod hatchlings are active predators. They refine their behavioural repertoires by learning from individual experience in dealing with prey and would-be predators. There is no truly larval phase, and the ecologically defined term paralarva should be used with caution. Given the considerable resource potential of cephalopods, investigations into dispersal and recruitment are of particular interest to fishery biology, but they are also important for ecological biogeography. The related studies of feeding and growth involve field sampling and tentative age determination of caught specimens, in combination with laboratory studies to test food quality, measure feeding rates, and validation of periodicities in accretional growth structures (e.g. "daily rings" in statoliths). PMID:12846042

  13. Clinical therapeutic strategies for early stage of diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Munehiro; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

    2014-06-15

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease, leading to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. The overall number of patients with DKD will continue to increase in parallel with the increasing global pandemic of type 2 diabetes. Based on landmark clinical trials, DKD has become preventable by controlling conventional factors, including hyperglycemia and hypertension, with multifactorial therapy; however, the remaining risk of DKD progression is still high. In this review, we show the importance of targeting remission/regression of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients, which may protect against the progression of DKD and cardiovascular events. To achieve remission/regression of microalbuminuria, several steps are important, including the early detection of microalbuminuria with continuous screening, targeting HbA1c < 7.0% for glucose control, the use of renin angiotensin system inhibitors to control blood pressure, the use of statins or fibrates to control dyslipidemia, and multifactorial treatment. Reducing microalbuminuria is therefore an important therapeutic goal, and the absence of microalbuminuria could be a pivotal biomarker of therapeutic success in diabetic patients. Other therapies, including vitamin D receptor activation, uric acid-lowering drugs, and incretin-related drugs, may also be promising for the prevention of DKD progression. PMID:24936255

  14. Metformin inhibits early stage diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    JO, WOORI; YU, EUN-SIL; CHANG, MINSUN; PARK, HYUN-KYU; CHOI, HYUN-JI; RYU, JAE-EUN; JANG, SUNGWOONG; LEE, HYO-JU; JANG, JA-JUNE; SON, WOO-CHAN

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effects of metformin have recently emerged despite its original use for type II diabetes. In the present study, the effects of metformin on the development and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated using the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat model of HCC. Tumor foci were characterized by gross examination and by histopathological characteristics, including proliferation, hepatic progenitor cell content and the expression of hepatocarcinoma-specific molecular markers. Potential target molecules of metformin were investigated to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of metformin on chemically induced liver tumorigenesis. The antitumor effects of metformin were increased by the reduction of surface nodules and decreased the incidence of altered hepatocellular foci, hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma. Also, decreased expression levels of glutathione S-transferase placental form, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cytokeratin 8 described the inhibitory effects of metformin on HCC. In the present study, Wistar rats receiving treatment with DEN were administered metformin for 16 weeks. In addition, metformin suppressed liver tumorigenesis via an AMPK-dependent pathway. These results suggested that metformin has promising effects on the early stage of HCC in rats. Therefore, metformin may be used for the prevention of HCC recurrence following primary chemotherapy for HCC and/or for high-risk patients, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. PMID:26548419

  15. Affective Motives for Smoking Among Early Stage Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wahlquist, Amy E.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Methods: Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16–20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Results: Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR − NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Conclusions: Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. PMID:24924155

  16. Isolation and transplantation of sturgeon early-stage germ cells.

    PubMed

    Pšeni?ka, Martin; Saito, Taiju; Linhartová, Zuzana; Gazo, Ievgeniia

    2015-04-01

    We report, for the first time, a series of baseline techniques comprising isolation and transplantation of female and male early-stage germ cells in sturgeon to generate a germline chimera as a potential tool for surrogate reproduction and gene banking. Cells were dissociated from testis, characterized by mostly spermatogonia, and from ovary, exclusively comprising oogonia and previtellogenic oocytes, of Acipenser baerii, using 0.3% trypsin (2 hours, 23 °C) dissolved in PBS, isotonic with blood plasma. The dissociated germ cells were sorted by Percoll gradient centrifugation followed by immunolabeling with germ cell-specific vasa antibody DDX4, while 10% to 30% Percoll solution contained 79.4% and 70.8% labeled testicular and ovarian cells. Sorted germ cells were transplanted into a cavity close to a presumptive genital ridge of newly hatched heterospecific Acipenser ruthenus larvae with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled endogenous primordial germ cells. The transplanted germ cells were randomly distributed in the body cavity through 30-day posttransplantation (dpt). Subsequently, the cells were organized into genital ridges 50 dpt and proliferated 90 dpt. The number of both transplanted and endogenous germ cells significantly increased from 18.1, 22.2, and 29.1 (30 dpt) to 108.5, 90.8, and 118.5 (90 dpt) in ovarian, testicular, and endogenous germ cells, respectively (P < 0.05). The efficiency of transplantation was 60% (counted 90 dpt). PMID:25559841

  17. Toxicity of TFM lampricide to early life stages of walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, J.G.; Marking, L.L.; King, E.L., Jr.; Hanson, L.H.; Bills, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on gametes, newly fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, and swim-up fry of the walleye Stizostedion vitreum . When gametes from sexually mature walleyes were stripped into solutions of TFM, no effects were observed during the fertilization process at concentrations up to 3.0 mg/L - three times the concentration lethal to 99.9% of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held 12 h (LC99.9) under the same test conditions. Newly fertilized eggs likewise were unaffected during water hardening by concentrations of TFM that were lethal to sea lamprey ammocoetes. Eyed eggs, sac fry, and swim-up fry yielded LC25 values that were 2.5 to 5 times greater than the 12-h LC99.9 for sea lamprey ammocoetes. The data thus indicated that all of the early life stages of walleyes tested were considerably more resistant than sea lamprey ammocoetes to TFM, and that it is unlikely they would be adversely affected by standard stream treatments to kill sea lamprey ammocoetes.

  18. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in early stages of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Brown, G R; Rundell, J R; McManis, S E; Kendall, S N; Zachary, R; Temoshok, L

    1992-01-01

    As part of a military universal HIV screening program, 442 men were assessed for the presence of DSM-III-R defined psychiatric disorders and symptoms of anxiety and depression after notification of HIV seroconversion. Of them, 84.4% were in the earliest, asymptomatic stages of disease at the time of interview (96% did not have AIDS). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scales were used. Relevant comparisons were made to Epidemiologic Catchment Area prevalence data. HIV seropositive men were more likely than age-matched men in the community to have current diagnoses of major depression (ages 18-44) and anxiety disorders (ages 25-44). Higher lifetime rates of major depression and alcohol use disorder, and high current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (21.7%) were noted. We conclude that men who become HIV seropositive have high rates of mood and substance use disorders prior to knowledge of seroconversion, and that early in the course of HIV infection men are at risk for developing major depression, anxiety disorders, and disorders of sexual desire. PMID:1438661

  19. A microengineered pathophysiological model of early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonseok; Hyun, Eunjeh; Seo, Jeongyun; Blundell, Cassidy; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Eunhee; Lee, Suhyun; Moon, Aree; Moon, Woo Kyung; Huh, Dongeun

    2015-01-01

    A mounting body of evidence in cancer research suggests that the local microenvironment of tumor cells has a profound influence on cancer progression and metastasis. In vitro studies on the tumor microenvironment and its pharmacological modulation, however, are often hampered by the technical challenges associated with creating physiological cell culture environments that integrate cancer cells with the key components of their native niche such as neighboring cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic complex microarchitecture of cancerous tissue. Using early-stage breast cancer as a model disease, here we describe a biomimetic microengineering strategy to reconstitute three-dimensional (3D) structural organization and microenvironment of breast tumors in human cell-based in vitro models. Specifically, we developed a microsystem that enabled co-culture of breast tumor spheroids with human mammary ductal epithelial cells and mammary fibroblasts in a compartmentalized 3D microfluidic device to replicate microarchitecture of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We also explored the potential of this breast cancer-on-a-chip system as a drug screening platform by evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of an anticancer drug (paclitaxel). Our microengineered disease model represents the first critical step towards recapitulating pathophysiological complexity of breast cancer, and may serve as an enabling tool to systematically examine the contribution of the breast cancer microenvironment to the progression of DCIS to an invasive form of the disease. PMID:26158500

  20. Growth-stage dependent crop yield response to ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Younglove, T; McCool, P M; Musselman, R C; Kahl, M E

    1994-01-01

    Data from four crop yield-loss field trials were examined to determine if analysis using an imposed phenological weighting function based on seasonal growth stage would provide a more accurate indication of impact of ozone exposure. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Moapa 69), dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. California Dark Red kidney), fresh market and processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. 6718 VF and VF-145-B7879, respectively) were grown at 9-11 ambient field plots within southern California comprising an ambient gradient of ozone. The growing season for each crop was artificially divided into 'quarters' composed of equal numbers of whole days and roughly corresponding to specific growth stages. Ozone exposure was calculated for each of these 'quarters' and regressed against final crop yield using 163 different exposure statistics. Weighting functions were developed using reciprocal residual mean square (1/RMS) or percentage of the best 100 exposure statistics of the 163 tested (TOP100) for each of the quarters. The third quarter of the alfalfa season was clearly most responsive to ozone as measured by both of the weighting functions. Third quarter ozone was also weighted highest by both weighting functions for dry bean. Fresh market and processing tomato were each influenced the greatest by second quartero zone as demonstrated by both weighting functions. The occurrence of ozone during physiologically important events (flowering and initial fruit set in second quarter for tomato; pod development in third quarter for dry bean) appeared to influence the yield of these crops the greatest. Growth-stage-dependent phenological weighting of pollutant exposure may result in more effective predictions of levels of ozone exposure resulting in yield reductions. PMID:15091620

  1. Initial stages of organic film growth characterized by thermal desorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Adolf

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the increasing importance of organic electronics, a more in-depth understanding of the early stages of organic film growth is indispensable. In this review a survey of several rod-like and plate-like organic molecules (p-quaterphenyl, p-sexiphenyl, hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile (HATCN), rubicene, indigo) deposited on various application relevant substrates (gold, silver, mica, silicon dioxide) is given. The focus is particularly put on the application of thermal desorption spectroscopy to shed light on the kinetics and energetics of the molecule-substrate interaction. While each adsorption system reveals a manifold of features that are specific for the individual system, one can draw some general statements on the early stages of organic film formation from the available datasets. Among the important issues in this context is the formation of wetting layers and the dewetting as a function of the substrate surface conditions, organic film thickness and temperature. PMID:26778860

  2. Initial stages of organic film growth characterized by thermal desorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Adolf

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the increasing importance of organic electronics, a more in-depth understanding of the early stages of organic film growth is indispensable. In this review a survey of several rod-like and plate-like organic molecules (p-quaterphenyl, p-sexiphenyl, hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile (HATCN), rubicene, indigo) deposited on various application relevant substrates (gold, silver, mica, silicon dioxide) is given. The focus is particularly put on the application of thermal desorption spectroscopy to shed light on the kinetics and energetics of the molecule-substrate interaction. While each adsorption system reveals a manifold of features that are specific for the individual system, one can draw some general statements on the early stages of organic film formation from the available datasets. Among the important issues in this context is the formation of wetting layers and the dewetting as a function of the substrate surface conditions, organic film thickness and temperature.

  3. Grass competition suppresses savanna tree growth across multiple demographic stages.

    PubMed

    Riginos, Corinna

    2009-02-01

    Savanna ecosystems, defined by the codominance of trees and grasses, cover one-fifth of the world's land surface and are of great socioeconomic and biological importance. Yet, the fundamental question of how trees and grasses coexist to maintain the savanna state remains poorly understood. Many models have been put forward to explain tree-grass coexistence, but nearly all have assumed that grasses do not limit tree growth and demography beyond the sapling stage. This assumption, however, has rarely been tested. Here I show that grass can strongly suppress the growth of trees. I removed grass around trees of three size classes in an Acacia drepanolobium savanna in Laikipia, Kenya. For even the largest trees, grass removal led to a doubling in growth and a doubling in the probability of transitioning to the next size class over two years. These results suggest that grass competition in productive (nutrient-rich) savannas may limit tree growth as much as herbivory and fire (the main factors thought to determine tree demography within a rainfall region) and should be incorporated into savanna models if tree-grass coexistence and savanna dynamics are to be understood. PMID:19323216

  4. Early life stage (ELS) toxicity of sucralose to fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, K I; Huggett, D B

    2014-10-01

    Sucralose, an intense artificial sweetener, has been detected in wastewater and surface waters at concentrations ranging from ng/L to low µg/L. Although over a hundred studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of sucralose for human consumption, few studies have focused on the chronic ecotoxicological effects of this compound in fish. As a remedy to this data gap, an early-life stage toxicity test was conducted to assess the effects of sucralose on hatching, survival, and growth of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Hatching, survival, and growth were unaffected by 98 mg/L of sucralose. The Lowest-Observed-Effect Concentration (LOEC) and the No-Observed-Effect Concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows determined by this study are >98 and 98 mg/L, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the concentrations of sucralose detected in the environment are well below those required to cause adverse effects to developing aquatic organisms. PMID:25120258

  5. Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

    2013-01-01

    A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements.

  6. Dream features in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bugalho, Paulo; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the relation between dream features and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD), although vivid dreams, hallucinations and cognitive decline have been proposed as successive steps of a pathological continuum. Our objectives were therefore to characterize the dreams of early stage PD and to study the relation between dream characteristics, cognitive function, motor status, depression, dopaminergic treatment, and the presence of REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and hallucinations. Dreams of 19 male PD patients and 21 matched control subjects were classified according to Hall and van de Castle system. h statistics was used to compare the dream content between patients and controls. We tested the relation between patients' dreams characteristics and cognitive function (Frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Mini-Mental State Examination tests) depression (Beck depression inventory), motor function (UPDRS), dopaminergic treatment, the presence of RBD (according to clinical criteria) and hallucinations, using general linear model statistics. Patients and controls differed only on FAB scores. Relevant differences in the Hall and van de Castle scale were found between patient's dreams and those of the control group, regarding animals, aggression/friendliness, physical aggression, befriender (higher in the patient group) and aggressor and bodily misfortunes (lower in the patient group) features. Cognitive and particularly frontal dysfunction had a significant influence on the frequency of physical aggression and animal related features, while dopaminergic doses, depressive symptoms, hallucinations and RBD did not. We found a pattern of dream alteration characterized by heightened aggressiveness and the presence of animals. These were related to more severe frontal dysfunction, which could be the origin of such changes. PMID:21717220

  7. Metabolic syndrome and outcomes following early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Calip, Gregory S; Malone, Kathleen E; Gralow, Julie R; Stergachis, Andy; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Boudreau, Denise M

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing, and numerous components of MetS are associated with increased primary breast cancer (BC) risk. However, less is known about the relationship of MetS to BC outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether MetS, characterized by increased weight, hypertension, low HDL-cholesterol, high triglycerides, and diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, is associated with risk of second breast cancer events (SBCE) and BC-specific mortality. Retrospective cohort study of women diagnosed with incident early-stage (I-II) BC between 1990 and 2008, enrolled in an integrated health plan. Outcomes of interest were SBCE, defined as recurrence or second primary BC, and BC-specific mortality. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for time-varying exposure to MetS components while accounting for potential confounders and competing risks. Among 4,216 women in the cohort, 26% had ?3 MetS components and 13% developed SBCE during median follow-up of 6.3 years. Compared to women with no MetS components, presence of MetS (?3 components) was associated with increased risk of SBCE (HR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.08-2.07) and BC-specific mortality (HR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.02-2.69). Of the individual components, only increased weight was associated with increased risk of SBCE (HR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.49). MetS is associated with modestly increased risk of SBCE and BC-specific mortality. Given the growing population of BC survivors, further research in larger and more diverse populations is warranted. PMID:25301086

  8. Metabolic syndrome and outcomes following early stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Calip, Gregory S.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Gralow, Julie R.; Stergachis, Andy; Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Boudreau, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing, and numerous components of MetS are associated with increased primary breast cancer (BC) risk. However, less is known about the relationship of metabolic syndrome to BC outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether MetS, characterized by increased weight, hypertension, low HDL-cholesterol, high triglycerides and diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, is associated with risk of second breast cancer events (SBCE) and BC-specific mortality. Methods Retrospective cohort study of women diagnosed with incident early stage (I–II) BC between 1990–2008, enrolled in an integrated health plan. Outcomes of interest were SBCE, defined as recurrence or second primary BC, and BC-specific mortality. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for time-varying exposure to MetS components while accounting for potential confounders and competing risks. Results Among 4,216 women in the cohort, 26% had ?3 MetS components and 13% developed SBCE during median follow-up of 6.3 years. Compared to women with no MetS components, presence of MetS (?3 components) was associated with increased risk of SBCE (HR=1.50, 95% CI 1.08–2.07) and BC-specific mortality (HR=1.65, 95% CI 1.02–2.69). Of the individual components, only increased weight was associated with increased risk of SBCE (HR=1.26, 95% CI 1.06–1.49). Conclusions MetS is associated with modestly increased risk of SBCE and BC-specific mortality. Given the growing population of BC survivors, further research in larger and more diverse populations is warranted. PMID:25301086

  9. Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).

    PubMed

    Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

    2014-08-01

    The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture. PMID:23534899

  10. Investigation of condensed and early stage gas phase hypergolic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Jacob Daniel

    Traditional hypergolic propellant combinations, such as those used on the space shuttle orbital maneuvering system first flown in 1981, feature hydrazine based fuels and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) based oxidizers. Despite the long history of hypergolic propellant implementation, the processes that govern hypergolic ignition are not well understood. In order to achieve ignition, condensed phase fuel and oxidizer must undergo simultaneous physical mixing and chemical reaction. This process generates heat, intermediate condensed phase species, and gas phase species, which then may continue to react and generate more heat until ignition is achieved. The process is not well understood because condensed and gas phase reactions occur rapidly, typically in less than 200 ?s, on much faster timescales than traditional diagnostic methods can observe. A detailed understanding of even the gas phase chemistry is lacking, but is critical for model development. Initial research has provided confidence that a study of condensed phase hypergolic reactions is useful and possible. Results obtained using an impinging jet apparatus have shown a critical residence time of 0.3 ms is required for the reaction between monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and red fuming nitric acid (RFNA, ~85% HNO3 + 15% N2O4) to achieve conditions favorable for ignition. This critical residence time spans the time required for liquid phase reactions to occur at the fuel/oxidizer interface and can give some insight into the reaction rates for this propellant combination. Experiments performed in a forced mixing constant volume reactor have demonstrated that the chamber pressurization rate for MMH/RFNA can be significantly reduced by diluting the MMH with deionized water. This result indicates that propellant dilution can slow the chemical reaction rates to occur over observable time scales. The research described in this document consists of two efforts that contribute knowledge to the propulsion community regarding the hypergolic liquid propellant combination of MMH and RFNA or pure nitric acid. The first and most important effort focuses on furthering the understanding of condensed phase reactions between MMH and nitric acid. To accomplish this goal diluted MMH and nitric acid were studied in a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. By tracking the generation or destruction of specific chemical species in the reacting fluid we can measure the reaction progress as a function of reactant concentration and temperature. This work provides the propulsion community with a quantitative global condensed phase reaction rate equation for MMH/nitric acid. The second effort focuses on improving understanding the recently proposed gas phase hypergolic reaction mechanisms using a streak camera based ultraviolet and visible spectrometer. The time resolution on the streak camera system allows for detailed investigation of the pre-ignition and early stage gas phase species present during the reaction between MMH and RFNA.

  11. Performance of mitochondrial DNA mutations detecting early stage cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jakupciak, John P; Maragh, Samantha; Markowitz, Maura E; Greenberg, Alissa K; Hoque, Mohammad O; Maitra, Anirban; Barker, Peter E; Wagner, Paul D; Rom, William N; Srivastava, Sudhir; Sidransky, David; O'Connell, Catherine D

    2008-01-01

    Background Mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) have been associated with cancer and many other disorders. These mutations can be point mutations or deletions, or admixtures (heteroplasmy). The detection of mtDNA mutations in body fluids using resequencing microarrays, which are more sensitive than other sequencing methods, could provide a strategy to measure mutation loads in remote anatomical sites. Methods We determined the mtDNA mutation load in the entire mitochondrial genome of 26 individuals with different early stage cancers (lung, bladder, kidney) and 12 heavy smokers without cancer. MtDNA was sequenced from three matched specimens (blood, tumor and body fluid) from each cancer patient and two matched specimens (blood and sputum) from smokers without cancer. The inherited wildtype sequence in the blood was compared to the sequences present in the tumor and body fluid, detected using the Affymetrix Genechip® Human Mitochondrial Resequencing Array 1.0 and supplemented by capillary sequencing for noncoding region. Results Using this high-throughput method, 75% of the tumors were found to contain mtDNA mutations, higher than in our previous studies, and 36% of the body fluids from these cancer patients contained mtDNA mutations. Most of the mutations detected were heteroplasmic. A statistically significantly higher heteroplasmy rate occurred in tumor specimens when compared to both body fluid of cancer patients and sputum of controls, and in patient blood compared to blood of controls. Only 2 of the 12 sputum specimens from heavy smokers without cancer (17%) contained mtDNA mutations. Although patient mutations were spread throughout the mtDNA genome in the lung, bladder and kidney series, a statistically significant elevation of tRNA and ND complex mutations was detected in tumors. Conclusion Our findings indicate comprehensive mtDNA resequencing can be a high-throughput tool for detecting mutations in clinical samples with potential applications for cancer detection, but it is unclear the biological relevance of these detected mitochondrial mutations. Whether the detection of tumor-specific mtDNA mutations in body fluidsy this method will be useful for diagnosis and monitoring applications requires further investigation. PMID:18834532

  12. Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S.; Cardellini, P.; Pavanati, C.

    1997-02-01

    The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surface ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.

  13. [Early orthodontic treatment for growth modification by functional appliances--pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Tzemach, M; Aizenbud, D; Einy, S

    2014-01-01

    The optimal timing for commencement of orthodontic treatment has been controversial. Initial early orthodontic treatment usually begins at the deciduous dentition or early mixed dentition stage and continues for 12-18 months. In most cases, a second treatment phase will be required in the permanent dentition stage to achieve the treatment goals and a stable occlusion. One of the main purposes of the early treatment phase is to affect the growth pattern of the jaw and consequently correct skeletal imbalance and prevent future severe malocclusion by means of growth modification. Some clinicians strongly believe that early intervention with functional appliances improves facial harmony and simplifies as well as shortens the second orthodontic treatment phase. In contrast others advocate that it is unnecessary as the early treatment results will be eliminated by future growth and a recurrent treatment phase is essential in the permanent dentition stage in any case. Thus it is merely a waste of time and resources, and all treatment goals could be reached by a comprehensive single continued treatment phase in the late mixed dentition stage. This article summarizes the scientific literature on the different concepts of early functional orthodontic treatment of Skeletal Class II malocclusion correction vs. a single comprehensive orthodontic treatment process in the late mixed dentition stage. The indications and benefits of each of the approaches are discussed in detail. In conclusion, most of the researchers recommend early orthodontic intervention in children suffering psychological and social problems associated with their malocclusion. Prevention of traumatic injury in cases of maxillary incisor protrusive inclination is also considered an indication for early orthodontic treatment. PMID:24654498

  14. Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

    2011-12-01

    Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 μatm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 μatm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which could lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

  15. Clinical Significance of IGFBP-3 Methylation in Patients with Early Stage Gastric Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Tae; Jang, Hye-Lim; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Young Suk; Lim, Ho Yeong; Choi, Min Gew; Bae, Jae Moon; Sohn, Tae Sung; Noh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Joon Oh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IGFBP-3 is a multifunctional protein that inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Hypermethylation of the promoter represses expression of the IGFBP-3 gene. We undertook this study to assess the impact of IGFBP-3 methylation on survival of early stage gastric cancer patients. METHODS: Of the 482 tissue samples from gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgery, IGFBP-3 methylation was tested in 138 patients with stage IB/II gastric cancer. We also analyzed IGFBP-3 methylation in 26 gastric cancer cell lines. IGFBP-3 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight). Statistical analyses, all two-sided, were performed to investigate the prognostic effects of methylation status of the IGFBP-3 promoter on various clinical parameters. RESULTS: Hypermethylation of IGFBP-3 was observed in 26 (19%) of the 138 stage IB/II gastric cancer patients. Clinicopathological factors such as age, Lauren classification, sex, tumor infiltration, lymph node metastasis, and histologic grade did not show a statistically significant association with the methylation status of the IGFBP-3 promoter. Patients with a hypermethylated IGFBP-3 promoter had similar 8-year disease-free survival compared with those without a hypermethylated IGFBP-3 promoter (73% vs 75%, P = .78). In subgroup analyses, females, but not males, seemed to have poorer prognosis for DFS and OS in the subset of patients with IGFBP-3 methylation as compared with those without IGFBP-3 methylation (8-year DFS: 55.6% vs 71.6%, P = .3694 and 8-year overall survival: 55.6% vs 68.4%, P = .491, respectively) even with no statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The status of IGFBP-3 methylation as measured by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction proposed the modest role for predicting survival in specific subgroups of patients with early-stage gastric cancer who undergo curative surgery. However, this needs further investigation. PMID:26310375

  16. Positional specification in the segmental growth pattern of an early arthropod.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Giuseppe; Hong, Paul S; Hughes, Nigel C

    2014-04-22

    In many arthropods, there is a change in relative segment size during post-embryonic development, but how segment differential growth is produced is little known. A new dataset of the highest quality specimens of the 429 Myr old trilobite Aulacopleura koninckii provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate segment growth dynamics and its control in an early arthropod. Morphometric analysis across nine post-embryonic stages revealed a growth gradient in the trunk of A. koninckii. We contrastively tested different growth models referable to two distinct hypotheses of growth control for the developing trunk: (i) a segment-specific control, with individual segments having differential autonomous growth progression, and (ii) a regional control, with segment growth depending on their relative position along the main axis. We show that the trunk growth pattern of A. koninckii was consistent with a regional growth control producing a continuous growth gradient that was stable across all developmental stages investigated. The specific posterior-to-anterior decaying shape of the growth gradient suggests it deriving from the linear transduction of a graded signal, similar to those commonly provided by morphogens. A growth control depending on a form of positional specification, possibly realized through the linear interpretation of a graded signal, may represent the primitive condition for arthropod differential growth along the main body axis, from which the diverse and generally more complex forms of growth control in subsequent arthropods have evolved. PMID:24573851

  17. Positional specification in the segmental growth pattern of an early arthropod

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Giuseppe; Hong, Paul S.; Hughes, Nigel C.

    2014-01-01

    In many arthropods, there is a change in relative segment size during post-embryonic development, but how segment differential growth is produced is little known. A new dataset of the highest quality specimens of the 429 Myr old trilobite Aulacopleura koninckii provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate segment growth dynamics and its control in an early arthropod. Morphometric analysis across nine post-embryonic stages revealed a growth gradient in the trunk of A. koninckii. We contrastively tested different growth models referable to two distinct hypotheses of growth control for the developing trunk: (i) a segment-specific control, with individual segments having differential autonomous growth progression, and (ii) a regional control, with segment growth depending on their relative position along the main axis. We show that the trunk growth pattern of A. koninckii was consistent with a regional growth control producing a continuous growth gradient that was stable across all developmental stages investigated. The specific posterior-to-anterior decaying shape of the growth gradient suggests it deriving from the linear transduction of a graded signal, similar to those commonly provided by morphogens. A growth control depending on a form of positional specification, possibly realized through the linear interpretation of a graded signal, may represent the primitive condition for arthropod differential growth along the main body axis, from which the diverse and generally more complex forms of growth control in subsequent arthropods have evolved. PMID:24573851

  18. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test. 797.1600 Section 797.1600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1600 Fish early life stage toxicity test....

  19. To Stay or to Go? Narratives of Early-Stage Sociologists about Persisting in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wöhrer, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Based on analyses of life course questionnaires, semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group interviews carried out with early-stage sociologists over a period of 8 years, this paper presents analyzes of continuity and change in the decisions made by early-stage researchers in regard to their work and careers. The longitudinal approach…

  20. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test. 797.1600 Section 797.1600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1600 Fish early life stage toxicity test....

  1. Paired comparison of water, energy and carbon exchanges over two young maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.): effects of thinning and weeding in the early stage of tree growth.

    PubMed

    Moreaux, Virginie; Lamaud, Eric; Bosc, Alexandre; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Medlyn, Belinda E; Loustau, Denis

    2011-09-01

    The effects of management practices on energy, water and carbon exchanges were investigated in a young pine plantation in south-west France. In 2009-10, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2)O and heat fluxes were monitored using the eddy covariance and sap flow techniques in a control plot (C) with a developed gorse layer, and an adjacent plot that was mechanically weeded and thinned (W). Despite large differences in the total leaf area index and canopy structure, the annual net radiation absorbed was only 4% lower in plot W. We showed that higher albedo in this plot was offset by lower emitted long-wave radiation. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) from plot W was 15% lower, due to lower rainfall interception and transpiration by the tree canopy, partly counterbalanced by the larger evaporation from both soil and regrowing weedy vegetation. The drainage belowground from plot W was larger by 113 mm annually. The seasonal variability of ET was driven by the dynamics of the soil and weed layers, which was more severely affected by drought in plot C. Conversely, the temporal changes in pine transpiration and stem diameter growth were synchronous between sites despite higher soil water content in the weeded plot. At the annual scale, both plots were carbon sinks, but thinning and weeding reduced the carbon uptake by 73%: annual carbon uptake was 243 and 65 g C m(-2) on plots C and W, respectively. Summer drought dramatically impacted the net ecosystem exchange: plot C became a carbon source as the gross primary production (GPP) severely decreased. However, plot W remained a carbon sink during drought, as a result of decreases in both GPP and ecosystem respiration (R(E)). In winter, both plots were carbon sources, plots C and W emitting 67.5 and 32.4 g C m(-2), respectively. Overall, this study highlighted the significant contribution of the gorse layer to mass and energy exchange in young pine plantations. PMID:21724584

  2. Early-Stage Primary School Children Attending a School in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) Have Better Reversal Learning and Lean Muscle Mass Growth Than Those Attending a Non-SFP School12

    PubMed Central

    Nkhoma, Owen W. W.; Duffy, Maresa E.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Davidson, Philip W.; McSorley, Emeir M.; Strain, J. J.; O’Brien, Gerard M.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6–8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction <0.0001). The results indicate that the SFP in Malawi is associated with an improvement in reversal learning and catch-up growth in lean muscle mass in children in the SFP school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children. PMID:23803471

  3. Early-stage primary school children attending a school in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) have better reversal learning and lean muscle mass growth than those attending a non-SFP school.

    PubMed

    Nkhoma, Owen W W; Duffy, Maresa E; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Davidson, Philip W; McSorley, Emeir M; Strain, J J; O'Brien, Gerard M

    2013-08-01

    In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6-8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction <0.0001). The results indicate that the SFP in Malawi is associated with an improvement in reversal learning and catch-up growth in lean muscle mass in children in the SFP school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children. PMID:23803471

  4. Management of Early Stage, High-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma: Preoperative and Surgical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Gaetan

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed world. Most cases are diagnosed at an early stage and have low-grade histology, portending an overall excellent prognosis. There exists a subgroup of patients with early, high-risk disease, whose management remains controversial, as current data is clouded by inclusion of early stage tumors with different high-risk features for recurrence, unstandardized protocols for surgical staging, and an evolving staging system by which we are grouping these patients. Here, we present preoperative and intraoperative considerations that should be taken into account when planning surgical management for this population of patients. PMID:23878545

  5. Stigma in families of individuals in early stages of psychotic illness: family stigma and early psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Celine; Davidson, Larry; Anglin, Deirdre; Link, Bruce; Gerson, Ruth; Malaspina, Dolores; McGlashan, Thomas; Corcoran, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Aim Stigma is pervasive among families of individuals with psychotic disorders and includes both general and ‘associative’ stigma – that is, the process by which a person is stigmatized by virtue of association with another stigmatized individual. These forms of stigma may present a barrier to help seeking. However, little is known about stigma in the early stages of evolving psychotic disorder. Methods Family members of 11 individuals at clinical high risk and of nine patients with recent-onset psychosis were evaluated for generalized and associative stigma using the Opinions about Mental Illness (modified) and the Family Experiences Interview Schedule. Results In this small study, the level of stigma was low, as families endorsed many supportive statements, for example, patients should be encouraged to vote, patients want to work, mental illness should be protected legally as a disability and parity should exist in insurance coverage. Families also endorsed that both talking and a belief in God and prayer can help someone get better. Only ethnic minority families of individuals with recent-onset psychosis endorsed a sense of shame and need to conceal the patient's illness. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that family stigma is low in the early stages of psychotic disorder, a finding that requires further investigation in a larger and more representative sample. This may be an opportune time to engage young people and families, so as to reduce duration of untreated illness. Ethnic differences in stigma, if replicated, highlight the need for cultural sensitivity in engaging individuals and their families in treatment. PMID:19777087

  6. Defective skeletogenesis and oversized otoliths in fish early stages in a changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Marta S; Faleiro, Filipa; Dionísio, Gisela; Repolho, Tiago; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Machado, Jorge; Rosa, Rui

    2014-06-15

    Early life stages of many marine organisms are being challenged by rising seawater temperature and CO₂ concentrations, but their physiological responses to these environmental changes still remain unclear. In the present study, we show that future predictions of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (ΔpH=0.5 units) may compromise the development of early life stages of a highly commercial teleost fish, Solea senegalensis. Exposure to future conditions caused a decline in hatching success and larval survival. Growth, metabolic rates and thermal tolerance increased with temperature but decreased under acidified conditions. Hypercapnia and warming amplified the incidence of deformities by 31.5% (including severe deformities such as lordosis, scoliosis and kyphosis), while promoting the occurrence of oversized otoliths (109.3% increase). Smaller larvae with greater skeletal deformities and larger otoliths may face major ecophysiological challenges, which might potentiate substantial declines in adult fish populations, putting in jeopardy the species' fitness under a changing ocean. PMID:24625652

  7. Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. PMID:20161971

  8. Effects of marine toxins on the reproduction and early stages development of aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. PMID:20161971

  9. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  10. EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST WITH TIDEWATER SILVERSIDES (MENIDIA PENINSULAE) AND CHLORINE-PRODUCED OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early life-stage toxicity tests (continuous exposure from embryonic stage to approximately three weeks or more into the exogenous feeding stage) with North American marine fishes have been conducted almost exclusively with cyprinodontids. In this paper, the authors present method...

  11. Effects of Mixture of Pharmaceuticals on Early Life Stages of Tench (Tinca tinca)

    PubMed Central

    Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 μg·L−1 for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 μg·L−1). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 μg·L−1) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench. PMID:24772417

  12. Effects of hydrazine and other toxicants on early life stages of California brown algae

    SciTech Connect

    James, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Toxicity of hydrazine to early life stages of several species of California brown algae was demonstrated to occur at environmentally relevant concentrations. Effects of hydrazine on benthic organisms had not been previously studied. A reliable bioassay technique was developed using digital image analysis to measure vegetative growth inhibition of brown algal gametophytes. Hydrazine toxicity threshold of Macrocystis pyrifera gametophytes was almost constant in 10 96-hour experiments, ranging from 3-5 ppb. Differences in resistance to short-term hydrazine exposures were observed among three algal families of the order Laminariales. Hydrazine autoxidation rates varied by an order of magnitude in seawater sampled from different locations. Rates showed strong temperature dependence. Autoxidation at 10{degree}C and below was must slower and indicated a higher activation energy than autoxidation at 20{degree}C and above.

  13. Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

    2011-01-01

    Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. PMID:22044898

  14. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  15. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF HIERARCHICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hierarchical methods are often used in the conceptual stages of process design to synthesize and evaluate process alternatives. In this work, the methods of hierarchical process design will be focused on environmental aspects. In particular, the design methods will be coupled to ...

  16. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  17. Roles for Transforming Growth Factor Beta Superfamily Proteins in Early Folliculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Trombly, Daniel J.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Mayo, Kelly E.

