These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Growth Stages 1: Infancy and Early Childhood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the first of a two-part series aimed at introducing students to the different stages of physical growth and development in human beings from birth to 18 years of age. Through the use of student interactives, this lesson helps students become better aware of all the natural physical stages of growth children experience in the first five years of life.

Science Netlinks

2003-03-29

2

DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages  

E-print Network

DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages by Huimin Liu David S. Dandy of high-quality diamond coatings on preshaped parts and synthesis of free-standing shapes of diamond a reality. Epi- taxial diamond has been grown on diamond and cubic-BN. Polycrystalline diamond films have

Dandy, David

3

Growth Stages 2: Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lesson plans from Science NetLinks form a two-part series designed to introduce students (grades 3-5) to human growth and development from infancy through puberty. Each lesson contains detailed background information, discussion questions, and other resources that help students learn about the "key physical stages or milestones, which are research and science-supported indicators that help to track the progress of a child's physical development at different stages of life." Using these lesson plans in the classroom could prove a popular choice, as "research shows that children are fascinated by films and stories about early stages of human development and they are particularly intrigued by comparisons of themselves now and earlier." Each lesson plans comes with a comprehensive teaching guide.

4

Experimental Study of the Early Stages of Dendritic Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent theoretical and computational advances(Nikolas Provatas, Nigel Goldenfeld, and Jonathan Dantzig, Phys Rev. Lett.), 80, 3308 (1998); Alain Karma and Wouter-Jan Rappel, Phys. Rev. E, 60, 3614 (1999). have allowed more careful study of the early stages of dendritic crystal growth that go beyond steady state approximations and include time-dependent growth and sidebranching in a realistic way. Recent experiments(J.C. LaCombe, M.B. Koss, and M.E. Glicksman, Phys. Rev. Lett.), 83, 2997 (1999) also suggest a re-examination of the steady-state approach may be in order. I will describe experiments designed to study the very early stages of dendritic crystal growth. Starting with an initially spherical seed, we slowly lower the temperature and record the development of the initial dendrite tips, the initial development of sidebranches, and the approach towards steady state. Further details are available online at http://www.lafayette.edu/ doughera/talks/aps2000/.

Dougherty, Andrew

2000-03-01

5

Growth Stages 2: Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the second of a two-part series aimed at introducing students to the different stages of growth and development in human beings from birth to 18 years of age. In this lesson, student interactives are used to help students focus on the kinds of physical changes that children of their age range begin to undergo during puberty.

Science Netlinks

2003-03-29

6

The early growth stage of a Devonian ophiuroid and its bearing on echinoderm phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central point in arguments for a crinoid ancestry of asteroids and ophiuroids is the similarity and presumed homology of the fully developed apical systems of asteroids and ophiuroids with the calyx of crinoids. A major obstacle to this view has been the lack of supporting evidence from Palaeozoic ophiuroids. Hamling's ophiuroid, Protasteridae sp. juv., is the early growth stage

Frederick H. C. Hotchkiss

1980-01-01

7

Melting point depression of Al clusters generated during the early stages of film growth: Nanocalorimetry measurements  

E-print Network

Melting point depression of Al clusters generated during the early stages of film growth in microelectronics: i melt- ing point depression as related to the Al reflow process,7­10 ii coalescence during been learned about the size-dependent melting point depression in recent times. Studies in model

Allen, Leslie H.

8

Analysis of the variability of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) growth during the early stages.  

E-print Network

Agronomy Analysis of the variability of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) growth during the early stages (Received 15 January 1992; accepted 4 May 1992) Summary — The variability of sugar beet seedling size of sugar beet through seedling size distribution, as well as through emergence rate and duration. Beta

Boyer, Edmond

9

Production of stilbenoids and phenolic acids by the peanut plant at early stages of growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea) is known to produce stilbene phytoalexins as a defensive response to exogenous stimuli. This research demonstrates the ability of different organs of the peanut plant at early stages of growth under axenic conditions to produce a stilbenoid, resveratrol, as well a...

10

Intra and interspecific competition among invasive and native species during early stages of plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant competition is a primary ecological process limiting grassland restoration success. Appropriate restoration techniques\\u000a require an understanding of the degree to which intra and interspecific competition control invasive and native plant growth.\\u000a The objective of this study was to determine how the intensity of intra and interspecific competition changes during early\\u000a stages of plant growth. Two invasive (Bromus\\u000a tectorum and

Seema ManglaRoger; Roger L. Sheley; Jeremy J. James; Steven R. Radosevich

2011-01-01

11

Nanoscale duplex oxide growth during early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100)  

SciTech Connect

A combination of real-time in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and ex situ transmission electron microscopy is utilized to investigate the early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100). Sequential formation of NiO and Cu{sub 2}O oxides was observed by increasing oxygen partial pressure, and the Cu{sub 2}O phase was identified to form preferentially on top of NiO nanoislands. The origin of this unexpected phenomenon is attributed to localized enrichment of Cu atoms accompanied with NiO growth, which thermodynamically drives the nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O/NiO duplex oxide growth.

Zhou Guangwen [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Multidisciplinary Program in Materials Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Fong, Dillon D.; Fuoss, Paul H.; Baldo, Peter M.; Thompson, Loren J.; Eastman, Jeffrey A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wang Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2009-10-01

12

Nerve growth factor regulates axial rotation during early stages of chick embryo development  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor (NGF) was discovered because of its neurotrophic actions on sympathetic and sensory neurons in the developing chicken embryo. NGF was subsequently found to influence and regulate the function of many neuronal and non neuronal cells in adult organisms. Little is known, however, about the possible actions of NGF during early embryonic stages. However, mRNAs encoding for NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75NTR are expressed at very early stages of avian embryo development, before the nervous system is formed. The question, therefore, arises as to what might be the functions of NGF in early chicken embryo development, before its well-established actions on the developing sympathetic and sensory neurons. To investigate possible roles of NGF in the earliest stages of development, stage HH 11–12 chicken embryos were injected with an anti-NGF antibody (mAb ?D11) that binds mature NGF with high affinity. Treatment with anti-NGF, but not with a control antibody, led to a dose-dependent inversion of the direction of axial rotation. This effect of altered rotation after anti NGF injection was associated with an increased cell death in somites. Concurrently, a microarray mRNA expression analysis revealed that NGF neutralization affects the expression of genes linked to the regulation of development or cell proliferation. These results reveal a role for NGF in early chicken embryo development and, in particular, in the regulation of somite survival and axial rotation, a crucial developmental process linked to left–right asymmetry specification. PMID:22308471

Manca, Annalisa; Capsoni, Simona; Di Luzio, Anna; Vignone, Domenico; Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Brandi, Rossella; Arisi, Ivan; Cattaneo, Antonino; Levi-Montalcini, Rita

2012-01-01

13

Diamond nucleation and growth at the early stages on Si(100) monitored by electron spectroscopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond growth on Si(100) is studied by scanning Auger microscopy (SAM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), electron loss spectroscopy (ELS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) focussing on the early stages of nucleation and growth. The low nucleation density allows us to monitor the evolution of both the substrate and the deposit intensities during the deposition process. Using the structural and chemical imaging probe provided by scanning Auger electron microscopy, we localize areas formed by carbon, only of diamond-type, and featureless areas with C, Si and O. The carbon nature on these last domains is initially a complex mixture of amorphous carbon, carbide and diamond. The amorphous deposit rapidly disappears (30 min), but the occurrence of surface carbide is still detected even after 120 min of growth. The surface carbon content, recorded both by AES focussed on the featureless domains and by XPS, initially drops. This is interpreted by the formation of silicon carbide embedding or removing the amorphous carbon layer. We identify three different sites of nucleation, which are (i) diamond seeds left by the substrate pretreatment; (ii) amorphous carbon at the very beginning of the nucleation process and (iii) silicon carbide. Then the diamond growth and the carbide formation are competitive processes, limited by (i) the reactive content in the gas phase and (ii) diffusion and etching of the silicon.

Le Normand, F.; Ababou, A.; Braul, N.; Carriére, B.; Fayette, L.; Marcus, B.; Mermoux, M.; Romeo, M.; Speisser, C.

1994-11-01

14

Study of the early stages of growth and epitaxy of gallium nitride thin films on sapphire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its unique properties GaN is a material useful for a variety of applications but obtaining good quality films is still a challenge. MOCVD is the main method for epitaxial growth of GaN for mass production and the early stages of growth are decisive for the quality of the film. While extensive work has been devoted to GaN in the last decade, the in-situ analysis of MOCVD films has not received the same amount of attention due to experimental difficulties. Ion beam analysis is a very powerful technique both for bulk and surface analysis that we have used in conjunction with other complementary techniques to look at the early stages of growth of GaN films grown on sapphire substrate. A new MOCVD reactor has been designed built and integrated with the W. M. Keck Thin Film Analysis Facility such that the characterization is performed in-situ without taking the sample out of the ultra high vacuum environment. We have extensively characterized the sapphire substrate after the preliminary preparation that consisted of cleaning and nitridation. After optimizing the growth parameters we have been able to grow wurtzite GaN films in a wide temperature range (450--1050°C) with un-reconstructed surface and of good quality. We have observed the crystalline quality, surface morphology and the growth mode of the films as a function of growth temperature and the film thickness. Using Ion Channeling we have determined the thickness and temperature range for which the films are either epitaxial single-crystal, polycrystalline with a preferred orientation or polycrystalline randomly oriented. Even though thin films grown at various temperatures have comparable defect densities we observe that when the substrate temperature is higher the rate of defect annihilation as the film grow is high such that we obtain good films within a thickness of approx. 300 nm. By comparing the channeling and LEED results we observed that samples for which we observe diffraction patterns can in fact be very poor crystals. This is indicative of the fact that surface ordering can be achieved for polycrystalline films and that surface diffraction alone cannot be used as an indication of crystallinity. The epitaxial films are oriented with the c-axis of the film paralleled with the c-axis of the substrate and the planes rotated by 30° with respect to the substrate. The defects density calculated for these films are similar to the ones obtained by other researchers for much thicker films.

Trifan, Eugen Mihai

15

Early life-stage test in zebrafish versus a growth test in rainbow trout to evaluate toxic effects  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the work presented in this paper was to compare toxic threshold concentrations of three substances obtained from growth test in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with data from early life-stages in zebrafish. The growth test was conducted over a period of 7 wk in case of 4-chloroaniline and 4 wk in case of 3,4-dichloroaniline and diazinon. The data from the experiment in zebrafish originate from life-cycle studies; here, only the results obtained within the first 6 wk of development after fertilization are considered. These time limits have been set, as in the FRG a growth test in rainbow trout extending over 4 wk and an early life-stage test in zebrafish extending over 6 wk are being discussed for the Chemical Act.

Bresch, H. (Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Karlsruhe (Germany))

1991-05-01

16

Early-stage returns?  

PubMed

Contrary to conventional thinking, there are compelling reasons for investors to consider early-stage life science ventures, especially in the context of a maturing biotech business 'ecosystem'. PMID:17093473

Booth, Bruce L

2006-11-01

17

Early stage colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Evidence has now accumulated that colonoscopy and removal of polyps, especially during screening and surveillance programs, is effective in overall risk reduction for colon cancer. After resection of malignant pedunculated colon polyps or early stage colon cancers, long-term repeated surveillance programs can also lead to detection and removal of asymptomatic high risk advanced adenomas and new early stage metachronous cancers. Early stage colon cancer can be defined as disease that appears to have been completely resected with no subsequent evidence of involvement of adjacent organs, lymph nodes or distant sites. This differs from the clinical setting of an apparent “curative” resection later pathologically upstaged following detection of malignant cells extending into adjacent organs, peritoneum, lymph nodes or other distant sites, including liver. This highly selected early stage colon cancer group remains at high risk for subsequent colon polyps and metachronous colon cancer. Precise staging is important, not only for assessing the need for adjuvant chemotherapy, but also for patient selection for continued surveillance. With advanced stages of colon cancer and a more guarded outlook, repeated surveillance should be limited. In future, novel imaging technologies (e.g., confocal endomicroscopy), coupled with increased pathological recognition of high risk markers for lymph node involvement (e.g., “tumor budding”) should lead to improved staging and clinical care. PMID:24379564

Freeman, Hugh James

2013-01-01

18

Growth pattern switch of renal cells and expression of cell cycle related proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy  

SciTech Connect

Renal hypertrophy, partly due to cell proliferation and hypertrophy, has been found correlated to renal function deterioration in diabetes mellitus. We screened the up-regulated cell cycle related genes to investigate cell growth and the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy using STZ-induced diabetic rats. Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2} and P{sup 27} were found significantly up-regulated in diabetic kidney. Increased cell proliferation in the kidney was seen at day 3, peaked at day 5, and returned to normal level at day 30. Cyclin E and CDK{sub 2} expression also peeked at day 5 and P{sup 27} activity peaked at day 14. These findings indicate that a hyperplastic growth period of renal cells is followed by a hypertrophic growth period at the early stage of diabetes. The growth pattern switch may be regulated by cell cycle regulating proteins, Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2}, and P{sup 27}.

Zhang Yanling [Department of Nephrology, Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Shi Yonghong [Department of Pathology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017 (China); Liu Yaling [Department of Dermatology, Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Dong Hui [Department of Neurology, Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050003 (China); Liu, Maodong; Li Ying [Department of Nephrology, Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Duan Huijun [Department of Pathology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017 (China)], E-mail: duanhj999@163.com

2007-11-09

19

Early stages of soldering reactions  

SciTech Connect

An experiment on the early stages of intermetallic compound layer growth during soldering and its theoretical analysis were conducted with the intent to study the controlling factors of the process. An experimental technique based on fast dipping and pulling of a copper coupon in liquid solder followed by optical microscopy allowed the authors to study the temporal behavior of the sample on a single micrograph. The technique should be of value for different areas of metallurgy because many experiments on crystallization may be described as the growth of a layer of intermediate phase. Comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical calculations allowed one to identify the kinetics of dissolution as the rate-controlling mechanism on the early stages and measure the kinetic coefficient of dissolution. A popular model of intermetallic compound layer structure coarsening is discussed.

Lord, R.A.; Umantsev, A. [Department of Natural Sciences, Fayetteville State University, 1200 Murchison Road, Fayetteville, North Carolina, 28301 (United States)

2005-09-15

20

Comparing the Effects of Symbiotic Algae (Symbiodinium) Clades C1 and D on Early Growth Stages of Acropora tenuis  

PubMed Central

Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades — including A and D — have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages. PMID:24914677

Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

2014-01-01

21

Comparing the effects of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium) clades C1 and D on early growth stages of Acropora tenuis.  

PubMed

Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades - including A and D - have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages. PMID:24914677

Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

2014-01-01

22

Hepatoma-Derived Growth Factor Upregulation Is Correlated with Prognostic Factors of Early-Stage Cervical Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a unique nuclear/growth factor that plays an important role in the progression of different types of cancer. A total of 63 patients with early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma (Cx) were enrolled in this retrospective study. The expression of HDGF was significantly increased compared with adjacent non-tumor tissue samples (p < 0.001). Moreover, elevated nuclear HDGF levels were correlated with lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI; p < 0.05), lymph node metastasis (LNM; p < 0.001), recurrence (p < 0.001) and advanced grade (AG; p < 0.001). The growth of cervical cancer cells (Hela cells) was enhanced by HDGF treatment. The HDGF mRNA and protein level were significantly higher in malignant cervical cancer cells compared with primary ones. By adenovirus gene delivery, HDGF overexpression enhanced, whereas HDGF knockdown perturbed the tumorigenic behaviors of cervical cancer cells. HDGF overexpression is common in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma and is involved in the carcinogenesis of cervical adenocarcinoma. Cytoplasmic HDGF expression is strongly correlated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and recurrence, indicating that HDGF may serve as a novel prognostic marker for patients with Cx. PMID:25421244

Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Shun-Chen; Tai, Ming Hong; Chang Chien, Chan-Chao; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

2014-01-01

23

Early development of the postcranial skeleton of the pikeperch Sander lucioperca (Teleostei: Percidae) relating to developmental stages and growth.  

PubMed

The early development of the postcranial skeleton (pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, vertebral column and fins) in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.)) was studied from hatching to days 47 and 43 post fertilization (dpf) at two different rearing temperatures, 15.5 and 18.0°C. Four embryonic and six larval stages were described, ranging from 3.4 ± 0.3 mm to 21.8 ± 2.1 mm in total length. The crucial point in larval development is swimbladder inflation, which enables larvae to swim energy efficiently. Until this time point, only the most essential skeletal elements to enable swimming movements have developed. As the larvae become neutrally buoyant, they grow and differentiate postcranial elements rapidly. Concurrently, swimming performance and foraging success seems to improve. A specific size is correlated with a distinct developmental stage defined by a set of traits that includes the skeletal elements. The developmental sequence of skeletal structures is temperature independent, although growth is slower and the individual developmental stages are reached later at 15.5°C than at 18.0°C. PMID:22505228

Ott, Alice; Löffler, Jasmin; Ahnelt, Harald; Keckeis, Hubert

2012-08-01

24

[Construction of individual-based ecological model for Scomber japonicas at its early growth stages in East China Sea].  

PubMed

By adopting FVCOM-simulated 3-D physical field and based on the biological processes of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicas) in its early life history from the individual-based biological model, the individual-based ecological model for S. japonicas at its early growth stages in the East China Sea was constructed through coupling the physical field in March-July with the biological model by the method of Lagrange particle tracking. The model constructed could well simulate the transport process and abundance distribution of S. japonicas eggs and larvae. The Taiwan Warm Current, Kuroshio, and Tsushima Strait Warm Current directly affected the transport process and distribution of the eggs and larvae, and indirectly affected the growth and survive of the eggs and larvae through the transport to the nursery grounds with different water temperature and foods. The spawning grounds in southern East China Sea made more contributions to the recruitment to the fishing grounds in northeast East China Sea, but less to the Yangtze estuary and Zhoushan Island. The northwestern and southwestern parts of spawning grounds had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Cheju and Tsushima Straits, whereas the northeastern and southeastern parts of the spawning ground had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Kyushu and Pacific Ocean. PMID:22937663

Li, Yue-Song; Chen, Xin-Jun; Yang, Hong

2012-06-01

25

Early stages of growth of gold layers sputter deposited on glass and silicon substrates  

PubMed Central

Extremely thin gold layers were sputter deposited on glass and silicon substrates, and their thickness and morphology were studied by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods. The deposited layers change from discontinuous to continuous ones for longer deposition times. While the deposition rate on the silicon substrate is constant, nearly independent on the layer thickness, the rate on the glass substrate increases with increasing layer thickness. The observed dependence can be explained by a simple kinetic model, taking into account different sticking probabilities of gold atoms on a bare glass substrate and regions with gold coverage. Detailed analysis of the shape of the RBS gold signal shows that in the initial stages of the deposition, the gold layers on the glass substrate consist of gold islands with significantly different thicknesses. These findings were confirmed by AFM measurements, too. Gold coverage of the silicon substrate is rather homogeneous, consisting of tiny gold grains, but a pronounced worm-like structure is formed for the layer thickness at electrical continuity threshold. On the glass substrate, the gold clusters of different sizes are clearly observed. For later deposition stages, a clear tendency of the gold atoms to aggregate into larger clusters of approximately the same size is observed. At later deposition stages, gold clusters of up to 100?nm in diameter are formed. PMID:22559151

2012-01-01

26

Investment demand in early stages of growth: The case of Philippine manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of economic growth have traditionally minimized the problem of effective demand by assuming that the only limit to investment is the volume of savings from all sources. We explore this assumption by investigating the nature of the investment demand function for a cross?section of 160 manufacturing companies in the Philippines. We regressed investment on a number of variables suggested

Gerardo P. Sicat; Richard Hooley

1971-01-01

27

Growth and population dynamics during early stages of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay, North Viet Nam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying the dynamics of the early stages in the life cycle of mangroves is essential to predict the distribution, species composition and structure of mangrove forests, and their maintenance and recovery from perturbations. The growth and population dynamics of two stands of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay (Viet Nam) were examined for 1 year. Growth was highly seasonal, with high growth rates and fast internode formation in the summer, dropping to extremely low growth during January-February, the coldest and driest months in the year. In addition, growth and internode formation rates showed important inter-annual variability during the last decade. The complete reproductive period required 7-8 months. Flower initiation was maximal in June and peak propagule maturity occurred in December-January. Only one mature propagule developed for every 67 and 127 inflorescence buds formed at Site 1 and Site 2, respectively. Kandelia candel propagules begun to sink 10 days after being released, and after 18 days all propagules had negative buoyancy. The propagules developed roots within 19-68 days, depending on whether they were held on the water or sediment, and were capable of long range dispersal, for 15-20% of them dispersed more than 100 m within 1 day. The median age of K. candel plants ranged between 8.7 and 5.6 years, with a density of 1900 and 470 plants ha -1, in Sites 1 and 2. Plant mortality was high, with 64 and 74% of the plants surviving after a year at Sites 1 and 2. Life expectancy (i.e. median age-at-death) of only 2.2 and 2.7 years at Sites 1 and 2, respectively, indicates that mortality of young K. candel plants was specially high. Recruitment occurred in early spring, and did not suffice to balance the mortality within the annual period examined. These results suggest that the K. candel stands in Halong Bay might be maintained by a few years of high recruitment which would compensate for generally high mortality rates.

Thi Ha, Hoang; Duarte, Carlos M.; Tri, Nguyen Hoang; Terrados, Jorge; Borum, Jens

2003-11-01

28

Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed. PMID:22363438

Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2012-01-01

29

Ultrasonic monitoring of early-stage biofilm growth on polymeric surfaces.  

PubMed

Biofilm growth on polymeric surfaces was monitored using ultrasonic frequency-domain reflectometry (UFDR). The materials utilized for this study included nonporous polycarbonate (PC) sheets, polyamide (PA) nanofiltration composite membranes and porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes (nominal pore size: 0.65 microm). Coupons of each material were placed in a biologically active annular reactor for up to 300 days, and subjected to a constant shear field (0.12 N m(-2)), which induced sessile microbial growth from acetate amended municipal tap water. Acoustic monitoring was non-destructively executed by traversing coupons in a constant temperature water bath using a spherically focused 20-MHz immersion transducer. This semi-automated system was configured to obtain reflections from 50 regions (c.a. 120x10(3) microm2) distributed evenly near the centerline of each coupon. The resulting reflected power distributions were compared with standard biochemical and microscopic assays that described surface associated biofilms. When compared to clean (virgin) conditions, biofilms growing on coupons induced consistent attenuations in reflection amplitude, which caused statistically significant shifts in reflected power (p<0.01). Using exocellular polysaccharides as a surrogate measure of total biofilm mass, UFDR was able to detect biofilms developing on any of the materials tested at surface-averaged masses < or = 150 microg cm(-2). Above these threshold levels, increasing amounts of exocellular polysaccharides correlated with significant decreases in total reflected power (TRP). The distribution of biomass on the coupon surfaces determined by acoustic spectra was consistent with that observed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). These results suggest that UFDR may be used as a non-destructive tool to monitor biofouling in a wide variety of applications. PMID:17141898

Kujundzic, Elmira; Fonseca, A Cristina; Evans, Emily A; Peterson, Michael; Greenberg, Alan R; Hernandez, Mark

2007-03-01

30

Potential of very high spatial resolution Pleiades images for discriminating between crops at early growth stage and bare agricultural soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out in the framework of the Optical and Radar Federated Earth Observation (ORFEO) accompaniment program of the French Space Agency (CNES). It is also part of the other projects (Prostock-Gessol3, BASC-SOCSENSIT) aiming at spatially monitoring the effects of exogenous organic matter land application on soil organic carbon sequestration, and necessitating for this purpose the gathering of spatial data about crops and crop successions as inputs into mechanistic crop models. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of very high spatial resolution (VHSR) Pleiades images (2 m -spatial resolution) to the mapping of different crops at various growth stages and various bare soil surface conditions related to tillage operations over an agricultural region in the western peri-urban suburbs of Paris: the Versailles plain (Yvelines, France). About 300 field observations describing soil surface conditions or crop phenological stages were collected at ~150 agricultural fields spread over 21 km², synchronously with the Pleiades images acquisitions of 3 and 24 April 2013. Field data were GIS-structured and used as a basis for delimitating within-field training and test zones. The performance of various classifiers was compared either on the spectral bands with or without NDVI or on the principal components of a series of spectral and textural features of an object-based classifier (ENVI FX®): the Bayesian maximum likelihood classifier (ML), the neural network classifier (NN), the support vector machine classifier with polynomial function kernel (SVM). The overall accuracy of the SVM classifier computed on the 4 spectral bands and the NDVI and followed by a median filter and class recombination according to crops reached about 78% for the Pleiades image of 3 April and 82% for that of 24 April. Tillage operations were very well detected (>77%, user's or producer's accuracies) as well as winter cereals (>70%, user's or producer's accuracies). Both Pleiades images enabled to perfectly discriminate between early stage winter cereals and bare cropped soils. They brought unique information about within-field spatial heterogeneity of crop varieties, seedbed preparation and crop development stages and enabled to detect practices of organic amendment application.

Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Noirot-Cosson, Paul-Emile; Membrive, Olivier; Hadjar, Dalila

2014-05-01

31

The Yellow Brick Road and the Emerald City: Benefit Finding, Positive Reappraisal Coping, and Posttraumatic Growth in Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictors and outcomes of benefit finding, positive reappraisal coping, and posttraumatic growth were examined using interviews and questionnaires from a longitudinal study of women with early-stage breast cancer followed from primary medical treatment completion to 3 (n = 92) and 12 months (n = 60) later. Most women (83%) reported at least 1 benefit of their breast cancer experience. Benefit

Sharon R. Sears; Annette L. Stanton; Sharon Danoff-Burg

2003-01-01

32

Structural style and early stage growth of inversion structures: 3D seismic insights from the Egersund Basin, offshore Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-quality three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection and borehole data from the Egersund Basin, offshore Norway are used to characterise the structural style and determine the timing of growth of inversion-related anticlines adjacent to a segmented normal fault system. Two thick-skinned normal faults, which offset Permian clastics and evaporites, delineate the north-eastern margin of the basin. These faults strike NNW-SSE, have up to 1900 m of displacement and are separated by an ESE-dipping, c. 10 km wide relay ramp. Both of these faults display exclusively normal separation at all structural levels and tip out upwards into the upper part of the Lower Cretaceous succession. At relatively shallow structural levels in the hangingwalls of these faults, a series of open, low-amplitude, fault-parallel anticlines are developed. These anticlines, which are asymmetric and verge towards the footwalls of the adjacent faults, are interpreted to have formed in response to mild inversion of the Egersund Basin. The amplitude of and apparent shortening associated with the anticlines vary along strike, and these variations mimic the along-strike variations in throw observed on the adjacent fault segments. We suggest that this relationship can be explained by along-strike changes in the propensity of the normal faults to reactivate during shortening; wider damage zones and lower angles of internal friction, coupled with higher pore fluids pressures at the fault centre, mean that reactivation is easier at this location than at the fault tips or in the undeformed country rock. Seismic-stratigraphic analysis of growth strata indicate that the folds initiated in the latest Turonian-to-earliest Coniacian (c. 88.6 Ma) and Santonian (c. 82.6 Ma); the control on this c. 6 Myr diachroneity in the initiation of fold growth is not clear, but it may be related to strain partitioning during the early stages of shortening. Anticline growth ceased in the Maastrichtian and the inversion event is therefore interpreted to have lasted at least c. 20 Myr. This study indicates that 3D seismic reflection data is a key tool to investigate the role that normal fault segmentation can play in controlling the structural style and timing of inversion in sedimentary basins. Furthermore, our results highlight the impact that this structural style variability may have on the development of structural and stratigraphic hydrocarbon traps in weakly-inverted rifts.

Jackson, C. A.-L.; Chua, S.-T.; Bell, R. E.; Magee, C.

2013-01-01

33

Viscosity and dissipation - early stages  

E-print Network

A very early start up time of the hydrodynamic evolution is needed in order to reproduce observations from relativistic heavy-ion collisions experiments. At such early times the systems is still not locally equilibrated. Another source of deviations from local equilibrium is the viscosity of the fluid. We study these effects at very early times to obtain a dynamical prescription for the transition from an early 2-dimensional expansion to a nearly equilibrated 3-dimensional expansion at latter stages. The role of viscosity at latter stages of the evolution is also illustrated.

P. Bozek

2009-01-15

34

DAMAGE POTENTIAL OF GRASSHOPPERS (ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE) ON EARLY GROWTH STAGES OF SMALL-GRAINS AND CANOLA UNDER SUBARCTIC CONDITIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small-grains, such as barley and oats, have been successfully grown under subarctic conditions but little is known about their response to herbivory by grasshoppers, especially during seedling stages. A growth chamber study quantified and characterized damage to above- and below-ground plant parts ...

35

Nucleation and early stage growth in phase-separating liquid mixtures under weak time-dependent supersaturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the standard description of phase separation, quenching from an initial equilibrium state to a final metastable state in the two-phase region is usually assumed to be instantaneous. Such an artificial situation is nevertheless intrinsically at variance with experiments because the quench rate is finite due to the continuous changes in thermodynamic parameters between the initial and final states. We experimentally explore this issue in near-critical micellar phases of microemulsion with induced transient grating techniques, focusing our attention on the very early stage of droplet growth, where the influence of the time dependence of supersaturation is the strongest. The experiment makes use of laser-induced concentration variations to locally quench the mixture with two intersecting pump beams, whose interference pattern optically traps the nucleated droplets on fringes. Due to the slow mass diffusion kinetics of quenches in composition, the time-resolved reflectivity of a third probe beam on the resulting droplet grating allows us to determine the mean nucleation time and the mean quench depth at the beginning of the decay of the metastable state. By varying the amplitudes of the control parameters (beam power, beam radii), we are able to characterize the dynamic properties of nucleation onset during continuous quenching. The results are interpreted in the light of very simple scaling arguments. We show in particular that R_Cpropto {t_C}^{1/3} for a weak linear temporal variation of the supersaturation, where R_C and t_C are, respectively, the measured critical radius and nucleation time.

Buil, S.; Delville, J. P.; Ducasse, A.

2000-06-01

36

Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

Farley, E.V., Jr.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

2007-01-01

37

Stocking density at early developmental stages affects growth and sex ratio in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of stocking density on growth and sex ratio in European eel, four constant density conditions were tested during the transition from the glass to the elver stage for 90 days (Period 1). The test conditions combined the weight of fish per unit surface or volume (surface density or volume density) resulting in four experimental groups: low surface density (0.5 kg/m(2)) and low volume density (5 kg/m(3)) (group S(0.5)V(5)); low surface density (0.5 kg/m(2)) and high volume density (10 kg/m(3)) (group S(0.5)V(10)); high surface density (2 kg/m(2)) and low volume density (5 kg/m(3)) (group S(2)V(5)); and high surface density (2 kg/m(2)) and high volume density (10 Kg/m(3)) (group S(2)V(10)). Subsequently, fish from the S(0.5)V(5), S(2)V(5), and S(2)V(10) groups were transferred to low density conditions (0.1-0.4 kg/m(2) or 0.1-0.3 kg/m(3)) for another 21 months (630 days; Period 2). After Period 1, fish maintained at high surface density, regardless of the volume density, showed higher standard growth rates (SGRs) and RNA/DNA ratio in muscle than those cultured at low surface density. The percentage of mortality was similar in three of the groups (34.2%-41.8%), but not in the S(2)V(10) group (83.3%). At the end of Period 2, most fish (about 95%) exhibited fully differentiated gonads, but different sex ratios were observed in each group. Thus, the S(2)V(5) group showed a higher proportion of females (36.1%) and a lower proportion of males (56.8%) than the S(0.5)V(5) group (11.4% and 72.5%, respectively), while all survivor fish from the S(2)V(10) group developed into females. The gonadosomatic index and SGR were higher in females than in males. These results suggest that glass eels maintained at high surface density during the first months of growth tend to develop into females. The data also indicate that growth and sex ratio are linked processes during eel development, with growth seeming to be sex dependant rather than being influenced by the density conditions in which glass eels are maintained. PMID:17179387

Huertas, Mar; Cerdà, Joan

2006-12-01

38

Growth inhibition in early life-stage tests predicts full life-cycle toxicity effects of lead in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive freshwater organism tested to date for several metals (Co, Cu, Pb, Ni) based on 28 d early life-stage (ELS) tests in which growth was the most sensitive endpoint. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has expressed concern that growth in 28 d ELS tests with mollusks may overpredict toxicity because of the potential for recovery in a full life-cycle (LC) test. Consequently, the USEPA only accepts the survival endpoint for these tests in establishing water quality criteria (WQC). To address this concern, the current study aimed to test the sensitivity of L. stagnalis to Pb in a 56 d full LC test evaluating survival, growth, reproductive and embryonic growth endpoints and compare the estimated effect levels to those established using the 28 d ELS test design. The most sensitive endpoints in this study were 28 d growth and 56 d egg mass production, both with a NOEC of <1.0 ?g L(-1) and a LOEC of 1.0 ?g L(-1), showing that the ELS growth endpoint is predictive of the 56 d reproduction endpoint. Snails exposed to 1.0 and 2.7 ?g L(-1) Pb showed full and partial recovery from growth inhibition between 28 and 56 d. While this recovery supports the USEPA's concern about the 28 d growth endpoint; considering the reproductive lifespan of L. stagnalis and the recovery dose-response, we conclude that the 28 d growth endpoint will be within a factor of 3 of full LC endpoints. This is consistent with the level of precision previously determined for fish ELS tests, which the USEPA accepts for WQC derivation, and suggests that tests using 28 d ELS growth endpoint for L. stagnalis may be acceptable for inclusion in WQC derivation. PMID:23274352

Munley, Kathleen M; Brix, Kevin V; Panlilio, Jennifer; Deforest, David K; Grosell, Martin

2013-03-15

39

Regulation of Transforming Growth Factor ?1, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor by Silicone Gel Sheeting in Early-Stage Scarring  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertrophic scars and keloids are associated with abnormal levels of growth factors. Silicone gel sheets are effective in treating and preventing hypertrophic scars and keloids. There has been no report on the change in growth factors in the scar tissue following the use of silicone gel sheeting for scar prevention. A prospective controlled trial was performed to evaluate whether growth factors are altered by the application of a silicone gel sheet on a fresh surgical scar. Methods Four of seven enrolled patients completed the study. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were investigated immunohistochemically in biopsies taken from five scars at 4 months following surgery. Results In both the epidermis and the dermis, the expression of TGF-?1 (P=0.042 and P=0.042) and PDGF (P=0.043 and P=0.042) was significantly lower in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars. The expression of bFGF in the dermis was significantly higher in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars (P=0.042), but in the epidermis, the expression of bFGF showed no significant difference between the groups (P=0.655). Conclusions The levels of TGF-?1, PDGF, and bFGF are altered by the silicone gel sheet treatment, which might be one of the mechanisms of action in scar prevention. PMID:25606485

Choi, Jaehoon; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Sang Woo

2015-01-01

40

Evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Prognostic Marker for Local Relapse in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important protein involved in the process of angiogenesis that has been found to correlate with relapse-free and overall survival in breast cancer, predominantly in locally advanced and metastatic disease. A paucity of data is available on the prognostic implications of VEGF in early-stage breast cancer; specifically, its prognostic value for local relapse after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to assess VEGF expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with BCT and to correlate the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes with overexpression of VEGF. Methods and Materials: After obtaining institutional review board approval, the paraffin specimens of 368 patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT between 1975 and 2005 were constructed into tissue microarrays with twofold redundancy. The tissue microarrays were stained for VEGF and read by a trained pathologist, who was unaware of the clinical details, as positive or negative according the standard guidelines. The clinical and pathologic data, long-term outcomes, and results of VEGF staining were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 6.5 years. VEGF expression was positive in 56 (15%) of the 368 patients. Although VEGF expression did not correlate with age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, histologic type, family history, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or HER-2 status, a trend was seen toward increased VEGF expression in the black cohort (26% black vs. 13% white, p = .068). Within the margin-negative cohort, VEGF did not predict for local relapse-free survival (RFS) (96% vs. 95%), nodal RFS (100% vs. 100%), distant metastasis-free survival (91% vs. 92%), overall survival (92% vs. 97%), respectively (all p >.05). Subset analysis revealed that VEGF was highly predictive of local RFS in node-positive, margin-negative patients (86% vs. 100%, p = .029) on univariate analysis, but it did not retain its significance on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.804-7.920, p = .113). No other subgroups were identified in which a correlation was found between VEGF expression and local relapse. Conclusion: To our knowledge, our study is the first to assess the prognostic value of VEGF with the endpoint of local relapse in early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT, an important question given the recent increased use of targeted antiangiogenic agents in early-stage breast cancer. Our study results suggest that VEGF is not an independent predictor of local RFS after BCT, but additional, larger studies specifically analyzing the endpoint of VEGF and local relapse are warranted.

Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yang Qifeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of China (China); Goyal, Sharad [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Harris, Lyndsay; Chung, Gina [Department of Medical Oncology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

2011-12-01

41

Stimulating seedling growth in early stages of secondary forest succession: a modeling approach to guide tree liberation  

PubMed Central

Excessive growth of non-woody plants and shrubs on degraded lands can strongly hamper tree growth and thus secondary forest succession. A common method to accelerate succession, called liberation, involves opening up the vegetation canopy around young target trees. This can increase growth of target trees by reducing competition for light with neighboring plants. However, liberation has not always had the desired effect, likely due to differences in light requirement between tree species. Here we present a 3D-model, which calculates photosynthetic rate of individual trees in a vegetation stand. It enables us to examine how stature, crown structure, and physiological traits of target trees and characteristics of the surrounding vegetation together determine effects of light on tree growth. The model was applied to a liberation experiment conducted with three pioneer species in a young secondary forest in Vietnam. Species responded differently to the treatment depending on their height, crown structure and their shade-tolerance level. Model simulations revealed practical thresholds over which the tree growth response is heavily influenced by the height and density of surrounding vegetation and gap radius. There were strong correlations between calculated photosynthetic rates and observed growth: the model was well able to predict growth of trees in young forests and the effects of liberation there upon. Thus, our model serves as a useful tool to analyze light competition between young trees and surrounding vegetation and may help assess the potential effect of tree liberation. PMID:25101100

van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P. R.; Oomen, Roelof J.; Schieving, Feike

2014-01-01

42

Stimulating seedling growth in early stages of secondary forest succession: a modeling approach to guide tree liberation.  

PubMed

Excessive growth of non-woody plants and shrubs on degraded lands can strongly hamper tree growth and thus secondary forest succession. A common method to accelerate succession, called liberation, involves opening up the vegetation canopy around young target trees. This can increase growth of target trees by reducing competition for light with neighboring plants. However, liberation has not always had the desired effect, likely due to differences in light requirement between tree species. Here we present a 3D-model, which calculates photosynthetic rate of individual trees in a vegetation stand. It enables us to examine how stature, crown structure, and physiological traits of target trees and characteristics of the surrounding vegetation together determine effects of light on tree growth. The model was applied to a liberation experiment conducted with three pioneer species in a young secondary forest in Vietnam. Species responded differently to the treatment depending on their height, crown structure and their shade-tolerance level. Model simulations revealed practical thresholds over which the tree growth response is heavily influenced by the height and density of surrounding vegetation and gap radius. There were strong correlations between calculated photosynthetic rates and observed growth: the model was well able to predict growth of trees in young forests and the effects of liberation there upon. Thus, our model serves as a useful tool to analyze light competition between young trees and surrounding vegetation and may help assess the potential effect of tree liberation. PMID:25101100

van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P R; Oomen, Roelof J; Schieving, Feike

2014-01-01

43

Classification of images of wheat, ryegrass and brome grass species at early growth stages using principal component analysis  

PubMed Central

Wheat is one of the most important crops in Australia, and the identification of young plants is an important step towards developing an automated system for monitoring crop establishment and also for differentiating crop from weeds. In this paper, a framework to differentiate early narrow-leaf wheat from two common weeds from their digital images is developed. A combination of colour, texture and shape features is used. These features are reduced to three descriptors using Principal Component Analysis. The three components provide an effective and significant means for distinguishing the three grasses. Further analysis enables threshold levels to be set for the discrimination of the plant species. The PCA model was evaluated on an independent data set of plants and the results show accuracy of 88% and 85% in the differentiation of ryegrass and brome grass from wheat, respectively. The outcomes of this study can be integrated into new knowledge in developing computer vision systems used in automated weed management. PMID:21943349

2011-01-01

44

Early growth stage of a large delta — Transformation from estuarine-platform to deltaic-progradational conditions (the northeastern Mekong River Delta, Vietnam)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial growth stage of a river delta can be defined either as the beginning geomorphologic expansion of the river-dominated coastal lowland or as the starting basinward-directed progradation of the geological/stratigraphic delta body. Differentiating between these two perspectives is necessary for understanding the sensitive reaction of a deltaic system to dynamic changes in sea-level and sediment availability. The Holocene evolution of the northeastern part of the Mekong River delta (Southern Vietnam) offers a great chance to depict these two different definitions and relate them genetically to each other since the transition between an old abrasion platform (inner delta) and the continental-shelf basin (outer delta) is well developed in this marginal part of the delta. The early stage of delta growth taking place during transgression-related inundation between 8 cal ka BP (maximum flooding) and 5.7 (6.0-4.8) cal ka BP (sea-level highstand) was characterized by tide-and saltwater-influenced nearshore conditions allowing extensive mangrove and tidal-flat deposits to aggradate on the wide abrasion platform. With the onset of regression around 4.8 cal ka BP the depositional center shifted immediately beyond the seaward margin of this estuarine platform and thus true deltaic progradation could develop leading to rapid construction of a delta body (and, in addition, to subsidence/tilting of the inner delta zone). Directly at the transition of these two deposystems, remains of shore-related deposits indicate the sudden breakdown of the estuarine platform conditions around 4.6 cal ka BP.

Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Proske, Ulrike; Saito, Yoshiki; Nguyen, Van Lap; Ta, Thi Kim Oanh

2012-06-01

45

On developing business architectures : a multi-framework evaluation of an early-stage enterprise  

E-print Network

Early-stage enterprises are characterized by leveraging limited resources during periods of accelerating industry growth and relatively high uncertainty. This thesis is an examination of an early-stage enterprise within ...

Montoya, Mario, 1978-

2010-01-01

46

Growth stage estimation. [crop calendars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Of the three candidate approaches to adjustment of the crop calendar to account for year-to-year weather differences, the Robertson triquadratic unit, a function of a nonlinear function of maximum and minimum temperature and day length, best described the rate of phenological development of wheat. The adjustable crop calendar (ACC) as implemented for LACIE is used to calculate the daily increment of development through six physiological stages of growth. Topics covered include dormancy modeling, the spring restart model, spring wheat starter model, winter starter model, winter wheat starter model, inclusion of the moisture variable, and display of crop stage estimation results. Assessment of the ACC accuracy over the period of LACIE operation indicates that the adjustable crop calendars used provided more accurate information than would have been available using historical norms. The models performed best under the conditions from which they were derived (Canadian spring wheat) and most poorly for the dwarf varieties and Southern Hemisphere applications.

Whitehead, V. S.; Phinney, D. E.; Crea, W. E. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

47

Endoscopic options for early stage esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Surgery has traditionally been the preferred treatment for early stage esophageal cancer. Recent advances in endoscopic treatments have been shown to be effective and safe. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allow endoscopists to remove small, superficial lesions, providing tumor specimen that can be examined for accurate pathologic tumor staging and assessment of adequacy of resection. Endoscopic ablation procedures, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radio frequency ablation (RFA), have also been shown to safely and effectively treat esophageal dysplasia and early stage neoplasia, with excellent long-term disease control. Both approaches are becoming more widely available around the world, and provide an alternative, safe, low risk strategy for treating early stage disease, making combined endoscopic therapy the recommended treatment of choice for early stage esophageal cancers. PMID:25642334

Shah, Pari M.

2015-01-01

48

Molecular responses to 17?-estradiol in early life stage salmonids.  

PubMed

Environmental estrogens (EE) are ubiquitous in many aquatic environments and biological responses to EEs in early developmental stages of salmonids are poorly understood compared to juvenile and adult stages. Using 17?-estradiol (E2) as a model estrogen, waterborne exposures were conducted on early life stage rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; egg, alevin, swim-up fry) and both molecular and physiological endpoints were measured to quantify the effects of E2. To investigate developmental stage-specific effects, laboratory exposures of 1 ?g/L E2 were initiated pre-hatching as eyed embryos or post-hatching upon entering the alevin stage. High mortality (?90%) was observed when E2 exposures were initiated at the eyed embryo stage compared to the alevin stage (?35% mortality), demonstrating stage-specific sensitivity. Gene expression analyses revealed that vitellogenin was detectable in the liver of swim-up fry, and was highly inducible by 1 ?g/L E2 (>200-fold higher levels compared to control animals). Experiments also confirmed the induction of vitellogenin protein levels in protein extracts isolated from head and tail regions of swim-up fry after E2 exposure. These findings suggest that induction of vitellogenin, a well-characterized biomarker for estrogenic exposure, can be informative measured at this early life stage. Several other genes of the reproductive endocrine axis (e.g. estrogen receptors and androgen receptors) exhibited decreased expression levels compared to control animals. In addition, chronic exposure to E2 during the eyed embryo and alevin stages resulted in suppressive effects on growth related genes (growth hormone receptors, insulin-like growth factor 1) as well as premature hatching, suggesting that the somatotropic axis is a key target for E2-mediated developmental and growth disruptions. Combining molecular biomarkers with morphological and physiological changes in early life stage salmonids holds considerable promise for further defining estrogen action during development, and for assessing the impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals in vivo in teleosts. PMID:24698784

Marlatt, Vicki L; Sun, Jinying; Curran, Cat A; Bailey, Howard C; Kennedy, Chris K; Elphick, James R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

2014-07-01

49

Reevaluation of early Eocene, Penutian Stage  

SciTech Connect

The Penutian Stage was originally described as an early Eocene benthic foraminiferal stage. The type area of the stage and its two zones is in the Media Aqua Creek section of California. Faunas indicative of this stage were recognized throughout California. Planktonic foraminifers and calcareous nannoplankton studies suggest this stage is time-transgressive, ranging from planktonic foraminiferal zones P7 to P9 and nannofossil zones Tribrachiatus orthostylus to discoaster sublodoensis. The present study reexamines the type section of the Penutian Stage and several critical sections and concludes that the Penutian Stage, with modification, represents a biochronostratigraphpic stage equivalent to planktonic zones latest P7 to early P9, nannofossil zones Tribrachiatus orthostylus to early Discoaster lodoensis, and the latter part of the supercycle TA2. The time-transgressive nature of this stage was due to ecologic control of benthic foraminiferal ranges and to problems that became apparent when reexamining the type area, and faunas considered coeval. These problems include: (1) differences in taxonomy, (2) discrepancies between the species ranges in the original description of the stage and their actual range in the type area, California, and worldwide, and (3) the assumption that deposition was continuous in the type area and in other critical sections.

McDougall, K.

1988-03-01

50

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH  

EPA Science Inventory

In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

51

Inducing salt tolerance in maize ( Zea mays L.) through seed priming with chloride salts: Growth and ion transport at early growth stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to determine whether salt tolerance could be induced in maize at germination stage by soaking of seeds\\u000a for 8 h in distilled water or in 200 meq·L?1 of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2·2H2O. Both primed and un-primed seeds were subjected for 14 days to 0, 100 or 200 mol·m?3 NaCl under controlled conditions. Although all priming agents were

M. Ashraf; Humera Rauf

2001-01-01

52

Growth hormone and early treatment.  

PubMed

Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for GH deficiency (GHD) but also for other childhood growth disorders with growth failure and/or short stature. GHD is the most frequent endocrine disorder presenting with short stature in childhood. During neonatal period, metabolic effects due to congenital GHD require a prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. In childhood and adolescence, growth impairment is the most evident effect of GHD and early treatment has the aim of restore normal growth and to reach normal adult height. We reassume in this review the conditions causing GHD and the diagnostic challenge to reach an early diagnosis, and an early treatment, necessary to obtain the best results. Finally, we summarize results obtained in clinical studies about pediatric patients with GHD treated at an early age, in which a marked early catch-up growth and a normalization of adult height were obtained. PMID:25734895

Antoniazzi, F; Cavarzere, P; Gaudino, R

2015-06-01

53

PUTATIVE YIELD LOSS IN FIELD-GROWN SOYBEAN UNDER ELEVATED OZONE CAN BE AVOIDED AT THE EXPENSE OF LEAF GROWTH DURING EARLY REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH STAGES IN FAVORABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent which is responsible for more damage to vegetation than any other air pollutant. In this study, we analyzed leaf growth, photosynthesis and carbohydrate content during the seed filling growth stage of field-grown soybeans exposed to ambient air and 1.2 times ambi...

54

Effect of early luteal phase administration of mifepristone (RU486) on leukaemia inhibitory factor, transforming growth factor ‚ and vascular endothelial growth factor in the implantation stage endometrium of the rhesus monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single, low-dose administration of a potent anti- progesterone such as mifepristone (RU486) in the early luteal phase results in inhibition of blastocyst implantation in primates. The aim of the present study was to examine the status of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), transform- ing growth factor ‚ (TGF‚) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in day 6 gestational endometrium of

D Ghosh; PGLL Kumar; J Sengupta

55

Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

56

Formation of Ice Crystals and Dissipation of Supercooled Fog by Artificial Nucleation, and Variations of Crystal Habit at Early Growth Stages.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stages of ice crystal formation in supercooled fogs were studied in detail by electron microscopy, and ice nucleation experiments using liquid propane seeding were conducted in a thermostatically controlled coldroom. Ice crystals, formed by rapid cooling created by the evaporation of liquid propane from a fine nozzle at temperatures from 0.1 to 40°C, were collected and replicated on filmed grids for electron microscope examinations. Most of the ice crystals formed immediately after the liquid propane seedings were spherical (although 20% were hexagonal) with diameters ranging from 0.3 to 3 m and with a mean diameter of 1.5 m. Electron microscopy revealed a grain boundary in some of the ice crystals.The production rates of ice crystals per gram of liquid propane seeding were measured at temperatures from 0.1 to 20°C. The production rate increased exponentially at temperatures from 0.1 to 4°C, and remained at about 1011 ice crystals per gram of liquid propane seeding at temperatures below 5°C.Experiments of supercooled fog dissipation by liquid propane seeding were performed in the coldroom. The results showed that supercooled fog dissipation becomes effective at temperatures colder than 0.5°C.The habit of early stage ice crystals formed at temperatures from 0.1 to 40°C and 90 to 160°C was studied. Two basic types of hexagonal plates and columns were observed at temperatures from 22 to 40°C. A cold stage was used with the electron microscope to investigate the structure of the crystals formed at temperatures of 90 to 160°C. Plates were observed at 100°C, and were analyzed as having a hexagonal form by their electron diffraction patterns. Cubic forms of ice crystals were observed below 100°C.

Kumai, Motoi

1982-04-01

57

Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks  

SciTech Connect

Processes in growth of short cracks and stage I of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl{sup {minus}}, with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl{sup {minus}} or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage I behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK{sup m} where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

1993-12-01

58

Open architecture framework for improved early stage submarine design  

E-print Network

Could transparency between current disparate methods improve efficiency in early stage submarine design? Does the lack of transparency between current design methods hinder the effectiveness of early stage submarine design? ...

Sewell, Eli A. (Eli Anthony)

2010-01-01

59

15.391 Early Stage Capital, Fall 2003  

E-print Network

15.391 examines the elements of raising early stage capital, focusing on start-up ventures and the early stages of company development. This course also prepares entrepreneurs to make the best use of outside advisors, and ...

Loessberg, Shari

60

Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch date distributions predicted by flow-independent (84-93%) and flow-dependent (82-91%) incubation loss models were similar. Age-0 abundance was generally independent of viable egg deposition, except in one year when egg deposition was 10-fold lower due to reduced spawning activity. There was no evidence from the hatch date or stock-recruitment analysis that flow-dependent incubation losses, although large in experimental years, affected the abundance of the age-0 population. The data indicate that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of flow-dependent losses. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that the March 2008 high flow experiment (HFE) resulted in a large increase in early survival rates (fertilization to ~1-2 months from emergence) of age-0 trout due an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis indicated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over four-fold higher than expected given the number of viable redds that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about two months after the HFE. These cohorts, which were fertilized after the HFE, were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better quality habitat. Inter annual differences in growth of age-0 trout based on otolith microstructure support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm·day-1) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm·day-1), the highest recorded over six years, even though abundance was eight-fold greater in 2008. I speculate that high flows in 2008 increased interstitial spaces in the substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth during summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was over two-fold higher than expected, possibly indicating that the effect of the HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent.

Korman, Josh

2010-05-01

61

Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In addition, the toxicity profiles are quite favorable. In addition to stereotactic radiation, advances in brachytherapy techniques have enabled high local control rates in operable patients who receive sublobar resections due to compromised pulmonary function. Isotopes that have been used include iodine-125, palladium-103, and cesium-131. In this review article, the role of radiation therapy in treatment of lung cancer, patient selection, outcomes, toxicity and recent technological advancements are discussed. The radiation therapy techniques described in this article are also being used in the management of locally advanced lung cancers. PMID:24436535

Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

2013-01-01

62

Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer.  

PubMed

Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In addition, the toxicity profiles are quite favorable. In addition to stereotactic radiation, advances in brachytherapy techniques have enabled high local control rates in operable patients who receive sublobar resections due to compromised pulmonary function. Isotopes that have been used include iodine-125, palladium-103, and cesium-131. In this review article, the role of radiation therapy in treatment of lung cancer, patient selection, outcomes, toxicity and recent technological advancements are discussed. The radiation therapy techniques described in this article are also being used in the management of locally advanced lung cancers. PMID:24436535

Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A Gabriella

2013-06-01

63

Modification of flower architecture during early stages in the evolution of self-fertilization  

E-print Network

position with bimodal distributions of herkogamy values. Cloned genets exposed to contrasting growthModification of flower architecture during early stages in the evolution of self populations under uniform glasshouse conditions were compared to investigate genetic and environmental

Barrett, C.H.

64

Early Stages of the Natriuretic Hormone Story  

PubMed Central

The paper reviews the early stages of the research on natriuretic hormone. The described experimental work was designed and accomplished in several internationally recognized laboratories where the author was invited to extend his projects. The cross-circulation experiments in animals with acutely increased extracellular fluid volume documented, that in the mechanism of natriuresis – besides a series of the physical natriuretic factors – there is still room for an active humoral natriuretic substance. This substance inhibited the sodium transporting enzyme, Na,K-ATPase, in the frog skin. Analogous inhibition of the renal Na,K-ATPase may be partly responsible for the increased sodium excretion. It was further shown that the extent of natriuresis is positively modulated by the concentration of sodium in the cerebrospinal fluid detected in the anterior-third ventricle region (AV3V) in the brain. PMID:25426100

Lichardus, Branislav

2014-01-01

65

Water-sensitivity of cotton growth stages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

All irrigations during a season are not equal in terms of providing economic return on the money spent to irrigate cotton. This article provides a brief description of the effect of water stress on cotton during the different growth stages of the plant and the relative benefit of irrigating to relie...

66

Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-flow experiments (HFEs) from Glen Canyon Dam are primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River as it flows through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. These experimental flows also have the potential to affect the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach immediately below the dam, which supports a highly valued recreational fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Understanding how flow regimes affect the survival and growth of juvenile rainbow trout is critical to interpreting trends in adult abundance. This study reports on the effects of HFEs in 2004 and 2008 on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lees Ferry reach on the basis of monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance of the age-0 trout (fertilization to about 1 to 2 months from emergence) and their growth during a 7-year period between 2003 and 2009. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the March 2008 HFE resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 trout because of an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis demonstrated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was more than fourfold higher than expected, given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch-date analysis showed that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the 2008 HFE (about April 15, 2008) relative to those fish that hatched before this date. These cohorts, fertilized after the 2008 HFE, would have emerged into a benthic invertebrate community that had recovered, and was possibly enhanced by, the HFE. Interannual differences in growth of age-0 trout, determined on the basis of otolith microstructure, support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm/day) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm/day), the highest recorded during 6 years, even though abundance was eightfold greater in 2008. We speculate that the 60-hour-long 2008 HFE (with peak magnitude about twice that of the annual peak flow during the previous 4 years) increased interstitial spaces in the gravel bed substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth of these fish through summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was more than twofold higher than expected, given the estimated number of viable eggs deposited in that year, perhaps indicating that the effect of the 2008 HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent. In a 3-week interval that spanned the November 2004 HFE, abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 7 months old from hatch experienced about a threefold decline, compared to the approximately twofold decrease observed between November and December 2008. Abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 10 months old from hatch was very similar across sampling trips that spanned the March 2008 HFE. It is uncertain whether the decline in abundance after the November 2004 HFE was the result of higher flow-induced mortality or higher flow-induced downstream dispersal. A focused monitoring effort in Marble Canyon (the reach immediately downstream of the Lees Ferry tailwater) before and after future HFEs is recommended to resolve this uncertainty. Relatively detailed monitoring of early life stages-such as the program described in this study-is essential to establish linkages between Glen Canyon Dam operations, or possibly other factors, and trends in the abundance of important nonnative and native fish populations living downstream within Grand Canyon National Park.

Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

2010-01-01

67

Anticipated yield loss in field-grown soybean under elevated ozone can be avoided at the expense of leaf growth during early reproductive growth stages in favourable environmental conditions.  

PubMed

Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent which is responsible for more damage to vegetation than any other air pollutant. In this study, leaf growth, photosynthesis, and carbohydrate content were analysed during the seed-filling growth stage of field-grown soybeans exposed to ambient air and 1.2 times ambient ozone concentration using a Free Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) facility. By contrast to predictions based on controlled-environment and open-top chamber studies, final yield did not differ between treatments, although the cultivar used here was sensitive to ozone damage: growth and carbohydrate content of upper canopy leaves was reduced during the seed-filling stage in which an ozone-induced decrease of photosynthesis was present. However, 2004 was an ideal growing season in central Illinois and the cumulative ozone indices were lower than in previous years. Still, the results indicate that the anticipated yield loss under ozone concentrations was avoided at the expense of leaf growth, as reserves were diverted from vegetative to reproductive organs. PMID:16798846

Christ, Maja M; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Randall; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

2006-01-01

68

Urinary Biomarkers at Early ADPKD Disease Stage  

PubMed Central

Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by a decline in renal function at late disease stage when the majority of functional renal parenchyma is replaced by cystic tissue. Thus, kidney function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) does not well represent disease burden in early disease. Here, we investigated various urinary markers for tubular injury and their association with disease burden in ADPKD patients at early disease course. Methods ADPKD patients between 18 and 40 years with an eGFR greater or equal to 70 ml per min per 1.73m2 were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1), and Uromodulin (UMOD) were investigated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Clara Cell Protein 16 (CC16) was investigated by Latex Immuno Assay. Cryoscopy was performed to assess urine osmolality and Urinary Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR) was calculated. The association and the predictive properties of the markers on eGFR and height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, incorporating different control variables for adjustment. Internal bootstrapping validated the obtained results. Results In 139 ADPKD patients (age 31 ±7 years, mean eGFR of 93 ± 19 ml per min per 1.73 m2) the total kidney volume was negatively correlated with eGFR and UMOD and positive associated with age, UACR, KIM-1 and urine osmolality after adjustment for possible confounders. Urine osmolality and htTKV were also associated with eGFR, whereas no association of CC16, NGAL and UMOD with eGFR or htTKV was found. Conclusion UACR and urinary KIM-1 are independently associated with kidney size but not with renal function in our study population. Urine osmolality was associated with eGFR and kidney volume following adjustment for multiple confounders. Despite statistical significance, the clinical value of our results is not yet conceivable. Further studies are needed to evaluate the property of the aforementioned biomarkers to assess disease state at early ADPKD stage. PMID:25875363

Petzold, Katja; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Spanaus, Katharina; Andreisek, Gustav; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Pavik, Ivana; Ho, Thien Anh; Serra, Andreas L.; Rotar, Laura

2015-01-01

69

GENOMIC RESOURCES FOR STUDYING EARLY LIFE STAGE SALMONID HEALTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genomic approaches are being used to study pathological and normal processes in early life stage salmonids. Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), a disease associated with low egg thiamine levels, causes early life stage mortality and low recruitment of Great Lakes salmonids including lake trout. We use...

70

Early stages during plasma nitriding of pure iron  

SciTech Connect

The sequence of nitride formation during the early stages of plasma nitriding of pure iron was studied by optical microscopy, SEM, TEM and x-ray diffraction. Plasma nitriding at {approximately}490 C in a 25 vol.%H{sub 2} + 75 vol.%N{sub 2} mixture starts with the formation of {gamma}{prime}-Fe{sub 4}N after 40s. Once {gamma}{prime} nucleates, it mainly spreads laterally due to diffusion shortcuts in the discontinuous surface nitride layer. Before {gamma}{prime} is continuous on the surface, {epsilon} nucleates on top of it shortly after 40S. Epsilon is then observed to grow, both inwardly and laterally along with {gamma}{prime}. A compact {gamma}{prime}/{epsilon} bilayer forms on the surface at around 100s. The kinetics of nucleation, growth and compactation of the nitrides observed in the present work was significantly more rapid than in any of the nitriding process reported in the literature, including plasma nitriding. The acceleration of the nitriding kinetics in the early stages of plasma nitriding may be attributed to enhanced diffusion resulting from a high nitrogen flux from the plasma atmosphere. The results presented are consistent with the findings of a companion work on modeling the kinetics of nitride layer growth.

Palacios, M.D.; Martinez, O.; Oseguera, J. [Inst. Tecnologico y de Estudiuos Superiores de Monterrey, Atizapan (Mexico)

1995-12-31

71

Enhancement in leaf photosynthesis and upregulation of rubisco in the C4 sorghum plant at elevated growth carbon dioxide and temperature occur at early stages of leaf ontogeny.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grain sorghum was grown at 350 and 700 (high) ppm CO2, and at daytime maximum/nighttime minimum temperatures of 30/20 and 36/26C. Gas exchange rates, activities of Rubisco and PEP carboxylase (PEPC), leaf area, and biomass of various plant components were determined at different stages of leaf and p...

72

Immunocytochemical studies on the pituitary gland of Anguilla anguilla L., in relation to early growth stages and diet-induced sex differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian and teleost antisera against pituitary hormones were used to identify and localize pituitary cell types in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.). The investigation was conducted on unpigmented glass eels of 5.6–6.2 of total body length (LT) caught in river mouths, then on yellow eels reared from the pigmented glass eel (or elver) stage up to 12–14cm of LT,

Gilberto Grandi; Giuseppe Colombo; Milvia Chicca

2003-01-01

73

Safety and Tolerability of Docetaxel, Cyclophosphamide, and Trastuzumab Compared to Standard Trastuzumab-Based Chemotherapy Regimens for Early-Stage Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose We evaluated the tolerability and cardiac safety of docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, and trastuzumab (TCyH) for the treatment of early-stage human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer and compared to the standard trastuzumab-based chemotherapy regimens doxorubicin with cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel and trastuzumab (AC-TH) and docetaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab (TCaH). Methods We retrospectively reviewed early-stage, resectable, HER2-positive breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy at a single comprehensive cancer center between 2004 and 2011. Patient characteristics, comorbidities, relative dose intensity (RDI) of each regimen, tolerability, and cardiac toxicity were evaluated. Results One hundred seventy-seven patients were included in the study (AC-TH, n=114; TCaH, n=39; TCyH, n=24). TCyH was solely administered in the adjuvant setting, whereas two-thirds of the AC-TH and TCaH groups were administered postoperatively. Patients treated with TCyH tended to have a more significant underlying cardiac history, higher Charlson comorbidity index, and were of an earlier stage. All patients treated with TCyH received granulocyte colony stimulating factor primary prophylaxis. No febrile neutropenia or grade ?3 hematologic toxicity was observed in the TCyH group as compared to the AC-TH and TCaH groups. There were no significant differences in the rates of early termination, hospitalization, dose reduction, or RDI between the regimens. The symptomatic congestive heart failure rate between AC-TH, TCaH, and TCyH groups was not significantly different (4.4% vs. 2.6% vs. 8.3%, respectively, p=0.57). There was also no significant difference in the rate of early trastuzumab termination between patients treated with each regimen. Conclusion TCyH is well tolerated and should be investigated as an alternative adjuvant chemotherapy option for patients who are not candidates for standard trastuzumab-containing regimens. Larger clinical trials are necessary to support the wider use of TCyH as an adjuvant regimen. PMID:25548584

Jitawatanarat, Potjana; O'Connor, Tracey L.; Kossoff, Ellen B.; Levine, Ellis G.; Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak

2014-01-01

74

Vascular proliferation and transforming growth factor-? expression in pre- and early stage of diabetes mellitus in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 in vascular proliferation, atherosclerosis, and plaque still remain controversial. TGF-?1 has been previously reported to inhibit the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, in vitro. On the other hand, administration or transgenic overexpression of TGF-?1 enhances extracellular matrix synthesis and cellular hyperplasia of the intima and media in

Naohisa Hosomi; Takashi Noma; Hideo Ohyama; Tsutomu Takahashi; Masakazu Kohno

2002-01-01

75

Household Epidemics: Modelling Effects of Early Stage Vaccination  

E-print Network

Household Epidemics: Modelling Effects of Early Stage Vaccination Nyimvua ShabanÃ?,1,2 Mikael into households. A vaccination strategy, which is implemented during the early stages of the disease following is infectious and other susceptible household members are vaccinated without further delay. Expressions

Britton, Tom

76

Interactive sketching for the early stages of user interface design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current interactive user interface construction tools are often more of a hindrance than a benefit during the early stages of user interface design. These tools take too much time to use and force designers to specify more of the design details than they wish at this early stage. Most interface designers, especially those who have a background in graphic design,

James A. Landay; Brad A. Myers

1995-01-01

77

Interactive Sketching for the Early Stages of User Interface Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current interactive user interface construction tools are often more of a hindrance thana benefit during the early stages of interface design. These tools are hard to use andthey encourage designers and evaluators to focus on the wrong issues, such as color,fonts, and alignment, at this early stage. Most designers prefer instead to sketch earlyinterface ideas on paper. However, designing on

James A. Landay

1996-01-01

78

Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease

F. P. H. Gazeau; J.-P. Gattuso; C. Dawber; A. E. Pronker; F. Peene; J. Peene; C. H. R. Heip; J. J. Middelburg

2010-01-01

79

Phenological growth stages of the cherimoya tree ( Annona cherimola Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed crop-specific descriptions and codes are presented for the growth stages of the cherimoya tree, contributing to the standardization of national and international testing systems in fruit growing. Based on the general BBCH-scale, the codes describe growth stages using a two-digit numerical system and differentiate between principal and secondary growth stages to allow separation of developmental steps. Growth stages for

R. Cautín; M. Agustí

2005-01-01

80

Endoscopic approaches for early-stage esophageal cancer: current options.  

PubMed

Early esophageal cancer is confined to the mucosa or submucosa of the esophagus. While most esophageal cancer is detected at an advanced stage (requiring surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation), early-stage mucosal lesions may be detected through Barrett's surveillance programs or incidentally on diagnostic upper endoscopies performed for other reasons. These early-stage cancers are often amenable to endoscopic therapies, including mucosal resection, ablation, and cryotherapy. Studies suggest equivalent survival rates and reduced morbidity but higher recurrence rates with endoscopic removal of early-stage cancers compared to surgical resection. There is emerging data regarding the efficacy and long-term outcomes of endoscopic therapy for early esophageal cancer that is promising, and further research is needed to better define the role of endoscopic therapy in the management of early esophageal cancer. PMID:25416315

Patel, Vaishali; Burbridge, Rebecca A

2015-01-01

81

Business Model Change in Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Firms Facing High Uncertainty BUSINESS MODEL CHANGE IN EARLY-STAGE ENTREPRENEURIAL  

E-print Network

Business Model Change in Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Firms Facing High Uncertainty 1 BUSINESS MODEL for Entrepreneurship, Strathclyde Business School, U.K. Jonathan Levie Hunter Centre for Entrepreneurship, Strathclyde Business School, U.K. Changing business models is inevitable for early-stage entrepreneurial firms striving

Mottram, Nigel

82

Early stages of chick somite development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the formation and early differentiation of the somites in the avian embryo. The somites are derived from the mesoderm which, in the body (excluding the head), is subdivided into four compartments: the axial, paraxial, intermediate and lateral plate mesoderm. Somites develop from the paraxial mesoderm and constitute the segmental pattern of the body. They are formed in

Bodo Christ; Charles P. Ordahl

1995-01-01

83

Reclassification of early stage pulmonary adenocarcinoma and its consequences  

PubMed Central

The classification of pulmonary adenocarcinoma has recently undergone several proposed changes. Among these, the most striking pertains to the discontinuation of the term “bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC)” and its replacement by the terms “adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)” or “minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA)” for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure bronchiolalveolar growth or predominant bronchioloalveolar growth and ?5 mm invasion, respectively, in resection specimens. The recommendation for these new concepts was based on discussion and review of the literature by a panel of experts from multiple disciplines. However, the results of a recent study investigating the topic of early stage adenocarcinoma (pT1N0M0) which was based on an actual series of cases, have raised questions as to the concept, validity and justification of such new terminology and have reinforced the need to evaluate actual cases that meet the newly proposed definitions and compare them in terms of patient outcome. This is even more important when proposing terminology that implies benign behavior and that could result in a false sense of security putting patients at risk for suboptimal treatment approaches. The controversies surrounding these issues are the subject of this work. PMID:25349709

Moran, Cesar A.

2014-01-01

84

Reclassification of early stage pulmonary adenocarcinoma and its consequences.  

PubMed

The classification of pulmonary adenocarcinoma has recently undergone several proposed changes. Among these, the most striking pertains to the discontinuation of the term "bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC)" and its replacement by the terms "adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)" or "minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA)" for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure bronchiolalveolar growth or predominant bronchioloalveolar growth and ?5 mm invasion, respectively, in resection specimens. The recommendation for these new concepts was based on discussion and review of the literature by a panel of experts from multiple disciplines. However, the results of a recent study investigating the topic of early stage adenocarcinoma (pT1N0M0) which was based on an actual series of cases, have raised questions as to the concept, validity and justification of such new terminology and have reinforced the need to evaluate actual cases that meet the newly proposed definitions and compare them in terms of patient outcome. This is even more important when proposing terminology that implies benign behavior and that could result in a false sense of security putting patients at risk for suboptimal treatment approaches. The controversies surrounding these issues are the subject of this work. PMID:25349709

Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

2014-10-01

85

Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat  

SciTech Connect

It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko (Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

1989-09-01

86

Modeling TGF-? in Early Stages of Cancer Tissue Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Recent works have highlighted a double role for the Transforming Growth Factor (-): it inhibits cancer in healthy cells and potentiates tumor progression during late stage of tumorigenicity, respectively; therefore it has been termed the “Jekyll and Hyde” of cancer or, alternatively, an “excellent servant but a bad master”. It remains unclear how this molecule could have the two opposite behaviours. In this work, we propose a - multi scale mathematical model at molecular, cellular and tissue scales. The multi scalar behaviours of the - are described by three coupled models built up together which can approximatively be related to distinct microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic scales, respectively. We first model the dynamics of - at the single-cell level by taking into account the intracellular and extracellular balance and the autocrine and paracrine behaviour of -. Then we use the average estimates of the - from the first model to understand its dynamics in a model of duct breast tissue. Although the cellular model and the tissue model describe phenomena at different time scales, their cumulative dynamics explain the changes in the role of - in the progression from healthy to pre-tumoral to cancer. We estimate various parameters by using available gene expression datasets. Despite the fact that our model does not describe an explicit tissue geometry, it provides quantitative inference on the stage and progression of breast cancer tissue invasion that could be compared with epidemiological data in literature. Finally in the last model, we investigated the invasion of breast cancer cells in the bone niches and the subsequent disregulation of bone remodeling processes. The bone model provides an effective description of the bone dynamics in healthy and early stages cancer conditions and offers an evolutionary ecological perspective of the dynamics of the competition between cancer and healthy cells. PMID:24586338

Ascolani, Gianluca; Liò, Pietro

2014-01-01

87

Modelling early stages of human vision  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the first results of an effort to model vision processes operating in the early layers of the human retina. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a robot vision system based on computational principles of human vision. These include massive parallelism, dynamic feedback, and multilayer pattern recognition. Two neural models were developed. The first represented early vision in terms of static two-dimensional linear equations using a linear matrix and limited feedback. The second considered dynamic two-dimensional nonlinear processes and used matrices of nonlinear differential equations. The first set of equations was parameterized using psychophysical data from subjective intensity judgements for visual illusions. Illusions were quantified by creating a digitized image representing the subjective effect of human perception when exposed to input patterns. A Fourier transform was made of the input and output patterns and used to solve for the coefficients of the retinal operator equations. The equations were then applied to new illusions and compared with human subjective results through three dimensional plots of output pixel intensities. The second model with dynamic equations was studied using a computer simulation developed to operate on varying input wave forms and variable neural connection topologies. 27 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Jorgensen, C.C.; Gawronski, R.; Holly, F.

1986-08-01

88

Modeling the early stages of reactive wetting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experimental studies of molten metal droplets wetting high-temperature reactive substrates have established that the majority of triple-line motion occurs when inertial effects are dominant. In light of these studies, this paper investigates wetting and spreading on reactive substrates when inertial effects are dominant using a thermodynamically derived diffuse interface model of a binary three-phase material. The liquid-vapor transition is modeled using a van der Waals diffuse interface approach, while the solid-fluid transition is modeled using a phase field approach. The results from the simulations demonstrate an O(t-1/2) spreading rate during the inertial regime and oscillations in the triple-line position when the metal droplet transitions from inertial to diffusive spreading. It is found that the spreading extent is reduced by enhancing dissolution by manipulating the initial liquid composition. The results from the model exhibit good qualitative and quantitative agreement with a number of recent experimental studies of high-temperature droplet spreading, particularly experiments of copper droplets spreading on silicon substrates. Analysis of the numerical data from the model suggests that the extent and rate of spreading are regulated by the spreading coefficient calculated from a force balance based on a plausible definition of the instantaneous interface energies. A number of contemporary publications have discussed the likely dissipation mechanism in spreading droplets. Thus, we examine the dissipation mechanism using the entropy-production field and determine that dissipation primarily occurs in the locality of the triple-line region during the inertial stage but extends along the solid-liquid interface region during the diffusive stage.

Wheeler, Daniel; Warren, James A.; Boettinger, William J.

2010-11-01

89

Modeling the early stages of reactive wetting.  

PubMed

Recent experimental studies of molten metal droplets wetting high-temperature reactive substrates have established that the majority of triple-line motion occurs when inertial effects are dominant. In light of these studies, this paper investigates wetting and spreading on reactive substrates when inertial effects are dominant using a thermodynamically derived diffuse interface model of a binary three-phase material. The liquid-vapor transition is modeled using a van der Waals diffuse interface approach, while the solid-fluid transition is modeled using a phase field approach. The results from the simulations demonstrate an O(t(-1/2)) spreading rate during the inertial regime and oscillations in the triple-line position when the metal droplet transitions from inertial to diffusive spreading. It is found that the spreading extent is reduced by enhancing dissolution by manipulating the initial liquid composition. The results from the model exhibit good qualitative and quantitative agreement with a number of recent experimental studies of high-temperature droplet spreading, particularly experiments of copper droplets spreading on silicon substrates. Analysis of the numerical data from the model suggests that the extent and rate of spreading are regulated by the spreading coefficient calculated from a force balance based on a plausible definition of the instantaneous interface energies. A number of contemporary publications have discussed the likely dissipation mechanism in spreading droplets. Thus, we examine the dissipation mechanism using the entropy-production field and determine that dissipation primarily occurs in the locality of the triple-line region during the inertial stage but extends along the solid-liquid interface region during the diffusive stage. PMID:21230482

Wheeler, Daniel; Warren, James A; Boettinger, William J

2010-11-01

90

2011 GROWTH STAGES -NW Michigan Horticultural Research Station Traverse City, MI  

E-print Network

2011 GROWTH STAGES - NW Michigan Horticultural Research Station Traverse City, MI D ate Tim e G row. White Bud Late Bud Burst Ear. White Bud Late Scale Crack Green Cluster First Bloom 5/11/11 3:00 PM 223 Burst Late Bud Burst 2% Bloom Early White Bud 5% Bloom Late Scale Crack Early White Bud 80% Bloom 5

91

Attenuation of Hyperlipidemia- and Diabetes-Induced Early-Stage Apoptosis and Late-Stage Renal Dysfunction via Administration of Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Is Associated with Suppression of Renal Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Lipotoxicity is a key feature of the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease, and is attributed to excessive lipid accumulation (hyperlipidemia). Increasing evidence suggests that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21 has a crucial role in lipid metabolism under diabetic conditions. Objective The present study investigated whether FGF21 can prevent hyperlipidemia- or diabetes-induced renal damage, and if so, the possible mechanism. Methods Mice were injected with free fatty acids (FFAs, 10 mg/10 g body weight) or streptozotocin (150 mg/kg) to establish a lipotoxic model or type 1 diabetic model, respectively. Simultaneously the mice were treated with FGF21 (100 µg/kg) for 10 or 80 days. The kidney weight-to-tibia length ratio and renal function were assessed. Systematic and renal lipid levels were detected by ELISA and Oil Red O staining. Renal apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis were assessed by Western blot. Results Acute FFA administration and chronic diabetes were associated with lower kidney-to-tibia length ratio, higher lipid levels, severe renal apoptosis and renal dysfunction. Obvious inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis also observed in the kidney of both mice models. Deletion of the fgf21 gene further enhanced the above pathological changes, which were significantly prevented by administration of exogenous FGF21. Conclusion These results suggest that FFA administration and diabetes induced renal damage, which was further enhanced in FGF21 knock-out mice. Administration of FGF21 significantly prevented both FFA- and diabetes-induced renal damage partially by decreasing renal lipid accumulation and suppressing inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. PMID:24349242

Zhang, Chi; Shao, Minglong; Yang, Hong; Chen, Liangmiao; Yu, Lechu; Cong, Weitao; Tian, Haishan; Zhang, Fangfang; Cheng, Peng; Jin, Litai; Tan, Yi; Li, Xiaokun; Cai, Lu; Lu, Xuemian

2013-01-01

92

Temperature Influences Selective Mortality during the Early Life Stages of a Coral Reef Fish  

PubMed Central

For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

Rankin, Tauna L.; Sponaugle, Su

2011-01-01

93

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil developmental stages on herbaceous plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mount Fuji  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot culture experiment was conducted to examine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and soil developmental stages on the growth and nutrient absorption of pioneer plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mt. Fuji. Four herbaceous plants, Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae), Miscanthus oligostachyus (Gramineae), Aster ageratoides var. ovatus (Compositae), and Hedysarum vicioides (Leguminosae), were grown from

Masaaki Fujiyoshi; Atsushi Kagawa; Takayuki Nakatsubo; Takehiro Masuzawa

2006-01-01

94

Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...

95

Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

96

Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

97

Production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in early stage B-CLL: suppression by interferons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play critical roles in angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. Increased angiogenesis is observed in chronic B lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and published data reported VEGF and bFGF production in this disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate MMP expression in early stage B-CLL. Elevated

B Bauvois; J Dumont; C Mathiot; J-P Kolb

2002-01-01

98

Treatment of early stage thymic tumors: surgery and radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Tumors of the thymus are an uncommon entity, constituting 30% and 15% of anterior mediastinal masses in adults and children, respectively. The majority of these tumors are thymomas, with thymic carcinomas less common, and thymic carcinoids exceedingly rare. Recognition of the distinct clinicopathologic behavior of various thymic neoplasms is crucial to providing optimal treatment. Evidence guiding the treatment of early stage thymic tumors is limited secondary to the low incidence and resulting lack of randomized data. Proper management requires a careful analysis of the available literature with particular attention paid to limitations of the existing studies. This article provides a discussion of the presentation, evaluation, diagnosis, surgical techniques, and treatment outcomes relevant to early stage thymomas, thymic carcinomas, and thymic carcinoid tumors. The role of radiation therapy in the management of early stage thymic tumors remains controversial and is discussed in detail. PMID:19169830

Gielda, Benjamin T; Peng, Rick; Coleman, Joy L; Thomas, Charles R; Cameron, Robert B

2008-12-01

99

Silicon: The key element in early stages of biocalcification.  

PubMed

Biocalcification is a widespread process of forming hard tissues like bone and teeth in vertebrates. It is also a topic connecting life sciences and earth sciences: calcified skeletons and shells deposited as sediments represent the earth's fossil record and are of paramount interest for biogeochemists trying to get an insight into the past of our planet. This study reports on the role of silicon in the early biocalcification steps, where silicon and calcium were detected on the surface of cyanobacteria (initial stage of lacustrine calcite precipitation) and in crustacean cuticles. By using innovative methodological approaches of correlative microscopy (AFM in combination with analytical TEM: EFTEM, EELS) the chemical form of silicon in biocalcifying matrices and organic-inorganic particles is determined. Previously, silicon was reported to be localized in active growth areas in the young bone of vertebrates. We have found evidence that biocalcification in evolutionarily distant organisms involves very similar initial phases with silicon as a key element at the organic-inorganic interface. PMID:20932909

Matsko, Nadejda B; Znidarši?, Nada; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Dittrich, Maria; Grogger, Werner; Strus, Jasna; Hofer, Ferdinand

2011-04-01

100

Sublobar resection for early-stage lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Since the 1995 report of the prospective randomized trial of lobectomy versus sublobar resection for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) performed by the the Lung Cancer Study Group, lobectomy remains the standard of care for the surgical management of stage I NSCLC. Sublobar resection has been typically used for high-risk patients who are operative candidates but for whom a lobectomy is contraindicated. Recent advances in imaging and staging modalities and improved spatial resolution of computed tomography (CT) scan have refined the presentation and diagnosis of early-stage NSCLC. The detection of small tumors and ground-glass opacity (GGO) appearance associated with a favorable histology have led to the increased use of sublobar resection in many institutes to include good-risk patients. There is an increasing body of evidence that sublobar resection may achieve oncological outcomes similar to those with lobectomy in early-stage NSCLC, especially that 2 cm or less in size. However, whether or not sublobar resection constitutes adequate treatment for small-sized lung cancer or for the radiographic “early” lung cancer such as a GGO-dominant lesion is still being prospectively investigated. Sublobar resection will be expected to play an important role as a primary treatment option for patients with small stage IA NSCLC, based on an anatomical functional advantage over lobectomy as well as comparable prognostic outcomes between sublobar resection and lobectomy.

Asamura, Hisao

2014-01-01

101

Anisotropic hydrodynamics and early stages of heavy-ion collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New formulations of relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics are discussed in the context of possible applications to describe early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The efficacy of different approaches is tested by making comparisons with the exact solutions of the kinetic equation.

