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1

Growth Stages 2: Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lesson plans from Science NetLinks form a two-part series designed to introduce students (grades 3-5) to human growth and development from infancy through puberty. Each lesson contains detailed background information, discussion questions, and other resources that help students learn about the "key physical stages or milestones, which are research and science-supported indicators that help to track the progress of a child's physical development at different stages of life." Using these lesson plans in the classroom could prove a popular choice, as "research shows that children are fascinated by films and stories about early stages of human development and they are particularly intrigued by comparisons of themselves now and earlier." Each lesson plans comes with a comprehensive teaching guide.

2

Growth Stages 2: Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the second of a two-part series aimed at introducing students to the different stages of growth and development in human beings from birth to 18 years of age. In this lesson, student interactives are used to help students focus on the kinds of physical changes that children of their age range begin to undergo during puberty.

Science Netlinks;

2003-03-29

3

Intra and interspecific competition among invasive and native species during early stages of plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant competition is a primary ecological process limiting grassland restoration success. Appropriate restoration techniques\\u000a require an understanding of the degree to which intra and interspecific competition control invasive and native plant growth.\\u000a The objective of this study was to determine how the intensity of intra and interspecific competition changes during early\\u000a stages of plant growth. Two invasive (Bromus\\u000a tectorum and

Seema ManglaRoger; Roger L. Sheley; Jeremy J. James; Steven R. Radosevich

2011-01-01

4

Differential Gene Expression in Sugarcane Regulated by Ethephon at Early Growth Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential gene expression in the plants at different sampling time were analyzed by using cDNA-AFLP after foliar spray\\u000a of ethephon and water, respectively, at early growth stage of sugarcane. The preliminary results showed that the polymorphisms\\u000a of cDNA-AFLP products were abundant; and the differential gene expressions were marked between the ethephon treatment and\\u000a the control; some sequences of transcript derived

YUAN-WEN WEII; Chun-Jin Hu; Zhi-Nian Deng; Yang-Rui Li

2006-01-01

5

Nanoscale duplex oxide growth during early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100)  

SciTech Connect

A combination of real-time in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and ex situ transmission electron microscopy is utilized to investigate the early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100). Sequential formation of NiO and Cu{sub 2}O oxides was observed by increasing oxygen partial pressure, and the Cu{sub 2}O phase was identified to form preferentially on top of NiO nanoislands. The origin of this unexpected phenomenon is attributed to localized enrichment of Cu atoms accompanied with NiO growth, which thermodynamically drives the nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O/NiO duplex oxide growth.

Zhou Guangwen [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Multidisciplinary Program in Materials Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Fong, Dillon D.; Fuoss, Paul H.; Baldo, Peter M.; Thompson, Loren J.; Eastman, Jeffrey A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wang Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2009-10-01

6

MACC1 Is Related to Colorectal Cancer Initiation and Early-Stage Invasive Growth.  

PubMed

Objectives: To investigate metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) and MET expression in colorectal adenoma, Tis, early-stage invasive (T1 and T2), and advanced adenocarcinoma with liver metastasis using immunohistochemistry. Methods: Ninety-three paraffin-embedded colorectal tumor specimens were immunohistochemically analyzed for MACC1 and MET protein expression. Results: MACC1 expression was upregulated in the transition from adenoma to Tis; its expression was further elevated during tumor progression from Tis to early invasive carcinoma. MET expression was constant from adenoma to Tis and to T1 but significantly increased as tumor progression to T2. Both MACC1 and MET expression were enhanced in advanced carcinoma with liver metastasis. Conclusions: Stepwise elevation of MACC1 expression in key points of colorectal cancer development suggests that MACC1 may contribute to cancer initiation and early invasive growth. High expression of both MACC1 and MET may relate to distant metastasis. PMID:24124150

Ren, Bing; Zakharov, Vladislav; Yang, Qi; McMahon, Loralee; Yu, Jiangzhou; Cao, Wenqing

2013-11-01

7

Early Stages of Ti-O Cluster Growth on Carbon Nanotubes by ab Initio Calculations.  

PubMed

Ti-O combined with carbon nanotubes are excelled candidates for many technological applications. The early stages of growth comprise octahedral (Oh) anatase or rutile nanoparticles depending on the tetrahedral (Th) precursors. However, the underline mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we present results of a systematic study of Th or Oh clusters on (4,0) and (8,0). We found that although the Th may exist in several conformations, with well localized electronic states, the Oh is unstable. We found that due to charge localization and the emergence of C dangling bonds at the Fermi level, Th could be considered as more active compared to Oh that adopts the tube's C2p-C2p ?-like features. In addition, when parallel to the tubes and along the zigzag chiral direction, the linear rutile-like trimers on zigzag (8,0), armchair (5,5), and (3,0)@(12,0) multiwall were clearly found to be energetically favored, while when vertically aligned, equi-probable rutile or spinal anatase-like growth is expected. At the Fermi level, the charge is localized at the Ti-O trimer, when on (5,5) and (3,0)@(12,0) cases, rendering Ti-O active. These results could enlighten the early stages of Ti-O growth on SWCNT providing useful information in the field of nanoelectronics and nanotechnology. PMID:24044643

Gialampouki, M A; Lekka, Ch E

2013-09-30

8

Transient growth of solid nuclei in the liquid - A numerical study on early stages of solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sharp interface model describing transient non-equilibrium solidification processes for planar interfaces is extended to describe early stages of nucleus growth in an undercooled melt. Interface velocity and interface concentrations are calculated until full equilibrium is reached. Curvature pressure and latent heat release are considered. Realistic Gibbs free energies and concentration gradients in both phases are included in the simulation calculations. The calculations bridge the gap between the length scales of Molecular Dynamics simulations and conventional continuum models that assume local equilibrium at the solid/liquid interface.

Fink, Marcel; Rettenmayr, Markus

2013-11-01

9

Physiological and morphological changes during early and later stages of fruit growth in Capsicum annuum.  

PubMed

Fruit-set involves a series of physiological and morphological changes that are well described for tomato and Arabidopsis, but largely unknown for sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). The aim of this paper is to investigate whether mechanisms of fruit-set observed in Arabidopsis and tomato are also applicable to C. annuum. To do this, we accurately timed the physiological and morphological changes in a post-pollinated and un-pollinated ovary. A vascular connection between ovule and replum was observed in fertilized ovaries that undergo fruit development, and this connection was absent in unfertilized ovaries that abort. This indicates that vascular connection between ovule and replum is an early indicator for successful fruit development after pollination and fertilization. Evaluation of histological changes in the carpel of a fertilized and unfertilized ovary indicated that increase in cell number and cell diameter both contribute to early fruit growth. Cell division contributes more during early fruit growth while cell expansion contributes more at later stages of fruit growth in C. annuum. The simultaneous occurrence of a peak in auxin concentration and a strong increase in cell diameter in the carpel of seeded fruits suggest that indole-3-acetic acid stimulates a major increase in cell diameter at later stages of fruit growth. The series of physiological and morphological events observed during fruit-set in C. annuum are similar to what has been reported for tomato and Arabidopsis. This indicates that tomato and Arabidopsis are suitable model plants to understand details of fruit-set mechanisms in C. annuum. PMID:22889158

Tiwari, Aparna; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Ljung, Karin; Offringa, Remko; Heuvelink, Ep

2012-09-13

10

Soil temperature and plant growth stage influence nitrogen uptake and amino acid concentration of apple during early spring growth.  

PubMed

In spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots begins about 3 weeks after bud break. We used 1-year-old 'Fuji' Malus domestica Borkh on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether the onset of N uptake in spring is dependent solely on the growth stage of the plant or is a function of soil temperature. Five times during early season growth, N uptake and total amino acid concentration were measured in trees growing at aboveground day/night temperatures of 23/15 degrees C and belowground temperatures of 8, 12, 16 or 20 degrees C. We used (15NH4)(15NO3) to measure total N uptake and rate of uptake and found that both were significantly influenced by both soil temperature and plant growth stage. Rate of uptake of 15N increased with increasing soil temperature and changed with plant growth stage. Before bud break, 15N was not detected in trees growing in the 8 degrees C soil treatment, whereas 15N uptake increased with increasing soil temperatures between 12 and 20 degrees C. Ten days after bud break, 15N was still not detected in trees growing in the 8 degrees C soil treatment, although total 15N uptake and uptake rate continued to increase with increasing soil temperatures between 12 and 20 degrees C. Twenty-one days after bud break, trees in all temperature treatments were able to acquire 15N from the soil, although the amount of uptake increased with increasing soil temperature. Distribution of 15N in trees changed as plants grew. Most of the 15N absorbed by trees before bud break (approximately 5% of 15N supplied per tree) remained in the roots. Forty-six days after bud break, approximately one-third of the 15N absorbed by the trees in the 12-20 degrees C soil temperature treatments remained in the roots, whereas the shank, stem and new growth contained about two-thirds of the 15N taken up by the roots. Total amino acid concentration and distribution of amino acids in trees changed with plant growth stage, but only the amino acid concentration in new growth and roots was affected by soil temperature. We conclude that a combination of low soil temperature and plant developmental stage influences the ability of apple trees to take up and use N from the soil in the spring. Thus, early fertilizer application in the spring when soil temperatures are low or when the aboveground portion of the tree is not actively growing may be ineffective in promoting N uptake. PMID:11359712

Dong, S; Scagel, C F; Cheng, L; Fuchigami, L H; Rygiewicz, P T

2001-05-01

11

Melting point depression of Al clusters generated during the early stages of film growth: Nanocalorimetry measurements  

SciTech Connect

This work investigates the thermodynamic properties of small structures of Al using an ultrasensitive thin-film differential scanning calorimeter. Al thin films were deposited onto a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} surface via thermal evaporation over a range of thicknesses from 6 to 50 {Angstrom}. The Al films were discontinuous and formed nanometer-sized clusters. Calorimetry measurements demonstrated that the melting point of the clusters is lower than the value for bulk Al. We show that the melting point of the clusters is size dependent, decreasing by as much as 140{degree}C for 2 nm clusters. The results have relevance in several key areas for Al metallization in micro-electronics including the early stages of film growth and texture formation, the Al reflow process, and the dimensional stability of high aspect ratio Al lines. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Lai, S.L.; Carlsson, J.R.; Allen, L.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana--Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

1998-03-01

12

Growth and population dynamics during early stages of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay, North Viet Nam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying the dynamics of the early stages in the life cycle of mangroves is essential to predict the distribution, species composition and structure of mangrove forests, and their maintenance and recovery from perturbations. The growth and population dynamics of two stands of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay (Viet Nam) were examined for 1 year. Growth was highly seasonal,

Hoang Thi Ha; Carlos M. Duarte; Nguyen Hoang Tri; Jorge Terrados; Jens Borum

2003-01-01

13

Observations of Nucleation and Early Stage Growth of Amorphous Silica on Carboxyl-Terminated Model Biosubstrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over Earth history, organisms have developed the ability to control the nucleation and growth of a broad range of nanocrystalline and amorphous materials. The formation of amorphous biosilica is of particular interest because silicifiers sequester gigatons of silica annually, and suppress dissolved silica levels in the ocean to current low levels. The ecological success of marine diatoms, which are arguably the most important silicifiers, places them alongside marine calcifiers as major players in the sequestration of organic carbon. Thus, the biologically mediated formation of amorphous silica plays a key role in the global cycling of silicon and carbon. During controlled biomineralization, nucleation typically occurs in designated locations. There is a substantial body of evidence suggesting that macromolecules in the cellular environment determine these locations by acting as templates to provide energetically favorable sites for the onset of mineral and amorphous material nucleation. In diatoms, silica formation is likely initiated through heterogeneous nucleation on functional portions of macromolecules inside the Silica Deposition Vesicle (SDV). Previous studies of silica nucleation have implicated multiple chemical moieties associated with the constituent amino acids and sugars of polysaccharides, proteins, and glycoproteins as probable sites for in vivo surface nucleation and patterning. These investigations have usually employed complex macromolecules that exhibit multiple functionalities, and un-characterized solution compositions, thus rendering a quantitative analysis of kinetic and thermodynamic processes impossible. The objective of this research is to experimentally test kinetic and thermodynamic controls exercised by surface moieties on silica nucleation. Our experimental model system uses synthetic organic substrates designed to mimic key features of the interfacial regions between the surrounding cellular environment and the amorphous silica surface. While controlling solution chemistry, we can make in situ measurements of nucleation and early stage growth at these interfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Preliminary experiments show that at pH 4 to 7, and supersaturations of 0.76 to 1.45 (? = ln([H4SiO4]/Ksp)), silica nucleates on carboxyl-terminated areas of the surface, that are less than 30 nm in diameter. The nuclei evolve during early stages of growth to spread over the surface into a sheet like form.

Wallace, A. F.; Dove, P. M.

2005-12-01

14

Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Our current knowledge of the neurobiology of romantic love remains scanty. In view of the complexity of a sentiment like love, it would not be surprising that a diversity of biochemical mechanisms could be involved in the mood changes of the initial stage of a romance. In the present study, we have examined whether the early romantic phase of

Enzo Emanuele; Pierluigi Politi; Marika Bianchi; Piercarlo Minoretti; Marco Bertona; Diego Geroldi

2006-01-01

15

[Early-stage polyarthritis].  

PubMed

Prodromes, articular signs and the different courses in the early stage of rheumatoid arthritis are explained. Atypical forms and variants of rheumatoid arthritis are especially described. These are the following syndromes: palindromic rheumatism, polymyalgic rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren-syndrome with rheumatoid arthritis, acute symmetric polyarthritis with pitting edema of elderly people. Furthermore the significance of radiological procedures and the investigation for rheumatoid factors in the early stages are discussed. Early diagnosis and consecutively early therapeutic strategies in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis are of paramount importance for prognosis. PMID:8465130

Schlumpf, U

1993-03-23

16

Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, isolated from female gametophyte tissue of loblolly pine, inhibits growth of early-stage somatic embryos.  

PubMed

• Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)), abundant in animals and plants, is well known for its anticancer activity. However, many aspects of InsP(6) function in plants remain undefined. We now report the first evidence that InsP(6) can inhibit cellular proliferation in plants under growth conditions where phosphorus is not limited. • A highly anionic molecule inhibitory to early-stage somatic embryo growth of loblolly pine (LP) was purified chromatographically from late-stage LP female gametophytes (FGs), and then characterized structurally using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. • Exact mass and mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (MS-MS) fragmentation identified the bioactive molecule as an inositol hexakisphosphate. It was then identified as the myo-isomer (i.e. InsP(6)) on the basis of (1)H-, (31)P- and (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), (1)H-(31)P heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) and (1)H-(13)C HSQC. Topical application of InsP(6) to early-stage somatic embryos indeed inhibits embryonic growth. • Recently evidence has begun to emerge that InsP(6) may also play a regulatory role in plant cells. We anticipate that our findings will help to stimulate additional investigations aimed at elucidating the roles of inositol phosphates in cellular growth and development in plants. PMID:22023391

Wu, Di; Sullards, M Cameron; Oldham, Charlie D; Gelbaum, Les; Lucrezi, Jacob; Pullman, Gerald S; May, Sheldon W

2011-10-24

17

Early-stage Widmanstaetten growth of the {gamma} phase in a duplex steel  

SciTech Connect

The present work studies the Widmanstaetten {gamma}-phase morphology and crystallographic orientation relationships with ferrite during its initial-stage growth in a duplex steel. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) analyses have been applied to determine the orientation relationship with high precision. When the secondary {gamma} phase and the {alpha} phase have special orientation relationships close to the K-S (Kurdjumov-Sachs) relation, the preferential growth involves {gamma} phase, protruding into {alpha} phase and this leads, finally, to the formation of Widmanstatten needles. The needles grow nearly along the invariant-line direction, but they do not satisfy exactly the K-S relation, and a slight angular deviation ({theta}{sub [110]{alpha}}) is always present. This deviation is explained by a compromise between the well-known invariant-line condition, which offers the easiest way for directional growth of the {gamma} phase, and a good atomic matching of the close-packed (1{ovr 11}){gamma} and (110){sub {alpha}} planes of both phases. A matching minimum at {theta}{sub [110]{alpha}} = 2.3 deg is obtained when only three pairs of the nearest-neighbor atoms are considered in an atomic misfit calculation.

Shek, C.H.; Dong, C.; Lai, J.K.L.; Wong, K.W.

2000-01-01

18

Growth pattern switch of renal cells and expression of cell cycle related proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy  

SciTech Connect

Renal hypertrophy, partly due to cell proliferation and hypertrophy, has been found correlated to renal function deterioration in diabetes mellitus. We screened the up-regulated cell cycle related genes to investigate cell growth and the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy using STZ-induced diabetic rats. Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2} and P{sup 27} were found significantly up-regulated in diabetic kidney. Increased cell proliferation in the kidney was seen at day 3, peaked at day 5, and returned to normal level at day 30. Cyclin E and CDK{sub 2} expression also peeked at day 5 and P{sup 27} activity peaked at day 14. These findings indicate that a hyperplastic growth period of renal cells is followed by a hypertrophic growth period at the early stage of diabetes. The growth pattern switch may be regulated by cell cycle regulating proteins, Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2}, and P{sup 27}.

Zhang Yanling [Department of Nephrology, Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Shi Yonghong [Department of Pathology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017 (China); Liu Yaling [Department of Dermatology, Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Dong Hui [Department of Neurology, Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050003 (China); Liu, Maodong; Li Ying [Department of Nephrology, Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Duan Huijun [Department of Pathology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017 (China)], E-mail: duanhj999@163.com

2007-11-09

19

Early stages of homopolymer collapse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in the protein folding problem has motivated a wide range of theoretical and experimental studies of the kinetics of the collapse of flexible homopolymers. In this paper, a phenomenological model is proposed for the kinetics of the early stages of homopolymer collapse following a quench from temperatures above to below the ? temperature. In the first stage, nascent droplets of the dense phase are formed, with little effect on the configurations of the bridges that join them. The droplets then grow by accreting monomers from the bridges, thus causing the bridges to stretch. During these two stages, the overall dimensions of the chain decrease only weakly. Further growth of the droplets is accomplished by the shortening of the bridges, which causes the shrinking of the overall dimensions of the chain. The characteristic times of the three stages scale as N0, N1/5, and N6/5, respectively, where N is the degree of polymerization of the chain.

Halperin, A.; Goldbart, Paul M.

2000-01-01

20

Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love.  

PubMed

Our current knowledge of the neurobiology of romantic love remains scanty. In view of the complexity of a sentiment like love, it would not be surprising that a diversity of biochemical mechanisms could be involved in the mood changes of the initial stage of a romance. In the present study, we have examined whether the early romantic phase of a loving relationship could be associated with alterations in circulating levels of neurotrophins (NTs). Plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4 were measured in a total of 58 subjects who had recently fallen in love and compared with those of two control groups, consisting of subjects who were either single or were already engaged in a long-lasting relationship. NGF level was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the subjects in love [mean (SEM): 227 (14) pg/ml] than in either the subjects with a long-lasting relationship [123 (10) pg/ml] or the subjects with no relationship [149 (12) pg/ml]. Notably, there was also a significant positive correlation between levels of NGF and the intensity of romantic love as assessed with the passionate love scale (r = 0.34; p = 0.007). No differences in the concentrations of other NTs were detected. In 39 subjects in love who-after 12-24 months-maintained the same relationship but were no longer in the same mental state to which they had referred during the initial evaluation, plasma NGF levels decreased and became indistinguishable from those of the control groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that some behavioural and/or psychological features associated with falling in love could be related to raised NGF levels in the bloodstream. PMID:16289361

Emanuele, Enzo; Politi, Pierluigi; Bianchi, Marika; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Bertona, Marco; Geroldi, Diego

2005-11-10

21

Localization of vascular endothelial growth factor during the early stages of osteochondral regeneration using a bioabsorbable synthetic polymer scaffold.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a critical role in chondrogenic differentiation in the growth plate of the epiphysis. This function is necessary for chondrocyte survival in cartilage development. We investigated the localization of VEGF in the osteochondral regeneration process using a bioabsorbable polymer scaffold. Osteochondral defects (5 mm in diameter and 5 mm in depth) were made on the femoral condyle of forty-eight skeletally mature female Japanese white rabbits. In total, twenty-four defects were filled with poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) scaffolds and the others were left untreated. The regeneration process was investigated macroscopically, histologically, immunohistochemically, and by gene expression analysis. In the early stages of osteochondral regeneration, bone ingrowth was observed in the deep zone of the scaffold with continuous VEGF expression; cartilage regeneration was observed in the superficial zone of the scaffold with decreased VEGF expression. In contrast, when the defect was left untreated, VEGF localization was observed throughout the entire defect area, and cartilage regeneration at the articular surface was delayed. We conclude that decrease in localization of VEGF at the articular surface in the postoperative early stage is closely related to the progression of cartilage regeneration in osteochondral defects. PMID:21809378

Sakata, Ryosuke; Kokubu, Takeshi; Nagura, Issei; Toyokawa, Narikazu; Inui, Atsuyuki; Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Kurosaka, Masahiro

2011-08-01

22

Early development of the postcranial skeleton of the pikeperch Sander lucioperca (Teleostei: Percidae) relating to developmental stages and growth.  

PubMed

The early development of the postcranial skeleton (pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, vertebral column and fins) in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.)) was studied from hatching to days 47 and 43 post fertilization (dpf) at two different rearing temperatures, 15.5 and 18.0°C. Four embryonic and six larval stages were described, ranging from 3.4 ± 0.3 mm to 21.8 ± 2.1 mm in total length. The crucial point in larval development is swimbladder inflation, which enables larvae to swim energy efficiently. Until this time point, only the most essential skeletal elements to enable swimming movements have developed. As the larvae become neutrally buoyant, they grow and differentiate postcranial elements rapidly. Concurrently, swimming performance and foraging success seems to improve. A specific size is correlated with a distinct developmental stage defined by a set of traits that includes the skeletal elements. The developmental sequence of skeletal structures is temperature independent, although growth is slower and the individual developmental stages are reached later at 15.5°C than at 18.0°C. PMID:22505228

Ott, Alice; Löffler, Jasmin; Ahnelt, Harald; Keckeis, Hubert

2012-04-14

23

[Construction of individual-based ecological model for Scomber japonicas at its early growth stages in East China Sea].  

PubMed

By adopting FVCOM-simulated 3-D physical field and based on the biological processes of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicas) in its early life history from the individual-based biological model, the individual-based ecological model for S. japonicas at its early growth stages in the East China Sea was constructed through coupling the physical field in March-July with the biological model by the method of Lagrange particle tracking. The model constructed could well simulate the transport process and abundance distribution of S. japonicas eggs and larvae. The Taiwan Warm Current, Kuroshio, and Tsushima Strait Warm Current directly affected the transport process and distribution of the eggs and larvae, and indirectly affected the growth and survive of the eggs and larvae through the transport to the nursery grounds with different water temperature and foods. The spawning grounds in southern East China Sea made more contributions to the recruitment to the fishing grounds in northeast East China Sea, but less to the Yangtze estuary and Zhoushan Island. The northwestern and southwestern parts of spawning grounds had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Cheju and Tsushima Straits, whereas the northeastern and southeastern parts of the spawning ground had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Kyushu and Pacific Ocean. PMID:22937663

Li, Yue-Song; Chen, Xin-Jun; Yang, Hong

2012-06-01

24

Nucleation and early-stage growth of creep cavities in hot-pressed silicon carbide  

SciTech Connect

Fine-grained silicon carbide with a continuous second phase grain boundary film was crept under compressive loading at 1600/sup 0/ C. The resultant nucleation and growth of creep cavities was characterized using small angle neutron scattering. It was found that nucleation occurred within approximately the first 5% of the lifetime, so that the modeling of failure essentially involves the treatment of cavity growth and ultimate coalescence. The results suggested that cavity nucleation and growth occurred entirely within the viscous grain boundary film. However, the cavities do not grow, crack-like across the grain boundary facets, but rather nucleate as lens shaped pores which gradually transform as the film thickens, to very slowly growing spheroidal cavities. The results are shown to contrast with similar experiments on an alumina with clean grain boundaries, in which pore nucleation, rather than pore growth, controlled creep life.

Paye, R.A.; Lankford, J.; Spooner, S.

1984-09-01

25

Early stages of growth of gold layers sputter deposited on glass and silicon substrates  

PubMed Central

Extremely thin gold layers were sputter deposited on glass and silicon substrates, and their thickness and morphology were studied by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods. The deposited layers change from discontinuous to continuous ones for longer deposition times. While the deposition rate on the silicon substrate is constant, nearly independent on the layer thickness, the rate on the glass substrate increases with increasing layer thickness. The observed dependence can be explained by a simple kinetic model, taking into account different sticking probabilities of gold atoms on a bare glass substrate and regions with gold coverage. Detailed analysis of the shape of the RBS gold signal shows that in the initial stages of the deposition, the gold layers on the glass substrate consist of gold islands with significantly different thicknesses. These findings were confirmed by AFM measurements, too. Gold coverage of the silicon substrate is rather homogeneous, consisting of tiny gold grains, but a pronounced worm-like structure is formed for the layer thickness at electrical continuity threshold. On the glass substrate, the gold clusters of different sizes are clearly observed. For later deposition stages, a clear tendency of the gold atoms to aggregate into larger clusters of approximately the same size is observed. At later deposition stages, gold clusters of up to 100?nm in diameter are formed.

2012-01-01

26

Ultrasonic monitoring of early­stage biofilm growth on polymeric surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm growth on polymeric surfaces was monitored using ultrasonic frequency-domain reflectometry (UFDR). The materials utilized for this study included nonporous polycarbonate (PC) sheets, polyamide (PA) nanofiltration composite membranes and porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes (nominal pore size: 0.65 ?m). Coupons of each material were placed in a biologically active annular reactor for up to 300 days, and subjected to a constant

Elmira Kujundzic; A. Cristina Fonseca; Emily A. Evans; Michael Peterson; Alan R. Greenberg; Mark Hernandez

2007-01-01

27

Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed.

Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2012-01-01

28

Ultrasonic monitoring of early-stage biofilm growth on polymeric surfaces.  

PubMed

Biofilm growth on polymeric surfaces was monitored using ultrasonic frequency-domain reflectometry (UFDR). The materials utilized for this study included nonporous polycarbonate (PC) sheets, polyamide (PA) nanofiltration composite membranes and porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes (nominal pore size: 0.65 microm). Coupons of each material were placed in a biologically active annular reactor for up to 300 days, and subjected to a constant shear field (0.12 N m(-2)), which induced sessile microbial growth from acetate amended municipal tap water. Acoustic monitoring was non-destructively executed by traversing coupons in a constant temperature water bath using a spherically focused 20-MHz immersion transducer. This semi-automated system was configured to obtain reflections from 50 regions (c.a. 120x10(3) microm2) distributed evenly near the centerline of each coupon. The resulting reflected power distributions were compared with standard biochemical and microscopic assays that described surface associated biofilms. When compared to clean (virgin) conditions, biofilms growing on coupons induced consistent attenuations in reflection amplitude, which caused statistically significant shifts in reflected power (p<0.01). Using exocellular polysaccharides as a surrogate measure of total biofilm mass, UFDR was able to detect biofilms developing on any of the materials tested at surface-averaged masses < or = 150 microg cm(-2). Above these threshold levels, increasing amounts of exocellular polysaccharides correlated with significant decreases in total reflected power (TRP). The distribution of biomass on the coupon surfaces determined by acoustic spectra was consistent with that observed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). These results suggest that UFDR may be used as a non-destructive tool to monitor biofouling in a wide variety of applications. PMID:17141898

Kujundzic, Elmira; Fonseca, A Cristina; Evans, Emily A; Peterson, Michael; Greenberg, Alan R; Hernandez, Mark

2006-12-04

29

De novo lipogenesis in the liver and adipose tissues of ducks during early growth stages after hatching.  

PubMed

In vivo de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in the liver and adipose tissues of ducks during early developmental stages after hatching has not previously been investigated. In this study, female Peking ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) at weeks 1 to 8 post-hatching were selected for experimentation. We measured the mRNA levels of 6 DNL-related genes in the duck liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue and abdominal adipose tissue by real-time PCR during the 8 weeks. Correlations of the plasma triacylglycerol (TG) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations with fat deposition at these sites were also detected during growth. Our results showed that fat content was highest in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and lowest in the liver during the growth period we studied. Additionally, plasma VLDL and TG were significantly associated with lipid content in adipose tissue (P<0.05), but not in the liver. Lastly, in the growing birds, the expression levels of lipogenic genes (with the exceptions SREBP-1c and SCD1) were much higher in the liver than in the adipose tissues, and the maximal expression levels of these genes occurred at week 4 or 5 at these sites. These findings indicated that the main site of DNL is always the liver in post-hatching ducks, and adipose tissues are of little importance for DNL. Taken together, our results suggested that the plasma lipoproteins contribute greatly to fat deposition in adipose tissues originating from hepatic lipogenesis. PMID:22652187

Ding, Fang; Pan, Zhixiong; Kou, Jie; Li, Le; Xia, Lu; Hu, Shenqiang; Liu, Hehe; Wang, Jiwen

2012-05-29

30

The Yellow Brick Road and the Emerald City: Benefit Finding, Positive Reappraisal Coping, and Posttraumatic Growth in Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictors and outcomes of benefit finding, positive reappraisal coping, and posttraumatic growth were examined using interviews and questionnaires from a longitudinal study of women with early-stage breast cancer followed from primary medical treatment completion to 3 (n = 92) and 12 months (n = 60) later. Most women (83%) reported at least 1 benefit of their breast cancer experience. Benefit

Sharon R. Sears; Annette L. Stanton; Sharon Danoff-Burg

2003-01-01

31

Structural style and early stage growth of inversion structures: 3D seismic insights from the Egersund Basin, offshore Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-quality three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection and borehole data from the Egersund Basin, offshore Norway are used to characterise the structural style and determine the timing of growth of inversion-related anticlines adjacent to a segmented normal fault system. Two thick-skinned normal faults, which offset Permian clastics and evaporites, delineate the north-eastern margin of the basin. These faults strike NNW-SSE, have up to 1900 m of displacement and are separated by an ESE-dipping, c. 10 km wide relay ramp. Both of these faults display exclusively normal separation at all structural levels and tip out upwards into the upper part of the Lower Cretaceous succession. At relatively shallow structural levels in the hangingwalls of these faults, a series of open, low-amplitude, fault-parallel anticlines are developed. These anticlines, which are asymmetric and verge towards the footwalls of the adjacent faults, are interpreted to have formed in response to mild inversion of the Egersund Basin. The amplitude of and apparent shortening associated with the anticlines vary along strike, and these variations mimic the along-strike variations in throw observed on the adjacent fault segments. We suggest that this relationship can be explained by along-strike changes in the propensity of the normal faults to reactivate during shortening; wider damage zones and lower angles of internal friction, coupled with higher pore fluids pressures at the fault centre, mean that reactivation is easier at this location than at the fault tips or in the undeformed country rock. Seismic-stratigraphic analysis of growth strata indicate that the folds initiated in the latest Turonian-to-earliest Coniacian (c. 88.6 Ma) and Santonian (c. 82.6 Ma); the control on this c. 6 Myr diachroneity in the initiation of fold growth is not clear, but it may be related to strain partitioning during the early stages of shortening. Anticline growth ceased in the Maastrichtian and the inversion event is therefore interpreted to have lasted at least c. 20 Myr. This study indicates that 3D seismic reflection data is a key tool to investigate the role that normal fault segmentation can play in controlling the structural style and timing of inversion in sedimentary basins. Furthermore, our results highlight the impact that this structural style variability may have on the development of structural and stratigraphic hydrocarbon traps in weakly-inverted rifts.

Jackson, C. A.-L.; Chua, S.-T.; Bell, R. E.; Magee, C.

2013-01-01

32

Influence of egg size on growth and survival of early stages of Siberian sturgeon ( Acipenser baeri) under small scale hatchery conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the relationships between egg and newly hatched larvae sizes and growth and survival of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri) during early stages of development. We hypothesised that this may lead to improved rearing techniques and hatchery management. Eggs (mean size 2.8–4.1 mm) were obtained from 20 cultured 13–14 years old females. There was a positive

E Gisbert; P Williot; F Castelló-Orvay

2000-01-01

33

Interleukin 6: a fibroblast-derived growth inhibitor of human melanoma cells from early but not advanced stages of tumor progression.  

PubMed Central

Recently we reported that human dermal fibroblasts, or conditioned media obtained from such cells, affect the growth of human melanoma cells as a direct function of tumor progression: melanoma cells obtained from early-stage (metastatically incompetent) primary lesions were growth inhibited, whereas cells obtained from more advanced (metastatically competent) primary lesions, or metastases, were growth stimulated. Ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography of fibroblast conditioned medium revealed the inhibitor to be a protein of molecular mass between 20 and 30 kDa and distinct from the stimulator. This is the approximate molecular mass of interleukin 6 (IL-6), a ubiquitous multifunctional cytokine known to affect in particular many kinds of hemopoietic and lymphoid cells. Since this cytokine is known to be made by fibroblasts, we attempted to determine if the human fibroblast-derived growth inhibitor (hFDGI) was identical to IL-6. Neutralizing antibodies specific for IL-6 completely eliminated the inhibitory activity of hFDGI. Moreover, exposure to human recombinant IL-6 was found to inhibit the growth of early-stage melanoma cells obtained from radial growth phase (RGP) or early vertical growth phase (VGP) primary lesions in three of four cases. In contrast, melanoma cells from a number of more advanced VGP primary lesions, or from distant metastases, were completely resistant to this IL-6-mediated growth inhibition. Acquisition of an "IL-6-resistant" phenotype by metastatically competent melanoma cell variants may provide such cells with a proliferative advantage within the dermal mesenchyme (a hallmark of melanoma cells that are malignant), helping them eventually to dominate advanced primary lesions and to establish secondary growths elsewhere. Images

Lu, C; Vickers, M F; Kerbel, R S

1992-01-01

34

Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Haddix, T. M.; Holte, L. D.; Wilson, R. H.; Bartron, M. L.; Kalie, J. A.; DeHaan, P. W.; Ardren, W. R.; Holm, R. J.; Jaeger, M. E.

2012-01-01

35

The blood level of transforming growth factor-beta rises in the early stages of acute protein and energy deficit in the weanling mouse.  

PubMed

Plasma transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta levels are high in the advanced stages of acute (wasting) pre-pubescent deficits of protein and energy. Consequently, this potently anti-inflammatory cytokine may help to sustain the depression of inflammatory immune competence in acute malnutrition. Our objective was to determine if plasma TGF-beta levels rise during the early stages of acute malnutrition and, secondarily, to confirm the elevation reported previously in advanced weight loss. In two experiments, male and female C57BL/6J mice, initially 19 d old, consumed ad libitum a complete purified diet (group C), or in restricted daily quantities (group R) or had free access to an isoenergetic low-protein diet (group LP). TGF-beta bioactivity in platelet-poor plasma was determined via inhibition of Mv1Lu mink lung cell proliferation after 3 d (Expt 1, early stage) or 14 d (Expt 2, advanced stage) of dietary intervention. At 3 d, mean plasma TGF-beta bioactivities were 802 (C), 2952 (R) and 4678 (LP) pg/ml, and after 14 d mean bioactivities were 1786 (C), 5360 (R) and 5735 (LP) pg/ml. At both time points, the malnourished groups differed from age-matched controls (P early rise in blood TGF-beta concentration, and this cytokine joins corticosterone and IL-10 as a third anti-inflammatory hormone temporally positioned to contribute to the initiation (and maintenance) of malnutrition-associated immune depression. This investigation contributes new insight into the active anti-inflammatory form of immune competence that appears to prevail in acute pre-pubescent malnutrition. PMID:19941677

Monk, Jennifer M; Woodward, Bill

2009-11-27

36

Evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Prognostic Marker for Local Relapse in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important protein involved in the process of angiogenesis that has been found to correlate with relapse-free and overall survival in breast cancer, predominantly in locally advanced and metastatic disease. A paucity of data is available on the prognostic implications of VEGF in early-stage breast cancer; specifically, its prognostic value for local relapse after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to assess VEGF expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with BCT and to correlate the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes with overexpression of VEGF. Methods and Materials: After obtaining institutional review board approval, the paraffin specimens of 368 patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT between 1975 and 2005 were constructed into tissue microarrays with twofold redundancy. The tissue microarrays were stained for VEGF and read by a trained pathologist, who was unaware of the clinical details, as positive or negative according the standard guidelines. The clinical and pathologic data, long-term outcomes, and results of VEGF staining were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 6.5 years. VEGF expression was positive in 56 (15%) of the 368 patients. Although VEGF expression did not correlate with age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, histologic type, family history, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or HER-2 status, a trend was seen toward increased VEGF expression in the black cohort (26% black vs. 13% white, p = .068). Within the margin-negative cohort, VEGF did not predict for local relapse-free survival (RFS) (96% vs. 95%), nodal RFS (100% vs. 100%), distant metastasis-free survival (91% vs. 92%), overall survival (92% vs. 97%), respectively (all p >.05). Subset analysis revealed that VEGF was highly predictive of local RFS in node-positive, margin-negative patients (86% vs. 100%, p = .029) on univariate analysis, but it did not retain its significance on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.804-7.920, p = .113). No other subgroups were identified in which a correlation was found between VEGF expression and local relapse. Conclusion: To our knowledge, our study is the first to assess the prognostic value of VEGF with the endpoint of local relapse in early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT, an important question given the recent increased use of targeted antiangiogenic agents in early-stage breast cancer. Our study results suggest that VEGF is not an independent predictor of local RFS after BCT, but additional, larger studies specifically analyzing the endpoint of VEGF and local relapse are warranted.

Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yang Qifeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of China (China); Goyal, Sharad [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Harris, Lyndsay; Chung, Gina [Department of Medical Oncology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

2011-12-01

37

Effect of application rate of commercial lignite-derived amendments on early-stage growth of Medicago sativa and soil health, in acidic soil conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercially available lignite-derived amendments, sold mainly as humate preparations, have been promoted as plant growth stimulants leading to higher crop yields. These products are also claimed to improve soil properties such as pH. This study investigated the effect of application rate of three lignite-derived amendments on the early-stage growth of a pasture legume, lucerne (Medicago sativa), and soil health in a soil type common to south eastern Australia, in a glasshouse setting. An organic-mineral humate product and 'run of mine' lignite coal did not improve shoot or root growth despite application at a range of rates at, and in excess of, the manufacturers recommendation. Application of soluble K-humate product at 20 kg/ha (9.5 kg/ha C equivalent) produced an observable positive effect in shoot growth. At this application rate, a significant delay in the appearance of chlorotic symptoms was observed along with an increase in soil pH concurrent with decreased availability of soil Mn and Al. Higher root dry weight was associated with lower microbial biomass carbon which may indicate an effect on allocation of resources between the microbial community and the plant. An assessment of the effectiveness of lignite-derived amendments on plant growth, as well as their potential to improve the health of an acidic soil will assist farmers in making decisions regarding the use of these products.

Patti, Antonio; Little, Karen; Rose, Michael; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Tim

2013-04-01

38

Early Stages of Orogenic Growth: Asymmetry of the Pyrenees Revealed by Detrital Zircons Double Dating (u/pb and U-Th and Detrital Aft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late exhumation stages of the doubly vergent Pyrenean orogen are well constrained by recently published in situ AFT and ZFT data that allows distinguishing a major asymmetry between the pro and retro-wedge acquired after 50Ma and a sharp increase in exhumation at 35-30 Ma. In contrast, the early stages of convergence and orogenesis (after 80 Ma and prior to 40 Ma) and the associated sediment routing system are poorly constrained. In this respect, we have carried out He-Pb dating on two southern foreland sandstone samples (pro-wedge side) and AFT-He-Pb dating on three northern foreland sandstone samples (retro-wedge side). Those five samples, whose stratigraphic ages are comparable, are used to determine the geochronological signature and exhumation of source areas as well as the morphostructural evolution for both sides of the Pyrenees and thrust sequence on the pro-wedge side of the orogen. Double dating of detrital zircons from the pro-wedge side for two Paleogene sandstones brought two major results: (i) the identification of an unexpected dominant grain-age population, in the 65 Ma and 40 Ma sediments, derived from Permo-Triassic doleritic sills (U/Pb ages of ~230 Ma), revealing that no Late Variscan granitoids were outcropping until 40 Ma and (ii) He-Pb ages distribution in Permo-Triassic grains revealing that a steady relief of 2-3 km established early in the Pyrenees concurrenlty with the shift of focused exhumation to the south, as the deformation migrated to the pro-wedge side of the orogen between 65 and 40 Ma. Coupled detrital AFT and zircons double dating in the retro-wedge side shows that Paleozoic basement has been the major sediment source during the Paleogene since the early stages of orogenic growth, differing from the southern Pyrenees. This implies that the morphology of the retro-wedge remained quite stable during the Paleogene. This is also supported by both the well-known thrust sequence and the present-day outcropping sources. AFT ages distribution in two of our samples exhibit an early Cretaceous population (105Ma) and a major synorogenic population (~60Ma). Based on this population, we estimate a mean exhumation rate of about 0.3-0.4km/Ma during the first stages of collision. The comparison between samples from the pro- and the retro-wedge side allows us to infer a strong asymmetry of the Pyrenean range since the very beginning of the collision, with erosion of the late Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary cover in the southern side while the Paleozoic crystalline basement was eroded in the northern side.

Filleaudeau, P.; Mouthereau, F.; Pik, R.; Fellin, M.