    2010-01-01

    Primordial follicle formation and the subsequent transition of follicles to the primary and secondary stages encompass the early events during folliculogenesis in mammals. These processes establish the ovarian follicle pool and prime follicles for entry into subsequent growth phases during the reproductive cycle. Perturbations during follicle formation can affect the size of the primordial follicle pool significantly, and alterations in follicle transition can cause follicles to arrest at immature stages or result in premature depletion of the follicle reserve. Determining the molecular events that regulate primordial follicle formation and early follicle growth may lead to the development of new fertility treatments. Over the last decade, many of the growth factors and signaling proteins that mediate the early stages of folliculogenesis have been identified using mouse genetic models, in vivo injection studies, and ex vivo organ culture approaches. These studies reveal important roles for the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins in the ovary. This article reviews these roles for TGF-β family proteins and focuses in particular on work from our laboratories on the functions of activin in early folliculogenesis. PMID:19197801

  18. Roles for transforming growth factor beta superfamily proteins in early folliculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Trombly, Daniel J; Woodruff, Teresa K; Mayo, Kelly E

    2009-01-01

    Primordial follicle formation and the subsequent transition of follicles to the primary and secondary stages encompass the early events during folliculogenesis in mammals. These processes establish the ovarian follicle pool and prime follicles for entry into subsequent growth phases during the reproductive cycle. Perturbations during follicle formation can affect the size of the primordial follicle pool significantly, and alterations in follicle transition can cause follicles to arrest at immature stages or result in premature depletion of the follicle reserve. Determining the molecular events that regulate primordial follicle formation and early follicle growth may lead to the development of new fertility treatments. Over the last decade, many of the growth factors and signaling proteins that mediate the early stages of folliculogenesis have been identified using mouse genetic models, in vivo injection studies, and ex vivo organ culture approaches. These studies reveal important roles for the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of proteins in the ovary. This article reviews these roles for TGF-beta family proteins and focuses in particular on work from our laboratories on the functions of activin in early folliculogenesis. PMID:19197801

  19. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Šev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L?1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250??g?L?1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15??g?L?1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50??g?L?1 died soon after hatching; at 25??g?L?1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5??g?L?1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  20. Early stages of composite formation by oxidation of liquid aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Salas, O.; Jayaram, V.; Vlach, K.C.; Levi, C.G.; Mehrabian, R.

    1995-03-01

    Microstructure evolution during the early stages in the directed oxidation of molten Al-Mg and Al-Mg-Si alloys led to provide needed insight into the origins of the incubation period and its practical elimination by SiO{sub 2} additions. Oxidation experiments were performed primarily in thermogravimetric balances and microstructures were analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Continuous heating above the alloy liquidus produces first a thin MgO layer and then a brief rapid growth of a spinel + metal mixture within a temperature range which depends on the alloy Mg content and the heating rate. The initial rapid oxidation terminates abruptly with the formation of a dense spinel layer at the surface, leading to a long incubation period of negligible weight gain. The surface MgO regenerates in this regime, while the metal channels slowly advance upward by dissolution of the dense spinel, eventually reaching the MgO and inducing the formation of composite nodules. These consist initially of spinel + metal upon which the conventional Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + metal growth starts after the Mg in the near-surface alloy is depleted to a critical level. SiO{sub 2} surface additions promote composite nucleation by locally hindering surface passivation, acting as an O source for continued spinel growth, and modifying the local chemistry to facilitate the formation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  1. Swimming speed alteration in the early developmental stages of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin as ecotoxicological endpoint.

    PubMed

    Morgana, Silvia; Gambardella, Chiara; Falugi, Carla; Pronzato, Roberto; Garaventa, Francesca; Faimali, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral endpoints have been used for decades to assess chemical impacts at concentrations unlikely to cause mortality. With recently developed techniques, it is possible to investigate the swimming behavior of several organisms under laboratory conditions. The aims of this study were: i) assessing for the first time the feasibility of swimming speed analysis of the early developmental stage sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by an automatic recording system ii) investigating any Swimming Speed Alteration (SSA) on P. lividus early stages exposed to a chemical reference; iii) identifying the most suitable stage for SSA test. Results show that the swimming speed of all the developmental stages was easily recorded. The swimming speed was inhibited as a function of toxicant concentration. Pluteus were the most appropriate stage for evaluating SSA in P. lividus as ecotoxicological endpoint. Finally, swimming of sea urchin early stages represents a sensitive endpoint to be considered in ecotoxicological investigations. PMID:26826671

  2. Early-stage biotech companies: strategies for survival and growth.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wendy; Erickson, Stanford

    2006-06-01

    The promise of start-up biotechnology companies is enormous. So are the risks and the uncertainty of product development. The authors present a checklist for young biotech companies, covering environmental factors, alliances, and strategic planning. PMID:23424362

  3. Early-Stage Biotech Companies: Strategies for Survival and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wendy; Erickson, Stanford

    2006-01-01

    The promise of start-up biotechnology companies is enormous. So are the risks and the uncertainty of product development. The authors present a checklist for young biotech companies, covering environmental factors, alliances, and strategic planning. PMID:23424362

  4. ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

  5. Basque Schools in Navarre: The Early Stages, 1931-1936

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Goni, Irene

    2005-01-01

    The Basque School, as well as a type of school, is an educational phenomenon that emerged and underwent most of its development during the twentieth century. Some initial confusion existed between the terms "Basque school," "bilingual school" and "ikastola," due to the undefined nature of the Basque model of schooling during this early period.…

  6. Early Years Foundation Stage: How Much Does It Count?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The final report of the Williams committee (DCSF, 2008: 68) argues that the revised mathematics Framework (DfES, 2006) "should be reconsidered to achieve a more suitable, user-friendly form." It might also have added that there is not much help and support in it for early years teachers. A much more useful document is the "Practice guidance for…

  7. ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

  8. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in early stage Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tubiana, M.; Henry-Amar, M.; van der Werf-Messing, B.; Henry, J.; Abbatucci, J.; Burgers, M.; Hayat, M.; Somers, R.; Laugier, A.; Carde, P.

    1985-01-01

    A multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors was carried out with a Cox model on 1,139 patients with clinical Stage I + II Hodgkin's disease included in three controlled clinical trials. The following indicators had been prospectively registered: aged, sex, systemic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation, results of staging laparotomy when performed, as well as the date and type of treatment. A linear logistic analysis showed that most of the indicators are interrelated. This emphasizes the necessity of a multivariate analysis in order to assess the independent influence of each of them. The two main prognostic indicators for relapse-free survival are systemic symptoms and/or ESR and number of involved areas. The only significant factor for survival after relapse is age. Sex has a small but significant influence on relapse-free survival. The relative influence of each indicator varies with the type of treatment and these variations may help in understanding the biologic significance of the indicators.

  9. CMB quadrupole suppression. II. The early fast roll stage

    SciTech Connect

    Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H. J. de; Sanchez, N. G.

    2006-12-15

    Within the effective field theory of inflation, an initialization of the classical dynamics of the inflaton with approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energy of the inflaton leads to a brief fast roll stage that precedes the slow roll regime. The fast roll stage leads to an attractive potential in the wave equations for the mode functions of curvature and tensor perturbations. The evolution of the inflationary perturbations is equivalent to the scattering by this potential and a useful dictionary between the scattering data and observables is established. Implementing methods from scattering theory we prove that this attractive potential leads to a suppression of the quadrupole moment for CMB and B-mode angular power spectra. The scale of the potential is determined by the Hubble parameter during slow roll. Within the effective field theory of inflation at the grand unification (GUT) energy scale we find that if inflation lasts a total number of e-folds N{sub tot}{approx}59, there is a 10%-20% suppression of the CMB quadrupole and about 2%-4% suppression of the tensor quadrupole. The suppression of higher multipoles is smaller, falling off as 1/l{sup 2}. The suppression is much smaller for N{sub tot}>59, therefore if the observable suppression originates in the fast roll stage, there is the upper bound N{sub tot}{approx}59.

  10. Radiotherapy Alone for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx and Hypopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, Robert L.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To describe and illustrate examples of early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Review of the NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines. Representative examples are included. Results: Early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer is defined by tumor extent based on physical and imaging examination. Conclusions: Radiotherapy alone is appropriate treatment for properly selected early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. The NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines can be an aid to the clinician in identifying favorable cancers that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone with preservation of organ function.

  11. Resting no more: re-defining telogen, the maintenance stage of the hair growth cycle.

    PubMed

    Geyfman, Mikhail; Plikus, Maksim V; Treffeisen, Elsa; Andersen, Bogi; Paus, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    The hair follicle (HF) represents a prototypic ectodermal-mesodermal interaction system in which central questions of modern biology can be studied. A unique feature of these stem-cell-rich mini-organs is that they undergo life-long, cyclic transformations between stages of active regeneration (anagen), apoptotic involution (catagen), and relative proliferative quiescence (telogen). Due to the low proliferation rate and small size of the HF during telogen, this stage was conventionally thought of as a stage of dormancy. However, multiple lines of newly emerging evidence show that HFs during telogen are anything but dormant. Here, we emphasize that telogen is a highly energy-efficient default state of the mammalian coat, whose function centres around maintenance of the hair fibre and prompt responses to its loss. While actively retaining hair fibres with minimal energy expenditure, telogen HFs can launch a new regeneration cycle in response to a variety of stimuli originating in their autonomous micro-environment (including its stem cell niche) as well as in their external tissue macro-environment. Regenerative responses of telogen HFs change as a function of time and can be divided into two sub-stages: early 'refractory' and late 'competent' telogen. These changing activities are reflected in hundreds of dynamically regulated genes in telogen skin, possibly aimed at establishing a fast response-signalling environment to trauma and other disturbances of skin homeostasis. Furthermore, telogen is an interpreter of circadian output in the timing of anagen initiation and the key stage during which the subsequent organ regeneration (anagen) is actively prepared by suppressing molecular brakes on hair growth while activating pro-regenerative signals. Thus, telogen may serve as an excellent model system for dissecting signalling and cellular interactions that precede the active 'regenerative mode' of tissue remodeling. This revised understanding of telogen biology also points to intriguing new therapeutic avenues in the management of common human hair growth disorders. PMID:25410793

  12. Genome-Wide Study of the Adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the Early Stages of Wine Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Novo, Maite; Mangado, Ana; Quirós, Manuel; Morales, Pilar; Salvadó, Zoel; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    This work was designed to identify yeast cellular functions specifically affected by the stress factors predominating during the early stages of wine fermentation, and genes required for optimal growth under these conditions. The main experimental method was quantitative fitness analysis by means of competition experiments in continuous culture of whole genome barcoded yeast knockout collections. This methodology allowed the identification of haploinsufficient genes, and homozygous deletions resulting in growth impairment in synthetic must. However, genes identified as haploproficient, or homozygous deletions resulting in fitness advantage, were of little predictive power concerning optimal growth in this medium. The relevance of these functions for enological performance of yeast was assessed in batch cultures with single strains. Previous studies addressing yeast adaptation to winemaking conditions by quantitative fitness analysis were not specifically focused on the proliferative stages. In some instances our results highlight the importance of genes not previously linked to winemaking. In other cases they are complementary to those reported in previous studies concerning, for example, the relevance of some genes involved in vacuolar, peroxisomal, or ribosomal functions. Our results indicate that adaptation to the quickly changing growth conditions during grape must fermentation require the function of different gene sets in different moments of the process. Transport processes and glucose signaling seem to be negatively affected by the stress factors encountered by yeast in synthetic must. Vacuolar activity is important for continued growth during the transition to stationary phase. Finally, reduced biogenesis of peroxisomes also seems to be advantageous. However, in contrast to what was described for later stages, reduced protein synthesis is not advantageous for the early (proliferative) stages of the fermentation process. Finally, we found adenine and lysine to be in short supply for yeast growth in some natural grape musts. PMID:24040173

  13. Genome-wide study of the adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the early stages of wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Novo, Maite; Mangado, Ana; Quirós, Manuel; Morales, Pilar; Salvadó, Zoel; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    This work was designed to identify yeast cellular functions specifically affected by the stress factors predominating during the early stages of wine fermentation, and genes required for optimal growth under these conditions. The main experimental method was quantitative fitness analysis by means of competition experiments in continuous culture of whole genome barcoded yeast knockout collections. This methodology allowed the identification of haploinsufficient genes, and homozygous deletions resulting in growth impairment in synthetic must. However, genes identified as haploproficient, or homozygous deletions resulting in fitness advantage, were of little predictive power concerning optimal growth in this medium. The relevance of these functions for enological performance of yeast was assessed in batch cultures with single strains. Previous studies addressing yeast adaptation to winemaking conditions by quantitative fitness analysis were not specifically focused on the proliferative stages. In some instances our results highlight the importance of genes not previously linked to winemaking. In other cases they are complementary to those reported in previous studies concerning, for example, the relevance of some genes involved in vacuolar, peroxisomal, or ribosomal functions. Our results indicate that adaptation to the quickly changing growth conditions during grape must fermentation require the function of different gene sets in different moments of the process. Transport processes and glucose signaling seem to be negatively affected by the stress factors encountered by yeast in synthetic must. Vacuolar activity is important for continued growth during the transition to stationary phase. Finally, reduced biogenesis of peroxisomes also seems to be advantageous. However, in contrast to what was described for later stages, reduced protein synthesis is not advantageous for the early (proliferative) stages of the fermentation process. Finally, we found adenine and lysine to be in short supply for yeast growth in some natural grape musts. PMID:24040173

  14. Planet formation - Mechanism of early growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments in vacuum (approx. 0.5 to 1 mbar) and in air quantify mechanics of collisions, rebound, and fragmentation at low velocities (1-50 m/sec), under the conditions usually postulated for the preplanetary environment in the primitive solar nebula. Such collisions have been little studied experimentally. Contrary to widespread assumptions, accretionary growth of the largest meteoroid- and asteroid-sized bodies in a given swarm results spontaneously from the simple mechanics of these collisions, without other ad hoc sticking mechanisms. The smaller bodies in the swarm are less likely to grow. Granular surfaces form, either by gravitational collapse of dust swarms or by rapid formation of regolith surfaces on solid planetesimals; these surfaces strongly promote further growth by retarding rebound. Growth of large bodies increases modal collision velocities, causing fragmentation of smaller bodies and eventual production of interstellar dust as a by-product of planetesimal interactions.

  15. Early life stage toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, T.R.; Hornung, M.W.; Abnet, C.C.; Peterson, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    TCDD and related compounds cause toxicity in fish early life stages, characterized by edema, regional ischemia, craniofacial malformations, growth retardation and mortality. Determining the mechanism of these effects requires understanding normal early life stage development, which has been studied extensively in the zebrafish. Establishing zebrafish as a model for TCDD developmental toxicity requires demonstration that TCDD adversely affects zebrafish early life stages. Toxicity of TCDD to zebrafish early life stages was characterized by exposing newly fertilized eggs for 1 hr to water containing acetone or graded concentrations of [{sup 3}H]-TCDD and observed for signs of toxicity at 12 hr intervals for 240 hr post fertilization (hpf). TCDD did not increase embryo mortality during the egg stage (0--48 hpf) nor did it affect the time to hatching (48--96 hpf). At the highest TCDD egg doses (4.5--6.5 ng/g) the earliest sign of toxicity was pericardial edema (72 hpf) followed by the onset of yolk sac edema (96 hpf) onset of mortality (132 hpf). At lower egg doses the same effects were seen but after a longer delay period. Other signs of toxicity included craniofacial malformations, cranial edema and loss of swimming activity prior to death. To determine the dose-response relationship for pericardial and yolk sac edema and larval mortality the cumulative incidence of each effect was determined at 240 hpf. The ED{sub 50}s (95% fiducial limits) for pericardial edema and yolk sac edema were 2.1 6 (1.82--2.48) and 2.43 (2.12--2.72) ng TCDD/g egg, respectively. The LD{sub 50} was 2.45 (1.94--2.89) ng TCDD/g egg. In conclusion, the signs of TCDD early life stage toxicity in zebrafish are essentially identical to those in other fish species, however, larger egg doses of TCDD are required to elicit the effects.

  16. Tree Growth Stage and Environment after Pathogen Inoculation Alters Susceptibility of Pear Trees to Phytophthora Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated whether growth stage of pear (Pyrus communis) tree rootstock and environment after inoculation with Phytophthora syringae influences tree susceptibility to infection. Trees at different stages of dormancy development were inoculated with the pathogen and maintained in different condi...

  17. Studying Children's Early Literacy Development: Confirmatory Multidimensional Scaling Growth Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    There has been considerable debate over the ways in which children's early literacy skills develop over time. Using confirmatory multidimensional scaling (MDS) growth analysis, this paper directly tested the hypothesis of a cumulative trajectory versus a compensatory trajectory of development in early literacy skills among a group of 1233…

  18. Growth trajectory during early life and risk of adult schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Megan A.; Chen, Henian; Sandberg, David E.; Malaspina, Dolores; Brown, Alan S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Growth abnormalities have been suggested as a precursor to schizophrenia, but previous studies have not assessed growth patterns using repeated measures. Aims To assess the association between early life/later childhood growth patterns and risk of schizophrenia. Methods Using prospectively collected data from a birth cohort (born 1959–1967), measurements of height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were analysed to compare growth patterns during early life and later childhood between 70 individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SSD) and 7710 without. Results For women, growth in the SSD group was approximately 1 cm/year slower during early life (P<0.01); no association was observed for men. Later childhood growth was not associated with SSD.Weight patterns were not associated with SSD, whereas slower change in BMI was observed among the SSD group during later childhood. Conclusions The association between slower growth in early life and schizophrenia in women suggests that factors responsible for regulating growth might be important in the pathogenesis of the disorder. PMID:18055955

  19. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  20. Formal Verification Toolkit for Requirements and Early Design Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, Julia M.; Miller, Sheena Judson

    2011-01-01

    Efficient flight software development from natural language requirements needs an effective way to test designs earlier in the software design cycle. A method to automatically derive logical safety constraints and the design state space from natural language requirements is described. The constraints can then be checked using a logical consistency checker and also be used in a symbolic model checker to verify the early design of the system. This method was used to verify a hybrid control design for the suit ports on NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Exploration Vehicle against safety requirements.

  1. INTRALABORATORY COMPARISON OF THE EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST USING THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interlaboratory precision of the ASTM early life-stage toxicity test with the sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus) as investigated at five contract and two EPA laboratories using endosulfan nd pentachlorobenzene. ach laboratory conducted two tests with each hemical. ests ...

  2. Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a clinical trial.

  3. New NIA Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... you have a family member or friends with Alzheimer's disease? Are you wondering what they're going through ...

  4. Modeling bacterial attachment to surfaces as an early stage of biofilm development.

    PubMed

    El Moustaid, Fadoua; Eladdadi, Amina; Uys, Lafras

    2013-06-01

    Biofilms are present in all natural, medical and industrial surroundings where bacteria live. Biofilm formation is a key factor in the growth and transport of both beneficial and harmful bacteria. While much is known about the later stages of biofilm formation, less is known about its initiation which is an important first step in the biofilm formation. In this paper, we develop a non-linear system of partial differential equations of Keller-Segel type model in one-dimensional space, which couples the dynamics of bacterial movement to that of the sensing molecules. In this case, bacteria perform a biased random walk towards the sensing molecules. We derive the boundary conditions of the adhesion of bacteria to a surface using zero-Dirichlet boundary conditions, while the equation describing sensing molecules at the interface needed particular conditions to be set. The numerical results show the profile of bacteria within the space and the time evolution of the density within the free-space and on the surface. Testing different parameter values indicate that significant amount of sensing molecules present on the surface leads to a faster bacterial movement toward the surface which is the first step of biofilm initiation. Our work gives rise to results that agree with the biological description of the early stages of biofilm formation. PMID:23906151

  5. Phytoplankton dynamics in contrasting early stage North Atlantic spring blooms: composition, succession, and potential drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, C. J.; Poulton, A. J.; Esposito, M.; Paulsen, M. L.; Bellerby, R.; St John, M.; Martin, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    The spring bloom is a key annual event in the phenology of pelagic ecosystems, making a major contribution to the oceanic biological carbon pump through the production and export of organic carbon. However, there is little consensus as to the main drivers of spring bloom formation, exacerbated by a lack of in situ observations of the phytoplankton community composition and its evolution during this critical period. We investigated the dynamics of the phytoplankton community structure at two contrasting sites in the Iceland and Norwegian basins during the early stage (25 March-25 April) of the 2012 North Atlantic spring bloom. The plankton composition and characteristics of the initial stages of the bloom were markedly different between the two basins. The Iceland Basin (ICB) appeared well mixed down to >400 m, yet surface chlorophyll a (0.27-2.2 mg m-3) and primary production (0.06-0.66 mmol C m-3 d-1) were elevated in the upper 100 m. Although the Norwegian Basin (NWB) had a persistently shallower mixed layer (<100 m), chlorophyll a (0.58-0.93 mg m-3) and primary production (0.08-0.15 mmol C m-3 d-1) remained lower than in the ICB, with picoplankton (<2 μm) dominating chlorophyll a biomass. The ICB phytoplankton composition appeared primarily driven by the physicochemical environment, with periodic events of increased mixing restricting further increases in biomass. In contrast, the NWB phytoplankton community was potentially limited by physicochemical and/or biological factors such as grazing. Diatoms dominated the ICB, with the genus Chaetoceros (1-166 cells mL-1) being succeeded by Pseudo-nitzschia (0.2-210 cells mL-1). However, large diatoms (>10 μm) were virtually absent (<0.5 cells mL-1) from the NWB, with only small nano-sized (<5 μm) diatoms (i.e. Minidiscus spp.) present (101-600 cells mL-1). We suggest microzooplankton grazing, potentially coupled with the lack of a seed population of bloom-forming diatoms, was restricting diatom growth in the NWB, and that large diatoms may be absent in NWB spring blooms. Despite both phytoplankton communities being in the early stages of bloom formation, different physicochemical and biological factors controlled bloom formation at the two sites. If these differences in phytoplankton composition persist, the subsequent spring blooms are likely to be significantly different in terms of biogeochemistry and trophic interactions throughout the growth season, with important implications for carbon cycling and organic matter export.

  6. Phytoplankton dynamics in contrasting early stage North Atlantic spring blooms: composition, succession, and potential drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, C. J.; Poulton, A. J.; Esposito, M.; Paulsen, M. L.; Bellerby, R.; St. John, M.; Martin, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    The spring bloom is a key annual event in the phenology of pelagic ecosystems, making a major contribution to the oceanic biological carbon pump through the production and export of organic carbon. However, there is little consensus as to the main drivers of spring bloom formation, exacerbated by a lack of in situ observations of the phytoplankton community composition and its evolution during this critical period. We investigated the dynamics of the phytoplankton community structure at two contrasting sites in the Iceland and Norwegian Basins during the early stage (25 March-25 April) of the 2012 North Atlantic spring bloom. The plankton composition and characteristics of the initial stages of the bloom were markedly different between the two basins. The Iceland Basin (ICB) appeared well mixed to > 400 m, yet surface chlorophyll a (0.27-2.2 mg m-3) and primary production (0.06-0.66 mmol C m-3 d-1) were elevated in the upper 100 m. Although the Norwegian Basin (NWB) had a persistently shallower mixed layer (< 100 m), chlorophyll a (0.58-0.93 mg m-3) and primary production (0.08-0.15 mmol C m-3 d-1) remained lower than in the ICB, with picoplankton (> 2 μm) dominating chlorophyll a biomass. The ICB phytoplankton composition appeared primarily driven by the physicochemical environment, with periodic events of increased mixing restricting further increases in biomass. In contrast, the NWB phytoplankton community was potentially limited by physicochemical and/or biological factors such as grazing. Diatoms dominated the ICB, with the genus Chaetoceros (1-166 cells mL-1) being succeeded by Pseudo-nitzschia (0.2-210 cells mL-1). However, large diatoms (> 10 μm) were virtually absent (< 0.5 cells mL-1) from the NWB, with only small nanno-sized (< 5 μm) diatoms present (101-600 cells mL-1). We suggest micro-zooplankton grazing, potentially coupled with the lack of a seed population of bloom forming diatoms, was restricting diatom growth in the NWB, and that large diatoms may be absent in NWB spring blooms. Despite both phytoplankton communities being in the early stages of bloom formation, different physicochemical and biological factors controlled bloom formation at the two sites. If these differences in phytoplankton composition persist, the subsequent spring blooms are likely to be significantly different in terms of biogeochemistry and trophic interactions throughout the growth season, with important implications for carbon cycling and organic matter export.

  7. Alternatives to surgery in early stage disease—stereotactic body radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Meredith Elana

    2013-01-01

    The management of early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) has been revolutionized by the introduction of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). SBRT is now the standard of care for medically inoperable patients with early stage NSCLC. However, the role of SBRT in medically operable patients remains controversial. This article will review the indications, the technical considerations, image guidance principles, potential toxicities and special circumstances in lung SBRT. PMID:25806252

  8. Microbial Diversity within Early-Stage Cultured Panulirus ornatus Phyllosomas▿

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Matthew S.; Hall, Mike R.; Sly, Lindsay; Bourne, David G.

    2007-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the microorganisms and pathogens associated with the larval stage of the tropical ornate rock lobster, Panulirus ornatus, is required to overcome disease outbreaks that currently block aquaculture attempts. This study used microscopy in addition to culture and molecularly based microbiological techniques to characterize the bacterial community associated with cultured, developmental stage PI to PII P. ornatus phyllosomas. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated colonization of phyllosomas by filamentous, rod-shaped, and coccus-shaped bacteria. A clone library constructed from dead phyllosomas sampled from the larval rearing tank on day 10 was dominated by Thiothrix-affiliated sequences (56% of clones). A comparable library from live phyllosomas also contained Thiothrix-affiliated sequences, though these only represented 19% of clones within the library. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed identification of the filamentous bacteria as Thiothrix sp., being present on dead phyllosomas. FISH also identified Leucothrix sp. and Vibrio sp., as well as a range of other rod- and coccus-shaped bacteria, colonizing both live and dead phyllosomas. The development of the microbial community associated with phyllosomas was monitored through a standard larval rearing run using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Vibrio sp.-affiliated bands dominated the profiles of live animals through the rearing period and dead phyllosomas sampled on selected days. The population of Vibrio sp. associated with phyllosomas was monitored with culture-based analysis on selective media and demonstrated to increase significantly on day 7, coinciding with the beginning of the larval molt. An isolated Vibrio harveyi strain demonstrated an identical 16S rRNA sequence with retrieved DGGE and clone library sequences. Colonization of phyllosomas with filamentous bacterial species potentially hinders the ability of the animals to molt and, combined with the added stress of the molt process, likely results in reduced immune function, allowing opportunistic pathogenic Vibrio sp. to cause larval mortalities. PMID:17220250

  9. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  10. Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazeau, F.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Dawber, C.; Pronker, A. E.; Peene, F.; Peene, J.; Heip, C. H. R.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2010-04-01

    Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease of pH to a level expected for the end of the century. Even though there was no significant effect of a 0.25-0.34 pH unit decrease on hatching and mortality rates during the first 2 days of development nor during the following 13-day period prior to settlement, final shells were, respectively, 4.5±1.3 and 6.0±2.3% smaller at pHNBS~7.8 than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1. Moreover, a decrease of 12.0±5.4% of shell thickness was observed. More severe impacts were found with a decrease of ~0.5 pHNBS unit during the first 2 days of development which could be attributed to a decrease of calcification due toslight undersaturation of seawater with respect to aragonite. Indeed, important effects on both hatching and D-veliger shell growth were found. Hatching rates were 24±4% lower while D-veliger shells were 12.7±0.9% smaller at pHNBS~7.6 than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1. Although these results show that blue mussel larvae are still able to develop a shell in seawater undersaturated with respect to aragonite, decreases of hatching rates and shell growth suggest a negative impact of ocean acidification on the future survival of bivalve populations potentially leading to significant ecological and economical losses.

  11. Evaluation for Early Life Stage Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium from a Contaminated Groundwater Source

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2007-09-01

    We conducted a laboratory evaluation to assess the risk to early life stage (i.e., eyed egg to swim up) fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for exposure to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source. Local populations of fall Chinook salmon were exposed to Hanford Site source groundwater that was diluted with Columbia River water. Specific endpoints included survival, development rate, and growth. Tissue burdens of fish were also measured to estimate uptake and elimination rates of chromium. Survival, development, and growth of early life stage fall Chinook salmon were not adversely affected by extended exposures (i.e., 98 day) to hexavalent chromium ranging from 0.79 to 260 ?g/L. Survival for all treatment levels and controls exceeded 98% at termination of the test. In addition, there were no differences among the mean lengths and weights of fish among all treatment groups. Whole-body concentrations of chromium in early life stage fall Chinook salmon had a typical dose-response pattern; i.e., those subjected to highest exposure concentrations and longest exposure intervals had higher tissue concentrations. Given the spatial extent of chromium concentrations at the Hanford Site, and the dynamics of the groundwater - river water interface, the current cleanup criterion of 10 µg/L chromium appear adequate to protect fall Chinook salmon populations.

  12. A novel passive dosing system for determining the toxicity of phenanthrene to early life stages of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Butler, Josh D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Letinski, Daniel J; Bragin, Gail E; Lampi, Mark A; Cooper, Keith R

    2013-10-01

    Reliable experimental early life stage chronic toxicity data for fish are limited and further data are needed for polyaromatic hydrocarbons to establish environmental quality objectives and compare with toxicity model predictions. Efforts are underway to develop a zebrafish embryo toxicity test guideline to reduce, refine and replace the use of vertebrates in animal testing. An adaptation of this method which includes embryo lethal and sub-lethal developmental endpoints after a 5-day exposure as well as larval survival and growth endpoints during a subsequent 25-day test period is described using phenanthrene as a model test substance. To deliver well controlled exposure concentrations, a passive dosing system consisting of silicone coated vials and silicone O-rings was employed. Acute results indicated that edema and spinal curvature were the most sensitive sub-lethal effects observed and in many cases preceded observed mortality. The 30-day LC/EC10 for larval survival and growth was 40 and 67 ?g/L respectively. Concentrations shown to cause adverse effects in this study are in the range of previous studies that have investigated the chronic effects of phenanthrene on fish. Further, results indicate that predicted water quality objectives for phenanthrene derived using the target lipid model are protective of early life stage effects on zebrafish. Based on these results the predicted water quality objectives for phenanthrene derived using the target lipid model (10 ?g/L) would be protective of early life stage effects on zebrafish. PMID:23872248

  13. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  14. Autophagy Negatively Regulates Early Axon Growth in Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Byung-Kwan; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jang, Deok-Jin; Ahmad, S. Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Neurite growth requires neurite extension and retraction, which are associated with protein degradation. Autophagy is a conserved bulk degradation pathway that regulates several cellular processes. However, little is known about autophagic regulation during early neurite growth. In this study, we investigated whether autophagy was involved in early neurite growth and how it regulated neurite growth in primary cortical neurons. Components of autophagy were expressed and autophagy was activated during early neurite growth. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy by atg7 small interfering RNA (siRNA) caused elongation of axons, while activation of autophagy by rapamycin suppressed axon growth. Surprisingly, inhibition of autophagy reduced the protein level of RhoA. Moreover, expression of RhoA suppressed axon overelongation mediated by autophagy inhibition, whereas inhibition of the RhoA signaling pathway by Y-27632 recovered rapamycin-mediated suppression of axon growth. Interestingly, hnRNP-Q1, which negatively regulates RhoA, accumulated in autophagy-deficient neurons, while its protein level was reduced by autophagy activation. Overall, our study suggests that autophagy negatively regulates axon extension via the RhoA-ROCK pathway by regulating hnRNP-Q1 in primary cortical neurons. Therefore, autophagy might serve as a fine-tuning mechanism to regulate early axon extension. PMID:23918799

  15. Effect of skeletal muscle fibers on porcine meat quality at different stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Zuo, J J; Yu, Q P; Zou, S G; Tan, H Z; Xiao, J; Liu, Y H; Feng, D Y

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined changes in meat quality and content of muscle types during porcine growth. The influence of the longissimus dorsi muscle fiber composition on meat quality and the correlation between 2 fiber-typing methods (histochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction) were examined. Type IIx and type IIb fibers accounted for most of the total number of fibers; the proportion of these fibers increased during porcine growth (75.42, 80.09, and 79.88%, respectively, at 3 different stages of growth). There was a strong positive correlation between the 2 fiber-typing methods; the correlation coefficients of type I, IIa, and IIx+IIb fiber contents were 0.65, 0.88, and 0.92, respectively. The a* value of meat color was significantly lower at 98 days and negatively correlated with white fiber content (r = -0.69, P < 0.01). Water-holding capacity decreased during porcine growth. The drip loss parameter was positively correlated with type IIx+IIb fiber content (r = 0.55, P < 0.05). Decreased pH was strongly positively correlated with type IIx+IIb fiber content (r = 0.61, P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with type IIa fiber content (r = -0.44, P < 0.05). Therefore, we found that the composition of muscle fibers influenced the establishment of meat quality and its alteration during the early postmortem period. PMID:26214468

  16. Familiarity and Emotional Expression Influence an Early Stage of Face Processing: An Electrophysiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caharel, Stephanie; Courtay, Nolwenn; Bernard, Christian; Lalonde, Robert; Rebai, Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Recent data indicate that the familiarity and the emotional expression of faces occur at an early stage of information processing. The goal of the present study was to determine whether these two aspects interact at the structural encoding stage as reflected by the N170 component of event-related potentials in tasks requiring the subjects either…

  17. Evolution of Network Biomarkers from Early to Late Stage Bladder Cancer Samples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We use a systems biology approach to construct protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) for early and late stage bladder cancer. By comparing the networks of these two stages, we find that both networks showed very significantly different mechanisms. To obtain the differential network structures between cancer and noncancer PPINs, we constructed cancer PPIN and noncancer PPIN network structures for the two bladder cancer stages using microarray data from cancer cells and their adjacent noncancer cells, respectively. With their carcinogenesis relevance values (CRVs), we identified 152 and 50 significant proteins and their PPI networks (network markers) for early and late stage bladder cancer by statistical assessment. To investigate the evolution of network biomarkers in the carcinogenesis process, primary pathway analysis showed that the significant pathways of early stage bladder cancer are related to ordinary cancer mechanisms, while the ribosome pathway and spliceosome pathway are most important for late stage bladder cancer. Their only intersection is the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathway in the whole stage of bladder cancer. The evolution of network biomarkers from early to late stage can reveal the carcinogenesis of bladder cancer. The findings in this study are new clues specific to this study and give us a direction for targeted cancer therapy, and it should be validated in vivo or in vitro in the future. PMID:25309904

  18. TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE GREEN SUNFISH (LEPOMIS CYANELLUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity of ammonia to early life stages of green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus was studied. One chronic and four acute exposure studies were conducted. During the chronic study green sunfish were exposed to a series of ammonia concentrations from the blastula stage through 40 days p...