Florkowski, Wojciech

2015-03-01

102

Early developmental patterning sets the stage for brain evolution  

E-print Network

Early developmental patterning sets the stage for brain evolution Hans A. Hofmann1 Section of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 T he evolution of brain structure and function has long fascinated biologists of the brain--or brain region--and body size across a wide range of vertebrates (1). Besides random drift, two

Hofmann, Hans A.

103

Research Report Visuomotor integration is impaired in early stage  

E-print Network

Research Report Visuomotor integration is impaired in early stage Alzheimer's disease William J June 2006 When the sensory information guiding a reach movement is dissociated from the required motor output, humans must integrate rule-based information in order to reach accurately. Here, we examine

Sergio, Lauren E.

104

Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

2008-08-01

105

Early stages of the evolution of life: a cybernetic approach.  

PubMed

Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance. PMID:18521718

Melkikh, Alexey V; Seleznev, Vladimir D

2008-08-01

106

Segmenting Gene Expression Patterns of Early-stage Drosophila Embryos  

E-print Network

Segmenting Gene Expression Patterns of Early-stage Drosophila Embryos Min-Yu Huang1,6 , Oliver R Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720, USA MDBiggin@lbl.gov 6 Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Drosophila Transcription Network Project (BDTNP) has developed a suite of methods that support quantitative

107

Early active mobilization after second stage flexor tendon grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the results of nine two-stage tendon reconstructions. The tendon graft was the ipsilateral palmaris longus tendon inserted into a tunnel which had been previously created by a silicone spacer. Early active mobilization was commenced 48 hours after surgery according to a previously described protocol (Small et al, 1989). Using the grading system of Kleinert and Verdan (1983) the

K. Khan; M. Riaz; M. S. C. Murison; M. D. Brennen

1997-01-01

108

Is Arimidex Better for Some Early Stage Breast Cancers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

n a recent edition of The Lancet, researchers reported study results that found postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer seem to do better if they take the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole (sold as Arimidex) after surgery instead of tamoxifen. 1 Results from the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination Trial, known as ATAC, compared five years of tamoxifen treatments with

E. J. Siegl

2005-01-01

109

Critical stages for growth in the development of cortical neurons.  

PubMed

In order to study the role of efferent connectivity in the development of CNS neurons, the growth of pyramidal tract neurons within the hamster sensorimotor cortex was studied during normal development and after early postnatal lesions of the pyramidal tract. We first determined, by a combination of Nissl and retrograde HRP techniques, that within the lumbar representation of cortical layer 5B in adult animals two cell populations exist: a large-celled population (40% of the total) projecting to the spinal cord and a small-celled population (60% of the total) projecting intracortically and to targets rostral to the medulla. We could not determine whether large layer 5B cells in the infant sensorimotor cortex also represent the corticospinal population. Nevertheless, measurements of the growth in cross-sectional area of the large cells from 7 days postnatal to adulthood showed that these cells continue to grow until 51 days of age. The most rapid rate of growth occurs between 7 and 14 days, during which time the cross-sectional area of the cell bodies triples, coincident with the arrival of corticospinal axons in the lumbar cord and the beginning of target innervation (Reh and Kalil, '81). The growth of the large neurons in layer 5B was then charted after the pyramidal tract was cut ipsilaterally in the medulla at various postnatal ages. Early lesions of the tract (4-8 days postnatal) interrupt lumbar projection fibers before they establish synapses in the cord. Nevertheless, cortical cell bodies in the lumbar representation continue to grow normally after axotomy until 11 days after birth. At this time, large cells are arrested in development and their cell size remains in the 11-day stage (50% of normal adult large cell size) indefinitely. In contrast, adult lesions of the tract cause a 60% shrinkage of large cells, which in the adult represent corticospinal neurons. No evidence for cortical cell death was found after pyramidal tract lesions at any age. The results of axotomy reveal a turning point in the development of layer 5B cortical neurons. Before the age of 11 days the large cells have an independent program of cell growth that proceeds despite axotomy. After this time, the large cortical neurons appear to require intact axons for further growth and, in the absence of normal connectivity, are arrested in development. PMID:4044897

Ramirez, L F; Kalil, K

1985-07-22

110

Effect of row spacing, growth stage, and nitrogen rate on spectral irradiance in winter wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil reflectance affects spectral irradiance measurements taken in winter wheat at early stages of growth when percent cover is low. The objective of this study was to determine the critical percent vegetation coverage needed for forage nitrogen (N) uptake calibration with indirect spectral irradiance measurements. Two field experiments were conducted at Tipton and Perkins, OK in October 1996. The effect

E. V. Lukina; W. R. Raun; M. L. Stone; J. B. Solie; G. V. Johnson; H. L. Lees; J. M. LaRuffa; S. B. Phillips

2000-01-01

111

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb

Cada

1991-01-01

112

Awareness of Memory Deficits in Early Stage Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) are often described as unaware of their motor symptoms, their behavioral disorders or their cognitive deficits, including memory. Nevertheless, because patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain aware of their memory deficits despite striatal dysfunction, we hypothesize that early stage HD patients in whom degeneration predominates in the striatum can accurately judge their own memory disorders whereas more advanced patients cannot. In order to test our hypothesis, we compared subjective questionnaires of memory deficits (in HD patients and in their proxies) and objective measures of memory dysfunction in patients. Forty-six patients with manifest HD attending the out-patient department of the French National Reference Center for HD and thirty-three proxies were enrolled. We found that HD patients at an early stage of the disease (Stage 1) were more accurate than their proxies at evaluating their own memory deficits, independently from their depression level. The proxies were more influenced by patients' functional decline rather than by patients' memory deficits. Patients with moderate disease (Stage 2) misestimated their memory deficits compared to their proxies, whose judgment was nonetheless influenced by the severity of both functional decline and depression. Contrasting subjective memory ratings from the patients and their objective memory performance, we demonstrate that although HD patients are often reported to be unaware of their neurological, cognitive and behavioral symptoms, it is not the case for memory deficits at an early stage. Loss of awareness of memory deficits in HD is associated with the severity of the disease in terms of CAG repeats, functional decline, motor dysfunction and cognitive impairment, including memory deficits and executive dysfunction. PMID:23620779

Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Fénelon, Gilles; Benisty, Sarah; Boissé, Marie-Françoise; Jacquemot, Charlotte; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

2013-01-01

113

Biomarkers of early stage osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and musculoskeletal health  

PubMed Central

There is currently no biochemical test for detection of early-stage osteoarthritis (eOA). Tests for early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies require refinement to improve clinical utility. We developed robust mass spectrometric methods to quantify citrullinated protein (CP) and free hydroxyproline in body fluids. We detected CP in the plasma of healthy subjects and surprisingly found that CP was increased in both patients with eOA and eRA whereas anti–CCP antibodies were predominantly present in eRA. A 4-class diagnostic algorithm combining plasma/serum CP, anti-CCP antibody and hydroxyproline applied to a cohort gave specific and sensitive detection and discrimination of eOA, eRA, other non-RA inflammatory joint diseases and good skeletal health. This provides a first-in-class plasma/serum-based biochemical assay for diagnosis and type discrimination of early-stage arthritis to facilitate improved treatment and patient outcomes, exploiting citrullinated protein and related differential autoimmunity. PMID:25788417

Ahmed, Usman; Anwar, Attia; Savage, Richard S.; Costa, Matthew L.; Mackay, Nicola; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Watts, Richard A.; Winyard, Paul G.; Tarr, Joanna; Haigh, Richard C.; Thornalley, Paul J.; Rabbani, Naila

2015-01-01

114

Early-stage pathogenic sequence of jaw osteoradionecrosis in vivo.  

PubMed

The mechanism underlying jaw osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is not fully understood, particularly in the early stages. To investigate bone and vessel pathogenesis in the early stages of jaw ORN, we generated a mandibular ORN model in miniature pigs (minipigs) by applying a combination of single-dose 25-Gy irradiation (IR) and tooth extraction. We studied 6 ORN model minipigs and 6 control, non-irradiated minipigs. We measured dynamic morphological changes, bone-remodeling-associated gene expression, sphingomyelinase activity, and local blood flow. Bone remodeling, including bone resorption and new bone formation, was observed within 15 days post-IR. Later, an ORN-related imbalance in bone metabolism gradually occurred, with loss of bone regeneration capacity, collagen collapse, and microvascular obliteration. Within 24 hrs post-IR, sphingomyelinase significantly increased in irradiated tissues. At 1 wk post-IR, local blood flow increased, but at 15 days post-IR, it significantly decreased to 50% below normal levels. This study provided details of the sequential occurrences in early-stage ORN in a large animal model. Our results suggested that reduced local blood flow and consequent hypovascularity may have caused an imbalance in bone remodeling. This suggested that microvessel damage may play a key role in the initiation of ORN. PMID:22592127

Xu, J; Zheng, Z; Fang, D; Gao, R; Liu, Y; Fan, Z P; Zhang, C M; Wang, S L

2012-07-01

115

Biomarkers of early stage osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and musculoskeletal health.  

PubMed

There is currently no biochemical test for detection of early-stage osteoarthritis (eOA). Tests for early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies require refinement to improve clinical utility. We developed robust mass spectrometric methods to quantify citrullinated protein (CP) and free hydroxyproline in body fluids. We detected CP in the plasma of healthy subjects and surprisingly found that CP was increased in both patients with eOA and eRA whereas anti-CCP antibodies were predominantly present in eRA. A 4-class diagnostic algorithm combining plasma/serum CP, anti-CCP antibody and hydroxyproline applied to a cohort gave specific and sensitive detection and discrimination of eOA, eRA, other non-RA inflammatory joint diseases and good skeletal health. This provides a first-in-class plasma/serum-based biochemical assay for diagnosis and type discrimination of early-stage arthritis to facilitate improved treatment and patient outcomes, exploiting citrullinated protein and related differential autoimmunity. PMID:25788417

Ahmed, Usman; Anwar, Attia; Savage, Richard S; Costa, Matthew L; Mackay, Nicola; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Watts, Richard A; Winyard, Paul G; Tarr, Joanna; Haigh, Richard C; Thornalley, Paul J; Rabbani, Naila

2015-01-01

116

High-throughput quantification of early stages of phagocytosis.  

PubMed

Phagocytosis--the engulfment of cells and foreign bodies--is an important cellular process in innate immunity, development, and disease. Quantification of various stages of phagocytosis, especially in a rapid screening fashion, is an invaluable tool for elucidating protein function during this process. However, current methods for assessing phagocytosis are largely limited to flow cytometry and manual image-based assays, providing limited information. Here, we present an image-based, semi-automated phagocytosis assay to rapidly quantitate three distinct stages during the early engulfment of opsonized beads. Captured images are analyzed using the image-processing software ImageJ and quantified using a macro. Modifications to this method allowed quantification of phagocytosis only in fluorescently labeled transfected cells. Additionally, the time course of bead internalization could be measured using this approach. The assay could discriminate perturbations to stages of phagocytosis induced by known pharmacological inhibitors of filamentous actin and phosphoinositol-3-kinase. Our methodology offers the ability to automatically categorize large amounts of image data into the three early stages of phagocytosis within minutes, clearly demonstrating its potential value in investigating aberrant phagocytosis when manipulating proteins of interest in drug screens and disease. PMID:24003943

Yeo, Jeremy Changyu; Wall, Adam Alexander; Stow, Jennifer Lea; Hamilton, Nicholas Ahti

2013-09-01

117

Effects of prometryne on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Toxicity of prometryne to early life stages of common carp was assessed. On the basis of accumulated mortality in the experimental groups lowest observed-effect concentration (LOEC) was estimated as 1100?µg/l; and no observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 850?µg/l. Fulton's condition factor was significantly lower than in controls in fish exposed to 4000?µg/l after 7, 14, and 21 days. By day 14, fish exposed to 4000?µg/l prometryne showed significantly lower mass and total length compared to controls. Fish exposed the 1200 and 4000?µg/l showed delay in development, severe hyperaemia in gill, liver, and caudal and cranial kidney. Subchronic prometryne exposure of early-life stages of common carp at concentrations of 1200 and 4000?µg/l affected their survival, growth rate, early ontogeny, and histology. PMID:25752431

Velisek, Josef; Stara, Alzbeta; Koutnik, Dalibor; Machova, Jana

2015-02-01

118

Motor-cortical oscillations in early stages of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Pathophysiological changes in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits are well established in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it remains open whether such alterations already occur at early stages representing a characteristic neurophysiological marker of PD. Therefore, the present study aims at elucidating changes of synchronised oscillatory activity in early PD patients. In this study, we performed whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a resting condition and during steady state contraction of the more severely affected forearm in 10 drug–naive, de novo patients, in 10 early-stage patients with chronic medication and in 10 age-matched control subjects. While cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) did not differ between groups, patients showed increased sensori-motor cortical power at beta frequency (13–30 Hz) during rest as well as during isometric contraction compared to controls. In healthy control subjects the power of the contralateral hemisphere was significantly suppressed during isometric contraction. By contrast, both hemispheres were activated equally strongly in de novo patients. In medicated patients, the pattern was found to be reversed. Contralateral beta power was significantly correlated with motor impairment during isometric contraction but not during rest. The present results suggest that the reduced ability of the primary motor cortex to disengage from increased beta band oscillations during the execution of movements is an early marker of PD. PMID:22547636

Pollok, B; Krause, V; Martsch, W; Wach, C; Schnitzler, A; Südmeyer, M

2012-01-01

119

Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. Results A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Conclusion Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group. PMID:25142621

Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

2014-01-01

120

Sentinel node navigation surgery in early-stage esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

The sentinel node (SN) concept has revolutionized the surgical staging of both melanoma and breast cancer over the past two decades. However, the validity of the SN hypothesis has been controversial for esophageal cancer, because SN mapping for esophageal cancer is technically complicated, and the number of early-stage esophageal cancer is very limited. Nevertheless previous studies nicely demonstrated that SN mapping may be feasible in patients with early-stage esophageal cancer. Transthoracic extended esophagectomy with three-field radical lymph node dissection has been recognized as a curative procedure for thoracic esophageal cancer in Japan. However, uniform application of this highly invasive procedure might increase the morbidity and markedly reduce the quality of life (QOL) after surgery. Although further accumulation of evidence based on multicenter clinical trials using a standard protocol is needed, SN mapping and SN navigation surgery would provide significant information to perform individualized selective lymphadenectomy which might reduce the morbidity and retain the patients' QOL. In addition, technical innovation including the development of new tracers is expected to confirm the accuracy and reliability of SN mapping in esophageal cancer. PMID:22673610

Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kawakubo, Hirofumi; Takeda, Flavio; Omori, Tai; Kitagawa, Yuko

2012-01-01

121

Early growth trajectories affect sexual responsiveness  

PubMed Central

The trajectory of an animal's growth in early development has been shown to have long-term effects on a range of life-history traits. Although it is known that individual differences in behaviour may also be related to certain life-history traits, the linkage between early growth or development and individual variation in behaviour has received little attention. We used brief temperature manipulations, independent of food availability, to stimulate compensatory growth in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. Here, we examine how these manipulated growth trajectories affected the sexual responsiveness of the male fish at the time of sexual maturation, explore associations between reproductive behaviour and investment and lifespan and test whether the perceived time stress (until the onset of the breeding season) influenced such trade-offs. We found a negative impact of growth rate on sexual responsiveness: fish induced (by temperature manipulation) to grow slowest prior to the breeding season were consistently quickest to respond to the presence of a gravid female. This speed of sexual responsiveness was also positively correlated with the rate of development of sexual ornaments and time taken to build a nest. However, after controlling for effects of growth rate, those males that had the greatest sexual responsiveness to females had the shortest lifespan. Moreover, the time available to compensate in size before the onset of the breeding season (time stress) affected the magnitude of these effects. Our results demonstrate that developmental perturbations in early life can influence mating behaviour, with long-term effects on longevity. PMID:24403342

Lee, Who-Seung; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Réale, Denis; Peres-Neto, Pedro R.

2014-01-01

122

Early-stage visual processing deficits in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review While cognitive dysfunction including memory and attentional deficits are well known in schizophrenia, recent work has also shown basic sensory processing deficits. Deficits are particularly prominent in the visual system and may be related to cognitive deficits and outcome. This article reviews studies of early-stage visual processing in schizophrenia published during the past year. These studies reflect the growing interest and importance of sensory processing deficits in schizophrenia. Recent findings The visual system is divided into magnocellular and parvocellular pathways which project to dorsal and ventral visual areas. Recent electrophysiological and behavioral investigations have found preferential magnocellular/dorsal stream dysfunction, with some deficits in parvocellular function as well. These early-stage deficits appear to be related to higher level cognitive, social, and community function. Structural studies of occipital cortex and particularly optic radiations provide anatomical support for early visual processing dysfunction. Summary These findings highlight the importance of sensory processing deficits, in addition to higher cognitive dysfunction, for understanding the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Understanding the nature of sensory processing deficits may provide insight into mechanisms of pathology in schizophrenia, such as N-methyl-d-aspartate dysfunction or impaired signal amplification, and could lead to treatment strategies including sensory processing rehabilitation that may improve outcome. PMID:16639168

Butler, Pamela D.; Javitt, Daniel C.

2007-01-01

123

Precordial vibrations provide noninvasive detection of early-stage hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Graded lower-body negative pressure was used to create a hemodynamic response similar to hemorrhage. Echocardiogram measurements showed a maximal reduction of 32.4% in stroke volume. Analysis of systolic time intervals, such as pre-ejection period and left ventricular ejection time (LVET), derived from a seismocardiogram (SCG), were demonstrated to be more sensitive in detection of early-stage hemorrhage compared with pulse pressure, heart rate, and the amplitude features extracted from SCG. In particular, the LVET and pre-ejection period/LVET features, extracted from SCG, were significantly different between, and correlated with, the different stages of lower-body negative pressure (r = 0.9 and 0.88, P < 0.05), for 32 subjects. These results suggest a portable, cost-effective solution for identification of mild or moderate hemorrhage using accelerometers. PMID:24434413

Tavakolian, Kouhyar; Dumont, Guy A; Houlton, Geoffrey; Blaber, Andrew P

2014-02-01

124

Arthroscopic assisted bone grafting for early stages of Kienböck's disease.  

PubMed

Kienböck's disease is known for its difficulty in being diagnosed and treated at early stages; option treatments are few and most of them quite aggressive. The author describes his experience with arthroscopic assisted lunate bone grafting. Three patients with diagnosis of stage I avascular necrosis of the lunate (average age: 45 years), were treated. Before surgical procedure, the patients underwent to a conservative treatment. After harvesting the bone graft from the volar surface of the radius, arthroscopic bone grafting was performed. At an average follow-up of 13.5 months (9-15), all the patients show a normal density of the lunate and no arthritic changes in radiographs. The MRI confirmed the lunate vascularity. The number of patients is definitely small, due also to the rarity of the disease and the difficulty in diagnosis, but, despite the very high learning curve, could be the proper first choice of treatment. PMID:21548146

Pegoli, L; Ghezzi, A; Cavalli, E; Luchetti, R; Pajardi, G

2011-01-01

125

Point pressure sensitivity in early stage Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

A number of sensory changes occur in the earliest stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), some of which precede the expression of the classic motor phenotype by years (e.g., olfactory dysfunction). Whether point pressure sensitivity (PPS), a cutaneous measure of light touch mediated by myelinated A? fibers, is altered in early PD is not clear. Prior studies on this point are contradictory and are based on non-forced-choice threshold tests that confound the sensitivity measure with the response criterion. While ?-synuclein pathology, a defining feature of PD, is present in the skin of PD patients, it is restricted to unmyelinated nerve fibers, suggesting PPS may be spared in this disease. We determined PPS thresholds using a state-of-the-art forced-choice staircase threshold test paradigm in 29 early stage PD patients and 29 matched controls at 11 body sites: the center of the forehead and the left and right forearms, index fingers, palms, medial soles of the feet, and plantar halluces. The patients were tested, in counterbalanced sessions, both on and off dopamine-related medications (DRMs). PPS was not influenced by PD and did not correlate with DRM l-DOPA equivalents, scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, side of the major motor disturbances, or SPECT imaging of the striatal dopamine transporter, as measured by technetium-99m TRODAT. However, PPS thresholds were lower on the left than on the right side of the body (p=0.008) and on the upper extremities relative to the toes and feet (ps<0.0001). Positive correlations were evident among the thresholds obtained across all body sectors, even though disparate regions of the body differed in terms of absolute sensitivity. This study indicates that PPS is not influenced in early stage PD regardless of whether patients are on or off DRMs. PMID:25447476

Doty, Richard L; Gandhi, Shifa S; Osman, Allen; Hurtig, Howard I; Pawasarat, Ian; Beals, Evan; Chung, Inna; Dubroff, Jacob; Newberg, Andrew; Ying, Gui-Shang; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

2015-01-01

126

Growth of Planetary Embryos During the Oligarchic Growth Stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we update the classic model of oligarchic growth to include mass conservation. Planetesimals from the swarm are accreted onto embryos, decreasing the surface mass density of the planetesimal swarm. Therefore, the surface mass density of the planetesimal swarm can be described as the total initial surface mass density minus the surface mass density of the material accreting onto the surface of the embryo. However, since the surface mass density decreases, the average spacing between planetesimals must change as well. Therefore, the parameter for characteristic spacing between planetesimals, b, must also change. Using the isolation mass of an embryo, we approximate the final value of b to be about 10. We confirm that the eccentricity of a planetary embryo changes as a function of the mass of the growing embryo during oligarchic growth. We incorporate the changing eccentricity, surface mass density, and characteristic spacing of embryos into a model that describes the growth of a planetary embryo with mass conservation.

Larson, Jennifer; Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David

2014-11-01

127

Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

2006-01-01

128

Photosynthetic and canopy characteristics of different varieties at the early elongation stage and their relationships with the cane yield in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During sugarcane growth, the early elongation stage is critical to cane yield formation. In order to investigate the effects of photosynthetic and canopy characteristics on cane yield, parameters of 17 sugarcane varieties were determined at the early elongation stage using CI-301 photosynthesis meas...

129

Defective skeletogenesis and oversized otoliths in fish early stages in a changing ocean.  

PubMed

Early life stages of many marine organisms are being challenged by rising seawater temperature and CO? concentrations, but their physiological responses to these environmental changes still remain unclear. In the present study, we show that future predictions of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (?pH=0.5 units) may compromise the development of early life stages of a highly commercial teleost fish, Solea senegalensis. Exposure to future conditions caused a decline in hatching success and larval survival. Growth, metabolic rates and thermal tolerance increased with temperature but decreased under acidified conditions. Hypercapnia and warming amplified the incidence of deformities by 31.5% (including severe deformities such as lordosis, scoliosis and kyphosis), while promoting the occurrence of oversized otoliths (109.3% increase). Smaller larvae with greater skeletal deformities and larger otoliths may face major ecophysiological challenges, which might potentiate substantial declines in adult fish populations, putting in jeopardy the species' fitness under a changing ocean. PMID:24625652

Pimentel, Marta S; Faleiro, Filipa; Dionísio, Gisela; Repolho, Tiago; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Machado, Jorge; Rosa, Rui

2014-06-15

130

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

SciTech Connect

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Cada, G.F.

1991-01-01

131

Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy for early stage cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3. Most women with early cervical cancer (stages I to IIA) are cured with surgery or radiotherapy, or both. We performed this review originally because it was unclear whether cisplatin-based chemotherapy after surgery, radiotherapy or both, in women with early stage disease with risk factors for recurrence, was associated with additional survival benefits or risks. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of platinum-based chemotherapy after radical hysterectomy, radiotherapy, or both in the treatment of early stage cervical cancer. Search methods For the original 2009 review, we searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS and CancerLit, the National Research Register and Clinical Trials register, with no language restriction. We handsearched abstracts of scientific meetings and other relevant publications. We extended the database searches to November 2011 for this update. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy (after radical surgery, radiotherapy or both) with no adjuvant chemotherapy, in women with early stage cervical cancer (stage IA2-IIA) with at least one risk factor for recurrence. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted data independently. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, with death and disease progression as outcomes. Main results For this updated version, we identified three additional ongoing trials but no new studies for inclusion. Three trials including 368 evaluable women with early cervical cancer were included in the meta-analyses. The median follow-up period in these trials ranged from 29 to 42 months. All women had undergone surgery first. Two trials compared chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy to radiotherapy alone; and one trial compared chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy to radiotherapy alone. It was not possible to perform subgroup analyses by stage or tumour size. Compared with adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy significantly reduced the risk of death (two trials, 297 women; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36 to 0.87) and disease progression (two trials, 297 women; HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.74), with no heterogeneity between trials (I2 = 0% for both meta-analyses). Acute grade 4 toxicity occurred significantly more frequently in the chemotherapy plus radiotherapy group than in the radiotherapy group (risk ratio (RR) 5.66, 95% CI 2.14 to 14.98). We considered this evidence to be of a moderate quality due to small numbers and limited follow-up in the included studies. In addition, it was not possible to separate data for bulky early stage disease. In the one small trial that compared adjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy with adjuvant radiotherapy alone there was no significant difference in disease recurrence between the groups (HR = 1.34; 95% CI 0.24 to 7.66) and OS was not reported. We considered this evidence to be of a low quality. No trials compared adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy with no adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for early cervical cancer with risk factors for recurrence. Authors’ conclusions The addition of platinum-based chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy (chemoradiation) may improve survival in women with early stage cervical cancer (IA2-IIA) and risk factors for recurrence. Adjuvant chemoradiation is associated with an increased risk of severe acute toxicity, although it is not clear whether this toxicity is significant in the long-term due to a lack of long-term data. This evidence is limited by the small numbers and poor methodological quality of included studies. We await the results of three ongoing trials, that are likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this evidence. PMID:22

Rosa, Daniela D; Medeiros, Lídia RF; Edelweiss, Maria I; Pohlmann, Paula R; Stein, Airton T

2014-01-01

132

77 FR 25042 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...dollars went to early stage or start-up businesses. Of the financings that went...dollars went to early stage and start-up businesses not in those three states...dollars went to early stage or start-up businesses. Given the decline in...

2012-04-27

133

76 FR 76907 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...dollars went to early stage or start-up businesses. Of the financings that went...dollars went to early stage and start-up businesses not in those three states...dollars went to early stage or start-up businesses. Given the decline in...

2011-12-09

134

Maternal, social and abiotic environmental effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal  

PubMed Central

Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue to have delayed effects at later stages, or whether social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, but did not influence mass at emergence (at 1 month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at 1 month of age and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment influences development in a cooperative mammal. Individuals are most sensitive to social and maternal factors during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, whereas direct environmental effects are relatively more important later in development. Understanding the way in which environmental sensitivity varies across life stages is likely to be an important consideration in predicting trait responses to environmental change. PMID:24102215

English, Sinead; Bateman, Andrew W; Mares, Rafael; Ozgul, Arpat; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

2014-01-01

135

Early growth and devlopment response to corn to canola competition and shade stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn-weed competition studies indicate that resource limitation slows normal corn growth and development and often results in lower yields. However there is minimal information on the physiological basis of crop competition, especially at the early growth stages when resources would be expected to b...

136

Hydrophobic interactions accelerate early stages of the folding of BPTI.  

PubMed

Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) has long served as an important model system for the studies of the protein folding process. Recently a kinetically important folding intermediate has been detected early on the oxidative folding pathway of BPTI [Dadlez, M., & Kim, P. S. (1995) Nat. Struct. Biol. 2, 674-679]. The intermediate, named [14-38], contains a single native disulfide bond between residues 14 and 38, and forms much faster than any other single-disulfide intermediate. A series of 24 mutants of BPTI has been studied here to detect amino acids which contribute to fast formation of [14-38]. Seven nonpolar or aromatic residues, distant from the cysteines by as many as eight residues, are found to accelerate the formation of 14-38 disulfide, without changing the reactivities of the cysteines. The acceleration is observed even in 8 M urea. It is concluded that in the early stages of the folding of BPTI and BPTI-like domains, the residual structure of the denatured state promotes native pairing of cysteines by way of interaction of hydrophobic residues. A similar mechanism may facilitate early steps in the folding of proteins in general. PMID:9062106

Dadlez, M

1997-03-11

137

Ear growth, developmental stages and yield in winter wheat  

E-print Network

Ear growth, developmental stages and yield in winter wheat Jean-François LEDENT Volkmar STOY Helena in length (R,) of ear primordia was measured in collections of winter wheats (Triticum aestivum (L.) em or morphological characters. However, genotypes with faster growing ear primordia tended to have smaller cars

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

138

Treatment outcome in patients with triple negative early stage breast cancers compared with other molecular subtypes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether triple negative (TN) early stage breast cancers have poorer survival rates compared with other molecular types. Materials and Methods Between August 2000 and July 2006, patients diagnosed with stage I, II early stage breast cancers, in whom all three markers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor [HER]-2) were available and treated with modified radical mastectomy or breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed. Results Of 446 patients, 94 (21.1%) were classified as TN, 57 (12.8%) as HER-2 type, and 295 (66.1%) as luminal. TN was more frequently associated with young patients younger than 35 years old (p = 0.002), higher histologic grade (p < 0.0001), and nuclear (p < 0.0001). The median follow-up period was 78 months (range, 4 to 130 months). There were 9 local relapses (2.0%), 15 nodal (3.4%), 40 distant metastases (9.0%), and 33 deaths (7.4%) for all patients. The rates of 5-year OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS for all patients were 95.5%, 89.9%, 95.4%, and 91.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences in OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS between triple negative and other subtypes (p > 0.05). Conclusion We found that patients with TN early stage breast cancers had no difference in survival rates compared with other molecular subtypes. Prospective study in homogeneous treatment group will need for a prognosis of TN early stage breast cancer. PMID:23170291

Kim, Ja Young; Chang, Sei-Kyung; Park, Heily; Lee, Bo-Mi

2012-01-01

139

Transverse emittance growth in staged laser-wakefield acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study on the emittance evolution of electron bunches, externally injected into laser-driven plasma waves using the three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code OSIRIS. Results show order-of-magnitude transverse emittance growth during the injection process, if the electron bunch is not matched to its intrinsic betatron motion inside the wakefield. This behavior is supported by analytic theory reproducing the simulation data to a percent level. The length over which the full emittance growth develops is found to be less than or comparable to the typical dimension of a single plasma module in current multistage designs. In addition, the analytic theory enables the quantitative prediction of emittance degradation in two consecutive accelerators coupled by free-drift sections, excluding this as a scheme for effective emittance-growth suppression, and thus suggests the necessity of beam-matching sections between acceleration stages with fundamental implications on the overall design of staged laser-wakefield accelerators.

Mehrling, T.; Grebenyuk, J.; Tsung, F. S.; Floettmann, K.; Osterhoff, J.

2012-11-01

140

SBRT in operable early stage lung cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Since decades the gold standard for treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is surgical lobectomy plus mediastinal lymph node dissection. Patients in worse health status are treated with sublobar resection or radiation treatment. With development of stereotactic-body-radiotherapy (SBRT), outcome of patients treated with radiation was substantially improved. Comparison of SBRT and surgical techniques is difficult due to the lack of randomized trials. However, all available evidence in form of case control studies of population based studies show equivalence between sublobar resection and SBRT indicating that SBRT—when performed by a trained and experienced team—should be offered to all high-risk surgical patients. For patients not willing to take the risk of lobectomy and therefore refusing surgery, SBRT is an excellent treatment option.

Andratschke, Nicolaus; Guckenberger, Matthias

2014-01-01

141

Sexual dysfunction and treatment for early stage cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Assessment of sexual frequency, function, and behavior, as well as martial happiness and psychological distress was performed for 61 women with early stage, invasive cervical cancer at the time of diagnosis. Cancer treatment was radical hysterectomy alone for 26 women and radiotherapy with or without surgery for 37. Followups took place at 6 and 12 months after cancer therapy. Women's sexual satisfaction, capacity for orgasm, and frequency of masturbation remained stable, whereas frequency of sexual activity with a partner and range of sexual practices decreased significantly by one year. Women who received irradiation with or without surgery resembled women who underwent radical hysterectomy alone at 6 months. By one year, however, the radiotherapy group had developed dyspareunia, which was reflected in gynecologist ratings at pelvic examination. The women receiving radiotherapy also had more problems with sexual desire and arousal, and were less likely to resume several daily life activities. Cancer treatment modality was not related to marital happiness or stability, however. PMID:2910419

Schover, L R; Fife, M; Gershenson, D M

1989-01-01

142

Initial investigation of a hypothesized link between thyroid peroxidase inhibition and fish early-life stage toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

143

Managing threats to self: awareness in early stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Lack of awareness is described as a clinical feature of Alzheimer's disease that is observed in a significant proportion of those assigned this diagnosis. There is an extensive literature emphasising biological explanations in which unawareness is viewed essentially as a symptom, but possible psychosocial factors, together with the socially constructed nature of expressed awareness, are largely neglected. The onset of dementia may be viewed as a threat to self occasioning attempts to regain control through a range of psychological strategies, which are likely to affect the ways in which people communicate an account of their experience and hence the extent to which they may be considered 'aware'. In the present study, 12 participants with a medical diagnosis of early stage Alzheimer's disease, who were described in clinical records as ranging from 'very aware' to 'unaware' of their illness, were interviewed on two occasions. Partners were also interviewed separately on each occasion. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In response to their memory difficulties, participants were seen as engaging in the processes of acknowledging, reacting, explaining, experiencing the emotional impact, and adjusting. All participants acknowledged memory problems, indicating a basic awareness of changes in their memory functioning, but made varying judgements about the meaning and impact of these. The resulting spectrum of responses formed a continuum running from 'self-maintaining' to 'self-adjusting'. A self-maintaining stance related to attempts to normalise the situation and minimise the difficulties, thus maintaining continuity with prior sense of self, while a self-adjusting stance related to attempts to confront the difficulties and adapt one's sense of self accordingly. A preliminary model of the construction of awareness in early stage Alzheimer's is presented that acknowledges biological mechanisms but places the main emphasis on psychosocial factors and self-concept. PMID:12878102

Clare, Linda

2003-09-01

144

Early-stage Hodgkin's disease: current approaches to treatment.  

PubMed Central

Most patients with early-stage Hodgkin's disease can now be cured by one of several therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the developments in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease that have led to long-term survival rates greater than 90%. Past and present radio-therapy (RT) planning and treatment practices are discussed in the context of both clinical and pathological staging. The role of initial bimodal therapy (RT and chemotherapy [CT]) and the use of CT in patients who suffer relapse after initial treatment with RT alone are reviewed. On the basis of prognostic factors, subgroups of patients for whom bimodal therapy is recommended, including those with a bulky mediastinal mass, have now been identified. Although treatment is highly successful, debilitating consequences of RT and CT, such as infertility, infection and second malignant diseases, remain. Newer treatment regimens may reduce morbidity and have similar or better long-term results with respect to survival and quality of life. PMID:3893668

Rusthoven, J J; MacKenzie, R

1985-01-01

145

Ontogenetic development in the morphology and behavior of loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) during early life stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) are a commercially important fish in China and an ideal aquaculture species. However, culturists experience high larval and juvenile mortality during mass production. To provide insight into ways to improve larviculture techniques, we describe the morphological characteristics and behavior of loach during the larval and early juvenile stages. Yolksac larvae ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 mm body length (BL) between days 0 to 4; preflexion larvae ranged from 3.6 to 5.5 mm BL between days 4 to 6; flexion larvae ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 mm BL between days 5 and 14; and postflexion larvae ranged from 7.1 to 15.7 mm BL between days 11 to 27; the minimum length and age of juveniles was 14.1 mm BL and 23 d, respectively. Loach are demersal from hatch through to the early juvenile stages. A suite of morphological characteristics (e.g., external gill filament and ventral mouth opening) and behavioral traits have developed to adapt to demersal living. We observed positive allometric growth in eye diameter, head length, head height, and pectoral fin length during the early larval stages, reflecting the priorities in the development of the organs essential for survival. Our results provide a basis for developing techniques to improve the survival of larval and juvenile loach during mass production.

Gao, Lei; Duan, Ming; Cheng, Fei; Xie, Songguang

2014-09-01

146

On the role of extracellular polymeric substances during early stages of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation.  

PubMed

The structural integrity and protection of bacterial biofilms are intrinsically associated with a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by the bacteria cells. However, the role of these substances during biofilm adhesion to a surface remains largely unclear. In this study, the influence of EPS on Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation was investigated. This bacterium is associated with economically important plant diseases; it presents a slow growth rate and thus allows us to pinpoint more precisely the early stages of cell-surface adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show evidence of EPS production in such early stages and around individual bacteria cells attached to the substrate surface even a few hours after inoculation. In addition, EPS formation was investigated via attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To this end, X. fastidiosa cells were inoculated within an ATR liquid cell assembly. IR-ATR spectra clearly reveal EPS formation already during the early stages of X. fastidiosa biofilm formation, thereby providing supporting evidence for the hypothesis of the relevance of the EPS contribution to the adhesion process. PMID:23164974

Lorite, Gabriela S; de Souza, Alessandra A; Neubauer, Daniel; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine; Cotta, Mônica A

2013-02-01

147

Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2014-01-01

148

Initial stages of silicon growth on the (100) surface of silicon by localized laser CVD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports initial results of an experimental study of the early stages of silicon thin film growth on well prepared (100) c-Si surfaces by pyrolytic deposition from silane (SiH4) during localized laser chemical vapor deposition (LLCVD). The rate of silicon thin film growth during low pressure (less than 10 Torr) deposition using tightly focussed laser beams (514.5 nm, approximately 2.5 micron FWHM) is characterized and is shown to be much slower than expected based on the previously measured silane decomposition rate. Hybrid-heating experiments, in which laser heating induces a slight temperature increase on a uniformly heated substrate in the presence of silane gas, shows that growth is inhibited within the laser irradiation region. This result suggests that a nonpyrolytic mechanism contributes to silicon growth in laser CVD. Possible explanations for this nonpyrolytic growth mechanism are discussed.

Kotecki, D. E.; Herman, I. P.

1987-12-01

149

Initial stage of crystalline rubrene thin film growth on mica (0 0 1)  

PubMed Central

We have studied the morphology and the spatially resolved photoluminescence of rubrene thin films at the early stage of crystallization. The initial growth proceeds via the formation of a wetting layer and the nucleation of islands with an amorphous structure. Crystallization starts when the amorphous islands coalesce and needle like crystalline fibers are formed in the gap between islands. The crystalline fibers then grow on top and in between the original amorphous islands leading to an “open network” of islands. The latter acts as the basis for the growth of semi-crystalline spherulites. PMID:21552477

Zaglmayr, H.; Sun, L.D.; Weidlinger, G.; Al-Baqi, Sh.M. Abd; Sitter, H.; Zeppenfeld, P.

2011-01-01

150

Salinity sensitivity of sorghum at three growth stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative salt tolerance of two sorghum cultivars [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench., cvs. Northrup King 265 and Asgrow Double TX] at three different stages of growth was determined in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown in sand cultures irrigated four times daily with modified Hoagland's solution. A nonsaline solution and six solutions salinized with NaCl and CaCl2 (2: 1 molar

E. V. Maas; J. A. Poss; G. J. Hoffman

1986-01-01

151

Insulin-like growth factor II acts through an endogenous growth pathway regulated by imprinting in early mouse embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence that insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) mediates growth in early mouse embryos and forms a pathway in which imprinted genes influence development during preimplantation stages, mRNA and protein for IGF-II were expressed in preimplantation mouse embryos, but the related factors IGF-I and insulin were not. IGF-I and insulin receptors and the IGF-II\\/mannose-6-phosphate receptor were expressed. Exogenous IGF-II

Daniel A. Rappolee; Karin S. Sturm; Ole Behrendtsen; Gilbert A. Schultz; Roger A. Pedersen; Zena Werb

1992-01-01

152

Taste function in early stage treated and untreated Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Since brain stem regions associated with early Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology encroach upon those involved in taste function, the ability to taste may be compromised in PD. However, studies on this point have been contradictory. We administered well-validated whole-mouth and regional taste tests that incorporated multiple concentrations of sucrose, citric acid, caffeine, and sodium chloride to 29 early stage PD patients and 29 age-, sex-, and race-matched controls. Electrogustometry was also performed on the anterior tongue. The PD cohort was tested both on and off dopamine-related medications in counterbalanced test sessions. While whole-mouth taste identification test scores for all stimuli were, on average, nominally lower for the PD patients than for the controls, a trend in the opposite direction was noted for the intensity ratings at the lower stimulus concentrations for all stimuli except caffeine. Moreover, regional testing found that PD subjects tended to rate the stimuli, relative to the controls, as more intense on the anterior tongue and less intense on the posterior tongue. No significant associations were evident between taste test scores and UPDRS scores, L-DOPA medication equivalency values, or [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging of dopamine transporter uptake within the striatum and associated regions. Our findings suggest that suprathreshold measures of taste function are influenced by PD and that this disease differentially influences taste function on anterior (CN VII) and posterior (CN IX) tongue regions. Conceivably PD-related damage to CN IX releases central inhibition on CN VII at the level of the brainstem, resulting in enhanced taste intensity on the anterior tongue. PMID:25480568

Doty, Richard L; Nsoesie, Michael T; Chung, Inna; Osman, Allen; Pawasarat, Ian; Caulfield, Julie; Hurtig, Howard; Silas, Jonathan; Dubroff, Jacob; Duda, John E; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Tekeli, Hakan; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

2015-03-01

153

After Runaway: The Trans-Hill Stage of Planetesimal Growth  

E-print Network

When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. Here we show that runaway is followed by a `trans-hill stage' that commences once the bodies become trans-hill, i.e. once the Hill velocity of the bodies that dominate viscous stirring matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the bodies remain in the trans-hill state. Trans-hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. We work out the properties of trans-hill growth analytically and confirm these numerically. Trans-hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, collisional cooling is irrelevant, in which case the efficiency of forming big bodies remains very low (0.1% in the Ku...