2010-12-01

39

Opposing Roles for CD34 in B16 Melanoma Tumor Growth Alter Early Stage Vasculature and Late Stage Immune Cell Infiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor growth and metastasis are determined by the complex interplay of factors, including those intrinsic to tumor cells and extrinsic factors associated with the tumor microenvironment. Our previous work demonstrated key roles for CD34 in the maintenance of vascular integrity and eosinophil and mast cell homing. Since both of these functions affect tumor development, we characterized the effect of CD34

Steven Maltby; Spencer Freeman; Matthew J. Gold; Jennifer H. E. Baker; Andrew I. Minchinton; Michael R. Gold; Calvin D. Roskelley; Kelly M. McNagny; Maria G. Castro

2011-01-01

40

Early Stages of Pulsed-Laser Growth of Silicon Microcolumns and Microcones in Air and SF6  

SciTech Connect

Dense arrays of high-aspect-ratio silicon microcolumns and microcones are formed by cumulative nanosecond pulsed excimer laser irradiation of single-crystal silicon in oxidizing atmospheres such as air and SF6. Growth of such surface microstructures requires a redeposition model and also involves elements of self-organization. The shape of the microstructures, i.e. straight columns vs steeply sloping cones and connecting walls, is governed by the type and concentration of the oxidizing species, e.g. oxygen vs fluorine. Growth is believed to occur by a ?catalyst-free? VLS (vapor-liquid-solid) mechanism that involves repetitive melting of the tips of the columns/cones and deposition there of the ablated flux of Si-containing vapor. Results are presented of a new investigation of how such different final microstructures as microcolumns or microcones joined by walls nucleate and develop. The changes in silicon surface morphology were systematically determined and compared as the number of pulsed KrF (248 nm) laser shots was increased from 25 to several thousand in both air and SF6. The experiments in air and SF6 reveal significant differences in initial surface cracking and pattern formation. Consequently, local protrusions are first produced and column or cone/wall growth is initiated by different processes and at different rates. Differences in the spatial organization of column or cone/wall growth also are apparent.

Lowndes, D.H.; Fowlkes, J.D.; Pedraza, A.J.

1999-07-29

41

Evolution of surface morphology at the early stage of Al2O3 film growth on a rough substrate.  

PubMed

We present an experimental study of the evolution of the surface of a growing film as a function of the statistical parameters of the virgin substrate roughness. The growth of sputter-deposited Al(2)O(3) films onto Si substrates was followed in situ using an x-ray scattering technique. Despite the use of substrates presenting different roughness correlation length and crystallographic orientation, the evolution of the film roughness is demonstrated to obey the same scaling law, i.e., with the same static and dynamic exponents. Approaches to accurately determine the scaling exponents from x-ray scattering data are discussed. PMID:21403247

Filatova, E O; Peverini, L; Ziegler, E; Kozhevnikov, I V; Jonnard, P; André, J-M

2010-08-03

42

Classification of images of wheat, ryegrass and brome grass species at early growth stages using principal component analysis  

PubMed Central

Wheat is one of the most important crops in Australia, and the identification of young plants is an important step towards developing an automated system for monitoring crop establishment and also for differentiating crop from weeds. In this paper, a framework to differentiate early narrow-leaf wheat from two common weeds from their digital images is developed. A combination of colour, texture and shape features is used. These features are reduced to three descriptors using Principal Component Analysis. The three components provide an effective and significant means for distinguishing the three grasses. Further analysis enables threshold levels to be set for the discrimination of the plant species. The PCA model was evaluated on an independent data set of plants and the results show accuracy of 88% and 85% in the differentiation of ryegrass and brome grass from wheat, respectively. The outcomes of this study can be integrated into new knowledge in developing computer vision systems used in automated weed management.

2011-01-01

43

Effect of nutrient intake on intramuscular glucose metabolism during the early growth stage in cross-bred steers (Japanese Black male × Holstein female).  

PubMed

The objective was to investigate the impact of nutrient intake during the early growth period on the expression of glucose metabolism-related genes in skeletal muscle of cross-bred cattle. From 1.5 to 5 months of age, group H (n=7) animals were intensively fed a high-protein and low-fat milk replacer [crude protein (CP) 28%; ether extracts (EE) 18%; max: 2.0 kg, 12 l/day], and group R (n=7) animals were fed a restricted amount of normal milk replacer (CP 25%; EE 23%; max 0.5 kg, 4 l/day). From 6 to 10 months of age, group H cattle were fed a high-nutrition total mixed ration mainly prepared from grain feed, and group R cattle were fed only roughage. Blood samples were taken from each animal at three biopsy times (1.5, 5 and 10 months of age), and the blood plasma concentration of glucose and insulin was analysed. In glucose concentration, there were no significant differences; however, the concentrations of insulin were higher in group H than in group R at 5 and 10 months of age. Muscle samples were taken by biopsy from longissimus thoracis muscle (LT) at 1.5, 5 and 10 months of age. We analysed mRNA expression levels using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT4), insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), hexokinase 1 (HK1) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?). Although no differences were detected at 1.5 and 5 months of age, at 10 months of age, GLUT1, HK1 and TNF? mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in group H than in group R. These results suggested Glut1 that affects insulin-independently mediated glucose uptake was more responsive to improved nutrition during early growth stage than GLUT4 that insulin-dependently mediated glucose uptake in LT of cattle. PMID:22698257

Ebara, F; Inada, S; Morikawa, M; Asaoka, S-H; Isozaki, Y; Saito, A; Etoh, T; Shiotsuka, Y; Roh, S G; Wegner, J; Gotoh, T

2012-06-14

44

Delirium in Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Delirium is a disorder of acute onset with fluctuating symptoms and is characterized by inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered levels of consciousness. The risk for delirium is greatest in individuals with dementia, and the incidence of both is increasing worldwide because of the aging of our population. Although several clinical trials have tested interventions for delirium prevention in individuals without dementia, little is known about the mechanisms for the prevention of delirium in early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The purpose of this article is to explore ways of preventing delirium and slowing the rate of cognitive decline in early-stage AD by enhancing cognitive reserve. An agenda for future research on interventions to prevent delirium in individuals with early-stage AD is also presented.

Fick, Donna M.; Kolanowski, Ann; Beattie, Elizabeth; McCrow, Judith

2010-01-01

45

Favorable early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

The category of favorable early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) includes patients with Ann Arbor stages I or II disease with no bulky disease or B symptoms. The precise definition of favorable versus unfavorable early-stage disease may vary among American and European cooperative groups. The overall 10-year survival rate of patients with favorable early-stage HL exceeds 90%. Indeed, effective treatments for this group of patients have been available for more than 4 decades. However, treatment strategies have radically changed over the past 15 years and focus now on maintaining the high cure rate while reducing the risk of treatment-related long-term morbidity. The optimal treatment is still evolving, and more recently, reduction in the total amount of chemotherapy and in radiation field and dose has shown excellent results. Combined modality therapy is the preferred treatment for patients with classical favorable early-stage HL (nodular sclerosis or mixed cellularity histology). Patients with early-stage lymphocyte predominance HL are highly curable using involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) alone and do not require chemotherapy. Classical favorable HL is also curable with radiotherapy alone or with chemotherapy alone, but larger fields and higher-dose radiation or longer chemotherapy is required compared with combined modality. The freedom from treatment failure rate is significantly better with a combination of short chemotherapy and IFRT than with either chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone. Although combined modality is the standard preferred treatment for favorable disease, radiation therapy alone or chemotherapy alone could be considered under special circumstances or as part of an investigational protocol. PMID:16507270

Yahalom, Joachim

2006-03-01

46

Testosterone induces redistribution of forkhead box-3a and down-regulation of growth and differentiation factor 9 messenger ribonucleic acid expression at early stage of mouse folliculogenesis.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence has shown that excess androgen may be a main cause of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the molecular mechanism of androgen action on the ovary is unclear. To investigate the possible impacts of androgen on early follicular development, neonatal mouse ovaries mainly containing primordial follicles were cultured with testosterone. We demonstrated that the number of primary follicles was increased after 10 d culture with testosterone treatment via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Androgen induced Forkhead box (Foxo)-3a activation, and translocation of Foxo3a protein from oocyte nuclei to cytoplasm, which might be a key step for primordial follicle activation. Interestingly, testosterone was also capable of down-regulating growth and differentiation factor-9 expression via its receptor. In summary, we infer that intraovarian excess androgen in PCOS might result in excess early follicles by inducing oocyte Foxo3a translocation and follicular arrest by down-regulating growth and differentiation factor-9 expression. PMID:20032061

Yang, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Li, Lei; Huang, Lin; Ji, Shao-Yang; Lu, Cui-Ling; Fan, Cui-Hong; Cai, Huan; Ren, Yu; Hu, Zhao-Yuan; Gao, Fei; Liu, Yi-Xun

2009-12-23

47

Sensors for monitoring early stage fatigue cracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sensor systems were evaluated for their ability to detect early stage fatigue cracking in open holes. The sensor systems were (1) a Meandering Winding Magnetometer Array sensor system that induces eddy currents to monitor conductivity changes; (2) a through-transmission ultrasonic technique that monitors energy loss, and (3) the Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor which detects fatigue-induced changes in a metal surface

John M. Papazian; Jerrell Nardiello; Robert P. Silberstein; Greg Welsh; David Grundy; Chris Craven; Leslie Evans; Neil Goldfine; Jennifer E. Michaels; Thomas E. Michaels; Yuanfeng Li; Campbell Laird

2007-01-01

48

Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks  

SciTech Connect

Processes in growth of short cracks and stage I of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl{sup {minus}}, with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl{sup {minus}} or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage I behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK{sup m} where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

1993-12-01

49

Open Architecture Framework for Improved Early Stage Submarine Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Could transparency between current disparate methods improve efficiency in early stage submarine design. Does the lack of transparency between current design methods hinder the effectiveness of early stage submarine design. This thesis proposes that coord...

E. A. Sewell

2010-01-01

50

Treatment Choices for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI Treatment Choices for Men With Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Posted: 02/11/2011 Treatment Choices for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer About This Booklet ...

51

Early growth and later atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

The concept that early growth has long-term biological effects is based on extensive studies in animals dating from the 1930s. More recently, compelling evidence for a long-term influence of early growth on later health has also emerged in humans. Substantial data now support the hypothesis that 'accelerated', or too fast infant growth, increases the propensity to obesity, glucose intolerance, raised blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and endothelial dysfunction, the clustering of risk factors which predispose to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association between infant growth and these risk factors is strong, consistent, shows a dose-response effect, and is biologically plausible. Moreover, experimental data from prospective randomized controlled trials strongly support a causal link between infant growth and later cardiovascular risk. These observations suggest, therefore, that the primary prevention of CVD should begin from as early as the first few months of life. The present review considers this evidence, the underlying mechanisms involved, and its implications for public health. PMID:23428696

Singhal, Atul

2013-02-11

52

Research on the early planet formation stages with IPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stages of planet formation are characterized by growth of fractal aggregates, starting from (sub-)micrometer-sized grains to (fractal) aggregates of roughly mm size. In the last 20 years a number of experiments on the behaviour and growth mechanisms of aggregates has been carried out. Laboratory experiments are limited due to sedimentation (e.g. Heim and Blum 1998, Wurm et al 2001). Previous long-term microgravity experiments CODAG (Blum et al 2000) and CODAG-SRE (Krause and Blum 2004) were mainly limited by the diffusion of particles, a fact which IPE tries to overcome by means of a particle trap. We present how IPE will help to extend these experimental boundaries and how we plan to utilize IPE. Finally we outline the expectations on the facility from a planet formation point of view in the domain of the mutual interactions, evolution, growth and morphology of fractal aggregates.

Ingo von Borstel, Olaf; Blum, Jurgen; Schraepler, Rainer

53

Pancreatic Perfusion CT in Early Stage of Severe Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Early intensive care for severe acute pancreatitis is essential for improving SAP mortality rates. However, intensive therapies for SAP are often delayed because there is no ideal way to accurately evaluate severity in the early stages. Currently, perfusion CT has been shown useful to predict prognosis of SAP in the early stage. In this presented paper, we would like to review the clinical usefulness and limitations of perfusion CT for evaluation of local and systemic complications in early stage of SAP.

Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Naoki; Tsutomu, Chiba

2012-01-01

54

Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-flow experiments (HFEs) from Glen Canyon Dam are primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River as it flows through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. These experimental flows also have the potential to affect the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach immediately below the dam, which supports a highly valued recreational fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Understanding how flow regimes affect the survival and growth of juvenile rainbow trout is critical to interpreting trends in adult abundance. This study reports on the effects of HFEs in 2004 and 2008 on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lees Ferry reach on the basis of monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance of the age-0 trout (fertilization to about 1 to 2 months from emergence) and their growth during a 7-year period between 2003 and 2009. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the March 2008 HFE resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 trout because of an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis demonstrated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was more than fourfold higher than expected, given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch-date analysis showed that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the 2008 HFE (about April 15, 2008) relative to those fish that hatched before this date. These cohorts, fertilized after the 2008 HFE, would have emerged into a benthic invertebrate community that had recovered, and was possibly enhanced by, the HFE. Interannual differences in growth of age-0 trout, determined on the basis of otolith microstructure, support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm/day) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm/day), the highest recorded during 6 years, even though abundance was eightfold greater in 2008. We speculate that the 60-hour-long 2008 HFE (with peak magnitude about twice that of the annual peak flow during the previous 4 years) increased interstitial spaces in the gravel bed substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth of these fish through summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was more than twofold higher than expected, given the estimated number of viable eggs deposited in that year, perhaps indicating that the effect of the 2008 HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent. In a 3-week interval that spanned the November 2004 HFE, abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 7 months old from hatch experienced about a threefold decline, compared to the approximately twofold decrease observed between November and December 2008. Abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 10 months old from hatch was very similar across sampling trips that spanned the March 2008 HFE. It is uncertain whether the decline in abundance after the November 2004 HFE was the result of higher flow-induced mortality or higher flow-induced downstream dispersal. A focused monitoring effort in Marble Canyon (the reach immediately downstream of the Lees Ferry tailwater) before and after future HFEs is recommended to resolve this uncertainty. Relatively detailed monitoring of early life stages-such as the program described in this study-is essential to establish linkages between Glen Canyon Dam operations, or possibly other factors, and trends in the abundance of important nonnative and native fish populations living downstream within Grand Canyon National Park.

Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

2010-01-01

55

Water-sensitivity of cotton growth stages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

All irrigations during a season are not equal in terms of providing economic return on the money spent to irrigate cotton. This article provides a brief description of the effect of water stress on cotton during the different growth stages of the plant and the relative benefit of irrigating to relie...

56

[Early diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer].  

PubMed

Case of pancreatic cancer have increased in number, and the number of deaths from that disease has reached 20,000 in recent years in Japan. Only a few patients with pancreatic cancer can be cured. However, the prognosis in small pancreatic cancer such as TS1 less than 2 cm is relatively good if radical surgical resection is performed. Therefore early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is important to improve the dismal prognosis. Although clinical symptoms are not reliable for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, 30% of TS1 patients have abdominal or back pain. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that familial history of pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, obesity, and smoking are possible high-risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Serum pancreatic enzyme and tumor markers in terms of CA19-9 and CEA are measured first. Ultrasonography (US) should be performed as soon as possible. Not only tumors but also slightly dilated main pancreatic ducts and/or small simple cysts that may represent indirect changes due to pancreatic cancer can be detected with US. Enhanced computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic US are also useful. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography yields more detailed images of branch ducts, and the cytology of pancreatic juice can be determined following examination. Unfortunately, position-emission tomography is not a reliable method for the diagnosis of small tumors in the pancreas. Finally, TNM staging of pancreatic cancer is performed based on the results of these imaging examinations. PMID:16878407

Shiratori, Keiko

2006-07-01

57

Enhancement in leaf photosynthesis and upregulation of rubisco in the C4 sorghum plant at elevated growth carbon dioxide and temperature occur at early stages of leaf ontogeny.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grain sorghum was grown at 350 and 700 (high) ppm CO2, and at daytime maximum/nighttime minimum temperatures of 30/20 and 36/26C. Gas exchange rates, activities of Rubisco and PEP carboxylase (PEPC), leaf area, and biomass of various plant components were determined at different stages of leaf and p...

58

Effect of Curcumin on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth and Expression of Major Genes Involved in the Early and Late Stages of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Background: The effect of curcumin as a natural safe compound with different biological activities was examined on fungal growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999. Methods: The fungus was cultured in presence of serial two-fold concentrations of curcumin (125–2000 ?g/ml) in yeast extract sucrose broth for 3 days at 28°C. Mycelia dry weight was determined as an index of fungal growth, while aflatoxin production was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The expression of ver-1, nor-1, pksA, omtA and aflR genes in aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway was evaluated by real time PCR. Results: Curcumin strongly inhibited aflatoxin B1 production in the range of 26.6 to 94.9% by serial two-fold concentrations from 125 to 2000 ?g/ml. Fungal growth was also inhibited by the compound in the range of 34.0 to 60.8%. Analysis of the expression of aflatoxin pathway genes by real time PCR showed that curcumin inhibited the expression of ver-1, nor-1, pksA, omtA and aflR genes at concentrations of 250 and 1000 ?g/ml. In concentration of 1000 ?g/ml, gene expression was reduced by 31.3%, 44.6%, 57.1% 110.9% and 286.7% accordingly. Reduction in the expression of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes was significant only for aflR. In ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay, curcumin showed strong antioxidant activity at all concentrations tested. Conclusion: Curcumin may be employed successfully as a good candidate in controlling of toxigenic fungal growth on food and feed and subsequent contamination with aflatoxins in practice.

Jahanshiri, Z; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M; Allameh, A; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M

2012-01-01

59

Growth, aluminium uptake and mucous cell morphometrics of early life stages of brown trout, Salmo trutta , in low pH water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  Young (7–10 days after hatching) brown trout (Salmo trutta) exposed for 5 days to pH 5 in high calcium water and at 2 temperatures (12°, 4°C) in the laboratory displayed no alterations\\u000a in growth or in mucous cell concentration and volume, compared to the control group kept at pH 7.2. Contamination of acid-stressed\\u000a young with 230 µg All-1 resulted in

Helmut Segner; Roland Marthaler; Michael Linnenbach

1988-01-01

60

Costs and effectiveness of staging and treatment options in early-stage Hodgkin’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Using a cost-effectiveness analysis, to weigh the costs and benefits of the different staging and treatment options in early-stage Hodgkin’s disease.Methods: We constructed a decision-analytic model for a hypothetical cohort of 25-year-old patients with early-stage Hodgkin’s disease. Markov models were used to simulate the lifetime costs and prognosis of each staging and treatment strategy. Baseline probabilities and cost estimates

Andrea K. Ng; Karen M. Kuntz; Peter M. Mauch

2001-01-01

61

Early stages in experiential marital therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of marital issues in symbolic-experiential therapy unfolds in somewhat predictable stages, though some of these may be imposed by tasks required by the therapist. The first stage calls for defining the dominant symbolic theme in the couple's struggle, and for engaging with that symbolic structure from a certain posture. Opening strategies are discussed for dilemmas concerning power, closeness,

Augustus Y. Napier

1987-01-01

62

Interactive sketching for the early stages of user interface design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current interactive user interface construction tools are often more of a hindrance than a benefit during the early stages of user interface design. These tools take too much time to use and force designers to specify more of the design details than they wish at this early stage. Most interface designers, especially those who have a background in graphic design,

James A. Landay; Brad A. Myers

1995-01-01

63

Interactive Sketching for the Early Stages of User Interface Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current interactive user interface construction tools are often more of a hindrance thana benefit during the early stages of interface design. These tools are hard to use andthey encourage designers and evaluators to focus on the wrong issues, such as color,fonts, and alignment, at this early stage. Most designers prefer instead to sketch earlyinterface ideas on paper. However, designing on

James A. Landay

1996-01-01

64

Effects at early stage of life of elevated milk replacer feeding on growth rate, plasma IGF-I concentration and intestinal nutrient transporter expression in Holstein bull calves.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the effects of an elevated amount of modified milk replacer on body weight, daily gain, starter intake, plasma endocrine parameters and expression of nutrient transporters in small intestinal epithelia, Holstein bull calves (n=24) were fed for 60days either with the usual amount of 24% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat milk (CF) replacer (C group), or with a double amount of a modified milk replacer of 28% CP and 16% CF (E group). Body weight from D20 to D60 and daily gain before D40 was greater or tended to be greater for the E group than the C group. Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and insulin were greater for the E group than the C group on D28 but not on D56, without changing plasma growth hormone levels. Gene expression for sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and fatty acid translocase (CD36) was altered in day- and intestine-dependent manners. From these findings, we conclude that an elevated intake of milk replacer given up to 40days old is sufficient to enhance body weight, which may be associated with increased plasma IGF-I concentrations, in Holstein bulls. PMID:22250743

Orihashi, Takenori; Mashiko, Takanori; Sera, Kenji; Roh, Sang-Gun; Katoh, Kazuo; Obara, Yoshiaki

2011-08-04

65

Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease

F. P. H. Gazeau; J.-P. Gattuso; C. Dawber; A. E. Pronker; F. Peene; J. Peene; C. H. R. Heip; J. J. Middelburg

2010-01-01

66

Early stages of trachea healing process: (immuno/lectin) histochemical monitoring of selected markers and adhesion/growth-regulatory endogenous lectins.  

PubMed

Tracheotomy may be associated with numerous acute and chronic complications including extensive formation of granulation tissue. The emerging functional versatility of the adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins prompted us to perform a histochemical study of wound healing using rat trachea as model. By using non-cross-reactive antibodies and the labelled tissue lectins we addressed the issue of the presence and regulation of galectin reactivity during trachea wound healing. Beside localization of high-molecular-weight keratin, wide-spectrum cytokeratin, keratins 10 and 14, ?-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, fibronectin, and Sox-2, galectins -1, -2, and -3 and their reactivity profiles were measured in frozen sections of wounded and control trachea specimens 7, 14, and 28 days after trauma. A clear trend for decreased galectin-1 presence and increased reactivity for galectin-1 was revealed from day 7 to day 28. Sox-2-positive cells were present after seven days and found in the wound bed. Interestingly, several similarities were observed in comparison to skin wound healing including regulation of galectin-1 parameters. PMID:22980504

Grendel, T; Sokolský, J; Vaš?áková, A; Hudák, V; Chovanec, M; Sabol, F; André, S; Kaltner, H; Gabius, H-J; Frankovi?ová, M; Len?eš, P; Betka, J; Smetana, K; Gál, P

2012-01-01

67

Early stages of massive star formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation processes of high-mass stars are not well understood, and the basic question can be phrased as: Do massive stars form similarly to low-mass stars, but with enhanced accretion rates, or are different processes taking place, e.g., the coalescence and merging of intermediate-mass protostars in the very center of star-forming clusters? This thesis investigates the earliest known stages of massive star formation and studies many characteristic parameters to set constraints on the associated physical processes. The analysis and results of my work strongly support the accretion hypothesis and may be summarized as follows: Massive stars can form via accretion processes that are qualitatively similar and quantitatively enhanced compared to the low-mass case. Coalescence of protostars may occur in some sources, but our data indicate that merging of protostars is not the dominating process for high-mass star formation. Because the inner few AU of a star-forming cluster, where the accretion and/or coalescence processes take place, are difficult to resolve with current observational techniques at typical source distances of several kpc, indirect evidence has to be found to answer the initial question. A sample of 69 high-mass protostellar candidates was selected and studied first statistically from the cm and mm regime to near-infrared wavelengths. The analysis revealed that the chosen sample selection criteria very effectively selected a large number of luminous and massive sources at very early evolutionary stages prior to forming a significant ultracompact HII region. Most likely, these sources produce a large fraction of their luminosity by accretion. A detailed analysis of the intensity and density distributions of the sample from 1.2 mm dust continuum emission maps with 11'' spatial resolution shows that the single-dish radial profiles are not well fitted by single power-law distributions, but that they steepen towards the outside and flatten towards the center. While we interpret the steepening to the outside as a signature of the finite sizes of the star-forming cores, the inner flattening indicates fragmentation of the massive cores into a number of sub-sources. The latter is also observed in high-resolution interferometric data of some of the regions. Additionally, the inner power-law density distributions do not show strong deviations from density distributions of low-mass star-forming cores, which indicates that the initial conditions of low- and high-mass star formation are not very different. As massive molecular outflows on large scales provide insights into the star formation process at the center of the regions, we mapped the outflows of a sub-sample in the CO(2-1) line. The data, observed at higher spatial resolution (11'') than previous studies, reveal that massive bipolar and collimated outflows are as ubiquitous phenomena in high-mass star-forming regions as is also true for their low-mass counterparts. Such collimated outflows are most likely produced by star--disk interactions, and hence, massive stars should have disks as well. The observations presented in this thesis reveal accretion rate estimates in the high-mass regime around 10^-4 Msun/yr, rising as high as 10-3 Msun/yr. Such accretion rates should be sufficiently high to overcome the radiative pressure of the central protostar, and accretion can continue to form massive stars. Additionally, we find that the accretion rate of the most massive object in a core scales roughly linearly with the core mass. Furthermore, a high-resolution interferometric case study of one of our sample sources shows that its outflow, which was already known from single-dish observations, actually splits up into at least three bipolar outflows. One of this outflows is the most collimated massive outflow ever observed in molecular gas. These results give strong support to the hypothesis that massive stars form in analogous fashion to low-mass stars; they merely differ in having higher accretion rates, core masses, luminosities and outflow masses. A study of CH3OH a

Beuther, H.

2002-03-01

68

Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention  

PubMed Central

Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. Conclusion This review summarizes currently available information on monitoring for short stature in children and conditions usually associated with short stature and summarizes the authors’ conclusions on the early recognition of growth disorders.

Haymond, Morey; Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Czernichow, Paul; Biller, Beverly MK; Takano, Koji; Kiess, Wieland

2013-01-01

69

8. Early stage of power house construction at Dam No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Early stage of power house construction at Dam No. 4, showing two stiff leg derricks used to excavate limestone for power house building. Photo c. 1907. Credit PEM. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

70

Model Atmospheres for the Early Stages of Novae in Outburst.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the photospheres of classical novae during the early stages of their outbursts, continuum and line blanketed models are presented. The expanding envelopes are characterized by small density gradients that lead to very large geometrical extensions and ...

R. Wehrse P. H. Hauschildt G. Shaviv S. G. Starrfield

1990-01-01

71

Morphological and Structural Investigation of the Early Stages of Epitaxial Growth of Alpha-Fe2O3 (0001) on Alpha-Al2O3 (0001) by Oxygen-Plasma-Assisted MBE  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the early stages of Alpha-Fe2O3 (0001) film growth on Alpha-Al2O3 (0001) using oxygen-plasma-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy along with reflection high-energy electron diffraction, noncontact atomic force microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffraction. A compressionally-strained, fully-stoichiometric Alpha-Fe2O3 film three monolayers thick forms prior to the onset of three-dimensional island formation and lattice relaxation. The surface of this film appears to buckle along <1120>, giving rise to a new set of inwardly-contracted diffraction spots which, if not resolved from the substrate spots, could be interpreted as a 12% in-plane lattice parameter expansion. Such an interpretation has led prior investigator to conclude that the interfacial layer consists of a disordered cation layer with an in-plane lattice parameter {approx}6% larger than that of Alpha-Fe2O3[4]. Our interpretation of the diffraction data suggests that the interfacial layer is badly distorted, but commensurate with the substrate.

Yi, Sang I. (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Liang, Yong (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thevuthasan, Theva (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Chambers, Scott A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

1999-01-01

72

Economic evaluation of the 70-gene prognosis-signature (MammaPrint®) in hormone receptor-positive, lymph node-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative early stage breast cancer in Japan.  

PubMed

The 70-gene prognosis-signature is validated as a good predictor of recurrence for hormone receptor-positive (ER+), lymph node-negative (LN-), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative (HER2-) early stage breast cancer (ESBC) in Japanese patient population. Its high cost and potential in avoiding unnecessary adjuvant chemotherapy arouse interest in its economic impact. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of including the assay into Japan's social health insurance benefit package. An economic decision tree and Markov model under Japan's health system from the societal perspective is constructed with clinical evidence from the pool analysis of validation studies. One-way sensitivity analyses are also performed. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated as ¥3,873,922/quality adjusted life year (QALY) (US$43,044/QALY), which is not more than the suggested social willingness-to-pay for one QALY gain from an innovative medical intervention in Japan, ¥5,000,000/QALY (US$55,556/QALY). However, sensitivity analyses show the instability of this estimation. The introduction of the assay into Japanese practice of ER+, LN-, HER2- ESBC treatment by including it to Japan's social health insurance benefit package has a reasonable chance to be judged as cost-effective and may be justified as an efficient deployment of finite health care resources. PMID:22315134

Kondo, Masahide; Hoshi, Shu-Ling; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Toi, Masakazu

2012-06-01

73

U87MG glioma cells overexpressing IL-17 acclerate early-stage growth in vivo and cause a higher level of CD31 mRNA expression in tumor tissues  

PubMed Central

Immunological alterations have been reported to be involved in glioma, the most common malignant disease of the adult brain. Our recent study identified higher levels of IL-17 in glioma specimens. The present study investigated the role and possible mechanisms of IL-17 in glioma tumorigenesis. Human IL-17 cDNA was cloned and inserted into the eukaryotic pEGFP-N1 expression vector, which was used to transfect the glioma U87MG cell line, resulting in a high level of IL-17 expression in these cells. The cells were then transfected with IL-17 (pEGFP-N1-IL-17-U87MG) or mock (pEGFP-N1-U87MG) vector or left untransfected (U87MG) and subcutaneously inoculated into the right flank of nude mice. The results revealed that the pEGFP-N1-IL-17-U87MG cells grew more rapidly in the early stages (P<0.05, determined on day 32 post-inoculation compared with the other two groups). Quantitative (q)PCR detected higher mouse (m)CD31 mRNA levels in the IL-17-transfected group (P<0.01) compared with the mock-transfected and untransfected groups. IL-17 transfection altered the mRNA expression of a panel of molecules that are associated with immunity and inflammation in U87MG cells in vitro. An effect of the vector was identified, whereby the mock transfection strongly inhibited cell growth in vivo and dramatically altered the mRNA levels of multiple molecules in the cell culture in vitro compared with the untransfected cells. The present study confirmed that IL-17 overexpression may enhance glioma cell growth in vivo, which may be associated with accelerated angiogenesis. IL-17 overexpression may also alter the cellular mRNA expression of immune-related molecules.

HU, JINHUI; YE, HONGXING; ZHANG, DENGHAI; LIU, WEIWEI; LI, MIN; MAO, YING; LU, YUAN

2013-01-01

74

Chemical Defense of Early Life Stages of Benthic Marine Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the

Niels Lindquist

2002-01-01

75

Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat  

SciTech Connect

It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko (Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

1989-09-01

76

The effects of parasites on the early life stages of a damselfish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early life history traits, such as larval growth, influence the success of coral reef fish in the transition from the larval to the juvenile life phase. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between parasites and growth in the early life history stages of such fishes. This study examined how parasite prevalence (% infected) and load, and the relationship between parasite presence and fish growth, differed among life stages of the damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis. Parasite prevalence decreased significantly between the larval stage, which was sampled immediately before settlement on the reef (97 %) and recently settled juveniles (60 %); prevalence was also high for 4-month-old juveniles (90 %), 7-month-old juveniles (100 %) and adult fish (100 %). Total numbers of parasites per fish decreased dramatically (fourfold) between larval and recently settled fish, and then increased in the older stages to levels similar to those observed in larvae, but they did so more gradually than did prevalence. One explanation for these patterns is that heavily infected larvae were preferentially removed from the population during or soon after settlement. Daily fish growth, determined from otolith increments, revealed that growth did not differ between parasitised and non-parasitised larval fish, whereas recently settled fish that were parasitised had faster growth; these parasitised recently settled fish also displayed faster growth prior to settlement. These data provide evidence that parasites may explain some of the variation in growth and survival observed among coral reef fishes after settlement and thereby have a greater impact on population dynamics than previously understood.

Sun, D.; Blomberg, S. P.; Cribb, T. H.; McCormick, M. I.; Grutter, A. S.

2012-12-01

77

On the transition of fatigue crack growth from stage 1 to stage 2 in a corrosive environment  

SciTech Connect

The growth of a fatigue crack nucleated along the slip bands of persistent slip bands (PSBs) or persistent Luders bands (PLBs) occurs over two successive propagation stages--stage 1 (shear mode) and stage 2 (normal mode). The transition of fatigue crack growth from stage 1 to stage 2 has been investigated in monocrystals and polycrystals as a function of strain amplitude, crystallographic orientation of specimens, slip behavior of planar or wavy slip deformation, and grain boundaries. In the present article, the authors present experimental results suggesting that the transition of fatigue crack growth from stage 1 to stage 2 is accelerated in a hydrogen environment and discuss whether the early transition of the stages of fatigue crack growth is caused by localized deformation or decohesion at a notch root. Fatigue tests were carried out on U-notch specimens of JIS HT80 and SNCM439 (correspondent to AISI 4340) steels in laboratory air and in a 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution at a cathodically polarized potential.

Hamano, Ryuichi [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1996-02-01

78

Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.  

PubMed

For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

Rankin, Tauna L; Sponaugle, Su

2011-05-02

79

Temperature Influences Selective Mortality during the Early Life Stages of a Coral Reef Fish  

PubMed Central

For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

Rankin, Tauna L.; Sponaugle, Su

2011-01-01

80

Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...

81

Development of in vitro culture method for early stage zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles for use in cryopreservation studies.  

PubMed

There have been no reported methods for in vitro growth of early stage ovarian follicles for fish and their cryopreservation is still under investigation. If cryopreservation of early stage ovarian follicles can be achieved, in vitro procedures for ovarian follicle culture, development, ovulation and fertilisation after cryopreservation would be needed. The aim of the present study was to develop an in vitro culture method for early stage zebrafish ovarian follicles for use after their cryopreservation. Procedures for in vitro culture of stage I (primary growth) and stage II (cortical alveolus) ovarian follicles were developed. The effects of concentration of L-15 medium, pH and the concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and activin A were studied. The results demonstrated that early stage zebrafish ovarian follicles can be cultured in vitro for 24 h, stage I and II ovarian follicles can grow to the sizes of early stage II and stage III ovarian follicles after hCG treatment. The method developed here is effective for assessing early stage zebrafish ovarian follicles growth competence in vitro. The results from the present study indicated that in vitro culture is the most reliable method for assessing ovarian follicle viability when compared with vital dye staining methods. PMID:20452004

Tsai, S; Rawson, D M; Zhang, T

2010-05-08

82

[Properties of Bacillus pumilus subtilisin like proteinase secreted from recombinant strain on different growth stages].  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus 3-19 glutamylendopeptidase has been isolated from culture liquid of Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain on different growth stages: growth retardation (early enzyme) and stationary phase (late enzyme). The effect of purified proteinase of different growth stages on insulin beta-chain, protein and oligopeptide substrates has been studied. Comparative study of physicochemical properties of early and late proteinases was carried out. Two protein fractions were different in catalytic characteristics and demonstrated different sensitivity to the presence of metal cations. PMID:23844506

Balaban, N P; Danilova, Iu V; Shamsutdinov, T R; Mardanova, A M; Cheremin, A M; Rudenskaia, G N; Sharipova, M R

83

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil developmental stages on herbaceous plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mount Fuji  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot culture experiment was conducted to examine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and soil developmental stages on the growth and nutrient absorption of pioneer plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mt. Fuji. Four herbaceous plants, Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae), Miscanthus oligostachyus (Gramineae), Aster ageratoides var. ovatus (Compositae), and Hedysarum vicioides (Leguminosae), were grown from

Masaaki Fujiyoshi; Atsushi Kagawa; Takayuki Nakatsubo; Takehiro Masuzawa

2006-01-01

84

Using Spirituality to Cope with Early Stage Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) robs persons living with this disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early stage AD cope is a critical step to enhance their adaptive abilities and ultimately improve their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnography study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability for people with early stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with Alzheimer’s.

Grando, Victoria T.

2010-01-01

85

Modelling Early Tumor Growth with Diffusion Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This essay is aimed at forming a lecture series on the modelling of early tumor growth using diffusion equations. We present basic models for tumor growth and discuss the linear stability of their steady states. The models discussed predict the size of the proliferating layer, the size of the tumor, and the effects of the immune system response, on

Asha Saidi Kalula; Jacek Banasiak

86

Early stage venture capital investing: comparing California and Scandinavia  

Microsoft Academic Search

While venture capital has become a global phenomenon, our knowledge about regional differences in venture capitalist (VC) behavior is quite poor. Most cross-regional comparisons have been quantitative replications of US based studies, which has made it difficult to discern qualitative differences. To help remedy this situation, we conducted semi-structured interviews with altogether 12 early stage VCs in California and Scandinavia.

Henrik Berglund

2011-01-01

87

THERMAL STRESSES IN THE EARLY STAGE OF SOLIDIFICATION OF STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model for calculation of thermal stresses and strains during solidification of steel is presented. Creep deformations are included. Stresses and strains during the early stage of solidification are studied for different steels under different cooling conditions. The results obtained may explain some observed cracking in continuously cast steel.

J. O. Kristiansson

1982-01-01

88

Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of\\u000a substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration\\u000a of a substance.

Alexey V. Melkikh; Vladimir D. Seleznev

2008-01-01

89

Experimental studies on the early stages of secondary succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study secondary successional sequences and mechanisms, denudation experiments were conducted in Central Japan with the removal of dominants, laying burned soil on the surface, and turning over the top- and subsoil. The early stages of secondary succession were predictable as to species and life-form composition.

M. Numata

1982-01-01

90

Viscoelastic effects in early stage phase separation in polymeric systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how viscoelasticity affects early stage spinodal decomposition in polymer solutions and blends when fluctuations of the stress and the composition are coupled in dynamics. The coupling is increased with increasing asymmetry between the two components. We introduce a long viscoelastic length &xgr;ve within which the stress relaxation governs the composition relaxation. It can be of the order of

Akira Onuki; Takashi Taniguchi

1997-01-01

91

Structural changes in the early stages of Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding of a relative absence of degeneration and regeneration in a muscle biopsy taken at 2½ weeks of age from a boy who later showed the florid pathological changes of preclinical Duchenne muscular dystrophy prompted a review of muscle biopsies taken from boys in the preclinical and early clinical stages of this disease. Only one other biopsy obtained in

W. G. Bradley; P. Hudgson; P. F. Larson; T. A. Papapetropoulos; M. Jenkison

1972-01-01

92

Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

2008-08-01

93

TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

94

Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One

P. J. Gupta

2003-01-01

95

Comparing Radiation Therapy Regimens for Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this phase III clinical trial, women with early-stage breast cancer will be randomly assigned to undergo a standard 5-week course of whole-breast irradiation (WBI) followed by a sequential boost course or 3 weeks of hypofractionated WBI with a concurrent boost.

96

Boost Radiation Beneficial in Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In women with early-stage breast cancer who had been treated with breast-conserving lumpectomy and radiation, an additional "boost" dose of radiation to the original tumor site reduced the risk of cancer coming back in the same breast, though it did not help them live longer, according to the Aug. 1, 2007, Journal of Clinical Oncology.

97

Expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in early stages (days 3-11) of the development of the avian lung, Gallus gallus variant domesticus: an immunocytochemical study  

PubMed Central

In the avian lung, the bronchial system forms from epithelial (endodermal) cells. The intrapulmonary primary bronchus is the focal point of airway development. It originates secondary bronchi (SB) along its proximal–distal extent and parabronchi (tertiary bronchi) arise from and connect the SB. From as early as day 3.5, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is diffusely expressed in the epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Up-regulation of FGF-2 in discrete areas of the developing lung seem to set the growth rate, trajectories followed, areas appropriated, three-dimensional symmetry and coupling of the airways. Expressed early in development and persisting into the incubation period, FGF-2 may be involved in the formation of the avian lung. Morphogenetic differences between the avian and the mammalian lungs may explain the existing structural contrarieties.

Maina, J N; Madan, A K; Alison, B

2003-01-01

98

Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages  

SciTech Connect

Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

Petersen, G.I. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark). Dept. of Ecotoxicology; Kristensen, P. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. for Cleaner Technology

1998-07-01

99

Early stage non-small-cell lung cancer: challenges in staging and adjuvant treatment: evidence-based staging.  

PubMed

Staging of non-small-cell lung cancer is a multidisciplinary process involving imaging, endoscopic and surgical techniques. Accuracy is vital in order to avoid false-positive interpretations leading to a false stage III or IV diagnosis in early stage patients, or false-negative findings leading to a false early stage diagnosis in patients with mediastinal lymph node disease. CT scan offers great anatomical detail of tumour spread, but radiological imaging lacks information on the biological nature of the lesions. The latter is brought in by 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan as a metabolic imaging tool, which, however, has clearly lower spatial resolution. Therefore, contemporary staging relies on the combination of both, preferably in a fusion PET-CT scan. Absence of suspected lymph node metastasis on both CT and PET has a high negative predictive value, and these patients may in general proceed to surgery. In most others, tissue confirmation of the locoregional lymph node status is needed. The historical standard of mediastinoscopy is nowadays complemented by endoscopic techniques by the bronchial or esophageal approach. Each of these techniques remains important in modern staging algorithms. A practical scheme for rational staging in clinical practice is discussed. PMID:20943613

Vansteenkiste, J; Dooms, C; De Leyn, P

2010-10-01

100

Hormesis with glyphosate depends on coffee growth stage.  

PubMed

Weed management systems in almost all Brazilian coffee plantations allow herbicide spray to drift on crop plants. In order to evaluate if there is any effect of the most commonly used herbicide in coffee production, glyphosate, on coffee plants, a range of glyphosate doses were applied directly on coffee plants at two distinct plant growth stages. Although growth of both young and old plants was reduced at higher glyphosate doses, low doses caused no effects on growth characteristics of young plants and stimulated growth of older plants. Therefore, hormesis with glyphosate is dependent on coffee plant growth stage at the time of herbicide application. PMID:23828346

De Carvalho, Leonardo B; Alves, Pedro L C A; Duke, Stephen O

101

Composition effects on the early-stage oxidation kinetics of (001) Cu-Au alloys  

SciTech Connect

An in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy study of the nucleation and growth of oxide islands during the early-stage oxidation of (001) Cu{sub 1-x}Au{sub x} alloys (x{<=}38 at. %) was undertaken in order to investigate the effects of alloying on oxide island nucleation behavior and growth kinetics. The kinetic data reveal that Au enhances the nucleation density of oxide islands and suppresses their growth rate. Our results provide insight into reasons for the decreased passivation properties of Cu when alloyed with Au.