  19. Early stage biomineralization in the periostracum of the 'living fossil' bivalve Neotrigonia.

    PubMed

    Checa, Antonio G; Salas, Carmen; Harper, Elizabeth M; Bueno-Pérez, Juan de Dios

    2014-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the shell formation of the palaeoheterodont 'living fossil' Neotrigonia concentrated on the timing and manufacture of the calcified 'bosses' which stud the outside of all trigonioid bivalves (extant and fossil) has been conducted. Electron microscopy and optical microscopy revealed that Neotrigonia spp. have a spiral-shaped periostracal groove. The periostracum itself is secreted by the basal cell, as a thin dark pellicle, becoming progressively transformed into a thin dark layer by additions of secretions from the internal outer mantle fold. Later, intense secretion of the internal surface of the outer mantle fold forms a translucent layer, which becomes transformed by tanning into a dark layer. The initiation of calcified bosses occurred at a very early stage of periostracum formation, deep within the periostracal groove immediately below the initialmost dark layer. At this stage, they consist of a series of polycyclically twinned crystals. The bosses grow as the periostracum traverse through the periostracal groove, in coordination with the thickening of the dark periostracal layer and until, upon reaching the mantle edge, they impinge upon each other and become transformed into large prisms separated by dark periostracal walls. In conclusion, the initial bosses and the external part of the prismatic layer are fully intraperiostracal. With later growth, the prisms transform into fibrous aggregates, although the details of the process are unknown. This reinforces the relationships with other groups that have the ability to form intraperiostracal calcifications, for example the unionoids with which the trigonioids form the clade Paleoheterodonta. The presence of similar structures in anomalodesmatans and other euheterodonts raises the question of whether this indicates a relationship or represents a convergence. The identification of very early calcification within an organic sheet has interesting implications for our understanding of how shells may have evolved. PMID:24587202

  20. Early Stage Biomineralization in the Periostracum of the ‘Living Fossil’ Bivalve Neotrigonia

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Antonio G.; Salas, Carmen; Harper, Elizabeth M.; Bueno-Pérez, Juan de Dios

    2014-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the shell formation of the palaeoheterodont ‘living fossil’ Neotrigonia concentrated on the timing and manufacture of the calcified ‘bosses’ which stud the outside of all trigonioid bivalves (extant and fossil) has been conducted. Electron microscopy and optical microscopy revealed that Neotrigonia spp. have a spiral-shaped periostracal groove. The periostracum itself is secreted by the basal cell, as a thin dark pellicle, becoming progressively transformed into a thin dark layer by additions of secretions from the internal outer mantle fold. Later, intense secretion of the internal surface of the outer mantle fold forms a translucent layer, which becomes transformed by tanning into a dark layer. The initiation of calcified bosses occurred at a very early stage of periostracum formation, deep within the periostracal groove immediately below the initialmost dark layer. At this stage, they consist of a series of polycyclically twinned crystals. The bosses grow as the periostracum traverse through the periostracal groove, in coordination with the thickening of the dark periostracal layer and until, upon reaching the mantle edge, they impinge upon each other and become transformed into large prisms separated by dark periostracal walls. In conclusion, the initial bosses and the external part of the prismatic layer are fully intraperiostracal. With later growth, the prisms transform into fibrous aggregates, although the details of the process are unknown. This reinforces the relationships with other groups that have the ability to form intraperiostracal calcifications, for example the unionoids with which the trigonioids form the clade Paleoheterodonta. The presence of similar structures in anomalodesmatans and other euheterodonts raises the question of whether this indicates a relationship or represents a convergence. The identification of very early calcification within an organic sheet has interesting implications for our understanding of how shells may have evolved. PMID:24587202

  1. Early stages of insulin fibrillogenesis examined with ion mobility mass spectrometry and molecular modelling.

    PubMed

    Cole, Harriet; Porrini, Massimiliano; Morris, Ryan; Smith, Tom; Kalapothakis, Jason; Weidt, Stefan; Mackay, C Logan; MacPhee, Cait E; Barran, Perdita E

    2015-10-21

    A prevalent type of protein misfolding causes the formation of ?-sheet-rich structures known as amyloid fibrils. Research into the mechanisms of fibril formation has implications for both disease prevention and nanoscale templating technologies. This investigation into the aggregation of insulin utilises ion mobility mass spectrometry coupled with molecular modelling to identify and characterise oligomers formed during the 'lag' phase that precedes fibril growth. High resolution mass spectrometry and collision induced dissociation is used to unequivocally assign species as m/z coincident multimers or confomers, providing a robust analytical approach that supports the use of molecular dynamics to atomistically resolve the observed oligomers. We show that insulin oligomerises to form species In where 2 ? n ? 12 and within this set of oligomers we delineate over 60 distinct conformations, the most dominant of which are compact species. Modelling trained with experimental data suggests that the dominant compact dimers are enriched in ?-sheet secondary structure and dominated by hydrophobic interactions, and provides a linear relationship between Rg and collision cross section. This approach provides detailed insight to the early stages of assembly of this much studied amyloidogenic protein, and can be used to inform models of nucleation and growth. PMID:26369607

  2. Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

    2011-07-01

    Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on the early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in the life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 μatm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 μatm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which consequently should lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival and could affect the ecosystem and fisheries. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

  3. Heterogeneous Directional Mobility in the Early Stages of Polymer Crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Lacevic, N; Fried, L E; Gee, R H

    2008-11-01

    Recently we demonstrated via large large-scale molecular dynamics simulations a 'coexistence period' in polymer melt ordering before crystallization, where nucleation and growth mechanisms coexist with a phase phase-separation mechanism. Here we present an extension of this work, where we analyze the directional displacements as a measure of the mobility of monomers as they order during crystallization over more than 100 ns of simulation time. It is found that the polymer melt, after quenching, rapidly separates into many ordered hexagonal domains separated by amorphous regions, where surprisingly, the magnitude of the monomer's displacement in the ordered state, parallel to the domain axial direction, is similar to its magnitude in the melt. T. The monomer he displacements in the domain's lateral direction are found to decrease during the time of the simulation. The ordered hexagonal domains do not align into uniform lamellar structures during the timescales of our simulations.

  4. A growth stage and heat unit model for Hedysarum Boreale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A system for staging sweetvetch (Hedysarum boreale Nutt. [Fabaceae]) through vegetative and reproductive plant development was developed that corresponds with a heat-unit or growing degree day (GDD) model. This system designates 14 finite stages, V1 through V6 (pre-flowering or vegetative), and R1 ...

  5. DETERMINATION OF SILICA IN RICE SEEDS USING GROWTH STAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rice hull, which contains highly silicified cells, may protect developing grain from damage by insects, such as rice stink bugs. The bugs mainly attack the plant from flowering (R4) through soft dough stage (R6). Higher silica content during these stages may increase resistance. To date most s...

  6. Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Embryo resorption is a major problem in human medicine, agricultural animal production and in conservation breeding programs. Underlying mechanisms have been investigated in the well characterised mouse model. However, post mortem studies are limited by the rapid disintegration of embryonic structures. A method to reliably identify embryo resorption in alive animals has not been established yet. In our study we aim to detect embryos undergoing resorption in vivo at the earliest possible stage by ultra-high frequency ultrasound. Methods In a longitudinal study, we monitored 30 pregnancies of wild type C57BI/6 mice using ultra-high frequency ultrasound (30-70 MHz), so called ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). We compared the sonoembryology of mouse conceptuses under spontaneous resorption and neighbouring healthy conceptuses and correlated the live ultrasound data with the respective histology. Results The process of embryo resorption comprised of four stages: first, the conceptus exhibited growth retardation, second, bradycardia and pericardial edema were observed, third, further development ceased and the embryo died, and finally embryo remnants were resorbed by maternal immune cells. In early gestation (day 7 and 8), growth retardation was characterized by a small embryonic cavity. The embryo and its membranes were ill defined or did not develop at all. The echodensity of the embryonic fluid increased and within one to two days, the embryo and its cavity disappeared and was transformed into echodense tissue surrounded by fluid filled caverns. In corresponding histologic preparations, fibrinoid material interspersed with maternal granulocytes and lacunae filled with maternal blood were observed. In later stages (day 9–11) resorption prone embryos were one day behind in their development compared to their normal siblings. The space between Reichert’s membrane and inner yolk sac membrane was enlarged The growth retarded embryos exhibited bradycardia and ultimately cessation of heart beat. Corresponding histology showed apoptotic cells in the embryo while the placenta was still intact. In the subsequent resorption process first the embryo and then its membranes disappeared. Conclusions Our results provide a temporal time course of embryo resorption. With this method, animals exhibiting embryo resorption can be targeted, enabling the investigation of underlying mechanisms before the onset of total embryo disintegration. PMID:24886361

  7. Prediction of invasion from the early stage of an epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Reche, Francisco J.; Neri, Franco M.; Taraskin, Sergei N.; Gilligan, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Predictability of undesired events is a question of great interest in many scientific disciplines including seismology, economy and epidemiology. Here, we focus on the predictability of invasion of a broad class of epidemics caused by diseases that lead to permanent immunity of infected hosts after recovery or death. We approach the problem from the perspective of the science of complexity by proposing and testing several strategies for the estimation of important characteristics of epidemics, such as the probability of invasion. Our results suggest that parsimonious approximate methodologies may lead to the most reliable and robust predictions. The proposed methodologies are first applied to analysis of experimentally observed epidemics: invasion of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in replicated host microcosms. We then consider numerical experiments of the susceptible–infected–removed model to investigate the performance of the proposed methods in further detail. The suggested framework can be used as a valuable tool for quick assessment of epidemic threat at the stage when epidemics only start developing. Moreover, our work amplifies the significance of the small-scale and finite-time microcosm realizations of epidemics revealing their predictive power. PMID:22513723

  8. Prediction of invasion from the early stage of an epidemic.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Reche, Francisco J; Neri, Franco M; Taraskin, Sergei N; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2012-09-01

    Predictability of undesired events is a question of great interest in many scientific disciplines including seismology, economy and epidemiology. Here, we focus on the predictability of invasion of a broad class of epidemics caused by diseases that lead to permanent immunity of infected hosts after recovery or death. We approach the problem from the perspective of the science of complexity by proposing and testing several strategies for the estimation of important characteristics of epidemics, such as the probability of invasion. Our results suggest that parsimonious approximate methodologies may lead to the most reliable and robust predictions. The proposed methodologies are first applied to analysis of experimentally observed epidemics: invasion of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in replicated host microcosms. We then consider numerical experiments of the susceptible-infected-removed model to investigate the performance of the proposed methods in further detail. The suggested framework can be used as a valuable tool for quick assessment of epidemic threat at the stage when epidemics only start developing. Moreover, our work amplifies the significance of the small-scale and finite-time microcosm realizations of epidemics revealing their predictive power. PMID:22513723

  9. Curative interstitial brachytherapy for early stage carcinoma lip.

    PubMed

    Jha, A K; Prasiko, G; Mod, M; Srivastava, R; Chaurasia, P P

    2006-01-01

    Brachytherapy is potentially useful in the treatment of head-and-neck cancers, because most tumor sites, such as the lip, tongue, floor of mouth, tonsil, pharynx, nasopharynx, sinuses, and neck, are accessible for the placement of afterloading applicators and catheters. It has the advantage of delivering a higher radiation dose to the tumor while sparing surrounding normal tissue from radiation. Furthermore, the overall treatment duration is shorter, and the dose distribution confirms to tumor shape. Brachytherapy is used as "monotherapy" for the treatment of small primary tumors or recurrent disease after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Small cancers of the lip (less than 2 cm) are treated equally well with surgery or radiation therapy with excellent cosmetic and functional results seen in radiation therapy. We treated an 18-year old male diagnosed as stage I carcinoma lip with curative interstitial brachytherapy. He was treated to a dose of 3 Gy per fraction, two fractions per day at interval of 6 hours between the two fractions for 6 days. He therefore received a total dose of 36 Gy with High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy, which is equivalent to 58.36 Gy conventional radiotherapy dose. At two months follow, the patient is clinically disease free and has no complaints. PMID:17189971

  10. Developmental Stages of Early Dead Embryos after Prolonged Egg Storage and Incubation in Broiler Breeders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold egg storage is a common practice prior to incubation in the broiler industry.  However, cold storage longer than 10 days is associated with an increase in early embryo mortality. We were interested in determining the developmental stages of early dead embryos after prolonged egg storage and inc...

  11. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

  12. Dyadic Intervention for Family Caregivers and Care Receivers in Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Carol J.; Judge, Katherine; Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The Early Diagnosis Dyadic Intervention (EDDI) program provides a structured, time-limited protocol of one-on-one and dyadic counseling for family caregivers and care receivers who are in the early stages of dementia. The goals and procedures of EDDI are based on previous research suggesting that dyads would benefit from an intervention…

  13. KLF4 Initiates Acinar Cell Reprogramming and Is Essential for the Early Stages of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Maddipati, Ravikanth; Katz, Jonathan P

    2016-03-14

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has a dismal prognosis and is minimally responsive to current chemotherapies. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Xie et al. (2016) identify the transcription factor KLF4 as essential for the early stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis, expanding the repertoire of targets for early intervention strategies. PMID:26977875

  14. 77 FR 25042 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...) establishing special distribution rules to require pro rata repayment of SBA leverage when an Early Stage SBIC... company that subsequently receives a new round of financing at a higher price, provided the new round.... Payment Date SBA proposed special distribution rules in Sec. 107.1180 which would require Early...

  15. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. PMID:25910905

  16. The ?-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

    We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the ?-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the ?1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the ?3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the ?1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

  17. Effects of Phosphate Binder Therapy on Vascular Stiffness in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Michael E.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Rothstein, Marcos; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Bierhals, Andrew J.; Cheng, Steven C.; Ross, Will; Windus, David; Dávila-Román, Víctor G.; Hruska, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and contributed to by the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The CKD-MBD begins in early CKD and its vascular manifestations begin with vascular stiffness proceeding to increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and vascular calcification (VC). Phosphorus is associated with this progression and is considered a CVD risk factor in CKD. We hypothesized that modifying phosphorus balance with lanthanum carbonate (LaCO3) in early CKD would not produce hypophosphatemia and may affect vascular manifestations of the CKD-MBD. Methods We randomized 38 subjects with normophosphatemic stage 3 CKD to a fixed dose of LaCO3 or matching placebo without adjusting dietary phosphorus in a 12-month randomized, double-blind, pilot and feasibility study. The primary outcome was the change in serum phosphorus. Secondary outcomes were changes in measures of phosphate homeostasis and vascular stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), cIMT and VC over 12 months. Results There were no statistically significant differences between LaCO3 and placebo with respect to the change in serum phosphorus, urinary phosphorus, tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, PWV, cIMT, or VC. Biomarkers of the early CKD-MBD such as plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and sclerostin were increased 2–3-fold at baseline but were not affected by LaCO3. Conclusion 12 months of LaCO3 had no effect on serum phosphorus and did not alter phosphate homeostasis, PWV, cIMT, VC, or biomarkers of the CKD-MBD. PMID:23941761

  18. Upgrading the definition of early gastric cancer: better staging means more appropriate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saragoni, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Since Murakami defined early gastric cancer (EGC) as a “carcinoma limited to the gastric mucosa and/or submucosa regardless of the lymph node status”, several authors have focused on the most influential histopathological parameters for predicting the development of lymph node metastases by considering the lymph node status as an important prognostic factor. A few authors have also considered the depth of invasion as one of the keys to explaining the existence of subgroups of patients affected by EGC with poor prognoses. In any case, EGC is still considered an initial phase of tumor progression with good prognosis. The introduction of modern endoscopic devices has allowed a precise diagnosis of early lesions, which can lead to improved definitions of tumors that can be radically treated with endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Given the widespread use of these techniques, the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) identified in 2011 the standard criteria that should exclude the presence of lymph node metastases. At that time, EGCs with nodal involvement should have been asserted as no longer fitting the definition of an early tumor. Some authors have also demonstrated that the morphological growth pattern of a tumor, according to Kodama’s classification, is one of the most important prognostic factors, thereby suggesting the need to report it in histopathological drafts. Notwithstanding the acquired knowledge regarding the clinical behavior of EGC, Murakami’s definition is still being used. This definition needs to be upgraded according to the modern staging of the disease so that the appropriate treatment would be selected. PMID:26779372

  19. Monitoring crop phenology and growth stages from space: opportunities and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop growth stages in concert with weather and soil moisture conditions can have a significant impact on crop yields. In the U.S., crop growth stages and conditions are reported by farmers at the county level. These reports are somewhat subjective and fluctuate between different reporters, locations...

  20. New insights into the early stages of silica-controlled barium carbonate crystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiblmeier, Josef; Schürmann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz; Gebauer, Denis; Kunz, Werner; Kellermeier, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures resembling those typically displayed by biogenic minerals. These so-called biomorphs were shown to be composed of uniform elongated carbonate nanoparticles that are arranged according to a specific order over mesoscopic scales. In the present study, we have investigated the circumstances leading to the continuous formation and stabilisation of such well-defined nanometric building units in these inorganic systems. For this purpose, in situ potentiometric titration measurements were carried out in order to monitor and quantify the influence of silica on both the nucleation and early growth stages of barium carbonate crystallisation in alkaline media at constant pH. Complementarily, the nature and composition of particles occurring at different times in samples under various conditions were characterised ex situ by means of high-resolution electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The collected data clearly evidence that added silica affects carbonate crystallisation from the very beginning (i.e. already prior to, during, and shortly after nucleation), eventually arresting growth on the nanoscale by cementation of BaCO3 particles within a siliceous matrix. Our findings thus shed light on the fundamental processes driving bottom-up self-organisation in silica-carbonate materials and, for the first time, provide direct experimental proof that silicate species are responsible for the miniaturisation of carbonate crystals during growth of biomorphs, hence confirming previously discussed theoretical models for their formation mechanism.Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures resembling those typically displayed by biogenic minerals. These so-called biomorphs were shown to be composed of uniform elongated carbonate nanoparticles that are arranged according to a specific order over mesoscopic scales. In the present study, we have investigated the circumstances leading to the continuous formation and stabilisation of such well-defined nanometric building units in these inorganic systems. For this purpose, in situ potentiometric titration measurements were carried out in order to monitor and quantify the influence of silica on both the nucleation and early growth stages of barium carbonate crystallisation in alkaline media at constant pH. Complementarily, the nature and composition of particles occurring at different times in samples under various conditions were characterised ex situ by means of high-resolution electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The collected data clearly evidence that added silica affects carbonate crystallisation from the very beginning (i.e. already prior to, during, and shortly after nucleation), eventually arresting growth on the nanoscale by cementation of BaCO3 particles within a siliceous matrix. Our findings thus shed light on the fundamental processes driving bottom-up self-organisation in silica-carbonate materials and, for the first time, provide direct experimental proof that silicate species are responsible for the miniaturisation of carbonate crystals during growth of biomorphs, hence confirming previously discussed theoretical models for their formation mechanism. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional titration data (Fig. S1 and S2) and further results from TEM-EDX analyses (Fig. S3-S8). See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05436a

  1. Seismic anisotropy and texture development during early stages of subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Leo, Jeanette; Walker, Andrew; Li, Zhong-Hai; Wookey, James; Ribe, Neil; Kendall, J.-Michael; Tommasi, Andréa

    2014-05-01

    Shear wave splitting measurements are frequently used to infer upper mantle flow trajectory, based on the fact that, under strain, olivine develops lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) textures in the convecting mantle. However, such inferences ought to be made carefully, since the relationship between splitting fast polarisation and olivine LPO depends on several factors, one of them being the deformation history of the volume of mantle in question. This is especially the case in regions such as subduction zones, where complex and time-dependent mantle flow occurs. Here, we present an integrated model to simulate strain-history-dependent LPO development and measure the resulting shear wave splitting in a subduction setting. We do this for a subduction model that approximates the geometry of the double-sided Molucca Sea subduction system in eastern Indonesia. We test a single-sided and a double-sided subduction case, and compare the results to shear wave splitting observations of this region. Since the subduction zone is fairly young, early textures from the slab's descent from the near-surface to the bottom of the mantle transition zone - which we simulate in our models - have not yet been overprinted by subsequent continuous flow. It further allows us to test the significance of the double-sided geometry, i.e., the need for a rear barrier to achieve trench-parallel sub-slab mantle flow. We simulate olivine LPO evolution in polycrystalline aggregates as they move and deform along pathlines extracted from a 3-D mantle flow model. Interactions between crystals are described using the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) approach. Unlike previous studies, we consider the entire subduction history from subduction initiation onwards. After calculating elastic properties associated with LPO textures, we estimate the resulting splitting parameters (fast direction ?, delay time ?t) for synthetic SKS phases. Our models demonstrate that complex, backazimuth-dependent behaviour in ? appears in even apparently simple models of subduction zone mantle flow. We also show that although a rear barrier amplifies trench-parallel sub-slab anisotropy due to mantle flow, it is not essential for producing trench-parallel fast directions. In a simple model of one-sided subduction and deformation dominated by the motion of dislocations belonging to the (010)[100] slip system, trench-parallel fast directions result from a combination of simple shear and deformation by axial compression in the sub-slab mantle.

  2. Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

    2012-11-01

    According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. PMID:23036413

  3. Neoadjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer: the clinical utility of pertuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Gollamudi, Jahnavi; Parvani, Jenny G; Schiemann, William P; Vinayak, Shaveta

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of breast cancer patients harbor tumors that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; also known as ErbB2), a receptor tyrosine kinase that belongs to the epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. HER2 amplification and hyperactivation drive the growth and survival of breast cancers through the aberrant activation of proto-oncogenic signaling systems, particularly the Ras/MAP kinase and PI3K/AKT pathways. Although HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer was originally considered to be a highly aggressive form of the disease, the clinical landscape of HER2+ breast cancers has literally been transformed by the approval of anti-HER2 agents for adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Indeed, pertuzumab is a novel monoclonal antibody that functions as an anti-HER2 agent by targeting the extracellular dimerization domain of the HER2 receptor; it is also the first drug to receive an accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in neoadjuvant settings in early-stage HER2+ breast cancer. Here, we review the molecular and cellular factors that contribute to the pathophysiology of HER2 in breast cancer, as well as summarize the landmark preclinical and clinical findings underlying the approval and use of pertuzumab in the neoadjuvant setting. Finally, the molecular mechanisms operant in mediating resistance to anti-HER2 agents, and perhaps to pertuzumab as well, will be discussed, as will the anticipated clinical impact and future directions of pertuzumab in breast cancer patients. PMID:26937204

  4. Interventional pulmonology approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of early stage non small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tofts, Ryu Peter Hambrook; Lee, Peter MJ

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer management is complex and requires a multi-disciplinary approach to provide comprehensive care. Interventional pulmonology (IP) is an evolving field that utilizes minimally invasive modalities for the initial diagnosis and staging of suspected lung cancers. Endobronchial ultrasound guided sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes for staging and detection of driver mutations is instrumental for prognosis and treatment of early and later stage lung cancers. Advances in navigational bronchoscopy allow for histological sampling of suspicious peripheral lesions with minimal complication rates, as well as assisting with fiducial marker placements for stereotactic radiation therapy. Furthermore, IP can also offer palliation for inoperable cancers and those with late stage diseases. As the trend towards early lung cancer detection with low dose computed tomography is developing, it is paramount for the pulmonary physician with expertise in lung nodule management, minimally invasive sampling and staging to integrate into the paradigm of multi-specialty care. PMID:25806251

  5. Requirement of vasculogenesis and blood circulation in late stages of liver growth in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Korzh, Svetlana; Pan, Xiufang; Garcia-Lecea, Marta; Winata, Cecilia Lanny; Pan, Xiaotao; Wohland, Thorsten; Korzh, Vladimir; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2008-01-01

    Background Early events in vertebrate liver development have been the major focus in previous studies, however, late events of liver organogenesis remain poorly understood. Liver vasculogenesis in vertebrates occurs through the interaction of endoderm-derived liver epithelium and mesoderm-derived endothelial cells (ECs). In zebrafish, although it has been found that ECs are not required for liver budding, how and when the spatio-temporal pattern of liver growth is coordinated with ECs remains to be elucidated. Results To study the process of liver development and vasculogenesis in vivo, a two-color transgenic zebrafish line Tg(lfabf:dsRed; elaA:EGFP) was generated and named LiPan for liver-specific expression of DsRed RFP and exocrine pancreas-specific expression of GFP. Using the LiPan line, we first followed the dynamic development of liver from live embryos to adult and showed the formation of three distinct yet connected liver lobes during development. The LiPan line was then crossed with Tg(fli1:EGFP)y1 and vascular development in the liver was traced in vivo. Liver vasculogenesis started at 55–58 hpf when ECs first surrounded hepatocytes from the liver bud surface and then invaded the liver to form sinusoids and later the vascular network. Using a novel non-invasive and label-free fluorescence correction spectroscopy, we detected blood circulation in the liver starting at ~72 hpf. To analyze the roles of ECs and blood circulation in liver development, both cloche mutants (lacking ECs) and Tnnt2 morphants (no blood circulation) were employed. We found that until 70 hpf liver growth and morphogenesis depended on ECs and nascent sinusoids. After 72 hpf, a functional sinusoidal network was essential for continued liver growth. An absence of blood circulation in Tnnt2 morphants caused defects in liver vasculature and small liver. Conclusion There are two phases of liver development in zebrafish, budding and growth. In the growth phase, there are three distinct stages: avascular growth between 50–55 hpf, where ECs are not required; endothelium-dependent growth, where ECs or sinusoids are required for liver growth between 55–72 hpf before blood circulation in liver sinusoids; and circulation-dependent growth, where the circulation is essential to maintain vascular network and to support continued liver growth after 72 hpf. PMID:18796162

  6. The relationship between local recurrence and death in early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sopik, Victoria; Nofech-Mozes, Sharon; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationship between local recurrence and breast cancer mortality in women with early-stage breast cancer. We studied 1675 women with stage 0 (DCIS), stage I or stage II breast cancer who were treated with breast-conserving surgery at Women's College Hospital between 1987 and 2009. For each patient, we obtained information on age at diagnosis, tumour size, lymph node status, tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion, oestrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, HER2 status and treatments received (radiotherapy, chemotherapy and tamoxifen). Patients were followed from the date of diagnosis until local recurrence, death from breast cancer or the date of last follow-up. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate 15-year local recurrence-free and breast cancer-specific survival rates for each stage at diagnosis. For each stage, the two rates were compared. After a mean follow-up of 13.1 years, 243 women (14.5 %) experienced a local recurrence and 281 women (16.8 %) died of breast cancer. The 15-year actuarial rate of local recurrence was 16 % for women with DCIS, 15 % for women with stage I cancer and 16 % for women with stage II cancer. The 15-year breast cancer-specific mortality rate was 3 % for women with DCIS, 10 % for women with stage I breast cancer and 30 % for women with stage II breast cancer. After experiencing a local recurrence, the 15-year breast cancer mortality rate was 16 % for women with DCIS, 32 % for women with stage I breast cancer and 59 % for women with stage II breast cancer. Across the spectrum of the early stages of breast cancer, the risk of local recurrence does not correlate with the risk of death from breast cancer. After local recurrence, the risk of death from breast cancer depends on the initial stage at diagnosis. PMID:26712515

  7. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  8. Reduced early life growth and survival in a fish in direct response to increased carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Hannes; Talmage, Stephanie C.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Absorption of anthropogenic carbon dioxide by the world's oceans is causing mankind's `other CO2 problem', ocean acidification. Although this process will challenge marine organisms that synthesize calcareous exoskeletons or shells, it is unclear how it will affect internally calcifying organisms, such as marine fish. Adult fish tolerate short-term exposures to CO2 levels that exceed those predicted for the next 300 years (~2,000ppm ref. ), but potential effects of increased CO2 on growth and survival during the early life stages of fish remain poorly understood. Here we show that the exposure of early life stages of a common estuarine fish (Menidia beryllina) to CO2 concentrations expected in the world's oceans later this century caused severely reduced survival and growth rates. When compared with present-day CO2 levels (~400ppm), exposure of M. beryllina embryos to ~1,000ppm until one week post-hatch reduced average survival and length by 74% and 18%, respectively. The egg stage was significantly more vulnerable to high CO2-induced mortality than the post-hatch larval stage. These findings challenge the belief that ocean acidification will not affect fish populations, because even small changes in early life survival can generate large fluctuations in adult-fish abundance.

  9. Effects of nicotine on a rat model of early stage osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qiangrong; Li, Dong; Wei, Bo; Guo, Yang; Yan, Junwei; Mao, Fengyong; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of nicotine on articular cartilage degeneration and inflammation in a rat model of early stage osteoarthritis (OA), using T2 mapping. In this study, a rat model of early stage OA was established by immobilizing the left knee joints of adult male rats for two weeks. Subsequently, rats were fed with nicotine for two and four weeks. Changes in the articular cartilage from the medial femoral condylar region of the knee were evaluated by gross observation and histological grading with the contents of cartilage matrix detected. T2 values of the articular cartilage were estimated through high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (7.0T). Levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were assessed by ELISA. The expression of TNF-? and the cholinergic receptor, ?7nAChR, in the synovial tissue was measured by RT-PCR. Nicotine treatment ameliorated cartilage destruction, promoted matrix production, reduced the serum level of TNF-? and the expression of TNF-? in the synovial tissue, and increased the expression of ?7nAChR in the synovial tissue in the rat model of early stage OA. In conclusion, nicotine prevented cartilage damage and had an anti-inflammatory effect in a rat model of early stage OA. Thus nicotine may have potential as a therapeutic strategy for early stage OA. PMID:26097542

  10. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy following resection of early stage thymoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data regarding adjuvant chemotherapy for resected early stage thymoma. This systematic review was designed to investigate the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on outcomes in patients with early stage thymomas. Methods PubMed database was queried for studies containing information on adjuvant chemotherapy following surgery in patients with Masaoka stage I or II thymoma. Results Eight retrospective observational studies were reviewed. The number of patients with stage I or II thymoma was not clearly reported in several studies. Five studies reported on 890 patients with stage I or II patients, including 140 patients (15.7%) who received adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. No study reported short-term mortality in patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy following thymectomy. Conclusions Adjuvant chemotherapy following resection of early thymomas appears to be a safe approach with favorable short-term outcomes. However, long-term outcomes remain unclear. There is no strong evidence to support adjuvant chemotherapy following resection of early-stage thymoma.

  11. Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion–deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case–control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5–4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4–5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7–5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

  12. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  13. Extended longevity and robust early-stage development of Caenorhabditis elegans by a soil microbe, Lysinibacillus sphaericus.

    PubMed

    Go, Junhyeok; Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2014-12-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, originally isolated from soil, is a nematode used in various fields of biological research including host–microbe interaction. While bacterial pathogens responsible for human infections have been actively studied in C.?elegans, very few bacterial species that provide beneficial effects on C.?elegans have been reported. Here, we tested several bacterial soil isolates and then characterized the effects of Lysinibacillus sphaericus on C.?elegans growth-related phenotypes. Worms fed with L.?sphaericus lived significantly longer than those growing with typical Escherichia coli?OP50. Early- and juvenile-stage growth was also highly stimulated by L.?sphaericus; body size at 28?h post-hatching was >?2 times larger than OP50-fed worms and L.?sphaericus-fed worms moved through the larval stage development more rapidly than control worms. In addition, significantly elevated fertilization was observed in worms fed with L.?sphaericus (??8?h faster than the control group). Furthermore, growth with L.?sphaericus resulted in the production of larger numbers of progeny than the control growth with OP50. Worms grown with L.?sphaericus were highly resistant to oxidative, osmotic and infection stresses. Together, our results reveal a novel mode of growth that involves healthy ageing of nematodes. PMID:25756126

  14. Estimates of the duration of the early and late stage of gambiense sleeping sickness

    PubMed Central

    Checchi, Francesco; Filipe, João AN; Haydon, Daniel T; Chandramohan, Daniel; Chappuis, François

    2008-01-01

    Background The durations of untreated stage 1 (early stage, haemo-lymphatic) and stage 2 (late stage, meningo-encephalitic) human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are poorly quantified, but key to predicting the impact of screening on transmission. Here, we outline a method to estimate these parameters. Methods We first model the duration of stage 1 through survival analysis of untreated serological suspects detected during Médecins Sans Frontières interventions in Uganda and Sudan. We then deduce the duration of stage 2 based on the stage 1 to stage 2 ratio observed during active case detection in villages within the same sites. Results Survival in stage 1 appears to decay exponentially (daily rate = 0.0019; mean stage 1 duration = 526 days [95%CI 357 to 833]), possibly explaining past reports of abnormally long duration. Assuming epidemiological equilibrium, we estimate a similar duration of stage 2 (500 days [95%CI 345 to 769]), for a total of nearly three years in the absence of treatment. Conclusion Robust estimates of these basic epidemiological parameters are essential to formulating a quantitative understanding of sleeping sickness dynamics, and will facilitate the evaluation of different possible control strategies. PMID:18261232

  15. Cryotop vitrification of porcine parthenogenetic embryos at the early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Quan; Quan, Guo-Bo; Shao, Qing-Yong; Lv, Chun-Rong; Jiang, Yan-Ting; Zhao, Zhi-Yong; Hong, Qiong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of early developmental stages at which Cryotop vitrification is performed on subsequent survival and in vitro development of porcine parthenogenetic activation embryos. The zygotes that were cultured for 4, 8, and 18 hours post electric activation (h.p.a.) and two- and four-cell embryos were vitrified, warmed, and continuously cultured for the remaining period. The zygotes vitrified at 4, 8, and 18 h.p.a. showed similar percentages of survival, cleavage, and blastocyst formation. No difference in viability was observed after vitrification of two- and four-cell embryos, but the embryos vitrified at the two-cell stage exhibited significantly higher blastocyst formation rate than those vitrified at the four-cell stage. However, vitrifying embryos resulted in significantly decreased survival and development rates, regardless of the developmental stage of the embryos. In addition, the final developmental stage, diameter, apoptotic index, and the number of inner cell mass, trophectoderm, and total cells of blastocysts derived from embryos vitrified at any stage of the early culture were similar to those of fresh blastocysts. In conclusion, our data indicate that the early-stage porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos including the zygote, two cells, and four cells have a high ability to survive cryopreservation; these viable embryos after vitrification can produce respectable development rates and good-quality blastocysts. PMID:26462660

  16. Using the life history model to set the stage(s) of growth and senescence in bioarchaeology and paleodemography.

    PubMed

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Armstrong, Stephanie D

    2011-07-01

    Paleodemography, the study of demographic parameters of past human populations, relies on assumptions including biological uniformitarianism, stationary populations, and the ability to determine point age estimates from skeletal material. These assumptions have been widely criticized in the literature and various solutions have been proposed. The majority of these solutions rely on statistical modeling, and have not seen widespread application. Most bioarchaeologists recognize that our ability to assess chronological age is inherently limited, and have instead resorted to large, qualitative, age categories. However, there has been little attempt in the literature to systematize and define the stages of development and ageing used in bioarchaeology. We propose that stages should be based in the human life history pattern, and their skeletal markers should have easily defined and clear endpoints. In addition to a standard five-stage developmental model based on the human life history pattern, current among human biologists, we suggest divisions within the adult stage that recognize the specific nature of skeletal samples. We therefore propose the following eight stages recognizable in human skeletal development and senescence: infancy, early childhood, late childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, full adulthood, mature adulthood, and senile adulthood. Striving toward a better prediction of chronological ages will remain important and could eventually help us understand to what extent past societies differed in the timing of these life stages. Furthermore, paleodemographers should try to develop methods that rely on the type of age information accessible from the skeletal material, which uses life stages, rather than point age estimates. PMID:21469078

  17. Self-Consistent Simulation of the Brownian Stage of Dust Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, S.; Pfalzner, S.; Henning, Th.

    1996-01-01

    It is a widely accepted view that in proto-planetary accretion disks the collision and following sticking of dust particles embedded in the gas eventually leads to the formation of planetesimals (coagulation). For the smallest dust grains, Brownian motion is assumed to be the dominant source of their relative velocities leading to collisions between these dust grains. As the dust grains grow they eventually couple to the turbulent motion of the gas which then drives the coagulation much more efficiently. Many numerical coagulation simulations have been carried out to calculate the fractal dimension of the aggregates, which determines the duration of the ineffective Brownian stage of growth. Predominantly on-lattice and off-lattice methods were used. However, both methods require simplification of the astrophysical conditions. The aggregates found by those methods had a fractal dimension of approximately 2 which is equivalent to a constant, mass-independent friction time. If this value were valid for the conditions in an accretion disk, this would mean that the coagulation process would finally 'freeze out' and the growth of a planetesimal would be impossible within the lifetime of an accretion disk. In order to investigate whether this fractal dimension is model independent, we simulate self-consistently the Brownian stage of the coagulation by an N-particle code. This method has the advantage that no further assumptions about homogeneity of the dust have to be made. In our model, the dust grains are considered as aggregates built up of spheres. The equation of motion of the dust grains is based on the probability density for the diffusive transport within the gas atmosphere. Because of the very low number density of the dust grains, only 2-body-collisions have to be considered. As the Brownian stage of growth is very inefficient, the system is to be simulated over long periods of time. In order to find close particle pairs of the system which are most likely to undergo a collision, we use a particle-in-cell (PIC) method for the early stages of the simulation where the system is still very homogeneous and a tree method later when the particles are more clustered.

  18. Early stages in the high temperature cyclic oxidation of {beta}-NiAl: An x-ray reflectivity study

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, G.; You, Hoydoo; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W.