Lithwick, Yoram

2013-01-01

154

After Runaway: The Trans-Hill Stage of Planetesimal Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the "trans-Hill stage"—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ("big bodies") become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ~10? Lt 1, where ? ~ 0.005(a/AU)-1 is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>?-1 × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies. This mode of growth may explain the observed size distributions of small bodies in the solar system and is explored in our subsequent work. Second, if the big bodies' orbits become separated by their Hill radius, oligarchy commences. This mode likely precedes the formation of fully fledged planets.

Lithwick, Yoram

2014-01-01

155

Biology of early life stages in cephalopod molluscs.  

PubMed

Recent literature on embryonic and post-embryonic development, biology and behavioural ecology of juvenile cephalopods is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on biological processes. Life-history patterns and phylogenetic systematics, which are important for a proper understanding of the evolutionary history of the cephalopods, are only briefly touched upon. Egg sizes in cephalopods range from less than 1 mm to about 30 mm in diameter, so the hatchlings emerging from the largest eggs are bigger than the adults of pygmy squid, the smallest known cephalopods. Developmental durations from spawning to hatching range from a few days (for very small eggs developing at high temperatures) to one or possibly several years (for very large eggs developing at low temperatures). Such important differences notwithstanding, the morphogenetic processes are very similar in all cephalopod embryos, the major variant being the size of the so-called outer yolk sac, which may be rudimentary in extremely small embryos. Several questions concerning the timing of hatching in relation to the developmental stage attained, especially in terms of yok absorption, need clarification. These questions concern the elimination of the transient closure of the mouth, the final differentiation of digestive gland cells, and the removal of the tranquilliser effect of the perivitelline fluid necessary for the onset of the hatching behaviour. Cephalopod hatchlings are active predators. They refine their behavioural repertoires by learning from individual experience in dealing with prey and would-be predators. There is no truly larval phase, and the ecologically defined term paralarva should be used with caution. Given the considerable resource potential of cephalopods, investigations into dispersal and recruitment are of particular interest to fishery biology, but they are also important for ecological biogeography. The related studies of feeding and growth involve field sampling and tentative age determination of caught specimens, in combination with laboratory studies to test food quality, measure feeding rates, and validation of periodicities in accretional growth structures (e.g. "daily rings" in statoliths). PMID:12846042

von Boletzky, S

2003-01-01

156

Toxicity of TFM lampricide to early life stages of walleye  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The authors studied the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on gametes, newly fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, and swim-up fry of the walleye Stizostedion vitreum . When gametes from sexually mature walleyes were stripped into solutions of TFM, no effects were observed during the fertilization process at concentrations up to 3.0 mg/L - three times the concentration lethal to 99.9% of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held 12 h (LC99.9) under the same test conditions. Newly fertilized eggs likewise were unaffected during water hardening by concentrations of TFM that were lethal to sea lamprey ammocoetes. Eyed eggs, sac fry, and swim-up fry yielded LC25 values that were 2.5 to 5 times greater than the 12-h LC99.9 for sea lamprey ammocoetes. The data thus indicated that all of the early life stages of walleyes tested were considerably more resistant than sea lamprey ammocoetes to TFM, and that it is unlikely they would be adversely affected by standard stream treatments to kill sea lamprey ammocoetes.

Seelye, J.G.; Marking, L.L.; King, E.L., Jr.; Hanson, L.H.; Bills, T.D.

1987-01-01

157

Leukocyte emigration in the early stages of laminitis.  

PubMed

The mechanisms that initiate the pathophysiologic changes in the digital laminae in equine laminitis are poorly understood. Due to the fact that (1) the horse at risk of laminitis has many similarities clinically to the human sepsis patient and (2) our recent finding of marked laminar proinflammatory cytokine expression at the developmental time point of the black walnut extract (BWE) model of laminitis, we tested the possibility that, similar to organ damage in human sepsis, leukocyte emigration is an early event in laminitis. Using immunoperoxidase methods with an anti-equine CD13 monoclonal antibody that recognizes neutrophils and monocytes, we discovered that, whereas the dermal microvasculature of the skin commonly has a marginal pool of leukocytes, the normal laminar dermal microvasculature has minimal to no perivascular leukocytes. However, increases in leukocyte numbers occurred around the dermal vasculature of both the laminae and the skin in the majority of BWE-treated horses in the developmental stage and at the onset of clinical signs of lameness in the BWE model. These findings indicate that, similar to organ failure in human sepsis, leukocyte emigration is likely to play a significant role in initiating numerous pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to the development of laminitis. PMID:16169600

Black, Samuel J; Lunn, D Paul; Yin, Cailing; Hwang, Misako; Lenz, Stephen D; Belknap, James K

2006-01-15

158

Isolation and transplantation of sturgeon early-stage germ cells.  

PubMed

We report, for the first time, a series of baseline techniques comprising isolation and transplantation of female and male early-stage germ cells in sturgeon to generate a germline chimera as a potential tool for surrogate reproduction and gene banking. Cells were dissociated from testis, characterized by mostly spermatogonia, and from ovary, exclusively comprising oogonia and previtellogenic oocytes, of Acipenser baerii, using 0.3% trypsin (2 hours, 23 °C) dissolved in PBS, isotonic with blood plasma. The dissociated germ cells were sorted by Percoll gradient centrifugation followed by immunolabeling with germ cell-specific vasa antibody DDX4, while 10% to 30% Percoll solution contained 79.4% and 70.8% labeled testicular and ovarian cells. Sorted germ cells were transplanted into a cavity close to a presumptive genital ridge of newly hatched heterospecific Acipenser ruthenus larvae with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled endogenous primordial germ cells. The transplanted germ cells were randomly distributed in the body cavity through 30-day posttransplantation (dpt). Subsequently, the cells were organized into genital ridges 50 dpt and proliferated 90 dpt. The number of both transplanted and endogenous germ cells significantly increased from 18.1, 22.2, and 29.1 (30 dpt) to 108.5, 90.8, and 118.5 (90 dpt) in ovarian, testicular, and endogenous germ cells, respectively (P < 0.05). The efficiency of transplantation was 60% (counted 90 dpt). PMID:25559841

Pšeni?ka, Martin; Saito, Taiju; Linhartová, Zuzana; Gazo, Ievgeniia

2015-04-01

159

Clinical therapeutic strategies for early stage of diabetic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease, leading to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. The overall number of patients with DKD will continue to increase in parallel with the increasing global pandemic of type 2 diabetes. Based on landmark clinical trials, DKD has become preventable by controlling conventional factors, including hyperglycemia and hypertension, with multifactorial therapy; however, the remaining risk of DKD progression is still high. In this review, we show the importance of targeting remission/regression of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients, which may protect against the progression of DKD and cardiovascular events. To achieve remission/regression of microalbuminuria, several steps are important, including the early detection of microalbuminuria with continuous screening, targeting HbA1c < 7.0% for glucose control, the use of renin angiotensin system inhibitors to control blood pressure, the use of statins or fibrates to control dyslipidemia, and multifactorial treatment. Reducing microalbuminuria is therefore an important therapeutic goal, and the absence of microalbuminuria could be a pivotal biomarker of therapeutic success in diabetic patients. Other therapies, including vitamin D receptor activation, uric acid-lowering drugs, and incretin-related drugs, may also be promising for the prevention of DKD progression. PMID:24936255

Kitada, Munehiro; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

2014-01-01

160

Communication: Stable carbon nanoarches in the initial stages of epitaxial growth of graphene on Cu(111)  

SciTech Connect

To fully exploit the device potential of graphene, reliable production of large-area, high-quality samples is required. Epitaxial growth on metal substrates have shown promise in this regard, but further improvement would be facilitated by a more complete understanding of the atomistic processes involved in the early growth stages. Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we have investigated the energetics and kinetics of graphene nucleation and growth on a Cu(111) surface. Our calculations have revealed an energetic preference for the formation of stable one-dimensional carbon nanoarches consisting of 3 13 atoms when compared to twodimensional compact islands of equal sizes. We also estimate the critical cluster size that marks the transition from nanoarch dominance to island dominance in the growth sequence. Our findings may provide the structural link between nucleated carbon dimers and larger carbon nanodomes, and are expected to stimulate future experimental efforts.

Van Wesep, Robert G [ORNL; Chen, Hua [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhu, Wenguang [ORNL; Zhang, Zhwnyu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01

161

Communication: Stable carbon nanoarches in the initial stages of epitaxial growth of graphene on Cu(111)  

SciTech Connect

To fully exploit the device potential of graphene, reliable production of large-area, high-quality samples is required. Epitaxial growth on metal substrates have shown promise in this regard, but further improvement would be facilitated by a more complete understanding of the atomistic pro- cesses involved in the early growth stages. Using first-principles calculations within density func- tional theory, we have investigated the energetics and kinetics of graphene nucleation and growth on a Cu(111) surface. Our calculations have revealed an energetic preference for the formation of stable one-dimensional carbon nanoarches consisting of 3 13 atoms when compared to two- dimensional compact islands of equal sizes. We also estimate the critical cluster size that marks the transition from nanoarch dominance to island dominance in the growth sequence. Our findings may provide the structural link between nucleated carbon dimers and larger carbon nanodomes, and are expected to stimulate future experimental efforts. 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Van Wesep, Robert G [ORNL; Chen, Hua [ORNL; Zhu, Wenguang [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL

2011-01-01

162

Early life stage (ELS) toxicity of sucralose to fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas.  

PubMed

Sucralose, an intense artificial sweetener, has been detected in wastewater and surface waters at concentrations ranging from ng/L to low µg/L. Although over a hundred studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of sucralose for human consumption, few studies have focused on the chronic ecotoxicological effects of this compound in fish. As a remedy to this data gap, an early-life stage toxicity test was conducted to assess the effects of sucralose on hatching, survival, and growth of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Hatching, survival, and growth were unaffected by 98 mg/L of sucralose. The Lowest-Observed-Effect Concentration (LOEC) and the No-Observed-Effect Concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows determined by this study are >98 and 98 mg/L, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the concentrations of sucralose detected in the environment are well below those required to cause adverse effects to developing aquatic organisms. PMID:25120258

Stoddard, K I; Huggett, D B

2014-10-01

163

Regulation of Early Embryonic Development by Growth Factors: Growth Factor Gene Expression in Cloned Bovine Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of growth factor ligand and receptor genes are expressed by early embryos of the mouse, rat, cow, and sheep. Several growth factors have stimulatory effects on early embryos when added exogenously to the medium for culture of preimplanta- tion mammalian embryos. Growth factor supplemen- tation of simple defined medium for culture of early bovine embryos leads to a

Gilbert A. Schultz; Mark B. Harvey; Andrew J. Watson; Mayi Y. Arcellana-Panlilio; Karen Jones; Mark E. Westhusint

2010-01-01

164

Comparison of turnover in the olfactory organ of early juvenile stage and adult Caribbean spiny lobsters.  

PubMed

Proliferation and turnover of neurons occurs in the olfactory systems of many animals. In this study, we examined developmental changes in turnover in the olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus by examining two life-history stages-early juveniles and young adults. Turnover was compared using external morphology of the olfactory organ before and after molting to determine addition and loss of aesthetascs and other chemosensilla, and BrdU labeling to identify newly proliferated cells. The number of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) innervating each aesthetasc increased only slightly over development, but there was a net increase of olfactory sensory units (i.e. aesthetascs and their ORNs) at each molt. This increase was similar in early juveniles and young adults when expressed as absolute number of ORNs neurons but greater in early juveniles when expressed as a proportion of existing ORNs. The net increase in olfactory sensory units in early juveniles is due solely to addition, since virtually no aesthetascs are lost. In contrast, the net increase in olfactory sensory units in adults reflects addition of new units accompanied by considerable loss of old units. These developmental changes result in expansive enlargement of the olfactory organ without turnover in early juveniles, and a more modest growth combined with continuous turnover and replenishment of ORNs in adults. PMID:18088988

Derby, Charles D; Cate, Holly S; Steullet, Pascal; Harrison, Paul J H

2003-04-01

165

Pesticides in urban streams and early life stages of Pacific coho salmon.  

PubMed

Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams and are believed to be primarily the result of homeowner use. Although concentrations in most cases are low (<1?µg/L), there is concern that pesticide inputs threaten efforts to restore and enhance salmon habitat. The authors exposed early life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of those pesticides most frequently reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Life stages were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail simulating those in urban streams in fall and winter when coho salmon eggs and sac fry are present. Nominal concentrations of eight herbicides, two insecticides, a fungicide, and a breakdown product were the maximum detected. Fertilization, hatching success, survival, deformities, and growth of fry were not significantly affected. A reduction in fertilization success (19-25%) was not reproducible even when gametes were exposed to 100 times the maximum concentrations detected. Based on the end points examined in the present study, the results suggest that direct exposure to the pesticides most frequently detected in urban streams in western Washington does not impair early life stages of coho salmon and is not a major factor governing the recovery of salmon populations. The extent to which pesticide exposure would affect smoltification, outmigration, and ocean survival needs to be determined. PMID:23297254

King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J

2013-04-01

166

Chronic effects of acetone on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) during early life-stage development  

SciTech Connect

A 28-day post-hatch early life-stage development toxicity test was conducted to determine the chronic effects of acetone on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). In this study, less than 24-hour old fathead minnow embryos were exposed to 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mL acetone/L and a negative control for a 4-day pre-hatch period and 28 days following hatch. During the pre-hatch period, no adverse effects on embryo survival or hatching success were observed in any of the treatment groups tested when compared to the negative control. From completion of matching to test termination, fathead minnows exposed to 4.0 mL acetone/L, experienced reduced survival, a statistically significant reduction in growth and impairment of critical behavioral functions when compared to the negative control group. Growth of fathead minnows exposed to 2.0 mL acetone/L also experienced a statistically significant effect upon growth when compared to the negative control, however, survival and behavior were not affected during the post-hatch period. Survival, growth, and behavior of fathead minnows exposed to 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 mL acetone/L from hatching to test termination was comparable to the control group. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows exposed to acetone during early life-stage development was 1.0 mL acetone/L, and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 2.0 mL acetone/L. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was calculated to be 1.4 mL acetone/L.

Mank, M.; Swigert, J. [Wildlife International Ltd., Easton, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

167

STAGING EARLY EMBRYOS FROM POULTRY: THE WHY'S AND HOW'S  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The staging of embryos involves the classification of their normal development from the first cleavage divisions through hatching. Individual stages are based on discrete yet often quite subtle developmental changes in embryo morphology. The collective sequence of stages describing embryo developmen...

168

The role of fibroblast growth factors in early Xenopus development.  

PubMed

In recent years we and others have been attempting to identify the molecular nature of the inducing signals in early Xenopus development. We have found that most members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family are biologically active as mesoderm-inducing factors when applied to ectoderm from blastulae. In addition to this, they will support continued expression of the pan-mesodermal transcription factor Xbra in the mesoderm of gastrula stage embryos. We have studied the expression pattern of four types of FGF in early embryos. Two types (FGF-2 and FGF-9) are expressed maternally and are thus present at the time of natural mesoderm induction. The expression of two other types (FGF-3 and FGF-4) is activated in the newly formed mesoderm of the gastrula. If the activity of the FGF family is inhibited by overexpression of a dominant-negative FGF receptor, there is a reduction in mesoderm formation, there are abnormalities arising from an inhibition of normal gastrulation movements and there is a defect in formation of the posterior parts. We believe that the mesoderm formation and cell movement effects are attributable to loss of Xbra expression, and the posterior defects to lack of posterior HOX gene activity. Overexpression of eFGF gives rise to a posteriorized phenotype, in which posterior HOX genes are expressed in a more anterior position. We conclude that the FGF system has multiple functions in early development, including mesoderm formation, gastrulation movements and anteroposterior patterning. PMID:8971335

Slack, J M; Isaacs, H V; Song, J; Durbin, L; Pownall, M E

1996-01-01

169

Stage at diagnosis and early mortality from cancer in England  

PubMed Central

Background: Stage at diagnosis is a key predictor of overall cancer outcome. For the first time, stage completeness is high enough for robust analysis for the whole of England. Methods: We analysed data from the National Cancer Registration Service's (NCRS) Cancer Analysis System on persons diagnosed with breast, colorectal, lung, prostate or ovarian cancers in England in 2012. One-year relative survival (followed-up to the end of 2013) was calculated along with adjusted excess rate ratios, for mortality within 1 year. Results: One-year relative survival decreased with increasing stage at diagnosis. For breast, prostate and colorectal cancers survival showed a major reduction for stage 4 cancers, whereas for lung and ovarian cancers there were substantial decreases in relative survival for each level of increase in stage. Excess rate ratios for mortality within 1 year of diagnosis showed that stage and age were the most important cofactors, but they also identified the statistically significant effects of sex, income deprivation and geographic area of residence. Conclusions: Further reductions in mortality may be most effectively achieved by diagnosing all cancers before they progress to stage 4, but for lung and ovarian cancers there is also a need for a stage shift to earlier stages together with efforts to improve stage-specific survival at all stages. PMID:25734389

McPhail, S; Johnson, S; Greenberg, D; Peake, M; Rous, B

2015-01-01

170

Dream features in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Few studies have investigated the relation between dream features and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD), although vivid dreams, hallucinations and cognitive decline have been proposed as successive steps of a pathological continuum. Our objectives were therefore to characterize the dreams of early stage PD and to study the relation between dream characteristics, cognitive function, motor status, depression, dopaminergic treatment, and the presence of REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and hallucinations. Dreams of 19 male PD patients and 21 matched control subjects were classified according to Hall and van de Castle system. h statistics was used to compare the dream content between patients and controls. We tested the relation between patients' dreams characteristics and cognitive function (Frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Mini-Mental State Examination tests) depression (Beck depression inventory), motor function (UPDRS), dopaminergic treatment, the presence of RBD (according to clinical criteria) and hallucinations, using general linear model statistics. Patients and controls differed only on FAB scores. Relevant differences in the Hall and van de Castle scale were found between patient's dreams and those of the control group, regarding animals, aggression/friendliness, physical aggression, befriender (higher in the patient group) and aggressor and bodily misfortunes (lower in the patient group) features. Cognitive and particularly frontal dysfunction had a significant influence on the frequency of physical aggression and animal related features, while dopaminergic doses, depressive symptoms, hallucinations and RBD did not. We found a pattern of dream alteration characterized by heightened aggressiveness and the presence of animals. These were related to more severe frontal dysfunction, which could be the origin of such changes. PMID:21717220

Bugalho, Paulo; Paiva, Teresa

2011-11-01

171

Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements.

Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

2013-01-01

172

Analysis in Serum-Free Culture of the Targets of Recombinant Human Hemopoietic Growth Factors: Interleukin 3 and Granulocyte\\/Macrophage-Colony-Stimulating Factor are Specific for Early Developmental Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a serum-free culture system for enriched human hemopoietic progenitors to analyze the developmental stages and lineage specificities of the human hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors. None of the individual factors alone efficiently supported hemopoietic colony formation. Neither interleukin 3 nor granulocyte\\/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor alone or in combination effectively supported proliferation of progenitor cells. However, when combined with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor or

Yoshiaki Sonoda; Yu-Chung Yang; Gordon G. Wong; Steven C. Clark; Makio Ogawa

1988-01-01

173

[Early orthodontic treatment for growth modification by functional appliances--pros and cons].  

PubMed

The optimal timing for commencement of orthodontic treatment has been controversial. Initial early orthodontic treatment usually begins at the deciduous dentition or early mixed dentition stage and continues for 12-18 months. In most cases, a second treatment phase will be required in the permanent dentition stage to achieve the treatment goals and a stable occlusion. One of the main purposes of the early treatment phase is to affect the growth pattern of the jaw and consequently correct skeletal imbalance and prevent future severe malocclusion by means of growth modification. Some clinicians strongly believe that early intervention with functional appliances improves facial harmony and simplifies as well as shortens the second orthodontic treatment phase. In contrast others advocate that it is unnecessary as the early treatment results will be eliminated by future growth and a recurrent treatment phase is essential in the permanent dentition stage in any case. Thus it is merely a waste of time and resources, and all treatment goals could be reached by a comprehensive single continued treatment phase in the late mixed dentition stage. This article summarizes the scientific literature on the different concepts of early functional orthodontic treatment of Skeletal Class II malocclusion correction vs. a single comprehensive orthodontic treatment process in the late mixed dentition stage. The indications and benefits of each of the approaches are discussed in detail. In conclusion, most of the researchers recommend early orthodontic intervention in children suffering psychological and social problems associated with their malocclusion. Prevention of traumatic injury in cases of maxillary incisor protrusive inclination is also considered an indication for early orthodontic treatment. PMID:24654498

Tzemach, M; Aizenbud, D; Einy, S

2014-01-01

174

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Early pregnancy Assessing first trimester growth: the  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Early pregnancy Assessing first trimester growth: the influence of ethnic background and maternal Pexsters5, Bart De Moor2, Dirk Timmerman5, and Tom Bourne4,5 1 Early Pregnancy and Gynaecological trimester growth restriction may predict miscarriage or adverse outcome later in the pregnancy

175

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 ?atm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 ?atm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which could lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

2011-12-01

176

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on the early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in the life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 ?atm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 ?atm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which consequently should lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival and could affect the ecosystem and fisheries. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

2011-07-01

177

TOXICITY OF TRIVALENT CHROMIUM TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF STEELHEAD TROUT  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute and early life stage toxicity tests were conducted with trivalent chromium and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). A 96-h LC50 of 4,400 micrograms/l chromium was obtained with two-month-old juvenile fish. Early life stage exposure from newly fertilized eggs to 30-d post-swim...

178

Ameliorating Patient-Caregiver Stigma in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease using Robot co-Mediators  

E-print Network

Ameliorating Patient-Caregiver Stigma in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease using Robot co-Mediators Ronald C. Arkin Abstract. Facial masking in early stage Parkinson's disease leads to a well that are able to express affective state through kinesics and proxemics. 1 INTRODUCTION Parkinson's disease

179

CENTER FOR MEDICAL INNOVATION (CMI) Early-Stage Medical Technology Research and Development  

E-print Network

CENTER FOR MEDICAL INNOVATION (CMI) Early-Stage Medical Technology Research and Development Round-2. The University of Pittsburgh's Center for Medical Innovation (CMI) (Center for Medical Innovation preproposals for early-stage medical technology research and development. Purpose: The Pilot Funding Program

Sibille, Etienne

180

Viscoelastic effects in early stage phase separation in polymeric systems Akira Onuki and Takashi Taniguchi  

E-print Network

Viscoelastic effects in early stage phase separation in polymeric systems Akira Onuki and Takashi December 1996 We examine how viscoelasticity affects early stage spinodal decomposition in polymer viscoelastic length ve within which the stress relaxation governs the composition relaxation. It can

181

To Stay or to Go? Narratives of Early-Stage Sociologists about Persisting in Academia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on analyses of life course questionnaires, semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group interviews carried out with early-stage sociologists over a period of 8 years, this paper presents analyzes of continuity and change in the decisions made by early-stage researchers in regard to their work and careers. The longitudinal approach…

Wöhrer, Veronika

2014-01-01

182

Time-Limited Support Groups for Individuals with Early Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of sensitive diagnostic procedures, Alzheimer's disease and other related dementias are being diagnosed in their earliest stages. Although early diagnosis provides opportunities for treatment, decision making, and planning, it also conveys some potentially negative consequences, including affective and interpersonal changes. Early-stage support groups for individuals with dementia and their caregivers have been developed to help individuals and

Rebecca G. Logsdon; Susan M. McCurry; Linda Teri

2007-01-01

183

Fungal and algal gene expression in early developmental stages of lichen-symbiosis  

E-print Network

Fungal and algal gene expression in early developmental stages of lichen-symbiosis Suzanne Joneson1 in vitro in early lichen development. cDNA libraries of upregulated genes were created with suppression subtractive hybridiza- tion in the first two stages of lichen development. Quantitative PCR subsequently

Lutzoni, François M.

184

Prospective Memory and Apolipoprotein E in Healthy Aging and Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and individuals at risk for DAT because of the presence dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) at the earliest possible stage of the disease process. This early to possible drug treatment and behavioral interventions. The clinical diagnosis of early stage DAT

185

The Toxicity of Diquat, Endothall, and Fluridone to the Early Life Stages of Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most aquatic herbicides have undergone some toxicity testing for effects on non-target aquatic organisms, little of this testing has been conducted on early life stages of gamefish found in lakes undergoing treatment. Commercial formulations of diquat, endothall, and fluridone were selected for acute toxicity testing using very early life stages of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and

Eric A. Paul; Howard A. Simonin; John Symula; Robert W. Bauer

1994-01-01

186

Is surgery still the best management option for early stage NSCLC?  

PubMed Central

Under the formidable thrust of alternative management options for early stage lung cancer, the role of surgery in this disease subset has been questioned. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been advocated as an ideal substitute for surgery not only in high risk patients or for the ones who refuse surgery but also in lieu of sublobar resection in otherwise fit patients. The therapeutic modalities for early stage NSCLC were compared as to warranting local control, enabling adequate tissue sampling for biomolecular studies, and effecting optimal pathologic staging while saving lung parenchyma. As a result, surgery still remains the best management option for early stage lung cancer in 2014.

Ottlakan, Aurel; Martucci, Nicola

2014-01-01

187

Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surface ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.

Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S. [Inst. de Ciencias Ambientales y Salud, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Programa Seguridad Quimica; Cardellini, P.; Pavanati, C. [Univ. degli Studi di Padova Via Trieste (Italy). Dept. di Biologia

1997-02-01

188

Recruitment and mortality of early post-settlement stages of benthic algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four transitional life history stages are generally recognized for benthic marine algae. On the basis of differences in size, we propose two more: young germlings and young juveniles. Three of these (spores or zygotes, young germlings, and germlings) are considered early post-settlement (EPS) stages. Many of the available data on recruitment and mortality were not collected with EPS stages specifically

R. L. Vadas Sr; S. Johnson; T. A. Norton

1992-01-01

189

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE FOWLER'S TOAD (Anaxyrus fowleri) TO THE TADPOLE EDEMA VIRUS  

E-print Network

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE FOWLER'S TOAD (Anaxyrus fowleri) TO THE TADPOLE EDEMA) - Gosner Stage 36 (Rear limb development) - Gosner Stage 42 (Metamorphosis) . Tadpole edema virus (TEV-metamorphic bufonid toads to the tadpole edema virus. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Gray, Matthew

190

Effects of mixture of pharmaceuticals on early life stages of tench (Tinca tinca).  

PubMed

Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 ?g · L(-1) for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 ?g · L(-1)). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 ?g · L(-1)) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench. PMID:24772417

Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

191

Effects of Mixture of Pharmaceuticals on Early Life Stages of Tench (Tinca tinca)  

PubMed Central

Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60??g·L?1 for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60??g·L?1). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2??g·L?1) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench. PMID:24772417

Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

192

Setting the Stage for Lifetime Physical Activity in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale and suggestions for emphasizing health-related physical education in preschool settings. In order to accomplish this, it will examine what is currently known about early childhood physical activity, as well as the existing professional preparation and accreditation standards for early childhood…

Schneider, Holly; Lounsbery, Monica

2008-01-01

193

Weakly nonlinear modeling of the early stages of bypass transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Motivation and objectives Under ideal conditions, boundary layer transition occurs in a six-stage process described, for example, by Stuart (1965). The rst stage is that of linear instability, and its onset is predicted accurately by two-dimensional normal mode solutions of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. In the Blasius case, the critical Reynolds number based on displacement thickness is approximately Re =

S. A. Maslowe

194

Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia  

PubMed Central

Background Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Results Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low seed set in R. pseudoacacia. PMID:24655746

2014-01-01

195

A new system for assessment of growth using mandibular canine calcification stages and its correlation with modified MP3 stages  

PubMed Central

Objective: Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mandibular canine with that of developmental stages of modified MP3 and to find out if any correlation exists, to determine if the developmental stages of the mandibular canine alone can be used as a reliable indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 periapical radiographs, of the mandibular right canine and the MP3 region was taken and assessed according to the Dermirjian's stages of dental calcification and the modified MP3 stages. Results and Discussion: The correlation coefficient between MP3 stages and developmental stages of mandibular canine was found to be significant in both male and female groups. When the canine calcification stages were compared with the MP3 stages it was found that with the exception of the D stage of canine calcification the remaining stages showed a very high correlation with the modified MP3 stages. Conclusion: The correlation between the mandibular canine calcification stages, and the MP3 stages was found to be significant. The canine calcification could be used as a sole indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. PMID:25210386

Hegde, Gautham; Hegde, Nanditha; Kumar, Anil; Keshavaraj

2014-01-01

196

Genome-Wide Study of the Adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the Early Stages of Wine Fermentation  

PubMed Central

This work was designed to identify yeast cellular functions specifically affected by the stress factors predominating during the early stages of wine fermentation, and genes required for optimal growth under these conditions. The main experimental method was quantitative fitness analysis by means of competition experiments in continuous culture of whole genome barcoded yeast knockout collections. This methodology allowed the identification of haploinsufficient genes, and homozygous deletions resulting in growth impairment in synthetic must. However, genes identified as haploproficient, or homozygous deletions resulting in fitness advantage, were of little predictive power concerning optimal growth in this medium. The relevance of these functions for enological performance of yeast was assessed in batch cultures with single strains. Previous studies addressing yeast adaptation to winemaking conditions by quantitative fitness analysis were not specifically focused on the proliferative stages. In some instances our results highlight the importance of genes not previously linked to winemaking. In other cases they are complementary to those reported in previous studies concerning, for example, the relevance of some genes involved in vacuolar, peroxisomal, or ribosomal functions. Our results indicate that adaptation to the quickly changing growth conditions during grape must fermentation require the function of different gene sets in different moments of the process. Transport processes and glucose signaling seem to be negatively affected by the stress factors encountered by yeast in synthetic must. Vacuolar activity is important for continued growth during the transition to stationary phase. Finally, reduced biogenesis of peroxisomes also seems to be advantageous. However, in contrast to what was described for later stages, reduced protein synthesis is not advantageous for the early (proliferative) stages of the fermentation process. Finally, we found adenine and lysine to be in short supply for yeast growth in some natural grape musts. PMID:24040173

Novo, Maite; Mangado, Ana; Quirós, Manuel; Morales, Pilar; Salvadó, Zoel; Gonzalez, Ramon

2013-01-01

197

Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

2014-01-01

198

Two-stage growth of laccoliths at Elba Island, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Elba Island, Italy, nine shallow-level late Miocene granite porphyry layers connected by feeder dikes built up three nested Christmas-tree laccoliths. Detailed mapping and reconstruction of tectonic history led to restoration of the original 5-km-thick sequence and determination of the dimensional parameters of each intrusive layer. The laccolith layers were emplaced at depths between 1.9 and 3.7 km, exploiting physical discontinuities that served as crustal magma traps inside a stack of nappes. The intrusive layers are 50 700 m thick, with diameters between 1.6 and 10 km. Length to thickness relationships for individual laccolith layers show a power-law correlation that does not fit the known dimensional distribution for laccoliths, but instead fits a line with a slope typical of the theoretical vertical-inflation stage of laccolith development. This is interpreted as the first reported natural example of the occurrence of a vertical-inflation stage during laccolith growth. The dimensional data for Elba intrusive layers also suggest that laccoliths and plutons commonly form by amalgamation of smaller sheet-like bodies, while multilayer laccoliths form when coalescence fails, possibly owing to the large availability of crustal magma traps.

Rocchi, Sergio; Westerman, David S.; Dini, Andrea; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Tonarini, Sonia

2002-11-01

199

Paired comparison of water, energy and carbon exchanges over two young maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.): effects of thinning and weeding in the early stage of tree growth.  

PubMed

The effects of management practices on energy, water and carbon exchanges were investigated in a young pine plantation in south-west France. In 2009-10, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2)O and heat fluxes were monitored using the eddy covariance and sap flow techniques in a control plot (C) with a developed gorse layer, and an adjacent plot that was mechanically weeded and thinned (W). Despite large differences in the total leaf area index and canopy structure, the annual net radiation absorbed was only 4% lower in plot W. We showed that higher albedo in this plot was offset by lower emitted long-wave radiation. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) from plot W was 15% lower, due to lower rainfall interception and transpiration by the tree canopy, partly counterbalanced by the larger evaporation from both soil and regrowing weedy vegetation. The drainage belowground from plot W was larger by 113 mm annually. The seasonal variability of ET was driven by the dynamics of the soil and weed layers, which was more severely affected by drought in plot C. Conversely, the temporal changes in pine transpiration and stem diameter growth were synchronous between sites despite higher soil water content in the weeded plot. At the annual scale, both plots were carbon sinks, but thinning and weeding reduced the carbon uptake by 73%: annual carbon uptake was 243 and 65 g C m(-2) on plots C and W, respectively. Summer drought dramatically impacted the net ecosystem exchange: plot C became a carbon source as the gross primary production (GPP) severely decreased. However, plot W remained a carbon sink during drought, as a result of decreases in both GPP and ecosystem respiration (R(E)). In winter, both plots were carbon sources, plots C and W emitting 67.5 and 32.4 g C m(-2), respectively. Overall, this study highlighted the significant contribution of the gorse layer to mass and energy exchange in young pine plantations. PMID:21724584

Moreaux, Virginie; Lamaud, Eric; Bosc, Alexandre; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Medlyn, Belinda E; Loustau, Denis

2011-09-01

200

Early-Stage Primary School Children Attending a School in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) Have Better Reversal Learning and Lean Muscle Mass Growth Than Those Attending a Non-SFP School12  

PubMed Central

In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6–8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction <0.0001). The results indicate that the SFP in Malawi is associated with an improvement in reversal learning and catch-up growth in lean muscle mass in children in the SFP school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children. PMID:23803471

Nkhoma, Owen W. W.; Duffy, Maresa E.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Davidson, Philip W.; McSorley, Emeir M.; Strain, J. J.; O’Brien, Gerard M.

2013-01-01

201

Early life stage toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

SciTech Connect

TCDD and related compounds cause toxicity in fish early life stages, characterized by edema, regional ischemia, craniofacial malformations, growth retardation and mortality. Determining the mechanism of these effects requires understanding normal early life stage development, which has been studied extensively in the zebrafish. Establishing zebrafish as a model for TCDD developmental toxicity requires demonstration that TCDD adversely affects zebrafish early life stages. Toxicity of TCDD to zebrafish early life stages was characterized by exposing newly fertilized eggs for 1 hr to water containing acetone or graded concentrations of [{sup 3}H]-TCDD and observed for signs of toxicity at 12 hr intervals for 240 hr post fertilization (hpf). TCDD did not increase embryo mortality during the egg stage (0--48 hpf) nor did it affect the time to hatching (48--96 hpf). At the highest TCDD egg doses (4.5--6.5 ng/g) the earliest sign of toxicity was pericardial edema (72 hpf) followed by the onset of yolk sac edema (96 hpf) onset of mortality (132 hpf). At lower egg doses the same effects were seen but after a longer delay period. Other signs of toxicity included craniofacial malformations, cranial edema and loss of swimming activity prior to death. To determine the dose-response relationship for pericardial and yolk sac edema and larval mortality the cumulative incidence of each effect was determined at 240 hpf. The ED{sub 50}s (95% fiducial limits) for pericardial edema and yolk sac edema were 2.1 6 (1.82--2.48) and 2.43 (2.12--2.72) ng TCDD/g egg, respectively. The LD{sub 50} was 2.45 (1.94--2.89) ng TCDD/g egg. In conclusion, the signs of TCDD early life stage toxicity in zebrafish are essentially identical to those in other fish species, however, larger egg doses of TCDD are required to elicit the effects.

Henry, T.R.; Hornung, M.W.; Abnet, C.C.; Peterson, R.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-12-31

202

Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

Young, Tabitha L.

2013-01-01

203

On Some Features of Early Embryonic Development Stages of Cnidaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Division of the life cycle of Cnidaria (except for Anthozoa) into two independent generations, polypoid and medusoid, i.e., metagenesis, is considered to be unjustified. Like other Metazoa, their life cycle can be divided into three periods: embryonic, postembryonic, and definitive, i.e., according to the age [9, 10]. An important feature of Cnidaria is the transition of some postembryonic stages to

Z. S. Kaufman

2004-01-01

204

POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF HIERARCHICAL PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Hierarchical methods are often used in the conceptual stages of process design to synthesize and evaluate process alternatives. In this work, the methods of hierarchical process design will be focused on environmental aspects. In particular, the design methods will be coupled to ...

205

The effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos.  

PubMed

Objective. The study investigated the effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos. Material and methods. We looked at four groups with a total of 36 embryos. There was a control group, a normal saline group, a normal-dose group and a high-dose group with ten, ten, eight and eight eggs with embryo respectively. Results. Two embryos in the control group, studied with light microscopy at 48 h, were consistent with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton System. They had open neural tubes. The other embryos in this group were considered normal. One embryo in the normal saline group was on the occlusion stage at 48 h. One embryo showed an open neural tube. They were compatible with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton system. The remaining eight embryos showed normal development. In the normal dose group, one embryo showed underdevelopment of the embryonic disc and the embryo was dead. In four embryos, the neural tubes were open. One cranial malformation was found that was complicated with anencephaly in one embryo. In two embryos the neural tubes were closed, as they showed normal development, and they reached their expected stages according to the Hamburger-Hamilton classification. There was no malformation or growth retardation. Four experimental embryos were anencephalic in the high dose group, and three embryos had open neural tubes. One embryo exhibited both anencephaly and a neural tube closure defect. None of the embryos in this group showed normal development. Conclusions. Even the usual therapeutic doses of flurbiprofen increased the risk of neural tube defect. Flurbiprofen was found to significantly increase the risk of anencephaly. The provision of improved technical materials and studies with larger sample sizes will reveal the stage of morphological disruption during the development of embryos. PMID:25365663

Ozeren, Ersin; Er, Uygur; Güvenç, Yahya; Demirci, Adnan; Ar?kök, Ata Türker; Senveli, Engin; Ergün, Rüçhan Behzat

2014-11-01

206

Influence of plant growth stage and season on the release of root phenolics by mulberry as related to development of phytoremediation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolics released by red mulberry (Morus rubra L.) roots at different growth stages within a season were quantified and the makeup of phenols analyzed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The data show that total phenols released into the soil solution increased continuously from an early vegetative stage to leaf senescence, indicating their accumulation in the rhizosphere. From

Ramesh S. Hegde; John S. Fletcher

1996-01-01

207

Discriminating patients with early-stage pancreatic cancer or chronic pancreatitis using serum electrospray mass profiling.  

PubMed

Blood tests are needed to aid in the early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and monitoring pancreatitis development into malignancy especially in high risk patients. This study exhibits efforts and progress toward developing such blood tests, using electrospray-mass spectrometry (MS) serum profiling to distinguish patients with early-stage PDAC or pancreatitis from each other and from controls. Identification of significant serum mass peak differences between these individuals was performed using t tests and "leave one out" cross validation. Serum mass peak distributions of control individuals were distinguished from those of patients with chronic pancreatitis or early-stage PDAC with P values <10(-15), and patients with chronic pancreatitis were distinguished from those of patients with early-stage PDAC with a P value <10(-12). Sera from 12 out of 12 patients with PDAC stages I, IIA and IIB were blindly validated from controls. Tandem MS/MS identified a cancer phenotype with elements of PDAC involved in early-stage PDAC/control discrimination. These studies indicate electrospray-MS mass profiling can detect serum changes in patients with pancreatitis or early-stage pancreatic cancer. Such technology has the potential to aid in early detection of pancreatic cancer, biomarker development, and in monitoring development of pancreatitis into PDAC. PMID:25637792

Hocker, James R; Postier, Russell G; Li, Min; Lerner, Megan R; Lightfoot, Stan A; Peyton, Marvin D; Deb, Subrato J; Baker, Candace M; Williams, Travis L; Hanas, Rushie Jane; Stowell, Donald E; Lander, Theresa J; Brackett, Daniel J; Hanas, Jay S

2015-04-10

208

ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

2011-01-01

209

Early Years Foundation Stage: How Much Does It Count?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report of the Williams committee (DCSF, 2008: 68) argues that the revised mathematics Framework (DfES, 2006) "should be reconsidered to achieve a more suitable, user-friendly form." It might also have added that there is not much help and support in it for early years teachers. A much more useful document is the "Practice guidance for…

Thompson, Ian

2008-01-01

210

Basque Schools in Navarre: The Early Stages, 1931-1936  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Basque School, as well as a type of school, is an educational phenomenon that emerged and underwent most of its development during the twentieth century. Some initial confusion existed between the terms "Basque school," "bilingual school" and "ikastola," due to the undefined nature of the Basque model of schooling during this early period.…

Lopez-Goni, Irene

2005-01-01

211

Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in early stage Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

A multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors was carried out with a Cox model on 1,139 patients with clinical Stage I + II Hodgkin's disease included in three controlled clinical trials. The following indicators had been prospectively registered: aged, sex, systemic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation, results of staging laparotomy when performed, as well as the date and type of treatment. A linear logistic analysis showed that most of the indicators are interrelated. This emphasizes the necessity of a multivariate analysis in order to assess the independent influence of each of them. The two main prognostic indicators for relapse-free survival are systemic symptoms and/or ESR and number of involved areas. The only significant factor for survival after relapse is age. Sex has a small but significant influence on relapse-free survival. The relative influence of each indicator varies with the type of treatment and these variations may help in understanding the biologic significance of the indicators.

Tubiana, M.; Henry-Amar, M.; van der Werf-Messing, B.; Henry, J.; Abbatucci, J.; Burgers, M.; Hayat, M.; Somers, R.; Laugier, A.; Carde, P.