Zhou, G.-W.; Eastman, J. A.; Birtcher, R. C.; Baldo, P. M.; Pearson, J. E.; Thompson, L. J.; Wang, L.; Yang, J. C. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)

2007-02-01

102

Conservative surgical treatment for early-stage vulvar malignant melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate the efficacy of wide local excision as a surgical treatment for early-stage vulvar melanomas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Wide local excision with or without lymph node dissection was performed in three patients with stage I vulvar melanoma (American\\u000a Joint Committee on Cancer classification, 1992).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  All three patients were successfully treated by wide local excision. There was no evidence of recurrence at long-term

Kaei Nasu; Yoshitaka Kai; Masaki Ohishi; Aiko Kato; Haruaki Sato; Sakuhei Fujiwara; Noriyuki Takai; Hisashi Narahara

2010-01-01

103

Early-stage thymic carcinoma: is adjuvant therapy required?  

PubMed Central

Although the prognosis of advanced thymic carconoma remains poor, previous reports have shown survival rates of 70% to 100% in patients with Masaoka stage I or stage II of the disease who were treated with surgery followed by adjuvant therapy. However, the role of adjuvant therapy in these stages is controversial. We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of 4 patients with Masaoka stage II thymic carcinoma who were treated with surgery alone between 1992 and 2008. No patient had stage I of the disease. Primary tumors were preoperatively evaluated by chest X-ray and computed tomography. Needle biopsy was not performed because the tumors were clinically diagnosed as noninvasive thymomas. The largest diameter of the primary tumor was 65 mm. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy was not detected by computed tomography. All patients underwent transsternal thymectomy. Mediastinal lymph node dissection was not performed. None of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and/or irradiation. Histopathologic examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 3 patients and undifferentiated carcinoma in one. Pathologic invasion to the adjacent organs or lymph node metastasis was not detected. All patients were alive and free from relapse at a follow-up of 72 months (range, 12-167 months). Radical resection without adjuvant therapy could be a treatment option for early Masaoka stage thymic carcinoma with low-grade histology.

Onuki, Takuya; Inagaki, Masaharu; Yamaoka, Masatoshi; Kitazawa, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Iguchi, Kesato; Kikuchi, Shinji; Goto, Yukinobu; Onizuka, Masataka; Sato, Yukio

2013-01-01

104

Early-stage thymic carcinoma: is adjuvant therapy required?  

PubMed

Although the prognosis of advanced thymic carconoma remains poor, previous reports have shown survival rates of 70% to 100% in patients with Masaoka stage I or stage II of the disease who were treated with surgery followed by adjuvant therapy. However, the role of adjuvant therapy in these stages is controversial. We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of 4 patients with Masaoka stage II thymic carcinoma who were treated with surgery alone between 1992 and 2008. No patient had stage I of the disease. Primary tumors were preoperatively evaluated by chest X-ray and computed tomography. Needle biopsy was not performed because the tumors were clinically diagnosed as noninvasive thymomas. The largest diameter of the primary tumor was 65 mm. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy was not detected by computed tomography. All patients underwent transsternal thymectomy. Mediastinal lymph node dissection was not performed. None of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and/or irradiation. Histopathologic examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 3 patients and undifferentiated carcinoma in one. Pathologic invasion to the adjacent organs or lymph node metastasis was not detected. All patients were alive and free from relapse at a follow-up of 72 months (range, 12-167 months). Radical resection without adjuvant therapy could be a treatment option for early Masaoka stage thymic carcinoma with low-grade histology. PMID:23585943

Sakai, Mitsuaki; Onuki, Takuya; Inagaki, Masaharu; Yamaoka, Masatoshi; Kitazawa, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Iguchi, Kesato; Kikuchi, Shinji; Goto, Yukinobu; Onizuka, Masataka; Sato, Yukio

2013-04-01

105

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb

Cada

1991-01-01

106

Conservative approaches in early stages of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Several authors have proposed the use of a less aggressive surgery (i.e. conization, trachelectomy plus laparoscopic lymphadenectomy, modified or type 2 radical hysterectomy) for patients affected by early stages invasive cervical carcinoma. Tumor size and pelvic nodal status are parameters that must be evaluated to better select a patient's population suitable of a less aggressive surgery, with the aim of sparing morbidity without jeopardizing cancer cure. PMID:17727934

Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Palaia, Innocenza; Basile, Stefano; Perniola, Giorgia; Sansone, Milena; Gradinaru, Nicoleta; Zullo, Marzio Angelo; Angioli, Roberto

2007-08-28

107

The early stages of a high energy heavy ion collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At high energy, the gluon distribution in nuclei reaches large densities and eventually saturates due to recombinations, which plays an important role in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. The Colour Glass Condensate (CGC) provides a framework for resumming these effects in the calculation of observables. In this talk, I present its application to the description of the early stages of heavy ion collisions.

Gelis, François

2012-09-01

108

Stochastic de sitter (inflationary) stage in the early universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of a large-scale quasi-homogeneous scalar field producing the de Sitter (inflationary) stage in the early universe is strongly affected by small-scale quantum fluctuations of the same scalar field and, in this way, becomes stochastic. The evolution of the corresponding large-scale space-time metric follows that of the scalar field and is stochastic also. The Fokker-Planck equation for the evolution

A. A. Starobinsky; Meudon Principal Cedex

1986-01-01

109

Awareness of Memory Deficits in Early Stage Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) are often described as unaware of their motor symptoms, their behavioral disorders or their cognitive deficits, including memory. Nevertheless, because patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain aware of their memory deficits despite striatal dysfunction, we hypothesize that early stage HD patients in whom degeneration predominates in the striatum can accurately judge their own memory disorders whereas more advanced patients cannot. In order to test our hypothesis, we compared subjective questionnaires of memory deficits (in HD patients and in their proxies) and objective measures of memory dysfunction in patients. Forty-six patients with manifest HD attending the out-patient department of the French National Reference Center for HD and thirty-three proxies were enrolled. We found that HD patients at an early stage of the disease (Stage 1) were more accurate than their proxies at evaluating their own memory deficits, independently from their depression level. The proxies were more influenced by patients' functional decline rather than by patients' memory deficits. Patients with moderate disease (Stage 2) misestimated their memory deficits compared to their proxies, whose judgment was nonetheless influenced by the severity of both functional decline and depression. Contrasting subjective memory ratings from the patients and their objective memory performance, we demonstrate that although HD patients are often reported to be unaware of their neurological, cognitive and behavioral symptoms, it is not the case for memory deficits at an early stage. Loss of awareness of memory deficits in HD is associated with the severity of the disease in terms of CAG repeats, functional decline, motor dysfunction and cognitive impairment, including memory deficits and executive dysfunction.

Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Fenelon, Gilles; Benisty, Sarah; Boisse, Marie-Francoise; Jacquemot, Charlotte; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine

2013-01-01

110

Early stages of calciphylaxis: are skin biopsies the answer?  

PubMed

Calciphylaxis, nowadays called calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), is a rare but life-threatening syndrome characterized by systemic medial calcification and arterial occlusion of the arterioles, leading to skin necrosis. Actually, the pathogenesis of CUA is complex and poorly understood. The vast majority of published cases presented with ulcers. We present a 71-year-old male who was referred to the Nephrology Department for evaluation and therapy for refractory edema of both legs. There were no subcutaneous plaques, ulcers or other focal lesions. We performed a deep skin biopsy of the thigh. After the biopsy, the patient developed necrosis around the sampling location. Diagnosing CUA in the early stages of the disease, however, is challenging. Should a skin biopsy be performed in the early stages of CUA in patients without ulcerations, knowing the risk of inducing ulcerations, or should an intensive treatment - after considering clinical manifestations, other noninvasive diagnostic tools (bone scan, X-ray mammography technique) and laboratory tests - be started? Although there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests for CUA and the clinical manifestations of CUA are similar to those of other disorders, a skin biopsy is not routinely recommended to confirm the diagnosis of early-stage calciphylaxis. PMID:22110432

Latus, Joerg; Kimmel, Martin; Ott, German; Ting, Evelyn; Alscher, M Dominik; Braun, Niko

2011-09-23

111

Early Stages of Calciphylaxis: Are Skin Biopsies the Answer?  

PubMed Central

Calciphylaxis, nowadays called calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), is a rare but life-threatening syndrome characterized by systemic medial calcification and arterial occlusion of the arterioles, leading to skin necrosis. Actually, the pathogenesis of CUA is complex and poorly understood. The vast majority of published cases presented with ulcers. We present a 71-year-old male who was referred to the Nephrology Department for evaluation and therapy for refractory edema of both legs. There were no subcutaneous plaques, ulcers or other focal lesions. We performed a deep skin biopsy of the thigh. After the biopsy, the patient developed necrosis around the sampling location. Diagnosing CUA in the early stages of the disease, however, is challenging. Should a skin biopsy be performed in the early stages of CUA in patients without ulcerations, knowing the risk of inducing ulcerations, or should an intensive treatment – after considering clinical manifestations, other noninvasive diagnostic tools (bone scan, X-ray mammography technique) and laboratory tests – be started? Although there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests for CUA and the clinical manifestations of CUA are similar to those of other disorders, a skin biopsy is not routinely recommended to confirm the diagnosis of early-stage calciphylaxis.

Latus, Joerg; Kimmel, Martin; Ott, German; Ting, Evelyn; Alscher, M. Dominik; Braun, Niko

2011-01-01

112

High-throughput quantification of early stages of phagocytosis.  

PubMed

Phagocytosis-the engulfment of cells and foreign bodies-is an important cellular process in innate immunity, development, and disease. Quantification of various stages of phagocytosis, especially in a rapid screening fashion, is an invaluable tool for elucidating protein function during this process. However, current methods for assessing phagocytosis are largely limited to flow cytometry and manual image-based assays, providing limited information. Here, we present an image-based, semi-automated phagocytosis assay to rapidly quantitate three distinct stages during the early engulfment of opsonized beads. Captured images are analyzed using the image-processing software ImageJ and quantified using a macro. Modifications to this method allowed quantification of phagocytosis only in fluorescently labeled transfected cells. Additionally, the time course of bead internalization could be measured using this approach. The assay could discriminate perturbations to stages of phagocytosis induced by known pharmacological inhibitors of filamentous actin and phosphoinositol-3-kinase. Our methodology offers the ability to automatically categorize large amounts of image data into the three early stages of phagocytosis within minutes, clearly demonstrating its potential value in investigating aberrant phagocytosis when manipulating proteins of interest in drug screens and disease. PMID:24003943

Yeo, Jeremy Changyu; Wall, Adam Alexander; Stow, Jennifer Lea; Hamilton, Nicholas Ahti

2013-09-01

113

Motor-cortical oscillations in early stages of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Pathophysiological changes in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits are well established in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it remains open whether such alterations already occur at early stages representing a characteristic neurophysiological marker of PD. Therefore, the present study aims at elucidating changes of synchronised oscillatory activity in early PD patients. In this study, we performed whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a resting condition and during steady state contraction of the more severely affected forearm in 10 drug–naive, de novo patients, in 10 early-stage patients with chronic medication and in 10 age-matched control subjects. While cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) did not differ between groups, patients showed increased sensori-motor cortical power at beta frequency (13–30 Hz) during rest as well as during isometric contraction compared to controls. In healthy control subjects the power of the contralateral hemisphere was significantly suppressed during isometric contraction. By contrast, both hemispheres were activated equally strongly in de novo patients. In medicated patients, the pattern was found to be reversed. Contralateral beta power was significantly correlated with motor impairment during isometric contraction but not during rest. The present results suggest that the reduced ability of the primary motor cortex to disengage from increased beta band oscillations during the execution of movements is an early marker of PD. PMID:22547636

Pollok, B; Krause, V; Martsch, W; Wach, C; Schnitzler, A; Südmeyer, M

2012-04-30

114

Effects of copper on early developmental stages of Lessonia nigrescens Bory (Phaeophyceae).  

PubMed

Copper effects on the early developmental gametophytic and sporophytic stages of the kelp Lessonia nigrescens were tested in gradients of increasing concentrations of ASV-labile copper. The results demonstrated a high sensitivity to copper of all life-history stages of the alga, where even the lowest tested concentration affected spore release as well as their subsequent settlement. More significant, concentrations higher than 7.87 microg L(-1) totally interrupted the development of the spores after they settle. This effect led to a failure in the formation of male and female gametophytes and, as a consequence, to a complete disruption of the normal life cycle of the kelp. Thus, we suggest that the absence of L. nigrescens from copper-enriched environments results from the high sensitivity of its early life cycle stages, which limits growth and maturation of the gametophytic microscopic phase and, as a consequence, prevents development of the macroscopic sporophytic phase. PMID:16720066

Contreras, Loretto; Medina, Matías H; Andrade, Santiago; Oppliger, Valeria; Correa, Juan A

2006-05-23

115

UVB effects on early developmental stages of commercially important macroalgae in southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) could represent a danger to seaweeds by affecting their physiological processes\\u000a and development. The aim of this work was to study the effects of UVB radiation on early developmental stages of commercially\\u000a and ecologically important marine algal species in southern Chile, considering spores survival and embryos growth. Spores\\u000a of Mazzaella laminarioides, Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia

N. P. Navarro; A. Mansilla; M. Palacios

2008-01-01

116

UVB effects on early developmental stages of commercially important macroalgae in southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) could represent a danger to seaweeds by affecting their physiological processes\\u000a and development. The aim of this work was to study the effects of UVB radiation on early developmental stages of commercially\\u000a and ecologically important marine algal species in southern Chile, considering spores survival and embryos growth. Spores\\u000a of Mazzaella laminarioides, Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia

N. P. Navarro; A. Mansilla; M. Palacios

117

Visual perception in prediagnostic and early stage Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Disturbances of visual perception frequently accompany neurodegenerative disorders but have been little studied in Huntington's disease (HD) gene carriers. We used psychophysical tests to assess visual perception among individuals in the prediagnostic and early stages of HD. The sample comprised four groups, which included 201 nongene carriers (NG), 32 prediagnostic gene carriers with minimal neurological abnormalities (PD1); 20 prediagnostic gene carriers with moderate neurological abnormalities (PD2), and 36 gene carriers with diagnosed HD. Contrast sensitivity for stationary and moving sinusoidal gratings, and tests of form and motion discrimination, were used to probe different visual pathways. Patients with HD showed impaired contrast sensitivity for moving gratings. For one of the three contrast sensitivity tests, the prediagnostic gene carriers with greater neurological abnormality (PD2) also had impaired performance as compared with NG. These findings suggest that early stage HD disrupts visual functions associated with the magnocellular pathway. However, these changes are only observed in individuals diagnosed with HD or who are in the more symptomatic stages of prediagnostic HD. PMID:18419843

O'Donnell, Brian F; Blekher, Tanya M; Weaver, Marjorie; White, Kerry M; Marshall, Jeanine; Beristain, Xabier; Stout, Julie C; Gray, Jacqueline; Wojcieszek, Joanne M; Foroud, Tatiana M

2008-05-01

118

Initial stages of growth during boron carbide chemical vapor deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial stages of growth of boron carbides from a BCl3\\/H2\\/hydrocarbon vapor on molybdenum were investigated. The initial growth of boron carbide was strongly dependent on the type and concentration of hydrocarbon in the vapor. From the results of the experiments it was concluded that an ''overlayer'' of adsorbed hydrocarbons was formed on the surface. The overlayer inhibited some reactions

Ulf Jansson; Jan-Otto Carlsson; Bengt Stridh

1987-01-01

119

Early-stage Hodgkin's disease: current approaches to treatment.  

PubMed Central

Most patients with early-stage Hodgkin's disease can now be cured by one of several therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the developments in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease that have led to long-term survival rates greater than 90%. Past and present radio-therapy (RT) planning and treatment practices are discussed in the context of both clinical and pathological staging. The role of initial bimodal therapy (RT and chemotherapy [CT]) and the use of CT in patients who suffer relapse after initial treatment with RT alone are reviewed. On the basis of prognostic factors, subgroups of patients for whom bimodal therapy is recommended, including those with a bulky mediastinal mass, have now been identified. Although treatment is highly successful, debilitating consequences of RT and CT, such as infertility, infection and second malignant diseases, remain. Newer treatment regimens may reduce morbidity and have similar or better long-term results with respect to survival and quality of life.

Rusthoven, J J; MacKenzie, R

1985-01-01

120

Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing.  

PubMed

Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-?B and TNF-? expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results suggest that genistein supplementation reduces oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant capacity and modulating proinflammatory cytokine expression during the early stage of wound healing. PMID:21679688

Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

2011-06-07

121

On-Off Intermittency and Criticality in Early Stage Electromigration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied here using high resolution resistance measurements the time and statistical behavior of abrupt resistance changes in a thin metal aluminum film undergoing electromigration. We reveal for the first time that early stage electromigration exhibits on-off intermittency. The intermittent resistance fluctuations are also shown to be scale invariant, an effect seen in the fluctuations of several physical systems including earthquakes, superconductor dynamics and stock markets. Finite size scaling of the resistance fluctuations demonstrates that they originate near a critical point.

Dalton, Eric; Clancy, Ian; Corcoran, David; Arshak, Arousian; Gooberman, George

2010-05-01

122

Early stage of superradiance from Bose-Einstein condensates  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the dynamics of matter and optical waves at the early stage of superradiant Rayleigh scattering from Bose-Einstein condensates. Our analysis is within a spatially dependent quantum model which is capable of providing analytic solutions for the operators of interest. The predictions of the present model are compared to the predictions of a closely related mean-field model, and we provide a procedure that allows one to calculate quantum expectation values by averaging over semiclassical solutions. The coherence properties of the outgoing scattered light are also analyzed, and it is shown that the corresponding correlation functions may provide detailed information about the internal dynamics of the system.

Buchmann, L. F.; Lambropoulos, P. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Herakleion GR-710 03, Crete (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, Herakleion GR-711 10, Crete (Greece); Nikolopoulos, G. M. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, Herakleion GR-711 10, Crete (Greece); Zobay, O. [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom)

2010-08-15

123

Radiation Therapy for Early Stages of Morbus Ledderhose  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Purpose:\\u000a   To evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of early stages of benign plantar fibromatosis (Morbus\\u000a Ledderhose [ML]).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:\\u000a   From 2003 to 2008, 24 patients (33 sites) with a mean age of 52 years received RT for symptomatic ML. Prior to RT, 19 patients\\u000a complained of pain and 15 had walking difficulties. 21 patients

Reinhard Heyd; Anne Pia Dorn; Markus Herkströter; Claus Rödel; Marcus Müller-Schimpfle; Ingeborg Fraunholz

2010-01-01

124

Early Stages of the HIV-1 Capsid Protein Lattice Formation  

PubMed Central

The early stages in the formation of the HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein lattice are investigated. The underlying coarse-grained (CG) model is parameterized directly from experimental data and examined under various native contact interaction strengths, CA dimer interfacial configurations, and local surface curvatures. The mechanism of early contiguous mature-style CA p6 lattice formation is explored, and a trimer-of-dimers structure is found to be crucial for CA lattice production. Quasi-equivalent generation of both the pentamer and hexamer components of the HIV-1 viral CA is also demonstrated, and the formation of pentamers is shown to be highly sensitive to local curvature, supporting the view that such inclusions in high-curvature regions allow closure of the viral CA surface. The complicated behavior of CA lattice self-assembly is shown to be reducible to a relatively simple function of the trimer-of-dimers behavior.

Grime, John M.A.; Voth, Gregory A.

2012-01-01

125

Growth differentiation factor 15 in different stages of heart failure: potential screening implications.  

PubMed

Identification of individuals in the early stage of heart failure (HF) may allow earlier initiation of disease-modifying treatment. We evaluated concentrations of the growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15 at different stages and its potential screening value in 208 subjects. Plasma GDF-15 was measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GDF-15 was positively correlated with the stages of HF (r=0.804, p<0.001). In distinguishing patients with stage B HF, the area under the curve was 0.873 (p<0.001). These findings indicate that GDF-15 concentration was elevated with the progressing stages of HF and might have potential screening implications for stage B HF. PMID:20860541

Wang, Fangfang; Guo, Yanhong; Yu, Haiyi; Zheng, Lingbing; Mi, Lin; Gao, Wei

2010-09-23

126

Prognostic factors in early-stage ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify the main prognostic factors in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Data were extracted from 222 patients with initial stage (I–IIA) invasive epithelial ovarian cancer treated with primary surgery followed or not followed by adjuvant therapy, from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008, at the Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy; the median follow-up was 79 months (SD ± 35,945, range 20–250 months). The negative prognostic factors that were statistically significant (p<0.050) in univariate analysis were grade 2, 3, and X (clear cell in our study); stage IB, IC, IIA; positive peritoneal cytology, age equal to/greater than 54; dense adhesions; capsule rupture (pre-operative or intra-operative) and endometrioid histotype (only for disease-free survival (DFS)). Positive cytology was strongly associated with peritoneal relapses, while adhesions were associated with pelvic relapses. A positive prognosis was associated with the mucinous histotype. Conservative treatment had been carried out in 52% of patients under 40 years of age, and we detected only two relapses and three completions of surgery after a few weeks among 31 women in total. Our study indicated a possible execution in patients with patients with cancer stage IA G1–G2 (p=0.030) or IC G1 (p=0.050), provided well staged. Adjuvant chemotherapy improved the survival of cancers that were not IA G1. The positive prognostic role of taxanes must be emphasised, when used in combination with platino.

Tognon, Germana; Carnazza, Mario; Ragnoli, Monica; Calza, Stefano; Ferrari, Federico; Gambino, Angela; Zizioli, Valentina; Notaro, Sara; Sostegni, Benedetta; Sartori, Enrico

2013-01-01

127

The mobilization, recruitment and contribution of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells to the tumor neovascularization occur at an early stage and throughout the entire process of hepatocellular carcinoma growth.  

PubMed

Obvious neovascularization is a key feature of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the status of neovascularization in HCC is closely correlated with the tumor growth and patient prognosis. The actual effect of current antivascular treatment including embolization to HCC is not satisfactory. Compensatory angiogenesis is one of the primary causes responsible for failure of antiangiogenic therapy. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) are considered as important building blocks for adult neovascularization. However, the role of mobilized BM-EPCs in HCC remains unknown. In this study, GFP+-BM orthotropic HCC mice were established to investigate whether BM-EPCs are involved in HCC-induced neovascularization. We found that a large number of BM-EPCs were mobilized into the circulation with the development of HCC, recruited into the HCC region and incorporated into the vascular endothelium directly by differentiation into vascular endothelial cells, including sinus, capillary vessels and great vessels. Dynamic observation revealed that the mobilization and the incorporation of BM-EPCs into different types of vessels were present in early phases and throughout the whole process of HCC growth. The proportion of BM-EPCs in vessels increased gradually, from 17 to 21% with tumor growth. Moreover, injected GFP+-EPCs also specifically homed to tumor tissue and incorporated into tumor vessels directly. In this initial study, we demonstrated that BM-EPCs play a prominent role in HCC neovascularization. Blockade of BM-EPC-mediated vasculogenesis may improve the efficacy of current anti-vascularization therapy for patients with HCC. PMID:22858892

Zhu, Haitao; Shao, Qianwen; Sun, Xitai; Deng, Zhengming; Yuan, Xianwen; Yu, Decai; Zhou, Xiang; Ding, Yitao

2012-07-31

128

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

SciTech Connect

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Cada, G.F.

1991-01-01

129

[Mineral elements content of C. deserticola at different growth stages].  

PubMed

ICP - AES technology was used to determine the mineral elements content of Cistanche deserticola Ma (C. deserticola). The results showed that: (1) At succulent stem stages, the content of K was the highest in 5 macroelements, it can reach to 9.45 mg x g(-1), and the proportion for K : Na : P : Ca : Mg was 12 : 3.4 : 1.6 : 1.4 : 1. Among 5 microelements, the content of Fe was the highest and can reach to 97.31 microg x g(-1), and the proportion for Fe : Cu : Mn: Zn : Cu : B was 25 : 3.7 : 3.5 : 1.2 : 1. (2) At reproductive growth stages, the contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B at unearthed stage were significantly higher than that at the underearth stage, especially for the content of Fe and Mn, they can respectively reach to 697. 55 and 38.75 microg x g(-1) at capsule formative stage. The contents of Fe and Mn at capsule formative stage were almost 7.2 and 8.3 times than that at succulent stem stage. (3) At reproductive growth stages, the aerial part will exclude Na and accumulate P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B. This result of the study will be a scientific basis for evaluating the quality of C. deserticola. PMID:22242529

Cui, Xu-Sheng; Zheng, Lei; Du, You; Zhao, Dong-Ping; Guo, Yu-Hai

2011-11-01

130

Minimizing toxicity in early-stage testicular cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Testicular cancer is the paradigm of a curable malignancy, with 10-year survival rates exceeding 95%. Cisplatin-based regimes offer a survival gain of several decades of life; however, measures of outcomes in testicular cancer are evolving. Survivorship issues are becoming increasingly important in this young adult population. Long-term risks of second malignancy and cardiovascular disease secondary to chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been extensively documented, leading to an increased uptake of surveillance. However, the optimal surveillance schedule is not universally agreed upon. Research into modalities to detect relapse and frequency is ongoing. Reducing the treatment burden with fewer cycles of chemotherapy (one cycle of bleomycin, cisplatin and etoposide instead of two for stage I high-risk nonseminomatous tumors) or less toxic alternatives (carboplatin instead of radiotherapy for stage I seminomas) is currently being explored. This article details the toxicities associated with the diagnosis and treatments of early-stage testicular cancer and current strategies used to minimize toxicity while retaining the excellent cure rates. PMID:22316366

Singhera, Mausam; Lees, Kathryn; Huddart, Robert; Horwich, Alan

2012-02-01

131

Identification of genes correlated with early stage bladder cancer progression¶  

PubMed Central

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCC) ranks 4th in incidence of all cancers in the developed world, yet the mechanisms of its origin and progression remain poorly understood. There are also few useful diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for this disease. We have combined a transgenic mouse model for invasive bladder cancer (UPII-SV40Tag mice) with DNA microarray technology, in order to determine molecular mechanisms involved in early TCC development and to identify new biomarkers for detection, diagnosis and prognosis of TCC. We have identified genes that are differentially expressed between the bladders of UPII-SV40Tag mice and their age-matched wild type (WT) littermates at 3, 6, 20 and 30 weeks of age. These are ages which correspond to premalignant, carcinoma in-situ, and early and later stage invasive TCC, respectively. Our preliminary analysis of the microarray data sets has revealed approximately 1,900 unique genes differentially expressed (? 3-fold difference at one or more time points) between WT and UPII-SV40Tag urothelium during the time course of tumor development. Among these, there were a high proportion of cell cycle regulatory genes and proliferation signaling genes that are more strongly expressed in the UPII-SV40Tag bladder urothelium. We show that several of the genes upregulated in UPII-SV40Tag urothelium, including RacGAP1, PCNA, and Hmmr are expressed at high levels in superficial bladder TCC patient samples. These findings provide insight into the earliest events in the development of bladder TCC as well as identify several promising early stage biomarkers.

Stone, Randolph; Sabichi, Anita L.; Gill, Jennifer; Lee, I-ling; Adegboyega, Patrick; Dai, Michael S.; Loganantharaj, Raja; Trutschl, Marjan; Cvek, Urska; Clifford, John L.

2010-01-01

132

Modelling the initial stage of porous alumina growth during anodization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificially on the surface of aluminum there may be build a thick layer of Al2O3, which has a porous structure. In this paper we present a model of growth of porous alumina in the initial stage of anodizing, identifying dependencies anodizing parameters on the rate of growth of the film and the distance between the pores and as a result of the created model equations were found for changes in the disturbance of alumina for the initial stage of anodizing aluminum oxide porous border aluminum-alumina and alumina-electrolyte, with the influence of surface diffusion of aluminum oxide.

Aryslanova, E. M.; Alfimov, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

2013-05-01

133

[Practical assessment. Early-stage or advanced glaucoma].  

PubMed

In the case of early-stage or advanced glaucoma, the major problem is no longer diagnostic, but evaluating its response to treatment. Other than questioning the patient, assessment includes measuring visual acuity and intraocular pressure, examining the anterior segment and the optic disc, and finally an analysis of the visual field. This latter examination remains the least contestable, although subjective, in evaluating how a confirmed case of glaucoma is evolving. Examination of the optic disc using stereoscopy should include a drawing or, at best, a photograph. Finally, three recent analyzers are available and being evaluated: HRT II, GDx, OCT-3. Depending on the results (of intraocular pressure, the visual field and the optic disk), treatment can be modified and/or the assessment completed. PMID:16208236

Sellem, E

2005-06-01

134

QTL analysis of early stage heterosis for biomass in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to identify genomic regions involved in biomass heterosis using QTL, generation means, and mode-of-inheritance classification analyses. In a modified North Carolina Design III we backcrossed 429 recombinant inbred line and 140 introgression line populations to the two parental accessions, C24 and Col-0, whose F (1) hybrid exhibited 44% heterosis for biomass. Mid-parent heterosis in the RILs ranged from -31 to 99% for dry weight and from -58 to 143% for leaf area. We detected ten genomic positions involved in biomass heterosis at an early developmental stage, individually explaining between 2.4 and 15.7% of the phenotypic variation. While overdominant gene action was prevalent in heterotic QTL, our results suggest that a combination of dominance, overdominance and epistasis is involved in biomass heterosis in this Arabidopsis cross. PMID:19504257

Meyer, Rhonda Christiane; Kusterer, Barbara; Lisec, Jan; Steinfath, Matthias; Becher, Martina; Scharr, Hanno; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Selbig, Joachim; Schurr, Ulrich; Willmitzer, Lothar; Altmann, Thomas

2010-01-01

135

An assessment of early mandibular growth.  

PubMed

Quantification of skeletal data has been shown to be an effective and reliable method of demonstrating variation in human growth as well as for monitoring and interpreting growth. In South Africa as well as internationally, few researchers have assessed mandibular growth in late fetal period and early childhood and therefore standards for growth and age determination in these groups are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth in the mandible from the period of 31 gestational weeks to 36 months postnatal. A total of 74 mandibles were used. Dried mandibles were sourced from the Raymond A. Dart Collection (University of Witwatersrand), and cadaveric remains were obtained from the Universities of Pretoria and the Witwatersrand. The sample was divided into four groups; 31-40 gestational weeks (group 1), 0-11 months (group 2), 12-24 months (group 3), and 25-36 months (group 4). Twenty-one osteological landmarks were digitized using a MicroScribe G2. Ten standard measurements were created and included: the maximum length of mandible, mandibular body length and width, mandibular notch width and depth, mental foramen to inferior border of mandible, mandibular basilar widths bigonial and biantegonial, bigonial width of mental foramen and mental angle. Data were analyzed using PAST statistical software and Morphologika2 v2.5. Statistically significant differences were noted in the linear measurements for all group comparisons except between groups 3 and 4. The mandible morphologically changed from a round, smooth contour anteriorly to adopt a more sharp and narrow adult shape. A progressive increase in the depth and definition of the mandibular arch was also noted. In conclusion, the mandible initially grows to accommodate the developing tongue (up to 11 months), progressive dental eruption and mastication from 12 to 36 months. Mastication is associated with muscle mass development; this would necessitate an increase in the dimensions of the mandibular notch and associated muscle attachment sites. These findings might be valuable in the estimation of age in unidentified individuals and to monitor prenatal growth of the mandible for the early diagnosis of conditions associated with stunted mandibular growth. PMID:22154436

Hutchinson, E F; L'Abbé, E N; Oettlé, A C

2011-12-07

136

Late effects of treatment for early-stage Hodgkin's disease.  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive survey of late effects (physical, social and reproductive) following treatment at a single institution for early stage Hodgkin's disease (HD) was performed. A total of 611 patients with stage I and II HD treated between 1973 and 1984 were reviewed; 460 were alive and were mailed a self-reported questionnaire. A total of 363 (79%) replies were received. Twenty patients died of second malignancy, 14 of heart disease and nine from respiratory disease. There were 37 cases of second malignancy [relative risk (RR) 2.2, absolute excess risk (AR) 35.8]. The 15-year incidence of heart disease was 11% and there were nine myocardial infarction deaths (RR 1.55, AR 5.4). Twenty-eight (8%) respondents stated that their career had been greatly interfered with, 53 (14.5%) perceived financial loss. Sexual activity was disrupted in 25.8%. In total, 56 men had fathered 112 pregnancies. Of 171 women, 40.3% became pregnant, resulting in 92 live births. A total of 43 men and 16 women had sought medical advice with regard to infertility.

Brierley, J. D.; Rathmell, A. J.; Gospodarowicz, M. K.; Sutcliffe, S. B.; Munro, A.; Tsang, R.; Pintilie, M.

1998-01-01

137

On the early evolutionary stage of the geosphere and biosphere and the problem of early glaciations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early evolutionary stages of the geosphere and biosphere are determined by three interrelated factors: (1) continuous\\u000a cooling of the surface and interior (mantle) of the Earth (the mean temperatures of the mantle and surface decreased by a\\u000a factor of 1.5–2 and 3–4, respectively; the mean heat flow was reduced by approximately one order of magnitude, and viscosity,\\u000a by three

N. L. Dobretsov

2010-01-01

138

Transverse emittance growth in staged laser-wakefield acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study on the emittance evolution of electron bunches, externally injected into laser-driven plasma waves using the three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code OSIRIS. Results show order-of-magnitude transverse emittance growth during the injection process, if the electron bunch is not matched to its intrinsic betatron motion inside the wakefield. This behavior is supported by analytic theory reproducing the simulation data to a percent level. The length over which the full emittance growth develops is found to be less than or comparable to the typical dimension of a single plasma module in current multistage designs. In addition, the analytic theory enables the quantitative prediction of emittance degradation in two consecutive accelerators coupled by free-drift sections, excluding this as a scheme for effective emittance-growth suppression, and thus suggests the necessity of beam-matching sections between acceleration stages with fundamental implications on the overall design of staged laser-wakefield accelerators.

Mehrling, T.; Grebenyuk, J.; Tsung, F. S.; Floettmann, K.; Osterhoff, J.

2012-11-01

139

Molecular analysis of diminutive, flat, depressed colorectal lesions: Are they precursors of polypoid adenoma or early stage carcinoma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The diminutive, flat depressed colorectal lesion is a possible precursor of early stage carcinoma. However, the significance of this lesion in colon carcinogenesis remains unclear. Methods: Eighty-one diminutive flat lesions (<5 mm diameter) with a central depression (DPdep) were resected colonoscopically and their molecular characteristics were investigated. In parallel, 68 diminutive polyps (<5 mm diameter) with a polypoid growth

Tetsushi Morita; Naohiro Tomita; Masayuki Ohue; Mitsugu Sekimoto; Hirofumi Yamamoto; Tadashi Ohnishi; Masatomo Tada; Masakazu Ikenaga; Yasuhiro Miyake; Isao Sakita; Yasuhiro Tamaki; Nariaki Matsuura; Masayu Ito; Morito Monden

2002-01-01

140

On the role of extracellular polymeric substances during early stages of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation.  

PubMed

The structural integrity and protection of bacterial biofilms are intrinsically associated with a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by the bacteria cells. However, the role of these substances during biofilm adhesion to a surface remains largely unclear. In this study, the influence of EPS on Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation was investigated. This bacterium is associated with economically important plant diseases; it presents a slow growth rate and thus allows us to pinpoint more precisely the early stages of cell-surface adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show evidence of EPS production in such early stages and around individual bacteria cells attached to the substrate surface even a few hours after inoculation. In addition, EPS formation was investigated via attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To this end, X. fastidiosa cells were inoculated within an ATR liquid cell assembly. IR-ATR spectra clearly reveal EPS formation already during the early stages of X. fastidiosa biofilm formation, thereby providing supporting evidence for the hypothesis of the relevance of the EPS contribution to the adhesion process. PMID:23164974

Lorite, Gabriela S; de Souza, Alessandra A; Neubauer, Daniel; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine; Cotta, Mônica A

2012-09-01

141

Advantage of early seedling emergence in Fagus crenata : importance of cotyledon stage for predator escape and pathogen avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine how early-emerging seedlings take advantage of establishment in a deciduous forest, we explored the relationships\\u000a among the emergence date, growth stage and major causes of mortality (damping-off by fungi and predation by rodents) in seedlings\\u000a of Fagus crenata. The emergence of current-year seedlings and their survival and damage were followed at short (3–7 days in early spring)\\u000a intervals for

Midori Abe; Ayako Honda; Kazuhiko Hoshizaki; Hideo Miguchi

2008-01-01

142

[Comparative characterization of mesenchymal bone marrow stromal cells at early and late stages of culturing].  

PubMed

The mesenchymal stromal cell is a multipotent precursor of osteoblasts, adipocytes, and some other cell types. In this study, a comparative analysis of cultured mesenchymal stromal cells from the rat bone marrow at the early and late stages of subculturing has been performed using molecular genetic and cytological methods. The culture has undergone 11 passages during 140 days. Upon long-term culturing, the mesenchymal stromal cells have proved to lose their potential for adipogenic differentiation but preserve the potential for osteogenesis. Morphological characters typical of osteogenic differentiation can be observed at the earlier stages of culturing (passages 1-4) but disappear at later stages (passages 9-11), despite mineralization of the extracellular matrix and the expression of osteogenic differentiation markers. A comparative analysis of the proliferation potential of stromal cells has shown that differences in the period of cell population doubling at the early and later stages of culturing are insignificant. An almost complete arrest of cell growth has been observed in the middle of the culture period (passages 5 and 6). PMID:18946989

Kozhevnikova, M N; Mikaelian, A S; Paiushina, O V; Starostin, V I

143

Stage-related plasma values of transforming growth factor-beta1 are steroid receptors dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a biomarker associated with the progression of breast cancer, characteristic\\u000a by switching activity from tumor suppressor in early stages to tumor promoter at advanced disease. However, what cause this\\u000a switch is still not clear. On the other hand, the relationship between steroid receptors (estrogen ER and progesterone PR)\\u000a as the major discriminators of breast cancer

Nataša Todorovi?-Rakovi?; Z. Neškovi?-Konstantinovi?; D. Nikoli?-Vukosavljevi?

2009-01-01

144

Decision Making about Surgery for Early Stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Practice variation in breast cancer surgery has raised concerns about the quality of treatment decisions. We sought to evaluate the quality of decisions about surgery for early stage breast cancer by measuring patient knowledge, concordance between goals and treatments, and involvement in decisions. Study Design A mailed survey of Stage I/II breast cancer survivors was conducted at four sites. The Decision Quality Instrument measured knowledge, goals, and involvement in decisions. A multivariable logistic regression model of treatment was developed. The model-predicted probability of mastectomy was compared to treatment received for each patient. Concordance was defined as having mastectomy and predicted probability >=0.5 or partial mastectomy and predicted probability <0.5. Frequency of discussion about partial mastectomy was compared to discussion about mastectomy using chi-squared tests. Results 440 patients participated (59% response rate). Mean overall knowledge was 52.7%. 45.9% knew that local recurrence risk is higher after breast conservation. 55.7% knew that survival is equivalent for the two options. Most participants (89.0%) had treatment concordant with their goals. Participants preferring mastectomy had lower concordance (80.5%) than those preferring partial mastectomy (92.6%, p=0.001). Participants reported more frequent discussion of partial mastectomy and its advantages than of mastectomy. 48.6% reported being asked their preference. Conclusions Breast cancer survivors had major knowledge deficits, and those preferring mastectomy were less likely to have treatment concordant with goals. Patients perceived that discussions focused on partial mastectomy, and many were not asked their preference. Improvements in the quality of decisions about breast cancer surgery are needed.

Lee, Clara N; Chang, Yuchiao; Adimorah, Nesochi; Belkora, Jeff; Moy, Beverly; Partridge, Ann; Ollila, David W.; Sepucha, Karen

2011-01-01

145

METHOD FOR EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TESTS USING THREE ATHERINID FISHES AND RESULTS WITH CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed methods for obtaining embryos and conducting early life-stage toxicity tests (continuous exposure from the embryonic stage to approximately three weeks or more into the exogenous feeding stage) with three estuarine species of atherinid fishes. Early lif...

146

Chromosomal aberrations in early-stage bilharzial bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Bilharzial bladder cancer is one of the most common types of malignancy in both men and women in several developing countries including Egypt. It has several unique clinical, epidemiological, and histological characteristics, suggesting that it is an entity distinct from bladder cancer seen in Western countries. Genetic alterations in bilharzial-related bladder cancer have been studied infrequently, especially in the advanced stages of disease, that is, T3 and T4 classifications. The objective of this study was to extend establishing the baseline cytogenetic profile of this type of malignancy to early T1 and T2 classifications. For this purpose, fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to interphase nuclei of frozen-stored samples with biotinylated repetitive DNA probes specific for all chromosomes to detect numerical chromosome changes in 35 patients presenting with relatively early-stage pT1 and pT2 disease. Eleven cases had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 24 had transitional cell carcinoma. Six of 24 transitional cell carcinomas had diploid chromosome counts with all the probes. Numerical chromosome aberrations were detected in 18 cases (75%). In 12 cases, a loss of chromosome 9 was observed. In three cases, an additional loss of chromosome 17 was detected. One case demonstrated a loss of chromosome 10, whereas another two cases showed a gain of chromosome 7, next to a loss of chromosome 9. Loss of chromosome Y was observed in nine of the 27 male cases studied (33.3%), in which only one case showed an abnormality whereas four cases were detected next to loss of chromosome 9, and one case showed gain of chromosome 7. Five cases showed loss of chromosome 19 whereas gain of chromosome 4 was detected in two cases. Two of 11 samples of SCC had normal diploid chromosome counts with all the probes used. In four of 11 cases (36.4%) underrepresentation of chromosome 9, compared with the other chromosomes, was detected. An additional loss of chromosome 17 and gain of chromosome 7, next to loss of chromosome 9, was detected in three cases. One case showed loss of chromosome 17 as the only numerical aberration. Loss of the Y chromosome was detected in three cases of which one case had gain of chromosome 7 and one case had loss of chromosome 19. No correlation was found between any of the clinicopathologic parameters examined in this study and the presence or absence of any numerical chromosomal aberrations except for the significant association between schistosomal history and loss of Y chromosome (P=0.007). PMID:11801307

Aly, Magdy Sayed; Khaled, Hussein Mostafa

2002-01-01

147

Early Life Stage Mortality Rates of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thorough understanding of the early life history of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens is critical for rehabilitation of this species. Recruitment of lake sturgeon is known to be variable, but the extent of that variation and mortality rates experienced by early life stages are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify early life stage mortality and explore the

David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

2010-01-01

148

Antibody Profiling with Protein Antigen Microarrays in Early Stage Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Proteins not present in normal cells, i.e., cancer cells, may elicit a host immune response that leads to the generation of antibodies that might react with these tumor-associated proteins. In recent years, a growing number of reports have showed that autoantibody profiling may provide an alternative approach for the detection of cancer. However, most studies of antigen-autoantibody reactivity have relied on recombinant proteins. Recombinant proteins lack the proper post-translational modifications present in native proteins. Because of this limitation, native or natural protein antigen microarrays are gaining popularity for profiling antibody responses. Areas covered 1) to illustrate some examples of autoantibodies as signatures for early stage cancer; 2) to briefly outline the various protein antigen microarray platforms; 3) to illustrate the use of native or natural protein microarrays in the discovery of potential biomarkers; and, 4) to discuss the advantages of native protein antigen microarrays over other approaches. Expert opinion The nature of protein microarray platforms is conducive to multiplexing, which amplifies the potential for uncovering effective biomarkers for many significant diseases. However, the major challenge will be in integrating microarray platforms into multiplexed clinical diagnostic tools, as the main drawback is the reproducibility and coefficient of variation of the results from array to array, and the transportability of the array platform to a more automatable platform.