    1996-12-31

    Early stages in the cyclic oxidation of {beta}-NiAl at 500{degrees}C, 600{degrees}C, 700{degrees}C and 800{degrees}C were investigated using the technique of x-ray reflectivity. By fitting the data to a model function, oxide layer thickness, roughness of the oxide-vapor interface, and the roughness of the oxide-substrate interface were obtained as a function of oxidation time and temperature of oxidation. The time dependence of the oxide thickness was observed to be logarithmic at lower temperatures (500{degrees}C and 600{degrees}C) while a conventional t{sup 0.5} kinetics was observed at the higher temperatures. Comparison of the roughness of the oxide-substrate interface with that of the oxide-vapor interface shows that for comparable oxide thicknesses and identical substrate conditions, the oxide-vapor interface was rougher than the oxide-substrate interface at all temperatures. This is consistent with the previously postulated growth mechanism (outward diffusion of cations) for oxide growth during the early stages of oxidation at these temperatures. Thus, x-ray reflectivity offers a convenient way of determining the oxide growth rates, and the roughness of the interfaces when the oxide layer is thin; this regime cannot be easily studied with the techniques that are currently used for oxidation studies.

  19. The potential role of bevacizumab in early stages and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schettino, Clorinda; Bareschino, Maria Anna; Rossi, Antonio; Maione, Paolo; Castaldo, Vincenzo; Mazzeo, Nicole; Sacco, Paola Claudia; Ferrara, Marianna Luciana; Palazzolo, Giovanni; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Gridelli, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Improving outcomes for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major research area considering that a significant percentage of such patients develop recurrent disease within 5 years of complete lung resection. Adjuvant chemotherapy prolongs survival, with an absolute improvement in 5-year overall survival of about 5% with drawbacks such as treatment toxicity. Approximately, one third of patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC have locally advanced disease not amenable for surgical resection – in this setting of patients concurrent chemoradiation is the standard of therapy. However, the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC is still controversial and clinical outcomes are disappointing, and so new approaches are required to improve the clinical benefit in this setting of patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key angiogenic factor implicated in tumor blood vessels formation and permeability, and tumor VEGF overexpression in patients with early stage lung cancer has been associated with worse relapse free and overall survival. Several agents have been developed that inhibit VEGF or its receptor signalling system. Bevacizumab is the first recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody binding VEGF to demonstrate clinical benefit or rather a survival prolongation in combination with chemotherapy in the treatment of non-squamous advanced NSCLC patients. These positive results led to a large number of clinical trials to evaluate bevacizumab in combination with other targeted agents in advanced disease, and to define the role of this agent in early stage NSCLC such as the impact of bevacizumab integration in chemoradiotherapy strategy for locally advanced disease. PMID:21789109

  20. Early growth of a nonhost pathogen, Mycosphaerella graminicola, on barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella graminicola causes Septoria tritici blotch of wheat, but not barley. Septoria passerinii causes speckled leaf blotch of barley and is closely related to M. graminicola, but does not infect wheat. Our goal was to analyze the early growth of M. graminicola during nonhost interactions ...

  1. A membrane transporter required for 3-hydroxybutyrate uptake during the early sporulation stage in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yueh-Chi; Shaw, Gwo-Chyuan

    2015-10-01

    Exogenous 3-hydroxybutyrate can be utilized by a variety of soil bacteria as a carbon and energy source. However, the membrane transporter responsible for 3-hydroxybutyrate uptake remains unidentified. The Bacillus subtilis strain 168 gene yxjC (herein renamed hbuT) encodes a putative gluconate transporter GntT-type membrane transporter with a previously unknown function. hbuT is organized within the same operon with genes that are used for metabolism of 3-hydroxybutyrate. Here we report that a null mutation of hbuT reduced uptake of 3-hydroxybutyrate by B. subtilis cells grown in nutrient sporulation medium. The SigE-controlled HbuT transporter apparently plays a major role in the uptake of 3-hydroxybutyrate. Uptake of 3-hydroxybutyrate by the HbuT transporter occurred in a specific manner at the early sporulation stage. SigE-controlled hbuT expression and 3-hydroxybutyrate uptake were also subject to CcpA-mediated glucose repression. hbuT expression was not induced by exogenous 3-hydroxybutyrate and B. subtilis cells could not utilize 3-hydroxybutyrate as a sole carbon source for growth. HbuT homologs are present in a wide variety of Gram-positive Bacillus species, some Gram-negative Acinetobacter species and a small group of other bacteria. This is the first tentative identification of a membrane transporter responsible for the uptake of 3-hydroxybutyrate in bacteria. PMID:26363016

  2. Toxicity of oil sands to early life stages of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Colavecchia, Maria V; Backus, Sean M; Hodson, Peter V; Parrott, Joanne L

    2004-07-01

    The present study examines the effects of exposure to oil sands on the early life stages (ELS) of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Sediments within and outside natural oil sand deposits were collected from sites along the Athabasca River (AB, Canada). The ELS toxicity tests were conducted with control water, natural oil sands, reference sediments, and oil-refining wastewater pond sediments. Eggs and larvae were exposed to 0.05 to 25.0 g sediment/L and observed for mortality, hatching, malformations, growth, and cytochrome P4501A induction as measured by immunohistochemistry. Natural bitumen and wastewater pond sediments caused significant hatching alterations and exposure-related increases in ELS mortality, malformations, and reduced size. Larval deformities included edemas, hemorrhages, and spinal malformations. Exposure to reference sediments and controls showed negligible embryo mortality and malformations and excellent larval survival. Sediment analyses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed high concentrations of alkyl-substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared to unsubstituted PAHs in natural oil sands (220-360 microg/g) and oil-mining wastewater pond sediments (1,300 microg/g). The ELS sediment toxicity tests are rapid and sensitive bioassays that are useful in the assessment of petroleum toxicity to aquatic organisms. PMID:15230323

  3. Sensitivity of early-life-stage golden trout to low pH and elevated aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    DeLonay, A.J. . School of Natural Resources); Little, E.E.; Woodward, F.; Brumbaugh, W.G. . Fish and Wildlife Service); Farag, A.M. . Dept. of Zoology and Physiology); Rabeni, C.F. . Missouri Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit)

    1993-07-01

    Early-life-stage golden trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita) were exposed to acid and Al to examine the response and determine the sensitivity of a western, alpine salmonid to conditions simulating an episodic pH depression. Freshly fertilized eggs, alevins, and swim-up larvae were exposed for 7 d to one of 12 combinations of pH and Al, and surviving fish were held to 40 d post-hatch to determine the effect of exposure on subsequent survival and recovery. Golden trout are sensitive to conditions simulating episodic acidification events typically observed in the field. Significant mortality occurred when the pH of test waters was below 5.0 in the absence of Al or when pH was 5.5 in the presence of 100 [mu]g/L total Al. Behavioral impairments were sensitive indicators of low pH and Al stress. Impaired locomotory and feeding behavior occurred at pH 5.5 without Al and at Al concentrations [>=] [mu]g/L. In contrast, growth, RNA-to-DNA ratio, and whole-body ion concentration were relatively less sensitive indicators of sublethal acid and Al stress.

  4. Molecular determinants for lymph node metastasis in clinically early-stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    BOU ZGHEIB, NADIM; MARCHION, DOUGLAS C.; BUSH, STEPHEN H.; JUDSON, PATRICIA L.; WENHAM, ROBERT M.; APTE, SACHIN M.; LANCASTER, JOHNATHAN M.; GONZALEZ-BOSQUET, JESUS

    2016-01-01

    Patients with occult lymph node metastasis in endometrioid-type endometrial cancer (EC) are prone to the development of recurrences and have worse outcomes compared with patients without lymph node metastasis. In the current study, the aim was to identify molecular parameters associated with lymph node metastasis in EC clinically early-stage disease. A univariate analysis of differentially expressed genes, proteins and clinicopathological parameters (including myometrial invasion and tumor grade) was performed, comparing EC patients with and without lymph node metastasis (n=262 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas). Significant parameters were introduced in a multivariate model and a gene expression pathway analysis. Lymph node metastasis was associated with expression of 268 unique genes (P<0.001), 19 unique proteins (P<0.05), tumor grade and myometrial invasion in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated 10 genes independently associated with lymph node metastasis and 4 independently associated proteins. Myometrial invasion was the only independent clinicopathological parameter associated with lymph node status. The enrichment pathway analysis demonstrated that expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, Bcl2 antagonist of cell death and phosphatase and tensin homolog pathways were significantly involved in lymph node metastasis (P≤0.001). A gene expression signature to predict lymph node status in EC was created for future validation. Few studies have focused on the association between EC's molecular characteristics and nodal metastasis. Defining molecular risk factors for EC lymphatic nodal metastasis may help to individualize treatment and improve patient outcomes. PMID:26870211

  5. Optimal adaptive two-stage designs for early phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guogen; Wilding, Gregory E; Hutson, Alan D; Gerstenberger, Shawn

    2016-04-15

    Simon's optimal two-stage design has been widely used in early phase clinical trials for Oncology and AIDS studies with binary endpoints. With this approach, the second-stage sample size is fixed when the trial passes the first stage with sufficient activity. Adaptive designs, such as those due to Banerjee and Tsiatis (2006) and Englert and Kieser (2013), are flexible in the sense that the second-stage sample size depends on the response from the first stage, and these designs are often seen to reduce the expected sample size under the null hypothesis as compared with Simon's approach. An unappealing trait of the existing designs is that they are not associated with a second-stage sample size, which is a non-increasing function of the first-stage response rate. In this paper, an efficient intelligent process, the branch-and-bound algorithm, is used in extensively searching for the optimal adaptive design with the smallest expected sample size under the null, while the type I and II error rates are maintained and the aforementioned monotonicity characteristic is respected. The proposed optimal design is observed to have smaller expected sample sizes compared to Simon's optimal design, and the maximum total sample size of the proposed adaptive design is very close to that from Simon's method. The proposed optimal adaptive two-stage design is recommended for use in practice to improve the flexibility and efficiency of early phase therapeutic development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26526165

  6. Changes in Transcription and Metabolism During the Early Stage of Replicative Cellular Senescence in Budding Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Kamei, Yuka; Tamada, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Yasumune; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Mukai, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Age-related damage accumulates and a variety of biological activities and functions deteriorate in senescent cells. However, little is known about when cellular aging behaviors begin and what cellular aging processes change. Previous research demonstrated age-related mRNA changes in budding yeast by the 18th to 20th generation, which is the average replicative lifespan of yeast (i.e. about half of the population is dead by this time point). Here, we performed transcriptional and metabolic profiling for yeast at early stages of senescence (4th, 7th, and 11th generation), that is, for populations in which most cells are still alive. Transcriptional profiles showed up- and down-regulation for ?20% of the genes profiled after the first four generations, few further changes by the 7th generation, and an additional 12% of the genes were up- and down-regulated after 11 generations. Pathway analysis revealed that these 11th generation cells had accumulated transcripts coding for enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, the TCA cycle, and amino acid degradation and showed decreased levels of mRNAs coding for enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthetic pathways. These observations were consistent with the metabolomic profiles of aging cells: an accumulation of pyruvic acid and TCA cycle intermediates and depletion of most amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids. Stationary phase-induced genes were highly expressed after 11 generations even though the growth medium contained adequate levels of nutrients, indicating deterioration of the nutrient sensing and/or signaling pathways by the 11th generation. These changes are presumably early indications of replicative senescence. PMID:25294875

  7. Limitations of waterborne exposure of fish early life stages to BDE-47.

    PubMed

    González-Doncel, Miguel; Torija, Carlos Fernández; Beltrán, Eulalia María; García-Mauriño, José Enrique; Sastre, Salvador; Carbonell, Gregoria

    2014-03-01

    2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is acknowledged as the most abundant congener of all polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Despite its limited residence in the water column, most ecotoxicological research using fish early life stages (ELS) has focused on its waterborne bioavailability. These studies have been supported either by chemical analysis in solutions or in tissues after ? 168 h exposures to relatively high waterborne concentrations with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent carrier (? 0.5%). Using noninvasive physiological and anatomical features in medaka ELS, we investigated the viability of waterborne BDE-47 exposures (100-10,000 ?g/L; 1% DMSO) and evaluated the developmental effects in relation to the actual BDE-47 present in water. Embryos were exposed for 10 days under semi-static (24-h renewal) conditions and waterborne BDE-47 concentrations (i.e., dissolved) were quantitated daily and their accumulation in eleutheroembryonic tissues was analyzed 4 days after exposures finished. BDE-47 in solution rapidly decreased after each renewal by >50% in 24h. This was confirmed by discernible precipitation occurring at ? 5,000 ?g/L on the bottom of the container and attached to the chorionic filaments of eggshell. The fast dissipation from water may explain why, besides the subtle, yet significant effects on post-hatching growth (short length at ?5000?g/L), no other significant deleterious developmental effects were observed despite the fact that BDE-47 accumulated in tissues in response to BDE-47 treatment. Waterborne BDE-47 exposure was unachievable under traditional semi-static exposure conditions, but was achievable in repeated pulse exposures lasting a few hours whenever the medium was renewed. Hence, this research encourages the use of alternate - more realistic - exposure routes (e.g., particulate matter or sediments) when evaluating early developmental toxicity of BDE-47 or any other PBDE sharing similar properties. PMID:24508762

  8. Changes in transcription and metabolism during the early stage of replicative cellular senescence in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Yuka; Tamada, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Yasumune; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Mukai, Yukio

    2014-11-14

    Age-related damage accumulates and a variety of biological activities and functions deteriorate in senescent cells. However, little is known about when cellular aging behaviors begin and what cellular aging processes change. Previous research demonstrated age-related mRNA changes in budding yeast by the 18th to 20th generation, which is the average replicative lifespan of yeast (i.e. about half of the population is dead by this time point). Here, we performed transcriptional and metabolic profiling for yeast at early stages of senescence (4th, 7th, and 11th generation), that is, for populations in which most cells are still alive. Transcriptional profiles showed up- and down-regulation for ∼20% of the genes profiled after the first four generations, few further changes by the 7th generation, and an additional 12% of the genes were up- and down-regulated after 11 generations. Pathway analysis revealed that these 11th generation cells had accumulated transcripts coding for enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, the TCA cycle, and amino acid degradation and showed decreased levels of mRNAs coding for enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthetic pathways. These observations were consistent with the metabolomic profiles of aging cells: an accumulation of pyruvic acid and TCA cycle intermediates and depletion of most amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids. Stationary phase-induced genes were highly expressed after 11 generations even though the growth medium contained adequate levels of nutrients, indicating deterioration of the nutrient sensing and/or signaling pathways by the 11th generation. These changes are presumably early indications of replicative senescence. PMID:25294875

  9. Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties to increase their thermal tolerance windows. PMID:22701620

  10. Outcomes in Patients With Early-Stage Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Ito, Yoshinori; Asai, Masao; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sumi, Minako; Itami, Jun

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome in patients with early-stage hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between February 1988 and February 2007, 77 patients with Stage I or Stage II HPC underwent definitive RT in the Division of Radiation Oncology at the National Cancer Center Hospital. Eleven of the patients received local irradiation, and the other 66 patients received elective bilateral neck irradiation and booster irradiation to the primary lesion. The median follow-up period for all the patients was 33 months from the start of RT, ranging from 3 to 229 months. Results: The rates of overall survival, HPC-specific survival, HPC recurrence-free survival, and local control with laryngeal voice preservation for the 77 patients at 5 years were 47%, 74%, 57%, and 70%, respectively. The survival rates were not affected by the patient characteristics or treatment factors, but the RT field was significantly correlated with local control in a multivariate analysis. Seven of the patients had Grade 3 or greater complications, but these complications occurred after salvage surgery in 6 of the patients. Of the 77 patients, 83% had synchronous or metachronous malignancies, but these malignancies did not influence the survival of the patients if the malignancies were detected at an early stage. Conclusion: RT is an appropriate treatment method for early-stage HPC. However, because synchronous or metachronous malignancies occur at a relatively high frequency, careful follow-up and the early detection of such malignancies are critical.

  11. Early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the pyriform sinus: a review of treatment options.

    PubMed

    Krstevska, V

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review of the literature was to present treatment options for early stage pyriform sinus cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma of the pyriform sinus, as the most frequent cancer arising from the hypopharynx, is rarely diagnosed in its early stage. Based on evidence from retrospective studies, conservation surgery and definitive radiotherapy are considered the available treatment modalities for patients presenting with stage T1 and T2 pyriform sinus carcinomas without clinical evidence of neck lymph node metastases, offering similar results with respect to disease control and functional organ preservation. Also, the high risk of occult metastatic nodal disease even in the earliest stage of pyriform sinus cancer entails elective neck dissection or elective neck irradiation to be considered mandatory. However, for patients with early stage pyriform sinus cancer, no level 1 study exists in which conservation surgery is compared with radiotherapy alone for the evaluation of local control or survival. Randomized multicenter controlled trials evaluating efficacy of conservation surgery and definitive radiotherapy, and correctly interpreting functional outcome for each of the treatment procedures examined are necessary to obtain sufficient evidence to influence the decision in the choice of the most effective treatment for early pyriform sinus cancer. PMID:23107977

  12. Triaging early-stage lung cancer patients into non-surgical pathways: who, when, and what?

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Feng-Ming (Spring)

    2015-01-01

    More lung cancer patients are being diagnosed at an earlier stage due to improved diagnostic imaging techniques, a trend that is expected to accelerate with the dissemination of lung cancer screening. Surgical resection has always been considered the standard treatment for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, non-surgical treatment options for patients with early-stage NSCLC have evolved significantly over the past decade with many new and exciting alternative treatments now available. These alternative treatments include radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), percutaneous cryoablation therapy (PCT), photodynamic therapy (PDT) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), including stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy. We describe the established alternatives to surgical resection, their advantages and disadvantages, potential complications and efficacy. We then describe the optimal treatment approach for patients with early-stage NSCLC based on tumor operability, size and location. Finally, we discuss future directions and whether any alternative therapies will challenge surgical resection as the treatment of choice for patients with operable early-stage lung cancer. PMID:26380185

  13. Highly-accurate metabolomic detection of early-stage ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gaul, David A.; Mezencev, Roman; Long, Tran Q.; Jones, Christina M.; Benigno, Benedict B.; Gray, Alexander; Fernández, Facundo M.; McDonald, John F.

    2015-01-01

    High performance mass spectrometry was employed to interrogate the serum metabolome of early-stage ovarian cancer (OC) patients and age-matched control women. The resulting spectral features were used to establish a linear support vector machine (SVM) model of sixteen diagnostic metabolites that are able to identify early-stage OC with 100% accuracy in our patient cohort. The results provide evidence for the importance of lipid and fatty acid metabolism in OC and serve as the foundation of a clinically significant diagnostic test. PMID:26573008

  14. Haemoglobin degradation underpins the sensitivity of early ring stage Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinins.

    PubMed

    Xie, Stanley C; Dogovski, Con; Hanssen, Eric; Chiu, Francis; Yang, Tuo; Crespo, Maria P; Stafford, Che; Batinovic, Steven; Teguh, Silvia; Charman, Susan; Klonis, Nectarios; Tilley, Leann

    2016-01-15

    Current first-line artemisinin antimalarials are threatened by the emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Decreased sensitivity is evident in the initial (early ring) stage of intraerythrocytic development, meaning that it is crucial to understand the action of artemisinins at this stage. Here, we examined the roles of iron (Fe) ions and haem in artemisinin activation in early rings using Fe ion chelators and a specific haemoglobinase inhibitor (E64d). Quantitative modelling of the antagonism accounted for its complex dependence on the chemical features of the artemisinins and on the drug exposure time, and showed that almost all artemisinin activity in early rings (>80%) is due to haem-mediated activation. The surprising implication that haemoglobin uptake and digestion is active in early rings is supported by identification of active haemoglobinases (falcipains) at this stage. Genetic down-modulation of the expression of the two main cysteine protease haemoglobinases, falcipains 2 and 3, renders early ring stage parasites resistant to artemisinins. This confirms the important role of haemoglobin-degrading falcipains in artemisinin activation, and shows that changes in the rate of artemisinin activation could mediate high-level artemisinin resistance. PMID:26675237

  15. Haemoglobin degradation underpins the sensitivity of early ring stage Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinins

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Stanley C.; Dogovski, Con; Hanssen, Eric; Chiu, Francis; Yang, Tuo; Crespo, Maria P.; Stafford, Che; Batinovic, Steven; Teguh, Silvia; Charman, Susan; Klonis, Nectarios; Tilley, Leann

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Current first-line artemisinin antimalarials are threatened by the emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Decreased sensitivity is evident in the initial (early ring) stage of intraerythrocytic development, meaning that it is crucial to understand the action of artemisinins at this stage. Here, we examined the roles of iron (Fe) ions and haem in artemisinin activation in early rings using Fe ion chelators and a specific haemoglobinase inhibitor (E64d). Quantitative modelling of the antagonism accounted for its complex dependence on the chemical features of the artemisinins and on the drug exposure time, and showed that almost all artemisinin activity in early rings (>80%) is due to haem-mediated activation. The surprising implication that haemoglobin uptake and digestion is active in early rings is supported by identification of active haemoglobinases (falcipains) at this stage. Genetic down-modulation of the expression of the two main cysteine protease haemoglobinases, falcipains 2 and 3, renders early ring stage parasites resistant to artemisinins. This confirms the important role of haemoglobin-degrading falcipains in artemisinin activation, and shows that changes in the rate of artemisinin activation could mediate high-level artemisinin resistance. PMID:26675237

  16. Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazeau, F.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Dawber, C.; Pronker, A. E.; Peene, F.; Peene, J.; Heip, C. H. R.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2010-07-01

    Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels. There is a growing interest to focus on early life stages that are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data, acquired in a commercial hatchery, demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease of pH to a level expected for the end of the century. Even though there was no significant effect of a 0.25-0.34 pH unit decrease on hatching and mortality rates during the first 2 days of development nor during the following 13-day period prior to settlement, final shells were respectively 4.5±1.3 and 6.0±2.3% smaller at pHNBS~7.8 (pCO2~1100-1200 μatm) than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1 (pCO2~460-640 μatm). Moreover, a decrease of 12.0±5.4% of shell thickness was observed after 15d of development. More severe impacts were found with a decrease of ~0.5 pHNBS unit during the first 2 days of development which could be attributed to a decrease of calcification due to a slight undersaturation of seawater with respect to aragonite. Indeed, important effects on both hatching and D-veliger shell growth were found. Hatching rates were 24±4% lower while D-veliger shells were 12.7±0.9% smaller at pHNBS~7.6 (pCO2~1900 μatm) than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1 (pCO2~540 μatm). Although these results show that blue mussel larvae are still able to develop a shell in seawater undersaturated with respect to aragonite, the observed decreases of hatching rates and shell growth could lead to a significant decrease of the settlement success. As the environmental conditions considered in this study do not necessarily reflect the natural conditions experienced by this species at the time of spawning, future studies will need to consider the whole larval cycle (from fertilization to settlement) under environmentally relevant conditions in order to investigate the potential ecological and economical losses of a decrease of this species fitness in the field.

  17. Developmental stage-dependent influence of environmental factors on growth of rural Sundanese children in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the growth trajectories and the relative relevance levels of nutrition, disease, and hormonal status at various developmental stages among children in adverse environments to provide population-based empirical evidence for the life history theory. Three years of longitudinal anthropometric data in 1-year intervals were obtained from 418 boys and girls aged 0 to 12 years at recruitment. Following the final measurement, the main survey, which included blood and feces sampling, 3-h interval food consumption recall surveys for energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometry, was performed. Blood and feces were used for detecting, respectively, anemia and hormonal (IGF-I and IGFBP-3) levels as well as intestinal helminthiasis (Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm). The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1) the growth velocity of the subject children lagged behind international standards during childhood and juvenility but caught up during early adolescence; 2) diseases, both intestinal helminths and anemia, had significant effects on growth in childhood but not at older ages; and 3) hormonal status significantly affected growth in the children, with its highest significance in early adolescence. A larger growth than international standards in early adolescence likely follows programmed hormonal mechanisms after the onset of puberty. The onset of puberty might be associated with adequate amounts of nutrient intake and be mediated by hormonal function, because the IGF-IZ score was significantly correlated with energy and protein intakes at the transitional period from juvenility to adolescence, when puberty occurs. PMID:25641623

  18. Application of molecular endpoints in early life stage salmonid environmental biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Sherrard, Ryan; Kennedy, Chris J; Elphick, James R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Molecular endpoints can enhance existing whole animal bioassays by more fully characterizing the biological impacts of aquatic pollutants. Laboratory and field studies were used to examine the utility of adopting molecular endpoints for a well-developed in situ early life stage (eyed embryo to onset of swim-up fry) salmonid bioassay to improve diagnostic assessments of water quality in the field. Coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) were exposed in the laboratory to the model metal (zinc, 40μg/L) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pyrene, 100μg/L) in water to examine the resulting early life stage salmonid responses. In situ field exposures and bioassays were conducted in parallel to evaluate the water quality of three urban streams in British Columbia (two sites with anthropogenic inputs and one reference site). The endpoints measured in swim-up fry included survival, deformities, growth (weight and length), vitellogenin (vtg) and metallothionein (Mt) protein levels, and hepatic gene expression (e.g., metallothioneins [mta and mtb], endocrine biomarkers [vtg and estrogen receptors, esr] and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes [cytochrome P450 1A3, cyp1a3 and glutathione transferases, gstk]). No effects were observed in the zinc treatment, however exposure of swim-up fry to pyrene resulted in decreased survival, deformities and increased estrogen receptor alpha (er1) mRNA levels. In the field exposures, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (cyp1a3, gstk) and zinc transporter (zntBigM103) mRNA were significantly increased in swim-up fry deployed at the sites with more anthropogenic inputs compared to the reference site. Cluster analysis revealed that gene expression profiles in individuals from the streams receiving anthropogenic inputs were more similar to each other than to the reference site. Collectively, the results obtained in this study suggest that molecular endpoints may be useful, and potentially more sensitive, indicators of site-specific contamination in real-world, complex exposure scenarios in addition to whole body morphometric and physiological measures. PMID:26874677

  19. [Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].

    PubMed

    Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA. PMID:23829961

  20. Hydrodynamic instability of elastic-plastic solid plates at the early stage of acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piriz, A. R.; Sun, Y. B.; Tahir, N. A.

    2015-03-01

    A model is presented for the linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability taking place at the early stage of acceleration of an elastic-plastic solid, when the shock wave is still running into the solid and is driven by a time varying pressure on the interface. When the the shock is formed sufficiently close to the interface, this stage is considered to follow a previous initial phase controlled by the Ritchmyer-Meshkov instability that settles new initial conditions. The model reproduces the behavior of the instability observed in former numerical simulation results and provides a relatively simpler physical picture than the currently existing one for this stage of the instability evolution.

  1. Water, energy and early postnatal growth in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Micheli, J L; Pfister, R; Junod, S; Laubscher, B; Tolsa, J F; Schutz, Y; Calame, A

    1994-12-01

    Non-invasive methods, including stable isotope techniques, indirect calorimetry, nutritional balance and skinfold thickness, have given a new insight into early postnatal growth in neonates. Neonates and premature infants in particular, create an unusual opportunity to study the fluid and metabolic adaptation to extrauterine life because their physical environment can be controlled, fluid and energy balance can be measured and the link between metabolism and the energetics of their postnatal growth can be assessed accurately. Thus the postnatal time course of total body water, heat production, energy cost of growth and composition of weight gain have been quantified in a series of "healthy" low-birth-weight premature infants. These results show that total body water is remarkably stable between postnatal days 3-21. Energy expenditure and heat production rates increase postnatally from mean values of 40 kcal/kg/day during the first week to 60 kcal/kg/day in the third week. An apparent energy balance deficit of 180 kcal/kg can be ascribed to premature delivery. The cost of protein metabolism is the highest energy demanding process related to growth. The fact that nitrogen balance becomes positive within 72 h after birth places the newborn in a transitional situation of dissociated balance between energy and protein metabolism during early postnatal growth: skinfold thickness, dry body mass and fat decrease, while there is a gain in protein and increase in supine length. This particular situation ends during the second postnatal week and soon thereafter the rate of weight gain matches statural growth. The goals of the following review are to summarize data on total body water and energy metabolism in premature infants and to discuss how they correlate with physiological aspects of early postnatal growth. PMID:7734789

  2. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  3. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period. PMID:25866430

  4. Implications of mismatch repair-deficient status on management of early stage colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Hisato; Zaanan, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    For primary colorectal cancers (CRCs), tumor stage has been the best predictor of survival after resection and the key determinant of patient management. However, considerable stage-independent variability in clinical outcome is observed that is likely due to molecular heterogeneity. This is particularly important in early stage CRCs where patients can be cured by surgery alone and only a proportion derives benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Thus, the identification of molecular prognostic markers to supplement conventional pathologic staging systems has the potential to guide patient management and influence outcomes. CRC is a heterogeneous disease with molecular phenotypes reflecting distinct forms of genetic instability. The chromosomal instability pathway (CIN) is the most common phenotype, accounting for 85% of all sporadic CRCs. Alternatively, the microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype represents ~15% of all CRCs and is caused by deficient DNA mismatch repair (MMR) as a consequence of germline mutations in MMR genes or, more commonly, epigenetic silencing of the MLH1 gene with frequent mutations in the BRAF oncogene. MSI tumors have distinct phenotypic features and are consistently associated with a better stage-adjusted prognosis compared with microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors. Among non-metastatic CRCs, the difference in prognosis between MSI and MSS tumors is larger for stage II than stage III patients. On the other hand, the predictive impact of MMR status for adjuvant chemotherapy remains a contentious issue in that most studies demonstrate a lack of benefit for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II MSI-H CRCs, whereas it remains unclear in MSI-H stage III tumors. Here, we describe the molecular aspects of the MMR system and discuss the implications of MMR-deficient/MSI-H status in the clinical management of patients with early stage CRC. PMID:26697201

  5. Implications of mismatch repair-deficient status on management of early stage colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hisato; Zaanan, Aziz; Sinicrope, Frank A

    2015-12-01

    For primary colorectal cancers (CRCs), tumor stage has been the best predictor of survival after resection and the key determinant of patient management. However, considerable stage-independent variability in clinical outcome is observed that is likely due to molecular heterogeneity. This is particularly important in early stage CRCs where patients can be cured by surgery alone and only a proportion derives benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Thus, the identification of molecular prognostic markers to supplement conventional pathologic staging systems has the potential to guide patient management and influence outcomes. CRC is a heterogeneous disease with molecular phenotypes reflecting distinct forms of genetic instability. The chromosomal instability pathway (CIN) is the most common phenotype, accounting for 85% of all sporadic CRCs. Alternatively, the microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype represents ~15% of all CRCs and is caused by deficient DNA mismatch repair (MMR) as a consequence of germline mutations in MMR genes or, more commonly, epigenetic silencing of the MLH1 gene with frequent mutations in the BRAF oncogene. MSI tumors have distinct phenotypic features and are consistently associated with a better stage-adjusted prognosis compared with microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors. Among non-metastatic CRCs, the difference in prognosis between MSI and MSS tumors is larger for stage II than stage III patients. On the other hand, the predictive impact of MMR status for adjuvant chemotherapy remains a contentious issue in that most studies demonstrate a lack of benefit for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II MSI-H CRCs, whereas it remains unclear in MSI-H stage III tumors. Here, we describe the molecular aspects of the MMR system and discuss the implications of MMR-deficient/MSI-H status in the clinical management of patients with early stage CRC. PMID:26697201

  6. Tailored design of electrospun composite nanofibers with staged release of multiple angiogenic growth factors for chronic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lai, Huan-Ju; Kuan, Chen-Hsiang; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Tsai, Jui-Che; Chen, Tim-Mo; Hsieh, Dar-Jen; Wang, Tzu-Wei

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research study is to develop a collagen (Col) and hyaluronic acid (HA) inter-stacking nanofibrous skin equivalent substitute with the programmable release of multiple angiogenic growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and endothelial growth factor (EGF)) either directly embedded in the nanofibers or encapsulated in the gelatin nanoparticles (GNs) by electrospinning technology. The delivery of EGF and bFGF in the early stage is expected to accelerate epithelialization and vasculature sprouting, while the release of PDGF and VEGF in the late stage is with the aim of inducing blood vessels maturation. The physiochemical characterizations indicate that the Col-HA-GN nanofibrous membrane possesses mechanical properties similar to human native skin. The design of a particle-in-fiber structure allows growth factors for slow controlled release up to 1month. Cultured on biodegradable Col-HA membrane with four kinds of growth factors (Col-HA w/4GF), endothelial cells not only increase in growth rate but also form a better network with a thread-like tubular structure. The therapeutic effect of Col-HA w/4GF membrane on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats reveals an accelerated wound closure rate, together with elevated collagen deposition and enhanced maturation of vessels, as revealed by Masson's trichrome stain and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. From the above, the electrospun Col-HA-GN composite nanofibrous skin substitute with a stage-wise release pattern of multiple angiogenic factors could be a promising bioengineered construct for chronic wound healing in skin tissue regeneration. PMID:24814882

  7. The pattern of early growth trajectories affects adult breeding performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Who-Seung; Monaghan, Pat; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2012-04-01

    Early environmental conditions can influence the pattern of growth and development. While poor conditions generally cause slower growth, normal adult size can still be reached if growth accelerates or is prolonged once conditions improve, but such catch-up growth may have deleterious effects later in life. Here we investigate for the first time how decelerating as well as accelerating growth trajectories, manipulated independently of food supply, affect subsequent breeding performance. In order to alter growth rates we subjected juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus to a short period of altered environmental temperature (high, intermediate, or low), after which all fish had the same (intermediate) temperature regime. In addition, the perceived time stress (until the onset of the spawning season) was manipulated by conducting the experiment twice (in the winter and in the spring immediately prior to breeding) and by exposing half of the fish in each experiment to a delayed photoperiod (two months behind ambient). We found that fish showed full growth compensation, such that in all treatments they were of the same average size by the start of the breeding season. However, those compensating for low temperatures earlier in life (i.e., who then showed an accelerated growth trajectory) had reduced reproductive investment over the following two breeding seasons (males, reduced sexual ornaments and speed of building nests; females, reduced first clutch size, mean egg size, and eggs produced per year). Moreover, these deleterious effects were strongest when the perceived time available for growth compensation prior to breeding was shortest. In contrast, those fish with a decelerating growth trajectory as a result of exposure to high temperatures early in life showed an improved breeding performance compared to steadily growing controls. These results clearly demonstrate that both the shape of the growth trajectory (independent of food supply) and the time available for growth compensation have broad-reaching and prolonged effects on breeding performance, with ecological conditions that prompt catch-up growth just prior to the breeding season being especially damaging for both sexes. PMID:22690640

  8. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  9. Effect of ocean warming and acidification on the early life stages of subtropical Acropora spicifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Gilmour, J. P.; Chua, C. M.; Falter, J. L.; McCulloch, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the impacts of acidified seawater ( pCO2 ~ 900 μatm) and elevated water temperature (+3 °C) on the early life history stages of Acropora spicifera from the subtropical Houtman Abrolhos Islands (28°S) in Western Australia. Settlement rates were unaffected by high temperature (27 °C, ~250 μatm), high pCO2 (24 °C, ~900 μatm), or a combination of both high temperature and high pCO2 treatments (27 °C, ~900 μatm). There were also no significant differences in rates of post-settlement survival after 4 weeks of exposure between any of the treatments, with survival ranging from 60 to 70 % regardless of treatment. Similarly, calcification, as determined by the skeletal weight of recruits, was unaffected by an increase in water temperature under both ambient and high pCO2 conditions. In contrast, high pCO2 significantly reduced early skeletal development, with mean skeletal weight in the high pCO2 and combined treatments reduced by 60 and 48 %, respectively, compared to control weights. Elevated temperature appeared to have a partially mitigative effect on calcification under high pCO2; however, this effect was not significant. Our results show that rates of settlement, post-settlement survival, and calcification in subtropical corals are relatively resilient to increases in temperature. This is in marked contrast to the sensitivity to temperature reported for the majority of tropical larvae and recruits in the literature. The subtropical corals in this study appear able to withstand an increase in temperature of 3 °C above ambient, indicating that they may have a wider thermal tolerance range and may not be adversely affected by initial increases in water temperature from subtropical 24 to 27 °C. However, the reduction in skeletal weight with high pCO2 indicates that early skeletal formation will be highly vulnerable to the changes in ocean pCO2 expected to occur over the twenty-first century, with implications for their longer-term growth and resilience.