1985-01-01

212

CMB quadrupole suppression. II. The early fast roll stage  

SciTech Connect

Within the effective field theory of inflation, an initialization of the classical dynamics of the inflaton with approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energy of the inflaton leads to a brief fast roll stage that precedes the slow roll regime. The fast roll stage leads to an attractive potential in the wave equations for the mode functions of curvature and tensor perturbations. The evolution of the inflationary perturbations is equivalent to the scattering by this potential and a useful dictionary between the scattering data and observables is established. Implementing methods from scattering theory we prove that this attractive potential leads to a suppression of the quadrupole moment for CMB and B-mode angular power spectra. The scale of the potential is determined by the Hubble parameter during slow roll. Within the effective field theory of inflation at the grand unification (GUT) energy scale we find that if inflation lasts a total number of e-folds N{sub tot}{approx}59, there is a 10%-20% suppression of the CMB quadrupole and about 2%-4% suppression of the tensor quadrupole. The suppression of higher multipoles is smaller, falling off as 1/l{sup 2}. The suppression is much smaller for N{sub tot}>59, therefore if the observable suppression originates in the fast roll stage, there is the upper bound N{sub tot}{approx}59.

Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H. J. de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); LPTHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI) et Denis Diderot (Paris VII), Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 7589, Tour 24, 5eme. etage, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Sanchez, N. G. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

2006-12-15

213

Evaluation for Early Life Stage Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium from a Contaminated Groundwater Source  

SciTech Connect

We conducted a laboratory evaluation to assess the risk to early life stage (i.e., eyed egg to swim up) fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for exposure to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source. Local populations of fall Chinook salmon were exposed to Hanford Site source groundwater that was diluted with Columbia River water. Specific endpoints included survival, development rate, and growth. Tissue burdens of fish were also measured to estimate uptake and elimination rates of chromium. Survival, development, and growth of early life stage fall Chinook salmon were not adversely affected by extended exposures (i.e., 98 day) to hexavalent chromium ranging from 0.79 to 260 ?g/L. Survival for all treatment levels and controls exceeded 98% at termination of the test. In addition, there were no differences among the mean lengths and weights of fish among all treatment groups. Whole-body concentrations of chromium in early life stage fall Chinook salmon had a typical dose-response pattern; i.e., those subjected to highest exposure concentrations and longest exposure intervals had higher tissue concentrations. Given the spatial extent of chromium concentrations at the Hanford Site, and the dynamics of the groundwater - river water interface, the current cleanup criterion of 10 µg/L chromium appear adequate to protect fall Chinook salmon populations.

Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; McKinstry, Craig A.

2007-09-01

214

Resting no more: re-defining telogen, the maintenance stage of the hair growth cycle.  

PubMed

The hair follicle (HF) represents a prototypic ectodermal-mesodermal interaction system in which central questions of modern biology can be studied. A unique feature of these stem-cell-rich mini-organs is that they undergo life-long, cyclic transformations between stages of active regeneration (anagen), apoptotic involution (catagen), and relative proliferative quiescence (telogen). Due to the low proliferation rate and small size of the HF during telogen, this stage was conventionally thought of as a stage of dormancy. However, multiple lines of newly emerging evidence show that HFs during telogen are anything but dormant. Here, we emphasize that telogen is a highly energy-efficient default state of the mammalian coat, whose function centres around maintenance of the hair fibre and prompt responses to its loss. While actively retaining hair fibres with minimal energy expenditure, telogen HFs can launch a new regeneration cycle in response to a variety of stimuli originating in their autonomous micro-environment (including its stem cell niche) as well as in their external tissue macro-environment. Regenerative responses of telogen HFs change as a function of time and can be divided into two sub-stages: early 'refractory' and late 'competent' telogen. These changing activities are reflected in hundreds of dynamically regulated genes in telogen skin, possibly aimed at establishing a fast response-signalling environment to trauma and other disturbances of skin homeostasis. Furthermore, telogen is an interpreter of circadian output in the timing of anagen initiation and the key stage during which the subsequent organ regeneration (anagen) is actively prepared by suppressing molecular brakes on hair growth while activating pro-regenerative signals. Thus, telogen may serve as an excellent model system for dissecting signalling and cellular interactions that precede the active 'regenerative mode' of tissue remodeling. This revised understanding of telogen biology also points to intriguing new therapeutic avenues in the management of common human hair growth disorders. PMID:25410793

Geyfman, Mikhail; Plikus, Maksim V; Treffeisen, Elsa; Andersen, Bogi; Paus, Ralf

2014-11-19

215

Early-stage technology ventures in India : opportunities and issues  

E-print Network

High-technology Entrepreneurship has been a key driver of innovation and economic growth in the US. Aided by factors such as the success in IT and IT-enabled services industries and a booming economy, India has seen a sharp ...

Chennapragada, Aparna

2008-01-01

216

Development of an early stage ship design tool for rapid modeling in Paramarine  

E-print Network

In early-stage ship design, it is helpful to perform preliminary design and analysis on many configurations to assist in developing and narrowing the trade space. This process is further complicated with the increasing ...

Thurkins, Eric J., Jr

2012-01-01

217

Shorter Course of Radiation Effective and Safe for Some Women with Early-stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Giving radiation therapy in fewer but larger doses may be an alternative to standard radiation therapy for some women with early-stage breast cancer, according to a study published in the February 11, 2010, New England Journal of Medicine.

218

Ab initio atomistic thermodynamics study of the early stages of Cu(100) oxidation  

E-print Network

,1, Minyoung Lee,2 Liang Li,3 Guangwen Zhou,3 and Alan J. H. McGaughey2, 1 Department of Chemical struc- tures during the early stages of Cu(100) oxidation at finite temperature and pressure conditions

McGaughey, Alan

219

Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography for the detection of early stage neoplastic pathologies  

E-print Network

Identification of changes associated with early stage disease remains a critical objective of clinical detection and treatment. Effective screening and detection is important for improving outcome because advanced disease, ...

Hsiung, Pei-Lin, 1975-

2005-01-01

220

Improvements to building energy usage modeling during early design stages and retrofits  

E-print Network

A variety of improvements to the MIT Design Advisor, a whole-building energy usage modeling tool intended for use during early design stages, are investigated. These include changes to the thermal mass temperature distribution ...

Mandelbaum, Andrew (Andrew Joseph)

2014-01-01

221

76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Investment and Innovation at startupamerica...in early stage small businesses. This initiative...encourage American innovation and job creation...creating startups and small firms, accelerate...entrepreneurs and small businesses. In order to...

2011-12-28

222

The influence of immersion and presence in early stage engineering designing and building  

E-print Network

This paper explores the role of a designer's sense of engagement in early stage design. In the field of virtual reality, presence and immersion are standard measures of an individual's sense of engagement and involvement ...

Faas, Daniela

223

New NIA Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... you have a family member or friends with Alzheimer's disease? Are you wondering what they're going through ...

224

INTRALABORATORY COMPARISON OF THE EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST USING THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The interlaboratory precision of the ASTM early life-stage toxicity test with the sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus) as investigated at five contract and two EPA laboratories using endosulfan nd pentachlorobenzene. ach laboratory conducted two tests with each hemical. ests ...

225

Integral evolutionary design, integrated to early stage of architectural design process  

E-print Network

architectural design process, environmental parameters. Abstract: This paper tackles the exploration: evolutionary design optimization, creative evolutionary design, evolutionary art and evolutionary artificial1 Integral evolutionary design, integrated to early stage of architectural design process

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

Bias-enhanced nucleation of diamond on molybdenum: A photoelectron spectroscopy study of the initial stages of the growth process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we present an investigation of the bias-enhanced nucleation and early stages of diamond growth on molybdenum. The progression of the different stages of the nucleation and growth was observed using photoelectron spectroscopy with excitation energies in the ultraviolet and x-ray regime. Subsequent to the film deposition the samples were transferred to the analysis chamber without breaking the vacuum. To achieve high nuclei densities methane concentrations in excess of about 20% diluted in hydrogen and a dc bias of -400 V are required. During the bias-enhanced nucleation period a molybdenum carbide interface is formed and the codeposition of a graphitic carbon layer and diamond is observed. The graphitic carbon layer is subsequently removed during the diamond growth step, where deposition conditions conducive of diamond growth are maintained and a continuous diamond film is formed after 40 min. The results are compared with those obtained for the bias-enhanced nucleation on silicon.

Reinke, P.; Oelhafen, P.

1998-09-01

227

Phytoplankton dynamics in contrasting early stage North Atlantic spring blooms: composition, succession, and potential drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spring bloom is a key annual event in the phenology of pelagic ecosystems, making a major contribution to the oceanic biological carbon pump through the production and export of organic carbon. However, there is little consensus as to the main drivers of spring bloom formation, exacerbated by a lack of in situ observations of the phytoplankton community composition and its evolution during this critical period. We investigated the dynamics of the phytoplankton community structure at two contrasting sites in the Iceland and Norwegian Basins during the early stage (25 March-25 April) of the 2012 North Atlantic spring bloom. The plankton composition and characteristics of the initial stages of the bloom were markedly different between the two basins. The Iceland Basin (ICB) appeared well mixed to > 400 m, yet surface chlorophyll a (0.27-2.2 mg m-3) and primary production (0.06-0.66 mmol C m-3 d-1) were elevated in the upper 100 m. Although the Norwegian Basin (NWB) had a persistently shallower mixed layer (< 100 m), chlorophyll a (0.58-0.93 mg m-3) and primary production (0.08-0.15 mmol C m-3 d-1) remained lower than in the ICB, with picoplankton (> 2 ?m) dominating chlorophyll a biomass. The ICB phytoplankton composition appeared primarily driven by the physicochemical environment, with periodic events of increased mixing restricting further increases in biomass. In contrast, the NWB phytoplankton community was potentially limited by physicochemical and/or biological factors such as grazing. Diatoms dominated the ICB, with the genus Chaetoceros (1-166 cells mL-1) being succeeded by Pseudo-nitzschia (0.2-210 cells mL-1). However, large diatoms (> 10 ?m) were virtually absent (< 0.5 cells mL-1) from the NWB, with only small nanno-sized (< 5 ?m) diatoms present (101-600 cells mL-1). We suggest micro-zooplankton grazing, potentially coupled with the lack of a seed population of bloom forming diatoms, was restricting diatom growth in the NWB, and that large diatoms may be absent in NWB spring blooms. Despite both phytoplankton communities being in the early stages of bloom formation, different physicochemical and biological factors controlled bloom formation at the two sites. If these differences in phytoplankton composition persist, the subsequent spring blooms are likely to be significantly different in terms of biogeochemistry and trophic interactions throughout the growth season, with important implications for carbon cycling and organic matter export.

Daniels, C. J.; Poulton, A. J.; Esposito, M.; Paulsen, M. L.; Bellerby, R.; St. John, M.; Martin, A. P.

2015-01-01

228

[Anxiety-phobic disorders in the early childhood stage].  

PubMed

The complex of such phenomena as anxiety and fear in children of the early age and their relationship with risk factors for psychic pathology were investigated. Eighty cases of anxiety-phobic disorders in children of the first five years of life were studied. The types of behavioral and somatic reactions that allowed to reveal not only the clinically expressed phenomena of anxiety and fear but the higher readiness to them were described. The first anxiety-phobic reactions appeared at the age when emotional functions were not completely formed and might be considered as the presentations of emotional dysontogenesis. The authors assume that characteristics of fear expression in the early age allow to suspect a mental disease which might be timely diagnosed in case of its manifestation. The conclusions made in the paper may be useful for clinical practice of pediatricians, children neurologists, psychologists and psychiatrists. PMID:22678672

Volkova, O M; Kozlovskaia, G V; Proselkova, M O

2012-01-01

229

Alternatives to surgery in early stage disease—stereotactic body radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

The management of early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) has been revolutionized by the introduction of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). SBRT is now the standard of care for medically inoperable patients with early stage NSCLC. However, the role of SBRT in medically operable patients remains controversial. This article will review the indications, the technical considerations, image guidance principles, potential toxicities and special circumstances in lung SBRT.

Giuliani, Meredith Elana

2013-01-01

230

Supporting the Sytematization of Early-Stage-Innovation by Means of Collaborative Working Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of the early-stage of innovation concentrates on non-linear innovation environments constituted by the\\u000a nature of the “fuzzy front end” of innovations in which there are no well-defined problems or goals at that point in time\\u000a [1,2]. Early-stage-innovation requirements are the general applicability and the support of iterations within the software tools\\u000a to be developed within future

Alexander Hesmer; Karl. A. Hribernik; Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge; Klaus-Dieter Thoben

231

The early antitumor immune response is necessary for tumor growth  

PubMed Central

Early events responsible of tumor growth in patients with a normal immune system are poorly understood. Here, we discuss, in the context of human melanoma, the Prehn hypothesis according to which a weak antitumor immune response may be required for tumor growth before weakly or non-immunogenic tumor cell subpopulations are selected by the immune system. PMID:23162761

Parmiani, Giorgio; Maccalli, Cristina

2012-01-01

232

Effects of silver nanocolloids on early life stages of the scleractinian coral Acropora japonica.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of silver nanocolloids (SNCs) on the early life stages of the reef-building coral Acropora japonica were investigated. The tolerance of this species to SNC contamination was estimated by exposing gametes, larvae, and primary polyps to a range of SNC concentrations (0, 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 ?g l(-1)). Pure SNCs were immediately ionized to Ag(+) in seawater and concentrations of ?50 ?g l(-1) SNC had a significant detrimental effect on fertilization, larval metamorphosis, and primary polyp growth. Exposure to 50 ?g l(-1) SNC did not significantly affect larval survival; however, the larvae were deformed and lost their ability to metamorphose. At the highest concentration (500 ?g l(-1) SNC), all gametes, larvae, and primary polyps died. These experiments provide the first data on the effects of silver-nanomaterial-contaminated seawater on cnidarians, and suggest that silver nanomaterials can influence the early development of corals through anthropogenic wastewater inputs. PMID:25047545

Suwa, Ryota; Kataoka, Chisato; Kashiwada, Shosaku

2014-08-01

233

Microarray analysis of early stage serous ovarian cancers demonstrates profiles predictive of favorable outcome  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although few women with advanced serous ovarian cancer are cured, detection of the disease at an early stage is associated with a much higher likelihood of survival. We previously used gene expression array analysis to distinguish subsets of advanced cancers based on disease outcome. In the present study, we report on gene expression of early stage cancers and validate our prognostic model for advanced stage cancers. Patients and Methods Frozen specimens from 39 stage I/II, 42 stage III/IV, and 20 low malignant potential cancers were obtained from 4 different sites. A linear discriminant model was used to predict survival based upon array data. Results We validated the late stage survival model and show that three of the most differentially expressed genes continue to be predictive of outcome. Most early stage cancers (38/39 invasive, 15/20 low malignant potential) were classified as long-term survivors (median probabilities 0.97 and 0.86). MAL, the most differentially expressed gene, was further validated at the protein level and found to be an independent predictor of poor survival in an unselected group of advanced serous cancers (p=0.0004). Conclusions These data suggest that serous ovarian cancers detected at an early stage generally have a favorable underlying biology similar to advanced stage cases that are long-term survivors. Conversely, most late stage ovarian cancers appear to have a more virulent biology. This insight suggests that if screening approaches are to succeed it will be necessary to develop approaches that are able to detect these virulent cancers at an early stage. PMID:19318476

Berchuck, Andrew; Iversen, Edwin S.; Luo, Jingqin; Clarke, Jennifer P.; Horne, Hisani; Levine, Douglas A.; Boyd, Jeff; Alonso, Miguel A.; Secord, Angeles Alvarez; Bernardini, Marcus Q.; Barnett, Jason C; Boren, Todd; Murphy, Susan K.; Dressman, Holly K.; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Lancaster, Johnathan M.

2010-01-01

234

Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

2011-01-01

235

Early stage biomineralization in the periostracum of the 'living fossil' bivalve Neotrigonia.  

PubMed

A detailed investigation of the shell formation of the palaeoheterodont 'living fossil' Neotrigonia concentrated on the timing and manufacture of the calcified 'bosses' which stud the outside of all trigonioid bivalves (extant and fossil) has been conducted. Electron microscopy and optical microscopy revealed that Neotrigonia spp. have a spiral-shaped periostracal groove. The periostracum itself is secreted by the basal cell, as a thin dark pellicle, becoming progressively transformed into a thin dark layer by additions of secretions from the internal outer mantle fold. Later, intense secretion of the internal surface of the outer mantle fold forms a translucent layer, which becomes transformed by tanning into a dark layer. The initiation of calcified bosses occurred at a very early stage of periostracum formation, deep within the periostracal groove immediately below the initialmost dark layer. At this stage, they consist of a series of polycyclically twinned crystals. The bosses grow as the periostracum traverse through the periostracal groove, in coordination with the thickening of the dark periostracal layer and until, upon reaching the mantle edge, they impinge upon each other and become transformed into large prisms separated by dark periostracal walls. In conclusion, the initial bosses and the external part of the prismatic layer are fully intraperiostracal. With later growth, the prisms transform into fibrous aggregates, although the details of the process are unknown. This reinforces the relationships with other groups that have the ability to form intraperiostracal calcifications, for example the unionoids with which the trigonioids form the clade Paleoheterodonta. The presence of similar structures in anomalodesmatans and other euheterodonts raises the question of whether this indicates a relationship or represents a convergence. The identification of very early calcification within an organic sheet has interesting implications for our understanding of how shells may have evolved. PMID:24587202

Checa, Antonio G; Salas, Carmen; Harper, Elizabeth M; Bueno-Pérez, Juan de Dios

2014-01-01

236

Myocardial expression of atrial natriuretic factor gene in early stages of hamster cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventricular cardiomyocytes represent the most important source of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in pathological conditions such as congestive heart failure (CHF). It has been suggested that in cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster ventricles the ANF gene can be reactivated during the hypertrophic stage occurring before heart failure. The present study was undertaken to investigate ANF gene expression during early stages of myocardial

Paolo Di Nardo; Marilena Minieri; Arnaldo Carbone; Nicola Maggiano; Rosella Micheletti; Giuseppe Peruzzi; Giuseppe Tallarida

1993-01-01

237

Evolution of Network Biomarkers from Early to Late Stage Bladder Cancer Samples  

PubMed Central

We use a systems biology approach to construct protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) for early and late stage bladder cancer. By comparing the networks of these two stages, we find that both networks showed very significantly different mechanisms. To obtain the differential network structures between cancer and noncancer PPINs, we constructed cancer PPIN and noncancer PPIN network structures for the two bladder cancer stages using microarray data from cancer cells and their adjacent noncancer cells, respectively. With their carcinogenesis relevance values (CRVs), we identified 152 and 50 significant proteins and their PPI networks (network markers) for early and late stage bladder cancer by statistical assessment. To investigate the evolution of network biomarkers in the carcinogenesis process, primary pathway analysis showed that the significant pathways of early stage bladder cancer are related to ordinary cancer mechanisms, while the ribosome pathway and spliceosome pathway are most important for late stage bladder cancer. Their only intersection is the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathway in the whole stage of bladder cancer. The evolution of network biomarkers from early to late stage can reveal the carcinogenesis of bladder cancer. The findings in this study are new clues specific to this study and give us a direction for targeted cancer therapy, and it should be validated in vivo or in vitro in the future. PMID:25309904

2014-01-01

238

Heike K. Lotze Winfrid Schramm Dirk Schories Control of macroalgal blooms at early developmental stages  

E-print Network

/or germlings may represent critical stages in the life cycles and mass-developments of co- occurring previous studies have focused on the ecophysiology of adult algae only. We show that spores and constraints, grazers, if present, may play a decisive role in the early life stages of macroalgal mass

Myers, Ransom A.

239

Detecting Very Early Stages of Dementia from Normal Aging with Machine Learning Methods  

E-print Network

Detecting Very Early Stages of Dementia from Normal Aging with Machine Learning Methods William decision rules to distinguish normal brain aging from the earliest stages of dementia using subsamples of 198 normal and 244 cognitively impaired or very mildly demented (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale=0

Pazzani, Michael J.

240

Detecting Very Early Stages of Dementia from Normal Aging with Machine Learning Methods  

E-print Network

Detecting Very Early Stages of Dementia from Normal Aging with Machine Learning Methods William to learn the best decision rules to distinguish normal brain aging from the earliest stages of dementia using subsamples of 198 normal and 244 cognitively impaired or very mildly demented (Clinical Dementia

Pazzani, Michael J.

241

TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE GREEN SUNFISH (LEPOMIS CYANELLUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity of ammonia to early life stages of green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus was studied. One chronic and four acute exposure studies were conducted. During the chronic study green sunfish were exposed to a series of ammonia concentrations from the blastula stage through 40 days p...

242

The Serum Glycome to Discriminate between Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Benign Ovarian Diseases  

PubMed Central

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths in women because the diagnosis occurs mostly when the disease is in its late-stage. Current diagnostic methods of EOC show only a moderate sensitivity, especially at an early-stage of the disease; hence, novel biomarkers are needed to improve the diagnosis. We recently reported that serum glycome modifications observed in late-stage EOC patients by MALDI-TOF-MS could be combined as a glycan score named GLYCOV that was calculated from the relative areas of the 11 N-glycan structures that were significantly modulated. Here, we evaluated the ability of GLYCOV to recognize early-stage EOC in a cohort of 73 individuals comprised of 20 early-stage primary serous EOC, 20 benign ovarian diseases (BOD), and 33 age-matched healthy controls. GLYCOV was able to recognize stage I EOC whereas CA125 values were statistically significant only for stage II EOC patients. In addition, GLYCOV was more sensitive and specific compared to CA125 in distinguishing early-stage EOC from BOD patients, which is of high relevance to clinicians as it is difficult for them to diagnose malignancy prior to operation. PMID:25183900

Braicu, Elena Iona; Sehouli, Jalid; Tauber, Rudolf; Blanchard, Véronique

2014-01-01

243

Impacts of anthropogenic stresses on the early development stages of seaweeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seaweeds are important primary producers, and as such contributesignificantly to nearshore ecosystems. Studies on the effects ofanthropogenic stresses on these organisms have largely been concernedwith the vegetative adult stages of the life cycle. Here we review thelimited information on the sensitivity of early stages in the life cycleof seaweeds to global change (UV increase; global warming;increased storm frequencies) and pollution

Susana M. Coelho; Jan W. Rijstenbil; Murray T. Brown

2000-01-01

244

Early stage dementia group: An innovative model of support for individuals in the early stages of dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, supports and services for people diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease have focused on the caregivers. The increase in early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease has resulted in greater numbers of older adults that have some insight and awareness of their deficits and are capable of dealing with the ramifications of their illness. Yet there are few places to turn for support

Pamela M. Goldsilver; Marilyn R. B. Gruneir

2001-01-01

245

Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

246

Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Embryo resorption is a major problem in human medicine, agricultural animal production and in conservation breeding programs. Underlying mechanisms have been investigated in the well characterised mouse model. However, post mortem studies are limited by the rapid disintegration of embryonic structures. A method to reliably identify embryo resorption in alive animals has not been established yet. In our study we aim to detect embryos undergoing resorption in vivo at the earliest possible stage by ultra-high frequency ultrasound. Methods In a longitudinal study, we monitored 30 pregnancies of wild type C57BI/6 mice using ultra-high frequency ultrasound (30-70 MHz), so called ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). We compared the sonoembryology of mouse conceptuses under spontaneous resorption and neighbouring healthy conceptuses and correlated the live ultrasound data with the respective histology. Results The process of embryo resorption comprised of four stages: first, the conceptus exhibited growth retardation, second, bradycardia and pericardial edema were observed, third, further development ceased and the embryo died, and finally embryo remnants were resorbed by maternal immune cells. In early gestation (day 7 and 8), growth retardation was characterized by a small embryonic cavity. The embryo and its membranes were ill defined or did not develop at all. The echodensity of the embryonic fluid increased and within one to two days, the embryo and its cavity disappeared and was transformed into echodense tissue surrounded by fluid filled caverns. In corresponding histologic preparations, fibrinoid material interspersed with maternal granulocytes and lacunae filled with maternal blood were observed. In later stages (day 9–11) resorption prone embryos were one day behind in their development compared to their normal siblings. The space between Reichert’s membrane and inner yolk sac membrane was enlarged The growth retarded embryos exhibited bradycardia and ultimately cessation of heart beat. Corresponding histology showed apoptotic cells in the embryo while the placenta was still intact. In the subsequent resorption process first the embryo and then its membranes disappeared. Conclusions Our results provide a temporal time course of embryo resorption. With this method, animals exhibiting embryo resorption can be targeted, enabling the investigation of underlying mechanisms before the onset of total embryo disintegration. PMID:24886361

2014-01-01

247

Formal Verification Toolkit for Requirements and Early Design Stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient flight software development from natural language requirements needs an effective way to test designs earlier in the software design cycle. A method to automatically derive logical safety constraints and the design state space from natural language requirements is described. The constraints can then be checked using a logical consistency checker and also be used in a symbolic model checker to verify the early design of the system. This method was used to verify a hybrid control design for the suit ports on NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Exploration Vehicle against safety requirements.

Badger, Julia M.; Miller, Sheena Judson

2011-01-01

248

Beast carcinoma detection at early stage by FIR radiation of microwave heated breast tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer is the uncontrolled division of mutated cells. Breast cancer ranks second of all forms of cancer which becomes fatal I not treated at an early stage. The earlier the detection of this disease the higher the survival rate of the patients; early detection also avoids disfigurement. In this paper a novel method is proposed to detect breast carcinoma at

P. M. Arabi; S. Muttan

2008-01-01

249

Investigation of Turbulence in the Early Stages of a High Resolution Supernova Simulation  

E-print Network

Investigation of Turbulence in the Early Stages of a High Resolution Supernova Simulation Robert curves of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) as tools for surveying vast distances. Previous simulations have. In this video, we show the turbulence within the early "bubble" of a supernova via renderings of the magnitude

Bell, John B.

250

Multiple Adaptive Mechanisms to Chronic Liver Disease Revealed at Early Stages of Liver Carcinogenesis  

E-print Network

Multiple Adaptive Mechanisms to Chronic Liver Disease Revealed at Early Stages of Liver-knockout (Mdr2-KO) mice. These mice lack the liver-specific P-glycoprotein responsible by hepatocellular carcinoma development after the age of 1 year. Liver tissue samples of Mdr2-KO mice in the early

Domany, Eytan

251

Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early

Burns, Kellie

2006-01-01

252

Very Early Stage Detection of Acute Myocardial Infarction by Harmonic Ultrasonic Integrated Backscatter  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the very early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by harmonic imaging ultrasonic integrated backscatter (IBS). Thirty normal persons, 68 cases with AMI, of whom 28 cases were at the very early stage of acute myocardial infarction (in 2 h), and 40 cases with acute myocardial infarction (in 2 to 12 h) were examined by IBS and the

Wu Xiaoqing; Yang Zhengyu; Qian Dajung; Wang Qiang; Bo XiaoPing; Zhu Jianqiu

2008-01-01

253

Dyadic Intervention for Family Caregivers and Care Receivers in Early-Stage Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The Early Diagnosis Dyadic Intervention (EDDI) program provides a structured, time-limited protocol of one-on-one and dyadic counseling for family caregivers and care receivers who are in the early stages of dementia. The goals and procedures of EDDI are based on previous research suggesting that dyads would benefit from an intervention…

Whitlatch, Carol J.; Judge, Katherine; Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia

2006-01-01

254

Three Biomarkers Identified from Serum Proteomic Analysis for the Detection of Early Stage Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection remains the most promising approach to improve long-term survival of patients with ovarian cancer. In a five-center case- control study, serum proteomic expressions were analyzed on 153 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 42 with other ovarian cancers, 166 with benign pelvic masses, and 142 healthy women. Data from patients with early stage ovarian cancer and healthy women

Zhen Zhang; Robert C. Bast; Yinhua Yu; Jinong Li; Lori J. Sokoll; Alex J. Rai; Jason M. Rosenzweig; Bonnie Cameron; Young Y. Wang; Xiao-Ying Meng; Andrew Berchuck; Carolien van Haaften-Day; Neville F. Hacker; Henk W. A. de Bruijn; Ian J. Jacobs; Eric T. Fung; Daniel W. Chan

2004-01-01

255

Building on the Early Years Foundation Stage: Developing Good Practice for Transition into Key Stage 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum and the independent Cambridge Primary Review both highlight the need to re-think children's educational experiences in English classrooms between the ages of five and seven. Recent government initiatives have led to experiences in these early primary years being adult-directed and often in…

Fisher, Julie

2011-01-01

256

EARLY GROWTH PATTERNS IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM  

PubMed Central

Background Case-control studies have found increased head growth during the first year of life in children with autism spectrum disorder. Length and weight have not been as extensively studied, and there are few studies of population-based samples. Methods The study was conducted in a sample of 106,082 children from the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The children were born in 1999-2009; by the end of follow-up on 31 December 2012, the age range was 3.6 through 13.1 years (mean 7.4 years). Measures were obtained prospectively until age 12 months for head circumference and 36 months for length and weight. We compared growth trajectories in autism spectrum disorder cases and non-cases using Reed first-order models. Results Subjects included 376 children (310 boys and 66 girls) with specialist-confirmed autism spectrum disorder. In boys with autism spectrum disorder, mean head growth was similar to that of other boys, but variability was greater, and 8.7% had macrocephaly (head circumference>97th cohort percentile) by 12 months of age. Autism spectrum disorder boys also had slightly increased body growth, with mean length 1.1 cm above and mean weight 300 g above the cohort mean for boys at age 12 months. Throughout the first year, the head circumference of girls with autism spectrum disorder was reduced – by 0.3 cm at birth and 0.5 cm at 12 months. Their mean length was similar to that of other girls, but their mean weight was 150-350 g below at all ages from birth to three years. The reductions in mean head circumference and weight in girls with autism spectrum disorder appear to be driven by those with intellectual disability, genetic disorders and epilepsy. Discussion Growth trajectories in children with autism spectrum disorder diverge from those of other children and the differences are sex-specific. Previous findings of increased mean head growth were not replicated. PMID:23867813

Surén, Pål; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Hirtz, Deborah; Lie, Kari Kveim; Lipkin, W. Ian; Magnus, Per; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Susser, Ezra; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Li, Leah; Hornig, Mady

2013-01-01

257

The ?-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the ?-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the ?1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the ?3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the ?1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

258

Cost analysis of adjuvant management strategies in early stage (stage I) testicular seminoma  

PubMed Central

Background Acceptable post-orchiectomy adjuvant therapy strategies for stage I seminoma patients include surveillance, para-aortic radiation therapy (RT), dog-leg RT, and a single cycle of carboplatin. The required follow-up recommendations were amended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) in 2012. Given a cause-specific survival of nearly 100%, a closer analysis of the reimbursement for each treatment strategy is warranted. Methods NCCN guidelines were used to design treatment plans for each acceptable adjuvant treatment strategy. Follow-up charges were generated for 10 years based on 2012 (version 1.2012; unchanged in current version 1.2013) and 2011 NCCN (version 2.2011) surveillance recommendations. The 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates were used to calculate each treatment strategy and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios to compare the treatment options. Results Under the current NCCN follow-up recommendations, the total reimbursements generated over 10 years of surveillance, para-aortic RT, dog-leg RT, and carboplatin were $10,643, $11,678, $9,662, and $10,405, respectively. This is compared with the reimbursements as per the 2011 NCCN recommendations: $20,986, $11,517, $9,394, and $20,365 respectively. Factoring the rates of relapse into a salvage model, observation was found to be more costly and less effective ($–1,831, $?7,318, $–7,010) in the adjuvant management of stage I seminoma patients Conclusion Based on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, para-aortic RT, dog-leg RT, and carboplatin are cost-effective options for the treatment of stage I seminoma when compared with observation; however, surveillance could potentially spare as many as 80%–85% of men diagnosed with stage I seminoma from additional therapy after radical inguinal orchiectomy. Such cost and reimbursement analyses are becoming increasingly relevant, but are not meant to usurp sound clinical judgment. Further studies are required to validate these findings. PMID:25610815

Cox, John A; Gajjar, Shefali R; Lanni, Thomas B; Swanson, Todd A

2015-01-01

259

Confined mobility in biomembranes modeled by early stage Brownian motion.  

PubMed

An equation of motion, derived from the fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory, makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for early times, before the Einstein formula becomes valid. The diffusion coefficient increases with the distance travelled which can be restricted by the geometrical conditions. The corresponding diffusion coefficient cannot increase further to achieve a value characteristic for unrestricted environment. Explicit formula is derived for confined diffusivity related to the unrestricted one as dependent on the maximum particle mean square displacement possible normalized by the square of its mean free path. The model describes the lipid and protein diffusion in tubular membranes with different radii, originally fitted by the modified Saffman-Delbrück equation, and the lateral mobility of synthetic model peptides for which the diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to the radius of the diffusing object and to the thickness of the membrane. PMID:24909813

Gmachowski, Lech

2014-08-01

260

Effects of Phosphate Binder Therapy on Vascular Stiffness in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and contributed to by the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The CKD-MBD begins in early CKD and its vascular manifestations begin with vascular stiffness proceeding to increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and vascular calcification (VC). Phosphorus is associated with this progression and is considered a CVD risk factor in CKD. We hypothesized that modifying phosphorus balance with lanthanum carbonate (LaCO3) in early CKD would not produce hypophosphatemia and may affect vascular manifestations of the CKD-MBD. Methods We randomized 38 subjects with normophosphatemic stage 3 CKD to a fixed dose of LaCO3 or matching placebo without adjusting dietary phosphorus in a 12-month randomized, double-blind, pilot and feasibility study. The primary outcome was the change in serum phosphorus. Secondary outcomes were changes in measures of phosphate homeostasis and vascular stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), cIMT and VC over 12 months. Results There were no statistically significant differences between LaCO3 and placebo with respect to the change in serum phosphorus, urinary phosphorus, tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, PWV, cIMT, or VC. Biomarkers of the early CKD-MBD such as plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and sclerostin were increased 2–3-fold at baseline but were not affected by LaCO3. Conclusion 12 months of LaCO3 had no effect on serum phosphorus and did not alter phosphate homeostasis, PWV, cIMT, VC, or biomarkers of the CKD-MBD. PMID:23941761

Seifert, Michael E.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Rothstein, Marcos; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Bierhals, Andrew J.; Cheng, Steven C.; Ross, Will; Windus, David; Dávila-Román, Víctor G.; Hruska, Keith A.

2013-01-01

261

New insights into the early stages of silica-controlled barium carbonate crystallisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures resembling those typically displayed by biogenic minerals. These so-called biomorphs were shown to be composed of uniform elongated carbonate nanoparticles that are arranged according to a specific order over mesoscopic scales. In the present study, we have investigated the circumstances leading to the continuous formation and stabilisation of such well-defined nanometric building units in these inorganic systems. For this purpose, in situ potentiometric titration measurements were carried out in order to monitor and quantify the influence of silica on both the nucleation and early growth stages of barium carbonate crystallisation in alkaline media at constant pH. Complementarily, the nature and composition of particles occurring at different times in samples under various conditions were characterised ex situ by means of high-resolution electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The collected data clearly evidence that added silica affects carbonate crystallisation from the very beginning (i.e. already prior to, during, and shortly after nucleation), eventually arresting growth on the nanoscale by cementation of BaCO3 particles within a siliceous matrix. Our findings thus shed light on the fundamental processes driving bottom-up self-organisation in silica-carbonate materials and, for the first time, provide direct experimental proof that silicate species are responsible for the miniaturisation of carbonate crystals during growth of biomorphs, hence confirming previously discussed theoretical models for their formation mechanism.Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures resembling those typically displayed by biogenic minerals. These so-called biomorphs were shown to be composed of uniform elongated carbonate nanoparticles that are arranged according to a specific order over mesoscopic scales. In the present study, we have investigated the circumstances leading to the continuous formation and stabilisation of such well-defined nanometric building units in these inorganic systems. For this purpose, in situ potentiometric titration measurements were carried out in order to monitor and quantify the influence of silica on both the nucleation and early growth stages of barium carbonate crystallisation in alkaline media at constant pH. Complementarily, the nature and composition of particles occurring at different times in samples under various conditions were characterised ex situ by means of high-resolution electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The collected data clearly evidence that added silica affects carbonate crystallisation from the very beginning (i.e. already prior to, during, and shortly after nucleation), eventually arresting growth on the nanoscale by cementation of BaCO3 particles within a siliceous matrix. Our findings thus shed light on the fundamental processes driving bottom-up self-organisation in silica-carbonate materials and, for the first time, provide direct experimental proof that silicate species are responsible for the miniaturisation of carbonate crystals during growth of biomorphs, hence confirming previously discussed theoretical models for their formation mechanism. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional titration data (Fig. S1 and S2) and further results from TEM-EDX analyses (Fig. S3-S8). See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05436a

Eiblmeier, Josef; Schürmann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz; Gebauer, Denis; Kunz, Werner; Kellermeier, Matthias

2014-11-01

262

Prediction of invasion from the early stage of an epidemic.  

PubMed

Predictability of undesired events is a question of great interest in many scientific disciplines including seismology, economy and epidemiology. Here, we focus on the predictability of invasion of a broad class of epidemics caused by diseases that lead to permanent immunity of infected hosts after recovery or death. We approach the problem from the perspective of the science of complexity by proposing and testing several strategies for the estimation of important characteristics of epidemics, such as the probability of invasion. Our results suggest that parsimonious approximate methodologies may lead to the most reliable and robust predictions. The proposed methodologies are first applied to analysis of experimentally observed epidemics: invasion of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in replicated host microcosms. We then consider numerical experiments of the susceptible-infected-removed model to investigate the performance of the proposed methods in further detail. The suggested framework can be used as a valuable tool for quick assessment of epidemic threat at the stage when epidemics only start developing. Moreover, our work amplifies the significance of the small-scale and finite-time microcosm realizations of epidemics revealing their predictive power. PMID:22513723

Pérez-Reche, Francisco J; Neri, Franco M; Taraskin, Sergei N; Gilligan, Christopher A

2012-09-01

263

Prediction of invasion from the early stage of an epidemic  

PubMed Central

Predictability of undesired events is a question of great interest in many scientific disciplines including seismology, economy and epidemiology. Here, we focus on the predictability of invasion of a broad class of epidemics caused by diseases that lead to permanent immunity of infected hosts after recovery or death. We approach the problem from the perspective of the science of complexity by proposing and testing several strategies for the estimation of important characteristics of epidemics, such as the probability of invasion. Our results suggest that parsimonious approximate methodologies may lead to the most reliable and robust predictions. The proposed methodologies are first applied to analysis of experimentally observed epidemics: invasion of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in replicated host microcosms. We then consider numerical experiments of the susceptible–infected–removed model to investigate the performance of the proposed methods in further detail. The suggested framework can be used as a valuable tool for quick assessment of epidemic threat at the stage when epidemics only start developing. Moreover, our work amplifies the significance of the small-scale and finite-time microcosm realizations of epidemics revealing their predictive power. PMID:22513723

Pérez-Reche, Francisco J.; Neri, Franco M.; Taraskin, Sergei N.; Gilligan, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

264

Cognitive and behavioral assessment in the early stages of neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndromes.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) and Corticobasal Degeneration Syndrome (CBDS) are the most common neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndromes. Beyond motor symptoms, cognitive dysfunctions and behavioral disturbances are reported. Neuropsychological and neuropsychiatry features in the early stages, however, are under-investigated, and few comparison studies are available yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive and behavioral profile in the early stages of neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndromes. Thirty-nine PD, 27 DLB, 16 CBDS, and 24 PSP were recruited. Groups were matched for global cognitive and motor impairment. The overall sample showed a common neuropsychological core characterized by visuospatial deficits. Although in the early stage of the disease, a high presence of behavioral disturbances was detected, depression and anxiety were the most common disorders, followed by apathy and sleep disturbances. The observation of overlapping clinical entities points the attention on the need of adjunctive diagnostic markers for early differential diagnosis. PMID:17765337

Borroni, B; Turla, M; Bertasi, V; Agosti, C; Gilberti, N; Padovani, A

2008-01-01

265

New insights into the early stages of silica-controlled barium carbonate crystallisation.  

PubMed

Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures resembling those typically displayed by biogenic minerals. These so-called biomorphs were shown to be composed of uniform elongated carbonate nanoparticles that are arranged according to a specific order over mesoscopic scales. In the present study, we have investigated the circumstances leading to the continuous formation and stabilisation of such well-defined nanometric building units in these inorganic systems. For this purpose, in situ potentiometric titration measurements were carried out in order to monitor and quantify the influence of silica on both the nucleation and early growth stages of barium carbonate crystallisation in alkaline media at constant pH. Complementarily, the nature and composition of particles occurring at different times in samples under various conditions were characterised ex situ by means of high-resolution electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The collected data clearly evidence that added silica affects carbonate crystallisation from the very beginning (i.e. already prior to, during, and shortly after nucleation), eventually arresting growth on the nanoscale by cementation of BaCO3 particles within a siliceous matrix. Our findings thus shed light on the fundamental processes driving bottom-up self-organisation in silica-carbonate materials and, for the first time, provide direct experimental proof that silicate species are responsible for the miniaturisation of carbonate crystals during growth of biomorphs, hence confirming previously discussed theoretical models for their formation mechanism. PMID:25362999

Eiblmeier, Josef; Schürmann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz; Gebauer, Denis; Kunz, Werner; Kellermeier, Matthias

2014-12-21

266

Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.  