Liu, Brian C.-S.; DiJohnson, Daniel A.; O'Rourke, Dennis J.

2012-01-01

149

Cognitive Stimulation for Apathy in Probable Early-Stage Alzheimer's  

PubMed Central

We studied changes in apathy among 77 community-dwelling older persons with mild memory loss in a randomized clinical trial comparing two nonpharmacological interventions over four weeks. The study used a pre-post design with randomization by site to avoid contamination and diffusion of effect. Interventions were offered twice weekly after baseline evaluations were completed. The treatment group received classroom style mentally stimulating activities (MSAs) while the control group received a structured early-stage social support (SS) group. The results showed that the MSA group had significantly lower levels of apathy (P < .001) and significantly lower symptoms of depression (P < .001). While both groups improved on quality of life, the MSA group was significantly better (P = .02) than the SS group. Executive function was not significantly different for the two groups at four weeks, but general cognition improved for the MSA group and declined slightly for the SS group which produced a significant posttest difference (P < .001). Recruitment and retention of SS group members was difficult in this project, especially in senior center locations, while this was not the case for the MSA group. The examination of the data at this four-week time point shows promising results that the MSA intervention may provide a much needed method of reducing apathy and depressive symptoms, while motivating participation and increasing quality of life.

Buettner, Linda L.; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne; Atav, Serdar; Sink, Kaycee

2011-01-01

150

Textile Effluents Affected Seed Germination and Early Growth of Some Winter Vegetable Crops: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess as to whether treated textile effluent could be safely used to irrigate some winter vegetables, growth\\u000a room experiments were conducted. Varying levels of treated and untreated textile effluents were applied to germinating seeds\\u000a of some winter vegetables and their effect was evaluated on germination and early growth stage using seed germination, growth,\\u000a and biochemical attributes. From

Abida Rehman; Haq Nawaz Bhatti; Habib-ur-Rehman Athar

2009-01-01

151

Salt sensitivity of wheat at various growth stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative salt tolerance of two wheat species (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Probred and Triticum turgidum L., Durum Group, cv. Aldura) at different stages of growth was determined in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown in sand cultures that were irrigated four times daily with modified Hoagland's solution. Salinization with NaCl and CaCl2 (2:1 molar ratio) provided seven treatment solutions

E. V. Maas; J. A. Poss

1989-01-01

152

Initial stage of crystalline rubrene thin film growth on mica (0 0 1).  

PubMed

We have studied the morphology and the spatially resolved photoluminescence of rubrene thin films at the early stage of crystallization. The initial growth proceeds via the formation of a wetting layer and the nucleation of islands with an amorphous structure. Crystallization starts when the amorphous islands coalesce and needle like crystalline fibers are formed in the gap between islands. The crystalline fibers then grow on top and in between the original amorphous islands leading to an "open network" of islands. The latter acts as the basis for the growth of semi-crystalline spherulites. PMID:21552477

Zaglmayr, H; Sun, L D; Weidlinger, G; Al-Baqi, Sh M Abd; Sitter, H; Zeppenfeld, P

2011-02-01

153

Initial stage of crystalline rubrene thin film growth on mica (0 0 1)  

PubMed Central

We have studied the morphology and the spatially resolved photoluminescence of rubrene thin films at the early stage of crystallization. The initial growth proceeds via the formation of a wetting layer and the nucleation of islands with an amorphous structure. Crystallization starts when the amorphous islands coalesce and needle like crystalline fibers are formed in the gap between islands. The crystalline fibers then grow on top and in between the original amorphous islands leading to an “open network” of islands. The latter acts as the basis for the growth of semi-crystalline spherulites.

Zaglmayr, H.; Sun, L.D.; Weidlinger, G.; Al-Baqi, Sh.M. Abd; Sitter, H.; Zeppenfeld, P.

2011-01-01

154

Early and intermediate stages of guided dewetting in polystyrene thin films.  

PubMed

We investigated the early and intermediate stages of the guided dewetting of polystyrene (PS) thin films on chemically patterned silicon, achieved by micro-contact printing of non-wettable self-assembling monolayers of an alkylsilane. Two different types of ordered patterns could be achieved depending on the annealing temperature and time. Study of the dynamics of hole growth revealed a deviation of the growth profile from the trend on homogeneous substrates, attributed to the pinning of the PS rims on the borders of the hydrophobic regions. The ordered patterns produced could be useful in applications that require spatially localized features of controlled surface chemistry, such as studies in proteomics, single cell studies, and biosensors. PMID:22720734

Ghezzi, Manuel; Thickett, Stuart C; Neto, Chiara

2012-06-26

155

Insulin-like growth factor II acts through an endogenous growth pathway regulated by imprinting in early mouse embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence that insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) mediates growth in early mouse embryos and forms a pathway in which imprinted genes influence development during preimplantation stages, mRNA and protein for IGF-II were expressed in preimplantation mouse embryos, but the related factors IGF-I and insulin were not. IGF-I and insulin receptors and the IGF-II\\/mannose-6-phosphate receptor were expressed. Exogenous IGF-II

Daniel A. Rappolee; Karin S. Sturm; Ole Behrendtsen; Gilbert A. Schultz; Roger A. Pedersen; Zena Werb

1992-01-01

156

Pesticides in urban streams and early life stages of Pacific coho salmon.  

PubMed

Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams and are believed to be primarily the result of homeowner use. Although concentrations in most cases are low (<1?µg/L), there is concern that pesticide inputs threaten efforts to restore and enhance salmon habitat. The authors exposed early life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of those pesticides most frequently reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Life stages were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail simulating those in urban streams in fall and winter when coho salmon eggs and sac fry are present. Nominal concentrations of eight herbicides, two insecticides, a fungicide, and a breakdown product were the maximum detected. Fertilization, hatching success, survival, deformities, and growth of fry were not significantly affected. A reduction in fertilization success (19-25%) was not reproducible even when gametes were exposed to 100 times the maximum concentrations detected. Based on the end points examined in the present study, the results suggest that direct exposure to the pesticides most frequently detected in urban streams in western Washington does not impair early life stages of coho salmon and is not a major factor governing the recovery of salmon populations. The extent to which pesticide exposure would affect smoltification, outmigration, and ocean survival needs to be determined. PMID:23297254

King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J

2013-02-21

157

Disability is already pronounced in young people with early stages of affective disorders: Data from an early intervention service  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough there is growing recognition that disability emerges early in the course of psychotic disorders, it is unclear whether young people with early stages of anxiety or affective disorders are similarly affected. This study examined patient self-reported disability in young people attending a designated early intervention service.

Blake A. Hamilton; Sharon L. Naismith; Elizabeth M. Scott; Susie Purcell; Ian B. Hickie

2011-01-01

158

STAGING EARLY EMBRYOS FROM POULTRY: THE WHY'S AND HOW'S  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The staging of embryos involves the classification of their normal development from the first cleavage divisions through hatching. Individual stages are based on discrete yet often quite subtle developmental changes in embryo morphology. The collective sequence of stages describing embryo developmen...

159

Early life-stage toxicity of eight pharmaceuticals to the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas.  

PubMed

Human pharmaceuticals are routinely being detected in the environment, and there is growing concern about whether these drugs could elicit effects on aquatic organisms. Regulatory paradigms have shifted accordingly, with a greater emphasis on chronic toxicity data compared with acute data. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 210 Early Life Stage Test has been proposed as a good measure of the potential for pharmaceuticals to elicit chronic toxicity. To begin building a data set regarding the early life-stage toxicity of pharmaceuticals to fish, fathead minnows (FHM) were exposed to amiodarone, carbamazepine, clozapine, dexamethasone, fenofibrate, ibuprofen, norethindrone, or verapamil. Survival and growth were used to assess chronic toxicity in FHM at 28 days posthatch. Exposure of FHM to carbamazepine, fenofibrate, and ibuprofen resulted in no significant adverse effects at the concentrations tested. FHM survival was not impacted by verapamil exposure; however, growth was significantly decreased at 600 ?g/L. Dexamethasone-exposed FHM showed a significant decrease in survival at a concentration of 577 ?g/L; however, growth was not impacted at the concentration tested. Norethindrone exposure resulted in a significant decrease in survival and dry weight at 14.8 and 0.74 ?g/L, respectively. Exposure to amiodarone and clozapine resulted in a significant decrease in survival and a significant increase in growth at concentrations of 1020 and 30.8 ?g/L, respectively. Although the effect levels derived in this study are greater then concentrations observed in the environment, these data suggest that synthetic progestins may require additional research. PMID:22048524

Overturf, M D; Overturf, C L; Baxter, D; Hala, D N; Constantine, L; Venables, B; Huggett, D B

2011-11-04

160

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Inoperable Early Stage Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Context Patients with early stage but medically inoperable lung cancer patients have a poor rate of primary tumor control (30-40%) and a high rate of mortality (3-year survival 20-35%) with current management. Objective To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy in a high risk population of patients with early stage but medically inoperable lung cancer. Design, Setting, and Patients Phase 2 North American multicenter study of patients with biopsy-proven peripheral T1-T2, N0, M0 non-small cell tumors less than 5 cm in diameter and medical conditions precluding surgical treatment. The prescription dose was 18 Gy per fraction times 3 fractions (54 Gy total) delivered in 1½-2 weeks. The study opened May 26, 2004, and closed October 13, 2006; data were analyzed through August 31, 2009. Main Outcome Measures The primary endpoint was primary tumor control with overall survival, disease free survival, adverse events, involved lobe, regional, and disseminated recurrence as secondary endpoints. Results A total of 59 patients accrued, of which 55 were evaluable (44 T1 and 11 T2 tumors) with a median follow-up of 34.4 months (range, 4.8 to 49.9 months). Only 1 patient had a primary tumor failure; the estimated 3-year primary tumor control rate was 97.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.3%, 99.7%). Three patients had recurrence within the involved lobe; the 3-year primary tumor and involved lobe (local) control rate was 90.6% (95% CI, 76.0%, 96.5%). Two patients experienced regional failure; the local-regional control rate was 87.2% (95%CI, 71.0%, 94.7%). Eleven patients experienced disseminated recurrence; the 3-year rate of disseminated failure was 22.1% (95% CI, 12.3%, 37.8%). The rates of disease-free and overall survival at 3 years were 48.3% (95% CI, 34.4%, 60.8%) and 55.8% (95% CI, 41.6%, 67.9%), respectively. The median overall survival was 48.1 months (95% CI, 29.6% to not reached). Protocol specified treatment-related grade 3 adverse events were reported in 7 patients (12.7%; 95% CI, 9.6%, 15.8%); grade 4 events were reported in 2 patients (3.6%; 95%CI, 2.7%, 4.5%). No grade 5 adverse events were reported. Conclusion Patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer who received stereotactic body radiation therapy had a survival rate of 55.8% at 3 years, high rates of local tumor control, and moderate treatment-related morbidity.

Timmerman, Robert; Paulus, Rebecca; Galvin, James; Michalski, Jeffrey; Straube, William; Bradley, Jeffrey; Fakiris, Achilles; Bezjak, Andrea; Videtic, Gregory; Johnstone, David; Fowler, Jack; Gore, Elizabeth; Choy, Hak

2010-01-01

161

Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis.  

PubMed

A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements. PMID:23387626

Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

2013-01-28

162

Aromatase inhibitors and calcium absorption in early stage breast cancer  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effect of aromatase inhibitors (AI) on intestinal calcium absorption, measured using the gold-standard dual stable calcium isotope method. In this pilot study, we recruited 10 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who planned to initiate AI therapy; women receiving chemotherapy were excluded. Women completed two 24 h inpatient calcium absorption study visits, the first prior to AI therapy and the second at least 6 weeks following onset of AI therapy. We calculated total fractional calcium absorption (TFCA) using the dose-corrected fractional recovery of two stable isotopes from 24 h urine collections. Ten postmenopausal women (mean ± SD age, 66 ± 7 years; 25(OH)D 40 ± 7 ng/mL, and total calcium intake of 1,714 ± 640 mg/day) exhibited no change in TFCA related to AI therapy (0.155 ± 0.042 prior to and 0.160 ± 0.064 following AI therapy, p = 1.0). Subjects exhibited a surprisingly small decline in serum estradiol levels with AI therapy that was not statistically significant. However, there was a significant correlation between duration of AI therapy and the decline in serum estradiol levels (r = ?0.65, p = 0.040). In this pilot study, AI therapy did not decrease TFCA. Women with early stage breast cancer exhibited an unexpectedly low TFCA, most likely due to their high calcium intake. The null effect of AI therapy on TFCA might relate to the brief duration of AI therapy, the minimal effect of AI therapy on estradiol levels, subjects’ high calcium intake or excellent vitamin D status.

Tevaarwerk, Amye; Burkard, Mark E.; Wisinski, Kari B.; Shafer, Martin M.; Davis, Lisa A.; Gogineni, Jyothi; Crone, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

163

Aromatase inhibitors and calcium absorption in early stage breast cancer.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of aromatase inhibitors (AI) on intestinal calcium absorption, measured using the gold-standard dual stable calcium isotope method. In this pilot study, we recruited 10 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who planned to initiate AI therapy; women receiving chemotherapy were excluded. Women completed two 24 h inpatient calcium absorption study visits, the first prior to AI therapy and the second at least 6 weeks following onset of AI therapy. We calculated total fractional calcium absorption (TFCA) using the dose-corrected fractional recovery of two stable isotopes from 24 h urine collections. Ten postmenopausal women (mean±SD age, 66±7 years; 25(OH)D 40±7 ng/mL, and total calcium intake of 1,714±640 mg/day) exhibited no change in TFCA related to AI therapy (0.155±0.042 prior to and 0.160±0.064 following AI therapy, p=1.0). Subjects exhibited a surprisingly small decline in serum estradiol levels with AI therapy that was not statistically significant. However, there was a significant correlation between duration of AI therapy and the decline in serum estradiol levels (r=-0.65, p=0.040). In this pilot study, AI therapy did not decrease TFCA. Women with early stage breast cancer exhibited an unexpectedly low TFCA, most likely due to their high calcium intake. The null effect of AI therapy on TFCA might relate to the brief duration of AI therapy, the minimal effect of AI therapy on estradiol levels, subjects' high calcium intake or excellent vitamin D status. PMID:22350731

Tevaarwerk, Amye; Burkard, Mark E; Wisinski, Kari B; Shafer, Martin M; Davis, Lisa A; Gogineni, Jyothi; Crone, Elizabeth; Hansen, Karen E

2012-02-18

164

Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements.

Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

2013-01-01

165

Effects of Constitutive ?-Catenin Activation on Vertebral Bone Growth and Remodeling at Different Postnatal Stages in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective The Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway is essential for controlling bone mass; however, little is known about the variable effects of the constitutive activation of ?-catenin (CA-?-catenin) on bone growth and remodeling at different postnatal stages. The goal of the present study was to observe the effects of CA-?-catenin on vertebral bone growth and remodeling in mice at different postnatal stages. In particular, special attention was paid to whether CA-?-catenin has detrimental effects on these processes. Methods Catnblox(ex 3) mice were crossed with mice expressing the TM-inducible Cre fusion protein, which could be activated at designated time points via injection of tamoxifen. ?-catenin was stabilized by tamoxifen injection 3 days, and 2, 4, 5, and 7 months after birth, and the effects lasted for one month. Radiographic imaging, micro-computed tomography, immunohistochemistry, and safranin O and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining were employed to observe the effects of CA-?-catenin on vertebral bone growth and remodeling. Results CA-?-catenin in both early (3 days after birth) and late stages (2, 4, 5, and 7 months after birth) increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, which together increased vertebral bone volume. However, when ?-catenin was stabilized in the early stage, vertebral linear growth was retarded, and the mice demonstrated shorter statures. In addition, the newly formed bone was mainly immature and located close to the growth plate. In contrast, when ?-catenin was stabilized in the late stage, vertebral linear growth was unaffected, and the newly formed bone was mainly mature and evenly distributed throughout the vertebral body. Conclusions CA-?-catenin in both early and late stages of growth can increase vertebral bone volume, but ?-catenin has differential effects on vertebral growth and remodeling when activated at different postnatal stages.

Zhang, Bo; Liang, Huaping; Feng, Jianquan; Zong, Zhaowen

2013-01-01

166

Prognostic implication of serum vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma staging.  

PubMed

Background. Staging systems have considerable impact on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment approaches and outcomes. There is an unmet need to improve their stratification ability. We have evaluated four commonly used staging systems and assessed whether angiogenic biomarker vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could improve their prognostic stratification. Material and methods. Four staging systems; Okuda, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP), Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC), and Child-Pugh were evaluated in 78 HCC patients; their stratification abilities were detected by Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test; their accuracies of predicting survival were compared with the concordance index. Serum VEGF levels were measured using ELISA method. Recursive partitioning was used to determine the optimal VEGF cutoff. The prognostic significance of VEGF cutoff and other parameters were analyzed using univariate and multivariate models. Results. None of the staging systems demonstrated better discriminatory ability in predicting survival. The four staging systems did not reveal significant differences in probability of survival across their intermediate-advanced stages. Optimal cutoff identified for VEGF was 445 pg/mL. In advanced HCC, VEGF level (p = 0.004) and in early HCC, bilirubin level (p = 0.009) were identified as the independent prognostic factors. Survival comparison with high and low VEGF levels was significant for advanced HCC, while insignificant for early disease. Conclusion. Staging systems with conventional parameters did not provide good prognostic stratification for survival in advanced HCC population. Serum VEGF level was an independent predictor of survival in advanced HCC, and provided more survival homogeneity within the advanced stages of conventional staging systems. PMID:24114822

Yegin, Ender G; Siykhymbayev, Aydos; Eren, Fatih; Bekiroglu, Nural; Ozdogan, Osman Cavit

167

Communication: Stable carbon nanoarches in the initial stages of epitaxial growth of graphene on Cu(111)  

SciTech Connect

To fully exploit the device potential of graphene, reliable production of large-area, high-quality samples is required. Epitaxial growth on metal substrates have shown promise in this regard, but further improvement would be facilitated by a more complete understanding of the atomistic processes involved in the early growth stages. Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we have investigated the energetics and kinetics of graphene nucleation and growth on a Cu(111) surface. Our calculations have revealed an energetic preference for the formation of stable one-dimensional carbon nanoarches consisting of 3 13 atoms when compared to twodimensional compact islands of equal sizes. We also estimate the critical cluster size that marks the transition from nanoarch dominance to island dominance in the growth sequence. Our findings may provide the structural link between nucleated carbon dimers and larger carbon nanodomes, and are expected to stimulate future experimental efforts.

Van Wesep, Robert G [ORNL; Chen, Hua [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhu, Wenguang [ORNL; Zhang, Zhwnyu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01

168

Is Early Adolescence Really a Stage of Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of whether or not early adolescence is a transitional or stable period of development may be dependent on our ability to describe ways in which early adolescents are quantitatively and qualitatively different from when they were children and how these early adolescent characteristics are forerunners to the more elaborate constructs of…

Thornburg, Hershel D.

1983-01-01

169

Analysis in Serum-Free Culture of the Targets of Recombinant Human Hemopoietic Growth Factors: Interleukin 3 and Granulocyte\\/Macrophage-Colony-Stimulating Factor are Specific for Early Developmental Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a serum-free culture system for enriched human hemopoietic progenitors to analyze the developmental stages and lineage specificities of the human hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors. None of the individual factors alone efficiently supported hemopoietic colony formation. Neither interleukin 3 nor granulocyte\\/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor alone or in combination effectively supported proliferation of progenitor cells. However, when combined with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor or

Yoshiaki Sonoda; Yu-Chung Yang; Gordon G. Wong; Steven C. Clark; Makio Ogawa

1988-01-01

170

Stage-dependent effects of oocytes and growth differentiation factor 9 on mouse granulosa cell development: advance programming and subsequent control of the transition from preantral secondary follicles to early antral tertiary follicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an ovarian follicle requires a complex set of reciprocal interactions between the oocyte and granulosa cells in order for both types of cells to develop properly. These interactions are largely orchestrated by the oocyte via paracrine factors such as growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9). To examine these interactions further, a study was conducted of the effects of

K. E. Latham; K Wigglesworth; M McMenamin; J J Eppig

2004-01-01

171

Active compressive intraoceanic deformation: early stages of ophiolites emplacement?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic lithosphere is strong and continental lithosphere is weak. As a result, there is relatively little deformation in the oceanic domain away from plate boundaries. However, the interior of oceanic lithosphere does deform when highly stressed. We review here places where intraoceanic compression is at work. In the more than 30 years since the first observations of active compressive intraplate deformation in the Central Indian Ocean through seismic profiling (Eittreim et al., 1972), compressive deformation has been identified in a variety of other oceanic tectonic settings: as a result of small differential motion between large plates (between North America and South America in the Central Atlantic; between Eurasia and Nubia offshore Gibraltar; between Macquarie and Australia plates in the Southern Ocean), within back-arcs (northwest Celebes Sea, Okushiri Ridge in the Japan Sea, on the eastern border of the Caroline plate), and ahead of subduction (Zenisu Ridge off Nankai Trough). Deformation appears to be more diffuse when larger plates are involved, and more localized for younger plates, perhaps in relation with the increasing rigidity of oceanic plates with age. The best example of diffuse deformation studied so far remains the Central Indian Ocean. Numerous marine data have been collected in this area, including shallow and deep seismic, heat flow measurements, multibeam bathymetry. The present-day deformation field has been modeled using GPS and earthquakes as far field and near field constraints respectively. Reactivation of the oceanic fabric (including for portions of the Indo-Australian plate which are now in subduction as evidenced by the September 2009 Padang earthquake), selective fault abandonment (Delescluse et al., 2008) and serpentinization (Delescluse and Chamot-Rooke, 2008) are some of the important processes that shape the present-day pattern of deformation. These rare intraplate deformation areas constitute excellent natural laboratories to investigate the very early stages of formation of faulted oceanic bodies that may further be incorporated into mountain belts as ophiolites. They allow to discuss rates and duration of deformation, diffuse vs localized deformation, re-activation vs neo-formed faults, serpentinization and thermal regime, spacing of minor and major thrust faults. Delescluse, M., L. G. J. Montesi, and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Fault reactivation and selective abandonment in the oceanic lithosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 35. Delescluse, M., and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Serpentinization pulse in the actively deforming Central Indian Basin. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 276, p. 140-151. Eittreim, S. L., and J. Ewing (1972), Mid-Plate Tectonics in the Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 77(32), 6413-6421.

Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Delescluse, Matthias; Montési, Laurent

2010-05-01

172

Early stages of Purkinje cell maturation demonstrated by Thy-1 immunohistochemistry on postnatal rat cerebellum.  

PubMed

The cell surface glycoprotein, Thy-1, is present on Purkinje cells at birth, so allowing Thy-1 immunohistochemistry to demonstrate the final stage of migration and the transition to dendritic growth of these cells. In the most caudal lobule of the cerebellar cortex of the newborn rat, migrating Purkinje cells are found. These have a prominent process (up to 50 micron long) from which fine filopodia project, presumably sensing the environment in front of the cell. These cells are orientated tangentially, at right angles to the radial orientation they assume for dendritic growth. Strong Thy-1 labelling is found not only on their surface, but also on a cytoplasmic cap above the presumed leading pole of the nucleus. More rostrally in the cerebellar cortex, Purkinje cells arrive up to 3 days before birth and are quiescent until the postnatal development of their dendritic tree. At birth and during early postnatal periods a rounded cell is found with little cytoplasm; Thy-1 staining labels its surface and the fine processes which emanate from it. Such cells coexist with other Thy-1-positive Purkinje cells with more developed surface orientated processes. Even as early as the day of birth these fine processes cross the molecular layer and contact the lower level of the external granule layer. Orientated dendritic growth appears to occur by a selective thickening of these processes and a massive apical protrusion of intensely Thy-1-positive cytoplasm. The whole of the Purkinje cell surface membrane exhibits high levels of Thy-1 throughout dendritic growth and synaptogenesis, and cytoplasmic antigen is prominent during the period of greatest growth. Thy-1 is also found on the neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei, and is seen transiently on Golgi interneurons. High levels of the antigen are present on blood vessels and choroid plexus at birth but are lost from these structures over the first 2 postnatal weeks. PMID:2864401

Morris, R J; Beech, J N; Barber, P C; Raisman, G

1985-06-01

173

Growth-stage dependent crop yield response to ozone exposure.  

PubMed

Data from four crop yield-loss field trials were examined to determine if analysis using an imposed phenological weighting function based on seasonal growth stage would provide a more accurate indication of impact of ozone exposure. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Moapa 69), dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. California Dark Red kidney), fresh market and processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. 6718 VF and VF-145-B7879, respectively) were grown at 9-11 ambient field plots within southern California comprising an ambient gradient of ozone. The growing season for each crop was artificially divided into 'quarters' composed of equal numbers of whole days and roughly corresponding to specific growth stages. Ozone exposure was calculated for each of these 'quarters' and regressed against final crop yield using 163 different exposure statistics. Weighting functions were developed using reciprocal residual mean square (1/RMS) or percentage of the best 100 exposure statistics of the 163 tested (TOP100) for each of the quarters. The third quarter of the alfalfa season was clearly most responsive to ozone as measured by both of the weighting functions. Third quarter ozone was also weighted highest by both weighting functions for dry bean. Fresh market and processing tomato were each influenced the greatest by second quartero zone as demonstrated by both weighting functions. The occurrence of ozone during physiologically important events (flowering and initial fruit set in second quarter for tomato; pod development in third quarter for dry bean) appeared to influence the yield of these crops the greatest. Growth-stage-dependent phenological weighting of pollutant exposure may result in more effective predictions of levels of ozone exposure resulting in yield reductions. PMID:15091620

Younglove, T; McCool, P M; Musselman, R C; Kahl, M E

1994-01-01

174

Classification of forest growth stage using Landsat TM data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the utility of polytomous logistic regression in pixel classification of remotely sensed images by the growth stage of forests. For a population of grouped continuous categories, the assumption of normal distribution of independent variables, which is often required in multivariate classification methods, may not be appropriate. Two types of polytomous logistic regression procedures, multinomial and cumulative logistic regression, were used to classify Landsat TM data by growth stage (regeneration-immature, intermediate, and mature) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest in the east central Mississippi. Multinomial logistic regression is typically used for analysis of unordered categorical data. Cumulative logistic regression is one of the most commonly used methods of ordinal logistic regression which is generally preferred to analyze ordered categorical data, although, it imposes restrictions on the data. Three hundred sample points were located randomly throughout the study site and vectors of pixel values of four bands of Landsat TM data were used to predict growth stage at each sample location. The results were compared to that of parametric and nonparametric discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbor method. Non-normal distribution of independent variables indicated a violation of the assumptions for parametric discriminant analysis. Classification with cumulative logistic regression using four bands was performed first. However, the assumption of the model was not met. So, the classification was also performed using only band 4 which appeared to meet the assumption. The error rate of cumulative logistic regression was 39.12% with all the bands and 37.70% with band 4 alone. Although error rate with cumulative logistic regression with band 4 alone resulted in the lowest error rate, the improvement over other methods was marginal. The error rate of k-nearest neighbor method varied from 38.68 to 48.06% depending on choice of the value of k.

Fujisaki, Ikuko; Gerard, Patrick D.; Evans, David L.

2005-09-01

175

Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surface ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.

Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S. [Inst. de Ciencias Ambientales y Salud, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Programa Seguridad Quimica; Cardellini, P.; Pavanati, C. [Univ. degli Studi di Padova Via Trieste (Italy). Dept. di Biologia

1997-02-01

176

13 CFR 107.565 - Restrictions on third-party debt of Early Stage SBICs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Restrictions on third-party debt of Early Stage SBICs. ...§ 107.565 Restrictions on third-party debt of Early Stage SBICs. ...have, incur, or refinance any third-party debt other than accounts...

2013-01-01

177

The early stages of verb acquisition in English, Spanish and GermanMCCUNE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a preliminary report on how children acquire verb paradigms, proposing a set of verb stages. The stages are: 1. Holophrases: the first action words appear; 2. Early Word Combinations: actions words combine to form semantic relations; 3. Early Verbal Combinations: verbs become obligatory, marked by an increase in verb use, and a later increase in the number

David Ingram; Anne Welti; Christine Priem

178

Caring for relatives with early stage Alzheimer's disease: An exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an exploratory study involving semi-structured interviews with 20 primary caregivers of persons in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease. The challenges unique to the early stage of the disease are explained and illustrated through interview excerpts. The issues and themes of these interviews are summarized. Implications for practice are also discussed.

Daniel R. Kuhn

1998-01-01

179

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 ?atm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 ?atm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which could lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

2011-12-01

180

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on the early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in the life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 ?atm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 ?atm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which consequently should lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival and could affect the ecosystem and fisheries. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

2011-07-01

181

Factors affecting growth and nodulation of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. Rhamnoides in soils from two successional stages of dune formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To explain the decline of Hippopha scrub in the vegetation succession in the dunes of The Netherlands, the growth and nodulation\\u000a of Hippopha plants grown in pots, using soil from an early stage (site AH) and a post-optimum stage (site HP), were investigated.\\u000a In HP-soil nodulation, yield, and the nitrogen and phosphorus content of test plants were always lower and

P. A. I. Oremus; H. Otten

1981-01-01

182

Setting the Stage for Lifetime Physical Activity in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale and suggestions for emphasizing health-related physical education in preschool settings. In order to accomplish this, it will examine what is currently known about early childhood physical activity, as well as the existing professional preparation and accreditation standards for early

Schneider, Holly; Lounsbery, Monica

2008-01-01

183

A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

2010-01-01

184

Tritium levels in Chinese cabbage and radish plants acutely exposed to HTO vapor at different growth stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simulate an acute exposure of Chinese cabbage and radish plants to airborne HTO, the potted plants were exposed to HTO vapor under semi-outdoor conditions for 1h at different times from the early to late growth stages. The plants were grown outdoors and the plant tritium was measured at the end of an exposure (h0) and at harvest. The leaf

Yong Ho Choi; Kwang Muk Lim; Won Yun Lee; Hyo Guk Park; Geun Sik Choi; Dong Kwon Keum; Hansoo Lee; Sang Bog Kim; Chang Woo Lee

2005-01-01

185

Temperature Effects of Hypolimnial-Release Dams on Early Life Stages of Colorado River Basin Big-River Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declines of native big-river fishes of the Colorado River Basin, southwestern Unit- ed States, have been attributed in part to emplacement of hypolimnial-release dams. Lowered spring-summer tailwater temperatures inhibit spawning and embryonic de- velopment, depress swimming performance and growth, and reduce survival of early life stages. We examined effects of three temperatures (10 C, 14 C, 20 C) on aspects

Robert W. Clarkson; Michael R. Childs; S. A. Schaefer

2000-01-01

186

An expert system applied to the physiological analysis of early stage of beer fermentation.  

PubMed

A fuzzy expert system was applied to the knowledge analysis of yeast physiology in the early stage of beer fermentation, when the wort was aerated. We used ergosterol and glycogen concentration in the wort as a suitable marker of physiological state of the cell population. The amount of both compounds influences the rate of fermentation, cell growth and the final taste of beer. The concentrations of ergosterol and glycogen including the number of cells can not be measured immediately during the relatively short aeration period, and incomplete experimental data are therefore found in laboratory logbooks. We therefore suggested that the fuzzy relation between the directly measurable dissolved oxygen concentration and the rate of ergosterol or glycogen formation should be identified and a fuzzy expert system should be used to analyze the behavior of the yeast. PMID:8549998

Vassileva, S; Huong, V L; Votruba, J

1994-01-01

187

DLK2 is a transcriptional target of KLF4 in the early stages of adipogenesis.  

PubMed

The epidermal growth factor-like protein DLK2, highly homologous to DLK1, has been identified as a modulator of adipogenesis in vitro. Knocking down Dlk2 expression prevents adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells but enhances that of the mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2. The expression of Dlk2 shows two peaks along this differentiation process: the first one, in response to 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and dexamethasone (Dex), and the second, shortly after exposure to insulin. Nothing is known about the transcriptional regulation of Dlk2 during adipogenesis. Here, we report that, during early adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, Dlk2 expression is controlled independently by IBMX and Dex. We also show that KLF4, a transcription factor critical for the control of early adipogenesis, binds directly to the Dlk2 promoter and increases Dlk2 expression in response to IBMX. Overexpression of KLF4 leads to an increase in DLK2 expression levels, whereas KLF4 knockdown downregulates the transcriptional activity of the Dlk2 promoter. Finally, we demonstrate that KLF4 regulates the basal expression of Dlk2 in C3H10T1/2 cells, and it is required for the adipogenic differentiation of those cells. These results indicate that KLF4 mediates the transcriptional regulation of Dlk2 in response to IBMX during the early stages of adipogenesis. PMID:22306741

Rivero, Samuel; Díaz-Guerra, María J M; Monsalve, Eva M; Laborda, Jorge; García-Ramírez, José J

2012-01-27

188

Probing the Early Stages of Polymer Crystallization: from Quiescent State to Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, several new findings in polymer crystallization under quiescent and flow states have generated concerns over the deviation of classic nucleation and growth behavior at the early stages of crystallization. These findings include the detection of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) signals before wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD) during isothermal crystallization as well as polymer flow (fiber/film spinning). It is thought that density fluctuations cause the SAXS signal and crystal orders generate WAXD peaks, which implies that density fluctuations are present prior to crystallization. In this talk, we will present evidences that the early stages of polymer crystallization still follow the nucleation and growth behavior. As we confirmed the findings of SAXS before WAXD during crystallization at both quiescent and flow states (fiber spinning and step shearing), upon careful examination, we discovered that the detection limit of the WAXD technique was at least ten times worse than that of SAXS. During in-situ melt spinning studies of poly(ethylene) (PE) and poly(vinylene fluoride) (PVDF), we also observed that SAXS occurred before WAXS. However, the detailed analysis indicates that the equatorial streak occurs even before the meridional streak (or lobe). This favors the shish-kebab formation mechanism during flow-induced crystallization proposed by Keller et al. rather than the hypothesis of spinodal decomposition as a precursor to crystallization. The similar shish-kebab morphology was also seen in the step-shear induced crystallization of PE and poly(propylene) (PP) under high shear rates.

Hsiao, Benjamin

2000-03-01

189

Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS. PMID:23126275

Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

2012-11-05

190

Intercropping with wheat leads to greater root weight density and larger below-ground space of irrigated maize at late growth stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercropping two species at different growth stages is common in temperate and tropical areas. An apparent recovery of growth is observed in late-maturing species after early-maturing species have been harvested, but the mechanism remained unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that the roots of late-maturing species occupy greater below-ground space at later growth stages. The monolith method was employed to

Long Li; Jianhao Sun; Fusuo Zhang

2011-01-01

191

Paired comparison of water, energy and carbon exchanges over two young maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.): effects of thinning and weeding in the early stage of tree growth.  

PubMed

The effects of management practices on energy, water and carbon exchanges were investigated in a young pine plantation in south-west France. In 2009-10, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2)O and heat fluxes were monitored using the eddy covariance and sap flow techniques in a control plot (C) with a developed gorse layer, and an adjacent plot that was mechanically weeded and thinned (W). Despite large differences in the total leaf area index and canopy structure, the annual net radiation absorbed was only 4% lower in plot W. We showed that higher albedo in this plot was offset by lower emitted long-wave radiation. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) from plot W was 15% lower, due to lower rainfall interception and transpiration by the tree canopy, partly counterbalanced by the larger evaporation from both soil and regrowing weedy vegetation. The drainage belowground from plot W was larger by 113 mm annually. The seasonal variability of ET was driven by the dynamics of the soil and weed layers, which was more severely affected by drought in plot C. Conversely, the temporal changes in pine transpiration and stem diameter growth were synchronous between sites despite higher soil water content in the weeded plot. At the annual scale, both plots were carbon sinks, but thinning and weeding reduced the carbon uptake by 73%: annual carbon uptake was 243 and 65 g C m(-2) on plots C and W, respectively. Summer drought dramatically impacted the net ecosystem exchange: plot C became a carbon source as the gross primary production (GPP) severely decreased. However, plot W remained a carbon sink during drought, as a result of decreases in both GPP and ecosystem respiration (R(E)). In winter, both plots were carbon sources, plots C and W emitting 67.5 and 32.4 g C m(-2), respectively. Overall, this study highlighted the significant contribution of the gorse layer to mass and energy exchange in young pine plantations. PMID:21724584

Moreaux, Virginie; Lamaud, Eric; Bosc, Alexandre; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Medlyn, Belinda E; Loustau, Denis

2011-06-30

192

Surface reactions during the early stages of weathering of albite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the nature and distribution of surface species occurring during the initial stage of weathering of albite. Instead of the classical acidbase titration experiments used extensively in previous work, the surface of freshly ground mineral was titrated by adding increasing amounts of solid to pure water. The aqueous phase

Roland Wollast; Lei Chou

1992-01-01

193

Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

Young, Tabitha L.

2013-01-01

194

Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

Young, Tabitha L.

2013-01-01

195

On Some Features of Early Embryonic Development Stages of Cnidaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Division of the life cycle of Cnidaria (except for Anthozoa) into two independent generations, polypoid and medusoid, i.e., metagenesis, is considered to be unjustified. Like other Metazoa, their life cycle can be divided into three periods: embryonic, postembryonic, and definitive, i.e., according to the age [9, 10]. An important feature of Cnidaria is the transition of some postembryonic stages to

Z. S. Kaufman

2004-01-01

196

Genome-Wide Study of the Adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the Early Stages of Wine Fermentation  

PubMed Central

This work was designed to identify yeast cellular functions specifically affected by the stress factors predominating during the early stages of wine fermentation, and genes required for optimal growth under these conditions. The main experimental method was quantitative fitness analysis by means of competition experiments in continuous culture of whole genome barcoded yeast knockout collections. This methodology allowed the identification of haploinsufficient genes, and homozygous deletions resulting in growth impairment in synthetic must. However, genes identified as haploproficient, or homozygous deletions resulting in fitness advantage, were of little predictive power concerning optimal growth in this medium. The relevance of these functions for enological performance of yeast was assessed in batch cultures with single strains. Previous studies addressing yeast adaptation to winemaking conditions by quantitative fitness analysis were not specifically focused on the proliferative stages. In some instances our results highlight the importance of genes not previously linked to winemaking. In other cases they are complementary to those reported in previous studies concerning, for example, the relevance of some genes involved in vacuolar, peroxisomal, or ribosomal functions. Our results indicate that adaptation to the quickly changing growth conditions during grape must fermentation require the function of different gene sets in different moments of the process. Transport processes and glucose signaling seem to be negatively affected by the stress factors encountered by yeast in synthetic must. Vacuolar activity is important for continued growth during the transition to stationary phase. Finally, reduced biogenesis of peroxisomes also seems to be advantageous. However, in contrast to what was described for later stages, reduced protein synthesis is not advantageous for the early (proliferative) stages of the fermentation process. Finally, we found adenine and lysine to be in short supply for yeast growth in some natural grape musts.

Novo, Maite; Mangado, Ana; Quiros, Manuel; Morales, Pilar; Salvado, Zoel; Gonzalez, Ramon

2013-01-01

197

Roles for transforming growth factor beta superfamily proteins in early folliculogenesis.  

PubMed

Primordial follicle formation and the subsequent transition of follicles to the primary and secondary stages encompass the early events during folliculogenesis in mammals. These processes establish the ovarian follicle pool and prime follicles for entry into subsequent growth phases during the reproductive cycle. Perturbations during follicle formation can affect the size of the primordial follicle pool significantly, and alterations in follicle transition can cause follicles to arrest at immature stages or result in premature depletion of the follicle reserve. Determining the molecular events that regulate primordial follicle formation and early follicle growth may lead to the development of new fertility treatments. Over the last decade, many of the growth factors and signaling proteins that mediate the early stages of folliculogenesis have been identified using mouse genetic models, in vivo injection studies, and ex vivo organ culture approaches. These studies reveal important roles for the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of proteins in the ovary. This article reviews these roles for TGF-beta family proteins and focuses in particular on work from our laboratories on the functions of activin in early folliculogenesis. PMID:19197801

Trombly, Daniel J; Woodruff, Teresa K; Mayo, Kelly E

2009-02-05

198

Early Years Foundation Stage: How Much Does It Count?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The final report of the Williams committee (DCSF, 2008: 68) argues that the revised mathematics Framework (DfES, 2006) "should be reconsidered to achieve a more suitable, user-friendly form." It might also have added that there is not much help and support in it for early years teachers. A much more useful document is the "Practice guidance for…

Thompson, Ian

2008-01-01

199

ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

2011-01-01

200

Vertebrate limb development — the early stages in chick and mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

More news this year about FGFs and their roles in vertebrate limb initiation; Wnt signalling is shown for the first time to be another component of the signalling cascade involved in early limb formation. Ectodermal compartments that control apical ridge formation were previously described in chick embryos and are now shown to exist in mouse embryos; Engrailed1 is expressed in

Cheryll Tickle; Andrea Münsterberg

2001-01-01

201

Early Life History of Marine Fish: The Egg Stage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Originating from a series of lectures given at the College of Fisheries, University of Washington, in March/April 1975, this volume gives a brief general description of development and objectives of the study of the early life history of fish and continue...