  10. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix stage IB and early stage II. Prognostic value of the histological tumor regression after initial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Calais, G.; Le Floch, O.; Chauvet, B.; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A.; Bougnoux, P. )

    1989-12-01

    In our center limited centro pelvic invasive carcinomas of the uterine cervix (less than 4 cm) are treated with brachytherapy and surgery. With these therapeutic modalities no residual carcinoma was observed for 80% of the patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our results with this treatment, and to evaluate the prognostic value of the pathological status of the cervix. From 1976 to 1987 we have treated 115 patients with these modalities. Staging system used was the FIGO classification modified for Stage II (divided in early Stage II and late Stage II). Patients were Stage IB (70 cases) and early Stage II (45 cases); 60 Gy were delivered with utero vaginal brachytherapy before any treatment. Six weeks later a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Twenty-one patients with positive nodes received a pelvic radiotherapy (45 to 55 Gy). Local control rate was 97% (100% for Stage IB and 93% for early Stage II). Uncorrected 10-year actuarial survival rate was 96% for Stage IB and 80% for early Stage II patients. No treatment failure was observed for Stage IB patients. Ninety-two patients (80%) had no residual carcinoma in the cervix (group 1) and 23 patients (20%) had a residual tumor (group 2). The sterilization rate of the cervix was 87% for Stage IB tumors versus 69% for early Stage II, and was 82% for N- patients versus 68% for N+ patients. Ten year actuarial survival rate was 92% for group 1 and 78% for group 2 (p = 0, 1). Grade 3 complications rate was 6%. We conclude that brachytherapy + surgery is a safe treatment for limited centro pelvic carcinomas of the uterine cervix (especially Stage IB) and that pathological status of the cervix after brachytherapy is not a prognostic factor.

  11. Test Design Optimization in CAT Early Stage with the Nominal Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E.

    2007-01-01

    The early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) refers to the phase of the trait estimation during the administration of only a few items. This phase can be characterized by bias and instability of estimation. In this study, an item selection criterion is introduced in an attempt to lessen this instability: the D-optimality criterion. A…

  12. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

  13. 76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of public Webinars. SUMMARY: The U.S....

  14. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  15. Responding to the Challenges of Active Citizenship through the Revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    The revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) now places a stronger emphasis on personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as one of its three prime areas. PSED has three characteristics of learning: active learning, creating and thinking critically, and playing and exploring. These aspects of the revised EYFS closely align with the…

  16. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  17. Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

    2013-01-01

    This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

  18. Communication in the Early Stage of Language Development in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltokorpi, Sini; Huttunen, Kerttu

    2008-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is characterized by multiple physical abnormalities, and impaired vision and hearing. In this pilot study, communication in the early stage of language development in three one- to eight-year-old children with CHARGE syndrome was explored using video recorded free-play interaction sessions and a parental questionnaire. The children…

  19. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

  20. 76 FR 76907 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 RIN 3245-AG32 Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage SBICs AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this proposed rule, the U.S....

  1. GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY TESTS WITH JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual represents a procedural guide for conducting embryo-larval early life stage (ELS) toxicity tests with Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). hese procedures are based upon evaluation of published papers and recent methods development work conducted at our laboratory in Du...

  2. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  3. Towards a Conceptualization of the Early Career Stage of Principalship: Current Research, Idiosyncrasies and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    This review aims at providing a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of the early career stage of principalship by documenting the experiences and tasks of new principals (NPs) in the first three years in the post, and their personal and organizational determinants. The synthesis is based on empirical research…

  4. Prostatic Fatty Acids and Cancer Recurrence Following Radical Prostatectomy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Results from some observational studies suggest that diet and energy balance influence the clinical course of early-stage prostate cancer. To evaluate possible mechanisms, we prospectively examined the relation between prostatic concentrations of fatty acids at diagnosis and cancer recurr...

  5. TOXICITY OF ACENAPHTHENE AND ISOPHORONE TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF FATHEAD MINNOWS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow-through 96-hr and early-life stage toxicity tests were conducted with acenaphthene and isophorone, using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test animals. The 96-hr LC50's were 608 micro/L for acenaphthene and 145 and 255 micro/L for isophorone, depending on fish age. N...

  6. Bile duct invasion can be an independent prognostic factor in early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ye-Rang; Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), bile duct invasion occurs far more rarely than vascular invasion and is not well characterized. In addition, the pathologic finding of bile duct invasion is not considered an independent prognostic factor for HCC following surgery. In this study, we determined the characteristics of HCC with bile duct invasion, and assessed the clinical significance of bile duct invasion. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 363 patients who underwent hepatic resection for HCC at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) from January 2009 to December 2011. Preoperative, operative, and pathological data were collected. The risk factors for recurrence and survival were analyzed. Subsequently, the patients were divided into 2 groups according to disease stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer 7th edition): early stage (T1 and 2) and advanced stage (T3 and 4) group; and risk factors in the sub-groups were analyzed. Results Among 363 patients, 13 showed bile duct invasion on pathology. Patients with bile duct invasion had higher preoperative total bilirubin levels, greater microvascular invasion, and a higher death rate than those without bile duct invasion. In multivariate analysis, bile duct invasion was not an independent prognostic factor for survival for the entire cohort, but, was an independent prognostic factor for early stage. Conclusions Bile duct invasion accompanied microvascular invasion in most cases, and could be used as an independent prognostic factor for survival especially in early stage HCC (T1 and T2). PMID:26693236

  7. WHOLE-PLANT GROWTH STAGE ONTOLOGY FOR ANGIOSPERMS AND ITS APPLICATION IN PLANT BIOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth stages are identified as distinct morphological landmarks in a continuous developmental process. The terms describing these developmental stages record the morphological appearance of the plant at a specific point in its life cycle. The widely differing morphology of plant species conse...

  8. Treatment of Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Surgery or Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Uzel, Esengül Koçak; Abac?o?lu, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    The management of early-stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) has improved recently due to advances in surgical and radiation modalities. Minimally-invasive procedures like Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy decreases the morbidity of surgery, while the numerous methods of staging the mediastinum such as endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsies are helping to achieve the objectives much more effectively. Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) has become the frontrunner as the standard of care in medically inoperable early stage NSCLC patients, and has also been branded as tolerable and highly effective. Ongoing researches using SABR are continuously validating the optimal dosing and fractionation schemes, while at the same time instituting its role for both inoperable and operable patients. PMID:25759766

  9. Following iron speciation in the early stages of magnetite magnetosome biomineralization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Firlar, Emre; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Olszewska, Agata; Faivre, Damien; Prozorov, Tanya

    2016-02-26

    Understanding magnetosome magnetite biomineralization is of fundamental interest to devising the strategies for bioinspired synthesis of magnetic materials at the nanoscale. Thus, we investigated the early stages of magnetosome formation in this work and correlated the size and emergent crystallinity of magnetosome nanoparticles with the changes in chemical environment of iron and oxygen by utilizing advanced analytical electron microscopy techniques. We observed that magnetosomes in the early stages of biomineralization with the sizes of 5–10 nm were amorphous, with a majority of iron present as Fe3+, indicative of ferric hydroxide. The magnetosomes with intermediate sizes showed partially crystalline structure withmore » a majority of iron present as Fe3+ and trace amounts of Fe2+. The fully maturated magnetosomes were indexed to magnetite. Furthermore, our approach provides spatially resolved structural and chemical information of individual magnetosomes with different particle sizes, attributed to magnetosomes at different stages of biomineralization.« less

  10. Transfer factor of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-12-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (Fvs) of (137)Cs and (90)Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The Fvs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg(-1)). Significant difference of log-Fvs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, Fvs of (90)Sr were higher than those of (137)Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher Fvs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. Fvs of (90)Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced Fvs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of Fvs for (137)Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest Fvs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in Fv for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to (137)Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application. PMID:26318772

  11. Serotonin transporter availability in early stage Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Suwijn, S R; Berendse, H W; Verschuur, C V M; de Bie, R M A; Booij, J

    2014-01-01

    Background. Differentiating Parkinson's disease (PD) from multiple system atrophy (MSA) can be challenging especially early in the course of the disease. Previous studies have shown that midbrain serotonin transporter (SERT) availability in patients with established MSA was significantly lower compared to PD. It is unknown if this is also true for early-stage patients. Methods. 77 early-stage, untreated PD patients were recruited between 1995 and 1998, underwent [(123)I] ? -CIT SPECT imaging, and were followed for at least five years. 16 patients were lost to followup, and in 4 the diagnosis was changed to another atypical parkinsonian syndrome, but not in MSA. In 50 patients, the PD diagnosis was unchanged at followup. In seven patients, the diagnosis was changed to MSA at followup. We retrospectively assessed baseline midbrain SERT availability as well as midbrain SERT-to-striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) ratios. Results. No difference in baseline [(123)I] ? -CIT SERT availability was found. The midbrain SERT-to-striatal DAT ratio for whole striatum was significantly lower in patients with PD compared to MSA (P = 0.049). However, when adjusting for the disease duration at imaging this difference is not significant (P = 0.070). Conclusion. Midbrain SERT availability is not different between early-stage PD and MSA. Therefore, SERT imaging is not useful to differentiate between early PD and MSA. PMID:24693450

  12. Serotonin Transporter Availability in Early Stage Parkinson's Disease and Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Suwijn, S. R.; Berendse, H. W.; Verschuur, C. V. M.; de Bie, R. M. A.; Booij, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Differentiating Parkinson's disease (PD) from multiple system atrophy (MSA) can be challenging especially early in the course of the disease. Previous studies have shown that midbrain serotonin transporter (SERT) availability in patients with established MSA was significantly lower compared to PD. It is unknown if this is also true for early-stage patients. Methods. 77 early-stage, untreated PD patients were recruited between 1995 and 1998, underwent [123I]?-CIT SPECT imaging, and were followed for at least five years. 16 patients were lost to followup, and in 4 the diagnosis was changed to another atypical parkinsonian syndrome, but not in MSA. In 50 patients, the PD diagnosis was unchanged at followup. In seven patients, the diagnosis was changed to MSA at followup. We retrospectively assessed baseline midbrain SERT availability as well as midbrain SERT-to-striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) ratios. Results. No difference in baseline [123I]?-CIT SERT availability was found. The midbrain SERT-to-striatal DAT ratio for whole striatum was significantly lower in patients with PD compared to MSA (P = 0.049). However, when adjusting for the disease duration at imaging this difference is not significant (P = 0.070). Conclusion. Midbrain SERT availability is not different between early-stage PD and MSA. Therefore, SERT imaging is not useful to differentiate between early PD and MSA. PMID:24693450

  13. Transcriptome analyses of early cucumber fruit growth identifies distinct gene modules associated with phases of development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early stages of fruit development from initial set through exponential growth are critical determinants of size and yield, however, there has been little detailed analysis of this phase of development. In this study we combined morphological analysis with 454 pyrosequencing to study transcript level changes occurring in young cucumber fruit at five ages from anthesis through the end of exponential growth. Results The fruit samples produced 1.13 million ESTs which were assembled into 27,859 contigs with a mean length of 834 base pairs and a mean of 67 reads per contig. All contigs were mapped to the cucumber genome. Principal component analysis separated the fruit ages into three groups corresponding with cell division/pre-exponential growth (0 and 4 days post pollination (dpp)), peak exponential expansion (8dpp), and late/post-exponential expansion stages of growth (12 and 16 dpp). Transcripts predominantly expressed at 0 and 4 dpp included homologs of histones, cyclins, and plastid and photosynthesis related genes. The group of genes with peak transcript levels at 8dpp included cytoskeleton, cell wall, lipid metabolism and phloem related proteins. This group was also dominated by genes with unknown function or without known homologs outside of cucurbits. A second shift in transcript profile was observed at 12-16dpp, which was characterized by abiotic and biotic stress related genes and significant enrichment for transcription factor gene homologs, including many associated with stress response and development. Conclusions The transcriptome data coupled with morphological analyses provide an informative picture of early fruit development. Progressive waves of transcript abundance were associated with cell division, development of photosynthetic capacity, cell expansion and fruit growth, phloem activity, protection of the fruit surface, and finally transition away from fruit growth toward a stage of enhanced stress responses. These results suggest that the interval between expansive growth and ripening includes further developmental differentiation with an emphasis on defense. The increased transcript levels of cucurbit-specific genes during the exponential growth stage may indicate unique factors contributing to rapid growth in cucurbits. PMID:23031452

  14. Ocean Acidification Effects on the Early Life-Stages of Commercially Important Flatfish of the Northeast USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, R. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Candelmo, A. C.; Poach, M.; Wieczorek, D.; Phelan, B.; Caldarone, E.; Cooper, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The limited available evidence about effects on finfish of high CO2 levels and acidification of our oceans suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. A carefully planned, experimental framework was developed to cast an extensive yet strategic inferential net. Three key elements of our approach are the use of 1) multiple marine finfish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat of early life-stages; 2) a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures), and 3) a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. The response variable set reflects fish condition, fitness, and likelihood of recruitment, and includes measures of viability, physiology, histopathology, growth, development, and behavior expressed during fish early life-stages (i.e., gametes, embryos, and larvae). Early life-stages were chosen due to the anticipation of their vulnerability to acid-base challenges in their environment. To date, factorial experiments have been implemented on summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Initial results reveal survival of summer flounder embryos is compromised by pH < 7.7 (CO2 > 790 ppm). These results were similar across offspring groups (i.e., embryos from different parents). Winter flounder are larger at hatching when exposed to high CO2 levels in the coolest environment implemented in our experiments (range 4 to 10 ?C). Further responses of advanced larvae of both flounder species are currently being assessed for evidence of other whole body, component organ, and biochemical impairment. This study will aid researchers and resource managers in identifying species types, life-stages, and biotic responses that are most sensitive to the expected future levels of CO2 and water temperature in our oceans.

  15. Fate mapping of gallbladder progenitors in posteroventral foregut endoderm of mouse early somite-stage embryos.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Mami; Igarashi, Hitomi; Ozawa, Aisa; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kanai, Yoshiakira

    2015-05-01

    In early embryogenesis, the posteroventral foregut endoderm gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the liver, ventral pancreas and gallbladder during early somitogenesis. Despite the detailed fate maps of the liver and pancreatic progenitors in the mouse foregut endoderm, the exact location of the gallbladder progenitors remains unclear. In this study, we performed a DiI fate-mapping analysis using whole-embryo cultures of mouse early somite-stage embryos. Here, we show that the majority of gallbladder progenitors in 9-11-somite-stage embryos are located in the lateral-most domain of the foregut endoderm at the first intersomite junction level along the anteroposterior axis. This definition of their location highlights a novel entry point to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of initial specification of the gallbladder. PMID:25648459

  16. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Y; Yan, F; Niu, L L; Chen, Q N; Zheng, H R; Li, J Y

    2016-03-24

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery. PMID:26972797

  17. Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Early-Stage Lung Cancer Based on Longitudinal and Balanced Data

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Zhang, Regina; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Xia; Guo, Xiuhua

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer resulting in over a million deaths per year worldwide. Typically, the problem can be approached by developing more discriminative diagnosis methods. In this paper, computer-aided diagnosis was used to facilitate the prediction of characteristics of solitary pulmonary nodules in CT of lungs to diagnose early-stage lung cancer. Methods The synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) was used to account for raw data in order to balance the original training data set. Curvelet-transformation textural features, together with 3 patient demographic characteristics, and 9 morphological features were used to establish a support vector machine (SVM) prediction model. Longitudinal data as the test data set was used to evaluate the classification performance of predicting early-stage lung cancer. Results Using the SMOTE as a pre-processing procedure, the original training data was balanced with a ratio of malignant to benign cases of 1?1. Accuracy based on cross-evaluation for the original unbalanced data and balanced data was 80% and 97%, respectively. Based on Curvelet-transformation textural features and other features, the SVM prediction model had good classification performance for early-stage lung cancer, with an area under the curve of the SVMs of 0.949 (P<0.001). Textural feature (standard deviation) showed benign cases had a higher change in the follow-up period than malignant cases. Conclusions With textural features extracted from a Curvelet transformation and other parameters, a sensitive support vector machine prediction model can increase the rate of diagnosis for early-stage lung cancer. This scheme can be used as an auxiliary tool to differentiate between benign and malignant early-stage lung cancers in CT images. PMID:23691066

  18. Esophagectomy Compared to Chemoradiation for Early Stage Esophageal Cancer in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Julian A.; Buono, Donna L.; Strauss, Joshua; McBride, Russell B.; Hershman, Dawn L.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2009-01-01

    Background Esophagectomy has been the traditional treatment of choice for early stage esophageal cancer. However, esophagectomy is associated with high mortality and morbidity in the elderly, and these patients often receive chemoradiation instead. We compared outcomes of esophagectomy versus chemoradiation in a population-based sample of elderly patients with early stage esophageal cancer. Methods We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database to identify patients ?65 years diagnosed with stage 1 or 2 esophageal cancer from 1991–2002. We assessed associations of treatment with esophagectomy or chemoradiation with demographic and clinical variables. We performed survival analyses to compare outcomes with treatment modality, adjusted for potential confounders. Results We identified 730 patients with stage 1 or 2 esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy (n=341; 46.7%) or chemoradiation (n=389, 53.3%). Older age, squamous cell histology, and lower socioeconomic status were associated with increased odds of receipt of chemoradiation. In multivariable analyses, chemoradiation was associated with worse disease-specific (HR 2.08, 95%CI 1.64–2.64) and overall survival (HR 1.92, 95%CI 1.58–2.34). Receipt of chemoradiation was associated with worse survival for adenocarcinoma (HR 3.01, 95%CI 2.24–4.04), but there was no significant difference for squamous cell (HR 1.33, 95%CI 0.98–1.80). Conclusion Compared to chemoradiation, esophagectomy may be associated with improved survival for early stage esophageal cancer in the elderly. The results suggest that there may also be a subset of squamous cell patients for whom chemoradiation is adequate therapy. A randomized trial would be useful to determine optimal treatment for elderly patients with early stage esophageal cancer. PMID:19637343

  19. Responses to various exposure durations of levonorgestrel during early-life stages of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Overturf, Matthew D; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are routinely detected in the environment; and several of these compounds have been extensively researched due to their potential impacts to the endocrine system of aquatic organisms. The negative reproductive consequences of synthetic progestins in teleost species have only recently been investigated. The current study examined different exposure periods that may be most sensitive for levonorgestrel (LNG) in early-life stages of fathead minnow larvae. Larvae were exposed to a single concentration of LNG (125ng/L) for different durations from fertilized egg through 28 days post hatch (dph) with growth and mRNA expression of FSH, 3?-HSD, 20?-HSD, and CYP19a1 measured. Regardless of the duration of exposure, LNG significantly decreased growth in the fathead minnow larvae at day 28. For both 20?-HSD and CYP19a1, mRNA expression was decreased following LNG exposure durations ?7 days. 3?-HSD and FSH showed similar trends after exposure to LNG with later stages of development exhibiting decreased expression. 20?-HSD and 3?-HSD were the only transcripts to remain down regulated once larvae were moved to clean water after the 7-14dph LNG exposure. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure time to a synthetic progestin on developing fish. Future research is needed to understand what impacts these changes have on adult stages of development. PMID:25661708

  20. Ventilation Homogeneity Improves with Growth Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Chakr, Valentina C.; Llapur, Conrado J.; Sarria, Edgar E.; Mattiello, Rita; Kisling, Jeffrey; Tiller, Christina; Kimmel, Risa; Poindexter, Brenda; Tepper, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that lung clearance index (LCI) is age-independent among healthy subjects early in life, which implies that ventilation distribution does not vary with growth. However, other studies of older children and adolescents suggest that ventilation becomes more homogenous with somatic growth. We describe a new technique to obtain multiple breath washout (MBWO) in sedated infants and toddlers using slow augmented inflation breaths that yields an assessment of LCI and the slope of phase III, which is another index of ventilation inhomogeneity. We evaluated whether ventilation becomes more homogenous with increasing age early in life, and whether infants with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) have increased ventilation inhomogeneity relative to full term controls. Fullterm controls (N = 28) and CLDI (N = 22) subjects between 3 and 28 months corrected-age were evaluated. LCI decreased with increasing age; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (9.3 vs. 9.5; p = 0.56). Phase III slopes adjusted for expired volume (SND) increased with increasing breath number during the washout and decreased with increasing age. There was no significant difference in SND between fullterm and CLDI subjects (211 vs. 218; P = 0.77). Our findings indicate that ventilation becomes more homogenous with lung growth and maturation early in life; however, there is no evidence that ventilation inhomogeneity is a significant component of the pulmonary pathophysiology of CLDI. PMID:21901860

  1. Investigating Stage-Sequential Growth Mixture Models with Multiphase Longitudinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Jee-Seon

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates three types of stage-sequential growth mixture models in the structural equation modeling framework for the analysis of multiple-phase longitudinal data. These models can be important tools for situations in which a single-phase growth mixture model produces distorted results and can allow researchers to better understand…

  2. Investigating Stage-Sequential Growth Mixture Models with Multiphase Longitudinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Jee-Seon

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates three types of stage-sequential growth mixture models in the structural equation modeling framework for the analysis of multiple-phase longitudinal data. These models can be important tools for situations in which a single-phase growth mixture model produces distorted results and can allow researchers to better understand…

  3. Initial stages of growth of pentacene on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratina, Gvido; Chikkara, Manisha; Pavlica, Egon; Matkovic, Aleksandar; Beltaoš, Angela; Jovanovic, Djordje; Stojanovic, Danka; Gajic, Radoš

    2013-03-01

    We have examined by scanning probe microscope submonolayer coverages of pentacene on graphene fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and exfoliated graphene. Inherent to CVD-graphene, even upon transferring onto SiO2 substrates is the presence of varying surface density of folds-grafolds. By means of Kelvin force microscopy we observe about 0.3 eV higher workfunction on multiply-folded grafolds, but within our resolution, observe no change in workfunction for singly folded grafolds. By atomic force microscopy we observe that grafolds act as nucleation centers for pentacene, inducing three-dimensional (3D) morphology of pentacene layers in the nucleation phase of growth. Moreover, the resulting elongated islands exhibit a preferential orientation perpendicular to the dominant direction of a grafold. We associate this behavior in terms of elastic strain and enhanced chemical reactivity of the grafolds. This type of morphology is at strong variance with the morphology of pentacene layers that we observe on exfoliated graphene. There we observe two-dimensional (2D) islands whose height of 1.5 nm corresponds to a thin-film phase of pentacene. We observe the onset of 3D island nucleation on the surface of the 2D islands that have attained a critical size. We interpret this behavior in terms of surface energy of pentacene that depends on the underlying substrate. Slovenian research Agency, program P1-0055, Serbian Ministry of Sccience, and EU FP7 project 228637

  4. Modification of flower architecture during early stages in the evolution of self-fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The evolution of selfing from outcrossing is characterized by a series of morphological changes to flowers culminating in the selfing syndrome. However, which morphological traits initiate increased self-pollination and which are accumulated after self-fertilization establishes is poorly understood. Because the expression of floral traits may depend on the conditions experienced by an individual during flower development, investigation of changes in mating system should also account for environmental and developmental factors. Here, early stages in the evolution of self-pollination are investigated by comparing floral traits among Brazilian populations of Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae), an annual aquatic that displays variation in selfing rates associated with the breakdown of tristyly to semi-homostyly. Methods Thirty-one Brazilian populations under uniform glasshouse conditions were compared to investigate genetic and environmental influences on flower size and stigma–anther separation (herkogamy), two traits that commonly vary in association with transitions to selfing. Within-plant variation in herkogamy was also examined and plants grown under contrasting environmental conditions were compared to examine to what extent this trait exhibits phenotypic plasticity. Key Results In E. paniculata a reduction in herkogamy is the principal modification initiating the evolution of selfing. Significantly, reduced herkogamy was restricted to the mid-styled morph and occurred independently of flower size. Significant genetic variation for herkogamy was detected among populations and families, including genotypes exhibiting developmental instability of stamen position with bimodal distributions of herkogamy values. Cloned genets exposed to contrasting growth conditions demonstrated environmental control of herkogamy and genotypic differences in plasticity of this trait. Conclusions The ability to modify herkogamy independently of other floral traits, genetic variation in the environmental sensitivity of herkogamy, and the production of modified and unmodified flowers within some individuals, reveal the potential for dynamic control of the mating system in a species that commonly confronts heterogeneous aquatic environments. PMID:19202135

  5. The early stages of tumor angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma: a nude mice xenotransplant model.

    PubMed

    Giner, Francisco; López-Guerrero, José Antonio; Machado, Isidro; García-Casado, Zaida; Peydró-Olaya, Amando; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Osteosarcoma (Os) is the most common malignant bone tumor in childhood and not rare in adults. In recent years, much research has focused on the role of angiogenesis in tumor development, growth, invasion, and metastasis. The aims of this study were to characterize neovascularization established between the xenotransplanted Os and the host at histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular level, and to evaluate if this model could be used in testing new anti-angiogenic drugs. Three xenotransplanted human Os were evaluated. Tumor pieces 3-4 mm in size were implanted subcutaneously on the back of athymic Balb-c nude mice (n = 14). The animals were killed at 24, 48, and 72 h and 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after implantation. Tumor samples were either fixed in 10 % formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin for histological analysis, or fixed with glutaraldehyde (2 %) for electron microscopy or retained non-fixed for molecular analysis (ELISA and qRT-PCR). Morphologically, intense neo-vasculogenesis within tumor parenchyma was present between the first and third week after transplantation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated overexpression of VEGF and their receptors together with PDFGFRA 24-48 h after tumor implantation. Additionally, neoplastic cells co-expressed chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, and GRO) and their receptors. Molecular studies showed two expression profiles, distinguishing an early and a late phase in the angiogenic process. In Os, our model showed two stages of induced angiogenesis, with close association between histological and molecular events. This approximation could be of use for testing the effect of different anti-angiogenic agents. PMID:26055533

  6. miRNAs in Urine Extracellular Vesicles as Predictors of Early-Stage Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yijie; Guan, Meiping; Zheng, Zongji; Zhang, Qian; Tang, Chuan; Xu, Wenwei; Xiao, Zhizhou; Wang, Ling; Xue, Yaoming

    2016-01-01

    Background. miR-192, miR-194, and miR-215 are enriched in the kidney and play roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can be detected in body fluids and may serve as disease biomarkers. Methods. Eighty type 2 diabetes patients with normoalbuminuria (n = 30), microalbuminuria (n = 30), or macroalbuminuria (n = 20), as well as 10 healthy controls, were enrolled in this study. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate urinary EV miRNAs expression. Results. The miR-192 levels were significantly higher than the miR-194 and miR-215 levels in urine EVs and all three miRNAs were significantly increased in the microalbuminuric group compared with the normoalbuminuric and control subjects but were decreased in the macroalbuminuric group. In patients with normoalbuminuria and microalbuminuria, miR-192 was positively correlated with albuminuria (r = 0.357, P = 0.005) levels and transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β1 (r = 0.356, P = 0.005) expression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that miR-192 was better than miR-194 and miR-215 in discriminating the normoalbuminuric group from the microalbuminuric group. Exposure of human renal tubular epithelial cells to high glucose increased the expression of both miRNAs in cellular supernatant EVs, indicating a potential source. Conclusion. These results suggest the potential use of urinary EV miR-192 as a biomarker of the early stage of DN. PMID:26942205

  7. Knowledge-based compact disease models identify new molecular players contributing to early-stage Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High-throughput profiling of human tissues typically yield as results the gene lists comprised of a mix of relevant molecular entities with multiple false positives that obstruct the translation of such results into mechanistic hypotheses. From general probabilistic considerations, gene lists distilled for the mechanistically relevant components can be far more useful for subsequent experimental design or data interpretation. Results The input candidate gene lists were processed into different tiers of evidence consistency established by enrichment analysis across subsets of the same experiments and across different experiments and platforms. The cut-offs were established empirically through ontological and semantic enrichment; resultant shortened gene list was re-expanded by Ingenuity Pathway Assistant tool. The resulting sub-networks provided the basis for generating mechanistic hypotheses that were partially validated by literature search. This approach differs from previous consistency-based studies in that the cut-off on the Receiver Operating Characteristic of the true-false separation process is optimized by flexible selection of the consistency building procedure. The gene list distilled by this analytic technique and its network representation were termed Compact Disease Model (CDM). Here we present the CDM signature for the study of early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. The integrated analysis of this gene signature allowed us to identify the protein traffic vesicles as prominent players in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s. Considering the distances and complexity of protein trafficking in neurons, it is plausible that spontaneous protein misfolding along with a shortage of growth stimulation result in neurodegeneration. Several potentially overlapping scenarios of early-stage Alzheimer pathogenesis have been discussed, with an emphasis on the protective effects of AT-1 mediated antihypertensive response on cytoskeleton remodeling, along with neuronal activation of oncogenes, luteinizing hormone signaling and insulin-related growth regulation, forming a pleiotropic model of its early stages. Alignment with emerging literature confirmed many predictions derived from early-stage Alzheimer’s disease’ CDM. Conclusions A flexible approach for high-throughput data analysis, the Compact Disease Model generation, allows extraction of meaningful, mechanism-centered gene sets compatible with instant translation of the results into testable hypotheses. PMID:24196233

  8. Bridging the gap: facilities and technologies for development of early stage therapeutic mAb candidates.

    PubMed

    Munro, Trent P; Mahler, Stephen M; Huang, Edwin P; Chin, David Y; Gray, Peter P

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently dominate the biologics marketplace. Development of a new therapeutic mAb candidate is a complex, multistep process and early stages of development typically begin in an academic research environment. Recently, a number of facilities and initiatives have been launched to aid researchers along this difficult path and facilitate progression of the next mAb blockbuster. Complementing this, there has been a renewed interest from the pharmaceutical industry to reconnect with academia in order to boost dwindling pipelines and encourage innovation. In this review, we examine the steps required to take a therapeutic mAb from discovery through early stage preclinical development and toward becoming a feasible clinical candidate. Discussion of the technologies used for mAb discovery, production in mammalian cells and innovations in single-use bioprocessing is included. We also examine regulatory requirements for product quality and characterization that should be considered at the earliest stages of mAb development. We provide details on the facilities available to help researchers and small-biotech build value into early stage product development, and include examples from within our own facility of how technologies are utilized and an analysis of our client base. PMID:21822050

  9. Experience with the “da Vinci” robotic system for early-stage thymomas: Report of 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ping; Ye, Bo; Yang, Yu; Tantai, Ji-Cheng; Zhao, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to report a single referral center experience in robotic extended thymectomy for clinical early stage thymomas, evaluating its safety, feasibility and efficacy, with special regard to oncological outcomes. Methods Between January 2009 and December 2012, we retrospectively selected patients who underwent robotic extended thymectomy for clinical early stage thymomas. Operative time, morbidity, mortality, duration of hospitalization, and overall and disease-free survival were analyzed. Results There were 23 patients (15 males, eight females) with a mean age of 49.3 years (range 20–66). There were no intra-operative complications, and no mortality. The mean operative time was 85.2 minutes (range 60–180). No patient underwent conversion to open surgery. All post-operative complications (4.3%) were conservatively treated. The mean post-operative stay was 3.6 days (range two to nine). The pathological analysis revealed Masaoka stage I (21 cases) and II (two cases). No disease recurrence occurred at a mean follow-up of 24.8 months. Conclusions Robotic thymectomy is a safe and feasible technique, with a short operative time and low morbidity. Even on a small series with short follow-up, robotic extended thymectomy for thymoma appeared to be an effective treatment for early-stage thymomas.

  10. Characterization of early stage cartilage degradation using diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. P.; Jayadev, C.; Glyn-Jones, S.; Carr, A. J.; Murray, D. W.; Price, A. J.; Gill, H. S.

    2011-04-01

    Interest in localized and early stage treatment technologies for joint conditions such as osteoarthritis is growing rapidly. It has therefore become important to develop objective measures capable of characterizing the earliest (non-visible) changes associated with degeneration to aid treatment procedures. In addition to assessing tissue before treatment, it is further important to develop an effective, non-destructive means of monitoring post-treatment tissue healing, and of providing the high-quality data needed for trials of developing treatment methods. To investigate its ability to detect the early stages of degeneration in cartilage-on-bone, diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy was applied to normal and osteoarthritic joints. A discriminating function was developed to relate absorbance peaks of interest and track degradation around focal osteoarthritic defects. The function could distinguish between normal and degraded tissue (100% separation of normal tissue from that within 25 mm of a defect) and between different stages of osteoarthritic progression (p < 0.05). This technique allows simple, practical and non-destructive assessment of component-level properties over the full depth of the tissue. It has the potential to increase our understanding of the underlying etiologic and pathogenic processes in early stage degeneration, to assist classification and the development of new treatment methods.

  11. Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

  12. Optimization of a novel enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y F; Bronlund, J E; Allsop, T F; Shilton, A N; Edmonds, R L

    2010-01-01

    An enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins has been previously reported by the Leather and Shoe Research Association of New Zealand (LASRA) as an alternative to current industry operations. The newly developed process had marked benefits over conventional processing in terms of a lowered energy usage (73%), processing time (47%) as well as water use (49%), but had been developed as a "proof of principle''. The objective of this work was to develop the process further to a stage ready for adoption by industry. Mass balancing was used to investigate potential modifications for the process based on the understanding developed from a detailed analysis of preliminary design trials. Results showed that a configuration utilising a 2 stage counter-current system for the washing stages and segregation and recycling of enzyme float prior to dilution in the neutralization stage was a significant improvement. Benefits over conventional processing include a reduction of residual TDS by 50% at the washing stages and 70% savings on water use overall. Benefits over the un-optimized LASRA process are reduction of solids in product after enzyme treatment and neutralization stages by 30%, additional water savings of 21%, as well as 10% savings of enzyme usage. PMID:20861557

  13. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Results Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60–0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.98, P=0.003; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.94, P=0.002; RR =0.72, 95% CI: 0.58–0.89, P=0.002; and RR =0.47, 95% CI: 0.33–0.67, P<0.0001, respectively). Conclusion The long-term survival outcomes for patients with single BCLC very early/early stage HCC appear to be superior after liver resection compared to radiofrequency ablation.

  14. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Surface-Associated Growth of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    PubMed Central

    Gödeke, Julia; Binnenkade, Lucas; Thormann, Kai M.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation starts with single cells attaching to a surface, however, little is known about the initial attachment steps and the adaptation to the surface-associated life style. Here, we describe a hydrodynamic system that allows easy harvest of cells at very early biofilm stages. Using the metal ion-reducing gammaproteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a model organism, we analyzed the transcriptional changes occurring during surface-associated growth between 15 and 60 minutes after attachment. 230 genes were significantly upregulated and 333 were downregulated by a factor of ?2. Main functional categories of the corresponding gene products comprise metabolism, uptake and transport, regulation, and hypothetical proteins. Among the genes highly upregulated those implicated in iron uptake are highly overrepresented, strongly indicating that S. oneidensis MR-1 has a high demand for iron during surface attachment and initial biofilm stages. Subsequent microscopic analysis of biofilm formation under hydrodynamic conditions revealed that addition of Fe(II) significantly stimulated biofilm formation of S. oneidensis MR-1 while planktonic growth was not affected. Our approach to harvest cells for transcriptional analysis of early biofilm stages is expected to be easily adapted to other bacterial species. PMID:22860070

  16. Lipid molecules influence early stages of yeast SNARE-mediated membrane fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ying; Zhao, Lin; Bu, Bing; Lou, Xiaochu; Li, Dechang; Ji, Baohua; Liu, Jiankang; Diao, Jiajie; Shin, Yeon-Kyun

    2015-04-01

    Lipid molecules, structural components of biomembranes, have been proposed for an important role in membrane fusion. Through various techniques based on a protein-reconstituted vesicle-vesicle fusion system, we investigated the influence of several lipid molecules on different stages of a yeast soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated membrane fusion process. Lipid compositions played a significant role in the early stages, docking and lipid mixing, while only exhibiting a minor effect on fusion pore formation and dilation phases, indicated by both small and large content mixing.