PubMed

According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. PMID:23036413

Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

2012-11-01

267

Interventional pulmonology approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of early stage non small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer management is complex and requires a multi-disciplinary approach to provide comprehensive care. Interventional pulmonology (IP) is an evolving field that utilizes minimally invasive modalities for the initial diagnosis and staging of suspected lung cancers. Endobronchial ultrasound guided sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes for staging and detection of driver mutations is instrumental for prognosis and treatment of early and later stage lung cancers. Advances in navigational bronchoscopy allow for histological sampling of suspicious peripheral lesions with minimal complication rates, as well as assisting with fiducial marker placements for stereotactic radiation therapy. Furthermore, IP can also offer palliation for inoperable cancers and those with late stage diseases. As the trend towards early lung cancer detection with low dose computed tomography is developing, it is paramount for the pulmonary physician with expertise in lung nodule management, minimally invasive sampling and staging to integrate into the paradigm of multi-specialty care.

Tofts, Ryu Peter Hambrook; Lee, Peter MJ

2013-01-01

268

Growth & change in the early English press  

E-print Network

, and contain nothing that would not be equally appropriate next week or next month. Nor is the astrologer's nonsense really timely despite his reliance on his devotee's time of birth. Other departments o£ counsel and inspiration are often "canned" without... an Estate, and bequeathed it to his Friends, whether ought he or the Legatees to enjoy it after he was rais'd from the Dead? [I, 5] Is the Soul Subject to Passion? [I, 8] Why can an Owl see better by Night than by Day? [I, 10] 14 Growth and Change...

Bond, Richmond P.

1969-01-01

269

Early and Late Stage Metals and Sulfides in Diogenites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diogenites are typically highly brecciated orthopyroxenites that contain 84-100 vol.% orthopyroxene. Common accessory minerals include olivine, chromite, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase, silica, troilite and Fe-Ni metal. Metal and sulfides are minor phases in diogenites with an average abundance of < 1 vol.% and 0-2 vol.% respectively. However their presence is important, as they could provide information on T-fO2-fS2 conditions and the evolution of the diogenite parent magma during crystallization and/or later metamorphism. We have examined the occurrence of Fe-Ni metal and sulfides in thin sections of several diogenites including, Johnstown, Manegaon, Roda, Shalka, Bilanga, and Tatahouine using optical microscopy and the electron microprobe. Here, we describe three features of metals and sulfides that are common in most of these diogenites. These are: i) The widespread occurrence of pentlandite associated with copper and copper sulfide minerals; ii) Textural evidence that at least some of the metal and sulfide occurring interstitially between, and as inclusions within, orthopyroxene formed from an early immiscible sulfide-oxide liquid; iii) That this sulfide- oxide liquid subsequently fractionated into assemblages containing either Fe-Ni metal, troilite, and chromite or pentlandite, troilite, and copper-bearing sulfide.

Sideras, L. C.; Domanik, K. J.; Lauretta, D. S.

2004-01-01

270

Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

271

Extended longevity and robust early-stage development of Caenorhabditis elegans by a soil microbe, Lysinibacillus sphaericus.  

PubMed

Caenorhabditis elegans, originally isolated from soil, is a nematode used in various fields of biological research including host–microbe interaction. While bacterial pathogens responsible for human infections have been actively studied in C.?elegans, very few bacterial species that provide beneficial effects on C.?elegans have been reported. Here, we tested several bacterial soil isolates and then characterized the effects of Lysinibacillus sphaericus on C.?elegans growth-related phenotypes. Worms fed with L.?sphaericus lived significantly longer than those growing with typical Escherichia coli?OP50. Early- and juvenile-stage growth was also highly stimulated by L.?sphaericus; body size at 28?h post-hatching was >?2 times larger than OP50-fed worms and L.?sphaericus-fed worms moved through the larval stage development more rapidly than control worms. In addition, significantly elevated fertilization was observed in worms fed with L.?sphaericus (??8?h faster than the control group). Furthermore, growth with L.?sphaericus resulted in the production of larger numbers of progeny than the control growth with OP50. Worms grown with L.?sphaericus were highly resistant to oxidative, osmotic and infection stresses. Together, our results reveal a novel mode of growth that involves healthy ageing of nematodes. PMID:25756126

Go, Junhyeok; Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Sang Sun

2014-12-01

272

Effects of secondarily-treated sewage effluent on the early life-history stages of two species of brown macroalgae: Hormosira banksii and Durvillaea potatorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage effluent has a deleterious effect on the early life-history stages of Hormosira banksii (Turner) Decaisne and Durvillaea potatorum (Labillardière) Areschoug. High concentrations of sewage effluent (28 and 40% in seawater) inhibit zygote germination by 55 to 95%, retard embryo growth (80 to 100%) and cause severe embryo mortality, with less than 60 and 5% surviving after 14 d, respectively.

M. A. Doblin; M. N. Clayton

1995-01-01

273

Early stages in the high temperature cyclic oxidation of {beta}-NiAl: An x-ray reflectivity study  

SciTech Connect

Early stages in the cyclic oxidation of {beta}-NiAl at 500{degrees}C, 600{degrees}C, 700{degrees}C and 800{degrees}C were investigated using the technique of x-ray reflectivity. By fitting the data to a model function, oxide layer thickness, roughness of the oxide-vapor interface, and the roughness of the oxide-substrate interface were obtained as a function of oxidation time and temperature of oxidation. The time dependence of the oxide thickness was observed to be logarithmic at lower temperatures (500{degrees}C and 600{degrees}C) while a conventional t{sup 0.5} kinetics was observed at the higher temperatures. Comparison of the roughness of the oxide-substrate interface with that of the oxide-vapor interface shows that for comparable oxide thicknesses and identical substrate conditions, the oxide-vapor interface was rougher than the oxide-substrate interface at all temperatures. This is consistent with the previously postulated growth mechanism (outward diffusion of cations) for oxide growth during the early stages of oxidation at these temperatures. Thus, x-ray reflectivity offers a convenient way of determining the oxide growth rates, and the roughness of the interfaces when the oxide layer is thin; this regime cannot be easily studied with the techniques that are currently used for oxidation studies.

Muralidharan, G.; You, Hoydoo; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W. [and others

1996-12-31

274

The Impacts of Environmental Change and Ecosystem Structure on the Early Life Stages of Fish: A Perspective on Establishing Predictive Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Hjort's seminal work in the early twentieth century, researchers studying the early life stages of fish have attempted\\u000a to understand and clarify the roles of growth and loss to help predict patterns of recruitment variability. Estimating the\\u000a abundance of eggs and larvae has provided a fishery-independent measure of stock spawning potential. We also have significant\\u000a skills in predicting the

Pierre Pepin

275

Seismic anisotropy and texture development during early stages of subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wave splitting measurements are frequently used to infer upper mantle flow trajectory, based on the fact that, under strain, olivine develops lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) textures in the convecting mantle. However, such inferences ought to be made carefully, since the relationship between splitting fast polarisation and olivine LPO depends on several factors, one of them being the deformation history of the volume of mantle in question. This is especially the case in regions such as subduction zones, where complex and time-dependent mantle flow occurs. Here, we present an integrated model to simulate strain-history-dependent LPO development and measure the resulting shear wave splitting in a subduction setting. We do this for a subduction model that approximates the geometry of the double-sided Molucca Sea subduction system in eastern Indonesia. We test a single-sided and a double-sided subduction case, and compare the results to shear wave splitting observations of this region. Since the subduction zone is fairly young, early textures from the slab's descent from the near-surface to the bottom of the mantle transition zone - which we simulate in our models - have not yet been overprinted by subsequent continuous flow. It further allows us to test the significance of the double-sided geometry, i.e., the need for a rear barrier to achieve trench-parallel sub-slab mantle flow. We simulate olivine LPO evolution in polycrystalline aggregates as they move and deform along pathlines extracted from a 3-D mantle flow model. Interactions between crystals are described using the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) approach. Unlike previous studies, we consider the entire subduction history from subduction initiation onwards. After calculating elastic properties associated with LPO textures, we estimate the resulting splitting parameters (fast direction ?, delay time ?t) for synthetic SKS phases. Our models demonstrate that complex, backazimuth-dependent behaviour in ? appears in even apparently simple models of subduction zone mantle flow. We also show that although a rear barrier amplifies trench-parallel sub-slab anisotropy due to mantle flow, it is not essential for producing trench-parallel fast directions. In a simple model of one-sided subduction and deformation dominated by the motion of dislocations belonging to the (010)[100] slip system, trench-parallel fast directions result from a combination of simple shear and deformation by axial compression in the sub-slab mantle.

Di Leo, Jeanette; Walker, Andrew; Li, Zhong-Hai; Wookey, James; Ribe, Neil; Kendall, J.-Michael; Tommasi, Andréa

2014-05-01

276

Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion-deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case-control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4-5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7-5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

277

Maturation Stages of Mouse Dendritic Cells in Growth Factor-dependent Long-Term Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The signals controlling the checkpoints of dendritic cells (DC) maturation and the correlation between phenotypical and functional maturational stages were investigated in a defined model system of growth factor-dependent immature mouse DC. Three sequential stages of DC mat- uration (immature, mature, and apoptotic) were defined and characterized. Immature DC (stage 1) had low expression of costimulatory molecules, highly organized

Claudia Winzler; Patrizia Rovere; Maria Rescigno; Francesca Granucci; Giuseppe Penna; Luciano Adorini; Valerie S. Zimmermann; Jean Davoust; Paola Ricciardi-Castagnoli

278

Fox Chase researchers discover novel role of the NEDD9 gene in early stages of breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

A protein called NEDD9—which regulates cell migration, division and survival—has been linked to tumor invasion and metastasis in a variety of cancers. Researchers at Fox Chase Cancer Center have now shown that NEDD9 plays a surprising role in the early stages of breast tumor development by controlling the growth of progenitor cells that give rise to tumors. The findings, published in the journal Oncogene on January 14, 2013, could lead to personalized treatment strategies for women with breast cancer based on the levels of NEDD9 in their tumors.

279

Combined Modality Therapy for Early Stage Operable and Locally Advanced Potentially Resectable Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Surgical resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains the primary treatment for early stage disease, that is,\\u000a stage I and II disease. Yet, the vast majority of patients with lung cancer present with either distant metastatic disease\\u000a (stage IV) or locally advanced NSCLC (stage IIIA and IIIB). Today, despite modest gains in outcome in patients with early\\u000a stage disease,

Joseph I. Clark; Kathy S. Albain

280

DETERMINATION OF SILICA IN RICE SEEDS USING GROWTH STAGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rice hull, which contains highly silicified cells, may protect developing grain from damage by insects, such as rice stink bugs. The bugs mainly attack the plant from flowering (R4) through soft dough stage (R6). Higher silica content during these stages may increase resistance. To date most s...

281

Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid  

PubMed Central

Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties to increase their thermal tolerance windows. PMID:22701620

Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

2012-01-01

282

A Comparison of Germination and Early Growth of Four Early Successional Tree Species of the Southeastern United States in  

E-print Network

A Comparison of Germination and Early Growth of Four Early Successional Tree Species experiment comparing the germination and early seedling growth of four early successional tree species found for the experiment. Liquidambar and Platanus, the native species, germinated significantly more quickly and were more

Lacey, Elizabeth P.

283

Unique MRI findings for differentiation of an early stage of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.  

PubMed

CT scan and ultrasonography images revealed two small uniformly low-density and hypoechoic lesions in the liver, respectively, 7?years after curative resection of rectal cancer, in a 74-year-old man. The area of the liver including the two lesions was segmentally resected. Two lesions were histopathologically confirmed as early but active stage alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis. This case is very unique and rare, since early stage hepatic AE cases have only accidentally been confirmed from cases in which malignant hepatic tumours were suspected, and because two independent AE lesions were detected. Abdominal MRI showed two isointense tumour lesions with small areas of high-signal intensity in their centres on T2-weighted images. MRI findings appear to reflect the macroscopic view and microscopic findings of early stage AE with active cyst in the centre of each hepatic lesion well. PMID:25697300

Aoki, Takanori; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Yabuki, Hidehiko; Ito, Akira

2015-01-01

284

Using Spirituality to Cope with Early Stage Alzheimer’s disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) robs persons living with this disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early stage AD cope is a critical step to enhance their adaptive abilities and ultimately improve their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnography study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability for people with early stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with Alzheimer’s. PMID:19282270

Grando, Victoria T.

2010-01-01

285

Structural transitions and interactions in the early stages of human glucagon amyloid fibrillation.  

PubMed

A mechanistic understanding of the intermolecular interactions and structural changes during fibrillation is crucial for the design of safe and efficacious glucagon formulations. Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis was used to identify the interactions and amino acids involved in the initial stages of glucagon fibril formation at acidic pH. Kinetic measurements from intrinsic and thioflavin T fluorescence showed sigmoidal behavior. Secondary structural measurement of fibrillating glucagon using far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy showed changes in structure from random coil ? ?-helix ? ?-sheet, with increase in ?-helix content during the lag phase followed by increase in ?-sheet content during the growth phase. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis of fibrillating glucagon suggested that C-terminal residues 22-29 are involved in interactions during the lag phase, during which N-terminal residues 1-6 showed no changes. Molecular dynamics simulations of glucagon fragments showed C-terminal to C-terminal interactions with greater ?-helix content for the 20-29 fragment, with hydrophobic and aromatic residues (Phe-22, Trp-25, Val-23, and Met-27) predominantly involved. Overall, the study shows that glucagon interactions during the early phase of fibrillation are mediated through C-terminal residues, which facilitate the formation of ?-helix-rich oligomers, which further undergo structural rearrangement and elongation to form ?-sheet-rich mature fibrils. PMID:25692598

Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Ghomi, Hamed Tabatabaei; Lill, Markus A; Topp, Elizabeth M

2015-02-17

286

Adjuvant chemotherapy of completely resected early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)  

PubMed Central

Surgery is regarded as the primary treatment modality for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but even after complete resection, a substantial percentage of these patients eventually develop local recurrence or distant metastases. Therefore more effective treatment strategies to reduce lung cancer mortality and recurrence rate are needed. Only recently has the use of adjuvant chemotherapy become standard in early stage NSCLC, at least for stage II and resected IIIA NSCLC. Controversies remain about the benefit for stage I patients. Five-year survival improvements of 5% to 10% have been reported with cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy from multiple large randomized phase III clinical trials and meta-analyses. Questions remain as to which patients benefit and which regimens are best. In this paper, important clinical research in the field of adjuvant chemotherapy of NSCLC is reviewed.

Liang, Ying

2013-01-01

287

Canonical Wnt Signaling Activity in Early Stages of Chick Lung Development  

PubMed Central

Wnt signaling pathway is an essential player during vertebrate embryonic development which has been associated with several developmental processes such as gastrulation, body axis formation and morphogenesis of numerous organs, namely the lung. Wnt proteins act through specific transmembrane receptors, which activate intracellular pathways that regulate cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Morphogenesis of the fetal lung depends on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that are governed by several growth and transcription factors that regulate cell proliferation, fate, migration and differentiation. This process is controlled by different signaling pathways such as FGF, Shh and Wnt among others. Wnt signaling is recognized as a key molecular player in mammalian pulmonary development but little is known about its function in avian lung development. The present work characterizes, for the first time, the expression pattern of several Wnt signaling members, such as wnt-1, wnt-2b, wnt-3a, wnt-5a, wnt-7b, wnt-8b, wnt-9a, lrp5, lrp6, sfrp1, dkk1, ?-catenin and axin2 at early stages of chick lung development. In general, their expression is similar to their mammalian counterparts. By assessing protein expression levels of active/total ?-catenin and phospho-LRP6/LRP6 it is revealed that canonical Wnt signaling is active in this embryonic tissue. In vitro inhibition studies were performed in order to evaluate the function of Wnt signaling pathway in lung branching. Lung explants treated with canonical Wnt signaling inhibitors (FH535 and PK115-584) presented an impairment of secondary branch formation after 48 h of culture along with a decrease in axin2 expression levels. Branching analysis confirmed this inhibition. Wnt-FGF crosstalk assessment revealed that this interaction is preserved in the chick lung. This study demonstrates that Wnt signaling is crucial for precise chick lung branching and further supports the avian lung as a good model for branching studies since it recapitulates early mammalian pulmonary development. PMID:25460002

daMota, Paulo; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

2014-01-01

288

Changes in transcription and metabolism during the early stage of replicative cellular senescence in budding yeast.  

PubMed

Age-related damage accumulates and a variety of biological activities and functions deteriorate in senescent cells. However, little is known about when cellular aging behaviors begin and what cellular aging processes change. Previous research demonstrated age-related mRNA changes in budding yeast by the 18th to 20th generation, which is the average replicative lifespan of yeast (i.e. about half of the population is dead by this time point). Here, we performed transcriptional and metabolic profiling for yeast at early stages of senescence (4th, 7th, and 11th generation), that is, for populations in which most cells are still alive. Transcriptional profiles showed up- and down-regulation for ?20% of the genes profiled after the first four generations, few further changes by the 7th generation, and an additional 12% of the genes were up- and down-regulated after 11 generations. Pathway analysis revealed that these 11th generation cells had accumulated transcripts coding for enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, the TCA cycle, and amino acid degradation and showed decreased levels of mRNAs coding for enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthetic pathways. These observations were consistent with the metabolomic profiles of aging cells: an accumulation of pyruvic acid and TCA cycle intermediates and depletion of most amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids. Stationary phase-induced genes were highly expressed after 11 generations even though the growth medium contained adequate levels of nutrients, indicating deterioration of the nutrient sensing and/or signaling pathways by the 11th generation. These changes are presumably early indications of replicative senescence. PMID:25294875

Kamei, Yuka; Tamada, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Yasumune; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Mukai, Yukio

2014-11-14

289

Limitations of waterborne exposure of fish early life stages to BDE-47.  

PubMed

2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is acknowledged as the most abundant congener of all polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Despite its limited residence in the water column, most ecotoxicological research using fish early life stages (ELS) has focused on its waterborne bioavailability. These studies have been supported either by chemical analysis in solutions or in tissues after ? 168 h exposures to relatively high waterborne concentrations with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent carrier (? 0.5%). Using noninvasive physiological and anatomical features in medaka ELS, we investigated the viability of waterborne BDE-47 exposures (100-10,000 ?g/L; 1% DMSO) and evaluated the developmental effects in relation to the actual BDE-47 present in water. Embryos were exposed for 10 days under semi-static (24-h renewal) conditions and waterborne BDE-47 concentrations (i.e., dissolved) were quantitated daily and their accumulation in eleutheroembryonic tissues was analyzed 4 days after exposures finished. BDE-47 in solution rapidly decreased after each renewal by >50% in 24h. This was confirmed by discernible precipitation occurring at ? 5,000 ?g/L on the bottom of the container and attached to the chorionic filaments of eggshell. The fast dissipation from water may explain why, besides the subtle, yet significant effects on post-hatching growth (short length at ?5000?g/L), no other significant deleterious developmental effects were observed despite the fact that BDE-47 accumulated in tissues in response to BDE-47 treatment. Waterborne BDE-47 exposure was unachievable under traditional semi-static exposure conditions, but was achievable in repeated pulse exposures lasting a few hours whenever the medium was renewed. Hence, this research encourages the use of alternate - more realistic - exposure routes (e.g., particulate matter or sediments) when evaluating early developmental toxicity of BDE-47 or any other PBDE sharing similar properties. PMID:24508762

González-Doncel, Miguel; Torija, Carlos Fernández; Beltrán, Eulalia María; García-Mauriño, José Enrique; Sastre, Salvador; Carbonell, Gregoria

2014-03-01

290

Initial Medical Attention on Patients with Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is commonly believed to be incidental. Understanding the reasons that caused initial detection of these patients is important for early diagnosis. However, these reasons are not well studied. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients diagnosed with stage I or II NSCLC between 2000 and 2009 at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. Information on suggestive LC-symptoms or other reasons that caused detection were extracted from patients' medical records. We applied univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate the association of suggestive LC-symptoms with tumor size and patient survival. Results Of the 1396 early stage LC patients, 733 (52.5%) presented with suggestive LC-symptoms as chief complaint. 347 (24.9%) and 287 (20.6%) were diagnosed because of regular check-ups and evaluations for other diseases, respectively. The proportion of suggestive LC-symptom-caused detection had a linear relationship with the tumor size (correlation 0.96; with p<.0001). After age, gender, race, smoking status, therapy, and stage adjustment, the symptom-caused detection showed no significant difference in overall and LC-specific survival when compared with the other (non-symptom-caused) detection. Conclusion Symptoms suggestive of LC are the number one reason that led to detection in early NSCLC. They were also associated with tumor size at diagnosis, suggesting early stage LC patients are developing symptoms. Presence of symptoms in early stages did not compromise survival. A symptom-based alerting system or guidelines may be worth of further study to benefit NSCLC high risk individuals. PMID:22412901

Chen, Xing; Gorlov, Ivan P.; Ying, Jun; Merriman, Kelly W.; Kimmel, Marek; Lu, Charles; Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C.; Gorlova, Olga Y.

2012-01-01

291

Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) technology to distinguish sera of early-stage lung cancer patients from control individuals. ESI-MS m\\/z (mass divided by charge) data were generated from sera of 43 non-small cell lung cancer patients (pathological stages I and II) and 21 control individuals. Identifications of m\\/z peak area significances

James R. Hocker; Marvin D. Peyton; Megan R. Lerner; Stephanie L. Mitchell; Stan A. Lightfoot; Theresa J. Lander; Leah M. Bates-Albers; Nicole T. Vu; Rushie J. Hanas; Thomas C. Kupiec; Daniel J. Brackett; Jay S. Hanas

2011-01-01

292

Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels. There is a growing interest to focus on early life stages that are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data, acquired in a commercial hatchery, demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease of pH to a level expected for the end of the century. Even though there was no significant effect of a 0.25-0.34 pH unit decrease on hatching and mortality rates during the first 2 days of development nor during the following 13-day period prior to settlement, final shells were respectively 4.5±1.3 and 6.0±2.3% smaller at pHNBS~7.8 (pCO2~1100-1200 ?atm) than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1 (pCO2~460-640 ?atm). Moreover, a decrease of 12.0±5.4% of shell thickness was observed after 15d of development. More severe impacts were found with a decrease of ~0.5 pHNBS unit during the first 2 days of development which could be attributed to a decrease of calcification due to a slight undersaturation of seawater with respect to aragonite. Indeed, important effects on both hatching and D-veliger shell growth were found. Hatching rates were 24±4% lower while D-veliger shells were 12.7±0.9% smaller at pHNBS~7.6 (pCO2~1900 ?atm) than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1 (pCO2~540 ?atm). Although these results show that blue mussel larvae are still able to develop a shell in seawater undersaturated with respect to aragonite, the observed decreases of hatching rates and shell growth could lead to a significant decrease of the settlement success. As the environmental conditions considered in this study do not necessarily reflect the natural conditions experienced by this species at the time of spawning, future studies will need to consider the whole larval cycle (from fertilization to settlement) under environmentally relevant conditions in order to investigate the potential ecological and economical losses of a decrease of this species fitness in the field.

Gazeau, F.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Dawber, C.; Pronker, A. E.; Peene, F.; Peene, J.; Heip, C. H. R.; Middelburg, J. J.

2010-07-01

293

The roles of finance at different growth stages of startups  

E-print Network

The purpose of this qualitative case study is to develop a framework that summarizes the finance-related problems faced by entrepreneurs at different development stages of their startups, as well as the possible solutions ...

Fu, Yue, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

294

Prevalence and characteristics of pain in early and late stages of ALS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare pain frequency in early and late stages of ALS and to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status. Sixty-four patients in different stages of ALS were asked to complete the Neuropathic Pain Scale and to draw the localization of their pain on a body cartoon. The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) values were obtained from the medical record. A ?(2) correlation was used to compare the proportion of patients with pain in different stages of ALS. Correlation coefficient was used to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status (ALSFRS-R). Pain was reported by about half the patients. Using FVC values, patients were subdivided into early, intermediate and late stage of the disease. There was a negative correlation between pain intensity and functional status. There was no statistically significant difference in the presence of pain among patients in the different stages of ALS. In conclusion, our study showed that pain is common in ALS patients. Although pain intensity did correlate negatively with functional status, as expected, we were surprised to find that pain was also present in the early stages of the disease. PMID:23286754

Rivera, Itza; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Casey, Pat; Heller, Scott; Allen, Jeffrey; Siddique, Teepu; Sufit, Robert

2013-09-01

295

Self-Consistent Simulation of the Brownian Stage of Dust Growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is a widely accepted view that in proto-planetary accretion disks the collision and following sticking of dust particles embedded in the gas eventually leads to the formation of planetesimals (coagulation). For the smallest dust grains, Brownian motion is assumed to be the dominant source of their relative velocities leading to collisions between these dust grains. As the dust grains grow they eventually couple to the turbulent motion of the gas which then drives the coagulation much more efficiently. Many numerical coagulation simulations have been carried out to calculate the fractal dimension of the aggregates, which determines the duration of the ineffective Brownian stage of growth. Predominantly on-lattice and off-lattice methods were used. However, both methods require simplification of the astrophysical conditions. The aggregates found by those methods had a fractal dimension of approximately 2 which is equivalent to a constant, mass-independent friction time. If this value were valid for the conditions in an accretion disk, this would mean that the coagulation process would finally 'freeze out' and the growth of a planetesimal would be impossible within the lifetime of an accretion disk. In order to investigate whether this fractal dimension is model independent, we simulate self-consistently the Brownian stage of the coagulation by an N-particle code. This method has the advantage that no further assumptions about homogeneity of the dust have to be made. In our model, the dust grains are considered as aggregates built up of spheres. The equation of motion of the dust grains is based on the probability density for the diffusive transport within the gas atmosphere. Because of the very low number density of the dust grains, only 2-body-collisions have to be considered. As the Brownian stage of growth is very inefficient, the system is to be simulated over long periods of time. In order to find close particle pairs of the system which are most likely to undergo a collision, we use a particle-in-cell (PIC) method for the early stages of the simulation where the system is still very homogeneous and a tree method later when the particles are more clustered.

Kempf, S.; Pfalzner, S.; Henning, Th.

1996-01-01

296

GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF EARLY JUVENILE AMERICAN WBSTERS, HOMARUS  

E-print Network

GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF EARLY JUVENILE AMERICAN WBSTERS, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, ON A DIET OF PLANKTON Larval American lobsters, Homa:rus arnericanus, are planktonic and are known to feed raptorially juveniles and adult lobsters show that they feed on a great variety of benthic animals, in- cluding

297

Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research  

PubMed Central

Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the development of a personalized research trajectory, which optimizes the potential for career success. PMID:23860882

Becker, Richard C.

2014-01-01

298

Cancer-specific self-efficacy and psychosocial and functional adaptation to early stage breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although self-efficacy is considered a key psychological resource in adapting to chronic physical illness, this construct\\u000a has received less attention among individuals coping with cancer.Purpose: To examine changes in cancer self-efficacy over time among women with early stage breast cancer and associations between\\u000a task-specific domains of selfefficacy and specific psychological, relationship, and functional outcomes.Methods: Ninety-five women diagnosed with early

Sharon L. Manne; Jamie S. Ostroff; Tina R. Norton; Kevin Fox; Generosa Grana; Lori Goldstein

2006-01-01

299

Systemic therapy for early-stage HER2-positive breast cancers: time for a less-is-more approach?  

PubMed

Trastuzumab-based chemotherapy has dramatically improved outcomes for patients with all stages of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. Additional HER2-directed agents that have recently been approved are also expected to improve outcomes. Patients with small, lymph node-negative, HER2-positive breast cancers who are treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy demonstrate especially favorable responses, with 5-year recurrence rates of <5%. In this review, recent data regarding response rates among patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy are discussed. This review supports future studies of the possible omission of chemotherapy in a subset of patients with HER2-positive cancers, specifically those that coexpress hormone receptors. PMID:25346473

Paplomata, Elisavet; Nahta, Rita; O'Regan, Ruth M

2015-02-15

300

Hydrodynamic instability of elastic-plastic solid plates at the early stage of acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is presented for the linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability taking place at the early stage of acceleration of an elastic-plastic solid, when the shock wave is still running into the solid and is driven by a time varying pressure on the interface. When the the shock is formed sufficiently close to the interface, this stage is considered to follow a previous initial phase controlled by the Ritchmyer-Meshkov instability that settles new initial conditions. The model reproduces the behavior of the instability observed in former numerical simulation results and provides a relatively simpler physical picture than the currently existing one for this stage of the instability evolution.

Piriz, A. R.; Sun, Y. B.; Tahir, N. A.

2015-03-01

301

Behaviour of inter crop-growth stages scatterograms for NOAA/AVHRR vegetation indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOAA/AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) scatterograms between two crop growth stage for 1986-1987 rabi season over Ludhiana district witnessing 94.9% of sown area under wheat were studied. Dispersions of RVI were less than that of NDVI for all crop growth stages except the stages witnessing no significant change in greenness where the magnitudes of dispersion were similar for RVI as well as NDVI. Scatterograms between dates witnessing high vegetative growth had bowl shapes while vertical cut off was witnessed for moderate rate wider variability (larger standard deviation) vegetative growth. Decrease in vegetative growth as well as in standard deviation resulted in horizontal cut-off. Typical cut off was observed in RVI scatterograms (not observed in NDVI) between mid of Milking-Dough and mid of Maturity-Harvesting stage.

Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

302

Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability  

PubMed Central

Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period.

Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

2014-01-01

303

Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

2005-01-01

304

Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17?-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

2014-01-01

305

Early cognitive decline in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with human growth hormone treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: Most cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in recipients of human cadaveric growth hormone present with a cerebellar syndrome. Dementia is thought to occur late and as a minor feature of the illness. However, neuropsychology data published on these cases are largely qualitative and anecdotal. The first published case does include a neuropsychological assessment seven months after the onset of a cerebellar syndrome, showing evidence of intellectual decline. Subsequent reports hint that cognitive problems may be present in the initial stages of the illness. Objective: To assess early cognition in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in recipients of pituitary derived human growth hormone. Methods: Detailed neuropsychology assessment is reported at referral (mean 4.5 months from the onset of symptoms; range 4 to 6 months) in five patients with histologically proven human growth hormone derived CJD. Results: All cases presented with a cerebellar syndrome and only one had noticed mild memory problems. On formal testing, however, four had demonstrable mild intellectual decline, as measured on the WAIS-R. One case showed selective visual memory impairment and frontal executive dysfunction. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, although not the presenting feature, mild cognitive decline may be evident in the early stages of CJD associated with human cadaveric growth hormone treatment. PMID:14570836

Cordery, R; Hall, M; Cipolotti, L; Al-Sarraj, S; O'Donovan, D; Davidson, L; Adlard, P; Rossor, M

2003-01-01

306

Ocean Acidification Effects on the Early Life-Stages of Commercially Important Flatfish of the Northeast USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limited available evidence about effects on finfish of high CO2 levels and acidification of our oceans suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. A carefully planned, experimental framework was developed to cast an extensive yet strategic inferential net. Three key elements of our approach are the use of 1) multiple marine finfish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat of early life-stages; 2) a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures), and 3) a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. The response variable set reflects fish condition, fitness, and likelihood of recruitment, and includes measures of viability, physiology, histopathology, growth, development, and behavior expressed during fish early life-stages (i.e., gametes, embryos, and larvae). Early life-stages were chosen due to the anticipation of their vulnerability to acid-base challenges in their environment. To date, factorial experiments have been implemented on summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Initial results reveal survival of summer flounder embryos is compromised by pH < 7.7 (CO2 > 790 ppm). These results were similar across offspring groups (i.e., embryos from different parents). Winter flounder are larger at hatching when exposed to high CO2 levels in the coolest environment implemented in our experiments (range 4 to 10 ?C). Further responses of advanced larvae of both flounder species are currently being assessed for evidence of other whole body, component organ, and biochemical impairment. This study will aid researchers and resource managers in identifying species types, life-stages, and biotic responses that are most sensitive to the expected future levels of CO2 and water temperature in our oceans.

Chambers, R. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Candelmo, A. C.; Poach, M.; Wieczorek, D.; Phelan, B.; Caldarone, E.; Cooper, K. R.

2012-12-01

307

Tailored design of electrospun composite nanofibers with staged release of multiple angiogenic growth factors for chronic wound healing.  

PubMed

The objective of this research study is to develop a collagen (Col) and hyaluronic acid (HA) inter-stacking nanofibrous skin equivalent substitute with the programmable release of multiple angiogenic growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and endothelial growth factor (EGF)) either directly embedded in the nanofibers or encapsulated in the gelatin nanoparticles (GNs) by electrospinning technology. The delivery of EGF and bFGF in the early stage is expected to accelerate epithelialization and vasculature sprouting, while the release of PDGF and VEGF in the late stage is with the aim of inducing blood vessels maturation. The physiochemical characterizations indicate that the Col-HA-GN nanofibrous membrane possesses mechanical properties similar to human native skin. The design of a particle-in-fiber structure allows growth factors for slow controlled release up to 1month. Cultured on biodegradable Col-HA membrane with four kinds of growth factors (Col-HA w/4GF), endothelial cells not only increase in growth rate but also form a better network with a thread-like tubular structure. The therapeutic effect of Col-HA w/4GF membrane on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats reveals an accelerated wound closure rate, together with elevated collagen deposition and enhanced maturation of vessels, as revealed by Masson's trichrome stain and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. From the above, the electrospun Col-HA-GN composite nanofibrous skin substitute with a stage-wise release pattern of multiple angiogenic factors could be a promising bioengineered construct for chronic wound healing in skin tissue regeneration. PMID:24814882

Lai, Huan-Ju; Kuan, Chen-Hsiang; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Tsai, Jui-Che; Chen, Tim-Mo; Hsieh, Dar-Jen; Wang, Tzu-Wei

2014-10-01

308

Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including actinic keratosis (AK) is in- creasing all over the world. The detection and diagnosis of NMSC is not optimal in clinical practice. Complementary methods for detection and accurate demarcation of NMSC at an early stage are needed in order to limit the damage caused by tumours. Objective: The purpose of the

Jaap de Leeuw; Nick van der Beek; W. Dieter Neugebauer; Peter Bjerring; H. A. Martino Neumann

2009-01-01

309

Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a phase III clinical trial.

310

The Chromosomal Control of Leaf Characteristics of Early-Stage Plants in Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid expansion of leaves of early-stage plants in wheat produced by chromosomal control of characteristics related to rapid expansion of the first six leaves of wheat were investigated using a set of single chromosome substitution lines under two different temperature regimes (TRs). Results from this study indicated that several chromosomes could be responsible for each of the four characteristics studied

Cun-dong LI; Zhi-ying BAI; G Ye; M Miyagi; S Chapman; SM Reader; Chun-ji LIU

2011-01-01

311

EFFECTS OF FENVALERATE ON THE EARLY LIFE-STAGES OF TOPSMELT (ATHERINOPS AFFINIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through acute and early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific Coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. he 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 ug/L. n the 30-d ELS test was laboratory-sp...

312

EFFECTS OF FENVALERATE ON THE EARLY LIFE STAGES OF TOPSMELT (ATHERINOPS AFFINIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through acute and early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific Coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. he 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 ug?l. n the 30-d ELS test with laboratory-s...

313

GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY TESTS WITH JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual represents a procedural guide for conducting embryo-larval early life stage (ELS) toxicity tests with Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). hese procedures are based upon evaluation of published papers and recent methods development work conducted at our laboratory in Du...

314

A Comparison of Item Selection Rules at the Early Stages of Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared five item selection rules with respect to the efficiency and precision of trait (theta) estimation at the early stages of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The Fisher interval information, Fisher information with a posterior distribution, Kullback-Leibler information, and Kullback-Leibler information with a posterior distribution…

Chen, Shu-Ying; Ankenmann, Robert D.; Chang, Hua-Hua

2000-01-01

315

Adding Radiation to Chemotherapy May Improve Outcomes in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not known.

316

Relativistic Mean Field calculations of nuclear properties in early stages of stellar collapse  

E-print Network

We use the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) method to calculate properties of neutron rich, usually deformed nuclei, important for equation of state calculations and which have significant abundance in the early stages of stellar collapse. We compare the results of our microscopic calculations with existing cold nuclear equations of state based on macroscopic liquid drop model and the FRLDM model.

F. K. Sutaria; J. A. Sheikh; A. Ray

1996-12-15

317

AdS/CFT for the early stages of heavy ion collisions  

E-print Network

I give a brief introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence targeted at heavy-ion physicists. I also review some insights to our understanding of the early stages of heavy-ion collisions coming from selected studies made using methods of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

Romuald A. Janik

2014-09-26

318

Theoretical Studies of the Early Stage Coagulation Kinetics for a Charged Colloidal Dispersion  

E-print Network

Articles Theoretical Studies of the Early Stage Coagulation Kinetics for a Charged Colloidal potential minimum to diffuse from a bulk-stabilized liquid phase to a flocculated phase. In the second step minimum. Whether or not the latter process occurs is determined either energetically by the potential

319

Propagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design  

E-print Network

Propagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design. This work is conducted in the context of an amorphous photovoltaic (PV) panel, using data gathered from the National Solar Radiation Database, as well as realistic data collected from an experimental hardware setup

Yang, Maria

320

Biogeochemical changes at early stage after the closure of radioactive waste geological repository in South Korea  

E-print Network

Biogeochemical changes at early stage after the closure of radioactive waste geological repository e Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), 111, Daedeok-daero 989 beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305 Organic waste a b s t r a c t Permanent disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes

Ohta, Shigemi

321

The Early Stages of Financial Innovation and Money Demand in France and Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a detailed account of the early stages of the process of financial innovation in France and Italy and its consequences on the demand for traditional monetary aggregates. For the two countries, the need to finance large budget deficits emerges as the most important factor that started that process. Nevertheless, its consequences on money demand were different. In

MICHAEL P. DOOLEY; Franco Spinelli

1989-01-01

322

Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

2013-01-01

323

Photodynamic therapy of early stage cancer of lung, esophagus, and stomach with two different photosensitizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early-stage cancer of lung (17 patients), esophagus (8 patients) and stomach (10 patients). Fifteen patients had second primary tumors. New drugs photoheme and photosens were used as photosensitizers. Complete remission was obtained in 87%. The patients are followed up without relapses to 2.5 years.

Chissov, Valery I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Trakhtenberg, A. K.; Mamontov, A. S.; Vaschakmadze, L. A.; Frank, George A.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Belous, T. A.; Gladunov, V. K.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Menenkov, V. D.

1996-01-01

324

EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX D. W. RICE, JR.,l F. L. HARRISON,l AND A. JEARLD, JR.2 ABSTRACT The sensitivity to copper of embryonic and larval total copper concentrations and the percent copper in labile forms were determined. From the cumulative

325

Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

2014-01-01

326

[Effectiveness of combined application of ursosan and anxiolytic 2-mercaptobenzimidazole in early stage of cholelithiasis].  

PubMed

We spent the complex investigation of therapeutic efectiveness of ursosan and afobasol in 125 patients with gallstone disease on early stage (before stones). After the course of treatment we revealed positive changes of clinical symptoms and improvement of biochemical bile compound. Besides we found the positive changes in hormone levels correlated with decreasing of bile lithogenity. PMID:20623958

Vakhrushev, Ia M; Khokhlacheva, N A

2010-01-01

327

Towards a Conceptualization of the Early Career Stage of Principalship: Current Research, Idiosyncrasies and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review aims at providing a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of the early career stage of principalship by documenting the experiences and tasks of new principals (NPs) in the first three years in the post, and their personal and organizational determinants. The synthesis is based on empirical research…

Oplatka, Izhar

2012-01-01

328

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

329

MD Anderson researchers compare treatments, survival benefits for early-stage lung cancer  

Cancer.gov

Removal of the entire lobe of lung may offer patients with early-stage lung cancer better overall survival when compared with a partial resection, and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) may offer the same survival benefit as a lobectomy for some patients, according to a study from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.Click here to read the full press release.

330

Prostatic Fatty Acids and Cancer Recurrence Following Radical Prostatectomy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: Results from some observational studies suggest that diet and energy balance influence the clinical course of early-stage prostate cancer. To evaluate possible mechanisms, we prospectively examined the relation between prostatic concentrations of fatty acids at diagnosis and cancer recurr...

331

Predictors of early-stage left ventricular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes: results of DYDA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Better knowledge of prevalence and early-stage determinants of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) in type 2 diabetes would be useful to design prevention strategies. The objective of the LVD in Diabetes (DYDA) study was to assess these points in patients without established cardiac disease.Method: Baseline clinical, ECG, laboratory and echocardiographic data from 751 patients (61 ± 7 years, 59%

Carlo B Giorda; Giovanni Cioffi; Giovanni de Simone; Andrea Di Lenarda; Pompilio Faggiano; Roberto Latini; Donata Lucci; Aldo P Maggioni; Luigi Tarantini; Mario Velussi; Paolo Verdecchia; Marco Comaschi

2011-01-01

332

niscent of the early stages of the industrial revolution, when inefficient factories pollut-  

E-print Network

niscent of the early stages of the industrial revolution, when inefficient factories pollut- ed genetics, inexpensive pesticides and fertilizers, and mechanization into greater yields. Further advances, such as precision agriculture, in which fertilizer application rates and timing are adjusted differentially across

Wolfe, Cecily J.