G. Hempel

1979-01-01

202

Early stage epithelial ovarian cancers: a study of morphologic prognostic factors.  

PubMed

We intended to reevaluate the morphologic prognostic factors for early-stage ovarian carcinomas. We reviewed 111 patients diagnosed with early-stage ovarian cancer who had undergone primary surgery at Hacettepe Hospital between 1984 and 2001, using diagnostic criteria from the WHO-2003 classification. We applied the Universal grading system suggested by Shimizu/Silverberg and noted FIGO-stage, histotype, tumor size, bilaterality, and endometriosis. These features were compared with each other and survival. The survival analysis was carried out by Kaplan-Meier curves. Of the cases, 52 were reclassified as 'borderline tumor' or 'cystadenoma with borderline foci' and 59 as 'invasive carcinoma'. FIGO-stage and mitotic count were significant for survivals of 59 patients with cancer. Mitotic index was also significant for the probability of metastasis. The patients with stage-II cancer had 5.65 times more risk of recurrence than stage-I cancer. The 5-year overall and disease-free survivals rates were 90.6% and 87.5% for stage-I, 54.7% and 39.3% for stage-II, respectively. Universal grade did not reach statistical significance for survivals but it was related to FIGO-stage significantly. In conclusion, FIGO-stage is the most reliable prognosticator. Although prognostic value of universal grade is not significant, mitotic count may provide important prognostic information for early-stage ovarian carcinomas. PMID:23643734

Terzi, Aysen; Akta?, Is?l Y?ld?z; Dolgun, An?l; Ayhan, Ali; Küçükali, Türkan; Usubütün, Alp

2013-03-30

203

Labors Lost: Women's Work and the Early Modern English Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korda's study is a fascinating and wide-ranging account of working women's behind-the-scenes and hitherto unacknowledged contributions to theatrical production in Shakespeare's time. She reveals that the purportedly all-male professional stage relied on the labor, wares, ingenuity, and capital of women of all stripes, including ordinary crafts- and tradeswomen who supplied costumes, props, and comestibles; wealthy heiresses and widows who provided

Natasha Korda

2011-01-01

204

CMB quadrupole suppression. II. The early fast roll stage  

SciTech Connect

Within the effective field theory of inflation, an initialization of the classical dynamics of the inflaton with approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energy of the inflaton leads to a brief fast roll stage that precedes the slow roll regime. The fast roll stage leads to an attractive potential in the wave equations for the mode functions of curvature and tensor perturbations. The evolution of the inflationary perturbations is equivalent to the scattering by this potential and a useful dictionary between the scattering data and observables is established. Implementing methods from scattering theory we prove that this attractive potential leads to a suppression of the quadrupole moment for CMB and B-mode angular power spectra. The scale of the potential is determined by the Hubble parameter during slow roll. Within the effective field theory of inflation at the grand unification (GUT) energy scale we find that if inflation lasts a total number of e-folds N{sub tot}{approx}59, there is a 10%-20% suppression of the CMB quadrupole and about 2%-4% suppression of the tensor quadrupole. The suppression of higher multipoles is smaller, falling off as 1/l{sup 2}. The suppression is much smaller for N{sub tot}>59, therefore if the observable suppression originates in the fast roll stage, there is the upper bound N{sub tot}{approx}59.

Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H. J. de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); LPTHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI) et Denis Diderot (Paris VII), Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 7589, Tour 24, 5eme. etage, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Sanchez, N. G. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

2006-12-15

205

PLGlycoprotein regulates chemosensitivity in early developmental stages of the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multidrug resistance (MDR) P-glyco- protein (P-gp) is an active transporter associated with chemoresistance of tumor cells. A fundamental aspect not yet entirely clarified is the physiological role of MDR-P- gp in normal mammalian tissues. In this paper we report that multidrug (chemo)resistance is already present in mouse oocytes and early cleavage embryos. Expression of MDR-specific P-gp is detectable by

L. ELBLINGW; A. REHBERGER; T. WALDHOR; M. MICKSCHE

206

Quaking Aspen--Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although freshly dispersed aspen seeds germinate quickly and nearly completely over a broad range of temperatures, early growth of seedlings is highly sensitive to availability of water, temperature, and physical and chemical conditions of the seedbed.

W. T. McDonough

1979-01-01

207

INTRALABORATORY COMPARISON OF THE EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST USING THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The interlaboratory precision of the ASTM early life-stage toxicity test with the sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus) as investigated at five contract and two EPA laboratories using endosulfan nd pentachlorobenzene. ach laboratory conducted two tests with each hemical. ests ...

208

Minimally-invasive thermal ablation of early-stage breast cancer: A systemic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMinimally-invasive thermal ablation techniques provide an effective approach for local destruction of solid tumor. A novel application is the use for treatment of early-stage breast carcinoma.

Z. Zhao; F. Wu

2010-01-01

209

Geographic proximity to treatment for early stage breast cancer and likelihood of mastectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWomen with early stage breast cancer who live far from a radiation therapy facility may be more likely to opt for mastectomy over breast conserving surgery (BCS). The geographic dimensions of this relationship deserve further scrutiny.

Francis P. Boscoe; Christopher J. Johnson; Kevin A. Henry; Daniel W. Goldberg; Kaveh Shahabi; Elena B. Elkin; Leslie K. Ballas; Myles Cockburn

2011-01-01

210

Temperature Adaptation of the Japanese Eel (Anguilla japonica) in its Early Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Su-Lean Chang, Guang-Hsiung Kou and I Chiu Liao (2004) Temperature adaptation of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in its early stages. Zoological Studies 43(3): 571-579. The biology and ecology of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in the early developmental stages are still not clear. This study was conduct- ed to determine the optimum water temperature for incubation of embryos and yolk-sac

Su-Lean Chang; Guang-Hsiung Kou; I Chiu Liao

211

Dietary shifts of a dominant reservoir planktivore during early life stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied dietary shifts in the early life stages of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, a dominant forage species in North\\u000a American reservoirs. Larval fish and zooplankton samples were collected weekly during spring in Sardis Reservoir, Mississippi,\\u000a USA. Diet and prey electivity data suggested the existence of three dietary niches during early life stages: microzooplankton\\u000a (larvae ?10 mm total length) in

L. E. Miranda; H. Gu

1998-01-01

212

The early stages of verb acquisition in German, Spanish and English  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a preliminary report on how children acquire verb paradigms, proposing a set of verb stages. The stages\\u000a are: 1. Holophrases: the first action words appear; 2. Early Word Combinations: actions words combine to form semantic relations;\\u000a 3. Early Verbal Combinations: verbs become obligatory, marked by an increase in verb use, and a later increase in the number

David Ingram; Anne Welti; Christine Priem

213

RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SPATIAL ANALYSES FOR NON-REPLICATED EARLY-STAGE SUGARCANE FIELD EXPERIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early stages of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) selection programs, large numbers of clones are tested in non-replicated plots. Field trends are likely to affect the performance of these non-replicated experimental genotypes and mask their true genetic potential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different spatial analyses for their relative efficiency in accounting for field trends in early-stage

S. J. Edmé; P. Y. P. Tai; J. D. Miller

214

Emotional expression and psychological and physical well-being among early-stage breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships between emotional expression processes and physical and psychological well-being among early-stage breast cancer patients. Participants were 128 women (average age = 50.09, average years of education = 15.17) diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Participants completed assessments by mail 4--8 weeks after their surgery and at 3, 6, and 12 month follow-up. Following the initial

Jenifer L. Culver

2002-01-01

215

Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

216

A novel passive dosing system for determining the toxicity of phenanthrene to early life stages of zebrafish.  

PubMed

Reliable experimental early life stage chronic toxicity data for fish are limited and further data are needed for polyaromatic hydrocarbons to establish environmental quality objectives and compare with toxicity model predictions. Efforts are underway to develop a zebrafish embryo toxicity test guideline to reduce, refine and replace the use of vertebrates in animal testing. An adaptation of this method which includes embryo lethal and sub-lethal developmental endpoints after a 5-day exposure as well as larval survival and growth endpoints during a subsequent 25-day test period is described using phenanthrene as a model test substance. To deliver well controlled exposure concentrations, a passive dosing system consisting of silicone coated vials and silicone O-rings was employed. Acute results indicated that edema and spinal curvature were the most sensitive sub-lethal effects observed and in many cases preceded observed mortality. The 30-day LC/EC10 for larval survival and growth was 40 and 67?g/L respectively. Concentrations shown to cause adverse effects in this study are in the range of previous studies that have investigated the chronic effects of phenanthrene on fish. Further, results indicate that predicted water quality objectives for phenanthrene derived using the target lipid model are protective of early life stage effects on zebrafish. Based on these results the predicted water quality objectives for phenanthrene derived using the target lipid model (10?g/L) would be protective of early life stage effects on zebrafish. PMID:23872248

Butler, Josh D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Letinski, Daniel J; Bragin, Gail E; Lampi, Mark A; Cooper, Keith R

2013-07-18

217

Evaluation for Early Life Stage Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium from a Contaminated Groundwater Source  

SciTech Connect

We conducted a laboratory evaluation to assess the risk to early life stage (i.e., eyed egg to swim up) fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for exposure to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source. Local populations of fall Chinook salmon were exposed to Hanford Site source groundwater that was diluted with Columbia River water. Specific endpoints included survival, development rate, and growth. Tissue burdens of fish were also measured to estimate uptake and elimination rates of chromium. Survival, development, and growth of early life stage fall Chinook salmon were not adversely affected by extended exposures (i.e., 98 day) to hexavalent chromium ranging from 0.79 to 260 ?g/L. Survival for all treatment levels and controls exceeded 98% at termination of the test. In addition, there were no differences among the mean lengths and weights of fish among all treatment groups. Whole-body concentrations of chromium in early life stage fall Chinook salmon had a typical dose-response pattern; i.e., those subjected to highest exposure concentrations and longest exposure intervals had higher tissue concentrations. Given the spatial extent of chromium concentrations at the Hanford Site, and the dynamics of the groundwater - river water interface, the current cleanup criterion of 10 µg/L chromium appear adequate to protect fall Chinook salmon populations.

Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; McKinstry, Craig A.

2007-09-01

218

A Jungian Stage Theory of Individual Development in Personal Growth Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes personal growth group processes from a Jungian perspective. A 3-stage theory with 18 testable hypotheses is proposed.SUMMARY AND TENTATIVE CONCLUSIONSThis article has proposed a Jungian stage theory of individual development in personal growth groups. A conceptual framework (Day, 1990) was used to develop this stage theory, which framework is based on Jung's theory of the individuation process

Bryon Day; William Matthes

1995-01-01

219

Early age-dependent growth impairment in chronic renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report early linear growth in 73 children (51 boys, 22 girls) with early onset of chronic renal failure (CRF). The inclusion criteria was onset of CRF before 6 months of age, two or more height measurements during the 1st year of life, follow-up for at least 3 years and continuously impaired renal function with a glomerular filtration rate below

Johan Karlberg; Franz Schaefer; Mascha Hennicke; Anne-Margret Wingen; Sue Rigden; Otto Mehls

1996-01-01

220

Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease of pH to a level expected for the end of the century. Even though there was no significant effect of a 0.25-0.34 pH unit decrease on hatching and mortality rates during the first 2 days of development nor during the following 13-day period prior to settlement, final shells were, respectively, 4.5±1.3 and 6.0±2.3% smaller at pHNBS~7.8 than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1. Moreover, a decrease of 12.0±5.4% of shell thickness was observed. More severe impacts were found with a decrease of ~0.5 pHNBS unit during the first 2 days of development which could be attributed to a decrease of calcification due toslight undersaturation of seawater with respect to aragonite. Indeed, important effects on both hatching and D-veliger shell growth were found. Hatching rates were 24±4% lower while D-veliger shells were 12.7±0.9% smaller at pHNBS~7.6 than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1. Although these results show that blue mussel larvae are still able to develop a shell in seawater undersaturated with respect to aragonite, decreases of hatching rates and shell growth suggest a negative impact of ocean acidification on the future survival of bivalve populations potentially leading to significant ecological and economical losses.

Gazeau, F.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Dawber, C.; Pronker, A. E.; Peene, F.; Peene, J.; Heip, C. H. R.; Middelburg, J. J.

2010-04-01

221

[Surgical treatment of early-stage vulva carcinoma and the complications of the operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of patients with early-stage squamous-cell carcinoma of the vulva (with a depth of invasion > 1 mm), i.e. stage T1 with a tumour diameter < or = 2 cm or T2 with a diameter > 2 cm without suspect groin nodes on palpation, has become less radical; in this way, the complications can be reduced without compromising the

J. A. de Hullu; A. van der Zee

2005-01-01

222

TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE SMALLMOUTH BASS AT FOUR PH VALUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Early life stages of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui Lacepede) were exposed to ammonia concentrations at four different pH values (from 6.5 to 8.7). Acute lethal tests were conducted with juveniles, and partial chronic tests were initiated at the late embryo stage and exte...

223

TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE GREEN SUNFISH (LEPOMIS CYANELLUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity of ammonia to early life stages of green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus was studied. One chronic and four acute exposure studies were conducted. During the chronic study green sunfish were exposed to a series of ammonia concentrations from the blastula stage through 40 days p...

224

Myocardial expression of atrial natriuretic factor gene in early stages of hamster cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventricular cardiomyocytes represent the most important source of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in pathological conditions such as congestive heart failure (CHF). It has been suggested that in cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster ventricles the ANF gene can be reactivated during the hypertrophic stage occurring before heart failure. The present study was undertaken to investigate ANF gene expression during early stages of myocardial

Paolo Di Nardo; Marilena Minieri; Arnaldo Carbone; Nicola Maggiano; Rosella Micheletti; Giuseppe Peruzzi; Giuseppe Tallarida

1993-01-01

225

Chemotherapy plus involved-field radiation in early-stage Hodgkin's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Treatment of early-stage Hodgkin's disease is usually tailored in line with prognostic factors that allow for reductions in the amount of chemotherapy and extent of radiotherapy required for a possible cure. METHODS: From 1993 to 1999, we identified 1538 patients (age, 15 to 70 years) who had untreated stage I or II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease with favorable prognostic features

Christophe Fermé; Houchingue Eghbali; Jacobus H. Meerwaldt; Chantal Rieux; Jacques Bosq; Françoise Berger; Théodore Girinsky; Pauline Brice; Mars B. van't Veer; Jan A. Walewski; Pierre Lederlin; Umberto Tirelli; Patrice Carde; Eric Van Den Neste; Emmanuel Gyan; Mathieu Monconduit; Marine Diviné; John M. M. Raemaekers; Gilles Salles; Evert M. Noordijk; Geert-Jan Creemers; Jean Gabarre; Anton Hagenbeek; Oumédaly Reman; Michel Blanc; José Thomas; Brigitte Vié; Johanna C. Kluin-Nelemans; Fernando Viseu; Joke W. Baars; Philip Poortmans; Pieternella J. Lugtenburg; Christian Carrie; Jérôme Jaubert; Michel Henry-Amar

2007-01-01

226

Early Stages of Golgi Vesicle and Tubule Formation Require Diacylglycerol  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the role for diacylglycerol (DAG) in membrane bud formation in the Golgi apparatus. Addition of propranolol to specifically inhibit phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP), an enzyme responsible for converting phosphatidic acid into DAG, effectively prevents formation of membrane buds. The effect of PAP inhibition on Golgi membranes is rapid and occurs within 3 min. Removal of the PAP inhibitor then results in a rapid burst of buds, vesicles, and tubules that peaks within 2 min. The inability to form buds in the presence of propranolol does not appear to be correlated with a loss of ARFGAP1 from Golgi membranes, as knockdown of ARFGAP1 by RNA interference has little or no effect on actual bud formation. Rather, knockdown of ARFGAP1 results in an increase in membrane buds and a decrease of vesicles and tubules suggesting it functions in the late stages of scission. How DAG promotes bud formation is discussed.

Asp, Lennart; Kartberg, Fredrik; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Julia; Smedh, Maria; Elsner, Markus; Laporte, Frederic; Barcena, Montserrat; Jansen, Karen A.; Valentijn, Jack A.; Koster, Abraham J.; Bergeron, John J.M.

2009-01-01

227

Microbial Diversity within Early-Stage Cultured Panulirus ornatus Phyllosomas?  

PubMed Central

A thorough understanding of the microorganisms and pathogens associated with the larval stage of the tropical ornate rock lobster, Panulirus ornatus, is required to overcome disease outbreaks that currently block aquaculture attempts. This study used microscopy in addition to culture and molecularly based microbiological techniques to characterize the bacterial community associated with cultured, developmental stage PI to PII P. ornatus phyllosomas. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated colonization of phyllosomas by filamentous, rod-shaped, and coccus-shaped bacteria. A clone library constructed from dead phyllosomas sampled from the larval rearing tank on day 10 was dominated by Thiothrix-affiliated sequences (56% of clones). A comparable library from live phyllosomas also contained Thiothrix-affiliated sequences, though these only represented 19% of clones within the library. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed identification of the filamentous bacteria as Thiothrix sp., being present on dead phyllosomas. FISH also identified Leucothrix sp. and Vibrio sp., as well as a range of other rod- and coccus-shaped bacteria, colonizing both live and dead phyllosomas. The development of the microbial community associated with phyllosomas was monitored through a standard larval rearing run using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Vibrio sp.-affiliated bands dominated the profiles of live animals through the rearing period and dead phyllosomas sampled on selected days. The population of Vibrio sp. associated with phyllosomas was monitored with culture-based analysis on selective media and demonstrated to increase significantly on day 7, coinciding with the beginning of the larval molt. An isolated Vibrio harveyi strain demonstrated an identical 16S rRNA sequence with retrieved DGGE and clone library sequences. Colonization of phyllosomas with filamentous bacterial species potentially hinders the ability of the animals to molt and, combined with the added stress of the molt process, likely results in reduced immune function, allowing opportunistic pathogenic Vibrio sp. to cause larval mortalities.

Payne, Matthew S.; Hall, Mike R.; Sly, Lindsay; Bourne, David G.

2007-01-01

228

High resolution electron microscopy of the early decomposition stage of Al-Li alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early decomposition stages of Al-7.8at.%Li, Al-10.4at%Li and Al-11.8at%Li alloys were studied by high resolution electron microscopy. In all the above alloys, it was confirmed that in the as-quenched stage small ordered domains of Llâ structure were present surrounded by the disordered matrix. From this microstructure, it was concluded that the alloy was already decomposed as in the as-quenched stage.

G. Schmitz; K. Hono; P. Haasen

1994-01-01

229

Building on the Early Years Foundation Stage: Developing Good Practice for Transition into Key Stage 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum and the independent Cambridge Primary Review both highlight the need to re-think children's educational experiences in English classrooms between the ages of five and seven. Recent government initiatives have led to experiences in these early primary years being adult-directed and often in…

Fisher, Julie

2011-01-01

230

Early Vocabulary Growth: Relation to Language Input and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of exposure to speech in children's early vocabulary growth. It is generally assumed that individual differences in vocabulary depend, in large part, on variations in learning capacity. However, variations in exposure have not been systematically explored. In this study we characterize vocabulary growth rates for each of 22 children by using data obtained at several

Janellen Huttenlocher; Wendy Haight; Anthony Bryk; Michael Seltzer; Thomas Lyons

1991-01-01

231

Induced population growth and induced technological progress: Their interaction in the accelerating stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model of Malthusian population growth combined with population?induced technological progress generates accelerating growth. The model may be relevant for a first stage of growth in which natural resource limitations can be overcome through technological progress; it is not applicable to a later stage in which resource constraints are more resistant. Parameter values are roughly inferred from historical experience.

Ronald Demos Lee

1988-01-01

232

Three Biomarkers Identified from Serum Proteomic Analysis for the Detection of Early Stage Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection remains the most promising approach to improve long-term survival of patients with ovarian cancer. In a five-center case- control study, serum proteomic expressions were analyzed on 153 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 42 with other ovarian cancers, 166 with benign pelvic masses, and 142 healthy women. Data from patients with early stage ovarian cancer and healthy women

Zhen Zhang; Robert C. Bast; Yinhua Yu; Jinong Li; Lori J. Sokoll; Alex J. Rai; Jason M. Rosenzweig; Bonnie Cameron; Young Y. Wang; Xiao-Ying Meng; Andrew Berchuck; Carolien van Haaften-Day; Neville F. Hacker; Henk W. A. de Bruijn; Ian J. Jacobs; Eric T. Fung; Daniel W. Chan

2004-01-01

233

Morphological analysis of neovascularization at early stages of rat splenic autografts in comparison with tumor angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to reveal the neovascularization at early stages of splenic autografts three-dimensionally, to illustrate the differences between it and tumor angiogenesis, and to establish its origin. Early vascular formation after transplantation of the rat spleen or Waker tumor into the major omentum was examined by using a video macroscope, vascular casting methods and the organ culture technique.

Katsunori Sasaki; Yoshihiro Kiuchi; Yoji Sato; Shinji Yamamori

1991-01-01

234

Developmental Stages of Early Dead Embryos after Prolonged Egg Storage and Incubation in Broiler Breeders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cold egg storage is a common practice prior to incubation in the broiler industry.  However, cold storage longer than 10 days is associated with an increase in early embryo mortality. We were interested in determining the developmental stages of early dead embryos after prolonged egg storage and inc...

235

Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early

Burns, Kellie

2006-01-01

236

Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

2010-01-01

237

Neuroinflammation and regeneration in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology in the neocortex show upregulation of cell cycle proteins, adhesion and inflammation related factors, indicating the early involvement of inflammatory and regenerating pathways in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. These brain changes precede the neurofibrillary pathology and the extensive process of neurodestruction and (astro)gliosis. Amyloid ? deposition, inflammation and regenerative mechanisms are also early pathogenic

J. J. M. Hoozemans; R. Veerhuis; J. M. Rozemuller-Kwakkel; P. Eikelenboom

2006-01-01

238

Parasitostatic effect of maslinic acid. I. Growth arrest of Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic stages  

PubMed Central

Background Natural products have played an important role as leads for the development of new drugs against malaria. Recent studies have shown that maslinic acid (MA), a natural triterpene obtained from olive pomace, which displays multiple biological and antimicrobial activities, also exerts inhibitory effects on the development of some Apicomplexan, including Eimeria, Toxoplasma and Neospora. To ascertain if MA displays anti-malarial activity, the main objective of this study was to asses the effect of MA on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in vitro. Methods Synchronized P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte cultures were incubated under different conditions with MA, and compared to chloroquine and atovaquone treated cultures. The effects on parasite growth were determined by monitoring the parasitaemia and the accumulation of the different infective stages visualized in thin blood smears. Results MA inhibits the growth of P. falciparum Dd2 and 3D7 strains in infected erythrocytes in, dose-dependent manner, leading to the accumulation of immature forms at IC50 concentrations, while higher doses produced non-viable parasite cells. MA-treated infected-erythrocyte cultures were compared to those treated with chloroquine or atovaquone, showing significant differences in the pattern of accumulation of parasitic stages. Transient MA treatment at different parasite stages showed that the compound targeted intra-erythrocytic processes from early-ring to schizont stage. These results indicate that MA has a parasitostatic effect, which does not inactivate permanently P. falciparum, as the removal of the compound allowed the infection to continue Conclusions MA displays anti-malarial activity at multiple intraerythrocytic stages of the parasite and, depending on the dose and incubation time, behaves as a plasmodial parasitostatic compound. This novel parasitostatic effect appears to be unrelated to previous mechanisms proposed for current anti-malarial drugs, and may be relevant to uncover new prospective plasmodial targets and opens novel possibilities of therapies associated to host immune response.

2011-01-01

239

Imaging early stage osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), contribute to bone fracture repair if they are delivered to the injury site. However, it is difficult to assess the retention and differentiation of these cells after implantation. Current options for non-invasively tracking the transplanted stem cells are limited. Cell-based therapies using MSCs would benefit greatly through the use of an imaging methodology that allows cells to be tracked in vivo and in a timely fashion. In this study, we implemented an in vivo imaging methodology to specifically track early events such as differentiation of implanted human MSCs (hMSCs). This system uses the collagen type 1 (Col1?1) promoter to drive expression of firefly luciferase (luc) in addition to a constitutively active promoter to drive the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). The resulting dual-promoter reporter gene system provides the opportunity for osteogenic differentiation-specific luc expression for in vivo imaging and constitutive expression of GFP for cell sorting. The function of this dual-promoter reporter gene was validated both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the ability of this dual-promoter reporter system to image an early event of osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was demonstrated in a murine segmental bone defect model in which reporter-labeled hMSCs were seeded into an alginate hydrogel scaffold and implanted directly into the defect. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed to visualize the turn-on of Col1?1 upon osteogenic differentiation and followed by X-ray imaging to assess the healing process for correlation with histological analyses. PMID:23440976

Corn, David J; Kim, Yunhui; Krebs, Melissa D; Mounts, Troy; Molter, Joseph; Gerson, Stanton; Alsberg, Eben; Dennis, James E; Lee, Zhenghong

2013-02-25

240

Storage oil hydrolysis during early seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage oil breakdown plays an important role in the life cycle of many plants by providing the carbon skeletons that support seedling growth immediately following germination. This metabolic process is initiated by lipases (EC: 3.1.1.3), which catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) to release free fatty acids and glycerol. A number of lipases have been purified to near homogeneity from

Anne-Laure Quettier; Peter J. Eastmond

2009-01-01

241

Ruminal large and small particle kinetics in dairy cows fed red clover and grass silages harvested at two stages of growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passage, comminution and digestion rates of large and small particles were estimated using a rumen evacuation technique and total faecal collection with five lactating dairy cows in a 5×5 Latin square experiment. Two grass and two red clover silages harvested at early and late primary growth stages and a 1:1 mixture of late harvest grass and early harvest red clover

A. R. Bayat; M. Rinne; K. Kuoppala; S. Ahvenjärvi; A. Vanhatalo; P. Huhtanen

2010-01-01

242

The ?-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the ?-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the ?1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the ?3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the ?1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

243

Heterogeneous Directional Mobility in the Early Stages of Polymer Crystallization  

SciTech Connect

Recently we demonstrated via large large-scale molecular dynamics simulations a 'coexistence period' in polymer melt ordering before crystallization, where nucleation and growth mechanisms coexist with a phase phase-separation mechanism. Here we present an extension of this work, where we analyze the directional displacements as a measure of the mobility of monomers as they order during crystallization over more than 100 ns of simulation time. It is found that the polymer melt, after quenching, rapidly separates into many ordered hexagonal domains separated by amorphous regions, where surprisingly, the magnitude of the monomer's displacement in the ordered state, parallel to the domain axial direction, is similar to its magnitude in the melt. T. The monomer he displacements in the domain's lateral direction are found to decrease during the time of the simulation. The ordered hexagonal domains do not align into uniform lamellar structures during the timescales of our simulations.

Lacevic, N; Fried, L E; Gee, R H

2008-11-01

244

Prediction of invasion from the early stage of an epidemic  

PubMed Central

Predictability of undesired events is a question of great interest in many scientific disciplines including seismology, economy and epidemiology. Here, we focus on the predictability of invasion of a broad class of epidemics caused by diseases that lead to permanent immunity of infected hosts after recovery or death. We approach the problem from the perspective of the science of complexity by proposing and testing several strategies for the estimation of important characteristics of epidemics, such as the probability of invasion. Our results suggest that parsimonious approximate methodologies may lead to the most reliable and robust predictions. The proposed methodologies are first applied to analysis of experimentally observed epidemics: invasion of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in replicated host microcosms. We then consider numerical experiments of the susceptible–infected–removed model to investigate the performance of the proposed methods in further detail. The suggested framework can be used as a valuable tool for quick assessment of epidemic threat at the stage when epidemics only start developing. Moreover, our work amplifies the significance of the small-scale and finite-time microcosm realizations of epidemics revealing their predictive power.

Perez-Reche, Francisco J.; Neri, Franco M.; Taraskin, Sergei N.; Gilligan, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

245

Lymphatic Mapping and Sentinel Lymphadenectomy for Early-Stage Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Objective: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy (LM/SL) have been applied to virtually all solid neoplasms since our original description of LM/SL for melanoma. Our objectives were to determine the diagnostic and therapeutic utility of LM/SL, investigate carbon dye for mapping the microanatomy of lymphatic flow within the sentinel node (SN), and determine the prognostic accuracy of molecular assessment of the SN. Methods: Since 1985, 1599 patients with AJCC Stage I/II melanoma have been treated by LM/SL at our institution and 4590 have been treated by wide excision (WE) without nodal staging. We examined the incidence of clinical nodal recurrence after WE alone, the incidence of subclinical nodal metastases found by LM/SL, and the incidence of nodal recurrence in basins with histopathology-negative SNs. Results: In 1514 LM/SL patients with a primary of known Breslow thickness, the incidence of metastasis in nodes claimed to be sentinel was 7.3%, 19.7%, 33.2%, and 39.7% for primary lesions ?1.0, 1.01–2.0, 2.01–4.0, and >4.0 mm, respectively. In 3652 WE-only patients, the corresponding rates of nodal recurrence were 12.0%, 32.0%, 34.4%, and 30.1%. Thus, LM/SL detected only 60% of expected nodal metastases from primary melanomas <2.01 mm. Forty of 1599 (3.1%) patients developed recurrence in basins with immunohistochemistry (IH)-negative SNs. To determine whether nonrandom intranodal distribution of tumor cells could explain missed SN metastases, we coinjected carbon particles and blue dye during LM/SL in 166 patients: 25 (16%) patients had nodal metastases, all of which were found only in nodal subsectors containing carbon particles. When paraffin-embedded SNs from a subset of 162 IH-negative patients were re-examined by quantitative multimarker reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT) assay, 49 (30%) gave positive signals. These patients had a significantly higher risk of disease recurrence and death than did patients whose IH and qRT results were negative (p < 0.0001). Comparison of 287 prognostically matched pairs of patients who underwent immediate (after LM/SL) versus delayed (after observation) dissection of nodal metastases revealed 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates of 73%, 69%, and 69% versus 51%, 37%, and 32%, respectively (P ? 0.001). Conclusions: SN assessment based on intranodal compartmentalization of lymphatic flow (carbon dye mapping) should increase the accuracy of IH and, in combination with multimarker qRT assessment, will allow confident identification of most patients for whom surgery alone is curative. Our data suggest a significant therapeutic benefit for immediate dissection based on identification of a tumor-involved SN.

Morton, Donald L.; Hoon, Dave S. B.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Turner, Roderick R.; Essner, Richard; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Wanek, Leslie A.; Glass, Edwin; Foshag, Leland J.; Hsueh, Eddy C.; Bilchik, Anton J.; Elashoff, David; Elashoff, Robert

2003-01-01

246

Submucosal Tumor-like Early-stage Mucinous Gastric Carcinoma: A Case Study.  

PubMed

Mucinous gastric carcinoma (MGC) is an unusual histologic subtype, and early detection of MGC is very rare. Early-stage MGC appears as an elevated lesion resembling a submucosal tumor (SMT) due to abundant mucin pools in the submucosa or mucosa. We report a rare case of SMT-like early-stage MGC. Tumor type was predicted preoperatively based on characteristic endoscopic findings, in which an SMT-like mass was observed at the gastric fundus. The tumor was covered by nearly normal mucosa, but with an opening allowing for the passage of copious mucus discharge. A total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy was subsequently performed. Histopathology of the tumor revealed early-stage (lamina propria) mucinous adenocarcinoma. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2013;62:122-125). PMID:23981947

Yoo, Chan Hui; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won; Kim, Hyung Hun; Lee, Jun Sik; Song, Jun Young; Jang, Hee Kyung

2013-08-25

247

Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.  

PubMed

According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. PMID:23036413

Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

2011-12-20

248

Effect of iodine on early stage thyroid autonomy.  

PubMed

Thyroid autonomy is a frequent cause of thyrotoxicosis in regions with iodine deficiency. Epidemiological data suggest that iodide may influence the course of pre-existing thyroid autonomy. Making use of FRTL-5 cells stably expressing a constitutively activating TSH receptor mutation as an in vitro model of thyroid autonomy, we investigated the impact of iodide on proliferation, function and changes in global gene expression. We demonstrate that iodine inhibits growth in TSHR WT and L629F mutant FRTL-5 cells and downregulates e.g. protocadherin cluster (Pcdha1-13) and thyroid responsive element (Thrsp). In addition functional genes e.g. iodotyrosine deiodinase (iyd) and oncogen junB are upregulated, while sodium-iodide-symporter (Nis) and thyroid peroxidase (Tpo) are downregulated by iodide. Iodide tunes down the biological activity of autonomous thyrocytes and may thus be of therapeutic benefit not only to prevent the occurrence of somatic TSHR mutations, causing thyroid autonomy, but also to slow down the development of clinically relevant disease. PMID:21035537

Müller, Kathrin; Krohn, Knut; Eszlinger, Markus; Ludgate, Marian; Führer, Dagmar

2010-10-28

249

Pheasant sexual ornaments reflect nutritional conditions during early growth.  

PubMed Central

Differences in growth conditions during early life have been suggested to cause long-lasting effects on morphology and quality of adult birds. We experimentally investigated the effect of early growth conditions on the expression of sexual ornaments later in life in male ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). We also investigated the effects on immune function, as it could be a functional link between early nutrition and ornament expression. We manipulated the dietary protein intake during the first eight weeks post hatching. Males receiving fodder with 27% protein during the first three weeks of life grew larger and more colourful wattles when sexually mature than males receiving a low-protein diet (20.5% protein). Spur length was unaffected by diet treatment. Manipulation of food protein levels during weeks 4-8 after hatching had no effect on the development of ornaments. The different protein treatments had no long-term effect on either humoral or cell-mediated immune responses. There was, however, a positive relationship between spur length and cell-mediated immune responsiveness. Our study shows that expression of a sexual ornament in adult pheasants reflects nutritional conditions early in life. Because the expression of secondary sexual ornaments is affected by conditions during early growth, by selecting more ornamented males, females would choose mates that are superior at handling early nutritional stress. If the susceptibility to early nutritional stress also has a hereditary basis, females may benefit by obtaining 'good genes'.

Ohlsson, Thomas; Smith, Henrik G; Raberg, Lars; Hasselquist, Dennis

2002-01-01

250

Dynamics of early stage nano-oxidation by in situ UHV-TEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental stability is one of the most important properties for materials exposed to air. As dimensions of engineered systems approach nanoscale, fundamental understanding of reactions with oxygen at this length scale is critical for environmental stability as well as for processing oxide nanostructures, where surface reactions are commonly utilized. The nanoscale stages of oxidation from the nucleation of the metal oxide to the formation of the thermodynamically stable oxide represent a scientifically challenging and technologically important terra incognito. The kinetics of early stage oxidation of Cu, Cu-Au and Cu-Ni alloys were visualized using in situ ultra-high vacuum transmission electron microscopy (UHV-TEM), where the initial oxidation stages can be observed in real-time under well-controlled surface conditions. We examined the dynamic responses of thin films to variations in thermodynamic variables such as temperature, oxygen pressure, strain, and crystallographic orientation. The kinetics of the nucleation and growth of three-dimensional oxide islands demonstrate that oxygen surface diffusion is the primary mechanism for oxide growth during initial oxidation in dry oxygen, and thus bears a striking resemblance to heteroepitaxy. Compared with the behavior of Cu films, the oxidation of Cu-Au alloys revealed more complexity. For example, the oxidation of (100)-oriented Cu-Au alloys with low Au content at ˜ 600C results in the formation of Cu2O oxide islands with a dendritic morphology and a non-uniform lateral distribution of Au around the islands. For Cu-Ni oxidation, the addition of Ni causes the formation Cu2O and/or NiO where the oxide type(s) and the relative orientation with the film depend on the Ni concentration, oxygen partial pressure and temperature. Evolution of the shape and size of the oxide islands can be quantitatively analyzed and provide fundamental insights into the complex kinetics and energetics of oxidation. Models based on surface orientation, strain development, and diffusion will be discussed to explain the formation of some of the novel oxide nano-structures.

Yang, Judith

2011-03-01

251

fMRI differences between early and late stage-1 sleep.  

PubMed

This study sought to test for differences in regional brain activity between stage-1 sleep immediately following wake and immediately preceding stage-2 sleep. Data were collected during daytime fMRI sessions with simultaneous EEG acquisition. A stage-1 interval was defined as follows: > or =30s of wake, immediately followed by > or =60s of continuous stage 1, immediately followed by > or =30s of stage 2. We compared brain activity between the first 30s of stage 1 (early stage 1), the last 30s of stage 1 (late stage 1), and isolated wake. A conjunction analysis sorted each voxel into one of a series of mutually exclusive categories that represented the various possible combinations of a significant increase, decrease, or no difference among these three states. The initial dataset consisted of 14 healthy volunteers. A total of 22 sessions in these participants yielded six stage-1 intervals (from four participants) that met criteria for inclusion in the analysis. There were multiple clusters of significant voxels. Examples include changes in default-mode network areas where activity increased compared to wake only in early stage 1 and a bilateral change in the hippocampus where activity increased compared to wake only in late stage 1. These results suggest that activity in anatomically identifiable, volumetric brain regions exhibit differences during stage-1 sleep that would not have been detected with the EEG. These differences may also have specific relevance to understanding the process of sleep onset as well as the neural mechanisms of performance lapses during sleep deprivation. PMID:18584959

Picchioni, Dante; Fukunaga, Masaki; Carr, Walter S; Braun, Allen R; Balkin, Thomas J; Duyn, Jeff H; Horovitz, Silvina G

2008-06-07

252

A blind comparison of the effectiveness of endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopy in staging early gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIMS—Endoscopic ultrasonography is expected to be useful for invasion depth staging of early gastric cancer. A prospective blind study of the staging characteristics of endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography for early gastric cancer was performed. ?METHODS—Findings of endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography using a 20 MHz thin ultrasound probe were independently reviewed and the results of 52 early gastric cancer lesions analysed. ?RESULTS—The overall accuracy rates in invasion depth staging of early gastric cancer were 63% for endoscopy and 71% for endoscopic ultrasonography. No statistically significant differences were observed in overall accuracy. Endoscopic ultrasonography tended to overstage, and lesions that were classified as mucosal cancer by endoscopic ultrasonography were very likely (95%) to be limited to the mucosa on histological examination. All 16 lesions staged as mucosal cancer independently but coincidentally by both methods were histologically limited to the mucosa. ?CONCLUSIONS—Endoscopic ultrasonography is expected to compensate for the understaging of lesions with submucosal invasion that are endoscopically staged as mucosal cancer. ?? Keywords: early gastric cancer; endoscopic ultrasonography; endoscopy

Yanai, H; Noguchi, T; Mizumachi, S; Tokiyama, H; Nakamura, H; Tada, M; Okita, K

1999-01-01

253

Endogenous Opioids Inhibit Early Stage Pancreatic Pain in a Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims The endogenous opioid system is involved in modulating the experience of pain, the response to stress and the action of analgesic therapies. Recent human imaging studies have demonstrated a significant tonic modulation of visceral pain, raising the question of whether endogenous opioids tonically modulate the pain of visceral cancer. Methods Transgenic mice expressing the first 127 amino acids of simian virus 40 large T antigen, under the control of the rat elastase-1 promoter that spontaneously develop pancreatic cancer were used to investigate the role of endogenous opioids in the modulation of pancreatic cancer pain. Visceral pain behaviors were assessed as degree of hunching and vocalization. Results Whereas, mice with late stage pancreatic cancer displayed spontaneous, morphine-reversible, visceral pain-related behaviors such as hunching and vocalization, these behaviors were absent in mice with early stage pancreatic cancer. Following systemic administration of the central nervous system (CNS) penetrant opioid receptor antagonists naloxone or naltrexone, mice with early stage pancreatic cancer, displayed significant visceral pain-related behaviors, while systemic administration of the CNS non-penetrant opioid antagonist naloxone-methiodide did not induce an increase in visceral pain behaviors. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a CNS opioid-dependent mechanism tonically modulates early and late stage pancreatic cancer pain. Understanding the mechanisms that mask this pain in early stage disease and drive this pain in late stage disease may allow improved diagnosis, treatment, and care of patients with pancreatic cancer.

Sevcik, Molly A.; Jonas, Beth M.; Lindsay, Theodore H.; Halvorson, Kyle G.; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Mukherjee, Pinku; Maggio, John E.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

2007-01-01

254

Reduced early life growth and survival in a fish in direct response to increased carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption of anthropogenic carbon dioxide by the world's oceans is causing mankind's `other CO2 problem', ocean acidification. Although this process will challenge marine organisms that synthesize calcareous exoskeletons or shells, it is unclear how it will affect internally calcifying organisms, such as marine fish. Adult fish tolerate short-term exposures to CO2 levels that exceed those predicted for the next 300 years (~2,000ppm ref. ), but potential effects of increased CO2 on growth and survival during the early life stages of fish remain poorly understood. Here we show that the exposure of early life stages of a common estuarine fish (Menidia beryllina) to CO2 concentrations expected in the world's oceans later this century caused severely reduced survival and growth rates. When compared with present-day CO2 levels (~400ppm), exposure of M. beryllina embryos to ~1,000ppm until one week post-hatch reduced average survival and length by 74% and 18%, respectively. The egg stage was significantly more vulnerable to high CO2-induced mortality than the post-hatch larval stage. These findings challenge the belief that ocean acidification will not affect fish populations, because even small changes in early life survival can generate large fluctuations in adult-fish abundance.

Baumann, Hannes; Talmage, Stephanie C.; Gobler, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

255

Transcriptional regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS1) by cadmium during early stages of plant development.  