  17. The mobilization of defence mechanisms in the early stages of pea seed germination against Ascochyta pisi.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Marczak, Lukasz; Stobiecki, Maciej; Bednarski, Waldemar

    2013-02-01

    Ascochyta pisi is a necrotrophic pathogenic fungus, which mainly survives between seasons through infected seeds. Defence responses of pea embryo axes to A. pisi were investigated in the heterotrophic phase of seed germination and during the transition from the heterotrophic to the autotrophic phase. Germinated pea seeds, both non-inoculated and inoculated with A. pisi, were cultured in perlite for 96 h. Polarographic studies performed on intact embryo axes of germinating pea seeds infected with A. pisi showed a high respiratory intensity in time from 48 to 96 h after inoculation. Forty-eight-hour embryo axes of germinating pea seeds exhibited the highest respiration rate, which in infected axes was maintained at the following time points after inoculation. Moreover, at 72 and 96 h after inoculation, respiratory intensity was by 64% and 73% higher than in the control. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis revealed a higher concentration of semiquinone free radicals with g values of g (||) = 2.0031 ± 0.0004 and g (⊥) = 2.0048 ± 0.0004 in infected axes than in the control. Generation of superoxide anion radical was also higher in infected axes than in the control but stronger at 72 and 96 h after inoculation. Starting from 72 h after infection, the level of Mn(2+) ions in infected axes decreased in relation to the control. At the same time, the highest activity of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) was observed in 72-h infected axes. In turn, the activity of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) up to 72 h after infection was lower than in the control. In 48-h infected embryo axes, a very high level of pterocarpan pisatin was observed. Infection of germinating pea seeds with A. pisi restricted mainly the growth of the epicotyl, but did not inhibit the increase in length and fresh weight of root embryo axes versus cultivation time. These results indicate that in pea during the stages of seed germination and early seedling growth, protective mechanisms are induced in embryo axes against A. pisi. PMID:22274650

  18. Multicenter analysis of soluble Axl reveals diagnostic value for very early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Starlinger, Patrick; Staufer, Katharina; Nenutil, Rudolf; Muller, Petr; Greplova, Kristina; Valik, Dalibor; Dooley, Steven; Brostjan, Christine; Gruenberger, Thomas; Shen, Jiayun; Man, Kwan; Trauner, Michael; Yu, Jun; Gao, Chun Fang; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    If diagnosed at early stages, patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can receive curative therapies, whereas therapeutic options at later stages are very limited. Here, we addressed the potential of soluble Axl (sAxl) as a biomarker of early HCC by analyzing levels of sAxl in 311 HCC and 237 control serum samples from centers in Europe and China. Serum concentrations of sAxl were significantly increased in HCC (18.575 ng/mL) as compared to healthy (13.388 ng/mL) or cirrhotic (12.169 ng/mL) controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of sAxl in very early stage HCC patients (BCLC 0) showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.848, with a sensitivity of 76.9% and a specificity of 69.2%. ?-Fetoprotein (AFP)-negative HCC patients displayed an AUC of 0.803, with sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 70.8%. Combination of sAxl and AFP improved diagnostic accuracy to 0.936 in very early HCC patients and to 0.937 in all HCC. Differential diagnosis of very early HCC versus liver cirrhosis showed a combined performance for sAxl and AFP of 0.901 with a sensitivity of 88.5% and a specificity of 76.7%. Furthermore, sAxl levels failed to be elevated in primary ovarian, colorectal and breast carcinomas as well as in secondary hepatic malignancies derived from colon. In summary, sAxl outperforms AFP in detecting very early HCC as compared to healthy or cirrhotic controls and shows high diagnostic accuracy for AFP-negative patients. sAxl is specific for HCC and suggested as a biomarker for routine clinical use. PMID:25529751

  19. Larval growth rate and sex determine resource allocation and stress responsiveness across life stages in juvenile frogs.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-03-01

    The extent to which interactions between environmental stressors and phenotypic variation during larval life stages impose carry-over effects on adult phenotypes in wildlife are not clear. Using semi-natural mesocosms, we examined how chronically low food availability and size-specific phenotypes in larval amphibians interact and carry over to influence frog growth, resource allocation, endocrine activity and survival. We tagged three cohorts of larvae that differed in body size and developmental stage at 3 weeks after hatching, and tracked them through 10 weeks after metamorphosis in high and low food conditions. We found that growth and development rates during the early tadpole stage not only affected metamorphic rates, but also shaped resource allocation and stress responsiveness in frogs: the slowest growing larvae from low-food mesocosms exhibited a suppressed glucocorticoid response to a handling stressor; reduced growth rate and fat storage as frogs. We also show for the first time that larval developmental trajectories varied with sex, where females developed faster than males especially in food-restricted conditions. Last, while larval food restriction profoundly affected body size in larvae and frogs, time to metamorphosis was highly constrained, which suggests that the physiology and development of this ephemeral pond-breeding amphibian is adapted for rapid metamorphosis despite large potential variation in nutrient availability. Taken together, these results suggest that larval phenotypic variation significantly influences multiple dimensions of post-metamorphic physiology and resource allocation, which likely affect overall performance. PMID:25676342

  20. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Dun; Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 ; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Qiang; Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie; Lian, Qing-Quan; Deng, Hai-Teng; Ge, Ren-Shan; The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000

    2010-08-15

    Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.

  1. Mechanical properties of the porcine growth plate vary with developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Roxanne; Sergerie, Kim; Lévesque, Martin; Villemure, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of the growth plate at four different stages of growth and to compare two different methods of extracting these properties. Porcine distal ulnar growth plate samples were obtained from newborn, 4-, 8-, and 18-week (W) pigs and were tested using stress relaxation tests under unconfined compression. A four-parameter curve fitting procedure was developed to extract mechanical properties using the Transversely Isotropic Biphasic Elastic model(TIBPE) (Cohen et al. in J Biomech Eng Trans Asme 120(4):491-496, 1998) and the Differential Evolution (DE) optimization algorithm (Price et al. Natural computing series, Springer, Germany 2005). Optimization was done on all experimental curves for the first method and on one average experimental curve per developmental stage in the second. The 4-week stage was studied in two subgroups (a) and (b) due to distinct differences in mechanical properties. Intrinsic mechanical properties of the growth plate varied nonlinearly with developmental stage. Both methods showed that transverse and out-of-plane Young's moduli (E (1), E (3)) decrease with developmental stage, whereas transverse permeability (k (1)) increases. The exception is a sharp increase in stiffness and reduction in permeability at the 4W(a) stage, which may be associated with rapid porcine developmental changes at the 3-4 week period. The second method provides a more reliable representation of the average mechanical behavior, whereas the first method allows statistical comparison of optimized mechanical properties. This study characterizes, for the first time, the variation in growth plate mechanical properties for the same animal (porcine) and bone (ulna) model with developmental stage and provides new insight into the progression of musculoskeletal diseases during growth spurts in response to mechanical loading. PMID:21559968

  2. Malnutrition and poverty in the early stages of famine: North Darfur, 1988-90.

    PubMed

    Jaspars, S; Young, H

    1995-09-01

    In this article we report findings on the relationship between malnutrition and poverty during a period of acute food insecurity in Darfur, Sudan. Children of rich and poor families were equally likely to be malnourished, which is explained in terms of people's responses to the threat of famine. This finding has important implications for targeting interventions in the early stages of famine. Appropriate interventions at the early stages of famine are livelihood and income support to the most vulnerable. The entitlement theory of famine causation assumes that the poor are most vulnerable, and become malnourished and die during famines. In this article we show that this assumption does not hold. Even though poverty is the root cause of malnutrition, it does not follow that anthropometric status can be used to target individual poor families, or even that targeting the poor is appropriate in famine situations. PMID:7552110

  3. Early stages of precipitation in Mg-RE alloys studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlček, M.; Čížek, J.; Melikhova, O.; Hruška, P.; Procházka, I.; Vlach, M.; Stulíková, I.; Smola, B.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys with rare earth (RE) elements are promising structural materials exhibiting favourable mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. However, the processes occurring during early stages of precipitation in these alloys are still not completely understood. In this work positron lifetime spectroscopy combined with coincidence Doppler broadening was employed for investigation of early stages of precipitation in Mg-RE alloys. Presence of quenched-in vacancy clusters was observed after solution treatment of studied alloys. These quenched-in vacancy clusters are bound to RE solutes and thereby stabilized at room temperature. During natural aging, RE clusters are formed by vacancy-assisted long-range diffusion. In addition, hardness of studied materials increases and quenched-in vacancy clusters are annealed out during the course of natural aging. Simple model was developed to describe hardening during natural aging.

  4. Molecular Imaging Insights into Early Inflammatory Stages of Arterial and Aortic Valve Calcification

    PubMed Central

    New, Sophie E. P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Traditional imaging modalities such as computed tomography, although perfectly adept at identifying and quantifying advanced calcification, cannot detect the early stages of this disorder and offer limited insight into the mechanisms of mineral dysregulation. This review presents optical molecular imaging as a promising tool that simultaneously detects pathobiological processes associated with inflammation and early stages of calcification in vivo at the (sub)cellular levels. Research into treatment of cardiovascular calcification is lacking, as shown by clinical trials that have failed to demonstrate the reduction of calcific aortic stenosis. Hence the need to elucidate the pathways that contribute to cardiovascular calcification and to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse calcification has driven investigations into the use of molecular imaging. This review discusses studies that have used molecular imaging methods to advance knowledge of cardiovascular calcification, focusing in particular on the inflammation-dependent mechanisms of arterial and aortic valve calcification. PMID:21617135

  5. CdiGMP signaling at early stages of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Xian, Wujing; Utada, Andrew; Wong, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Biofilm communities on surfaces constitute an important physiological state of bacteria. CdiGMP is a secondary messenger that has recently emerged as a master regulator of biofilm behavior. It has been shown that cdiGMP can affect bacterial adhesion, motility and exopolysaccharides production, which are important in regulating biofilm formation. However, at a single cell level, the details of how cdiGMP regulate bacterial behavior are largely unknown. Here we examine the dynamics of intracellular cdiGMP levels at early stages of biofilm in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, by using cell tracking techniques. We show that cells with different cdiGMP levels play different roles in the microcolony development at early stages of biofilm. The correlation between Psl and cdiGMP levels is also investigated.

  6. The D-Optimality Item Selection Criterion in the Early Stage of CAT: A Study with the Graded Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E. S.

    2008-01-01

    During the early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), item selection criteria based on Fisher"s information often produce less stable latent trait estimates than the Kullback-Leibler global information criterion. Robustness against early stage instability has been reported for the D-optimality criterion in a polytomous CAT with the…

  7. MAPRE1 as a Plasma Biomarker for Early-Stage Colorectal Cancer and Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Ayumu; Rho, Jung-Hyun; Yan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Yuzheng; Zhao, Yang; Xu, Hanwen; Tripathi, Satyendra Chandra; Wang, Hong; Brenner, Dean E; Kucherlapati, Melanie; Kucherlapati, Raju; Boutin, Adam T; Wang, Y Alan; DePinho, Ronald A; Feng, Ziding; Lampe, Paul D; Hanash, Samir M

    2015-11-01

    Blood-based biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer could complement current approaches to colorectal cancer screening. We previously identified the APC-binding protein MAPRE1 as a potential colorectal cancer biomarker. Here, we undertook a case-control validation study to determine the performance of MAPRE1 in detecting early colorectal cancer and colon adenoma and to assess the potential relevance of additional biomarker candidates. We analyzed plasma samples from 60 patients with adenomas, 30 with early colorectal cancer, 30 with advanced colorectal cancer, and 60 healthy controls. MAPRE1 and a set of 21 proteins with potential biomarker utility were assayed using high-density antibody arrays, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was assayed using ELISA. The biologic significance of the candidate biomarkers was also assessed in colorectal cancer mouse models. Plasma MAPRE1 levels were significantly elevated in both patients with adenomas and patients with colorectal cancer compared with controls (P < 0.0001). MAPRE1 and CEA together yielded an area under the curve of 0.793 and a sensitivity of 0.400 at 95% specificity for differentiating early colorectal cancer from controls. Three other biomarkers (AK1, CLIC1, and SOD1) were significantly increased in both adenoma and early colorectal cancer patient plasma samples and in plasma from colorectal cancer mouse models at preclinical stages compared with controls. The combination of MAPRE1, CEA, and AK1 yielded sensitivities of 0.483 and 0.533 at 90% specificity and sensitivities of 0.350 and 0.467 at 95% specificity for differentiating adenoma and early colorectal cancer, respectively, from healthy controls. These findings suggest that MAPRE1 can contribute to the detection of early-stage colorectal cancer and adenomas together with other biomarkers. Cancer Prev Res; 8(11); 1112-9. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26342024

  8. Early stages of figure-ground segregation during perception of the face-vase.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Michael A; Martínez, Antígona; Brewer, James B; Hillyard, Steven A

    2011-04-01

    The temporal sequence of neural processes supporting figure-ground perception was investigated by recording ERPs associated with subjects' perceptions of the face-vase figure. In Experiment 1, subjects continuously reported whether they perceived the face or the vase as the foreground figure by pressing one of two buttons. Each button press triggered a probe flash to the face region, the vase region, or the borders between the two. The N170/vertex positive potential (VPP) component of the ERP elicited by probes to the face region was larger when subjects perceived the faces as figure. Preceding the N170/VPP, two additional components were identified. First, when the borders were probed, ERPs differed in amplitude as early as 110 msec after probe onset depending on subjects' figure-ground perceptions. Second, when the face or vase regions were probed, ERPs were more positive (at ? 150-200 msec) when that region was perceived as figure versus background. These components likely reflect an early "border ownership" stage, and a subsequent "figure-ground segregation" stage of processing. To explore the influence of attention on these stages of processing, two additional experiments were conducted. In Experiment 2, subjects selectively attended to the face or vase region, and the same early ERP components were again produced. In Experiment 3, subjects performed an identical selective attention task, but on a display lacking distinctive figure-ground borders, and neither of the early components were produced. Results from these experiments suggest sequential stages of processing underlying figure-ground perception, each which are subject to modifications by selective attention. PMID:20146604

  9. Comparison of Favorable Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatments: A Single-Institution Review

    SciTech Connect

    Samant, Rajiv; Alomary, Ibraheem; Alsaeed, Eyad; Al-jasir, Badr; Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle; Cross, Peter; Genest, Paul; Huebsch, Lothar

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained. Results: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL (49% men, 51% women, median age 33 [range 17-82] years). Treatment was as follows: extended-field radiotherapy alone (EFRT) 49%; chemotherapy alone (CTA) 13%; and CMT 38%. Among CMT patients, 36% received abbreviated doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy (three to four cycles) followed by involved-field radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 8.3 years, the estimated 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for the entire cohort were 78% and 85%, respectively. The 10-year RFS and OS rates for the various groups were as follows: 69% and 81% for EFRT; 78% and 84% for CTA; and 87% and 89% for CMT. The 10-year RFS rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) among CMT patients. The use of EFRT has diminished from approximately 90% in the 1980s to virtually no use at present, whereas the use of CTA and CMT has increased significantly (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Early-stage HL treatment has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, and our results support the superiority and continued use of CMT, specifically abbreviated-course chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy, as an appropriate treatment approach.

  10. Atrophy Patterns in Early Clinical Stages Across Distinct Phenotypes of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; La Joie, Renaud; Vogel, Jacob W.; Möller, Christiane; Lehmann, Manja; van Berckel, Bart N.M.; Seeley, William W.; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L.; Kramer, Joel H.; Barkhof, Frederik; Rosen, Howard J.; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Jagust, William J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Scheltens, Philip; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can present with distinct clinical variants. Identifying the earliest neurodegenerative changes associated with each variant has implications for early diagnosis, and for understanding the mechanisms that underlie regional vulnerability and disease progression in AD. We performed voxel-based morphometry to detect atrophy patterns in early clinical stages of four AD phenotypes: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, “visual variant,” n = 93), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA, “language variant,” n = 74), and memory-predominant AD categorized as early age-of-onset (EOAD, <65 years, n = 114) and late age-of-onset (LOAD, >65 years, n = 114). Patients with each syndrome were stratified based on: (1) degree of functional impairment, as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and (2) overall extent of brain atrophy, as measured by a neuroimaging approach that sums the number of brain voxels showing significantly lower gray matter volume than cognitively normal controls (n = 80). Even at the earliest clinical stage (CDR =0.5 or bottom quartile of overall atrophy), patients with each syndrome showed both common and variant-specific atrophy. Common atrophy across variants was found in temporoparietal regions that comprise the posterior default mode network (DMN). Early syndrome-specific atrophy mirrored functional brain networks underlying functions that are uniquely affected in each variant: Language network in lvPPA, posterior cingulate cortex-hippocampal circuit in amnestic EOAD and LOAD, and visual networks in PCA. At more advanced stages, atrophy patterns largely converged across AD variants. These findings support a model in which neurodegeneration selectively targets both the DMN and syndrome-specific vulnerable networks at the earliest clinical stages of AD. PMID:26260856

  11. Atrophy patterns in early clinical stages across distinct phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; La Joie, Renaud; Vogel, Jacob W; Möller, Christiane; Lehmann, Manja; van Berckel, Bart N M; Seeley, William W; Pijnenburg, Yolande A; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L; Kramer, Joel H; Barkhof, Frederik; Rosen, Howard J; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Jagust, William J; Miller, Bruce L; Scheltens, Philip; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2015-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can present with distinct clinical variants. Identifying the earliest neurodegenerative changes associated with each variant has implications for early diagnosis, and for understanding the mechanisms that underlie regional vulnerability and disease progression in AD. We performed voxel-based morphometry to detect atrophy patterns in early clinical stages of four AD phenotypes: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, "visual variant," n=93), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA, "language variant," n=74), and memory-predominant AD categorized as early age-of-onset (EOAD, <65 years, n=114) and late age-of-onset (LOAD, >65 years, n=114). Patients with each syndrome were stratified based on: (1) degree of functional impairment, as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and (2) overall extent of brain atrophy, as measured by a neuroimaging approach that sums the number of brain voxels showing significantly lower gray matter volume than cognitively normal controls (n=80). Even at the earliest clinical stage (CDR=0.5 or bottom quartile of overall atrophy), patients with each syndrome showed both common and variant-specific atrophy. Common atrophy across variants was found in temporoparietal regions that comprise the posterior default mode network (DMN). Early syndrome-specific atrophy mirrored functional brain networks underlying functions that are uniquely affected in each variant: Language network in lvPPA, posterior cingulate cortex-hippocampal circuit in amnestic EOAD and LOAD, and visual networks in PCA. At more advanced stages, atrophy patterns largely converged across AD variants. These findings support a model in which neurodegeneration selectively targets both the DMN and syndrome-specific vulnerable networks at the earliest clinical stages of AD. PMID:26260856

  12. Gadolinium metallo nanocongregates as potential magnetosensors for detecting early stage cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Ranu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2015-04-27

    Gadolinium chelates and gadolinium based inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively studied, because of the high magnetic moment of gadolinium. Here, metallic gadolinium nanocongregates have been developed. Upon injecting these nanoparticles in the mice, they initially circulate in the blood stream and are localized at the cancer site, which could be visualized upon application of magnetic field hence acting as small magnetic nanosensors searching for even small cancers, detecting cancers at a very early stage.

  13. Cryopreservation of In Vitro-Produced Early-Stage Porcine Embryos in a Closed System

    PubMed Central

    Men, Hongsheng; Spate, Lee D.; Murphy, Clifton N.; Prather, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cryostorage of porcine embryos in a closed pathogen-free system is essential for the maintenance and safeguard of swine models. Previously, we reported a protocol for the successful cryopreservation of porcine embryos at the blastocyst stage in 0.25?mL ministraws. In this experiment, we aimed at developing a protocol to apply the same concept for the cryopreservation of early-stage porcine embryos. Porcine embryos from day 2 through day 4 were delipidated by using a modified two-step centrifugation method and were then cryopreserved in sealed 0.25?mL straws by using a slow cooling method. Control groups included open pulled straw (OPS) vitrified embryos after delipidation and noncryopreserved embryos without delipidation. There were no significant differences in cryosurvival between embryos frozen in 0.25?mL straws and OPS vitrified embryos across all the stages (two cell to morula) examined (p>0.05). Similarly, in all groups examined, the blastocyst rates were not different between the two cryopreserved groups. However, the blastocyst rates from the cryopreserved groups were significantly lower than the noncryopreserved controls (p<0.05). This experiment demonstrated that early-stage porcine embryos can survive cryopreservation in a closed system by using a slow cooling method at a comparable rate to those vitrified by using an ultrarapid cooling method (p>0.05). However, the developmental competence was significantly reduced after cryopreservation compared to noncryopreserved embryos. Further research is needed to optimize the protocol to improve the developmental potential of cryopreserved early-stage porcine embryos in sealed straws. PMID:26309801

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with early stages of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi Chaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Salehi, Bahman; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neurological disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to compare it with healthy children. Methods: Seventy five 5-16-year-old children with early stages of CKD (stage 1, 2 and 3) and 75 healthy children without CKD were included in this case – control study as case and control groups, respectively. The participants were selected from those children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak (Iran) in the form of simple probability and based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed using Conner's Parent Rating Scale – 48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV criteria and was confirmed by a psychologist consultant. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS18. Results: ADHD inattentive type was observed in 8 cases (10.6%) with CKD and 2 controls (2.6%) (p= 0.109). Moreover, in the case and control groups, 7 (9.3%) and 6 (8%) children were affected by ADHD hyperactiveimpulsive type (p= 0.997), and 9 (12%) and 12 (16%) children were affected by ADHD mixed type (p= 0.664), respectively. Conclusion: No differences were found between the prevalence of ADHD in the children with early stages of CKD and the control group. However, due to the importance of the relationships between different types of psychiatric disorders and CKD and lack of enough evidence concerning the relationship between ADHD and different stages of CKD in children, conducting further studies in this field is recommended. PMID:26034734

  15. Role of activin and other peptide growth factors in body patterning in the early amphibian embryo.

    PubMed

    Asashima, M; Kinoshita, K; Ariizumi, T; Malacinski, G M

    1999-01-01

    The amphibian body plan is established as the result of a series of inductive interactions. During early cleavage stages cells in the vegetal hemisphere induce overlying animal hemisphere cells to form mesoderm. The interaction represents the first major body-patterning event and is mediated by peptide growth factors. Various peptide growth factors have been implicated in mesoderm development, including most notably members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. Identification of the so-called "natural" inducer from among the several candidate peptide growth factors is being achieved by employing several experimental strategies, including the use of a tissue explant assay for testing potential inducers, cloning of marker genes as indices of early induction events, and microinjection of altered peptide growth factor receptors to disrupt normal embryonic inductions. Activin emerges as the most likely choice for assignment of the role of endogenous mesoderm inducer, because it currently best fulfills the rigorous set of criteria expected of such an important embryonic signaling molecule. Activin, however, may not act alone in mesoderm induction. Other peptide growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor might be involved, especially in the regional patterning of the mesoderm. In addition, several genes (e.g., Wnt and noggin), which are expressed after the mesoderm is initially induced, probably assist in further definition of the mesoderm pattern. Following mesoderm induction, the primary embryonic organizer tissue (first described in 1924 by Spemann) develops and contributes further to body patterning by its action as a neural inducer. Peptide growth factors such as activin may also be involved in the inductive event, either directly (by facilitating gene expression) or indirectly (by serving to constrain pathways). PMID:10343391

  16. The use of adjuvant bisphophonates in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Aju; Brufsky, Adam M

    2014-11-01

    Adjuvant treatment of breast cancer has resulted in significant improvement in breast cancer-related outcomes. In addition to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, the bone-protective agents known as bisphosphonates have been extensively investigated for their putative antitumor effect. Backed by strong preclinical data from in vitro and in vivo models, several randomized clinical trials have evaluated the role of bisphosphonates in an adjuvant setting. The recent NSABP B-34 (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocol B-34) and AZURE (Adjuvant Zoledronic Acid to Reduce Recurrence) studies found no disease-free survival benefit with clodronate and zoledronate, respectively, whereas the ABCSG-12 (Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group trial 12) study found improvement in disease-free survival with zoledronate. Data from these trials suggested a beneficial effect of bisphosphonates in older, postmenopausal women and in premenopausal women treated with ovarian suppression. Given the acceptable toxicity profile of bisphosphonates, these agents could be a useful adjunct to adjuvant chemotherapy or endocrine treatment for early-stage breast cancer in a carefully selected subset of patients. This review aims to critically synthesize the results of clinical trials of adjuvant bisphosphonates in early-stage breast cancer, and to provide guidelines for the use of these agents in early-stage breast cancer. PMID:25674714

  17. Clinical and dosimetric implications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for early-stage glottic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ward, Matthew Christopher; Pham, Yvonne D; Kotecha, Rupesh; Zakem, Sara J; Murray, Eric; Greskovich, John F

    2016-01-01

    Conventional parallel-opposed radiotherapy (PORT) is the established standard technique for early-stage glottic carcinoma. However, case reports have reported the utility of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with or without image guidance (image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT) in select patients. The proposed advantages of IMRT/VMAT include sparing of the carotid artery, thyroid gland, and the remaining functional larynx, although these benefits remain unclear. The following case study presents a patient with multiple vascular comorbidities treated with VMAT for early-stage glottic carcinoma. A detailed explanation of the corresponding treatment details, dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis, and a review of the relevant literature are provided. Conventional PORT remains the standard of care for early-stage glottic carcinoma. IMRT or VMAT may be beneficial for select patients, although great care is necessary to avoid a geographical miss. Clinical data supporting the benefit of CRT are lacking. Therefore, these techniques should be used with caution and only in selected patients. PMID:26553472

  18. Metrics to Assess Quality of Life After Management of Early-Stage Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Jeff A.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a key clinical outcome in patients with lung cancer because of the debilitating nature of the disease and its treatments. In recent years, advances have been made in the assessment of QOL via patient-reported outcomes. A brief history of the evolution of QOL measures in oncology clinical trials and practice is given with specific reference to early-stage lung cancer. The role that QOL can play as a prognostic factor, especially among lung cancer patients, is delineated. The most commonly seen symptoms among lung cancer patients are listed. This review is intended to provide the clinical researcher with a summary of the alternative measures that are both valid and reasonable to consider when assessing QOL in early-stage lung cancer patients. Suggestions for QOL assessment in both a research setting and clinical environment are considered. A review of the most popular QOL assessments in general application to lung cancer and disease-specific measures is provided. An algorithm for selecting appropriate QOL assessments for lung cancer clinical research is provided. The primary conclusion from this work is that scientifically sound investigations into the QOL of early-stage lung cancer patients are feasible and encouraged so that the care of these patients can be optimized. PMID:21263269

  19. Effects of Losartan on expression of connexins at the early stage of atherosclerosis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Li-ming; Cai, Wei; Chen, Jun-zhu; Duan, Jin-feng

    2010-01-01

    Aim: to investigate effects of Losartan on expression of connexin 40 and 43 (Cx40 and Cx43), in arteries at the early stage of atherosclerosis in a rabbit model. Methods: A total of 28 male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into following groups: control group, high fat diet group, and Losartan group (10 mg/kg/day). Losartan was administrated in food for two weeks. Iliac arteries were obtained for immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, Western blot, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Transmission electron microscopy revealed abundant gap junctions between neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which were markedly reduced by treatment. RT-PCR and Western blot assay showed that the mRNA and protein expression of Cx40 and Cx43 were elevated in the neointimal area at the early stage of atherosclerosis. The mRNA and protein expression of Cx43 were significantly down-regulated by losartan treatment but those of Cx40 were not markedly changed. Conclusion: Cx40 and Cx43 in the neointimal SMCs were up-regulated at the early stage of atherosclerosis. Losartan (an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) could reduce neointima proliferation and down-regulate the elevated protein expression of Cx43, suggesting the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the remodeling of gap junction between ventricular myocytes under pathological conditions. PMID:20479953

  20. Nonlinear optical microscopy of early stage (ICRS Grade-I) osteoarthritic human cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Grønhaug, Kirsten M.; Davies, Catharina L.; Drogset, Jon O.; Lilledahl, Magnus B.

    2015-01-01

    In a synovial joint, the articular cartilage is directly affected during the progression of Osteoarthritis (OA). The characterization of early stage modification in extra-cellular matrix of cartilage is essential for detection as well as understanding the progression of disease. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the potential and capability of nonlinear optical microscopy for the morphological investigation of early stage osteoarthritic cartilage. ICRS Grade-I cartilage sections were obtained from the femoral condyle of the human knee. The surface of articular cartilage was imaged by second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy. Novel morphological features like microsplits and wrinkles were observed, which would otherwise not be visible in other clinical imaging modalities (e.g., CT, MRI, ultrasound and arthroscope. The presence of superficial layer with distinct collagen fibrils parallel to the articular surface in 4 specimens out of 14 specimens, indicates that different phases of OA within ICRS Grade-I can be detected by SHG microscopy. All together, the observed novel morphologies in early stage osteoarthritic cartilage indicates that SHG microscopy might be a significant tool for the assessment of cartilage disorder. PMID:26137389

  1. New features of triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathways of peanut seeds in early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingli; Liu, Fengzhen; Zhu, Weiwei; Sun, Meihong; Liu, Jiang; Li, Xinzheng

    2015-11-01

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the three most important oil crops in the world due to its high average oil content (50 %). To reveal the biosynthetic pathways of seed oil in the early developmental stages of peanut pods with the goal of improving the oil quality, we presented a method combining deep sequencing analysis of the peanut pod transcriptome and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) verification of seed oil-related genes. From the sequencing data, approximately 1500 lipid metabolism-associated Unigenes were identified. The RT-PCR results quantified the different expression patterns of these triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis-related genes in the early developmental stages of peanut pods. Based on these results and analysis, we proposed a novel construct of the metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of TAG, including the Kennedy pathway, acyl-CoA-independent pathway and proposed monoacylglycerol pathway. It showed that the biosynthetic pathways of TAG in the early developmental stages of peanut pods were much more complicated than a simple, unidirectional, linear pathway. PMID:26071211

  2. Two-stage biomarker panel study and estimation allowing early termination for futility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Zheng, Yingye; Prentice, Ross L; Feng, Ziding

    2015-10-01

    Technological advances have yielded a wealth of biomarkers that have the potential to detect chronic diseases such as cancer. However, most biomarkers considered for further validation turn out not to have strong enough performance to be used in clinical practice. Group sequential designs that allow early termination for futility may be cost-effective for biomarker studies based on biobanks of stored specimens. Previous studies proposed a group sequential design for the validation of a single biomarker. In this article, we adapt a 2-stage design to the setting where a panel of candidate biomarkers are under investigation. Conditional estimators of the clinical performance are proposed under an updated risk model that uses all accrued data, and can be computed through resampling procedures. Under a special case where a multivariate binormal distribution applies for biomarkers following a suitable transformation, these estimators have analytical forms, alleviating the computational burden while retaining statistical efficiency. Performance of the proposed 2-stage design and estimators are compared with a traditional fixed-sample design and an existing 2-stage design that allows early termination but does not update the risk model with accrued information. Our proposed design and estimators show an ability to reduce sample size when the biomarker panel is not promising, while controlling rejection rate and gaining efficiency when the panel is promising. We apply the proposed methods to a biomarker panel development for the detection of high-grade prostate cancer in a study conducted within the National Cancer Institute's Early Detection Research Network. PMID:25964662

  3. Neurophysiological Evidence of Compensatory Brain Mechanisms in Early-Stage Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    López-Góngora, Mariana; Escartín, Antonio; Martínez-Horta, Saul; Fernández-Bobadilla, Ramón; Querol, Luis; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Riba, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system disorder characterized by white matter inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration. Although cognitive dysfunction is a common manifestation, it may go unnoticed in recently-diagnosed patients. Prior studies suggest MS patients develop compensatory mechanisms potentially involving enhanced performance monitoring. Here we assessed the performance monitoring system in early-stage MS patients using the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) observed following behavioral errors. Twenty-seven early-stage MS patients and 31 controls were neuropsychologically assessed. Electroencephalography recordings were obtained while participants performed: a) a stop task and b) an auditory oddball task. Behavior and ERP measures were assessed. No differences in performance were found between groups in most neuropsychological tests or in behavior or ERP components in the auditory oddball task. However, the amplitude of the ERN associated with stop errors in the stop task was significantly higher in patients. ERN amplitude correlated positively with scores on the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score, and negatively with the time since last relapse. Patients showed higher neuronal recruitment in tasks involving performance monitoring. Results suggest the development of compensatory brain mechanisms in early-stage MS and reflect the sensitivity of the ERN to detect these changes. PMID:26322632

  4. Toxicity of chlorine dioxide to early life stages of marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Hose, J.E.; Di Fiore, D.; Parker, H.S.; Sciarrotta, T.

    1989-03-01

    With increasing interest in minimizing exposure to chlorine, many electric generating and water treatment plants are exploring the use of alternative biocides such as chlorine dioxide. Unlike chlorine, chlorine dioxide does not react with ambient organic compounds to form potentially carcinogenic trihalomethanes such as chloroform. However, the toxicity of chlorine dioxide to aquatic organisms has received little study. No information exists on chlorine toxicity to marine organisms. Furthermore, West Coast electric power stations usually discharge chlorine intermittently once or twice daily and substantial mixing of receiving water occurs between treatments. Therefore, this study sought to obtain information on chlorine dioxide toxicity using an exposure schedule typical of generating stations which discharge into the marine environment. Early life history stages of a plant, invertebrate and fish were tested since these stages are generally acknowledged to be most sensitive to toxicants and are the stages that are most likely to be exposed to the effluent.

  5. End stage renal disease serum contains a specific renal cell growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, L.H.; Kulkarni, C.; Mills, G. )

    1991-01-01

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) kidneys display abnormal growth characterized by a continuum of cystic disease, adenoma and carcinoma. This study evaluates the hypothesis that serum of patients with ESRD contains increased amounts of a growth factor which specifically induces proliferation of renal cells. ESRD sera compared to sera from normal controls induced a two to three-fold increase in the proliferative rate of renal cell carcinoma cell lines and normal kidney explants compared to cell lines from other sites. The increased proliferative activity of ESRD sera on renal cells was paralleled by an increase in cytosolic free calcium. The growth factor activity was encoded by a polypeptide of between 15 and 30 kd. The activity of ESRD sera on renal cells was not mimicked or inhibited by epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet derived growth factor indicating that the renal cell specific growth factor activity in ESRD is different from these factors.

  6. The role of surface chemistry and VCI`s in early stages of metal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, G.R.; Chandler, C.

    1995-12-01

    Despite massive efforts to control corrosion, it still has major affects on costs, quality, and performance. Unfortunately, corrosion protection is emphasized far too late in manufacturing. Corrosion control before or during earlier stages of manufacturing and processing is not considered. Yet many product failures are caused by contamination or poor corrosion control at stages well before final packaging. Modern surface analytical methods, ISS (Ion Scattering Spectroscopy) and SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy), can monitor surface corrosion and contamination to trace product failures at early stages of metal working. This includes detection of very thin layers of corrosion on components and within surface layers prior to final coating, lamination, shipping, or assembly. This information includes quantitative analysis of iron oxide on the surface of iron phosphates or other ``conversion`` layers such as Cr, Zn, and Fe phosphates. Application of Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors (VCI`s) at early stages in processing is accomplished using special cleaners and metal working fluids. Surface contamination in corrosion and adhesion problems is not well acknowledged. Methods and considerations for cleaning, investigating, and monitoring surface chemistry and effects of contaminants on corrosion are presented with qualitative and quantitative information about contaminants commonly encountered in processing metals. Effectiveness of cleaning operations and cleaners is discussed for environmentally safe water based cleaners. The terms ``surface`` and ``cleaning`` are presented for greater understanding of how to approach common industrial corrosion and cleaning problems.

  7. Treatment of early stage breast cancer by limited surgery and radical irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, A.M.; Cope, O.; Russo, R.; Wang, C.C.; Schulz, M.D.; Wang, C.; Rodkey, G.