333

Predation on Early Life Stages of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality of early life stages can limit recruitment of fishes, and understanding the impacts of various sources of mortality has long been a goal of fisheries management. The impacts of predation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify sources of predation that affect lake sturgeon eggs, larvae, and

David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

2010-01-01

334

Body Weight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

E-print Network

Body Weight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Brown Bag (UICCC) IHRP Fellow #12;Outline Relative risk of cancer mortality in obese men Pathophysiologic basis for excess risk The case for inflammation/immunity in prostate cancer Preliminary results from

Illinois at Chicago, University of

335

Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura: Bufonidae)  

E-print Network

Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura a laboratory trial with Incilius nebulifer (synonym: Bufo nebulifer) to determine at what level salinity negatively affects hatching and metamorphosis, and how exposure to salinity during development affects

Lailvaux, Simon

336

Creating Socionas: Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the ability to translate this understanding into products and services that are pleasurable and easy to use

C. E. Postma

2012-01-01

337

AN EARLY STAGE IN THE PLANT RECOLONIZATION OF A NUCLEAR TARGET AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetational analyses were conducted three years postdetonation in a ; nuclear target area in a Grayia spinosa-Lycium andersonii community in Yucca ; Fiat, Nevada. Annual plants dominated the early stage of recolonization and were ; quantitatively more abundant in the disturbed areas than in an adjacent ; undisturbed shrub community. Ment zelia albicaulis and Chaenactis steviodes ; occurred in both

W. H. Rickard; L. M. Shields

1963-01-01

338

Reducing Treatment Intensity Doesn't Compromise Results in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Reducing the dose of chemotherapy and radiotherapy did not compromise treatment efficacy in patients  with early-stage, low-risk Hodgkin lymphoma but led to fewer side effects, according to a study published August 12, 2010, in the New England Journal of Medicine.

339

Prognostic and predictive biomarkers in early stage NSCLC: CTCs and serum/plasma markers  

PubMed Central

Resection of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) offers patients the best hope of cure, however recurrence rates post-resection remain high suggesting the presence of micro-metastatic disease at the time of surgery undetected by standard staging methods. A critical step in the metastatic cascade is the entry of tumor cells into the circulation enabling their distribution to and seeding of distant organs. This review explores the evidence for predictive and prognostic circulating biomarkers in the early stage NSCLC population. We summarize studies that have explored a variety of targets including circulating proteins, nucleic acids and more recently circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as potentially clinically relevant biomarkers in the early stage setting. Circulating biomarkers may add clinically relevant information about the biological behavior of tumors over and above that provided by pathological staging. Improvement in the stratification of patients according to the likelihood of metastatic relapse after radical treatments such as surgical resection could allow more effective targeting of systemic therapies such as adjuvant chemotherapy.

Crosbie, Philip A.J.; Shah, Rajesh; Summers, Yvonne; Dive, Caroline

2013-01-01

340

Transcriptome analyses of early cucumber fruit growth identifies distinct gene modules associated with phases of development  

PubMed Central

Background Early stages of fruit development from initial set through exponential growth are critical determinants of size and yield, however, there has been little detailed analysis of this phase of development. In this study we combined morphological analysis with 454 pyrosequencing to study transcript level changes occurring in young cucumber fruit at five ages from anthesis through the end of exponential growth. Results The fruit samples produced 1.13 million ESTs which were assembled into 27,859 contigs with a mean length of 834 base pairs and a mean of 67 reads per contig. All contigs were mapped to the cucumber genome. Principal component analysis separated the fruit ages into three groups corresponding with cell division/pre-exponential growth (0 and 4 days post pollination (dpp)), peak exponential expansion (8dpp), and late/post-exponential expansion stages of growth (12 and 16 dpp). Transcripts predominantly expressed at 0 and 4 dpp included homologs of histones, cyclins, and plastid and photosynthesis related genes. The group of genes with peak transcript levels at 8dpp included cytoskeleton, cell wall, lipid metabolism and phloem related proteins. This group was also dominated by genes with unknown function or without known homologs outside of cucurbits. A second shift in transcript profile was observed at 12-16dpp, which was characterized by abiotic and biotic stress related genes and significant enrichment for transcription factor gene homologs, including many associated with stress response and development. Conclusions The transcriptome data coupled with morphological analyses provide an informative picture of early fruit development. Progressive waves of transcript abundance were associated with cell division, development of photosynthetic capacity, cell expansion and fruit growth, phloem activity, protection of the fruit surface, and finally transition away from fruit growth toward a stage of enhanced stress responses. These results suggest that the interval between expansive growth and ripening includes further developmental differentiation with an emphasis on defense. The increased transcript levels of cucurbit-specific genes during the exponential growth stage may indicate unique factors contributing to rapid growth in cucurbits. PMID:23031452

2012-01-01

341

Responses to various exposure durations of levonorgestrel during early-life stages of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals are routinely detected in the environment; and several of these compounds have been extensively researched due to their potential impacts to the endocrine system of aquatic organisms. The negative reproductive consequences of synthetic progestins in teleost species have only recently been investigated. The current study examined different exposure periods that may be most sensitive for levonorgestrel (LNG) in early-life stages of fathead minnow larvae. Larvae were exposed to a single concentration of LNG (125ng/L) for different durations from fertilized egg through 28 days post hatch (dph) with growth and mRNA expression of FSH, 3?-HSD, 20?-HSD, and CYP19a1 measured. Regardless of the duration of exposure, LNG significantly decreased growth in the fathead minnow larvae at day 28. For both 20?-HSD and CYP19a1, mRNA expression was decreased following LNG exposure durations ?7 days. 3?-HSD and FSH showed similar trends after exposure to LNG with later stages of development exhibiting decreased expression. 20?-HSD and 3?-HSD were the only transcripts to remain down regulated once larvae were moved to clean water after the 7-14dph LNG exposure. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure time to a synthetic progestin on developing fish. Future research is needed to understand what impacts these changes have on adult stages of development. PMID:25661708

Overturf, Matthew D; Huggett, Duane B

2015-04-01

342

Treatment of Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Surgery or Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy?  

PubMed Central

The management of early-stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) has improved recently due to advances in surgical and radiation modalities. Minimally-invasive procedures like Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy decreases the morbidity of surgery, while the numerous methods of staging the mediastinum such as endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsies are helping to achieve the objectives much more effectively. Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) has become the frontrunner as the standard of care in medically inoperable early stage NSCLC patients, and has also been branded as tolerable and highly effective. Ongoing researches using SABR are continuously validating the optimal dosing and fractionation schemes, while at the same time instituting its role for both inoperable and operable patients.

Uzel, Esengül Koçak; Abac?o?lu, Ufuk

2015-01-01

343

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard of care for completely resected stages II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In order to improve survival in patients with early-stage NSCLC, efforts have been focused on the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy before surgery with the aim of reducing the risk of relapse. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an attractive treatment option which is employed in different tumors and may well be associated with certain advantages in NSCLC patients such as being effective in treating occult microscopic systemic disease, downstaging mediastinal lymph node and improving the success of surgery by tumor reduction. Furthermore, chemotherapy compliance prior to surgery is generally better than after surgery. The potential disadvantages are treatment-related toxicities and the delay of surgery. At present, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is still considered an experimental treatment modality in early-stage disease and its role should be more clearly defined.

Salvà, Francesc

2013-01-01

344

Microscopic and early stage ovarian cancers in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers: building a model for early BRCA-associated tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is the cornerstone of ovarian cancer prevention in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Occult fallopian tube and ovarian cancers have been reported in a small percentage of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers undergoing RRSO. Here, we review our single institution experience with RRSO in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers to characterize cases of microscopic cancers in these patients. At the time of RRSO, 7.9% of BRCA1 mutation carriers were diagnosed with microscopic fallopian tube or ovarian cancers and zero cases were diagnosed in BRCA2 mutation carriers. The majority of the microscopic cancers include cases that were confined to the fallopian tubes, although there were also cases involving ovaries only or peritoneal washings only. This suggests that the site of origin may be in the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum for BRCA-associated serous cancers. However, an analysis of early stage (stage I and II) ovarian and fallopian tube cancers diagnosed in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers confirms that the ovary is a preferred site for tumor growth with 11 of 14 early stage cancers having a dominant ovarian mass. Overall, these data suggest that cancer initiation may occur in the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum, but tumor growth and progression is favored in the ovary. We present an updated model for BRCA1/2-associated ovarian and fallopian tube carcinogenesis, which may aid in identifying improved prevention strategies for high-risk women that delay or decline RRSO. PMID:21278312

Yates, Melinda S.; Meyer, Larissa A.; Deavers, Michael T.; Daniels, Molly S.; Keeler, Elizabeth R.; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.; Lu, Karen H.

2011-01-01

345

Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses.  

PubMed

Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life (SGI group) and twelve controls. Subjects ate a test meal (whey meal, casein meal, SFA meal and PUFA meal) once in a random order. Plasma glucose, insulin, TAG, NEFA, ghrelin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 and a satiety profile were measured in the fasting state and for 4 h after each test meal. Compared with the controls, the SGI group had about 1·5-fold higher insulin responses after the whey meal (P= 0·037), casein meal (P= 0·023) and PUFA meal (P= 0·002). TAG responses were 34-69 % higher for the SGI group, but only the PUFA-meal responses differed significantly between the groups. The PYY response of the SGI group was 44 % higher after the whey meal (P= 0·046) and 115 % higher after the casein meal (P= 0·025) compared with the controls. No other statistically significant differences were seen between the groups. In conclusion, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels. PMID:23597289

Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M; Holst, Jens J; Leiviskä, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G

2013-11-14

346

Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Early-Stage Lung Cancer Based on Longitudinal and Balanced Data  

PubMed Central

Background Lung cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer resulting in over a million deaths per year worldwide. Typically, the problem can be approached by developing more discriminative diagnosis methods. In this paper, computer-aided diagnosis was used to facilitate the prediction of characteristics of solitary pulmonary nodules in CT of lungs to diagnose early-stage lung cancer. Methods The synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) was used to account for raw data in order to balance the original training data set. Curvelet-transformation textural features, together with 3 patient demographic characteristics, and 9 morphological features were used to establish a support vector machine (SVM) prediction model. Longitudinal data as the test data set was used to evaluate the classification performance of predicting early-stage lung cancer. Results Using the SMOTE as a pre-processing procedure, the original training data was balanced with a ratio of malignant to benign cases of 1?1. Accuracy based on cross-evaluation for the original unbalanced data and balanced data was 80% and 97%, respectively. Based on Curvelet-transformation textural features and other features, the SVM prediction model had good classification performance for early-stage lung cancer, with an area under the curve of the SVMs of 0.949 (P<0.001). Textural feature (standard deviation) showed benign cases had a higher change in the follow-up period than malignant cases. Conclusions With textural features extracted from a Curvelet transformation and other parameters, a sensitive support vector machine prediction model can increase the rate of diagnosis for early-stage lung cancer. This scheme can be used as an auxiliary tool to differentiate between benign and malignant early-stage lung cancers in CT images. PMID:23691066

Sun, Tao; Zhang, Regina; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Xia; Guo, Xiuhua

2013-01-01

347

Young female incest victims in treatment: Stages of growth seen with a group art therapy model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a treatment model for female child incest victims combining art and group therapy. Five stages of growth are identified: gathering, self-disclosure, regression, reconstruction, and ending.

Phyllis M. Carozza; Catherine L. Heirsteiner

1982-01-01

348

Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

2010-07-01

349

Knowledge-based compact disease models identify new molecular players contributing to early-stage Alzheimer’s disease  

PubMed Central

Background High-throughput profiling of human tissues typically yield as results the gene lists comprised of a mix of relevant molecular entities with multiple false positives that obstruct the translation of such results into mechanistic hypotheses. From general probabilistic considerations, gene lists distilled for the mechanistically relevant components can be far more useful for subsequent experimental design or data interpretation. Results The input candidate gene lists were processed into different tiers of evidence consistency established by enrichment analysis across subsets of the same experiments and across different experiments and platforms. The cut-offs were established empirically through ontological and semantic enrichment; resultant shortened gene list was re-expanded by Ingenuity Pathway Assistant tool. The resulting sub-networks provided the basis for generating mechanistic hypotheses that were partially validated by literature search. This approach differs from previous consistency-based studies in that the cut-off on the Receiver Operating Characteristic of the true-false separation process is optimized by flexible selection of the consistency building procedure. The gene list distilled by this analytic technique and its network representation were termed Compact Disease Model (CDM). Here we present the CDM signature for the study of early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. The integrated analysis of this gene signature allowed us to identify the protein traffic vesicles as prominent players in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s. Considering the distances and complexity of protein trafficking in neurons, it is plausible that spontaneous protein misfolding along with a shortage of growth stimulation result in neurodegeneration. Several potentially overlapping scenarios of early-stage Alzheimer pathogenesis have been discussed, with an emphasis on the protective effects of AT-1 mediated antihypertensive response on cytoskeleton remodeling, along with neuronal activation of oncogenes, luteinizing hormone signaling and insulin-related growth regulation, forming a pleiotropic model of its early stages. Alignment with emerging literature confirmed many predictions derived from early-stage Alzheimer’s disease’ CDM. Conclusions A flexible approach for high-throughput data analysis, the Compact Disease Model generation, allows extraction of meaningful, mechanism-centered gene sets compatible with instant translation of the results into testable hypotheses. PMID:24196233

2013-01-01

350

Whole-Plant Growth Stage Ontology for Angiosperms and Its Application in Plant Biology1[OA  

PubMed Central

Plant growth stages are identified as distinct morphological landmarks in a continuous developmental process. The terms describing these developmental stages record the morphological appearance of the plant at a specific point in its life cycle. The widely differing morphology of plant species consequently gave rise to heterogeneous vocabularies describing growth and development. Each species or family specific community developed distinct terminologies for describing whole-plant growth stages. This semantic heterogeneity made it impossible to use growth stage description contained within plant biology databases to make meaningful computational comparisons. The Plant Ontology Consortium (http://www.plantontology.org) was founded to develop standard ontologies describing plant anatomical as well as growth and developmental stages that can be used for annotation of gene expression patterns and phenotypes of all flowering plants. In this article, we describe the development of a generic whole-plant growth stage ontology that describes the spatiotemporal stages of plant growth as a set of landmark events that progress from germination to senescence. This ontology represents a synthesis and integration of terms and concepts from a variety of species-specific vocabularies previously used for describing phenotypes and genomic information. It provides a common platform for annotating gene function and gene expression in relation to the developmental trajectory of a plant described at the organismal level. As proof of concept the Plant Ontology Consortium used the plant ontology growth stage ontology to annotate genes and phenotypes in plants with initial emphasis on those represented in The Arabidopsis Information Resource, Gramene database, and MaizeGDB. PMID:16905665

Pujar, Anuradha; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Ilic, Katica; Vincent, Leszek; Avraham, Shulamit; Stevens, Peter; Zapata, Felipe; Reiser, Leonore; Rhee, Seung Y.; Sachs, Martin M.; Schaeffer, Mary; Stein, Lincoln; Ware, Doreen; McCouch, Susan

2006-01-01

351

The early stage of formation of self-organized nanocolumns in thin films: Monte Carlo simulations versus atomic-scale observations in Ge-Mn  

SciTech Connect

Formation kinetics of self-organized nanocolumns during epitaxial growth of a thin film composed of immiscible elements (A,B) has been investigated using Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Simulated nanostructures show a good agreement with those observed in Ge-Mn using Atom Probe Tomography and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Self organisation is observed although the rigid lattice simulations used do not account for misfit elastic strain. Simulations reveal that the final nanostructure, in term of number density and diameter of nanocolumns, is controlled by the early stages of growth of the film. The influence of both growth temperature and solute concentration on the nanostructure features is discussed in details.

Mouton, I.; Talbot, E., E-mail: etienne.talbot@univ-rouen.fr; Pareige, C.; Lardé, R.; Blavette, D. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux (GPM) UMR 6634, Normandie Université, Université et INSA de Rouen - CNRS, Av. de l'Université, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

2014-02-07

352

Growth factor synergism and antagonism in early neural crest development.  

PubMed

This review article focuses on data that reveal the importance of synergistic and antagonistic effects in growth factor action during the early phases of neural crest development. Growth factors act in concert in different cell lineages and in several aspects of neural crest cell development, including survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a survival factor for the neural crest stem cell. Its action is neutralized by neurotrophins, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) through apoptotic cell death. In contrast, SCF alone does not support the survival of melanogenic cells (pigment cell precursors). They require the additional presence of a neurotrophin (NGF, BDNF, or NT-3). Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is an important promoter of proliferation in neuronal progenitor cells. In neural crest cells, fibroblast growth factor treatment alone does not lead to cell expansion but also requires the presence of a neurotrophin. The proliferative stimulus of the fibroblast growth factor - neurotrophin combination is antagonized by transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta-1). Moreover, TGFbeta-1 promotes the concomitant expression of neuronal markers from two cell lineages, sympathetic neurons and primary sensory neurons, indicating that it acts on a pluripotent neuronal progenitor cell. Moreover, the combination of FGF-2 and NT3, but not other neurotrophins, promotes expression or activation of one of the earliest markers expressed by presumptive sympathetic neuroblasts, the norepinephrine transporter. Taken together, these data emphasize the importance of the concerted action of growth factors in neural crest development at different levels and in several cell lineages. The underlying mechanisms involve growth-factor-induced dependence of the cells on other factors and susceptibility to growth-factor-mediated apoptosis. PMID:10392715

Sieber-Blum, M

1998-01-01

353

Growth of Massive Black Holes at Their Late Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is believed that the growth of local massive black holes was dominated by accretion during quasar phases, while a fraction of the local black hole mass was accumulated through accreting gases at very low rates. We derive the black hole mass density as a function of redshift with the bolometric luminosity function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) assuming that

Ya-Di Xu; Xinwu Cao

2010-01-01

354

Essential Oil Content and Composition of Satureja sahendica Bornm. at Different Stages of Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerial parts of Satureja sahandica Bornm. were collected in three stages of plant growth (at the beginning of, full and end of flowering stage) from Ghazvin province in the north of Iran. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of the plant material. The oils were analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. The highest oil

Fatemeh Sefidkon; Ahmad Akbari-nia

2009-01-01

355

WHOLE-PLANT GROWTH STAGE ONTOLOGY FOR ANGIOSPERMS AND ITS APPLICATION IN PLANT BIOLOGY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant growth stages are identified as distinct morphological landmarks in a continuous developmental process. The terms describing these developmental stages record the morphological appearance of the plant at a specific point in its life cycle. The widely differing morphology of plant species conse...

356

Constitutional Advancement of Growth Is Associated with Early Puberty in Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Constitutional advancement of growth (CAG) is the growth pattern of early growth acceleration that has been shown to be characteristic in girls with idiopathic precocious puberty (IPP). The aim of this study was to examine the growth pattern of girls with early puberty compared to girls with IPP. Methods: We studied the growth pattern, from birth to presentation, of

Anastasios Papadimitriou; George Kanakis; Konstantinos Douros; Dimitrios T. Papadimitriou; Anastasios H. Boutsiadis; Polyxeni Nicolaidou; Andreas Fretzayas

2011-01-01

357

Transcriptome Analysis of Early Surface-Associated Growth of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilm formation starts with single cells attaching to a surface, however, little is known about the initial attachment steps and the adaptation to the surface-associated life style. Here, we describe a hydrodynamic system that allows easy harvest of cells at very early biofilm stages. Using the metal ion-reducing gammaproteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a model organism, we analyzed the transcriptional changes occurring during surface-associated growth between 15 and 60 minutes after attachment. 230 genes were significantly upregulated and 333 were downregulated by a factor of ?2. Main functional categories of the corresponding gene products comprise metabolism, uptake and transport, regulation, and hypothetical proteins. Among the genes highly upregulated those implicated in iron uptake are highly overrepresented, strongly indicating that S. oneidensis MR-1 has a high demand for iron during surface attachment and initial biofilm stages. Subsequent microscopic analysis of biofilm formation under hydrodynamic conditions revealed that addition of Fe(II) significantly stimulated biofilm formation of S. oneidensis MR-1 while planktonic growth was not affected. Our approach to harvest cells for transcriptional analysis of early biofilm stages is expected to be easily adapted to other bacterial species. PMID:22860070

Gödeke, Julia; Binnenkade, Lucas; Thormann, Kai M.

2012-01-01

358

Characterization of early stage cartilage degradation using diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in localized and early stage treatment technologies for joint conditions such as osteoarthritis is growing rapidly. It has therefore become important to develop objective measures capable of characterizing the earliest (non-visible) changes associated with degeneration to aid treatment procedures. In addition to assessing tissue before treatment, it is further important to develop an effective, non-destructive means of monitoring post-treatment tissue healing, and of providing the high-quality data needed for trials of developing treatment methods. To investigate its ability to detect the early stages of degeneration in cartilage-on-bone, diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy was applied to normal and osteoarthritic joints. A discriminating function was developed to relate absorbance peaks of interest and track degradation around focal osteoarthritic defects. The function could distinguish between normal and degraded tissue (100% separation of normal tissue from that within 25 mm of a defect) and between different stages of osteoarthritic progression (p < 0.05). This technique allows simple, practical and non-destructive assessment of component-level properties over the full depth of the tissue. It has the potential to increase our understanding of the underlying etiologic and pathogenic processes in early stage degeneration, to assist classification and the development of new treatment methods.

Brown, C. P.; Jayadev, C.; Glyn-Jones, S.; Carr, A. J.; Murray, D. W.; Price, A. J.; Gill, H. S.

2011-04-01

359

Bridging the gap: facilities and technologies for development of early stage therapeutic mAb candidates.  

PubMed

Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently dominate the biologics marketplace. Development of a new therapeutic mAb candidate is a complex, multistep process and early stages of development typically begin in an academic research environment. Recently, a number of facilities and initiatives have been launched to aid researchers along this difficult path and facilitate progression of the next mAb blockbuster. Complementing this, there has been a renewed interest from the pharmaceutical industry to reconnect with academia in order to boost dwindling pipelines and encourage innovation. In this review, we examine the steps required to take a therapeutic mAb from discovery through early stage preclinical development and toward becoming a feasible clinical candidate. Discussion of the technologies used for mAb discovery, production in mammalian cells and innovations in single-use bioprocessing is included. We also examine regulatory requirements for product quality and characterization that should be considered at the earliest stages of mAb development. We provide details on the facilities available to help researchers and small-biotech build value into early stage product development, and include examples from within our own facility of how technologies are utilized and an analysis of our client base. PMID:21822050

Munro, Trent P; Mahler, Stephen M; Huang, Edwin P; Chin, David Y; Gray, Peter P

2011-01-01

360

Selecting optimal eggs and embryonic developmental stages of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for early life-stage toxicity tests.  

PubMed

Aquaculture research has indicated that fish embryo hatching success and larval survival can sometimes be predicted by embryo characteristics, such as blastomere cleavage patterns. An analogous strategy of individual assessment of spawned eggs could also be used to improve the quality of toxicity tests using early life-stages of fish where control-group survival determines experimental validity. Here we explored whether a simple method of assessing fathead minnow eggs and embryos for abnormalities could predict hatch success, and larval size at hatch, as indicators of embryo larval quality. Embryos were classified according to both their developmental stage and the presence of any abnormalities: uneven blastomere cleavage, atypical embryo size or shape, and the presence of inclusions in the yolk. Clutch size and fertilization rate did not predict embryo larval quality. Fewer abnormalities in embryos with ?32 cells correlated with longer larvae at hatch. Normal embryos were more likely to hatch successfully than abnormal embryos of the same clutch, but because abnormality rates were generally low, much of the variation in hatch success could not be attributed to visible embryo malformations. Blastomere symmetry may be a useful selection criterion in embryos <3 h postfertilization. Where toxicant exposures early in embryonic development are not required or possible, hatch success could be increased by using older embryos that have survived gastrulation. Purposeful selection of embryos with at least two blastomeres, blastomere symmetry, and few inclusions can improve control survival and improve the quality of any generated (sub)lethality data. In our laboratory, application of the egg-selection criteria significantly improved control group hatch success increasing it from a mean of 84.4 to 94.2%. PMID:24346244

Marentette, Julie R; Chiorean, Sorina; Lavalle, Christine; Sullivan, Cheryl; Parrott, Joanne L

2014-02-01

361

Seasonal variation in essential oil yield and composition from Thymus vulgaris L. during different growth stages in the south of Jordan.  

PubMed

The effect of plant space and time of harvesting on yield and quality of Thymus vulgaris was evaluated in Jordan. Thyme was cultivated in rows of 50?cm apart with inter-row spacing of 15, 30 or 45?cm and was grown at various development stages. Plants were harvested during different growth stages including vegetation, beginning of blooming, full blooming and fruit maturation. Results indicated that oil yields of thyme were affected by growth stage and inter-row spacing. The maximum oil yields was obtained by harvesting at the early growth stage, which was found superior to oil yield corresponding to the later stages of collection. With 45?cm inter-row spacing, the maximum oil yield was recorded when the samples were collected at growth stage. Indicated results showed that the chemical composition during various growth stages was characterised by high percentage of carvacrol and its corresponding monoterpenic hydrocarbon precursors ?-cymene and ?-terpinene, and ether 1,4-cineol. PMID:21707257

Abu-Darwish, Mohammad S; Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Al-Tawaha, Abdel Rahman; Ereifej, Khalil; Almajwal, Ali; Odat, Nidal; Al Khateeb, Wesam

2012-01-01

362

Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

Holland, L.E.

1986-01-01

363

The Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine in Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Model  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted to elucidate neuroprotective effect of carnosine in early stage of stroke. Methods Early stage of rodent stroke model and neuroblastoma chemical hypoxia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and antimycin A. Neuroprotective effect of carnosine was investigated with 100, 250, and 500 mg of carnosine treatment. And antioxidant expression was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in brain and blood. Results Intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg carnosine induced significant decrease of infarct volume and expansion of penumbra (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant increase than in saline group in blood and brain (p<0.05). In the analysis of chemical hypoxia, carnosine induced increase of neuronal cell viability and decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Conclusion Carnosine has neuroprotective property which was related to antioxidant capacity in early stage of stroke. And, the oxidative stress should be considered one of major factor in early ischemic stroke. PMID:24851146

Park, Hui-Seung; Han, Kyung-Hoon; Shin, Jeoung-A; Park, Joo-Hyun; Song, Kwan-Young

2014-01-01

364

[The lived-experiences of early-stage dementia and the feared suffering: an explorative survey].  

PubMed

This qualitative explorative survey aimed at investigating the personal experiences of elderly people with early-stage dementia with regard to their illness and the extent to which they experience their situation as 'suffering'. In the Netherlands insight in this suffering is relevant with regard to ongoing debate on euthanasia and physician assisted death in early dementia. Participants in the study were 24 elderly (mean age 76.3 years) diagnosed with early-stage Alzheimer's disease. The semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim, and qualitatively analyzed. The elderly were found to be very capable of sharing experiences about their disease. They indicated not to experience their situation 'as a whole' as one of dreadful suffering. The gradual progression, which is distinctive of Alzheimer's disease, also allows people to adapt and adjust to their changing situation. As a result, the actual experiences of the disease can, in a positive manner, deviate from their anticipatory beliefs. The experiences of the participants appeared less negative than the ideas 'healthy' elderly often have about a life with dementia. The results from this study emphasize the importance of listening to the voices of people with dementia. Communication with elderly with Alzheimer's disease, is in the early stages quite possible and essential for advance care planning to be adjusted to their actual wishes and needs. PMID:21114055

de Boer, M E; Dröes, R M; Jonker, C; Eefsting, J A; Hertogh, C M P M

2010-10-01

365

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRANIAL AND MANDIBULAR GROWTH AND THE STAGES OF MATURATION OF THE CERVICAL VERTEBRAE  

PubMed Central

Quantification of the expectation of craniofacial growth during the pubertal growth spurt (PGS) is helpful in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Thus, this study investigated whether the stages of the vertebral maturation index (VMI) would be valid for estimating cranial and mandibular growth during the initial stages of PGS, testing the null hypothesis that these structures do not demonstrate differential growth dependent on the maturation stage. A study population of 45 patients of both genders with 2 lateral cephalometric radiographs, taken at a 12-month interval, was selected from files. All patients should not have been previously submitted to orthodontic treatment and should be before or during the peak stage of PGS. The S-N and Co-Gn cephalometric measurements were traced on both radiographs of each patient, by computed cephalometric tracings, for evaluation of skull and mandible, respectively. The growth of these structures was established by the difference between the measurements obtained on both tracings. The VMI stage was also estimated on the radiographs, determining the position of patients on the PGS curve at two periods, baseline and after 12 months. Cephalometric tracings and VMI estimates were performed by two calibrated examiners. Descriptive statistics revealed that both cephalometric measurements increased during the study period, especially Co-Gn, which demonstrated (ANOVA and Tukey's test; 5% significance level), a statistically significant peak of development (p = 0.001), when the patient was in the VMI stage representing the PGS peak. It was concluded that the VMI stages were valid for the analysis of cranial growth and especially of mandibular growth at the initial stages of PGS, thus rejecting the null hypothesis. PMID:19089113

Damian, Melissa Feres; Cechinato, Fernando; Molina, Rafael Dagnese; Woitchunas, Fábio Eduardo

2007-01-01

366

Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer.  

PubMed

Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors in therapy and prognosis for patients with parotid gland cancer. Nevertheless, the extent of the primary tumor resection and the necessity of a neck dissection still is a common issue. Since little is known about lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymph node metastases in T1 and T2 carcinomas and its impact on local control and survival. We retrospectively analyzed 70 patients with early-stage (T1 and T2) primary parotid gland cancer. All patients were treated with parotidectomy and an ipsilateral neck dissection from 1987 to 2009. Clinicopathological and survival parameters were calculated. The median follow-up time was 51.7 months. A positive pathological lymph node stage (pN+) was found in 21.4% of patients with a significant correlation to the clinical lymph node stage (cN) (p = 0.061). There were no differences in the clinical and histopathological data between pN- and pN+ patients. In 73.3% of pN+ patients, the metastases were located intraparotideal. The incidence of occult metastases (pN+/cN-) was 17.2%. Of all patients with occult metastases, 30.0% had extraparotideal lymphatic spread. A positive lymph node stage significantly indicated a poorer 5-year overall as well as 5-year disease-free survival rate compared to pN- patients (p = 0.048; p = 0.011). We propose total parotidectomy in combination with at least a level II-III selective neck dissection in any case of early-stage parotid gland cancer. PMID:21671057

Stenner, Markus; Molls, Christoph; Luers, Jan C; Beutner, Dirk; Klussmann, Jens P; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

2012-02-01

367

The mobilization of defence mechanisms in the early stages of pea seed germination against Ascochyta pisi.  

PubMed

Ascochyta pisi is a necrotrophic pathogenic fungus, which mainly survives between seasons through infected seeds. Defence responses of pea embryo axes to A. pisi were investigated in the heterotrophic phase of seed germination and during the transition from the heterotrophic to the autotrophic phase. Germinated pea seeds, both non-inoculated and inoculated with A. pisi, were cultured in perlite for 96 h. Polarographic studies performed on intact embryo axes of germinating pea seeds infected with A. pisi showed a high respiratory intensity in time from 48 to 96 h after inoculation. Forty-eight-hour embryo axes of germinating pea seeds exhibited the highest respiration rate, which in infected axes was maintained at the following time points after inoculation. Moreover, at 72 and 96 h after inoculation, respiratory intensity was by 64% and 73% higher than in the control. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis revealed a higher concentration of semiquinone free radicals with g values of g (||) = 2.0031 ± 0.0004 and g (?) = 2.0048 ± 0.0004 in infected axes than in the control. Generation of superoxide anion radical was also higher in infected axes than in the control but stronger at 72 and 96 h after inoculation. Starting from 72 h after infection, the level of Mn(2+) ions in infected axes decreased in relation to the control. At the same time, the highest activity of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) was observed in 72-h infected axes. In turn, the activity of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) up to 72 h after infection was lower than in the control. In 48-h infected embryo axes, a very high level of pterocarpan pisatin was observed. Infection of germinating pea seeds with A. pisi restricted mainly the growth of the epicotyl, but did not inhibit the increase in length and fresh weight of root embryo axes versus cultivation time. These results indicate that in pea during the stages of seed germination and early seedling growth, protective mechanisms are induced in embryo axes against A. pisi. PMID:22274650

Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Marczak, Lukasz; Stobiecki, Maciej; Bednarski, Waldemar

2013-02-01

368

The effects of bromazepam on the early stage of visual information processing (P100).  

PubMed

The early stages of visual information processing, involving the detection and perception of simple visual stimuli, have been demonstrated to be sensitive to psychotropic agents. The present study investigated the effects of an acute dose of bromazepam (3 mg), compared with placebo, on the P100 component of the visual evoked potential and reaction time. The sample, consisting of 14 healthy subjects (6 male and 8 female), was submitted to a visual discrimination task, which employed the "oddball" paradigm. Results suggest that bromazepam (3 mg) impairs the initial stage of visual information processing, as observed by an increase in P100 latency. PMID:18094853

Puga, Fernanda; Sampaio, Isabel; Veiga, Heloisa; Ferreira, Camila; Cagy, Maurício; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

2007-12-01

369

Stage-Dependent Effect of Deferoxamine on Growth of Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deferoxamine (DF) has antimalarial activity that can be demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. This study is designed to examine the speed of onset and stage dependency of growth inhibition by DF and to determine whether its antimalarial activity is cytostatic or cytocidal. Growth inhibition was assessed by suppression of hypoxanthine incorporation and differences in morphologic appearance between treated and

S. Whitehead; T. E. A. Pet

1990-01-01

370

Growth and reproduction of Digitalis purpurea in different stages of succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth reproduction and regeneration were investigated in populations of Digitalis purpurea present in different stages of secondary forest succession. Interference between D. purpurea and an experimental vegetation emerging from natural seed banks on a natural soil was studied during two successive growth seasons under natural radiation and temperature conditions.

J. Baalen; E. G. M. Prins

1983-01-01

371

Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells  

SciTech Connect

Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.

Hong, Dun [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China); Chen, Hai-Xiao, E-mail: Hxchen-1@163.net [Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China)] [Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China); Yu, Hai-Qiang [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)] [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)] [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Lian, Qing-Quan [The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China)] [The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China); Deng, Hai-Teng, E-mail: dengh@mail.rockefeller.edu [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)] [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Ge, Ren-Shan, E-mail: rge@popcbr.rockefeller.edu [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China)

2010-08-15

372

Amphetamine treatment during early postnatal development transiently restricts somatic growth  

PubMed Central

Aims Restricted somatic growth during fetal or early postnatal periods has been suggested to serve as a predictive indicator for neuroanatomical changes and behavioral impairments during adulthood. Here, the effects of d-amphetamine sulphate (AMPH) exposure during the brain growth spurt period on this potential indicator were evaluated. Main Methods Rats received 0, 5, 15 or 25 mg/kg/day of AMPH via two daily intragastric intubations from PD4-9. Body weight data were collected every other day from PD1 to 21, and then weekly until PD59. On PD9, a subset of animals was terminated 90 min after the last amphetamine treatment and the weights of the cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem were collected. Weights of these brain regions from young adult rats were also assessed on PD68. Key Findings AMPH exposure during early postnatal development limited somatic growth in a dose-related manner, with significantly lower body weights in animals assigned to the AMPH 25 and AMPH 15 groups. However, this was transient in nature, with no significant difference in weight observed after pups were weaned on PD21. Further, no differences in brain weight were observed at either age as a result of AMPH exposure. Significance These findings support the idea that developmental AMPH exposure transiently restricts somatic growth. Moreover, the lack of effect on brain weight shows that AMPH differentially affects somatic and brain growth. The current findings suggest that in addition to the immediate effects on body weight, amphetamine may alter the rate of growth, and increase the risk for weight-related adult diseases. PMID:20153755

Smith, Andrew M.; Chen, Wei-Jung A.

2010-01-01

373

Cost of care for early- and late-stage oral and pharyngeal cancer in the California Medicaid population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study documents the direct medical costs associated with treating oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as early- or late-stage dis- ease according to the current standard of care. Methods. This retrospective analysis of California Medicaid claims data calculated direct payments for patients diagnosed with OSCC. Patients were defined as being treated for early- or late- stage disease

Joshua D. Epstein; Tara K. Knight; Joel B. Epstein; Mark A. Bride; Michael B. Nichol

2008-01-01

374

Targeted labeling of an early-stage tumor spheroid in a chorioallantoic membrane model with upconversion nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In vivo detection of cancer at an early-stage, i.e. smaller than 2 mm, is a challenge in biomedicine. In this work target labeling of an early-stage tumor spheroid (?500 ?m) is realized for the first time in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with monoclonal antibody functionalized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs-mAb). PMID:25510737

Liu, Kai; Holz, Jasmin A; Ding, Yadan; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Youlin; Tu, Langping; Kong, Xianggui; Priem, Bram; Nadort, Annemarie; Lambrechts, Saskia A G; Aalders, Maurice C G; Buma, Wybren Jan; Liu, Yichun; Zhang, Hong

2015-02-01

375

Transient phenomena of the codeposition of PTFE with electroless Ni–P coating at the early stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of surfactants on the transient phenomena of the codeposition of PTFE with electroless Ni–P coating at the early stage was investigated in this study. Two surfactants (CTAB and FC134) are utilized for comparison. The composition variation of the deposited layer is strongly related to the cathodic reactivity of the surfactants depending on the substrates at the early stage.

Ming-Der Ger; Kung-Hsu Hou; Bing-Joe Hwang

2004-01-01

376

Innovation vs Safety: Hazard Analysis Techniques to Avoid Premature Commitment during the Early Stage Development of National  

E-print Network

Innovation vs Safety: Hazard Analysis Techniques to Avoid Premature Commitment during the Early Stage Development of National Critical Infrastructures Chris W. Johnson, School of Computing Science safety concerns during the early stages of development. However, they often rely on scoping studies

Johnson, Chris

377

The D-Optimality Item Selection Criterion in the Early Stage of CAT: A Study with the Graded Response Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), item selection criteria based on Fisher"s information often produce less stable latent trait estimates than the Kullback-Leibler global information criterion. Robustness against early stage instability has been reported for the D-optimality criterion in a polytomous CAT with the…

Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E. S.

2008-01-01

378

Investigation of the early stages in laser-induced ignition by Schlieren photography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser ignition has been discussed widely as a potentially superior ignition source for technical appliances such as internal combustion engines. Ignition strongly affects overall combustion, and its early stages in particular have strong implications on subsequent pollutant formation, flame quenching, and extinction. Our research here is devoted to the experimental investigation of the early stages of laser-induced ignition of CH4\\/air

Maximilian Lackner; S. Charareh; F. Winter; K. F. Iskra; D. Rüdisser; T. Neger; H. Kopecek; E. Wintner

2004-01-01

379

Radiation treatment after surgery improves survival for elderly women with early-stage breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Elderly women with early-stage breast cancer live longer with radiation therapy and surgery compared with surgery alone, researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine have found. The researchers, who collected data on almost 30,000 women, ages 70 to 84, with early, highly treatable breast cancer enrolled in a nationwide cancer registry, are reporting their findings at the 54th annual meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO). The University of Maryland is home to the Greenebaum Cancer Center.

380

Turning visual shapes into sounds: early stages of reading acquisition revealed in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex.  

PubMed

The exact role of the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) during the initial stages of reading acquisition is a hotly debated issue, especially regarding the comparative effect of learning on early stimulus-dependent vs. later task-dependent processes. We show that this controversy can be solved with high-temporal resolution intracerebral EEG recordings of the VOTC. We measured High-Frequency Activity (50-150 Hz) as a proxy of population-level spiking activity while participants learned Japanese Katakana symbols, and found that learning primarily affects top-down/task-dependent neural processing, after a few minutes only. In contrast, adaptation of early bottom-up/stimulus-dependent processing takes several days to adapt and provides the basis for fluent reading. Such evidence that two consecutive stages of neural processing, stimulus- and task-dependent are differentially affected by learning, can reconcile seemingly opposite hypotheses on the role of the VOTC during reading acquisition. PMID:24370818

Perrone-Bertolotti, M; Vidal, J R; de Palma, L; Hamamé, C M; Ossandon, T; Kahane, P; Minotti, L; Bertrand, O; Lachaux, J-P

2014-04-15

381

Gene expression analysis of early and late maturation stage rat enamel organ  

PubMed Central

Enamel maturation is a dynamic process that involves high rates of mineral acquisition, associated fluctuations in extracellular pH and resorption of extracellular enamel proteins. During maturation, ameloblasts change from a tall, thin and highly polarized organization characteristic of the secretory stage, to a low columnar and widened morphology in the maturation stage. To identify potential differences in gene expression throughout maturation, we obtained enamel organ epithelial cells derived from the early and late maturation stages from rat incisor and analyzed global gene expression profiles at each stage. Sixty three candidate genes were identified with potential roles in the maturation process. qPCR was used to confirm results from this genome-wide analysis in a subset of genes. Enriched transcripts in late maturation (n= 38) included those associated with lysosomal activity, solute carrier transport and calcium signaling. Cellular responses to oxidative stress, proton transport, cell death and immune system-related transcripts were also up-regulated. Transcripts down-regulated in the late maturation stage (n= 25) included those with functions related to cell adhesion, cell signaling, and T-cell activation. These results indicate that ameloblasts undergo widespread molecular changes during the maturation stage of amelogenesis and so provide the bases for future functional investigations into the mechanistic basis of enamel mineralization. PMID:22243241

LACRUZ, RODRIGO S.; SMITH, CHARLES E.; CHEN, YI-BU; HUBBARD, MICHAEL J.; HACIA, JOSEPH G.; PAINE, MICHAEL L.

2011-01-01

382

Galectin fingerprinting detects differences in expression profiles between bovine endometrium and placentomes as well as early and late gestational stages.  