PubMed

Transcriptional regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS1) by cadmium (Cd) was analyzed at various stages of plant development using transgenic Arabidopsis and wild-type plants. Histochemical analysis of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in transgenic lines carrying a uidA gene driven by a 2.0-kb AtPCS1 promoter revealed higher GUS activities in 5-day-old seedlings subjected to 50 microM Cd treatment for 5 days, beginning at seed germination, than in non-treated plants. This high level of GUS activity gradually decreased as plants continued their growth until no differences were observed between Cd-treated and non-treated transgenic plants. The observed GUS activity due to Cd treatment during the early stage of plant development corresponded with induction of AtPCS1 mRNA as confirmed by RNA blot analysis of wild-type Arabidopsis. The steady-state level of AtPCS1 mRNA increased by 2-fold in 5-day-old Cd-treated wild-type Arabidopsis compared to non-treated seedlings. Moreover, AtPCS1 protein levels increased following Cd treatment as observed in western blot analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis lines carrying a C-terminal FLAG-tagged AtPCS1 genomic DNA driven by a 2.0-kb AtPCS1 promoter. The transcriptional regulation of AtPCS1 by Cd during the early stage of seedling development seemed to be correlated with a higher Cd sensitivity in cad2, an Arabidopsis mutant deficient in phytochelatin synthesis, during early stages of plant development. This was supported by our finding that Cd sensitivity in cad2 was reduced as plants continued their growth, and was comparable to that of wild-type plants. PMID:12172853

Lee, S; Korban, S S

2002-06-13

256

The potential role of bevacizumab in early stages and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Improving outcomes for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major research area considering that a significant percentage of such patients develop recurrent disease within 5 years of complete lung resection. Adjuvant chemotherapy prolongs survival, with an absolute improvement in 5-year overall survival of about 5% with drawbacks such as treatment toxicity. Approximately, one third of patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC have locally advanced disease not amenable for surgical resection – in this setting of patients concurrent chemoradiation is the standard of therapy. However, the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC is still controversial and clinical outcomes are disappointing, and so new approaches are required to improve the clinical benefit in this setting of patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key angiogenic factor implicated in tumor blood vessels formation and permeability, and tumor VEGF overexpression in patients with early stage lung cancer has been associated with worse relapse free and overall survival. Several agents have been developed that inhibit VEGF or its receptor signalling system. Bevacizumab is the first recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody binding VEGF to demonstrate clinical benefit or rather a survival prolongation in combination with chemotherapy in the treatment of non-squamous advanced NSCLC patients. These positive results led to a large number of clinical trials to evaluate bevacizumab in combination with other targeted agents in advanced disease, and to define the role of this agent in early stage NSCLC such as the impact of bevacizumab integration in chemoradiotherapy strategy for locally advanced disease.

Schettino, Clorinda; Bareschino, Maria Anna; Rossi, Antonio; Maione, Paolo; Castaldo, Vincenzo; Mazzeo, Nicole; Sacco, Paola Claudia; Ferrara, Marianna Luciana; Palazzolo, Giovanni; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Gridelli, Cesare

2009-01-01

257

The potential role of bevacizumab in early stages and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Improving outcomes for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major research area considering that a significant percentage of such patients develop recurrent disease within 5 years of complete lung resection. Adjuvant chemotherapy prolongs survival, with an absolute improvement in 5-year overall survival of about 5% with drawbacks such as treatment toxicity. Approximately, one third of patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC have locally advanced disease not amenable for surgical resection - in this setting of patients concurrent chemoradiation is the standard of therapy. However, the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC is still controversial and clinical outcomes are disappointing, and so new approaches are required to improve the clinical benefit in this setting of patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key angiogenic factor implicated in tumor blood vessels formation and permeability, and tumor VEGF overexpression in patients with early stage lung cancer has been associated with worse relapse free and overall survival. Several agents have been developed that inhibit VEGF or its receptor signalling system. Bevacizumab is the first recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody binding VEGF to demonstrate clinical benefit or rather a survival prolongation in combination with chemotherapy in the treatment of non-squamous advanced NSCLC patients. These positive results led to a large number of clinical trials to evaluate bevacizumab in combination with other targeted agents in advanced disease, and to define the role of this agent in early stage NSCLC such as the impact of bevacizumab integration in chemoradiotherapy strategy for locally advanced disease. PMID:21789109

Schettino, Clorinda; Bareschino, Maria Anna; Rossi, Antonio; Maione, Paolo; Castaldo, Vincenzo; Mazzeo, Nicole; Sacco, Paola Claudia; Ferrara, Marianna Luciana; Palazzolo, Giovanni; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Gridelli, Cesare

2009-07-01

258

Early stages in the high temperature cyclic oxidation of {beta}-NiAl: An x-ray reflectivity study  

SciTech Connect

Early stages in the cyclic oxidation of {beta}-NiAl at 500{degrees}C, 600{degrees}C, 700{degrees}C and 800{degrees}C were investigated using the technique of x-ray reflectivity. By fitting the data to a model function, oxide layer thickness, roughness of the oxide-vapor interface, and the roughness of the oxide-substrate interface were obtained as a function of oxidation time and temperature of oxidation. The time dependence of the oxide thickness was observed to be logarithmic at lower temperatures (500{degrees}C and 600{degrees}C) while a conventional t{sup 0.5} kinetics was observed at the higher temperatures. Comparison of the roughness of the oxide-substrate interface with that of the oxide-vapor interface shows that for comparable oxide thicknesses and identical substrate conditions, the oxide-vapor interface was rougher than the oxide-substrate interface at all temperatures. This is consistent with the previously postulated growth mechanism (outward diffusion of cations) for oxide growth during the early stages of oxidation at these temperatures. Thus, x-ray reflectivity offers a convenient way of determining the oxide growth rates, and the roughness of the interfaces when the oxide layer is thin; this regime cannot be easily studied with the techniques that are currently used for oxidation studies.

Muralidharan, G.; You, Hoydoo; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W. [and others

1996-12-31

259

Combined Modality Therapy for Early Stage Operable and Locally Advanced Potentially Resectable Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Surgical resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains the primary treatment for early stage disease, that is,\\u000a stage I and II disease. Yet, the vast majority of patients with lung cancer present with either distant metastatic disease\\u000a (stage IV) or locally advanced NSCLC (stage IIIA and IIIB). Today, despite modest gains in outcome in patients with early\\u000a stage disease,

Joseph I. Clark; Kathy S. Albain

260

Early influences of nutrition on fetal growth.  

PubMed

During pregnancy, the metabolic requirements of the mother are increased; however, the relationship between maternal intake of key nutrients and optimal fetal growth is not always clear. In this chapter, we have reviewed randomized controlled trials of nutritional interventions during pregnancy, with a particular focus on birthweight and infants who are small for gestational age (SGA). Of the trials that have investigated changing macronutrient and energy intakes during pregnancy, supplements in which <25% of the energy is provided by protein yielded the most promising results, producing a 31-32% reduction in the risk of SGA infants and an increase in birthweight (38-60 g) compared with control. Single-nutrient intervention trials using n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplements demonstrated small increases in birthweight (?50 g) and birth length (?0.5 cm), which may be explained by small increases in gestation length (approximately 2.5 days). n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnancy did not however decrease the proportion of SGA infants. Multiple-micronutrient supplementation trials in developing countries have resulted in increased mean birthweight (22-44 g) and reduced the risk SGA by 9-15%. Further nutritional intervention studies which are rigorously designed and implemented are needed particularly to delineate differential effects in developed and developing countries. PMID:23502134

Makrides, Maria; Anderson, Amanda; Gibson, Robert A

2013-01-22

261

Rhamnetin-induced suppression of clonal expansion during early stage of adipogenesis.  

PubMed

Adipocyte differentiation plays a pivotal role in the progression of obesity which is a major risk factor for several diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease. In this study, the inhibitory effect of rhamnetin, a flavonoid compound, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was investigated. Rhamnetin decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets, and inhibited the elevation of triglyceride content in the adipocytes (IC(50) = 17.3 ?M). The expressions of PPAR?, C/EBP?, and perilipin, adipocyte differentiation markers, were significantly reduced by rhamnetin. Triglyceride biosynthesis and clonal expansion of adipocytes were completely inhibited during the early stage by rhamnetin. Additionally, rhamnetin significantly decreased the expression of C/EBP?, an early stage marker. Our results indicate that suppression of clonal expansion during the early stage of adipogenesis by rhamnetin may be associated with inhibition of the C/EBP?, C/EBP?, and PPAR? pathways. PMID:22870818

Ji, So-Young; Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Lee, Youn-Sun; Yu, Ji-Yeon; Shin, Dong-Mi; Lee, Seunghyun; Yoo, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

2012-06-30

262

Delirium in early-stage alzheimer's disease: enhancing cognitive reserve as a possible preventive measure.  

PubMed

Delirium is a disorder of acute onset with fluctuating symptoms and is character ized by inattention, disorganized thinking and altered levels of consciousness. The risk for delirium is greatest in individual with dementia, and the incidence of both is increasing worldwide because of the aging of our population. Although s clinical trials have tested interventions f delirium prevention in individuals without dementia, little is known about the m anisms for the prevention of delirium i early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Th purpose of this article is to explore ways o preventing delirium and slowing the ra of cognitive decline in early-stage AD enhancing cognitive reserve. An agenda for future research on interventions to prevent delirium in individuals with early-stage AD is also presented. PMID:19326827

Fick, Donna M; Kolanowski, Ann; Beattie, Elizabeth; McCrow, Judith

2009-03-01

263

Outcomes of women with early-stage breast cancer receiving adjuvant trastuzumab  

PubMed Central

Introduction Large randomized trials assessing the benefit of adjuvant trastuzumab in early-stage breast cancer positive for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2) have demonstrated a significant improvement in survival. The objective of the present study was to describe the outcomes of women who received adjuvant trastuzumab for her2-positive breast cancer in British Columbia since publicly funded population-based use was initiated in July 2005. Methods Women from British Columbia, newly diagnosed with stage i–iii breast cancer between July 2004 and December 2006, who were positive for her2 overexpression by immunohistochemistry (3+) or amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (ratio ? 2.0) were included in the study. Data were collected from the prospectively assembled BC Cancer Agency Outcomes Unit, with cases linked to the provincial pharmacy data repository to determine the proportion of women who received adjuvant trastuzumab. Results Our retrospective study identified 703 her2-positive patients, of whom 480 (68%) received trastuzumab. In patients receiving trastuzumab, the 2-year relapse-free survival was 96.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 93.6% to 97.7%] and the overall survival was 99.3% (95% CI: 97.9% to 99.8%). Among node-negative and -positive patients, the 2-year relapse-free survival was 97.8% and 94.8% respectively (p = 0.09) for the trastuzumab-treated group and 90.9% and 77.3% (p = 0.01) for the group not receiving trastuzumab (n = 223). Site of first distant metastasis was the central nervous system in 19.5% of the entire cohort and in 37.5% of patients treated with trastuzumab. Discussion This population-based analysis of adjuvant trastuzumab use among Canadian women demonstrates highly favorable outcomes at the 2-year follow-up.

Seal, M.D.; Speers, C.H.; O'Reilly, S.; Gelmon, K.A.; Ellard, S.L.; Chia, S.K.

2012-01-01

264

Stage-related plasma values of transforming growth factor-beta1 are steroid receptors dependent.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a biomarker associated with the progression of breast cancer, characteristic by switching activity from tumor suppressor in early stages to tumor promoter at advanced disease. However, what cause this switch is still not clear. On the other hand, the relationship between steroid receptors (estrogen ER and progesterone PR) as the major discriminators of breast cancer phenotype and this paradoxical biomarker is not fully determined. In this pilot study on 52 breast cancer patients, quantitative plasma values of TGF-beta1 were determined by quantitative ELISA and steroid receptor content was measured in cytosol fraction of breast cancer tissue using dextran-coated (DCC) method. We tried to investigate the possibility that steroid receptor status of patients at different stages of disease could be the trigger that somehow causes variation of TGF-beta1 plasma levels. In nonmetastatic breast cancer patients, there was no statistically significant increase in the plasma levels of TGF-beta1, when patients are stratified by steroid receptor status (ER- vs. ER+, PR- vs. PR+). We found for the first time, that indeed in metastatic breast cancer statistically significant elevated levels of TGF-beta1 are related to negative steroid receptor status and moreover that, there is correlation between quantitative values of these parameters in this stage. This finding deserves further investigation because it could provide a new insight into more aggressive nature of steroid receptor negative tumors. PMID:19458909

Todorovi?-Rakovi?, Natasa; Neskovi?-Konstantinovi?, Z; Nikoli?-Vukosavljevi?, D

2009-05-21

265

Primary Gastric Lymphoma: Conservative Treatment Modality Is Not Inferior to Surgery for Early-Stage Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, survival rates, and treatment modalities in patients with primary gastric lymphoma (PGL). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed data from patients treated for PGL in our clinic from 1998 through 2010. Staging was performed using the Lugano Staging System. Overall and disease-free survival (OS and DFS) were calculated from the date of diagnosis. Results. We identified 79 patients. Thirty-seven patients (47%) were male. The median age at presentation was 57 (18–85) years. The median follow-up time was 41 (9–52) months. Thirty patients (38%) underwent surgery, 74 (92%) received chemotherapy, and 18 (23%) received radiotherapy. The five-year OS and DFS rates were 91.2% and 83.9%, respectively, in patients with stage I/II or IIE disease and 70.6% and 65.5%, respectively, in patients with stage IV disease (P = 0.02 for both rates). Treatment modality (surgical or conservative) had no impact on OS or DFS in early stages. In a multivariate analysis, poor performance status, advanced stage, and high LDH levels were significant bad prognostic factors for DFS, while advanced stage, poor performance status, and age >?60 years were significant bad prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion. Surgery provides no advantage for survival over conservative treatment; thus, conservative treatment modalities should be preferred initially at early stages of PGL.

Selcukbiricik, Fatih; Tural, Deniz; Elicin, Olgun; Berk, Selin; Ozguroglu, Mustafa; Bese, Nuran; Ferhanoglu, Burhan

2012-01-01

266

Sensitivity of early-life-stage golden trout to low pH and elevated aluminum  

SciTech Connect

Early-life-stage golden trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita) were exposed to acid and Al to examine the response and determine the sensitivity of a western, alpine salmonid to conditions simulating an episodic pH depression. Freshly fertilized eggs, alevins, and swim-up larvae were exposed for 7 d to one of 12 combinations of pH and Al, and surviving fish were held to 40 d post-hatch to determine the effect of exposure on subsequent survival and recovery. Golden trout are sensitive to conditions simulating episodic acidification events typically observed in the field. Significant mortality occurred when the pH of test waters was below 5.0 in the absence of Al or when pH was 5.5 in the presence of 100 [mu]g/L total Al. Behavioral impairments were sensitive indicators of low pH and Al stress. Impaired locomotory and feeding behavior occurred at pH 5.5 without Al and at Al concentrations [>=] [mu]g/L. In contrast, growth, RNA-to-DNA ratio, and whole-body ion concentration were relatively less sensitive indicators of sublethal acid and Al stress.

DeLonay, A.J. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). School of Natural Resources); Little, E.E.; Woodward, F.; Brumbaugh, W.G. (National Fisheries Contaminant Research Center, Columbia, MO (United States). Fish and Wildlife Service); Farag, A.M. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Zoology and Physiology); Rabeni, C.F. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Missouri Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit)

1993-07-01

267

Effects of cryopreservation of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds on early stages of germination.  

PubMed

In this work, we studied the effects of cryopreservation on various parameters of early stages of germination of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds (0, 7 and 14 days). Percentages of germination, fresh mass of different plant parts, levels of chlorophyll pigments (a, b, total), malondialdehyde, other aldehydes, phenolics (cell wall-linked, free, and total) and protein were determined. No phenotypic changes were observed visually in seedlings recovered from cryopreserved seeds. However, several significant effects of seed liquid nitrogen exposure were recorded at the biochemical level. There was a significant negative effect of cryopreservation on shoot protein content, which decreased from 3.11 mg g(-1) fresh weight for non-cryopreserved controls to 0.44 mg g(-1) fresh shoot weight for cryopreserved seeds. On the other hand, cryopreservation significantly increased levels of other aldehydes than malondialdehyde in shoots at day 7, from 56.47 ?mol g(-1) for non-cryopreserved controls to 253.19 ?mol g(-1) fresh shoot weight for cryopreserved samples. Liquid nitrogen exposure significantly reduced phenolics contents (free, cell-wall linked, total) in roots at day 7 after onset of germination. In general, roots were more affected by cryostorage compared with other plant parts, while leaves were the least affected. The effects of seed cryopreservation seem to decline progressively along with seedling growth. PMID:22843025

Cejas, Inaudis; Vives, Karel; Laudat, Taletha; González-Olmedo, Justo; Engelmann, Florent; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Lorenzo, José Carlos

2012-07-28

268

Keishibukuryogan reduces renal injury in the early stage of renal failure in the remnant kidney model.  

PubMed

The effects of keishibukuryogan on the early stage of progressive renal failure were examined in rats subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy. Keishibukuryogan, one of the traditional herbal formulations, was given orally at a dose of 1% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) in chow. Administration of keishibukuryogan was started at 1 week after 5/6 nephrectomy and was continued for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, Azan staining did not reveal any severe histological changes in the kidneys of the nephrectomized rats. On the other hand, significant increases in mRNA expressions of transforming growth factor-?(1) and fibronectin related to tissue fibrosis, as examined by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction, were observed in nephrectomized rats, and they were significantly suppressed by 3% keishibukuryogan treatment. Against gene expressions related to macrophage infiltration, 3% keishibukuryogan treatment significantly suppressed osteopontin mRNA levels, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA levels showed a tendency to decrease, but without statistical significance. It was also observed that 3% keishibukuryogan attenuated serum urea nitrogen and urinary protein excretion levels. From these results, it was suggested that keishibukuryogan exerts beneficial effects that result in slowing the progression of chronic renal failure. PMID:19633031

Nakagawa, Takako; Tashiro, Izumi; Fujimoto, Makoto; Jo, Michiko; Sakai, Shinya; Oka, Hiroshi; Goto, Hirozo; Shimada, Yutaka; Shibahara, Naotoshi

2011-05-03

269

Initial Medical Attention on Patients with Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is commonly believed to be incidental. Understanding the reasons that caused initial detection of these patients is important for early diagnosis. However, these reasons are not well studied. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients diagnosed with stage I or II NSCLC between 2000 and 2009 at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. Information on suggestive LC-symptoms or other reasons that caused detection were extracted from patients' medical records. We applied univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate the association of suggestive LC-symptoms with tumor size and patient survival. Results Of the 1396 early stage LC patients, 733 (52.5%) presented with suggestive LC-symptoms as chief complaint. 347 (24.9%) and 287 (20.6%) were diagnosed because of regular check-ups and evaluations for other diseases, respectively. The proportion of suggestive LC-symptom-caused detection had a linear relationship with the tumor size (correlation 0.96; with p<.0001). After age, gender, race, smoking status, therapy, and stage adjustment, the symptom-caused detection showed no significant difference in overall and LC-specific survival when compared with the other (non-symptom-caused) detection. Conclusion Symptoms suggestive of LC are the number one reason that led to detection in early NSCLC. They were also associated with tumor size at diagnosis, suggesting early stage LC patients are developing symptoms. Presence of symptoms in early stages did not compromise survival. A symptom-based alerting system or guidelines may be worth of further study to benefit NSCLC high risk individuals.

Chen, Xing; Gorlov, Ivan P.; Ying, Jun; Merriman, Kelly W.; Kimmel, Marek; Lu, Charles; Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C.; Gorlova, Olga Y.

2012-01-01

270

Helical growth of stage-IVb sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus : the relationship between rotation and elongation growth rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the relationship between the two components of helical growth (rotation rate and elongation rate) is fundamental to understanding the biophysical and molecular mechanism(s) of cell wall extension in algal cells, fungal cells, and plant stems and roots. Helical growth occurs throughout development of the sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Previous studies within the growth zone of stage-IVb sporangiophores

Joseph K. E. Ortega; Georgia E. Lesh-Laurie; Mark A. Espinosa; Elena L. Ortega; Steve M. Manos; Melissa D. Cunning; Jessica E. Olson

2003-01-01

271

A decimal code to describe the growth stages of sesame (Sesamum orientale L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard description of growth stages for crops\\/plants is necessary not only for determining and improving cultural practices, but also to facilitate enhanced communication among producers, researchers, and educators. It also could help in unifying experimental results. Many different descriptions of growth stages are currently available for many crops, but there are no codes for sesame (Sesamum orientale L.). To

M. Zavareh; G. Hoogenboom; H. Rahimian Mashhadi; A. Arab

272

Phenological growth stages of cacao plants (Theobroma sp.): codification and description according to the BBCH scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detailed description of growth stages of useful plants followed by adequate codification facilitates communication between scientists and practicians if, for example, new findings of science have to be transferred to management procedures or if experiences made at one growing site have to be adapted to another. We describe the growth stages of the worldwide species of cacao trees (Theobroma

N. Niemenak; C. Cilas; C. Rohsius; H. Bleiholder; U. Meier; R. Lieberei

2010-01-01

273

Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) technology to distinguish sera of early-stage lung cancer patients from control individuals. ESI-MS m\\/z (mass divided by charge) data were generated from sera of 43 non-small cell lung cancer patients (pathological stages I and II) and 21 control individuals. Identifications of m\\/z peak area significances

James R. Hocker; Marvin D. Peyton; Megan R. Lerner; Stephanie L. Mitchell; Stan A. Lightfoot; Theresa J. Lander; Leah M. Bates-Albers; Nicole T. Vu; Rushie J. Hanas; Thomas C. Kupiec; Daniel J. Brackett; Jay S. Hanas

2011-01-01

274

Early Interactions Between Blood-Stage Plasmodium Parasites and the Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence provides strong support for the importance of innate immunity in shaping the subsequent adaptive immune\\u000a response to blood-stage Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria. Early interactions between blood-stage parasites and cells of the innate immune\\u000a system, including dendritic cells, monocytes\\/macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, NKT cells, and ?? T cells, are important\\u000a in the timely control of

B. C. Urban; R. Ing; M. M. Stevenson

275

Effects of acidified seawater on early life stages of scleractinian corals (Genus Acropora )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification, caused by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, is currently an important environmental problem. It is therefore necessary to investigate the effects of\\u000a ocean acidification on all life stages of a wide range of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the effects\\u000a of increased CO2 on early life stages of organisms, including corals. Using a range of

Ryota Suwa; Masako Nakamura; Masaya Morita; Kazuaki Shimada; Akira Iguchi; Kazuhiko Sakai; Atsushi Suzuki

2010-01-01

276

Proteome analysis of soybean roots under waterlogging stress at an early vegetative stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain better insight into how soybean roots respond to waterlogging stress, we carried out proteomic profiling combined\\u000a with physiological analysis at two time points for soybean seedlings in their early vegetative stage. Seedlings at the V2\\u000a stage were subjected to 3 and 7 days of waterlogging treatments. Waterlogging stress resulted in a gradual increase of lipid\\u000a peroxidation and in

Iftekhar Alam; Dong-Gi Lee; Kyung-Hee Kim; Choong-Hoon Park; Shamima Akhtar Sharmin; Hyoshin Lee; Ki-Won Oh; Byung-Wook Yun; Byung-Hyun Lee

2010-01-01

277

The Power of Personality in Discriminating Between Healthy Aging and Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined differences in personality in the earliest stages of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) relative to healthy aging, and the power of personality in discriminating healthy aging from early-stage DAT. Four groups of participants (middle-aged controls, older controls, persons with very mild DAT, and persons with mild DAT) and their families were administered Costa and McCrae's NEO

Janet M. Duchek; David A. Balota; Martha Storandt; Randy Larsen

2007-01-01

278

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on the early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in the life history, of

A. Franke; C. Clemmesen

2011-01-01

279

Porcine nuclei in early growing stage do not possess meiotic competence in matured oocytes.  

PubMed

To determine whether the nuclei of early growing stage porcine oocytes can mature to the MII stage, we examined meiotic competence of nuclei that had been fused with enucleated GV oocytes using the nuclear transfer method. In vitro matured oocytes were enucleated and then fused with early growing oocytes (30-40 ?m in diameter) from 5 to 7-wk-old piglets using the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). Reconstructed oocytes were cultured for 24 h to the MII stage. Although these oocytes extruded the first polar body, they did not contain normal haploid chromosomes, and the spindles were misaligned or absent at the metaphase II (MII) stage. Furthermore, maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity levels were low in oocytes reconstructed with early growing oocytes at metaphase I (MI) and MII. In contrast, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity was detected between the MI and MII stages, although at slightly lower levels. In conclusion, the nuclei of early growing oocytes did not accomplish normal meiotic division in matured oocytes due to misaligned or absent spindle formation. PMID:22538003

Ogawa, H; Matsuzaki, T; Yamamoto, A; Kashiwazaki, N; Kono, T

2012-04-24

280

The association between height and prostate cancer grade in the Early Stage Prostate Cancer Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We examined the relationship between height and prostate cancer grade.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The Early Stage Prostate Cancer Cohort Study is an observational cohort of 1,037 men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer,\\u000a T0–3NxM0. High-grade prostate cancer was defined as a biopsy Gleason score ? 7 (4 + 3). Logistic regression models were created to\\u000a calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the cross-sectional relationship

Wildon R. Farwell; Christopher Lourenco; Erika Holmberg; Robert B. Hall; Leonard D’Avolio; Elizabeth V. Lawler; J. Michael Gaziano

281

Can stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in early stage lung cancers produce comparable success as surgery?  

PubMed

Early stage non-small cell lung cancer is a potentially curable manifestation of a disease that is typically associated with a grim prognosis. Therapies directed at early stage disease can be challenging to deliver because patients tend to be elderly with multiple comorbidities. Surgery, the standard of care, has been validated with long-term follow-up. However, the risk of perioperative mortality and morbidity can limit the feasibility of an operation for many high-risk patients. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy uses highly focused, ablative doses of radiation to treat tumors and has emerged as an alternative to surgery. PMID:23931020

Shirvani, Shervin M; Chang, Joe Y; Roth, Jack A

2013-08-01

282

Speech acoustic markers of early stage and prodromal Huntington's disease: a marker of disease onset?  

PubMed

Speech disturbances (e.g., altered prosody) have been described in symptomatic Huntington's Disease (HD) individuals, however, the extent to which speech changes in gene positive pre-manifest (PreHD) individuals is largely unknown. The speech of individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene is a behavioural/motor/cognitive marker demonstrating some potential as an objective indicator of early HD onset and disease progression. Speech samples were acquired from 30 individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene (13 PreHD, 17 early stage HD) and 15 matched controls. Participants read a passage, produced a monologue and said the days of the week. Data were analysed acoustically for measures of timing, frequency and intensity. There was a clear effect of group across most acoustic measures, so that speech performance differed in-line with disease progression. Comparisons across groups revealed significant differences between the control and the early stage HD group on measures of timing (e.g., speech rate). Participants carrying the mutant HTT gene presented with slower rates of speech, took longer to say words and produced greater silences between and within words compared to healthy controls. Importantly, speech rate showed a significant correlation to burden of disease scores. The speech of early stage HD differed significantly from controls. The speech of PreHD, although not reaching significance, tended to lie between the performance of controls and early stage HD. This suggests that changes in speech production appear to be developing prior to diagnosis. PMID:22982606

Vogel, Adam P; Shirbin, Christopher; Churchyard, Andrew J; Stout, Julie C

2012-09-14

283

Treatment options in early stages of Hodgkin's Lymphoma, high cure rate with lower short and long-term toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of early stages in HL varied among cooperative groups and clinical trials. Most of them considered early stages; stage I, II, and IIIA without bulky disease. Bulky disease has been defined at the Costwolds Meeting as those tumors with more than 10 cm or a mediastinal involvement of more than one-third of the chest wall diameter. Other factors

Santiago Pavlovsky

2005-01-01

284

Prevalence and characteristics of pain in early and late stages of ALS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare pain frequency in early and late stages of ALS and to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status. Sixty-four patients in different stages of ALS were asked to complete the Neuropathic Pain Scale and to draw the localization of their pain on a body cartoon. The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) values were obtained from the medical record. A ?(2) correlation was used to compare the proportion of patients with pain in different stages of ALS. Correlation coefficient was used to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status (ALSFRS-R). Pain was reported by about half the patients. Using FVC values, patients were subdivided into early, intermediate and late stage of the disease. There was a negative correlation between pain intensity and functional status. There was no statistically significant difference in the presence of pain among patients in the different stages of ALS. In conclusion, our study showed that pain is common in ALS patients. Although pain intensity did correlate negatively with functional status, as expected, we were surprised to find that pain was also present in the early stages of the disease. PMID:23286754

Rivera, Itza; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Casey, Pat; Heller, Scott; Allen, Jeffrey; Siddique, Teepu; Sufit, Robert

2013-01-04

285

Early stages of formation and dispersal of the temperate flora in the Boreal Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Budantsev, L. Yu. (Komarov Botanical Institute, Prof. Popov Str. 2, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia). Early stages of formation\\u000a and dispersal of the temperate flora in the Boreal Region. Bot. Rev.58(1): 1–48, 1992.—The thesis of this review is that, as stated as early as 1908 by V. L. Komarov, the composition of a flora can\\u000a be understood only as a process,

Lev Yu. Budantsev

1992-01-01

286

Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels. There is a growing interest to focus on early life stages that are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data, acquired in a commercial hatchery, demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease of pH to a level expected for the end of the century. Even though there was no significant effect of a 0.25-0.34 pH unit decrease on hatching and mortality rates during the first 2 days of development nor during the following 13-day period prior to settlement, final shells were respectively 4.5±1.3 and 6.0±2.3% smaller at pHNBS~7.8 (pCO2~1100-1200 ?atm) than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1 (pCO2~460-640 ?atm). Moreover, a decrease of 12.0±5.4% of shell thickness was observed after 15d of development. More severe impacts were found with a decrease of ~0.5 pHNBS unit during the first 2 days of development which could be attributed to a decrease of calcification due to a slight undersaturation of seawater with respect to aragonite. Indeed, important effects on both hatching and D-veliger shell growth were found. Hatching rates were 24±4% lower while D-veliger shells were 12.7±0.9% smaller at pHNBS~7.6 (pCO2~1900 ?atm) than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1 (pCO2~540 ?atm). Although these results show that blue mussel larvae are still able to develop a shell in seawater undersaturated with respect to aragonite, the observed decreases of hatching rates and shell growth could lead to a significant decrease of the settlement success. As the environmental conditions considered in this study do not necessarily reflect the natural conditions experienced by this species at the time of spawning, future studies will need to consider the whole larval cycle (from fertilization to settlement) under environmentally relevant conditions in order to investigate the potential ecological and economical losses of a decrease of this species fitness in the field.

Gazeau, F.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Dawber, C.; Pronker, A. E.; Peene, F.; Peene, J.; Heip, C. H. R.; Middelburg, J. J.

2010-07-01

287

Walter Puchner - Early Modern Greek Drama: From Page to Stage - Journal of Modern Greek Studies 25:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial scholarly research on early Modern Greek drama was largely philological, but also entertained the possibility that these plays had a stage history. Evidence of a stage history for early modern Greek drama came to light in recent years indicating that there was more activity than anyone previously suspected. Evidence for theater performances in early modern Greece is now quite

Walter Puchner

2007-01-01

288

Binding interactions in early- and late-stage amyloid aggregates of TTR(105-115).  

PubMed

One of the central aims of amyloid research is to identify chemical and structural features that confer amyloidogenic propensity. In this study, we use Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy to acquire an atom-specific map of the interactions between soluble and aggregated Transthyretin peptide (TTR(105-115)) in early- and late-stage amyloidogenesis. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor the transition of early-stage samples, containing protofilaments, to late-stage samples composed of fully-mature fibrils. Progressive aggregation was accompanied by an increase in the correlation time tau(c) of soluble TTR(105-115) as indicated by (1)H NMR line broadening, but no significant change in the (1)H chemical shifts. The STD profile of backbone amide protons is in good agreement with an earlier computational study predicting hydrogen bonding propensity for each residue in small TTR(105-115) aggregates (Paci et al., J. Mol. Biol. (2004) 555-569). The STD profiles of C(alpha) and C(beta) protons identify a central aliphatic region of the peptide, Ala108-Leu111, that plays a crucial, but different role in early- and late-stage amyloidogenesis. In general, the STD profiles of early and fully-mature samples are dissimilar, suggesting different mechanisms of self-assembly in protofilaments and mature amyloid fibrils. The early-stage mechanism appears to be more dependent on main-chain hydrogen bonding, while the late-stage mechanism involves an increased number of interactions between bulky side chains. PMID:19501449

Liang, Yanfang; Jasbi, Shohreh Zahedi; Haftchenary, Sina; Morin, Sylvie; Wilson, Derek J

2009-05-22

289

Beginning regular exercise in early pregnancy: Effect on fetoplacental growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to test the null hypothesis that beginning regular, moderate-intensity exercise in early pregnancy has no effect on fetoplacental growth. Study Design: Forty-six women who did not exercise regularly were randomly assigned at 8 weeks either to no exercise (n = 24) or to weight-bearing exercise (n = 22) 3 to 5 times a week for the

James F. Clapp; Hyungjin Kim; Brindusa Burciu; Beth Lopez

2000-01-01

290

Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.  

PubMed

Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 ?g/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 ?g/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 ?g/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection. PMID:23124699

Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

2012-11-05

291

Late growth stages and post-growth diffusion in organic epitaxy: PTCDA on Ag(1 1 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The late growth stages and the post-growth diffusion of crystalline organic thin films have been investigated for 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on Ag(111), a model system in organic epitaxy. In situ X-ray measurements at the anti-Bragg point during the growth show intensity oscillations followed by a time-independent intensity which is independent of the growth temperature. At T?350K, the intensity increases after

B. Krause; A. C. Dürr; F. Schreiber; H. Dosch; O. H. Seeck

2004-01-01

292

Portfolio management in early stage drug discovery - a traveler's guide through uncharted territory.  

PubMed

Portfolio management in drug development has become a best practice in the pharmaceutical industry. By contrast, early on in the value chain - the discovery phase - portfolio management is still in its infancy. Nevertheless, owing to the attrition of R&D projects from phase to phase and the cost of capital involved, these early phases of drug discovery play a significant part for the overall cost of bringing new, innovative drugs to the market. This paper describes various approaches to manage a portfolio of projects in early-stage drug discovery and provides crucial factors that determine the success of such an approach. PMID:21600301

Betz, Ulrich A K

2011-05-11

293

Early diagnosis and stage classification of vocal cord abductor paralysis in patients with multiple system atrophy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Vocal cord abductor paralysis (VCAP) is a life threatening complication which may cause nocturnal sudden death in patients with multiple system atrophy. However, the early diagnosis of VCAP is often difficult to make on routine laryngoscopy performed during wakefulness, as stridor, which is the sole symptom of VCAP in the early stage, develops only during sleep. The aim was to investigate laryngeal dysfunction in patients with multiple system atrophy while awake and asleep. METHODS: Seven patients with multiple system atrophy with nocturnal stridor and five control patients were studied. Vocal cord movement was analysed by laryngoscopy while the patients were awake and also during sleep induced by intravenous diazepam. RESULTS: When awake, for the seven patients with multiple system atrophy normal movement of the vocal cords occurred in three, mild abduction restriction in three, and paradoxical movement in one. When asleep, however, all showed obvious paradoxical movement with high pitched inspiratory stridor. In controls, there were no differences in the vocal cord movement between wakefulness and sleep. From these findings, VCAP could be divided into four stages: stage 0 (normal) with normal vocal cord movement during both wakefulness and sleep, stage 1 (mild VCAP) with normal movement during wakefulness and paradoxical movement during sleep, stage 2 (moderately severe VCAP) with abduction restriction during wakefulness and paradoxical movement during sleep, and stage 3 (severe VCAP) with an almost midline position for the vocal cords during both wakefulness and sleep. CONCLUSIONS: Laryngoscopy during sleep can disclose subclinical VCAP, making an early diagnosis of VCAP in patients with multiple system atrophy. Stage 2 of VCAP seems to be a suitable stage for tracheostomy in patients with multiple system atrophy. Images

Isozaki, E; Naito, A; Horiguchi, S; Kawamura, R; Hayashida, T; Tanabe, H

1996-01-01

294

Impact of [ 18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Staging and Management of Early-Stage Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Accurate staging is critical to select patients with early-stage (I-II) follicular lymphoma (ESFL) suitable for involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) and to define the radiotherapy portal. We evaluated the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET on staging, treatment, and outcome for patients with ESFL on conventional staging. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with untreated ESFL (World Health Organization Grade I-IIIa, or 'low

Andrew Wirth; Marcus Foo; John F. Seymour; Michael P. MacManus; Rodney J. Hicks

2008-01-01

295

Photodynamic therapy of early stage cancer of lung, esophagus, and stomach with two different photosensitizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early-stage cancer of lung (17 patients), esophagus (8 patients) and stomach (10 patients). Fifteen patients had second primary tumors. New drugs photoheme and photosens were used as photosensitizers. Complete remission was obtained in 87%. The patients are followed up without relapses to 2.5 years.

Chissov, Valery I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Trakhtenberg, A. K.; Mamontov, A. S.; Vaschakmadze, L. A.; Frank, G. A.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Belous, T. A.; Gladunov, V. K.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Zharkova, Natalja N.; Menenkov, V. D.

1996-01-01

296

EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST METHODS FOR GULF TOADFISH, 'OPSANUS BETA', AND RESULTS USING CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) were continuously exposed as embryos, sac fry and juveniles to technical chlorpyrifos in two 49-day early life-stage toxicity tests. Survival was significantly (alpha = 0.05) reduced only in 150 micrograms/l). However, toadfish exposed to chlorpyrifos...

297

Value Roadmapping: A Structured Approach for Early Stage Technology Investment Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deciding to invest in early stage technologies is one of the most important tasks of technology management and arguably also the most uncertain. It assumes a particular significance in the rise of technology companies in emerging economies, which have to make appropriate investment decisions. Technology managers already have a wide range of methods and tools at their disposal, but these

M. C. Dissel; R. Phaal; C. J. Farrukh; D. R. Probert

2006-01-01

298

Evidence That Genetic Instability Occurs at an Early Stage of Colorectal Tumorigenesis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal instability is believed to be a common feature of most human tumors, but the stage at which such instability originates has not been defined. At the molecular level, chromosomal instability is charac- terized by allelic imbalance (AI), representing losses or gains of defined chromosomal regions. We have assessed AI in early colorectal tumors using newly developed methods for assessing

Ie-Ming Shih; Wei Zhou; Steven N. Goodman; Christoph Lengauer; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Bert Vogelstein

2001-01-01

299

Early-stage firms and delay-based inventory control using decision-making tableaux  

Microsoft Academic Search

A resource constrained early-stage firm commercialising assembled products faces supply chain (SC) problems that could ultimately cause the company to fail. Delays, complexity, and associated cost overruns throughout the SC can quickly drain cash flow, putting a new firm in a disadvantaged position. This is exacerbated by the increased use of outsourced global suppliers, demands of resellers, and pressure for

Tucker J. Marion; Rifat Sipahi

2010-01-01

300

Predation on Early Life Stages of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality of early life stages can limit recruitment of fishes, and understanding the impacts of various sources of mortality has long been a goal of fisheries management. The impacts of predation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify sources of predation that affect lake sturgeon eggs, larvae, and

David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

2010-01-01

301

Early stage expansion and time-resolved spectral emission of laser-induced plasma from polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the nanosecond laser ablation regime, absorption of laser energy by the plasma during its early stage expansion critically influences the properties of the plasma and thus its interaction with ambient air. These influences can significantly alter spectral emission of the plasma. For organic samples especially, recombination of the plasma with the ambient air leads to interfering emissions with respect

Myriam Boueri; Matthieu Baudelet; Jin Yu; Xianglei Mao; Samuel S. Mao; Richard Russo

2009-01-01

302

Minimally Invasive Approaches for Diagnosis and Treatment of Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breastcancermanagementhasbeenevolvingtowardmin- imally invasive approaches. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy techniques provide accurate histologic diagnosis without the need for surgical biopsy. Breast conservation therapy has become the treatment standard for early- stage breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a new procedure that can predict axillary lymph node status without the need of axillary lymph node dissection. The next challenge is to treat

ELENA M. VERKOOIJENb

303

Early childhood, the critical stage in human interactions with disease and culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the continuous interactions between evolving Homo sapiens and the multiple health-related factors that significantly have shaped the course of human evolution. Early childhood, particularly the precarious post-weaning stage, is seen to be the most critical period determining survival in disease confrontations. Selection for the fundamental biological defenses predated human emergence; however, human cultures add a significant dimension

Corinne Shear Wood

1983-01-01

304

Literacy in the Foundation Stage: Literacy and Play in Two Early Years Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers practitioners' beliefs and practice in relation to play in the literacy curriculum in two early years settings and the impact on the experiences of the children in these settings. Both settings were working with the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage (QCA/DfEE, 2000). One week was spent in each setting and…

Miller, Linda; Paige-Smith, Alice

2004-01-01

305

Strategies used in the early stages of learning to read: a comparison of children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research compared the reading strategies used by adults and children in the early stages of learning to read. There were 72 adults (48 men and 24 women) and 96 children (64 boys and 32 girls) in the study. The reading ages of all subjects ranged (in years and months) from 7.0 to 7.11. Additionally, the chronological ages of the

Norma Mudd

1987-01-01

306

Laparoscopic Assessment of the Sentinel Lymph Node in Early Stage Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to describe a minimally invasive technique enabling us to identify the sentinel lymph node in patients affected by early stage cervical cancer and to report the preliminary data.Method. Patent Blue Violet was injected around the tumor. Laparoscopy was undertaken and the blue-dyed lymph nodes (BDLN) were sought. The evidenced BDLN were removed, and

D. Dargent; X. Martin; P. Mathevet

2000-01-01

307

Social security arrangements and early-stage entrepreneurial activity; an empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study focuses on the relation between social security arrangements and the rate of early-stage entrepreneurial activity at the country level. Using a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, we explore how various measures of entrepreneurial activity are related to various measures of social security arrangements. On the one hand we look at aggregate indicators such

André van Stel; Peter Brouwer; Sander Wennekers; Jolanda Hessels

2006-01-01

308

Invasion by Ligustrum lucidum(Oleaceae) in NW Argentina: early stage characteristics in different habitat types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently biological invasions are considered one of the world's most serious conservation problems. Ligustrum lucidum is the most abundant exotic tree in secondary forest patches of montane forests of NW Argentina. We studied the determinants of success of the early stages of its life cycle in distinct habitat types, with the hope of identifying vulnerabilities that could be exploited to

Roxana Aragón; Martha Groom

2003-01-01

309

A semikinetic model for early stage plasmasphere refilling 2. Effects of wave-particle interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors treat the early stages of plasmasphere refilling along an initially depleted L = 4 magnetic flux tube through a semikinetic model. The companion paper by Wilson et. al. describes the plasma evolution for a baseline refilling situation in which Coulomb collisions play a central role. Here they focus on the effects of wave-particle interactions in which stochastic diffusion

J. Lin; J. L. Horwitz; G. R. Wilson; C. W. Ho; D. G. Brown

1992-01-01

310

A semikinetic model for early stage plasmasphere refilling. II - Effects of wave-particle interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper treats the early stages of plasmasphere refilling along an initially depleted L = 4 magnetic flux tube through a semikinetic model, with special attention given to the effects of wave-particle interactions in which stochastic diffusion of ions in perpendicular velocity due to equatorially concentrated electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves plays a central role. Characteristic individual ion trajectories are examined,

J. Lin; J. L. Horwitz; G. R. Wilson; C. W. Ho; D. G. Brown

1992-01-01

311

Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

2013-01-01

312

Early Stages of Hydrothermal Alteration in Anomalous Primitive CCs NWA 5958 and Paris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite its 3.0 petrographic type, alteration features are observed in NWA 5958 by SEM observations. Magnetometry suggests the presence of Fe-phyllosilicates, as in the Paris CM. These two CCs allow us to study early stages of hydrothermal alteration.