    1980-01-01

    Eighty-five female patients with early stage breast cancer, i.e., Stage I and II were treated by limited surgery followed by radical radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between January, 1956 and December, 1974. Patients included those who were medically inoperable or who refused mastectomy. The 5-year survival rate was 83% and 76% for Stage I and II, respectively. The corresponding disease free survival (absolute) was 67% and 42%. Although the number of patients so treated is small, there was no significant difference in survival from the results of the radical mastectomy series at the same institution. No major complications were encountered. Seventeen of eighty-five patients developed minor problems; mostly fibrosis and minimal arm lymphedema stemmming from older orthovoltage equipment and treatment techniques. With the current availability of megavoltage equipment, improvements in techniques and dosimetry, complications should decrease. Combined limited surgery and radical radiation therapy should be considered in those patients where a radical mastectomy is not feasible because of psychological or medical problems. Since this procedure results in a cosmetically acceptable breast, radical radiation in early stage breast cancer seems a reasonable alternative to radical mastectomy.

  8. Can early hepatic fibrosis stages be discriminated by combining ultrasonic parameters?

    PubMed

    Bouzitoune, Razika; Meziri, Mahmoud; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Padilla, Frédéric; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we put forward a new approach to classify early stages of fibrosis based on a multiparametric characterization using backscatter ultrasonic signals. Ultrasonic parameters, such as backscatter coefficient (Bc), speed of sound (SoS), attenuation coefficient (Ac), mean scatterer spacing (MSS), and spectral slope (SS), have shown their potential to differentiate between healthy and pathologic samples in different organs (eye, breast, prostate, liver). Recently, our group looked into the characterization of stages of hepatic fibrosis using the parameters cited above. The results showed that none of them could individually distinguish between the different stages. Therefore, we explored a multiparametric approach by combining these parameters in two and three, to test their potential to discriminate between the stages of liver fibrosis: F0 (normal), F1, F3, and/without F4 (cirrhosis), according to METAVIR Score. Discriminant analysis showed that the most relevant individual parameter was Bc, followed by SoS, SS, MSS, and Ac. The combination of (Bc, SoS) along with the four stages was the best in differentiating between the stages of fibrosis and correctly classified 85% of the liver samples with a high level of significance (p<0.0001). Nevertheless, when taking into account only stages F0, F1, and F3, the discriminant analysis showed that the parameters (Bc, SoS) and (Bc, Ac) had a better classification (93%) with a high level of significance (p<0.0001). The combination of the three parameters (Bc, SoS, and Ac) led to a 100% correct classification. In conclusion, the current findings show that the multiparametric approach has great potential in differentiating between the stages of fibrosis, and thus could play an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26945441

  9. Maspin is a marker for early recurrence in primary stage III and IV colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Snoeren, N; Emmink, B L; Koerkamp, M J G; van Hooff, S R; Goos, J A C M; van Houdt, W J; de Wit, M; Prins, A M; Piersma, S R; Pham, T V; Belt, E J; Bril, H; Stockmann, H B; Meijer, G A; van Hillegersberg, R; Holstege, F C; Jimenez, C R; Fijneman, R J A; Kranenburg, O W; Rinkes, I H M Borel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the factors that drive metastasis formation in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we set out to identify genes and proteins in patients with colorectal liver metastases that correlate with early disease recurrence. Such factors may predict a propensity for metastasis in earlier stages of CRC. Methods: Gene expression profiling and proteomics were used to identify differentially expressed genes/proteins in resected liver metastases that recurred within 6 months following liver surgery vs those that did not recur for >24 months. Expression of the identified genes/proteins in stage II (n=243) and III (n=176) tumours was analysed by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. Correlation of protein levels with stage-specific outcome was assessed by uni- and multivariable analyses. Results: Both gene expression profiling and proteomics identified Maspin to be differentially expressed in colorectal liver metastases with early (<6 months) and prolonged (>24 months) time to recurrence. Immunohistochemical analysis of Maspin expression on tumour sections revealed that it was an independent predictor of time to recurrence (log-rank P=0.004) and CRC-specific survival (P=0.000) in stage III CRC. High Maspin expression was also correlated with mucinous differentiation. In stage II CRC patients, high Maspin expression did not correlate with survival but was correlated with a right-sided tumour location. Conclusion: High Maspin expression correlates with poor outcome in CRC after spread to the local lymph nodes. Therefore, Maspin may have a stage-specific function possibly related to tumour cell dissemination and/or metastatic outgrowth. PMID:24002600

  10. Elevated risk of early reoperation in total hip replacement during the stage of unit closure.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Mikko; Malmivaara, Antti; Paavola, Mika; Seitsalo, Seppo

    2016-04-01

    Background and purpose - The effects of launch or closure of an entire arthroplasty unit on the first or last patients treated in these units have not been studied. Using a 3-year follow-up, we investigated whether patients who were treated at the launch or closure stage of an arthroplasty unit of a hospital would have a higher risk of reoperation than patients treated in-between at the same units. Patients and methods - From the Finnish Arthroplasty Register, we identified all the units that had performed total joint arthroplasty and the units that were launched or closed in Finland between 1998 and 2011. The risks of reoperation within 3 years for the 41,748 total hip and knee replacements performed due to osteoarthritis in these units were modeled with Cox proportional-hazards regression, separately for hip and knee and for the launch and the closure stage. Results - The unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total hip and knee replacements performed in the initial stage of activity of the units that were launched were similar to the reoperation risks in patients who were operated in these units after the early stage of activity. The unadjusted and risk-adjusted HRs for early reoperation after total hip replacement (THR) were increased at the closure stage (adjusted HR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.8). The reoperation risk at the closure stage after total knee replacement (TKR) was not increased. Interpretation - The results indicate that closure of units performing total hip replacements poses an increased risk of reoperation. Closures need to be managed carefully to prevent the quality from deteriorating when performing the final arthroplasties. PMID:26541178

  11. Abnormalities of plantar pressure distribution in early, intermediate, and late stages of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Isabel C N; Hamamoto, Adriana N; Tonicelli, Lucas M G; Watari, Ricky; Ortega, Neli R S; Sartor, Cristina D

    2014-09-01

    Inconsistent findings with regard to plantar pressure while walking in the diabetic population may be due to the heterogeneity of the studied groups resulting from the classification/grouping criteria adopted. The clinical diagnosis and classification of diabetes have inherent uncertainties that compromise the definition of its onset and the differentiation of its severity stages. A fuzzy system could improve the precision of the diagnosis and classification of diabetic neuropathy because it takes those uncertainties into account and combines different assessment methods. Here, we investigated how plantar pressure abnormalities evolve throughout different severity stages of diabetic polyneuropathy (absent, n=38; mild, n=20; moderate, n=47; severe, n=24). Pressure distribution was analysed over five areas while patients walked barefoot. Patients with mild neuropathy displayed an increase in pressure-time integral at the forefoot and a lower peak pressure at the heel. The peak and pressure-time integral under the forefoot and heel were aggravated in later stages of the disease (moderate and severe) compared with early stages of the disease (absent and mild). In the severe group, lower pressures at the lateral forefoot and hallux were observed, which could be related to symptoms that develop with the aggravation of neuropathy: atrophy of the intrinsic foot muscles, reduction of distal muscle activity, and joint stiffness. Although there were clear alterations over the forefoot and in a number of plantar areas with higher pressures within each severity stage, they did not follow the aggravation evolution of neuropathy classified by the fuzzy model. Based on these results, therapeutic interventions should begin in the early stages of this disease to prevent further consequences of the disease. PMID:25086801

  12. Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Nakaya, Yukiko; Lee, Hyung Chul; Ladher, Raj; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Han, Jae Yong; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sheng, Guojun

    2015-04-01

    Birds and mammals, phylogenetically close amniotes with similar post-gastrula development, exhibit little conservation in their post-fertilization cleavage patterns. Data from the mouse suggest that cellular morphogenesis and molecular signaling at the cleavage stage play important roles in lineage specification at later (blastula and gastrula) stages. Very little is known, however, about cleavage-stage chick embryos, owing to their poor accessibility. This period of chick development takes place before egg-laying and encompasses several fundamental processes of avian embryology, including zygotic gene activation (ZGA) and blastoderm cell-layer increase. We have carried out morphological and cellular analyses of cleavage-stage chick embryos covering the first half of pre-ovipositional development, from Eyal-Giladi and Kochav stage (EGK-) I to EGK-V. Scanning electron microscopy revealed remarkable subcellular details of blastomere cellularization and subgerminal cavity formation. Phosphorylated RNA polymerase II immunostaining showed that ZGA in the chick starts at early EGK-III during the 7th to 8th nuclear division cycle, comparable with the time reported for other yolk-rich vertebrates (e.g. zebrafish and Xenopus). The increase in the number of cell layers after EGK-III is not a direct consequence of oriented cell division. Finally, we present evidence that, as in the zebrafish embryo, a yolk syncytial layer is formed in the avian embryo after EGK-V. Our data suggest that several fundamental features of cleavage-stage development in birds resemble those in yolk-rich anamniote species, revealing conservation in vertebrate early development. Whether this conservation lends morphogenetic support to the anamniote-to-amniote transition in evolution or reflects developmental plasticity in convergent evolution awaits further investigation. PMID:25742796

  13. Is Ovarian Preservation Feasible in Early-Stage Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huaiwu; Li, Jing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Dongyan; Lin, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    Background In cervical adenocarcinoma, surgical treatment involves bilateral oophorectomy, which affects the long-term quality of life. The aim of our study was to access the incidence of ovarian metastasis in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma and to suggest an algorithm for the triage of these patients to preserve the ovaries. Material/Methods A total 101 patients with cervical adenocarcinoma who had undergone radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and bilateral oophorectomy were included in this study. Data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of the cases were collected and low risk factors for ovarian metastasis in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma were analyzed. Results The ovary metastasis rate of cervical adenocarcinoma in this study was 4.95%, while it is only 2% in stage IB1. Pathological grade, LSVI, lymph node status, tumor size, depth of stromal invasion, and involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus were associated with ovarian metastasis, while LSVI, lymph node status, depth of stromal invasion, and involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus were associated with ovarian metastasis in stage IB. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI and lymph node metastasis were independent risk factors for ovarian metastasis in all stages of cervical adenocarcinoma, but involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus was an independent risk factor for ovarian metastasis in stage IB. Conclusions The incidence of ovarian metastasis in cervical adenocarcinoma is low. Our study suggests that ovarian preservation is safe and feasible in patients with no risk factors for ovarian metastasis. Further prospective studies are warranted. PMID:26852916

  14. Is Ovarian Preservation Feasible in Early-Stage Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix?

    PubMed

    Lu, Huaiwu; Li, Jing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Dongyan; Lin, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In cervical adenocarcinoma, surgical treatment involves bilateral oophorectomy, which affects the long-term quality of life. The aim of our study was to access the incidence of ovarian metastasis in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma and to suggest an algorithm for the triage of these patients to preserve the ovaries. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total 101 patients with cervical adenocarcinoma who had undergone radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and bilateral oophorectomy were included in this study. Data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of the cases were collected and low risk factors for ovarian metastasis in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma were analyzed. RESULTS The ovary metastasis rate of cervical adenocarcinoma in this study was 4.95%, while it is only 2% in stage IB1. Pathological grade, LSVI, lymph node status, tumor size, depth of stromal invasion, and involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus were associated with ovarian metastasis, while LSVI, lymph node status, depth of stromal invasion, and involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus were associated with ovarian metastasis in stage IB. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI and lymph node metastasis were independent risk factors for ovarian metastasis in all stages of cervical adenocarcinoma, but involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus was an independent risk factor for ovarian metastasis in stage IB. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of ovarian metastasis in cervical adenocarcinoma is low. Our study suggests that ovarian preservation is safe and feasible in patients with no risk factors for ovarian metastasis. Further prospective studies are warranted. PMID:26852916

  15. Sleep Quality and Fatigue After A Stress Management Intervention For Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer in Southern Florida

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Sara; Antoni, Michael H.; Carver, Charles S.; Lechner, Suzanne C.; Wohlgemuth, William; Llabre, Maria; Blomberg, Bonnie B.; Glück, Stefan; DerHagopian, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep disruption and fatigue are ubiquitous among cancer patients and is a source of stress that may compromise treatment outcomes. Previously we showed that a cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention reduced anxiety and other stress-related processes in women undergoing primary treatment for breast cancer. Purpose This study examined secondary outcomes from a CBSM intervention trial for women with early-stage breast cancer to test if CBSM would improve sleep quality and fatigue among these patients at a single site in Southern Florida. CBSM-related effects have already been demonstrated for indicators of psychosocial adaptation (e.g., general and cancer-related anxiety). Methods Patients were randomized to CBSM (n = 120) or a one-day psychoeducation control group (n = 120). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Fatigue Symptom Inventory were completed prior to randomization and 6 and 12 months after the baseline assignment. Results In latent growth analyses, women in CBSM reported greater improvements in PSQI sleep quality scores than controls, although there were no significant differences between conditions on PSQI total scores. Women in CBSM also reported greater reductions in fatigue-related daytime interference than controls, though there were no significant differences in changes in fatigue intensity. Changes in sleep quality were associated with changes in fatigue. Conclusions Future work may consider integrating sleep and fatigue content into stress management interventions for women with early-stage breast cancer. PMID:24318654

  16. The Growth of Early Galaxies and Reionization of Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Chary, Ranga

    2012-07-01

    The reionization of the intergalactic medium about a billion years after the Big Bang was an important event which occurred due to the release of ionizing photons from the growth of stellar mass and black holes in the early Universe. By leveraging the benefits of field galaxy surveys, I will present some recent breakthroughs in our understanding of how the earliest galaxies in the Universe evolved. I will present evidence that unlike in the local Universe where galaxy growth occurs through intermittent cannibalism, star-formation in the distant Universe is a more continuous if violent process with an overabundance of massive stars. Implications for the reionization history of the Universe will also be discussed.

  17. Quantitative Tissue Proteomics Analysis Reveals Versican as Potential Biomarker for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Naboulsi, Wael; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Voss, Don Marvin; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive tumors, and the treatment outcome of this disease is improved when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. This requires biomarkers allowing an accurate and early tumor diagnosis. To identify potential markers for such applications, we analyzed a patient cohort consisting of 50 patients (50 HCC and 50 adjacent nontumorous tissue samples as controls) using two independent proteomics approaches. We performed label-free discovery analysis on 19 HCC and corresponding tissue samples. The data were analyzed considering events known to take place in early events of HCC development, such as abnormal regulation of Wnt/b-catenin and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). 31 proteins were selected for verification experiments. For this analysis, the second set of the patient cohort (31 HCC and corresponding tissue samples) was analyzed using selected (multiple) reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM). We present the overexpression of ATP-dependent RNA helicase (DDX39), Fibulin-5 (FBLN5), myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), and Serpin H1 (SERPINH1) in HCC for the first time. We demonstrate Versican core protein (VCAN) to be significantly associated with well differentiated and low-stage HCC. We revealed for the first time the evidence of VCAN as a potential biomarker for early-HCC diagnosis. PMID:26626371

  18. White matter alterations in early stages of schizophrenia: a systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Samartzis, Lampros; Dima, Danai; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Kyriakopoulos, Marinos

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the normal integration of cerebral communication may be compromised in schizophrenia, with white matter (WM) abnormalities being integral to these functional deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a neuroimaging technique which has increasingly been used to study WM through quantitative indices of its structural and orientational characteristics. Identifying the WM differences early in the course of schizophrenia may assist in prevention, early diagnosis and identification of treatment targets. In that respect, the aims of the present study were to (a) systematically review WM integrity in the early stages of schizophrenia as inferred by DTI and (b) specifically examine parameters that may affect WM: age, duration of illness and treatment. In summary, DTI studies in early schizophrenia suggest that structural dysconnectivity may be already present in recent-onset and drug-naïve patients, as well as in individuals clinically at high risk for developing schizophrenia. Although the pattern of WM differences is not totally consistent frontal, fronto-temporal and fronto-limbic connections, with tracts including the superior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum bundle, uncinate fasciculus and corpus callosum seem to be affected. These differences may depend on the developmental stage of the subjects, the duration of illness and exposure to antipsychotic medication. PMID:23317110

  19. Circulating Micro-RNAs as Potential Blood-Based Markers for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Strissel, Pamela L.; Kahmann, Laura; Loehberg, Christian R.; Lux, Michael P.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Alexander; Bayer, Christian M.; Bani, Mayada R.; Richter, Swetlana; Adamietz, Boris R.; Wenkel, Evelyn; Rauh, Claudia; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules with relevance as regulators of gene expression thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. MiRNAs offer great potential as biomarkers for cancer detection due to their remarkable stability in blood and their characteristic expression in many different diseases. We investigated whether microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood could discriminate between early stage breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Methods We performed microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood of 48 early stage breast cancer patients at diagnosis along with 57 healthy individuals as controls. This was followed by a real-time semi-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) validation in a separate cohort of 24 early stage breast cancer patients from a breast cancer screening unit and 24 age matched controls using two differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-202, miR-718). Results Using the significance level of p<0.05, we found that 59 miRNAs were differentially expressed in whole blood of early stage breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. 13 significantly up-regulated miRNAs and 46 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in our microarray panel of 1100 miRNAs and miRNA star sequences could be detected. A set of 240 miRNAs that was evaluated by radial basis function kernel support vector machines and 10-fold cross validation yielded a specificity of 78.8%, and a sensitivity of 92.5%, as well as an accuracy of 85.6%. Two miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort. The relative fold changes of the RT-qPCR validation were in line with the microarray data for both miRNAs, and statistically significant differences in miRNA-expression were found for miR-202. Conclusions MiRNA profiling in whole blood has potential as a novel method for early stage breast cancer detection, but there are still challenges that need to be addressed to establish these new biomarkers in clinical use. PMID:22242178

  20. Habitat use in irrigation channels by the golden venus chub (Hemigrammocypris rasborella) at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Onikura, Norio; Nakajima, Jun; Kouno, Hiromi; Sugimoto, Yoshiko; Kaneto, Jun

    2009-06-01

    Ecological information on the golden venus chub (Hemigrammocypris rasborella Fowler, 1910) was collected during field surveys and used to analyze habitat use by this species at each growth stage. Surveys were conducted every month for approximately 2 years In an irrigation ditch near the Ushizu River, Kyushu Island, Japan. Based on the characteristic nuptial coloration of males, it was estimated that H. rasborella spawns between spring and summer. Size measurements of 2697 individuals indicated two size classes. The population of age class 1 decreased rapidly after the spawning period. On the basis of growth patterns, the life cycle of H. rasborella was classified into three stages: the growth stage (GS) of age class 0 fish from August to November, the no-growth stage (NGS) of age class 0 fish from December to March, and the growing and spawning stage (GSS) of age class 0 and 1 fish from April to August. Habitat use by GS, NGS, and GSS fish was analyzed with a stepwise multiple linear regression. The average number of fish was negatively correlated with the presence of a concrete revetment in the GS; positively and negatively correlated with minimum water depth and submerged plants, respectively, in the NGS; and positively correlated with maximum water temperature in the GSS. These results suggest that maintenance of the water level in the fallow season and not using concrete revetments are essential for the conservation of this species under the present conditions in Japanese rice fields. PMID:19583495

  1. Monitoring Crop Phenology and Growth Stages from Space: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Anderson, M. C.; Mladenova, I. E.; Kustas, W. P.; Alfieri, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    Crop growth stages in concert with weather and soil moisture conditions can have a significant impact on crop yields. In the U.S., crop growth stages and conditions are reported by farmers at the county level. These reports are somewhat subjective and fluctuate between different reporters, locations and times. Remote sensing data provide an alternative approach to monitoring crop growth over large areas in a more consistent and quantitative way. In the recent years, remote sensing data have been used to detect vegetation phenology at 1-km spatial resolution globally. However, agricultural applications at field scale require finer spatial resolution remote sensing data. Landsat (30-m) data have been successfully used for agricultural applications. There are many medium resolution sensors available today or in near future. These include Landsat, SPOT, RapidEye, ASTER and future Sentinel-2 etc. Approaches have been developed in the past several years to integrate remote sensing data from different sensors which may have different sensor characteristics, and spatial and temporal resolutions. This allows us opportunities today to map crop growth stages and conditions using dense time-series remote sensing at field scales. However, remotely sensed phenology (or phenological metrics) is normally derived based on the mathematical functions of the time-series data. The phenological metrics are determined by either identifying inflection (curvature) points or some pre-defined thresholds in the remote sensing phenology algorithms. Furthermore, physiological crop growth stages may not be directly correlated to the remotely sensed phenology. The relationship between remotely sensed phenology and crop growth stages is likely to vary for specific crop types and varieties, growing stages, conditions and even locations. In this presentation, we will examine the relationship between remotely sensed phenology and crop growth stages using in-situ measurements from Fluxnet sites and crop progress reports from USDA NASS. We will present remote sensing approaches and focus on: 1) integrating multiple sources of remote sensing data; and 2) extracting crop phenology at field scales. An example in the U.S. Corn Belt area will be presented and analyzed. Future directions for mapping crop growth stages will be discussed.

  2. Airborne lidar observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds - Indications of two distinct growth stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, Lamont R; Mccormick, M. Patrick

    1988-01-01

    Airborne lidar observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) during January 1984 and January 1986 show contrast suggestive of two distinct PSC growth stages delineated by the frost-point temperature. Results obtained at temperatures 2-6 K above the frost point indicate a stage of significant, but limited, particle growth such as proposed in recent models of PSC formation by co-deposition of HNO3 and H2O vapors. Results obtained at a temperature near the frost point indicate the formation of somewhat larger crystalline particles.

  3. Development and trunk segmentation of early instars of a ptychopariid trilobite from Cambrian Stage 5 of China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cen; Clarkson, Euan N. K.; Yang, Jie; Lan, Tian; Hou, Jin-bo; Zhang, Xi-guang

    2014-01-01

    Many three-dimensionally preserved exoskeletons found from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5) Gaotai Formation in Guizhou, southern China, have been assigned to the ptychopariid trilobite Gunnia sp. They represent mainly a series of early instars, exhibiting some delicate structures and morphological variation associated with their trunk segmentation and early development. Morphometric and statistical analyses indicate that the transverse joint appears to occur with the full growth of the third axial ring of the protopygidium, which increases in size much more rapidly than its corresponding protocephalon with growth. The ‘one by one' sequential release of thoracic segments from a transitory pygidium does not progress exactly in accordance with the development of the pygidial axis, whose axial rings increase at a relatively faster rate, and an ‘immature ring' always appears initially at the rear end of the axis. These new data set up a testable model for revealing trilobite segmentation and provide fresh insights into the development, evolution and taphonomic surroundings associated with the Cambrian trilobites. PMID:25382488

  4. Development and trunk segmentation of early instars of a ptychopariid trilobite from Cambrian Stage 5 of China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cen; Clarkson, Euan N K; Yang, Jie; Lan, Tian; Hou, Jin-bo; Zhang, Xi-guang

    2014-01-01

    Many three-dimensionally preserved exoskeletons found from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5) Gaotai Formation in Guizhou, southern China, have been assigned to the ptychopariid trilobite Gunnia sp. They represent mainly a series of early instars, exhibiting some delicate structures and morphological variation associated with their trunk segmentation and early development. Morphometric and statistical analyses indicate that the transverse joint appears to occur with the full growth of the third axial ring of the protopygidium, which increases in size much more rapidly than its corresponding protocephalon with growth. The 'one by one' sequential release of thoracic segments from a transitory pygidium does not progress exactly in accordance with the development of the pygidial axis, whose axial rings increase at a relatively faster rate, and an 'immature ring' always appears initially at the rear end of the axis. These new data set up a testable model for revealing trilobite segmentation and provide fresh insights into the development, evolution and taphonomic surroundings associated with the Cambrian trilobites. PMID:25382488

  5. The effects of DELLAs on growth change with developmental stage and brassinosteroid levels.

    PubMed

    Stewart Lilley, Jodi L; Gan, Yinbo; Graham, Ian A; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2013-10-01

    There are two stages in photomorphogenesis. First, seedlings detect light and open their cotyledons. Second, seedlings optimize their light environment by controlled elongation of the seedling stem or hypocotyl. In this study, we used time-lapse imaging to investigate the relationship between the brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) hormones across both stages of photomorphogenesis. During the transition between one stage and the other, growth promotion by BRs and GAs switched from an additive to a synergistic relationship. Molecular genetic analysis revealed unexpected roles for known participants in the GA pathway during this period. Members of the DELLA family could either repress or enhance BR growth responses, depending on developmental stage. At the transition point for seedling growth dynamics, the BR and GA pathways had opposite effects on DELLA protein levels. In contrast to GA-induced DELLA degradation, BR treatments increased the levels of REPRESSOR of ga1-3 (RGA) and mimicked the molecular effects of stabilizing DELLAs. In addition, DELLAs showed complex regulation of genes involved in BR biosynthesis, implicating them in BR homeostasis. Growth promotion by GA alone depended on the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family of master growth regulators. The effects of BR, including the synergistic effects with GA, were largely independent of PIFs. These results point to a multi-level, dynamic relationship between the BR and GA pathways. PMID:23834248

  6. Elevated nuclear CCND1 expression confers an unfavorable prognosis for early stage lung adenocarcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Zhao, Mengyang; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Yiyi; Chen, Yiyu; Luo, Rongcheng; Fang, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    Purposes: To examine the expression pattern of CCND1 and analyze the correlation of its nuclear expression with clinicopathologic features and prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: CCND1 mRNA and protein levels in lung adenocarcinoma tissues were examined. The relationship between nuclear CCND1 protein expression and clinical features including survival prognosis was analyzed. Results: CCND1 mRNA levels were markedly increased in lung adenocarcinoma (P=0.0019). Western blot analysis confirmed increased nuclear CCND1 protein expression in lung adenocarcinoma specimens. Immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed that CCND1 protein was predominantly nuclear localized in lung adenocarcinoma cells and significantly elevated relative to normal lung tissues (P<0.001). Furthermore, high levels of nuclear CCND1 were positively correlated with clinical stage (P=0.026). Patients with nuclear CCND1 expression had a significantly shorter overall survival time than did patients with low expression. Interestingly, nuclear CCND1 expression in clinical stage I+II, but not clinical stage III, was shown associated with poor prognosis and shorter overall survival time for lung adenocarcinoma patients by strata analysis. Finally, nuclear CCND1 expression tended to be an independent prognostic indicator (P=0.087) for lung adenocarcinoma patient survival. Conclusion: Increased nuclear CCND1 is a potential unfavorable prognostic factor for lung adenocarcinoma patients, especially those with clinical early stage (stage I+II). PMID:26884860

  7. Narrowband Ultraviolet B Phototherapy of Early Stage Mycosis Fungoides in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min Soo; Baek, Jae Woo; Park, Jong Bin; Kang, Dong Young; Kang, Jin Seuk; Suh, Kee Suck

    2011-01-01

    Background Narrowband UVB (NBUVB) is currently used to treat early mycosis fungoides (MF). There are a number of reports on the efficacy and safety of NBUVB in Caucasians, but little data is available for Asians. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of NBUVB for early stage MF in Korean patients. Methods We enrolled 14 patients (12 men, 2 women; age range, 10~64 years) with clinically and histologically proven MF. Three patients were stage IA, and the others were stage IB. The patients received NBUVB phototherapy three times a week. The starting dose was 70% of the minimal erythema dose and was increased in 20 percent increments if the previous treatment did not cause erythema. Clinical response, total number of treatments, total cumulative dose, duration of remission and side effects were investigated. Results Eleven of 14 patients (78.6%) achieved complete remission within a mean of 15.36±5.71 weeks (range, 5~27 weeks), 31.0±7.4 treatments (range, 16~39 treatments) and a mean cumulative UVB dose of 31.31±12.16 J/cm2 (range, 11.4~46.8 J/cm2). Three of the 14 patients (21.4%) achieved a partial remission. After discontinuation of treatment, 6 of 11 patients (54.5%) with complete remission relapsed after a mean of 8.5±4.09 months. No serious adverse effects were observed except for hyperpigmentation (7/14, 50%). Conclusion Our data suggest that NBUVB therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of early stage MF in Korean patients. PMID:22148015

  8. Early-Stage White Matter Lesions Detected by Multispectral MRI Segmentation Predict Progressive Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Jokinen, Hanna; Gonçalves, Nicolau; Vigário, Ricardo; Lipsanen, Jari; Fazekas, Franz; Schmidt, Reinhold; Barkhof, Frederik; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2015-01-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are the main brain imaging surrogate of cerebral small-vessel disease. A new MRI tissue segmentation method, based on a discriminative clustering approach without explicit model-based added prior, detects partial WML volumes, likely representing very early-stage changes in normal-appearing brain tissue. This study investigated how the different stages of WML, from a “pre-visible” stage to fully developed lesions, predict future cognitive decline. MRI scans of 78 subjects, aged 65–84 years, from the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) study were analyzed using a self-supervised multispectral segmentation algorithm to identify tissue types and partial WML volumes. Each lesion voxel was classified as having a small (33%), intermediate (66%), or high (100%) proportion of lesion tissue. The subjects were evaluated with detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline and at three annual follow-up visits. We found that voxels with small partial WML predicted lower executive function compound scores at baseline, and steeper decline of executive scores in follow-up, independently of the demographics and the conventionally estimated hyperintensity volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. The intermediate and fully developed lesions were related to impairments in multiple cognitive domains including executive functions, processing speed, memory, and global cognitive function. In conclusion, early-stage partial WML, still too faint to be clearly detectable on conventional MRI, already predict executive dysfunction and progressive cognitive decline regardless of the conventionally evaluated WML load. These findings advance early recognition of small vessel disease and incipient vascular cognitive impairment. PMID:26696814

  9. Relationship of Age for Grade and Pubertal Stage to Early Initiation of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Paul J.; Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan L.; Tortolero, Susan; Baumler, Elizabeth; Banspach, Stephen W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies suggest students who are substantially older than the average age for their grade engage in risky health behaviors, including substance use. However, most studies do not account for the distinct reasons why students are old for their grade (ie, grade retention vs delayed school entry) or for their pubertal stage. Thus, whether the association between age for grade and substance use is confounded by these factors is unknown. We sought to determine whether age, grade, or pubertal stage were associated with early substance use. Methods Cross-sectional Healthy Passages Wave I survey data from 5,147 fifth graders and their caregivers in Alabama, California, and Texas from 2004 through 2006 were analyzed in 2014. Logistic regressions examined whether older age for grade, grade retention, delayed school entry, or pubertal stage were associated with use of any substance, cigarettes, alcohol, or other drugs. Results Seventeen percent of fifth graders reported trying at least 1 substance. Among boys, advanced pubertal stage was associated with increased odds of cigarette, alcohol, or other drug use, whereas delayed school entry was associated with lower odds of any substance, alcohol, or other drug use. Among girls, advanced pubertal stage was associated only with higher odds of alcohol use, and delayed school entry was not associated with substance use. Neither older age for grade or grade retention was independently associated with substance use after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion Advanced pubertal stage may be a more important risk factor for substance use than age for grade. Pediatricians should consider initiating substance use screening earlier for patients with advanced pubertal stage. PMID:26583575

  10. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Early Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Charles, David; Konrad, Peter E.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Molinari, Anna L.; Tramontana, Michael G.; Finder, Stuart G.; Gill, Chandler E.; Bliton, Mark J.; Kao, Chris C.; Phibbs, Fenna T.; Hedera, Peter; Salomon, Ronald M.; Cannard, Kevin R.; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Davis, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective and approved therapy for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), and a recent study suggests efficacy in mid-stage disease. This manuscript reports the results of a pilot trial investigating preliminary safety and tolerability of DBS in early PD. Methods Thirty subjects with idiopathic PD (Hoehn & Yahr Stage II off medication), age 50–75, on medication ? 6 months but < 4 years, and without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias were randomized to optimal drug therapy (ODT) (n=15) or DBS+ODT (n=15). Co-primary endpoints were the time to reach a 4-point worsening from baseline in the UPDRS-III off therapy and the change in levodopa equivalent daily dose from baseline to 24 months. Results As hypothesized, the mean UPDRS total and part III scores were not significantly different on or off therapy at 24 months. The DBS+ODT group took less medication at all time points, and this reached maximum difference at 18 months. With a few exceptions, differences in neuropsychological functioning were not significant. Two subjects in the DBS+ODT group suffered serious adverse events; remaining adverse events were mild or transient. Conclusions This study demonstrates that subjects with early stage PD will enroll in and complete trials testing invasive therapies and provides preliminary evidence that DBS is well tolerated in early PD. The results of this trial provide the data necessary to design a large, phase III, double-blind, multicenter trial investigating the safety and efficacy of DBS in early PD. PMID:24768120

  11. Towards Characterizing Early-stage SEP Fluxes with High-Cadence EUV Coronal Shock Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozarev, Kamen A.; Raymond, John C.; Hammer, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in space-based solar observing have enabled unprecedented access to high-cadence, high-resolution observations of the coronal dynamics. This is extremely important, since transient phenomena in the corona usually cover multiple scales - from the current spatial resolution limit in the case of reconnection, to several solar radii in the case of coronal waves and mass ejections. The latter are also thought to drive shocks in the corona, which in turn have been shown capable of accelerating protons, electrons, and other species up to GeV energies in a matter of tens of minutes. These solar energetic particles (SEPs) are a prime source of space weather. Historically, it has been notoriously difficult to extract information about energetic particle spectra in the corona, due to the lack of in situ measurements. It is possible, however, to use remote observations in order to deduce coronal shock dynamics and related particle spectra, with some reasonable assumptions. We present an effort towards building a framework for estimating coronal SEP spectra in the early stages of real CME events, based on a combination of fast-cadence extreme ultraviolet imaging (from the SDO/AIA instrument), potential coronal magnetic field models, and differential emission measure models. The ultimate goal for this framework is to give predictions for early-stage SEP spectra for various source populations and coronal turbulence levels. It is designed in a modular fashion, and may be adapted for near real time use. This system can be applied for early warning and predicting the severity of the impulsive early stages of SEP events.