PubMed

The concept of a network within the family of adhesion/growth regulatory galectins implies distinct spatio-temporal expression profiles. To test this assumption immunohistochemically for bovine placenta, placentomal (P) and interplacentomal tissues (IP) were collected at a slaughterhouse from the three stages of pregnancy (early gestation = day 30-130; mid gestation = day 130-220; late gestation = day 220-275). The specimens were snap-frozen or fixed in Bouin's solution, then embedded in paraffin. Gene expression for galectins-1, -3, -4 and -9 in P and IP of late gestational stages was monitored by RT-PCR. Galectin-type-specific antibodies were used for immunohistochemical localization. In IP, galectin-1 was present in stroma cells and early gestational trophoblast giant cells (TGC), whereas galectin-3 was confined to uterine epithelial cells. In contrast, both galectins were found in epithelia of P tissue. Uterine epithelial cells and blood vessel walls were positive for galectin-4, while galectin-9 was detected predominantly in uterine epithelial cells and late gestational TGC. Our study thus reveals individual profiles among the galectins tested, an indication for specific functions exerted by each protein in the bovine endometrium and placenta. PMID:22239761

Froehlich, R; Hambruch, N; Haeger, J D; Dilly, M; Kaltner, H; Gabius, H J; Pfarrer, C

2012-03-01

383

Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6). There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences

Michael P Flavin; Suzanne M Dostaler; Kelly Simpson; Robert J Brison; William Pickett

2006-01-01

384

Dream features in the early stages of Parkinson’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have investigated the relation between dream features and cognition in Parkinson’s disease (PD), although vivid\\u000a dreams, hallucinations and cognitive decline have been proposed as successive steps of a pathological continuum. Our objectives\\u000a were therefore to characterize the dreams of early stage PD and to study the relation between dream characteristics, cognitive\\u000a function, motor status, depression, dopaminergic treatment, and

Paulo Bugalho; Teresa Paiva

385

Context Processing and Context Maintenance in Healthy Aging and Early Stage Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declines in the ability to process context information may represent a fundamental mechanism of age-related cognitive changes. Two components of context processing—activation\\/updating and maintenance—were examined in a sample of healthy younger and older adults, along with individuals suffering from early stage dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). All older adult groups showed context activation\\/updating impairments, whereas context maintenance was only

Todd S. Braver; Ajay B. Satpute; Beth K. Rush; Caroline A. Racine; Deanna M. Barch

2005-01-01

386

Stability of Early-Stage Amyloid-?(1-42) Aggregation Species  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of aggregated amyloid-? protein (A?) is an important feature of Alzheimer’s disease. There is significant interest in understanding the initial steps of A? aggregation due to the recent focus on soluble A? oligomers. In vitro studies of A? aggregation have been aided by the use of conformation-specific antibodies which recognize shape rather than sequence. One of these, OC antiserum, recognizes certain elements of fibrillar A? across a broad range of sizes. We have observed the presence of these fibrillar elements at very early stages of A? incubation. Using a dot blot assay, OC-reactivity was found in size exclusion chromatography (SEC)-purified A?(1-42) monomer fractions immediately after isolation (early-stage). The OC-reactivity was not initially observed in the same fractions for A?(1-40) or the aggregation-restricted A?(1-42) L34P but was detected within 1–2 weeks of incubation. Stability studies demonstrated that early-stage OC-positive A?(1-42) aggregates were resistant to 4M urea or guanidine hydrochloride but sensitive to 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Interestingly, the sensitivity to SDS diminished over time upon incubation of the SEC-purified A?(1-42) solution at 4° C. Within 6–8 days the OC-positive A?42 aggregates were resistance to SDS denaturation. The progression to, and development of, SDS resistance for A?(1-42) occurred prior to thioflavin T fluorescence. In contrast, A?(1-40) aggregates formed after 6 days of incubation were sensitive to both urea and SDS. These findings reveal information on some of the earliest events in A? aggregation and suggest that it may be possible to target early-stage aggregates before they develop significant stability. PMID:22944394

Coalier, Kelley A.; Paranjape, Geeta S.; Karki, Sanjib; Nichols, Michael R.

2012-01-01

387

Comparison of Favorable Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatments: A Single-Institution Review  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained. Results: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL (49% men, 51% women, median age 33 [range 17-82] years). Treatment was as follows: extended-field radiotherapy alone (EFRT) 49%; chemotherapy alone (CTA) 13%; and CMT 38%. Among CMT patients, 36% received abbreviated doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy (three to four cycles) followed by involved-field radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 8.3 years, the estimated 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for the entire cohort were 78% and 85%, respectively. The 10-year RFS and OS rates for the various groups were as follows: 69% and 81% for EFRT; 78% and 84% for CTA; and 87% and 89% for CMT. The 10-year RFS rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) among CMT patients. The use of EFRT has diminished from approximately 90% in the 1980s to virtually no use at present, whereas the use of CTA and CMT has increased significantly (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Early-stage HL treatment has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, and our results support the superiority and continued use of CMT, specifically abbreviated-course chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy, as an appropriate treatment approach.

Samant, Rajiv, E-mail: rsamant@ottawahospital.on.c [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Alomary, Ibraheem [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Alsaeed, Eyad [King Faisal Specialty Hospital, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-jasir, Badr [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cross, Peter; Genest, Paul [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Huebsch, Lothar [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

2010-03-15

388

Less invasive treatment associated with improved survival in early stage breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Patients with early stage breast cancer who were treated with lumpectomy plus radiation may have a better chance of survival compared with those who underwent mastectomy, according to a study from Duke Medicine and the Duke Cancer Institute. The study, which appears online Jan. 28, 2013, in the journal CANCER, raises new questions as to the comparative effectiveness of breast-conserving therapies such as lumpectomy, where only the tumor and surrounding tissue is surgically removed.

389

Fish early life stage tests as a tool to assess embryotoxic potentials in small streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early life stage (ELS) studies with brown trout(Salmo trutta f. fario L.) andstone loach (Barbatula barbatula L.)were performed between 1995 and 2000 toevaluate embryotoxic potentials in twodifferently polluted streams in southwestGermany. With both species, semistatic exposureexperiments with water samples and sedimenteluates were conducted in the laboratory.Additionally, brown trout ELS tests wereperformed in flow-through systems in thesemi-field and in the field.

Till Luckenbach; Maja Kilian; Rita Triebskorn; Axel Oberemm

2001-01-01

390

Project Management Process in Early Stage E-Businesses: Strategies for Leading and Managing Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-business start-ups continue to grow despite market turmoil and consolidation. E-commerce is projected to grow to $1.3 trillion by 2003 (Forester Research, 2000). Innovative business models, significant cost-savings, immediate global access, and speed of transactions continue to attract venture capital and entrants across industries. This paper presents preliminary results that (1) identify project management process problems and opportunities early stage

Joseph W. Weiss

2001-01-01

391

Effects of silver nanocolloids on early life stages of the scleractinian coral Acropora japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this study, the effects of silver nanocolloids (SNCs) on the early life stages of the reef-building coral Acropora japonica were investigated. The tolerance of this species to \\\\{SNC\\\\} contamination was estimated by exposing gametes, larvae, and primary polyps to a range of \\\\{SNC\\\\} concentrations (0, 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 ?g l?1). Pure \\\\{SNCs\\\\} were immediately ionized to Ag+ in

Ryota Suwa; Chisato Kataoka; Shosaku Kashiwada

2014-01-01

392

Renoprotective Effects of Various Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers in Patients with Early-Stage Diabetic Nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is increasing evidence that inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system provides renoprotection independent of blood pressure lowering. The aim of the present study was to determine whether various angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) affect urinary albumin excretion (UAE), urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in early-stage diabetic nephropathy patients with microalbuminuria. Methods: Sixty-eight diabetic nephropathy

Tsukasa Nakamura; Nobuharu Fujiwara; Eiichi Sato; Yoshihiko Ueda; Takeshi Sugaya; Hikaru Koide

2010-01-01

393

Intraoperative radiotherapy of the breast for early-stage breast cancer: ready for primetime.  

PubMed

The findings of the TARGIT A and ELIOT prospective, randomized controlled trials provide compelling data regarding the efficacy and safety of single fraction intraoperative radiotherapy as an alternative to standard postoperative radiotherapy in the management of early-stage breast cancer. This editorial summarizes the findings of both studies and discusses the importance of patient selection in identifying potential candidates for intraoperative radiotherapy. PMID:25703933

Holmes, Dennis R

2015-03-01

394

Evidence supporting nutritional interventions for persons in early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD).  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to grade research evidence supporting nutritional interventions for persons with early stage dementias and to report the recommendations of a consensus panel. Thirty four studies were reviewed in the areas of dietary restriction, antioxidants, and Mediterranean diet with strong support from epidemiological studies found in all three areas. The body of evidence to support nutritional interventions in the prevention and treatment of AD is growing and has potential as a treatment modality following translational studies. PMID:18165840

Burgener, S C; Buettner, L; Coen Buckwalter, K; Beattie, E; Bossen, A L; Fick, D M; Fitzsimmons, S; Kolanowski, A; Richeson, N E; Rose, K; Schreiner, A; Pringle Specht, J K; Testad, I; Yu, F; McKenzie, S

2008-01-01

395

Clinical surveillance for early stage breast cancer: An analysis of claims data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study estimates the costs of clinical follow-up for women with early stage breast cancer and evaluates the effects of patient and provider characteristics on follow-up intensity. Claims data were cumulated from 1\\/1\\/89 through 4\\/30\\/93 for a comprehensive set of follow-up tests (office visits, radiologic, and laboratory) ordered for 222 women diagnosed at a university hospital between 1\\/1\\/89 and

Michael S. Simon; Miron Stano; Richard K. Severson; Michael S. Hoff; Daryn W. Smith

1996-01-01

396

The SNARE Ykt6 is released from yeast vacuoles during an early stage of fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The farnesylated SNARE (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) Ykt6 mediates protein palmitoylation at the yeast vacuole by means of its amino-terminal longin domain. Ykt6 is localized equally to membranes and the cytosol, although it is unclear how this distribution is mediated. We now show that Ykt6 is released efficiently from vacuoles during an early stage of yeast vacuole fusion. This

Lars E. P. Dietrich; Karolina Peplowska; Tracy J. LaGrassa; Haitong Hou; Jan Rohde; Christian Ungermann

2005-01-01

397

Circulating microRNAs, possible indicators of progress of rat hepatocarcinogenesis from early stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, are believed promising biomarkers for several diseases as well as a novel target of drugs, including cancer. In particular, miRNAs might allow detection of early stages of carcinogenesis. The present study was conducted to provide concrete evidence using chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rat as a

Tokuo Sukata; Kayo Sumida; Masahiko Kushida; Keiko Ogata; Kaori Miyata; Setsuko Yabushita; Satoshi Uwagawa

2011-01-01

398

Aromatase Inhibitors as Adjuvant Therapy for Postmenopausal Patients With Early Stage Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Endocrine therapy of hormone,receptor-positive breast tumors,is widely used as palliative therapy for metastatic breast cancer,and,as adjuvant,therapy for early stage breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the definitive standard,of hormonal,therapies for the last 30 years because,of its documented,efficacy and,reasonable,safety profile. Based on encouraging results from trials utilizing the selective, third generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in metastatic breast cancer, a number of

Ragini Kudchadkar; Ruth M. O'regan

399

Keishibukuryogan Reduces Renal Injury in the Early Stage of Renal Failure in the Remnant Kidney Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of keishibukuryogan on the early stage of progressive renal failure were examined in rats subjected to 5\\/6 nephrectomy. Keishibukuryogan, one of the traditional herbal formula- tions, was given orally at a dose of 1% (w\\/w) and 3% (w\\/w) in chow. Administration of keishibukuryogan was started at 1 week after 5\\/6 nephrectomy and was continued for 4 weeks. At

Takako Nakagawa; Izumi Tashiro; Makoto Fujimoto; Michiko Jo; Shinya Sakai; Hiroshi Oka; Hirozo Goto; Yutaka Shimada; Naotoshi Shibahara

400

First-Year Recruitment of Largemouth Bass: The Interdependency of Early Life Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four early life events (i.e., hatching, the ontogenetic diet shift to piscivory, fall lipid accumulation, and the first winter) are conceptualized as being critical to 1st-yr recruitment success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) via cause-and-effect as- sociations among them. Toward this end, we conducted a multiple life-stage investigation of largemouth bass to examine the functional dependency and significance to recruitment

Stuart A. Ludsin; Dennis R. DeVries

1997-01-01

401

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of an Antigen Associated with Early Stages of Melanoma Tumor Progression1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The melanoma-associated antigen ME491 is expressed strongly during the early stages of tumor progression. The ME491 gene was molecularly cloned by means of DNA-mediated gene transfer followed by screening a X genomic library with human repetitive Alu sequences as a probe. The cloned DNA, after transfection into mouse I.-cells, generated a protein with characteristics that were indistinguishable in Western blot

Hak Hotta; Alonzo H. Ross; Kay Huebner; Masaharu Isobe; Sebastian Wendeborn; Moses V. Chao; Robert P. Ricciardi; Yoshihide Tsujimoto; Carlo M. Croce; Hilary Koprowski

1988-01-01

402

A three stage model for the inner engine of GRBs: Prompt emission and early afterglow  

E-print Network

We describe a model within the ``Quark-nova'' scenario to interpret the recent observations of early X-ray afterglows of long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) with the Swift satellite. This is a three-stage model within the context of a core-collapse supernova. STAGE 1 is an accreting (proto-) neutron star leading to a possible delay between the core collapse and the GRB. STAGE 2 is accretion onto a quark-star, launching an ultrarelativistic jet generating the prompt GRB. This jet also creates the afterglow as the jet interacts with the surrounding medium creating an external shock. Slower shells ejected from the quark star (during accretion), can re-energize the external shock leading to a flatter segment in the X-ray afterglow. STAGE 3, which occurs only if the quark-star collapses to form a black-hole, consists of an accreting black-hole. The jet launched in this accretion process interacts with the preceding quark star jet, and could generate the flaring activity frequently seen in early X-ray afterglows. Alternatively, a STAGE 2b can occur in our model if the quark star does not collapse to a black hole. The quark star in this case can then spin down due to magnetic braking, and the spin down energy may lead to flattening in the X-ray afterglow as well. This model seems to account for both the energies and the timescales of GRBs, in addition to the newly discovered early X-ray afterglow features.

Jan Staff; Brian Niebergal; Rachid Ouyed

2007-12-11

403

The Treatment Effect of Porous Titanium Alloy Rod on the Early Stage Talar Osteonecrosis of Sheep  

PubMed Central

Osteonecrosis of the talus (ONT) may severely affect the function of the ankle joint. Most orthopedists believe that ONT should be treated at an early stage, but a concise and effective surgical treatment is lacking. In this study, porous titanium alloy rods were prepared and implanted into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT (IM group). The curative effect of the rods was compared to treatment by core decompression (DC group). No significant differences in bone reconstruction were observed between the two groups at 1 month after intervention. After 3 months, the macroscopic view of gross specimens of the IM group showed ordinary contours, but the specimens of the DC group showed obvious partial bone defects and cartilage degeneration. Quantitative analysis of the reconstructed trabeculae by micro-CT and histological study suggested that the curative effect of the IM group was superior to that of the DC group at 3 months after intervention. These favorable short-term results of the implantation of porous titanium alloy rods into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT may provide insight into an innovative surgical treatment for ONT. PMID:23516485

Zhang, Yong-Quan; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Guo, Zheng

2013-01-01

404

Immunocompetence of chickens during early and tumorigenic stages of Rous-associated virus-1 infection.  

PubMed Central

A study was designed to determine the effects of congenital infection with the Rous-associated virus-1 (RAV-1) on the immune function chickens during the early and late tumorigenic stages of infection. In another experiment, the effects of niridazole on the immune competence and the tumor incidence in chickens congenitally infected with RAV-1 were studied. Lymphocyte stimulation by phytohemagglutinin, the phytohemagglutinin skin test, the response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes and Brucella abortus, and histological evaluation of lymphoid organs were used to determine the immune competence in normal and infected chickens. Results indicated that both B- and T-cell immune functions during the early and late stages of RAV-1 infection were comparable to those of normal uninfected chickens. Administration of niridazole to congenitally infected chickens at 5 weeks of age for 7 or 21 days had no effect on the T-cell-mediated immunity; however, administration of the drug for 21 days eliminated lymphoma development. Unlike infection with other oncogenic viruses such as those causing Marek's disease and reticuloendotheliosis, infection with RAV-1 caused no detectable immunodepression during the early and late stages of infection. PMID:6290392

Fadly, A M; Lee, L F; Bacon, L D

1982-01-01

405

Numerical and functional defects of blood dendritic cells in early- and late-stage breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The generation of antitumour immunity depends on the nature of dendritic cell (DC)–tumour interactions. These have been studied mostly by using in vitro-derived DC which may not reflect the natural biology of DC in vivo. In breast cancer, only one report has compared blood DC at different stages and no longitudinal evaluation has been performed. Here we conducted three cross-sectional and one one-year longitudinal assessments of blood DC in patients with early (stage I/II, n=137) and advanced (stage IV, n=36) disease compared to healthy controls (n=66). Patients with advanced disease exhibit markedly reduced blood DC counts at diagnosis. Patients with early disease show minimally reduced counts at diagnosis but a prolonged period (1 year) of marked DC suppression after tumour resection. While differing in frequency, DC from both patients with early and advanced disease exhibit reduced expression of CD86 and HLA-DR and decreased immunostimulatory capacities. Finally, by comparing a range of clinically available maturation stimuli, we demonstrate that conditioning with soluble CD40L induces the highest level of maturation and improved T-cell priming. We conclude that although circulating DC are compromised by loco-regional and systemic breast cancer, they respond vigorously to ex vivo conditioning, thus enhancing their immunostimulatory capacity and potential for immunotherapy. PMID:17923873

Pinzon-Charry, A; Ho, C S K; Maxwell, T; McGuckin, M A; Schmidt, C; Furnival, C; Pyke, C M; López, J A

2007-01-01

406

Early oligomerization stages for the non-amyloid component of ?-synuclein amyloid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, much effort has focused on the early stages of aggregation and the formation of amyloid oligomers. Aggregation processes for these proteins are complex and their non-equilibrium nature makes any experimental study very difficult. Under these conditions, simulations provide a useful alternative for understanding the dynamics of the early stages of oligomerization. Here, we focus on the non-A? amyloid component (NAC) of the monomer, dimer, and trimer of ?-synuclein, an important 35-residue sequence involved in the aggregation and fibrillation of this protein associated with Parkinson's disease. Using Hamiltonian and temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations combined with the coarse grained Optimized Potential for Efficient peptide structure Prediction potential, we identify the role of the various regions and the secondary structures for the onset of oligomerization. For this sequence, we clearly observe the passage from ?-helix to ?-sheet, a characteristic transition of amyloid proteins. More precisely, we find that the NAC monomer is highly structured with two ?-helical regions, between residues 2-13 and 19-25. As the dimer and trimer form, ?-sheet structures between residues 2-14 and 26-34 appear and rapidly structure the system. The resulting conformations are much more structured than similar dimers and trimers of ?-amyloid and amylin proteins and yet display a strong polymorphism at these early stages of aggregation. In addition to its inherent experimental interest, comparison with other sequences shows that NAC could be a very useful numerical model for understanding the onset of aggregation.

Eugene, Cindie; Laghaei, Rozita; Mousseau, Normand

2014-10-01

407

Predictors of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to identify mild cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) prior to extensive neurodegeneration and to evaluate the extent to which dopamine depletion and other disease-related predictors can explain cognitive profiles. Methods Neuropsychological performances of 40 nondemented early-stage PD patients and 42 healthy controls were compared across on or off dopaminergic medications. Stepwise regression evaluated cognitive predictors of early-stage PD and disease-related predictors of PD cognition (levodopa dose, disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score, sleep, quality of life, and mood) across on and off states. Results Neuropsychological performance was lower in PD patients across cognitive domains with significant memory, naming, visuomotor, and complex attention/executive deficits, but with intact visuospatial, simple attention, and phonemic fluency functions. However, medication effects were absent except for simple attention. Regression analyses revealed age, working memory, and memory recall to be the best cognitive predictors of PD, while age, quality of life, disease duration, and anxiety predicted PD cognition in the off state. Conclusion Nondemented early-stage PD patients presented with extensive mild cognitive deficits including prominent memory impairment. The profile was inconsistent with expected isolated frontostriatal dysfunction previously attributed to dopamine depletion and this highlights the need to further characterize extranigral sources of mild cognitive impairment in PD. PMID:23741229

Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Jones, Katherine; Cabanban, Romeo; Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E.

2013-01-01

408

Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development  

PubMed Central

Birds and mammals, phylogenetically close amniotes with similar post-gastrula development, exhibit little conservation in their post-fertilization cleavage patterns. Data from the mouse suggest that cellular morphogenesis and molecular signaling at the cleavage stage play important roles in lineage specification at later (blastula and gastrula) stages. Very little is known, however, about cleavage-stage chick embryos, owing to their poor accessibility. This period of chick development takes place before egg-laying and encompasses several fundamental processes of avian embryology, including zygotic gene activation (ZGA) and blastoderm cell-layer increase. We have carried out morphological and cellular analyses of cleavage-stage chick embryos covering the first half of pre-ovipositional development, from Eyal-Giladi and Kochav stage (EGK-) I to EGK-V. Scanning electron microscopy revealed remarkable subcellular details of blastomere cellularization and subgerminal cavity formation. Phosphorylated RNA polymerase II immunostaining showed that ZGA in the chick starts at early EGK-III during the 7th to 8th nuclear division cycle, comparable with the time reported for other yolk-rich vertebrates (e.g. zebrafish and Xenopus). The increase in the number of cell layers after EGK-III is not a direct consequence of oriented cell division. Finally, we present evidence that, as in the zebrafish embryo, a yolk syncytial layer is formed in the avian embryo after EGK-V. Our data suggest that several fundamental features of cleavage-stage development in birds resemble those in yolk-rich anamniote species, revealing conservation in vertebrate early development. Whether this conservation lends morphogenetic support to the anamniote-to-amniote transition in evolution or reflects developmental plasticity in convergent evolution awaits further investigation. PMID:25742796

Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Nakaya, Yukiko; Lee, Hyung Chul; Ladher, Raj; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Han, Jae Yong; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sheng, Guojun

2015-01-01

409

Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development.  

PubMed

Birds and mammals, phylogenetically close amniotes with similar post-gastrula development, exhibit little conservation in their post-fertilization cleavage patterns. Data from the mouse suggest that cellular morphogenesis and molecular signaling at the cleavage stage play important roles in lineage specification at later (blastula and gastrula) stages. Very little is known, however, about cleavage-stage chick embryos, owing to their poor accessibility. This period of chick development takes place before egg-laying and encompasses several fundamental processes of avian embryology, including zygotic gene activation (ZGA) and blastoderm cell-layer increase. We have carried out morphological and cellular analyses of cleavage-stage chick embryos covering the first half of pre-ovipositional development, from Eyal-Giladi and Kochav stage (EGK-) I to EGK-V. Scanning electron microscopy revealed remarkable subcellular details of blastomere cellularization and subgerminal cavity formation. Phosphorylated RNA polymerase II immunostaining showed that ZGA in the chick starts at early EGK-III during the 7th to 8th nuclear division cycle, comparable with the time reported for other yolk-rich vertebrates (e.g. zebrafish and Xenopus). The increase in the number of cell layers after EGK-III is not a direct consequence of oriented cell division. Finally, we present evidence that, as in the zebrafish embryo, a yolk syncytial layer is formed in the avian embryo after EGK-V. Our data suggest that several fundamental features of cleavage-stage development in birds resemble those in yolk-rich anamniote species, revealing conservation in vertebrate early development. Whether this conservation lends morphogenetic support to the anamniote-to-amniote transition in evolution or reflects developmental plasticity in convergent evolution awaits further investigation. PMID:25742796

Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Nakaya, Yukiko; Lee, Hyung Chul; Ladher, Raj; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Han, Jae Yong; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sheng, Guojun

2015-04-01

410

Abnormalities of plantar pressure distribution in early, intermediate, and late stages of diabetic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Inconsistent findings with regard to plantar pressure while walking in the diabetic population may be due to the heterogeneity of the studied groups resulting from the classification/grouping criteria adopted. The clinical diagnosis and classification of diabetes have inherent uncertainties that compromise the definition of its onset and the differentiation of its severity stages. A fuzzy system could improve the precision of the diagnosis and classification of diabetic neuropathy because it takes those uncertainties into account and combines different assessment methods. Here, we investigated how plantar pressure abnormalities evolve throughout different severity stages of diabetic polyneuropathy (absent, n=38; mild, n=20; moderate, n=47; severe, n=24). Pressure distribution was analysed over five areas while patients walked barefoot. Patients with mild neuropathy displayed an increase in pressure-time integral at the forefoot and a lower peak pressure at the heel. The peak and pressure-time integral under the forefoot and heel were aggravated in later stages of the disease (moderate and severe) compared with early stages of the disease (absent and mild). In the severe group, lower pressures at the lateral forefoot and hallux were observed, which could be related to symptoms that develop with the aggravation of neuropathy: atrophy of the intrinsic foot muscles, reduction of distal muscle activity, and joint stiffness. Although there were clear alterations over the forefoot and in a number of plantar areas with higher pressures within each severity stage, they did not follow the aggravation evolution of neuropathy classified by the fuzzy model. Based on these results, therapeutic interventions should begin in the early stages of this disease to prevent further consequences of the disease. PMID:25086801

Sacco, Isabel C N; Hamamoto, Adriana N; Tonicelli, Lucas M G; Watari, Ricky; Ortega, Neli R S; Sartor, Cristina D

2014-09-01

411

Development and trunk segmentation of early instars of a ptychopariid trilobite from Cambrian Stage 5 of China  

PubMed Central

Many three-dimensionally preserved exoskeletons found from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5) Gaotai Formation in Guizhou, southern China, have been assigned to the ptychopariid trilobite Gunnia sp. They represent mainly a series of early instars, exhibiting some delicate structures and morphological variation associated with their trunk segmentation and early development. Morphometric and statistical analyses indicate that the transverse joint appears to occur with the full growth of the third axial ring of the protopygidium, which increases in size much more rapidly than its corresponding protocephalon with growth. The ‘one by one' sequential release of thoracic segments from a transitory pygidium does not progress exactly in accordance with the development of the pygidial axis, whose axial rings increase at a relatively faster rate, and an ‘immature ring' always appears initially at the rear end of the axis. These new data set up a testable model for revealing trilobite segmentation and provide fresh insights into the development, evolution and taphonomic surroundings associated with the Cambrian trilobites. PMID:25382488

Shen, Cen; Clarkson, Euan N. K.; Yang, Jie; Lan, Tian; Hou, Jin-bo; Zhang, Xi-guang

2014-01-01

412

The early development of the nervous system in staged insectivore and primate embryos.  

PubMed

The early development of the nervous system was studied in stage embryos of hemicentetes semispinosus, Microcebus murinus, Alouatta seniculus, Cebus appella, Cebus albifrons, macaca mulatta, and Homo sapiens. The specimens were assigned to Carnegie stages 11-13. Serial transverse sections were examined and graphic reconstructions were prepared. The early development of the neural tube is basically similar in all the species investigated but differences in detail are noticeable. The mesencephalic flexure serves in all cases as a landmark for malpighi's tripartite subdivision of the brain. The nonhuman embryos seem to show a little more variation than the human in the closure of the neuropores in relation to somitic count. With the exception of the later-appearing terminal-vomeronasal component, all major portions of the neural crest as classified by O'Rahilly ('65) are represented in both the nonhuman and the human embryos studied. No crest is present at the level of rhombomere 1, nor at rhombomere 3 except in the platyrrhines and some human embryos, nor at rhombomere 5 except in certain human specimens. An indication of the division of the trigeminal ganglion into its primary divisions is rare at stage 11 (C. apella), may be visible at stage 12 (Alouatta, macaca, Homo), and is definite (in Homo) at stage 13. Ganglionic contributions from head ectoderm (epipharyngeal placodes), as previously described in the human and some other vertebrate embryos, were sought and found in Cebus apella. In both nonhuman and human, a tendency is noted whereby the rostral limit of the occipitospinal crest, high at stage 11, seems to descend relatively at stage 12, and ascend again at stage 13 (at least in the human) to become associated with the appearance of the accessory and hypoglossal nerves. In general, the motor components of the nerves are identifiable before the sensory elements, and, in the present study, nerve fibers were first observed in the human at stage 13 in some of the cranial nerves and in the ventral roots of the spinal nerves. PMID:7440789

Müller, F; O'Rahilly, R

1980-10-01

413

Surgical treatment of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Surgical resection remains the standard of care for functionally operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and resectable stage IIIA disease. The role of invasive staging and restaging techniques is currently being debated, but they provide the largest biopsy samples which allow for precise mediastinal staging. Different types of operative procedures are currently available to the thoracic surgeon, and some of these interventions can be performed by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) with the same oncological results as those by open thoracotomy. The principal aim of surgical treatment for NSCLC is to obtain a complete resection which has been precisely defined by a working group of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). Intraoperative staging of lung cancer is of utmost importance to decide on the extent of resection according to the intraoperative tumour (T) and nodal (N) status. Systematic nodal dissection is generally advocated to evaluate the hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes which are subdivided into seven zones according to the most recent 7th tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) classification. Lymph-node involvement not only determines prognosis but also the administration of adjuvant therapy. In 2011, a new multidisciplinary adenocarcinoma classification was published introducing the concepts of adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma. This classification has profound surgical implications. The role of limited or sublobar resection, comprising anatomical segmentectomy and wide wedge resection, is reconsidered for early-stage lesions which are more frequently encountered with the recently introduced large screening programmes. Numerous retrospective non-randomised studies suggest that sublobar resection may be an acceptable surgical treatment for early lung cancers, also when performed by VATS. More tailored, personalised therapy has recently been introduced. Quality-of-life parameters and surgical quality indicators become increasingly important to determine the short-term and long-term impact of a surgical procedure. International databases currently collect extensive surgical data, allowing more precise calculation of mortality and morbidity according to predefined risk factors. Centralisation of care has been shown to improve results. Evidence-based guidelines should be further developed to provide optimal staging and therapeutic algorithms.

Van Schil, Paul E.; Balduyck, Bram; De Waele, Michèle; Hendriks, Jeroen M.; Hertoghs, Marjan; Lauwers, Patrick

2013-01-01

414

The pattern of histogenesis and growth of tooth plates in larval stages of extant lungfish.  

PubMed Central

Comparison of new data obtained in this study on Protopterus aethiopicus with that published on Protopterus aethiopicus and Neoceratodus forsteri has confirmed the suggestion that the pattern of histogenesis of tooth plates in the early larval stages is very similar in the two genera. These similarities are more apparent both when a common terminology is adopted, based on a topogenic classification, and when the fundamental assumption is made that a single morphogenetic system operates for all odontodes. The model to explain the structure of all vertebrate dentitions with separate teeth in single or multiple tooth rows has been found to apply to dipnoan dentitions with fused teeth in a composite tooth plate. In this model, the epithelial invagination surrounding the margins of the tooth plate represents the dental lamina and, where this is in contact with mesenchymal cells, cell clusters (protogerms) arise. From these protogerms new odontodes (teeth) may develop if factors to inhibit differentiation are not present. Sites for initiation of odontodes become restricted to the labial margins of existing ridges on the tooth plate. Experimental studies on mammalian tooth germs are discussed and a model proposed for control of odontogenesis and histogenesis in dipnoan dentitions. Patterns of growth of hypermineralised petrodentine have been analysed and shown to depend initially on the arrangement of odontodes, and subsequently upon the ability of special cells in the pulp to generate new and wider layers of petrodentine. The initial pattern of petrodentine depends upon the position of odontodes in the forming ridges of the tooth plate. Subsequent patterns of petrodentine depend upon the extent of replacement growth beneath the tritural surface. Specialised cells, petroblasts, secrete the petrodentine within a shell of dentine. These cells differentiate from cells of the dental papilla after odontoblasts have begun to form dentine. They are regarded as a unique type of cell for dipnoans. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:4077701

Smith, M M

1985-01-01

415

The Growth of Early Galaxies and Reionization of Hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reionization of the intergalactic medium about a billion years after the Big Bang was an important event which occurred due to the release of ionizing photons from the growth of stellar mass and black holes in the early Universe. By leveraging the benefits of field galaxy surveys, I will present some recent breakthroughs in our understanding of how the earliest galaxies in the Universe evolved. I will present evidence that unlike in the local Universe where galaxy growth occurs through intermittent cannibalism, star-formation in the distant Universe is a more continuous if violent process with an overabundance of massive stars. Implications for the reionization history of the Universe will also be discussed.

Ram Chary, Ranga

2012-07-01

416

Reduced expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type III in high stage neuroblastomas  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) is a powerful inhibitor of cell proliferation and a potent inducer of differentiation. Resistance to TGF-? action is a characteristic of many malignancies and has been attributed to alterations of TGF-? receptors as well as disturbance of downstream transduction pathways. To analyse the TGF-? response in neuroblastoma, the expression of TGF-?1 and TGF-? type I, II and III receptor genes was investigated in 61 cancer samples by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The specimens analysed belong to different stages, namely nine samples of stage 1, ten of stage 2, nine of stage 3 and 28 of stage 4. Moreover, five samples were of stage 4S, which represents a tumour form undergoing spontaneous regression. The results obtained show that TGF-?1 and TGF-? type I and II receptor genes appear to be almost equally expressed in neuroblastomas of all stages. Conversely, TGF-? type III receptor gene expression, which is required for an efficacious TGF-? binding and function, is strongly reduced exclusively in neuroblastomas of stages 3 and 4. These findings were directly confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses of ten neuroblastoma specimens. Our results suggest the occurrence of an altered TGF-? response in advanced neuroblastomas which might be an important mechanism for escaping growth control and for developing invasiveness. Moreover, our findings allow the proposal of a novel mechanism, namely down-regulation of TGF-? type III receptor gene expression, to avoid TGF-? inhibitory activity. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10735501

Iolascon, A; Giordani, L; Borriello, A; Carbone, R; Izzo, A; Tonini, G P; Gambini, C; Ragione, F Della

2000-01-01

417

Reduced pollen tube growth and the presence of callose in the pistil of the male floral stage of the avocado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedgley, M., 1977. Reduced pollen tube growth and the presence of callose in the pistil of the male floral stage of the avocado. Scientia Hort., 7 : 27--36. Pollen tube growth was studied in the pistil of the male floral stage of the avocado. Self- pollination of the male stage occurred but pollen tubes did not reach the ovary. When

M. SEDGLEY

1977-01-01

418

Practice Patterns and Long-Term Survival for Early-Stage Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Standard of care treatment for most stage I rectal cancers is total mesorectal excision (TME). Given the morbidity associated with TME, local excision (LE) for early-stage rectal cancer has been explored. This study examines practice patterns and overall survival (OS) for early-stage rectal cancer. Methods All patients in the National Cancer Data Base diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1998 to 2010 were initially included. Use of LE versus proctectomy and use of adjuvant radiation therapy were compared over time. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare OS based on treatment. Results LE was used to treat 46.5% of patients with T1 and 16.8% with T2 tumors. Use of LE increased steadily over time (P < .001). LE was most commonly used for women, black patients, very old patients, those without private health insurance, those with well-differentiated tumors, and those with T1 tumors. Proctectomy was associated with higher rates of tumor-free surgical margins compared with LE (95% v 76%; P < .001). Adjuvant radiation therapy use decreased over time independent of surgical procedure or T stage. For T2N0 disease, patients treated with LE alone had significantly poorer adjusted OS than those treated with proctectomy alone or multimodality therapy. Conclusion Guideline-concordant adoption of LE for treatment of low-risk stage I rectal cancer is increasing. However, use of LE is also increasing for higher-risk rectal cancers that do not meet guideline criteria for LE. Treatment with LE alone is associated with poorer long-term OS. Additional studies are warranted to understand the factors driving increased use of LE. PMID:24166526

Stitzenberg, Karyn B.; Sanoff, Hanna K.; Penn, Dolly C.; Meyers, Michael O.; Tepper, Joel E.

2013-01-01

419

Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2014-09-01

420

Developmental stage-dependent influence of environmental factors on growth of rural Sundanese children in West Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

This study investigated the growth trajectories and the relative relevance levels of nutrition, disease, and hormonal status at various developmental stages among children in adverse environments to provide population-based empirical evidence for the life history theory. Three years of longitudinal anthropometric data in 1-year intervals were obtained from 418 boys and girls aged 0 to 12 years at recruitment. Following the final measurement, the main survey, which included blood and feces sampling, 3-h interval food consumption recall surveys for energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometry, was performed. Blood and feces were used for detecting, respectively, anemia and hormonal (IGF-I and IGFBP-3) levels as well as intestinal helminthiasis (Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm). The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1) the growth velocity of the subject children lagged behind international standards during childhood and juvenility but caught up during early adolescence; 2) diseases, both intestinal helminths and anemia, had significant effects on growth in childhood but not at older ages; and 3) hormonal status significantly affected growth in the children, with its highest significance in early adolescence. A larger growth than international standards in early adolescence likely follows programmed hormonal mechanisms after the onset of puberty. The onset of puberty might be associated with adequate amounts of nutrient intake and be mediated by hormonal function, because the IGF-IZ score was significantly correlated with energy and protein intakes at the transitional period from juvenility to adolescence, when puberty occurs. Am J Phys Anthropol 157:94-106, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25641623

Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

2015-05-01

421

Genetic linkage analysis of growth factor loci and end-stage renal disease in African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic linkage analysis of growth factor loci and end-stage renal disease in African Americans. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic glomerular diseases reportedly cause in excess of 80% of the incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the U.S. The factors that initiate progressive renal failure in patients with these disorders remain unknown. Several investigators have reported enhanced synthesis and

Barry I Freedman; Hongrun Yu; Beverly J Spray; Stephen S Rich; Cynthia B Rothschild; Donald W Bowden

1997-01-01

422

Influence of growth-stage of Anagallis arvensis on its fungitoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity of the different stages of Anagallis arvensis L. was compared, and similar results were obtained by\\u000a all the methods of testing. Different dilutions of extracts of each of the plant-growth stages were tested for their effect\\u000a on the germination of spores of Helminthosporium turcicum Pass. In Anagallis arvensis, the antifungal principle gradually\\u000a increases in concentration from ‘seedling

P. N. Thapliyal; Y. L. Nene

1970-01-01

423

Dissection and Downstream Analysis of Zebra Finch Embryos at Early Stages of Development  

PubMed Central

The zebra finch (Taeniopygiaguttata) has become an increasingly important model organism in many areas of research including toxicology1,2, behavior3, and memory and learning4,5,6. As the only songbird with a sequenced genome, the zebra finch has great potential for use in developmental studies; however, the early stages of zebra finch development have not been well studied. Lack of research in zebra finch development can be attributed to the difficulty of dissecting the small egg and embryo. The following dissection method minimizes embryonic tissue damage, which allows for investigation of morphology and gene expression at all stages of embryonic development. This permits both bright field and fluorescence quality imaging of embryos, use in molecular procedures such as in situ hybridization (ISH), cell proliferation assays, and RNA extraction for quantitative assays such as quantitative real-time PCR (qtRT-PCR). This technique allows investigators to study early stages of development that were previously difficult to access. PMID:24999108

Murray, Jessica R.; Stanciauskas, Monika E.; Aralere, Tejas S.; Saha, Margaret S.

2014-01-01

424

Genome-scale transcriptomic insights into early-stage fruit development in woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca.  

PubMed

Fragaria vesca, a diploid woodland strawberry with a small and sequenced genome, is an excellent model for studying fruit development. The strawberry fruit is unique in that the edible flesh is actually enlarged receptacle tissue. The true fruit are the numerous dry achenes dotting the receptacle's surface. Auxin produced from the achene is essential for the receptacle fruit set, a paradigm for studying crosstalk between hormone signaling and development. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying strawberry fruit set, next-generation sequencing was employed to profile early-stage fruit development with five fruit tissue types and five developmental stages from floral anthesis to enlarged fruits. This two-dimensional data set provides a systems-level view of molecular events with precise spatial and temporal resolution. The data suggest that the endosperm and seed coat may play a more prominent role than the embryo in auxin and gibberellin biosynthesis for fruit set. A model is proposed to illustrate how hormonal signals produced in the endosperm and seed coat coordinate seed, ovary wall, and receptacle fruit development. The comprehensive fruit transcriptome data set provides a wealth of genomic resources for the strawberry and Rosaceae communities as well as unprecedented molecular insight into fruit set and early stage fruit development. PMID:23898027

Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Shahan, Rachel; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

2013-06-01

425

Large spinose microfossils in Ediacaran rocks as resting stages of early animals  

PubMed Central

Large (>100 ?m), profusely ornamented microfossils comprise a distinctive paleontological component of sedimentary rocks deposited during the Ediacaran Period (635–542 million years ago). Smaller spinose fossils in Paleozoic rocks have commonly been interpreted as algal cysts or phycomata, but the Ediacaran populations differ from modern algal analogs in size, shape, ultrastructure, and internal contents. In contrast, cysts formed during the diapause egg-resting stages of many metazoans share features of size, ornamentation, and internal contents with large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs). Moreover, transmission electron microscopic observations of animal-resting cysts reveal a 3-layer wall ultrastructure comparable to that of LOEM taxa. Interpretation of these distinctive Ediacaran microfossils as resting stages in early metazoan life cycles offers additional perspectives on their functional morphology and stratigraphic distribution. Based on comparisons with modern marine invertebrates, the recalcitrant life stage represented by LOEMs is interpreted as an evolutionary response to prolonged episodes of bottom water anoxia in Ediacaran shelf and platform environments. As predicted by this hypothesis, the later Ediacaran disappearance of LOEM taxa coincides with geochemical evidence for a marked decline in the extent of oxygen-depleted waters impinging on continental shelves and platforms. Thus, the form, diversity, and stratigraphic range of LOEMs illuminate life cycle evolution in early animals as influenced by the evolving redox state of the oceans. PMID:19366668

Cohen, Phoebe A.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Kodner, Robin B.

2009-01-01