Elmaleh, A.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R. H.; Göpel, C.; Fieni, C.; Pont, S.; Humayun, M.

2012-09-01

313

Communication in the Early Stage of Language Development in Children with CHARGE Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CHARGE syndrome is characterized by multiple physical abnormalities, and impaired vision and hearing. In this pilot study, communication in the early stage of language development in three one- to eight-year-old children with CHARGE syndrome was explored using video recorded free-play interaction sessions and a parental questionnaire. The children…

Peltokorpi, Sini; Huttunen, Kerttu

2008-01-01

314

The significance of lipids at early stages of marine fish: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work reviews the significance of lipids at different early stages of marine fish larvae. Lipids in broodstock nutrition are considered to be important for the quality of the larvae. Lipids affect the spawning and the egg quality of many fish species and a deficiency in (n?3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in broodstock negatively affects fecundity, fertilization rate

Jose R. Rainuzzo; Kjell I. Reitan; Yngvar Olsen

1997-01-01

315

Early life stages of fishes as indicators of estuarine ecosystem health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major goal of current environmental policies is to preserve or return areas to a good ecological status, which should be assessed at the ecosystem level, using several biological elements, together with physical, chemical and pollution elements. This study investigated the use of early life stages of fishes as indicators of estuarine ecosystem condition, testing the hypothesis that estuaries with

Sandra Ramos; Eva Amorim; Michael Elliott; Henrique Cabral; Adriano A. Bordalo

316

77 FR 25775 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...email. Within three business days, SBA will determine...A. Early Stage SBIC Model LPA. In order to expedite...Applicant must adopt SBA Model Valuation Guidelines...only when it has a clear business purpose: i. Example...capital to the SBIC. The Model LPA contains...

2012-05-01

317

Digital support for net-based teamwork in early design stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early stages of the product development process are the most important ones. Decisions made here affect the success of a new product. Due to the complexity of products, a multidisciplinary knowledge is required. In the globalised world the company's internal and external experts are spread all over the world. Time and cost pressure impedes teamwork with personal attendance. As

Christoph Ganser; Thomas Kennel; Andreas Kunz

2007-01-01

318

A Functional Account of Verb Use in the Early Stages of English Multiword Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigates flexibility of verb use in the early stages of English multiword development, and its relationship with patterns attested in the input. The data is taken from a case study of a monolingual English-speaking boy aged 2; 5-2; 9 and his mother while engaged in daily activities in the home. Data were coded according to…

Cameron-Faulkner, Thea

2012-01-01

319

News Notes: Two Proteins May Be Key to Screening for Early-Stage Liver Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified an improved method of screening high-risk patients for one of the most common types of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), particularly if the patient has a history of hepatitis. By changing the threshold of one commonly used screening test and adding a second, complementary test, researchers were able to accurately identify more early stage HCC cases.

320

Experimental early-stage coalification of a peat sample and a peatified wood sample from Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental coalification of a peat sample and a buried wood sample from domed peat deposits in Indonesia was carried out to examine chemical structural changes in organic matter during early-stage coalification. The experiment (125°C, 408 atm lithostatic pressure, and 177 atm fluid pressure for 75 days) was designed to maintain both lithostatic and fluid pressure on the sample, but allow

William H. Orem; Sandra G. Neuzil; Harry E. Lerch; C. Blaine Cecil

1996-01-01

321

Toxic effects of cadmium at early stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short term assay was conducted to investigate the cadmium toxicity at the early stages of development in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, using the trout microinjection technique. A total of four groups were reared and bred in the laboratory during experiments. One group was treated only with DMSO at a concentration of 5 ?l\\/sac?fry and microinjected into the yolk

N. Kotsanis

1997-01-01

322

Immunohistochemical study of tau accumulation in early stages of Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau results in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the neuronal cell soma and neuropil threads (NTs) in the cell processes. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate serially cut thick tissue sections from the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and non-demented elderly subjects. In the early stages of neurofibrillary pathology,

Takashi Togo; Haruhiko Akiyama; Eizo Iseki; Hirotake Uchikado; Hiromi Kondo; Kenji Ikeda; Kuniaki Tsuchiya; Rohan de Silva; Andrew Lees; Kenji Kosaka

2004-01-01

323

Experiences in early stage Alzheimer's disease: Understanding the paradox of acceptance and denial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wealth of information about the biomedical aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent dementia among people over age 65, stands in counterpoint to the lack of systematic inquiry around the lived experiences of people with AD. Thirteen (four women, nine men) people, recently diagnosed with early stage AD, participated in this 6-month longitudinal study. This paper reports on

Colleen R. Macquarrie

2005-01-01

324

Including persons with early stage Alzheimer's disease in support groups and strategy planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Metro Denver Chapter of the Alzheimer's Association (ADRDA) conducted a pilot program that included early stage Alzheimer's patients in a group setting with family members. The goal of the program was to provide a positive arena where Alzheimer's patients and family members could develop strategies for issues to be considered following the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Participants felt that

Mary E. McAfee; Patricia A. Ruh; Paul Bell; Diane Martichuski

1989-01-01

325

Neurochemical Diversity of Dystrophic Neurites in the Early and Late Stages of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the neurochemical and morphological diversity of abnormal neurites associated with ?-amyloid plaque formation in the early and late stages of Alzheimer's disease. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease was characterised by the presence of abnormal neurites containing either neurofilament or chromogranin A immunoreactivity. All clustered dystrophic neurites in these cases were associated with ?-amyloid plaques. Neurofilament immunoreactive dystrophic neurites in preclinical

Tracey C. Dickson; Carolyn E. King; Graeme H. McCormack; James C. Vickers

1999-01-01

326

77 FR 25042 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...qualified applicant that is not given a green light to apply for an Early Stage SBIC license should receive a green light to apply for a regular debenture...24 months of the date when the SBIC is computing its CIP, or if the financed small...

2012-04-27

327

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

328

Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a phase III clinical trial.

329

Prostatic Fatty Acids and Cancer Recurrence Following Radical Prostatectomy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: Results from some observational studies suggest that diet and energy balance influence the clinical course of early-stage prostate cancer. To evaluate possible mechanisms, we prospectively examined the relation between prostatic concentrations of fatty acids at diagnosis and cancer recurr...

330

Reducing Treatment Intensity Doesn't Compromise Results in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Reducing the dose of chemotherapy and radiotherapy did not compromise treatment efficacy in patients  with early-stage, low-risk Hodgkin lymphoma but led to fewer side effects, according to a study published August 12, 2010, in the New England Journal of Medicine.

331

Chemical and Bacteriological Changes in Grass Silage during the Early Stages of Fermentation I. Chemical Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The results showed that aeration of the forages influenced the bacterial flora and the chemical quality of the silages examined. The majority of the organisms isolated from the silages during the early stages of fermentation were cocci and Gram-negative rods. A few diphtheroids, aerobic bacilli, and pseudomonads were found, but occurred too infrequently to be of importance. Lactobacilli were

C. W. Langston; Cecelia Bouma; C. H. Gordon; W. C. Jacobson; C. G. Melin; L. A. Moore; J. E. McCalmont

1962-01-01

332

Creating Socionas: Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the ability to translate this understanding into products and services that are pleasurable and easy to use

C. E. Postma

2012-01-01

333

Cationic Gradient Reversal and Cytoskeleton-independent Volume Regulatory Pathways Define an Early Stage of Apoptosis*  

PubMed Central

Cell shrinkage, or apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), is a ubiquitous characteristic of programmed cell death that is independent of the death stimulus and occurs in all examples of apoptosis. Here we distinguished two specific stages of AVD based on cell size and a unique early reversal of intracellular ions that occurs in response to activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic cell death signal pathways. The primary stage of AVD is characterized by an early exchange of the normal intracellular ion distribution for sodium from 12 to 113.6 mm and potassium from 139.5 to 30 mm. This early ionic reversal is associated with a 20–40% decrease in cell volume, externalization of phosphatidylserine, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase activation and activity along with nuclear condensation that occurs independent of actin cytoskeleton disruption. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, however, prevents a secondary stage of AVD in apoptotic cells, characterized by a loss of both potassium and sodium that results in an 80–85% loss in cell volume, DNA degradation, and apoptotic body formation. Together these studies demonstrate that AVD occurs in two distinct stages with the earliest stage reflecting a cellular cationic gradient reversal.

Bortner, Carl D.; Sifre, Maria I.; Cidlowski, John A.

2009-01-01

334

Insulin-like growth factor II acts through an endogenous growth pathway regulated by imprinting in early mouse embryos.  

PubMed

We present evidence that insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) mediates growth in early mouse embryos and forms a pathway in which imprinted genes influence development during preimplantation stages. mRNA and protein for IGF-II were expressed in preimplantation mouse embryos, but the related factors IGF-I and insulin were not. IGF-I and insulin receptors and the IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor were expressed. Exogenous IGF-II or IGF-I increased the cell number in cultured blastocysts, but a mutant form of IGF-II that strongly binds only the IGF-II receptor did not. Reduction of IGF-II expression by antisense IGF-II oligonucleotides decreased the rate of progression to the blastocyst stage and decreased the cell number in blastocysts. Preimplantation parthenogenetic mouse embryos expressed mRNA for the IGF-II receptor but not for either IGF-II ligand or the IGF-I receptor, indicating that the latter genes are not expressed when inherited maternally. These data imply that some growth factors and receptors, regulated by genomic imprinting, may control cell proliferation from the earliest stages of embryonic development. PMID:1317321

Rappolee, D A; Sturm, K S; Behrendtsen, O; Schultz, G A; Pedersen, R A; Werb, Z

1992-06-01

335

Early-stage primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon  

PubMed Central

Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colorectum detected at an early stage is very rare; most cases are detected at an advanced stage. Therefore, its prognosis is poorer than that of ordinary colorectal cancer. A 56-year-old Korean man was seen at this hospital for management of signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon. Colonoscopic examination revealed a IIa-like, ill-defined and flatly elevated 9-mm residual tumor in the cecum. Endoscopic mucosal resection was preformed. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed signet ring cell carcinoma that had invaded the lamina propria without venous or perineural invasion. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and positron CT showed no evidence of primary lesions or distant metastasis. An additional laparoscopic right-hemicolectomy was performed; no residual tumor or lymph node metastasis was found. We report a case of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon detected at an early stage and provide a review of the literature.

Kim, Jae Hyun; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won; Kim, Sung Eun

2013-01-01

336

Altered Dynamic Postural Control during Step Turning in Persons with Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Persons with early-stage Parkinson's disease (EPD) do not typically experience marked functional deficits but may have difficulty with turning tasks. Studies evaluating turning have focused on individuals in advanced stages of the disease. The purpose of this study was to compare postural control strategies adopted during turning in persons with EPD to those used by healthy control (HC) subjects. Fifteen persons with EPD, diagnosed within 3 years, and 10 HC participated. Participants walked 4 meters and then turned 90°. Dynamic postural control was quantified as the distance between the center of pressure (COP) and the extrapolated center of mass (eCOM). Individuals with EPD demonstrated significantly shorter COP-eCOM distances compared to HC. These findings suggest that dynamic postural control during turning is altered even in the early stages of PD.

Song, Jooeun; Sigward, Susan; Fisher, Beth; Salem, George J.

2012-01-01

337

Cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral toxicity of carbofuran on Oreochromis niloticus early life stages.  

PubMed

Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 9 days post-hatch were exposed in semi-static experiments to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which is applied in agricultural systems in Brazil. Although the molecular mechanism of carbofuran toxicity is well known, a detailed understanding of the ecological mechanisms through which carbofuran effects can propagate towards higher levels of biological organization in fish is incomplete. Mortality rates were quantified for larvae exposed for 96 h to 8.3, 40.6, 69.9, 140, 297 and 397 ?g/L carbofuran, and the LC(50) 96 h was 214.7 ?g/L. In addition, the biochemical biomarker cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral biomarkers related to vision, swimming, prey capture and predator avoidance were quantified in individual larvae, as well as their growth in weight. The behavioral parameters were quantified by analysis of digitally recorded videos of individual larvae within appropriate experimental setups. The activity of the enzyme cholinesterase decreased after exposure to carbofuran with a lowest observed effects concentration (LOEC) of 69.9 ?g/L. Visual acuity deficits were detected after carbofuran exposure with a LOEC of 40.6 ?g/L. Swimming speed decreased with carbofuran exposure, with a LOEC of 397.6 ?g/L. The number of attacks to prey (Daphnia magna nauplii) decreased in larvae exposed to carbofuran, with a LOEC of 397.6 ?g/L. Growth in weight was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner, and all carbofuran groups exhibited a statistically significant decrease in growth when compared to controls (p<0.05). The number of predator attacks necessary to capture larvae decreased after exposure to carbofuran, and the LOEC was 69.9 ?g/L. These results show that exposure of sensitive early life stages of tilapia O. niloticus to sublethal concentrations of carbofuran can affect fundamental aspects of fish larval ecology that are relevant to recruitment of fish populations, and that can be better understood by the application of behavioral biomarkers. PMID:21794226

Pessoa, P C; Luchmann, K H; Ribeiro, A B; Veras, M M; Correa, J R M B; Nogueira, A J; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

2011-06-29

338

Non-lethal effects of an invasive species in the marine environment: the importance of early life-history stages.  

PubMed

Studies examining the effects of invasive species have focussed traditionally on the direct/lethal effects of the invasive on the native community but there is a growing recognition that invasive species may also have non-lethal effects. In terrestrial systems, non-lethal effects of invasive species can disrupt early life-history phases (such as fertilisation, dispersal and subsequent establishment) of native species, but in the marine environment most studies focus on adult rather than early life-history stages. Here, we examine the potential for an introduced sessile marine invertebrate (Styela plicata) to exert both lethal and non-lethal effects on a native species (Microcosmus squamiger) across multiple early life-history stages. We determined whether sperm from the invasive species interfered with the fertilisation of eggs from the native species and found no effect. However, we did find strong effects of the invasive species on the post-fertilisation performance of the native species. The invasive species inhibited the settlement of native larvae and, in the field, the presence of the invasive species was associated with a ten-fold increase in the post-settlement mortality of the native species, as well as an initial reduction of growth in the native. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species avoid settling near the invasive species due to reduced post-settlement survival in its presence. Overall, we found that invasive species can have complex and pervasive effects (both lethal and non-lethal) across the early life-history stages of the native species, which are likely to result in its displacement and to facilitate further invasion. PMID:19156442

Rius, Marc; Turon, Xavier; Marshall, Dustin J

2009-01-21

339

Behaviour of inter crop-growth stages scatterograms for NOAA/AVHRR vegetation indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOAA/AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) scatterograms between two crop growth stage for 1986-1987 rabi season over Ludhiana district witnessing 94.9% of sown area under wheat were studied. Dispersions of RVI were less than that of NDVI for all crop growth stages except the stages witnessing no significant change in greenness where the magnitudes of dispersion were similar for RVI as well as NDVI. Scatterograms between dates witnessing high vegetative growth had bowl shapes while vertical cut off was witnessed for moderate rate wider variability (larger standard deviation) vegetative growth. Decrease in vegetative growth as well as in standard deviation resulted in horizontal cut-off. Typical cut off was observed in RVI scatterograms (not observed in NDVI) between mid of Milking-Dough and mid of Maturity-Harvesting stage.

Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

340

Restoring tropical biodiversity: Leaf traits predict growth and survival of late-successional trees in early-successional environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural succession after abandonment of degraded land often results in a low-diversity secondary forest that persists for decades. Planting late-successional species in early-successional environments may help to bypass this low-diversity stage by overcoming dispersal limitation. To identify which late-successional species perform best in early-successional environments, we tested growth and survival of species with different expressions of leaf traits over 4

Cristina Martínez-Garza; Victor Peña; Martin Ricker; Alvaro Campos; Henry F. Howe

2005-01-01

341

Synchrony between growth and reproductive patterns in human females: Early investment in growth among Pumé foragers.  

PubMed

Life history is an important framework for understanding many aspects of ontogeny and reproduction relative to fitness outcomes. Because growth is a key influence on the timing of reproductive maturity and age at first birth is a critical demographic variable predicting lifetime fertility, it raises questions about the synchrony of growth and reproductive strategies. Among the Pumé, a group of South American foragers, young women give birth to their first child on average at age 15.5. Previous research showed that this early age at first birth maximizes surviving fertility under conditions of high infant mortality. In this study we evaluate Pumé growth data to test the expectation that if early reproduction is advantageous, then girls should have a developmental trajectory that best prepares them for young childbearing. Analyses show that comparatively Pumé girls invest in skeletal growth early, enter puberty having achieved a greater proportion of adult body size and grow at low velocities during adolescence. For early reproducers growing up in a food-limited environment, a precocious investment in growth is advantageous because juveniles have no chance of pregnancy and it occurs before the onset of the competing metabolic demands of final reproductive maturation and childbearing. Documenting growth patterns under preindustrial energetic and demographic conditions expands the range of developmental variation not otherwise captured by normative growth standards and contributes to research on human phenotypic plasticity in diverse environments. PMID:19844999

Kramer, Karen L; Greaves, Russell D

2010-02-01

342

Predictors of Longitudinal Growth in Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood  

PubMed Central

In the current study, we examined latent growth in 731 young children’s inhibitory control from ages 2 to 4, and whether demographic characteristics or parenting behaviors were related to initial levels and growth in inhibitory control. As part of an ongoing longitudinal evaluation of the Family Check-Up (FCU), children’s inhibitory control was assessed yearly at ages 2, 3, and 4. Inhibitory control was initially low and increased linearly to age 4. High levels of harsh parenting and male gender were associated with low initial status in inhibitory control. High levels of supportive parenting were associated with faster growth. Extreme family poverty and African American ethnicity were also associated with slower growth. The results highlight parenting as a target for early interventions in contexts of high socioeconomic risk.

Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

2009-01-01

343

Early stages of Purkinje cell maturation demonstrated by Thy1 immunohistochemistry on postnatal rat cerebellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The cell surface glycoprotein, Thy-1, is present on Purkinje cells at birth, so allowing Thy-1 immunohistochemistry to demonstrate the final stage of migration and the transition to dendritic growth of these cells. In the most caudal lobule of the cerebellar cortex of the newborn rat, migrating Purkinje cells are found. These have a prominent process (up to 50 µm

R. J. Morris; J. N. Beech; P. C. Barber; G. Raisman

1985-01-01

344

Acute and early life stage toxicity of industrial effluent on Japanese medaka ( Oryzias latipes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop the whole effluent toxicity testing methods (WET), embryo larval stage toxicity test using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was conducted to evaluate an effluent from a banknote printing plant (BPP). The method is based on acute toxicity using endpoint of 96-h larval morality and on chronic toxicity using endpoints such as the time to hatch, hatching success, deformity, growth

Jinmiao Zha; Zijian Wang

2006-01-01

345

Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth  

PubMed Central

The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability.

Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

2011-01-01

346

The treatment and outcomes of early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer: have we made any progress?  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to determine the progress and trends in the treatment and survival of women with early-stage (I–II) epithelial ovarian cancer. Data were obtained from the SEER database between 1988 and 2001. Kaplan–Meier and Cox regressions methods were employed for statistical analyses. Of the 8372 patients, the median age was 57 years (range: 12–99 years). A total of 6152 patients (73.4%) presented with stage I and 2220 (26.5%) with stage II disease. Over the periods 1988–1992, 1993–1997, and 1998–2001, 3-year disease-specific survivals increased from 86.1 to 87.2 to 88.8% (P=0.076). The number of patients that underwent lymphadenectomy has increased significantly from 26.2 to 38.7 to 54.2% over the study period (P<0.001). Of those patients who underwent staging procedures with lymphadenectomy, there was no improvement in survival over the three study periods (from 93.2 to 93.5 to 93.1%; P=0.978). On multivariate analysis, younger age, nonclear cell histology, earlier stage, lower grade, surgery, and lymphadenectomy were significant independent prognostic factors for improved survival. After adjusting for surgical staging with lymphadenectomy, the year of diagnosis was no longer an important prognostic factor. In conclusion, the use of lymphadenectomy during surgery for early-stage ovarian cancer has doubled over the last 14 years. The marginal improvement in survival demonstrated over time is potentially attributed to the increased use of staging procedures with lymphadenectomy.

Chan, J K; Fuh, K; Shin, J Y; Cheung, M K; Powell, C B; Chen, L-m; Kapp, D S; Osann, K

2008-01-01

347

Modification of flower architecture during early stages in the evolution of self-fertilization  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The evolution of selfing from outcrossing is characterized by a series of morphological changes to flowers culminating in the selfing syndrome. However, which morphological traits initiate increased self-pollination and which are accumulated after self-fertilization establishes is poorly understood. Because the expression of floral traits may depend on the conditions experienced by an individual during flower development, investigation of changes in mating system should also account for environmental and developmental factors. Here, early stages in the evolution of self-pollination are investigated by comparing floral traits among Brazilian populations of Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae), an annual aquatic that displays variation in selfing rates associated with the breakdown of tristyly to semi-homostyly. Methods Thirty-one Brazilian populations under uniform glasshouse conditions were compared to investigate genetic and environmental influences on flower size and stigma–anther separation (herkogamy), two traits that commonly vary in association with transitions to selfing. Within-plant variation in herkogamy was also examined and plants grown under contrasting environmental conditions were compared to examine to what extent this trait exhibits phenotypic plasticity. Key Results In E. paniculata a reduction in herkogamy is the principal modification initiating the evolution of selfing. Significantly, reduced herkogamy was restricted to the mid-styled morph and occurred independently of flower size. Significant genetic variation for herkogamy was detected among populations and families, including genotypes exhibiting developmental instability of stamen position with bimodal distributions of herkogamy values. Cloned genets exposed to contrasting growth conditions demonstrated environmental control of herkogamy and genotypic differences in plasticity of this trait. Conclusions The ability to modify herkogamy independently of other floral traits, genetic variation in the environmental sensitivity of herkogamy, and the production of modified and unmodified flowers within some individuals, reveal the potential for dynamic control of the mating system in a species that commonly confronts heterogeneous aquatic environments.

Vallejo-Marin, Mario; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

2009-01-01

348

Optimization of a novel enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins.  

PubMed

An enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins has been previously reported by the Leather and Shoe Research Association of New Zealand (LASRA) as an alternative to current industry operations. The newly developed process had marked benefits over conventional processing in terms of a lowered energy usage (73%), processing time (47%) as well as water use (49%), but had been developed as a "proof of principle''. The objective of this work was to develop the process further to a stage ready for adoption by industry. Mass balancing was used to investigate potential modifications for the process based on the understanding developed from a detailed analysis of preliminary design trials. Results showed that a configuration utilising a 2 stage counter-current system for the washing stages and segregation and recycling of enzyme float prior to dilution in the neutralization stage was a significant improvement. Benefits over conventional processing include a reduction of residual TDS by 50% at the washing stages and 70% savings on water use overall. Benefits over the un-optimized LASRA process are reduction of solids in product after enzyme treatment and neutralization stages by 30%, additional water savings of 21%, as well as 10% savings of enzyme usage. PMID:20861557

Lim, Y F; Bronlund, J E; Allsop, T F; Shilton, A N; Edmonds, R L

2010-01-01

349

Quantitative Changes in the Mitochondrial Proteome from Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment, Early Stage and Late Stage Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

The major barrier to treating or preventing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is its unknown etiology/pathogenesis. Although increasing evidence supports a role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD, there have been few studies that simultaneously evaluate changes in multiple mitochondrial proteins. To evaluate changes in suites of potentially interacting mitochondrial proteins, we applied 2-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and the isotope coded affinity tag (ICAT) method to identify and quantify proteins in mitochondrial enriched fractions isolated from short postmortem interval temporal pole specimens from subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, 4 subjects pooled), early Alzheimer’s disease (EAD, 4 subjects pooled), late-stage AD (LAD, 8 subjects pooled) and age-matched normal control (NC, 7 subjects pooled) subjects. A total of 112 unique, non-redundant proteins were identified and quantified in common to all three stages of disease progression. Overall, patterns of protein change suggest activation of mitochondrial pathways that include proteins responsible for transport and utilization of ATP. These proteins include adenine nucleotide translocase (ADT1), voltage dependent anion channels (VDACs), hexokinase (HXK1) and creatine kinase (KCRU). Comparison of protein changes throughout the progression of AD suggests the most pronounced changes occur in EAD mitochondria.

Lynn, Bert C.; Wang, Jianquan; Markesbery, William R.; Lovell, Mark A.

2010-01-01

350

Properties of mitochondria as a function of the growth stages of Neurospora crassa.  

PubMed

The oxidative and phosphorylative properties of mitochondria isolated from Neurospora crassa were investigated as a function of growth stage. The rates of oxidation of exogenous NADH and NADPH varied independently of each other, thus ruling out the existence of only one unspecific dehydrogenase. Two different pathways were involved in the oxidation of NAD-linked substrates, as indicated by changes in the rate of oxygen uptake, the sensitivity to rotenone, and the efficiency of phosphorylation. One pathway was sensitive to rotenone and involved three energy-coupling sites, whereas the other was resistant to rotenone and bypassed complex I. Our results indicated that the activity of complex I of the respiratory chain increased markedly in the late exponential phase of growth, remained high in the stationary phase, and then decreased when conidiae were formed. In contrast, the activity of the rotenone-resistant bypass was maximal in the early exponential phase. With malate (plus glutamate) as a substrate, the sensitivity to rotenone and the ADP/O ratios were always lower than those observed with other NAD-linked substrates, suggesting a possible cooperation between malate dehydrogenase and the rotenone-resistant pathway. The rate of oxygen uptake measured in the presence of rotenone was significantly increased by the addition of exogenous NAD+, suggesting that added NAD+ could interact with the rotenone-resistant bypass. PMID:6460022

Schwitzguébel, J P; Palmer, J M

1982-02-01

351

Properties of mitochondria as a function of the growth stages of Neurospora crassa.  

PubMed Central

The oxidative and phosphorylative properties of mitochondria isolated from Neurospora crassa were investigated as a function of growth stage. The rates of oxidation of exogenous NADH and NADPH varied independently of each other, thus ruling out the existence of only one unspecific dehydrogenase. Two different pathways were involved in the oxidation of NAD-linked substrates, as indicated by changes in the rate of oxygen uptake, the sensitivity to rotenone, and the efficiency of phosphorylation. One pathway was sensitive to rotenone and involved three energy-coupling sites, whereas the other was resistant to rotenone and bypassed complex I. Our results indicated that the activity of complex I of the respiratory chain increased markedly in the late exponential phase of growth, remained high in the stationary phase, and then decreased when conidiae were formed. In contrast, the activity of the rotenone-resistant bypass was maximal in the early exponential phase. With malate (plus glutamate) as a substrate, the sensitivity to rotenone and the ADP/O ratios were always lower than those observed with other NAD-linked substrates, suggesting a possible cooperation between malate dehydrogenase and the rotenone-resistant pathway. The rate of oxygen uptake measured in the presence of rotenone was significantly increased by the addition of exogenous NAD+, suggesting that added NAD+ could interact with the rotenone-resistant bypass.

Schwitzguebel, J P; Palmer, J M

1982-01-01

352

Reproductive Meristem22 is a unique marker for the early stages of stamen development.  

PubMed

Stamens undergo a very elaborate development program that gives rise not only to many specific tissue types, but also to the male gametes. The specification of stamen identity is coordinated by a group of homeotic genes such as APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI), AGAMOUS (AG) and SEPALLATA (SEP1-4) genes. Genome-wide transcriptomic comparisons between floral buds of wild-type and ap3 mutants led to the identification of the REM22 gene, which is expressed in the early stages of stamen development. This gene is member of the plant-specific B3 DNA-binding superfamily. In this work, we dissect the spatio-temporal expression pattern of REM22 during the early stages of stamen development. To this end, both in situ hybridization analyses as well as in vivo fluorescence strategies were employed. At stage 4 of flower development, REM22 is expressed exclusively in those undifferentiated cells of the floral meristem that will give rise to the stamen primordia. At stage 5, REM22 expression is restricted to the epidermal and the subepidermal layers of anther primordia. Later, this expression is confined to the middle layer and the differentiating tapetal cells. After stage 10 when all the tissues of the anther have differentiated, REM22 expression is no longer detectable. Furthermore, we examined the pREM22::GUS-GFP marker line in an inducible system where the ectopic AG function is used to promote microsporogenesis. The data support the idea that REM22 expression is a useful marker to study the early stages of stamen development. PMID:21948714

Romanel, Elisson; Das, Pradeep; Amasino, Richard M; Traas, Jan; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

2011-01-01

353

PHENOTYPIC GROWTH STAGE ANALYSIS OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA UNDER NUTRIENT STRESS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The model legume Medicago truncatula provides an excellent tool to study growth and development in a symbiotic system. With the sequencing of the M. truncatula genome in progress and work being undertaken to create single-gene mutants, in the near future we will have essential resources to evaluate ...

354

Early Growth Response Gene 1 Regulates Bone Properties in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcriptional regulation of the postnatal skeleton is incompletely understood. Here, we determined the consequence of loss\\u000a of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on bone properties. Analyses were performed on both the microscopic and molecular\\u000a levels utilizing micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI), respectively. Mice deficient\\u000a in EGR-1 (Egr-1\\u000a ?\\/?) were studied and compared to sex- and

Marie K. Reumann; Olga Strachna; Lyudmila Lukashova; Kostas Verdelis; Eve Donnelly; Adele L. Boskey; Philipp Mayer-Kuckuk

2011-01-01

355

The mobilization of defence mechanisms in the early stages of pea seed germination against Ascochyta pisi.  

PubMed

Ascochyta pisi is a necrotrophic pathogenic fungus, which mainly survives between seasons through infected seeds. Defence responses of pea embryo axes to A. pisi were investigated in the heterotrophic phase of seed germination and during the transition from the heterotrophic to the autotrophic phase. Germinated pea seeds, both non-inoculated and inoculated with A. pisi, were cultured in perlite for 96 h. Polarographic studies performed on intact embryo axes of germinating pea seeds infected with A. pisi showed a high respiratory intensity in time from 48 to 96 h after inoculation. Forty-eight-hour embryo axes of germinating pea seeds exhibited the highest respiration rate, which in infected axes was maintained at the following time points after inoculation. Moreover, at 72 and 96 h after inoculation, respiratory intensity was by 64% and 73% higher than in the control. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis revealed a higher concentration of semiquinone free radicals with g values of g (||) = 2.0031 ± 0.0004 and g (?) = 2.0048 ± 0.0004 in infected axes than in the control. Generation of superoxide anion radical was also higher in infected axes than in the control but stronger at 72 and 96 h after inoculation. Starting from 72 h after infection, the level of Mn(2+) ions in infected axes decreased in relation to the control. At the same time, the highest activity of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) was observed in 72-h infected axes. In turn, the activity of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) up to 72 h after infection was lower than in the control. In 48-h infected embryo axes, a very high level of pterocarpan pisatin was observed. Infection of germinating pea seeds with A. pisi restricted mainly the growth of the epicotyl, but did not inhibit the increase in length and fresh weight of root embryo axes versus cultivation time. These results indicate that in pea during the stages of seed germination and early seedling growth, protective mechanisms are induced in embryo axes against A. pisi. PMID:22274650

Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Marczak, Lukasz; Stobiecki, Maciej; Bednarski, Waldemar

2012-01-25

356

Ventilation Homogeneity Improves with Growth Early in Life  

PubMed Central

Some studies have suggested that lung clearance index (LCI) is age-independent among healthy subjects early in life, which implies that ventilation distribution does not vary with growth. However, other studies of older children and adolescents suggest that ventilation becomes more homogenous with somatic growth. We describe a new technique to obtain multiple breath washout (MBWO) in sedated infants and toddlers using slow augmented inflation breaths that yields an assessment of LCI and the slope of phase III, which is another index of ventilation inhomogeneity. We evaluated whether ventilation becomes more homogenous with increasing age early in life, and whether infants with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) have increased ventilation inhomogeneity relative to full term controls. Fullterm controls (N = 28) and CLDI (N = 22) subjects between 3 and 28 months corrected-age were evaluated. LCI decreased with increasing age; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (9.3 vs. 9.5; p = 0.56). Phase III slopes adjusted for expired volume (SND) increased with increasing breath number during the washout and decreased with increasing age. There was no significant difference in SND between fullterm and CLDI subjects (211 vs. 218; P = 0.77). Our findings indicate that ventilation becomes more homogenous with lung growth and maturation early in life; however, there is no evidence that ventilation inhomogeneity is a significant component of the pulmonary pathophysiology of CLDI.

Chakr, Valentina C.; Llapur, Conrado J.; Sarria, Edgar E.; Mattiello, Rita; Kisling, Jeffrey; Tiller, Christina; Kimmel, Risa; Poindexter, Brenda; Tepper, Robert S.

2011-01-01

357

The Utility of Stroop Task Switching as a Marker for Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Past studies have suggested attentional control tasks such as the Stroop task and the task switching paradigm may be sensitive to the early detection of Dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). The current study combined these tasks to create a Stroop switching task. Performance was compared across young adults, older adults, and individuals diagnosed with “Very Mild” dementia. Results indicated that this task strongly discriminated healthy aging from early stage DAT. In a logistic regression analysis, incongruent error rates from the Stroop Switch discriminated healthy aging from DAT better than any of the other 18 cognitive tasks given in a psychometric battery.

Hutchison, Keith A.; Balota, David A.; Duchek, Janet M.

2009-01-01

358

[Characteristics of endocrine disorders in the early stages of the development of chronic experimental pancreatitis].  

PubMed

The experiments on normal mongrel dogs and those with chronic experimental pancreatitis were performed to reveal the early changes of the endocrine pancreas function. The concentration of immunoreactive insulin and glucagon were studied in afferent vessels of the organ after intraarterial glucose-loading during pancreatic perfusion in situ. The data obtained have shown that in chronic pancreatitis the maximum secretion of insulin is decreased and delayed, as compared to normal animals. At the same time insulin-glucagon secretion ratio remains unchanged. That was indicative of the normal alpha-cell function at the early stages of the disease. PMID:3315035

Vladimiro, V G; Podotykina, O I; Zhuravlev, A G; Sukhanov, L D

1987-10-01

359

Whole-Plant Growth Stage Ontology for Angiosperms and Its Application in Plant Biology1[OA  

PubMed Central

Plant growth stages are identified as distinct morphological landmarks in a continuous developmental process. The terms describing these developmental stages record the morphological appearance of the plant at a specific point in its life cycle. The widely differing morphology of plant species consequently gave rise to heterogeneous vocabularies describing growth and development. Each species or family specific community developed distinct terminologies for describing whole-plant growth stages. This semantic heterogeneity made it impossible to use growth stage description contained within plant biology databases to make meaningful computational comparisons. The Plant Ontology Consortium (http://www.plantontology.org) was founded to develop standard ontologies describing plant anatomical as well as growth and developmental stages that can be used for annotation of gene expression patterns and phenotypes of all flowering plants. In this article, we describe the development of a generic whole-plant growth stage ontology that describes the spatiotemporal stages of plant growth as a set of landmark events that progress from germination to senescence. This ontology represents a synthesis and integration of terms and concepts from a variety of species-specific vocabularies previously used for describing phenotypes and genomic information. It provides a common platform for annotating gene function and gene expression in relation to the developmental trajectory of a plant described at the organismal level. As proof of concept the Plant Ontology Consortium used the plant ontology growth stage ontology to annotate genes and phenotypes in plants with initial emphasis on those represented in The Arabidopsis Information Resource, Gramene database, and MaizeGDB.

Pujar, Anuradha; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Ilic, Katica; Vincent, Leszek; Avraham, Shulamit; Stevens, Peter; Zapata, Felipe; Reiser, Leonore; Rhee, Seung Y.; Sachs, Martin M.; Schaeffer, Mary; Stein, Lincoln; Ware, Doreen; McCouch, Susan

2006-01-01

360

MUC1 is expressed at high frequency in early-stage basal-like triple-negative breast cancer.  

PubMed

Triple-negative breast cancer comprises 10% to 15% of newly diagnosed breast cancer and lacks expression of the estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu receptors. Many such tumors are basal like, a molecular intrinsic subtype of breast cancer associated with poor clinical outcomes. Patients with early-stage basal-like triple-negative breast cancer are at a high risk for relapse and may, therefore, benefit from novel therapies, including immunotherapy. MUC1 is a tumor antigen expressed on adenocarcinomas and represents an ideal target for MUC1-based vaccination. We evaluated 52 cases of early-stage basal-like triple-negative breast cancer for MUC1 expression by immunohistochemistry. The intensity of staining was graded according to the intensity (negative [0], positive [1], or strongly positive [2]) and percentage (0%-100%) of tumor cells staining for MUC1. An overall score of 0 to 2.0 was calculated for each case by multiplying the intensity of staining by the percentage of tumor cells staining positively. Four staining patterns for MUC1 were identified: apical, cytoplasmic, membranous, and combination. Of the 52 cases of basal-like triple-negative breast cancers, 49 (94%) were positive for MUC1 expression. The mean score was 0.90 (range, 0-1.9). Cases were evenly distributed over this range, where most (67%) exhibited moderate to strong MUC1 expression (score, 0.5-1.90), 27% demonstrated weak MUC1 expression, and 6% lacked MUC1 expression. There was a significant difference in MUC1 score and percent MUC1+ cells in favor of the combination pattern. This study indicates that a large proportion of early-stage basal-like triple-negative breast cancer expresses MUC1 and provides a rationale for MUC1-based immunotherapy in this high-risk patient cohort. PMID:23845471

Siroy, Alan; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W; Miedler, John; Fong, Nancy; Fu, Pingfu; Gilmore, Hannah; Baar, Joseph

2013-07-08

361

Constitutional Advancement of Growth Is Associated with Early Puberty in Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Constitutional advancement of growth (CAG) is the growth pattern of early growth acceleration that has been shown to be characteristic in girls with idiopathic precocious puberty (IPP). The aim of this study was to examine the growth pattern of girls with early puberty compared to girls with IPP. Methods: We studied the growth pattern, from birth to presentation, of

Anastasios Papadimitriou; George Kanakis; Konstantinos Douros; Dimitrios T. Papadimitriou; Anastasios H. Boutsiadis; Polyxeni Nicolaidou; Andreas Fretzayas

2011-01-01

362

Hereditary polycystic kidney disease (adult form): A microdissection study of two cases at an early stage of the disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary polycystic kidney disease (adult form): A microdissection study of two cases at an early stage of the disease. Kidney fragments from two cases of hereditary polycystic kidney disease (adult form) at an early stage were examined by microdissection. Localized cystic dilatations were found in proximal and distal tubules, loops of Henle, and collecting tubules. Entirely normal nephrons and collecting

Luc Baert

1978-01-01

363

A system for dispensing sub-milligram doses of active pharmaceutical powders for early stage solubility assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

At early stages of drug development, the solubility of compounds is an important screening criterion. However, because scientists lack the automated tools needed to perform comprehensive early stage solubility studies, they are only able to perform a small number of experiments by hand, thus exploring only a fraction of the potential formulation design space. To allow a larger formulation design

Nathan R. Kane; Brad Broce; Javier Gonzalez-Zugasti; Wendy Pryce Lewis; Martin LeQuesne; Anthony V. Lemmo

2004-01-01

364

The Second 'Equity Gap': Exit Problems for Seed and Early Stage Venture Capitalists and Their Investee Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

DR. GORDON MURRAY IS WITH THE WARWICK Business School, University of Warwick, England. The availability of venture capital funds for early stage investment (such as seed capital and start-up equity finance) remains limited in the United Kingdom. This paper investigates one element of the relationship between early stage venture capital investors and their larger, development capital counterparts. It is hypothesised

Gordon Murray

1994-01-01

365

Consumer research in the early stages of new product development : issues and applications in the food domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

New products that deliver added consumer value contribute significantly to the success of companies. In the numerous studies of new product performance over the years, consensus has developed that understanding consumer needs is of paramount strategic value, especially in the early stages of the product development process. During these early stages, the product has not yet been specified and the

Ellen van Kleef

2006-01-01

366

Optimizing Fungicide Timing for the Control of Rhizoctonia Crown and Root Rot of Sugar Beet Using Soil Temperature and Plant Growth Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kirk, W. W., Wharton, P. S., Schafer, R. L., Tumbalam, P., Poindexter, S., Guza, C., Fogg, R., Schlatter, T., Stewart, J., Hubbell, L., and Ruppal, D. 2008. Optimizing fungicide timing for the control of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot of sugar beet using soil temperature and plant growth stages. Plant Dis. 92:1091-1098. Azoxystrobin is applied early in the sugar beet

W. W. Kirk; P. S. Wharton; R. L. Schafer; P. Tumbalam; S. Poindexter; C. Guza; R. Fogg; T. Schlatter; J. Stewart; L. Hubbell; D. Ruppal

2008-01-01

367

What has happened to VBM (vinblastine, bleomycin, and methotrexate) chemotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma?  