  12. Open lung biopsy in early-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Kuo-Chin; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Chen, Ning-Hung; Hsieh, Meng-Jer; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Huang, Chung-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has heterogeneous etiologies, rapid progressive change and a high mortality rate. To improve the outcome of ARDS, accurate diagnosis is essential to the application of effective early treatment. The present study investigated the clinical effects and safety of open lung biopsy (OLB) in patients with early-stage ARDS of suspected non-infectious origin. Methods We undertook a retrospective study of 41 patients with early-stage ARDS (defined as one week or less after intubation) who underwent OLB in two medical intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital from 1999 to 2005. Data analyzed included baseline characteristics, complication rate, pathological diagnoses, treatment alterations, and hospital survival. Results The age of patients was 55 ± 17 years (mean ± SD). The average ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) was 116 ± 43 mmHg (mean ± SD) at biopsy. Seventeen patients (41%) were immunocompromised. Postoperative complications occurred in 20% of patients (8/41). All biopsies provided a pathological diagnosis with a diagnostic yield of 100%. Specific pathological diagnoses were made for 44% of patients (18/41). Biopsy findings led to an alteration of treatment modality in 73% of patients (30/41). The treatment alteration rate was higher in patients with nonspecific diagnoses than in patients with specific diagnoses (p = 0.0024). Overall mortality was 50% (21/41) and was not influenced by age, gender, pre-OLB oxygenation, complication rate, pathological results, and alteration of treatment. There was no surgery-related mortality. The survival rate for immunocompromised patients was better than that for immunocompetent patients (71% versus 33%; p = 0.0187) in this study. Conclusion Our retrospective study suggests that OLB was a useful and acceptably safe diagnostic procedure in some selected patients with early-stage ARDS. PMID:16859510

  13. Decelerated Early Growth in Infants of Overweight and Obese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Ode, Katie Larson; Gray, Heather; Ramel, Sara; Georgieff, Michael; Demerath, Ellen W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and early infant growth and body composition. Study design Prospective cohort study performed at a University hospital/surrounding community. Ninety-seven non-diabetic mothers with singleton, term, healthy infants completed study visits at 2 weeks and 3 months of age. Pre-pregnancy, 59 mothers were normal weight, 18 were overweight, and 20 were obese. Infant anthropometrics and body composition via air-displacement plethysmography were measured. Infant feeding information and maternal pre-pregnancy weight were self-reported. Additional data were obtained via self-report and the medical record. Main outcome measures: change in weight, length, fat free mass, and fat mass from 2 weeks to 3 months of age. Analysis was by multivariate linear regression. Results At 2 weeks, anthropometrics and body composition did not differ across maternal BMI groups. At 3 months infants of overweight or obese mothers had gained less weight (p=0.02), grew less in length (p=0.01), and gained less fat mass (p=0.01). Adjustment for breastfeeding status and regression to the mean via conditional change variables did not alter the results. The results were not altered after adjusting for maternal glucose values from a 50 g glucose challenge and for maternal smoking in a subset including 80% of the women. Conclusions Maternal overweight/obesity is associated with early deceleration in linear growth and adipose tissue accrual; replication of these findings is needed. PMID:22819273

  14. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  15. Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

  16. Subsets of a Large Cognitive Battery Better Power Clinical Trials on Early Stage Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Chengjie; Weng, Hua; Bennett, David A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Shah, Raj C.; Fague, Scot; Hall, Charles B.; Lipton, Richard B.; Morris, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Cognitive batteries routinely used by the Alzheimer disease (AD) research community may contain items uninformative for tracking disease progression to power clinical trials on early stage AD. We aim to identify subsets of the most informative items from an existing cognitive battery for better powering clinical trials on early AD. Methods Longitudinal change in item scores from the battery was associated with the onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in 1513 elderly individuals. Items whose longitudinal changes were correlated with the onset of MCI were selected as informative for tracking the early cognitive progression. Results 226 items in the battery were annually assessed over a follow-up of up to 13 years. Changes of item scores over time from 187 items were significantly correlated with the onset of MCI. For clinical trials on preclinical AD and on MCI, informative items permit smaller or similar sample sizes as compared to the entire battery, whereas uninformative items require much larger sample sizes. Conclusions Longitudinal changes in item scores from about 17% of items in the cognitive battery are uninformative for tracking early disease progression. Clinical trials on early AD can be better powered using informative items rather than the entire battery. PMID:25376544

  17. The Rapid Growth of Fibroids during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Benaglia, Laura; Cardellicchio, Lucia; Filippi, Francesca; Paffoni, Alessio; Vercellini, Paolo; Somigliana, Edgardo; Fedele, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Several studies aimed to disentangle whether pregnancy influences the growth of uterine fibroids but results were inconsistent. In this study, we speculated that fibroid enlargement during pregnancy may not be linear and we hypothesized that this phenomenon may mainly occur during initial pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, we set up a prospective cohort study of women with fibroids undergoing IVF. Cases were women achieving a viable pregnancy. Controls were the subsequent women with fibroids but failing to become pregnant. Twenty-five cases and 25 controls were recruited. The total number of fibroids in the two groups was 46 and 41, respectively. The mean ± SD diameter of the fibroids was 17±10 and 20±11 mm, respectively (p?=?0.18). A statistically significant enlargement emerged exclusively in pregnant women. The median (Interquartile Range) modification of the diameter of the lesions in cases and controls was +34% (+6%/+65%) and +2% (?6%/+12%), respectively (p<0.001). The median (Interquartile Range) modification of the volume of the lesions was +140% (+23%/+357%) and 0% (?18%/+37%), respectively (p<0.001). In pregnant women, we failed to document any significant correlation between the magnitude of the growth and ovarian responsiveness to hyper-stimulation, suggesting that steroids hormones are not the unique factors involved. In conclusion, fibroids undergo a rapid and remarkable growth during initial pregnancy. Reasons behind this phenomenon remain to be clarified. The early rise in steroids hormones during early pregnancy may not be sufficient to explain the process. Other pregnancy-related hormones and proteins may play also key roles. PMID:24465797

  18. Identification of Owl Monkey CD4 Receptors Broadly Compatible with Early-Stage HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Nicholas R.; Sharma, Amit; Wilkerson, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most HIV-1 variants isolated from early-stage human infections do not use nonhuman primate versions of the CD4 receptor for cellular entry, or they do so poorly. We and others have previously shown that CD4 has experienced strong natural selection over the course of primate speciation, but it is unclear whether this selection has influenced the functional characteristics of CD4 as an HIV-1 receptor. Surprisingly, we find that selection on CD4 has been most intense in the New World monkeys, animals that have never been found to harbor lentiviruses related to HIV-1. Based on this, we sampled CD4 genetic diversity within populations of individuals from seven different species, including five species of New World monkeys. We found that some, but not all, CD4 alleles found in Spix's owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) encode functional receptors for early-stage human HIV-1 isolates representing all of the major group M clades (A, B, C, and D). However, only some isolates of HIV-1 subtype C can use the CD4 receptor encoded by permissive Spix's owl monkey alleles. We characterized the prevalence of functional CD4 alleles in a colony of captive Spix's owl monkeys and found that 88% of surveyed individuals are homozygous for permissive CD4 alleles, which encode an asparagine at position 39 of the receptor. We found that the CD4 receptors encoded by two other species of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae and Aotus nancymaae) also serve as functional entry receptors for early-stage isolates of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, are used for preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, a significant limitation of the macaque model is the fact that most circulating HIV-1 variants cannot use the macaque CD4 receptor to enter cells and have to be adapted to these species. This is particularly true for viral variants from early stages of infection, which represent the most relevant vaccine targets. In this study, we found that some individuals from captive owl monkey populations harbor CD4 alleles that are compatible with a broad collection of HIV-1 isolates, including those isolated from early in infection in highly affected populations and representing diverse subtypes. PMID:26063421

  19. Telomere dynamics in wild brown trout: effects of compensatory growth and early growth investment.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Joacim; Pauliny, Angela; Blomqvist, Donald; Johnsson, Jörgen I

    2015-04-01

    After a period of food deprivation, animals often respond with a period of faster than normal growth. Such responses have been suggested to result in decreased chromosomal maintenance, which in turn may affect the future fitness of an individual. Here, we present a field experiment in which a food deprivation period of 24 days was enforced on fish from a natural population of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the start of the high-growth season in spring. The growth of the food-deprived fish and a non-deprived control group was then monitored in the wild during 1 year. Fin tissue samples were taken at the start of the experiment and 1 year after food deprivation to monitor the telomere dynamics, using reduced telomere length as an indicator of maintenance cost. The food-deprived fish showed partial compensatory growth in both mass and length relative to the control group. However, we found no treatment effects on telomere dynamics, suggesting that growth-compensating brown trout juveniles are able to maintain their telomeres during their second year in the stream. However, body size at the start of the experiment, reflecting growth rate during their first year of life, was negatively correlated with change in telomere length over the following year. This result raises the possibility that rapid growth early in life induces delayed costs in cellular maintenance. PMID:25698140

  20. Involved Node Radiation Therapy: An Effective Alternative in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Petersen, Peter M.; Specht, Lena

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy in a cohort of 97 clinical stage I-II HL patients. Methods and Materials: Patients were staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans, treated with adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy, and given INRT (prechemotherapy involved nodes to 30 Gy, residual masses to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. Results: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7 malignancies were diagnosed, and 5 patients developed heart disease. Conclusions: INRT offers excellent tumor control and represents an effective alternative to more extended radiation therapy in the combined modality treatment for early-stage HL.

  1. Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin

    PubMed Central

    Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S.; Di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Bianconi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered. PMID:24962806

  2. Prognostic Fifteen-Gene Signature for Early Stage Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dung-Tsa; Davis-Yadley, Ashley H.; Huang, Po-Yu; Husain, Kazim; Centeno, Barbara A.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pimiento, Jose M.; Malafa, Mokenge

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of patients treated with surgery for early stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are variable with median survival ranging from 6 months to more than 5 years. This challenge underscores an unmet need for developing personalized medicine strategies to refine the current treatment decision-making process. To derive a prognostic gene signature for patients with early stage PDAC, a PDAC cohort from Moffitt Cancer Center (n = 63) was used with overall survival (OS) as the primary endpoint. This was further evaluated using an independent microarray cohort dataset (Stratford et al: n = 102). Technical validation was performed by NanoString platform. A prognostic 15-gene signature was developed and showed a statistically significant association with OS in the Moffitt cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.26; p<0.001) and Stratford et al cohort (HR = 2.07; p = 0.02), and was independent of other prognostic variables. Moreover, integration of the signature with the TNM staging system improved risk prediction (p<0.01 in both cohorts). In addition, NanoString validation showed that the signature was robust with a high degree of reproducibility and the association with OS remained significant in the two cohorts. The gene signature could be a potential prognostic tool to allow risk-adapted stratification of PDAC patients into personalized treatment protocols; possibly improving the currently poor clinical outcomes of these patients. PMID:26247463

  3. Measurement of the human esophageal cancer in an early stage with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ishigaki, Mika; Taketani, Akinori; Andriana, Bibin B.; Ishihara, Ryu; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    The esophageal cancer has a tendency to transfer to another part of the body and the surgical operation itself sometimes gives high risk in vital function because many delicate organs exist near the esophagus. So the esophageal cancer is a disease with a high mortality. So, in order to lead a higher survival rate five years after the cancer's treatment, the investigation of the diagnosis methods or techniques of the cancer in an early stage and support the therapy are required. In this study, we performed the ex vivo experiments to obtain the Raman spectra from normal and early-stage tumor (stage-0) human esophageal sample by using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are collected by the homemade Raman spectrometer with the wavelength of 785 nm and Raman probe with 600-um-diameter. The principal component analysis (PCA) is performed after collection of spectra to recognize which materials changed in normal part and cancerous pert. After that, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is performed to predict the tissue type. The result of PCA indicates that the tumor tissue is associated with a decrease in tryptophan concentration. Furthermore, we can predict the tissue type with 80% accuracy by LDA which model is made by tryptophan bands.

  4. Efficient and Rapid Isolation of Early-stage Embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Raissig, Michael T.; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

    2013-01-01

    In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays. PMID:23770918

  5. Efficient and rapid isolation of early-stage embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Raissig, Michael T; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

    2013-01-01

    In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays. PMID:23770918

  6. Large spinose microfossils in Ediacaran rocks as resting stages of early animals.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Phoebe A; Knoll, Andrew H; Kodner, Robin B

    2009-04-21

    Large (>100 microm), profusely ornamented microfossils comprise a distinctive paleontological component of sedimentary rocks deposited during the Ediacaran Period (635-542 million years ago). Smaller spinose fossils in Paleozoic rocks have commonly been interpreted as algal cysts or phycomata, but the Ediacaran populations differ from modern algal analogs in size, shape, ultrastructure, and internal contents. In contrast, cysts formed during the diapause egg-resting stages of many metazoans share features of size, ornamentation, and internal contents with large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs). Moreover, transmission electron microscopic observations of animal-resting cysts reveal a 3-layer wall ultrastructure comparable to that of LOEM taxa. Interpretation of these distinctive Ediacaran microfossils as resting stages in early metazoan life cycles offers additional perspectives on their functional morphology and stratigraphic distribution. Based on comparisons with modern marine invertebrates, the recalcitrant life stage represented by LOEMs is interpreted as an evolutionary response to prolonged episodes of bottom water anoxia in Ediacaran shelf and platform environments. As predicted by this hypothesis, the later Ediacaran disappearance of LOEM taxa coincides with geochemical evidence for a marked decline in the extent of oxygen-depleted waters impinging on continental shelves and platforms. Thus, the form, diversity, and stratigraphic range of LOEMs illuminate life cycle evolution in early animals as influenced by the evolving redox state of the oceans. PMID:19366668

  7. Early-stage comparative sustainability assessment of new bio-based processes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Akshay D; Meesters, Koen; den Uil, Herman; de Jong, Ed; Worrell, Ernst; Patel, Martin K

    2013-09-01

    Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analyze eight new bio-based process alternatives developed within the CatchBio research consortium in the Netherlands. This assessment relies on a multi-criteria approach, integrating the performance of chemical conversions based on five indicators into an index value. These indicators encompass economics, environmental impact, hazards and risks thereby incorporating elements of green chemistry principles, and techno-economic and life cycle assessments. The analyzed bio-based options target the production of fuels and chemicals through chemical catalysis. For each bio-based process, two R&D stages (current laboratory and expected future) are assessed against a comparable conventional process. The multi-criteria assessment in combination with the uncertainty and scenario analysis shows that the chemical production processes using biomass as feedstock can provide potential sustainability benefits over conventional alternatives. However, further development is necessary to realize the potential benefits from biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes for fuel production. This early stage assessment is intended as an input for R&D decision making to support optimal allocation and utilization of resources to further develop promising bio-based processes. PMID:24078179

  8. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  9. Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S.; di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Bianconi, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered.

  10. Drug Repositioning Discovery for Early- and Late-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Peter Mu-Hsin; Lin, Yong-Jie; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Huang, Chi-Ying F.

    2014-01-01

    Drug repositioning is a popular approach in the pharmaceutical industry for identifying potential new uses for existing drugs and accelerating the development time. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. To reduce the biological heterogeneity effects among different individuals, both normal and cancer tissues were taken from the same patient, hence allowing pairwise testing. By comparing early- and late-stage cancer patients, we can identify stage-specific NSCLC genes. Differentially expressed genes are clustered separately to form up- and downregulated communities that are used as queries to perform enrichment analysis. The results suggest that pathways for early- and late-stage cancers are different. Sets of up- and downregulated genes were submitted to the cMap web resource to identify potential drugs. To achieve high confidence drug prediction, multiple microarray experimental results were merged by performing meta-analysis. The results of a few drug findings are supported by MTT assay or clonogenic assay data. In conclusion, we have been able to assess the potential existing drugs to identify novel anticancer drugs, which may be helpful in drug repositioning discovery for NSCLC. PMID:25210704

  11. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  12. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  13. Large spinose microfossils in Ediacaran rocks as resting stages of early animals

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Phoebe A.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Kodner, Robin B.

    2009-01-01

    Large (>100 ?m), profusely ornamented microfossils comprise a distinctive paleontological component of sedimentary rocks deposited during the Ediacaran Period (635–542 million years ago). Smaller spinose fossils in Paleozoic rocks have commonly been interpreted as algal cysts or phycomata, but the Ediacaran populations differ from modern algal analogs in size, shape, ultrastructure, and internal contents. In contrast, cysts formed during the diapause egg-resting stages of many metazoans share features of size, ornamentation, and internal contents with large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs). Moreover, transmission electron microscopic observations of animal-resting cysts reveal a 3-layer wall ultrastructure comparable to that of LOEM taxa. Interpretation of these distinctive Ediacaran microfossils as resting stages in early metazoan life cycles offers additional perspectives on their functional morphology and stratigraphic distribution. Based on comparisons with modern marine invertebrates, the recalcitrant life stage represented by LOEMs is interpreted as an evolutionary response to prolonged episodes of bottom water anoxia in Ediacaran shelf and platform environments. As predicted by this hypothesis, the later Ediacaran disappearance of LOEM taxa coincides with geochemical evidence for a marked decline in the extent of oxygen-depleted waters impinging on continental shelves and platforms. Thus, the form, diversity, and stratigraphic range of LOEMs illuminate life cycle evolution in early animals as influenced by the evolving redox state of the oceans. PMID:19366668

  14. Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin.

    PubMed

    Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S; Di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A; Bianconi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered. PMID:24962806

  15. In vitro protein profiles in the early and late stages of Douglas-fir xylogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Jowita A; McDonald, Armando G

    2015-09-01

    The process of wood formation is of great interest to control and manipulate wood quality for economically important gymnosperms. A Douglas-fir tissue culture system was developed that could be induced to differentiate into tracheary elements (fibers) making it possible to monitor xylogenesis in vitro by a proteomics approach. Two proteomes were analyzed and compared, one from an early and one from a late stage of the fiber differentiation process. After 18 weeks in a differentiation-inducing medium, 80% of the callus cells were elongated while 20% showed advanced spiral thickening indicating full wood fiber differentiation. Based on 2D electrophoresis, MS, and data analyses (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001484.), it was shown that in nondifferentiated callus (representing an early stage of development), proteins related to protein metabolism, cellular energy, and primary cell wall metabolism were abundant. By comparison, in cells actively differentiating wood fibers (representing a late stage of development), proteins involved in cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis predominated together with housekeeping and stress-associated proteins. PMID:25999182

  16. Experimental early-stage coalification of a peat sample and a peatified wood sample from Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Neuzil, S.G.; Lerch, H.E.; Cecil, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental coalification of a peat sample and a buried wood sample from domed peat deposits in Indonesia was carried out to examine chemical structural changes in organic matter during early-stage coalification. The experiment (125 C, 408 atm lithostatic pressure, and 177 atm fluid pressure for 75 days) was designed to maintain both lithostatic and fluid pressure on the sample, but allow by-products that may retard coalification to escape. We refer to this design as a geologically open system. Changes in the elemental composition, and 13C NMR and FTIR spectra of the peat and wood after experimental coalification suggest preferential thermal decomposition of O-containing aliphatic organic compounds (probably cellulose) during early-stage coalification. The elemental compositions and 13C NMR spectra of the experimentally coalified peat and wood were generally similar to those of Miocene coal and coalified wood samples from Indonesia. Yields of lignin phenols in the peat and wood samples decreased following experimental coalification; the wood sample exhibited a larger change. Lignin phenol yields from the experimentally coalified peat and wood were comparable to yields of lignin phenols from Miocene Indonesian lignite and coalified wood. Changes in syringyl/vanillyl and p-hydroxy/vanillyl ratios suggest direct demethoxylation as a secondary process to demethylation of methoxyl groups during early coalification, and changes in lignin phenol yields and acid/aldehyde ratios point to a coupling between demethoxylation processes and reactions in the alkyl side chain bonds of the ??-carbon in lignin phenols.

  17. An informational diversity framework, illustrated with sexually deceptive orchids in early stages of speciation.

    PubMed

    Smouse, Peter E; Whitehead, Michael R; Peakall, Rod

    2015-11-01

    Reconstructing evolutionary history for emerging species complexes is notoriously difficult, with newly isolated taxa often morphologically cryptic and the signature of reproductive isolation often restricted to a few genes. Evidence from multiple loci and genomes is highly desirable, but multiple inputs require 'common currency' translation. Here we deploy a Shannon information framework, converting into diversity analogue, which provides a common currency analysis for maternally inherited haploid and bi-parentally inherited diploid nuclear markers, and then extend that analysis to construction of minimum-spanning networks for both genomes. The new approach is illustrated with a quartet of cryptic congeners from the sexually deceptive Australian orchid genus Chiloglottis, still in the early stages of speciation. Divergence is more rapid for haploid plastids than for nuclear markers, consistent with the effective population size differential (N(ep) < (N(en)), but divergence patterns are broadly correlated for the two genomes. There are nevertheless intriguing discrepancies between the emerging plastid and nuclear signals of early phylogenetic radiation of these taxa, and neither pattern is entirely consistent with the available information on the sexual cues used by the orchids to lure the pollinators enforcing reproductive isolation. We describe possible extensions of this methodology to multiple ploidy levels and other types of markers, which should increase the range of application to any taxonomic assemblage in the very early stages of reproductive isolation and speciation. PMID:25916981

  18. The pitfalls of bedside regional cerebral oxygen saturation in the early stage of post cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kosaku; Sakurai, Atsushi; Ihara, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    It remains uncertain whether neuromonitoring reliably predicts outcome in adult post-cardiac arrest patients in the early stage treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Recent reports demonstrated a regional cerebral oxygen saturation of cardiac arrest patients on hospital arrival could predict their neurological outcome. There has been little discussion about the significance of regional cerebral oxygen saturation in patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography monitoring may also provide early prognostic information for post-cardiac arrest syndrome. However, even when the initial electroencephalography is flat after the return of spontaneous circulation, good neurological outcome may still be obtainable if the electroencephalography shifts to a continuous pattern. The electroencephalography varied from flat to various patterns, such as flat, epileptic, or continuous during the first 24 h, while regional cerebral oxygen saturation levels varied even when the electroencephalography was flat. It is therefore difficult to estimate whether regional cerebral oxygen saturation accurately indicates the coupling of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the early stage after cardiac arrest. Careful assessment of prognosis is necessary when relying solely on regional cerebral oxygen saturation as a single monitoring modality. PMID:26560871

  19. EEDA: A Protein Associated with an Early Stage of Stratified Epithelial Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lijie; Ryan, David G.; Zhou, Mingyuan; Sun, Tung-Tien; Lavker*, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Using suppressive subtractive hybridization, we have identified a novel gene, which we named EEDA (early epithelial differentiation- associated), which is uniquely associated with an early stage of stratified epithelial differentiation. In epidermis, esophageal epithelium, and tongue epithelium, EEDA mRNA and antigen was abundant in suprabasal cells, but was barely detectable in more differentiated cells. Consistent with the limbal location of corneal epithelial stem cells, EEDA was expressed in basal corneal epithelial cells that are out of the stem cell compartment, as well as the suprabasal corneal epithelial cells. The strongest EEDA expression occurred in suprabasal precortical cells of mouse, bovine and human anagen follicles. Developmental studies showed that the appearance of EEDA in embryonic mouse epidermis (E 15.5) coincided with morphological keratinization. Interestingly, EEDA expression is turned off when epithelia were perturbed by wounding and by cultivation under both low and high Ca2+ conditions. Our results indicate that EEDA is involved in the early stages of normal epithelial differentiation, and that EEDA is important for the “normal” differentiation pathway in a wide range of stratified epithelia. PMID:15920738

  20. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Only Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Maluta, Sergio; Dall'Oglio, Stefano; Marciai, Nadia; Gabbani, Milena; Franchini, Zeno; Pietrarota, Paolo; Meliado, Gabriele; Guariglia, Stefania; Cavedon, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Background: We report the results of a single-institution, phase II trial of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using a single dose of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) in patients with low-risk early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 226 patients with low-risk, early stage breast cancer were treated with local excision and axillary management (sentinel node biopsy with or without axillary node dissection). After the surgeon temporarily reapproximated the excision cavity, a dose of 21 Gy using IOERT was delivered to the tumor bed, with a margin of 2 cm laterally. Results: With a mean follow-up of 46 months (range, 28-63 months), only 1 case of local recurrence was reported. The observed toxicity was considered acceptable. Conclusions: APBI using a single dose of IOERT can be delivered safely in women with early, low-risk breast cancer in carefully selected patients. A longer follow-up is needed to ascertain its efficacy compared to that of the current standard treatment of whole-breast irradiation.

  1. A Two-Stage-to-Orbit Spaceplane Concept With Growth Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.

    2001-01-01

    A two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) spaceplane concept developed in 1993 is revisited, and new information is provided to assist in the development of the next-generation space transportation vehicles. The design philosophy, TSTO spaceplane concept, and the design method are briefly described. A trade study between cold and hot structures leads to the choice of cold structures with external thermal protection systems. The optimal Mach number for staging the second stage of the TSTO spaceplane (with air-breathing propulsion on the first stage) is 10, based on life-cycle cost analysis. The performance and specification of a prototype/experimental (P/X) TSTO spaceplane with a turbo/ram/scramjet propulsion system and built-in growth potential are presented and discussed. The internal rate of return on investment is the highest for the proposed TSTO spaceplane, vis-A-vis a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle and a TSTO spaceplane without built-in growth. Additional growth potentials for the proposed spaceplane are suggested. This spaceplane can substantially decrease access-to-space cost and risk, and increase safety and reliability in the near term It can be a serious candidate for the next-generation space transportation system.

  2. Effect of ripeness stage during processing on Listeria monocytogenes growth on fresh-cut 'Conference' pears.

    PubMed

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Abadias, Maribel; Alegre, Isabel; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2015-08-01

    There are several factors that affect the shelf life of fresh-cut fruit, including the cultivar, the ripeness stage of the fruit during processing and the fruit's storage atmosphere and temperature. The effect of fruit ripeness during processing on the survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut 'Conference' pear slices at different temperatures (5, 10 and 20 °C) was studied. The four ripeness stages studied in this work (assessed by a fruit's firmness) were mature-green (54-60 N), partially ripe (43-53 N), ripe (31-42 N) and overripe (<31 N). In our studies, pH, acidity and soluble solids content did not significantly change during conditioning at 20 °C. L. monocytogenes grew under all experimental conditions, showing an increase of approximately 2 log CFU g(-1) after 8 days of storage at 5 °C. There were significant differences in the L. monocytogenes population between different ripeness stages at the end of the experiments at 10 and 20 °C. Regardless of the ripeness stage of a fresh-cut pear, the growth potential of L. monocytogenes increased with increasing temperature. A pear's ripeness stage during processing is an important consideration to ensure the quality of a fresh-cut pear, but it is not as important for preventing L. monocytogenes growth at common storage temperatures. PMID:25846921

  3. Relationship between early growth and CVD risk factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Musa, M G; Kagura, J; Pisa, P T; Norris, S A

    2016-04-01

    Low birth weight and a rapid weight gain in early childhood may lead to an increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease later in life, such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia. In this study, we examined the associations between size at birth, relative weight gain in infancy and childhood with specific cardiovascular disease risk factors in early adulthood. Adolescents (n=1935) from the Birth to Twenty plus (BT20+) cohort were included in the analysis. The following were treated as exposure variables: weight at birth, and relative conditional weight gain (CW), independent of height, between ages 0-24 months and 24-48 months. Outcomes were serum lipids and body composition variables at age 18 years. After adjusting for sex and other confounders, early life exposures were not associated with adolescent lipid profile. Following adjustment for sex and height (body size), birth weight [β=0.704 (0.40, 1.01)], CW 0-24 [β=1.918 (1.56, 2.28)] and CW24-48 [β=1.485 (1.14, 1.82)] accounted for 48% of the variance in fat mass. However, birth weight [β=0.773 (0.54, 1.01)], CW 0-24 [β=1.523 (1.24, 1.80)] and CW24-48 [β=1.226 (0.97, 1.49)] were also positively predicted and accounted for 71% of the variance in fat mass in adolescence (P<0.05). Our data suggests that birth weight and weight gain during infancy and early childhood independent of linear growth are related to adolescent body composition but not blood lipid profiles in an urban African population. PMID:26810380

  4. Determination of growth-stage specific crop coefficients (Kc) of cotton and wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of crop coefficient (Kc), the ratio of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) to reference evapotranspiration (ETo), can enhance ETc estimates in relation to specific crop phenological development. This research was conducted to determine growth-stage-specific Kc and crop water use for cotton (Go...

  5. Endorsement of Growth Factors and Its Relation to Stage of Group Development in Experiential Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiweewa, John M.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation utilized critical incidents methodology to examine participants' endorsement of twelve primary growth factors during a Master's level group counseling class. Additionally, the study examined whether some factors are more salient than others at each stage of development (i.e., forming, storming, norming, performing) as defined by…

  6. Endorsement of Growth Factors and Its Relation to Stage of Group Development in Experiential Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiweewa, John M.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation utilized critical incidents methodology to examine participants' endorsement of twelve primary growth factors during a Master's level group counseling class. Additionally, the study examined whether some factors are more salient than others at each stage of development (i.e., forming, storming, norming, performing) as defined by…

  7. Peppermint Productivity and Oil Composition as a Function of Nitrogen, Growth Stage and Harvest Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The commercial production of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) is concentrated in more northern latitudes worldwide (north of the 41st parallel), including the United States. This 2-yr. field study in Mississippi evaluated the effect of N (0, 80, and 160 kg/ha), growth stage (bud formation and flowe...

  8. Galegine content in Goatsrue (Galega officinalis) varies by plant part and phenological growth stage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goatstrue is a member of the abaceae family, native to Europe and western Asia. It contains the toxic alkaloid galegine. The objective of the study was to describe galegine concentration in aboveround goatsrue plant parts and total galegine pools over phenological growth stages. Twenty goatsrue plan...

  9. Environmental- and growth stage-related differences in the susceptibility of terrestrial isopods to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Rui; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Tourinho, Paula; Ribeiro, Fabianne; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Global environmental changes are nowadays one of the most important issues affecting terrestrial ecosystems. One of its most significant expressions is the increasing ultraviolet radiation (UVR) arising from the human-induced depletion in ozone layer. Therefore, to investigate the effects of UVR on the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus a multiple biomarker approach was carried out. Two experiments were performed in order to analyze the importance of the exposure environment and the growth stage on the UV-induced damages. First, adult individuals were exposed to UVR in three exposure environments (soil, soil with leaves, and plaster). Thereafter, three growth stages using soil as the exposure condition were tested. Integrated biomarker responses (IBR) suggested that UV effects were higher in plaster, and mostly identified by changes in acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferases activities, lipid peroxidation rates, and total energy available. The effects in soil and soil with leaves were not so clear. In the growth stages' experiment, juveniles and pre-adults were found to be more affected than adults, with the greatest differences between irradiated and non-irradiated isopods occurring in energy-related parameters. Our findings suggest that soil surface-living macrofauna may be prone to deleterious effects caused by UVR, highlighting the importance of taking the media of exposure and growth stage in account. PMID:23899792

  10. Runoff nutrient transport as affected by land application method, swine growth stage, and runoff rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to measure the effects of slurry application method, swine growth stage, and flow rate on runoff nutrient transport. Swine slurry was obtained from production units containing grower pigs, finisher pigs, or sows and gilts. The swine slurry was applied using broadcast, disk, ...

  11. Applying NGS Data to Find Evolutionary Network Biomarkers from the Early and Late Stages of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yung-Hao; Wu, Chia-Chou; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Ting-Shou; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major liver tumor (~80%), besides hepatoblastomas, angiosarcomas, and cholangiocarcinomas. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to construct protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) for early-stage and late-stage liver cancer. By comparing the networks of these two stages, we found that the two networks showed some common mechanisms and some significantly different mechanisms. To obtain differential network structures between cancer and noncancer PPINs, we constructed cancer PPIN and noncancer PPIN network structures for the two stages of liver cancer by systems biology method using NGS data from cancer cells and adjacent noncancer cells. Using carcinogenesis relevance values (CRVs), we identified 43 and 80 significant proteins and their PPINs (network markers) for early-stage and late-stage liver cancer. To investigate the evolution of network biomarkers in the carcinogenesis process, a primary pathway analysis showed that common pathways of the early and late stages were those related to ordinary cancer mechanisms. A pathway specific to the early stage was the mismatch repair pathway, while pathways specific to the late stage were the spliceosome pathway, lysine degradation pathway, and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway. This study provides a new direction for cancer-targeted therapies at different stages. PMID:26366411

  12. [Early Stages of Skull Embryogenesis in the Grass Snake, Natrix natrix (Serpentes, Colubridae)].

    PubMed

    Kovtun, M F; Sheverdyukova, H V

    2015-01-01

    Studies of previous authors on snake skull embryogenesis have been performed on embryos obtained from eggs after oviposition. The aim of this study was to investigate the initial stages of chondrocranium development in Grass-snake Natrixnatrix Linnaeus, 1758, embryos before oviposition. Natrix natrix embryos at early developmental stages (24-27 according to the table of normal development by D. Zehr (1962)) were obtained by means of caesarean section. At developmental stages 25-27, previously undescribed structures were found in the region of future skull formation. These structures exist during one or two stages and then disappear. Therefore, we call them "temporary structures." The assumption about the nature of these structures is based on their topography and comparison with the structures of developing or fully formed chondrocranium in other vertebrates. It is hypothesized that the temporary structures in Natrix natrix chondrocranium are vestiges ofprimary chondrocranium of ancestral vertebrate forms, and they indicate the existence of several variants in the formation of chondrocranium in the historical vertebrates.' development. PMID:26480486

  13. Supradiaphragmatic early stage Hodgkin's disease: does mantle radiation therapy still have a role?

    PubMed

    Frezza, G; Barbieri, E; Zinzani, P L; Babini, L; Tura, S

    1996-01-01

    Extended field radiation therapy represents the main therapeutic option in early stage Hodgkin's disease with favorable prognostic features. Its role however has recently been criticized, mainly due to the high incidence of late complications in irradiated tissues. Furthermore, surgical staging, which in the opinion of many is mandatory for proper selection of patients for radiotherapy alone, has a well-known morbidity, and splenectomy has been associated with a high risk of secondary leukemias. Lastly, the failure rate after radiotherapy only is not negligible and second-line treatment is not always successful. A review of our experience and of the recent literature has allowed us to refute these objections. The results of radiotherapy, when properly performed, are highly reliable and have been reproducible in many Institutions. Chemotherapy alone cannot yet be regarded as an alternative to radiotherapy in these patients since data reported on this issue are conflicting. Present knowledge regarding the relationship between clinical features and the risk of occult subdiaphragmatic spread allows patients with localized disease to be selected without surgical staging; the results of radiotherapy in clinically staged patients confirm this statement. Concern for the late effects in irradiated tissues is justified, and future efforts should be directed at reducing the toxicity of this treatment. Associating a short chemotherapy course with low-dose radiotherapy to involved sites could help to achieve this goal. PMID:8641642

  14. Inhibitory bacteria reduce fungi on early life stages of endangered Colorado boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas).

    PubMed

    Kueneman, Jordan G; Woodhams, Douglas C; Van Treuren, Will; Archer, Holly M; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie J

    2016-04-01

    Increasingly, host-associated microbiota are recognized to mediate pathogen establishment, providing new ecological perspectives on health and disease. Amphibian skin-associated microbiota interact with the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but little is known about microbial turnover during host development and associations with host immune function. We surveyed skin microbiota of Colorado's endangered boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas), sampling 181 toads across four life stages (tadpoles, metamorphs, subadults and adults). Our goals were to (1) understand variation in microbial community structure among individuals and sites, (2) characterize shifts in communities during development and (3) examine the prevalence and abundance of known Bd-inhibitory bacteria. We used high-throughput 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) to characterize bacteria and microeukaryotes, respectively. Life stage had the largest effect on the toad skin microbial community, and site and Bd presence also contributed. Proteobacteria dominated tadpole microbial communities, but were later replaced by Actinobacteria. Microeukaryotes on tadpoles were dominated by the classes Alveolata and Stramenopiles, while fungal groups replaced these groups after metamorphosis. Using a novel database of Bd-inhibitory bacteria, we found fewer Bd-inhibitory bacteria in post-metamorphic stages correlated with increased skin fungi, suggesting that bacteria have a strong role in early developmental stages and reduce skin-associated fungi. PMID:26565725

  15. Symptomatic Lymphocele Formation After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Early Stage Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Garagozova, Nigar; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Beier, Anna; Köhler, Christhardt; Favero, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    In early stage cervical cancer, nodal status is the most important prognostic factor, and execution of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy is currently an integral part of surgical therapy. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been progressively incorporated with surgical therapy and could reduce morbidity. However, the current incidence of complications exclusively related to the procedure is unknown. We report on a 29-year-old woman affected by cervical cancer (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique Stage 1b1), who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy in combination with radical vaginal trachelectomy, and who later developed a symptomatic pelvic lymphocele that required surgical therapy. Conservative procedures in the pelvic lymph nodes are not free of complications, especially with regard to the formation of symptomatic lymphoceles. This report brings to light an important discussion about the exact magnitude of the complications associated with the procedure. PMID:26260297

  16. Large scale surface migration of P. aeruginosa at early stages of biofilm formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibiansky, Maxsim; Utada, Andy; Zhao, Kun; Xian, Wujing; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a commonly-studied bacterium which can form biofilms, surface-bound aggregates which display increased resistance to various forms of stress, including a greatly enhanced antibiotic resistance. In the early stages of biofilm formation, free-swimming planktonic cells attach to the surface and form microcolonies, expressing a variety of adhesins and transitioning from reversible to irreversible attachment. By using particle tracking algorithms, we can in principle examine the full motility and division history of all cells in a microcolony. Here, we study the effects of the pel polysaccharides in microcolony formation by investigating how pel impacts the initial stages of biofilm formation by the P. aeruginosa PA14 strain. Specifically, we quantify the phenotypic effects of pel on initial attachment, microcolony formation, and biofilm morphology.

  17. Increased expression of tumor proliferation genes in Hispanic women with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kalinsky, Kevin; Lim, Emerson A; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Desai, Avni M; Jin, Zhezhen; Tu, Yifan; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Wang, Antai; Greenlee, Heather; Crew, Katherine D; Maurer, Matthew; Sparano, Joseph A; Hershman, Dawn L

    2014-11-01

    Hispanic women have higher breast cancer mortality compared to non-Hispanic whites. We evaluated for Proliferation Axis Score differences, as determined by Oncotype Dx, in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. We matched 219 women, based upon age, stage, and nodal status. Compared to non-Hispanic white