PubMed

The VBM (vinblastine, bleomycin, methotrexate) chemotherapy combined with involved-field radiotherapy in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma has not become popular in spite of its excellent results. Nine small trials with this combined therapy were carried out and described in eleven reports. VBM+ radiotherapy offered complete remission rates of 94-100%, with 5-year progression-free survival of 75-95% (elderly patients included). Considerable pulmonary toxicity was recorded in the first trials, but was fully controlled in the later studies through slight modifications of the schedule. The pulmonary toxicity was found related to mediastinal radiotherapy, bleomycin dose and administration of chemotherapy after radiotherapy; it is mitigated by low doses of prednisone. The very good results, the abated side effects on the lungs, the low extrapulmonary toxicity, and the anthracycline-free formulation make this combination therapy worth considering for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, particularly in the case of mediastinal involvement or in elderly patients. PMID:21592816

Gobbi, Paolo G; Federico, Massimo

2011-05-17

368

Smart bandages--a colourful approach to early stage infection detection & control in wound care.  

PubMed

With the recent increase in bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics, the early-stage detection and control of infection has become imperative in the fight against opportunistic pathogens in healthcare. The traditional ?-lactam wonder-drugs (e.g. penicillin and cephalosporins), are rendered inactive due to enzymatic hydrolysis by bacterial ?-lactamase enzymes as a bacterial defence mechanism. However, this deactivation mechanism produces different responses in the two aforementioned drugs - with the cephalosporins showing a molecular rearrangement mechanism which could be utilised for prodrug delivery. This unique mechanism could mean that inactive forms of cephalosporin antibiotics, once used as chemotherapeutics in oncology, could once again be used in the fight against disease as sensors to detect and treat bacterial colonisation. Therefore, we hypothesize that cephalosporin-dye bandages might provide an effective method to visually detect, and subsequently control, the early stages of an infection using photoantimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). PMID:23245203

Brocklesby, Kayleigh L; Johns, Stephen C; Jones, Allison E; Sharp, Duncan; Smith, Robert B

2012-12-12

369

Awareness of memory functioning, autobiographical memory and identity in early-stage dementia.  

PubMed

Sense of identity is thought to be closely related to autobiographical memory. Theoretical models of awareness suggest that both may also be related to level of awareness of memory functioning among people with early-stage dementia. This study explores the relationships between autobiographical memory, identity and awareness in early-stage dementia. Thirty participants with Alzheimer's disease, or vascular or mixed dementia were assessed using the Autobiographical Memory Interview, with an additional section eliciting recall for the mid-life period, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and the Memory Awareness Rating Scale. Lower levels of awareness of memory functioning were associated with poorer autobiographical recall for the mid-life period and with a more positive and definite sense of identity. Reduced awareness may serve a protective function against the threats to self posed by the onset and progression of dementia. PMID:18924000

Naylor, Emma; Clare, Linda

370

Gene expression analysis of early and late maturation stage rat enamel organ  

PubMed Central

Enamel maturation is a dynamic process that involves high rates of mineral acquisition, associated fluctuations in extracellular pH and resorption of extracellular enamel proteins. During maturation, ameloblasts change from a tall, thin and highly polarized organization characteristic of the secretory stage, to a low columnar and widened morphology in the maturation stage. To identify potential differences in gene expression throughout maturation, we obtained enamel organ epithelial cells derived from the early and late maturation stages from rat incisor and analyzed global gene expression profiles at each stage. Sixty three candidate genes were identified with potential roles in the maturation process. qPCR was used to confirm results from this genome-wide analysis in a subset of genes. Enriched transcripts in late maturation (n= 38) included those associated with lysosomal activity, solute carrier transport and calcium signaling. Cellular responses to oxidative stress, proton transport, cell death and immune system-related transcripts were also up-regulated. Transcripts down-regulated in the late maturation stage (n= 25) included those with functions related to cell adhesion, cell signaling, and T-cell activation. These results indicate that ameloblasts undergo widespread molecular changes during the maturation stage of amelogenesis and so provide the bases for future functional investigations into the mechanistic basis of enamel mineralization.

LACRUZ, RODRIGO S.; SMITH, CHARLES E.; CHEN, YI-BU; HUBBARD, MICHAEL J.; HACIA, JOSEPH G.; PAINE, MICHAEL L.

2011-01-01

371

Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6). There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences

Michael P Flavin; Suzanne M Dostaler; Kelly Simpson; Robert J Brison; William Pickett

2006-01-01

372

Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years

Julia S. Wong; Alphonse G. Taghian; Jennifer R. Bellon; Aparna Keshaviah; Barbara L. Smith; Eric P. Winer; Barbara Silver; Jay R. Harris

2008-01-01

373

Background and Rationale for Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has undergone substantial transformation over the last several decades,\\u000a from being the sole treatment modality using large treatment fields to adjuvant local therapy directed to limited site(s)\\u000a after systemic therapy. Radiation doses and field sizes have decreased, leading to dramatic reductions in risks of long-term\\u000a complications from radiotherapy compared with the treatments of the

Lena Specht; Andrea K. Ng

374

Early stage of Al3Zr precipitation in a rapidly solidified Al-Cr-Zr alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early stages of A13Zr precipitation have been studied in detail in the ternary Al-2.4 at.% Cr-1.1 at.% Zr alloy. A supersaturated solid solution of Zr in the asrapidly solidified state decomposes during subsequent heat treatment at 400°C. This decomposition leads to a homogeneous precipitation of very small Al3Zr (LI2) particles in the grain interior, but this homogeneous precipitation is not

H. Octor; S. Naka

1989-01-01

375

Immunohistochemical approach to the pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in its early stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunohistochemical and histochemical study was carried out on the brains of nine cases of BSE-diagnosed cattle as part of the surveillance plan in Catalonia, Spain. The animals had no clinical symptoms reported and were thus at early stages of the disease.The first part of the study consisted of a characterization of PrPBSE deposits throughout the encephalon. The behaviour of

E. Vidal; M. Márquez; R. Tortosa; C. Costa; A. Serafín; M. Pumarola

2006-01-01

376

Environmental aspects of VOCs evolved in the early stages of human decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the time profile, measured as “accumulation”, of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during the early stages of human decomposition was investigated. A human cadaver was placed in a sealed bag at approximately the 4th day after death. Evolved VOCs were monitored for 24 h by sampling at different time intervals. VOCs produced were analyzed by thermal desorption\\/gas chromatography\\/mass

M. Statheropoulos; A. Agapiou; C. Spiliopoulou; G. C. Pallis; E. Sianos

2007-01-01

377

Binding interactions in early- and late-stage amyloid aggregates of TTR (105–115)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central aims of amyloid research is to identify chemical and structural features that confer amyloidogenic propensity. In this study, we use Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy to acquire an atom-specific map of the interactions between soluble and aggregated Transthyretin peptide (TTR105–115) in early- and late-stage amyloidogenesis. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor the transition

Yanfang Liang; Shohreh Zahedi Jasbi; Sina Haftchenary; Sylvie Morin; Derek J. Wilson

2009-01-01

378

Urinary Prostaglandin D Synthase (?-Trace) Excretion Increases in the Early Stage of Diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Circulating levels of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS)\\/?-trace reportedly increase in renal failure as well as in cardiovascular injuries. We investigated the alterations of L-PGDS in urine and plasma in the early stage of type-2 diabetic patients. Method: Thirty-six type-2 diabetic patients and 29 normal subjects were studied. Overnight spot urine and plasma samples were obtained in the morning.

Nobuhito Hirawa; Yoshio Uehara; Toshio Ikeda; Tomoko Gomi; Kumiko Hamano; Yasuo Totsuka; Minoru Yamakado; Masao Takagi; Naomi Eguchi; Hiroshi Oda; Kousuke Seiki; Hiroshi Nakajima; Yoshihiro Urade

2001-01-01

379

Mitochondrial dysfunction at the early stage of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to clarify the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure at the early stage.\\u000a Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intravenous administration of 10 mg\\/kg cisplatin. 0.9% saline was infused into them\\u000a at a rate of 2 ml\\/h for 3 h, starting with a 2-ml bolus injection before cisplatin administration. 3 h following cisplatin\\u000a administration, no

Xie Li-ping; C. Skrezek; H. Wand; F. Reibe

2000-01-01

380

Emotional enhancement of perceptual priming is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptual priming for emotionally-negative and neutral scenes was tested in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy younger, middle-aged and older adults. In the study phase, participants rated the scenes for their arousal properties. In the test phase, studied and novel scenes were initially presented subliminally, and the exposure duration was gradually increased until a valence categorization was made. The

Kevin S. LaBar; Dana C. Torpey; Craig A. Cook; Stephanie R. Johnson; Lauren H. Warren; James R. Burke; Kathleen A. Welsh-Bohmer

2005-01-01

381

Early Reliability Prediction: An Approach to Software Reliability Assessment in Open Software Adoption Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional software reliability models are not adequate to assess the reliability of software system in which OSS (Open Source Software) adopted as a new feature add-on because OSS can be modified while the inside of COTS(Commercial Off-The-Shelf) products cannot be changed. This paper presents an approach to software reliability assessment of OSS adopted software system in the early stage. We

Wangbong Lee; Boo-Geum Jung; Jongmoon Baik

2008-01-01

382

Imaging capability of an early stage breast tumor by CP-MCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capability of diagnostic imaging of an early stage breast tumor using microwaves has been investigated by means of FDTD-based numerical simulations. More than ten years ago, we developed chirp pulse microwave computed tomography (CP-MCT) for microwave imaging of a human body. In this study, we'll show that CP-MCT provides useful information on the tumor region in the breast. To specify

M. Miyakawa; T. Ishida; M. Watanabe

2004-01-01

383

Surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer in elderly: an international comparison.  

PubMed

Over 40% of breast cancer patients are diagnosed above the age of 65. Treatment of these elderly patients will probably vary over countries. The aim of this study was to make an international comparison (several European countries and the US) of surgical and radiation treatment for elderly women with early stage breast cancer. Survival comparisons were also made. Data were obtained from national or regional population-based registries in the Netherlands, Switzerland, Ireland, Belgium, Germany, and Portugal. For the US patients were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Early stage breast cancer patients aged ? 65 diagnosed between 1995 and 2005 were included. An international comparison was made for breast and axillary surgery, radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS), and relative or cause-specific survival. Overall, 204.885 patients were included. The proportion of patients not receiving any surgery increased with age in many countries; however, differences between countries were large. In most countries more than half of all elderly patients received breast conserving surgery (BCS), with the highest percentage in Switzerland. The proportion of elderly patients that received radiotherapy after BCS decreased with age in all countries. Moreover, in all countries the proportion of patients who do not receive axillary surgery increased with age. No large differences in survival between countries were recorded. International comparisons of surgical treatment for elderly women with early stage breast cancer are scarce. This study showed large international differences in treatment of elderly early stage breast cancer patients, with the most striking result the large proportion of elderly who did not undergo surgery at all. Despite large treatment differences, survival does not seem to be affected in a major way. PMID:22119939

Kiderlen, M; Bastiaannet, E; Walsh, P M; Keating, N L; Schrodi, S; Engel, J; van de Water, W; Ess, S M; van Eycken, L; Miranda, A; de Munck, L; van de Velde, C J H; de Craen, A J M; Liefers, G J

2011-11-27

384

Early stages of solidification\\/stabilization of storm water runoff solid residuals in cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents a study of a cement-based solidification\\/stabilization process of storm water runoff solid residuals by non-conventional differential thermal analysis (NCDTA). The study was used to investigate the early hydration stages of a type I Portland cement containing the raw residual, two fractions of the residuals (coarse and fine), and two additives (quicklime and sodium bentonite). During these

Caroline A. Pinto; J. Dweck; J. J. Sansalone; F. K. Cartledge; M. E. Tittlebaum; P. M. Büchler

2005-01-01

385

Early stages of bubble formation in helium-implanted (100) silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early stages of bubble formation in Czochralski grown, (100)-oriented silicon are investigated by implanting 2 × 1016 He+ cm-2 at 20 keV and treating the samples in the temperature range 100-450 °C. Elastic recoil detection is used to measure the helium content and depth distribution, while the gas release is studied by thermal desorption spectrometry. To evidence the radiation damage

B. Pivac; O. Milat; P. Dubek; S. Bernstorff; F. Corni; C. Nobili; R. Tonini

2003-01-01

386

REM sleep without atonia at early stage of sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate whether REM sleep without atonia (RWA) is detected even at early stage of sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), all-night polysomnography with video monitoring was performed on 5 patients presenting with no nocturnal behavioral complaints. RWA associated with sleep talk and\\/or minor movements in the head, neck, face and extremities was documented in all cases. Preserved proper NREM\\/REM

Naoko Tachibana; Kaku Kimura; Kazuhito Kitajima; Takashi Nagamine; Jun Kimura; Hiroshi Shibasaki

1995-01-01

387

Pregnancies after radical vaginal trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of fertility-preserving surgery in the treatment of early-stage cervical cancer. Study Design: We retrospectively reviewed our first 30 patients treated by laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy, followed by radical vaginal trachelectomy, from October 1991 to April 1998. Results: The median age of the patients was 32 years (range 22-42 years); 15

Michel Roy; Marie Plante

1998-01-01

388

Full-Chip Thermal Analysis for the Early Design Stage via Generalized Integral Transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of predicting the temperature profile is critically important for timing estimation, leakage reduction, power estimation, hotspot avoidance and reliability concerns during modern IC design. This paper presents an accurate and fast analytical full-chip thermal simulator for early-stage temperature-aware chip design. By using the generalized integral transforms (GIT), an accurate formulation is derived to estimate the temperature distribution of

Pei-Yu Huang; Yu-Min Lee

2009-01-01

389

Toward equilibration in the early stages after a high energy heavy ion collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stages in the evolution of the gluons produced in the central region of a head-on high-energy heavy ion collision are studied. An equation is given for the rate of change of transverse momentum into longitudinal momentum where the longitudinal direction is along the collision axis. We are able to follow the system up to the time where equilibration seems to be setting in, but we are unable to actually follow the system as it reaches equilibrium.

Mueller, A. H.

2000-04-01

390

Diagnosis of second breast cancer events after initial diagnosis of early stage breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether there are any characteristics of women or their initial tumors that might be useful for tailoring surveillance\\u000a recommendations to optimize outcomes. We followed 17,286 women for up to 5 years after an initial diagnosis of ductal carcinoma\\u000a in situ (DCIS) or early stage (I\\/II) invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 1996 and 2006. We calculated rates per 1,000\\u000a women

Diana S. M. Buist; Linn A. Abraham; William E. Barlow; Arun Krishnaraj; Regan C. Holdridge; Edward A. Sickles; Patricia A. Carney; Karla Kerlikowske; Berta M. Geller

2010-01-01

391

Morphology and proliferation kinetics of early tumor stages induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rat kidneys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A total of 49 dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)induced rat renal cell tumors were analyzed and classified cytomorphologically at an\\u000a early stage of development. Of these, 17 were basophilictubular tumors, two of which showed a direct transition to proximal\\u000a tubules of the P3segment; 21 lesions were vacuolated and contained glycogen; these were defined cytomorphologically as a separate tumor type\\u000a the histogenetic derivation of

Christof Brummer; Hartmut M. Rabes

1992-01-01

392

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a new treatment modality for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer, and has been developed in the United States, the European Union, and Japan. We started a feasibility study of this therapy in July 1998, using a stereotactic body frame. The eligibility criteria for primary lung cancer were: 1) solitary tumor less than 4 cm (T1-3N0M); 2)

M. Hiraoka; Y. Matsuo; Y. Nagata

2007-01-01

393

Lymphocyte Subtypes in Experimentally Induced Early-stage Bovine Tuberculous Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identity of the lymphocyte subtypes constituting the lymphocytic mantle within developing early-stage lesions of bovine tuberculosis was investigated immunohistochemically in calves inoculated intranasally with 2×107colony-forming units of a field isolate of Mycobacterium bovis. Pulmonary lesions were examined 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, and bronchial lymph node lesions at 35 days. The immunolabelling results reported were

J. P. Cassidy; D. G. Bryson; M. M. Gutiérrez Cancela; F. Forster; J. M. Pollock; S. D. Neill

2001-01-01

394

Comparison of Favorable Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatments: A Single-Institution Review  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained. Results: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL (49% men, 51% women, median age 33 [range 17-82] years). Treatment was as follows: extended-field radiotherapy alone (EFRT) 49%; chemotherapy alone (CTA) 13%; and CMT 38%. Among CMT patients, 36% received abbreviated doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy (three to four cycles) followed by involved-field radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 8.3 years, the estimated 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for the entire cohort were 78% and 85%, respectively. The 10-year RFS and OS rates for the various groups were as follows: 69% and 81% for EFRT; 78% and 84% for CTA; and 87% and 89% for CMT. The 10-year RFS rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) among CMT patients. The use of EFRT has diminished from approximately 90% in the 1980s to virtually no use at present, whereas the use of CTA and CMT has increased significantly (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Early-stage HL treatment has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, and our results support the superiority and continued use of CMT, specifically abbreviated-course chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy, as an appropriate treatment approach.

Samant, Rajiv, E-mail: rsamant@ottawahospital.on.c [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Alomary, Ibraheem [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Alsaeed, Eyad [King Faisal Specialty Hospital, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-jasir, Badr [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cross, Peter; Genest, Paul [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Huebsch, Lothar [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

2010-03-15

395

Special considerations in early-stage breast cancer patients and survivors.  

PubMed

Long-term outcomes for early-stage breast cancer have continued to improve, and more patients are becoming long-term survivors. In addition to patients' concern about risk of developing recurrent disease, they are also concerned about potential toxicities of treatment. Current guidelines for long-term follow-up are reviewed. Potential toxicities of tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors are reviewed. Management of menopausal symptoms, cancer-related fatigue, and cognitive function is discussed. PMID:24021258

Zelnak, Amelia B

2013-07-16

396

Gray matter decrease distribution in the early stages of Anorexia Nervosa restrictive type in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have used Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) to examine brain structure in Anorexia Nervosa patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a sample of Anorexia Nervosa restrictive type (AN-r) adolescent patients in the early stages of the illness, using VBM in order to characterize morphometric gray matter (GM) changes. Participants were 16 AN-r female patients (with no

Santino Gaudio; Federico Nocchi; Tiziana Franchin; Elisabetta Genovese; Vittorio Cannatà; Daniela Longo; Giuseppe Fariello

2011-01-01

397

A Pilot Study of Circulating miRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Early Stage Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo date, there are no highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive biomarkers for detection of breast cancer at an early stage. The occurrence of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in blood components (including serum and plasma) has been repeatedly observed in cancer patients as well as healthy controls. Because of the significance of miRNA in carcinogenesis, circulating miRNAs in blood may be

Hua Zhao; Jie Shen; Leonard Medico; Dan Wang; Christine B. Ambrosone; Song Liu

2010-01-01

398

First-Year Recruitment of Largemouth Bass: The Interdependency of Early Life Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four early life events (i.e., hatching, the ontogenetic diet shift to piscivory, fall lipid accumulation, and the first winter) are conceptualized as being critical to 1st-yr recruitment success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) via cause-and-effect as- sociations among them. Toward this end, we conducted a multiple life-stage investigation of largemouth bass to examine the functional dependency and significance to recruitment

Stuart A. Ludsin; Dennis R. DeVries

1997-01-01

399

Project Management Process in Early Stage E-Businesses: Strategies for Leading and Managing Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-business start-ups continue to grow despite market turmoil and consolidation. E-commerce is projected to grow to $1.3 trillion by 2003 (Forester Research, 2000). Innovative business models, significant cost-savings, immediate global access, and speed of transactions continue to attract venture capital and entrants across industries. This paper presents preliminary results that (1) identify project management process problems and opportunities early stage

Joseph W. Weiss

2001-01-01

400

Detecting physiological and pesticide-induced apoptosis in early developmental stages of invasive bivalves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, embryos and early larval stages of two invasive bivalves, the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), were assayed for physiological apoptosis and stress-induced apoptosis post-exposure to a molluscicide, Bayluscide®. Physiological apoptosis was measured at 4-h intervals and Bayluscide® exposures were 4 h and 24 h beginning at both 30 min post-fertilization and at 24 h post-fertilization. Apoptosis was

Karen Perry; John Lynn

2009-01-01

401

Comparative toxicity of two oil dispersants to the early life stages of two marine species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute, flow-through, spiked-exposure toxicity tests were performed on the early life stages of two marine species using two oil dispersants. The species represent two common near-shore marine taxa: molluscs (red abalone, Haliotis rufescens) and crustaceans (kelp forest mysid, Holmesimysis costata). The dispersants were composed of complex mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants and solvents. The toxicity data showed that one

Michael M. Singer; Saji George; Diana Benner; Susan Jacobson; Ronald S. Tjeerdema; Michael L. Sowby

1993-01-01

402

The early stages of oxidation of ion-implanted nickel at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early stages of oxidation of nickel implanted with nickel, chromium, or lithium ions in oxygen at 1100°C have been studied using various electron-optical techniques. The unimplanted metal develops initially a fine-grained, convoluted scale having a ridged, cellular structure. Subsequently, the oxide grains increase in size significantly and oxidation becomes predominantly controlled by diffusion of Ni2+ions across a compact, columnar

Zhou Peide; F. H. Stott; R. P. M. Procter; W. A. Grant

1981-01-01

403

Resveratrol Attenuates Renal Hypertrophy in Early-Stage Diabetes by Activating AMPK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies suggest the involvement of the adenosine monophosphate-activated serine\\/threonine protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Resveratrol, an agent that activates AMPK, may have the potential to protect against the development of DN. This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of resveratrol on renal hypertrophy in early-stage diabetes and the underlying mechanisms.

Da-Fa Ding; Na You; Xiao-Mei Wu; Jia-Rong Xu; Ai-Ping Hu; Xiao-Long Ye; Qun Zhu; Xiu-Qing Jiang; Heng Miao; Chao Liu; Yi-Bing Lu

2010-01-01

404

Circulating microRNAs, possible indicators of progress of rat hepatocarcinogenesis from early stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, are believed promising biomarkers for several diseases as well as a novel target of drugs, including cancer. In particular, miRNAs might allow detection of early stages of carcinogenesis. The present study was conducted to provide concrete evidence using chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rat as a

Tokuo Sukata; Kayo Sumida; Masahiko Kushida; Keiko Ogata; Kaori Miyata; Setsuko Yabushita; Satoshi Uwagawa

2011-01-01

405

Brain event-related potentials: Diagnosing early-stage Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pattern of components from brain event-related potentials (ERPs) (cognitive non-invasive electrical brain measures) performed well in separating early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects from normal-aging control subjects and shows promise for developing a clinical diagnostic for probable AD. A Number–Letter task elicited brain activity related to cognitive processes. In response to the task stimuli, brain activity was recorded as ERPs,

Robert M. Chapman; Geoffrey H. Nowlis; John W. McCrary; John A. Chapman; Tiffany C. Sandoval; Maria D. Guillily; Margaret N. Gardner; Lindsey A. Reilly

2007-01-01

406

Amygdalohippocampal MR volume measurements in the early stages of Alzheimer disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the accuracy of hippocampal and amygdala volume measurements in diagnosing patients in the early stages of Alzheimer disease. Measurements of the hippocampal formation, amygdala, amygdalohippocampal complex (the two measurements summed), caudate nucleus, and ventricles, normalized for total intracranial volume, were obtained on coronal sections (1.5 T, 400\\/13 [repetition time\\/echo time], 5 mm) of 13 patients in the mild

S. Lehericy; M. Baulac; J. Chiras; L. Pierot; N. Martin; B. Pillon; B. Deweer; B. Dubois; C. Marsault

1994-01-01

407

Amphetamine treatment during early postnatal development transiently restricts somatic growth  

PubMed Central

Aims Restricted somatic growth during fetal or early postnatal periods has been suggested to serve as a predictive indicator for neuroanatomical changes and behavioral impairments during adulthood. Here, the effects of d-amphetamine sulphate (AMPH) exposure during the brain growth spurt period on this potential indicator were evaluated. Main Methods Rats received 0, 5, 15 or 25 mg/kg/day of AMPH via two daily intragastric intubations from PD4-9. Body weight data were collected every other day from PD1 to 21, and then weekly until PD59. On PD9, a subset of animals was terminated 90 min after the last amphetamine treatment and the weights of the cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem were collected. Weights of these brain regions from young adult rats were also assessed on PD68. Key Findings AMPH exposure during early postnatal development limited somatic growth in a dose-related manner, with significantly lower body weights in animals assigned to the AMPH 25 and AMPH 15 groups. However, this was transient in nature, with no significant difference in weight observed after pups were weaned on PD21. Further, no differences in brain weight were observed at either age as a result of AMPH exposure. Significance These findings support the idea that developmental AMPH exposure transiently restricts somatic growth. Moreover, the lack of effect on brain weight shows that AMPH differentially affects somatic and brain growth. The current findings suggest that in addition to the immediate effects on body weight, amphetamine may alter the rate of growth, and increase the risk for weight-related adult diseases.

Smith, Andrew M.; Chen, Wei-Jung A.

2010-01-01

408

Impact of Early Growth on Postprandial Responses in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Background Low birth weight and slow growth during infancy are associated with increased rates of chronic diseases in adulthood. Associations with risk factors such as fasting glucose and lipids concentrations are weaker than expected based on associations with disease. This could be explained by differences in postprandial responses, which, however, have been little studied. Our aim was to examine the impact of growth during infancy on postprandial responses to a fast-food meal (FF-meal) and a meal, which followed the macro-nutrient composition of the dietary guidelines (REC-meal). Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 24 overweight 65–75 year-old subjects, 12 with slow growth during infancy (SGI-group) and 12 with normal early growth. All the subjects were born at term. The study meals were isocaloric and both meals were consumed once. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured in fasting state and over a 4-h period after both meals. Subjects who grew slowly during infancy were also smaller at birth. Fasting glucose, insulin or lipid concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups. The TG responses were higher for the SGI-group both during the FF-meal (P?=?0.047) and the REC-meal (P?=?0.058). The insulin responses were significantly higher for the SGI-group after the FF-meal (P?=?0.036). Glucose and FFA responses did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions Small birth size and slow early growth predict postprandial TG and insulin responses. Elevated responses might be one explanation why subjects who were small at birth and experiencing slow growth in infancy are at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in later life.

Perala, Mia-Maria; Valsta, Liisa M.; Kajantie, Eero; Leiviska, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G.

2011-01-01

409

Initiation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids  

SciTech Connect

Picosecond time-resolved images of plasma initiation were recorded during pulsed-laser ablation of metal targets in an air atmosphere. An early-stage plasma was observed to form before the release of a material vapor plume. Close to the target surface, interferometry measurements indicate that the early-stage plasma has an electron number density on the order of 10{sup 20}cm{sup -3}. The longitudinal expansion of the ionization front for this plasma has a velocity 10{sup 9}cm/s, during the laser pulse. In contrast, a material--vapor plume forms approximately 200 ps after the laser pulse, and it moves away from the target at 10{sup 6}cm/s. The experimental observations of the early-stage plasma were simulated by using a theoretical model based on a two-fluids description of laser plasmas. The results indicate that the initiation of the plasma is due to air breakdown assisted by electron emission from the target.

Mao, Samuel S.; Mao, Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

2000-10-16

410

Accelerated fractionation with a concurrent boost for early stage breast cancer.  

PubMed

Hypofractionated radiation refers to treatment with greater than 2 Gy per fraction, usually in fewer number and an overall shorter treatment period, compared to conventional radiation fractionation. Randomized prospective trials of hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (WBI) have demonstrated comparable outcomes as conventional fractionation in early stage postlumpectomy radiation in selected groups of patients. These data have changed the traditional radiobiology estimation of the alpha/beta ratio that predicted fractionation sensitivity for breast cancer, suggesting that further increase in dose per fraction is possible for early stage breast cancer without significantly increasing late effects. Many questions remain regarding hypofractionated WBI and span from optimal patient selection to radiation technique including dose planning optimization and the incorporation of a tumor bed boost. A concurrent radiation boost has been studied in a number of single institution studies and has shown to be feasible with acceptable acute and short-term late toxicity. A phase III trial by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG 1005) in North America and other trials in Europe are currently studying in-breast cancer control from hypofractionated WBI with a concurrent tumor bed boost. Results from these current trials could improve the acceptance and broaden the applicability of hypofractionation treatment courses for the treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer. PMID:23333014

Freedman, Gary M; White, Julia R; Arthur, Douglas W; Allen Li, X; Vicini, Frank A

2013-01-17

411

Oncologic outcomes of primary and post-irradiated early stage rectal cancer: A retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the oncologic outcomes of primary and post-irradiated early stage rectal cancer and the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients. METHODS: Eighty-four patients with stage?I?rectal cancer after radical surgery were studied retrospectively and divided into ypstage?I?group (n = 45) and pstage?I?group (n = 39), according to their preoperative radiation, and compared by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The median follow-up time of patients was 70 mo. No significant difference was observed in disease progression between the two groups. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 84.4% and 92.3%, respectively (P = 0.327) and the 5-year overall survival rate was 88.9% and 92.3%, respectively, for the two groups (P = 0.692). The disease progression was not significantly associated with the pretreatment clinical stage in ypstage?I?group. The 5-year disease progression rate was 10.5% and 19.2%, respectively, for the patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy and for those who rejected chemotherapy in the ypstage?I?group (P = 0.681). CONCLUSION: The oncologic outcomes of primary and post-irradiated early stage rectal cancer are similar. Patients with ypstage?I?rectal cancer may slightly benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.

Du, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Yong-Chun; Cai, Yong; Xue, Wei-Cheng; Gu, Jin

2011-01-01

412

Quantitative study on guinea pig spermatogenesis shows a relative high percentage of early meiotic prophase stages.  

PubMed

Meiosis is the special double cellular division characterized by the reduction of chromosome number of the final products and recombination of genetic information present in maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes. Early stages of meiotic prophase, leptotene and zygotene (L/Z), are functionally important since homologous chromosomes recognize, align, and pair during them. They are poorly represented in the seminiferous tubules of mammalian species, and this fact turns studies focused on these stages difficult to perform. As a consequence, the molecular bases of these important events are so far poorly known and understood in higher eukaryotes. The purpose of this work was to provide an advantageous experimental mammalian model (with a reasonable number of cells) for biochemical and molecular analysis of early meiotic prophase stages. Here, we present the results of our quantitative study on testes material of both immature and adult guinea pig specimens (Cavia porcellus). We show that their seminiferous tubules contain a comparatively high percentage of L/Z spermatocytes, as well as a very conspicuous chromosome bouquet at the L/Z transition, which points out this species as a well-suited one to address studies on such stages in mammals. PMID:15103745

Rodríguez, Rosana E; Wettstein, Rodolfo M

2004-05-01

413

Material properties of North Atlantic cod eggs and early-stage larvae and their influence on acoustic scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chu, D., Wiebe, P. H., Copley, N. J., Lawson, G. L., and Puvanendran, V. 2003. Material properties of North Atlantic cod eggs and early-stage larvae and their influence on acoustic scattering. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60: 508-515. To study the acoustic signatures of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at different biological stages from eggs to early-stage larvae (<37 days

Dezhang Chu; Peter H. Wiebe; Nancy J. Copley; Gareth L. Lawson; Velmurugu Puvanendran

2003-01-01

414

Involvement of R-cadherin in the early stage of glomerulogenesis.  

PubMed

The earliest commitment to the formation of glomeruli is recognizable in S-shaped bodies. Although cell-cell adhesion seems likely to play a crucial role in this process, how glomerular epithelial cells segregate from the other parts of the nephron is unknown. In this study, immunofluorescence microscopy and monoclonal antibodies specific for mouse R-, E-, P- and N-cadherins were used to examine which of these adhesion molecules are involved in glomerulogenesis of the mouse kidney. Weak R-cadherin staining was first found in the vesicle stage, becoming restricted to glomerular visceral epithelial cells (VEC) during the S-shaped body stage. The intensity of this staining became stronger in the capillary loop stage, whereas parietal epithelial cells (PEC) and tubular cells did not stain. In the maturing stage, VEC gradually lost their staining for R-cadherin. E-cadherin was detected in ureteric buds and the upper limb of S-shaped bodies. From the capillary loop to the maturing stage, anti-E-cadherin stained epithelial cells in all tubule segments, but no label was seen in VEC or PEC. P-cadherin was also stained in the ureteric buds and in the upper limb of S-shaped bodies. N-Cadherin was weakly stained in cells at the vesicle stage, but thereafter staining of N-cadherin was not detected at any stage of glomerular formation. Immunoelectron microscopy of differentiating VEC was performed using antibodies specific to alpha-catenin, which is associated with cadherin. Subsequently, immunogold particles identifying alpha-catenin were localized on junctions between primary processes of VEC. These findings indicate that R-cadherin is uniquely expressed in differentiating VEC, suggesting an important role in the early stages of glomerulogenesis. PMID:9644633

Goto, S; Yaoita, E; Matsunami, H; Kondo, D; Yamamoto, T; Kawasaki, K; Arakawa, M; Kihara, I

1998-07-01

415

Psycholinguistics discovers the operant: a review of Roger Brown's A first language: the early stages1  

PubMed Central

Brown's book is selectively reviewed with the aim of noting points of similarity between Brown's psycholinguistic analysis of language acquisition and a functional analysis of verbal behavior. Brown divides early language acquisition into five stages, based on mean length of utterance in samples of child speech. His book concentrates on Stage I, when mean length of utterance first rises above 1.0, indicating that children are beginning to speak in multi-morphemic utterances, and Stage II, when mean length of utterance in morphemes is about 2.25. Multi-morphemic utterances in Stage I consist mainly of ordered sequences of uninflected nouns and verbs, the order being that of the simple declarative sentence (agent-action-indirect object-direct object-locative). The review attempts a theoretical analysis of the functional stimulus control of Stage I syntactic order, concluding that the control must originate partly in relations among events in the environment and partly in covert autoclitic verbal behavior. Increases in mean length of utterance in Stage II are mainly due to the appearance of several “grammatical morphemes” such as the progressive -ing inflection on verbs and the plural -s inflection on nouns. The review attempts a behavioral paraphrase, again in terms of tacts and autoclitics, of Brown's psycholinguistic analysis of grammatical morphemes, concluding that Stage II displays the further development, building on Stage I, of the combined control of verbal behavior by relations in the environment and covert self-generated verbal stimuli. Similarities between Brown's psycholinguistic analysis and a functional analysis of language acquisition suggest that the two viewpoints are converging on a common concern with the stimulus control of verbal behavior.

Segal, Evalyn F.

1975-01-01

416

Formation of a high-cycle fatigue fracture surface and a crack growth mechanism of ultrafine-grained copper with different stages of microstructural evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue tests were conducted on smooth specimens of ultrafine-grained copper produced by 4 and 12 passes of equal channel angular pressing (henceforth referred to as UFG4 and UFG12, respectively). A major crack was initiated from shear bands at an early stage of stressing. The UFG4 and UFG12 samples exhibited different growth behavior tendencies at a low crack growth rate (CGR).

M. Goto; S. Z. Han; K. Euh; J.-H. Kang; S. S. Kim; N. Kawagoishi

2010-01-01

417

Investigating Stage-Sequential Growth Mixture Models with Multiphase Longitudinal Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates three types of stage-sequential growth mixture models in the structural equation modeling framework for the analysis of multiple-phase longitudinal data. These models can be important tools for situations in which a single-phase growth mixture model produces distorted results and can allow researchers to better understand…

Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Jee-Seon

2012-01-01

418

Investigating Stage-Sequential Growth Mixture Models with Multiphase Longitudinal Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article investigates three types of stage-sequential growth mixture models in the structural equation modeling framework for the analysis of multiple-phase longitudinal data. These models can be important tools for situations in which a single-phase growth mixture model produces distorted results and can allow researchers to better…

Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Jee-Seon

2012-01-01

419

Theory of the intermediate stage of crystal growth with applications to protein crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed form solution is found for the Buyevich–Mansurov theory of the intermediate stage of crystal growth. Using a common model for the growth rate, expressions for the time-dependent relative supersaturation and the distribution function for crystal sizes are found. With these results, the rate of homogeneous nucleation is established and need not be given as a boundary condition. The

D. A. Barlow

2009-01-01

420

Circulating Micro-RNAs as Potential Blood-Based Markers for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules with relevance as regulators of gene expression thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. MiRNAs offer great potential as biomarkers for cancer detection due to their remarkable stability in blood and their characteristic expression in many different diseases. We investigated whether microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood could discriminate between early stage breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Methods We performed microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood of 48 early stage breast cancer patients at diagnosis along with 57 healthy individuals as controls. This was followed by a real-time semi-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) validation in a separate cohort of 24 early stage breast cancer patients from a breast cancer screening unit and 24 age matched controls using two differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-202, miR-718). Results Using the significance level of p<0.05, we found that 59 miRNAs were differentially expressed in whole blood of early stage breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. 13 significantly up-regulated miRNAs and 46 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in our microarray panel of 1100 miRNAs and miRNA star sequences could be detected. A set of 240 miRNAs that was evaluated by radial basis function kernel support vector machines and 10-fold cross validation yielded a specificity of 78.8%, and a sensitivity of 92.5%, as well as an accuracy of 85.6%. Two miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort. The relative fold changes of the RT-qPCR validation were in line with the microarray data for both miRNAs, and statistically significant differences in miRNA-expression were found for miR-202. Conclusions MiRNA profiling in whole blood has potential as a novel method for early stage breast cancer detection, but there are still challenges that need to be addressed to establish these new biomarkers in clinical use.

Schulz-Wendtland, Rudiger; Strissel, Pamela L.; Kahmann, Laura; Loehberg, Christian R.; Lux, Michael P.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Alexander; Bayer, Christian M.; Bani, Mayada R.; Richter, Swetlana; Adamietz, Boris R.; Wenkel, Evelyn; Rauh, Claudia; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.

2012-01-01

421

Investigating Stage-Sequential Growth Mixture Models with Multiphase Longitudinal Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates three types of stage-sequential growth mixture models in the structural equation modeling framework for the analysis of multiple-phase longitudinal data. These models can be important tools for situations in which a single-phase growth mixture model produces distorted results and can allow researchers to better understand population heterogeneity and growth over multiple phases. Through theoretical and empirical comparisons

Su-Young Kim; Jee-Seon Kim

2012-01-01

422

Properties of large scale plasma flow during the early stage of the plasmaspheric refilling  

SciTech Connect

Ion continuity, momentum and energy equations were solved for the plasma flow along the closed magnetic field lines. During the initial stage of the supersonic outflow in the equatorial region, the ions cool substantially. Using the hydrodynamic model for the large-scale plasma flow, the dynamics of shocks was examined which form in the geomagnetic flux tubes during the early stages of refilling. These shocks are more like those forming in neutral gases than the electrostatic shocks driven by microinstabilities involving ion-ion interaction. Therefore, the shocks seen in the hydrodynamic model are termed as hydrodynamic shocks. Such shocks are generally unsteady and therefore the usual shock jump conditions given by Rankine-Hugoniot relations are not strictly applicable to them. The density, flow velocity and temperature structures associated with the shocks are examined for both asymmetrical and symmetrical flows. In the asymmetrical flow the outflow from one of two conjugate ionospheres is dominant. On the other hand, in the symmetrical case outflows from the two ionospheric sources are identical. Both cases are treated by a two-stream model. In the late type of flow, the early-time refilling shows a relaxation type of oscillation, which is driven by the large-scale interactions between the two identical streams. After this early stage, the resulting temperature structure shows some interesting features. In the equatorial region the streams are isothermal, but in the off-equatorial regions the streams have quite different temperatures, and also densities and flow velocities. The dense and slow stream is found to be warmer than the low-density fast stream. In the late stage of refilling, the temperature is found to steadily increase from the c

Singh, N.; Craven, P.; Torr, D.G.; Richards, P.G.

1990-01-01

423

Global analysis of DNA methylation in early-stage liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background Liver fibrosis is caused by chemicals or viral infection. The progression of liver fibrosis results in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in later stages. Recent studies have revealed the importance of DNA hypermethylation in the progression of liver fibrosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the importance of DNA methylation in the early-stage liver fibrosis remains unclear. Methods To address this issue, we used a pathological mouse model of early-stage liver fibrosis that was induced by treatment with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 2 weeks and performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation status. This global analysis of DNA methylation was performed using a combination of methyl-binding protein (MBP)-based high throughput sequencing (MBP-seq) and bioinformatic tools, IPA and Oncomine. To confirm functional aspect of MBP-seq data, we complementary used biochemical methods, such as bisulfite modification and in-vitro-methylation assays. Results The genome-wide analysis revealed that DNA methylation status was reduced throughout the genome because of CCl4 treatment in the early-stage liver fibrosis. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses revealed that a gene associated with fibrosis, secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1), which induces inflammation, was hypomethylated and its expression was up-regulated. These results suggest that DNA hypomethylation of the genes responsible for fibrosis may precede the onset of liver fibrosis. Moreover, Spp1 is also known to enhance tumor development. Using the web-based database, we revealed that Spp1 expression is increased in HCC. Conclusions Our study suggests that hypomethylation is crucial for the onset of and in the progression of liver fibrosis to HCC. The elucidation of this change in methylation status from the onset of fibrosis and subsequent progression to HCC may lead to a new clinical diagnosis.

2012-01-01

424

Comparison of the early stages of corrosion of copper and iron investigated by in situ TM-AFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) was used for the investigation of the early stages of atmospheric corrosion of pure copper and pure iron. The information obtained by this method is the change of the topography of the sample surfaces with emphasis on the shape and lateral distribution of the corrosion products grown within the first 1300 min of weathering. Investigations were carried out in synthetic air at 80 and 90% relative humidity (RH) with additions of 250 ppb SO 2 and 250 ppb NO 2. On a polished copper surface the growth of corrosion products could be observed already at 80% RH and 250 ppb SO 2, whereas an iron surface had to be exposed to 90% RH with 250 ppb SO 2 and 250 ppb NO 2 to produce detectable changes on the surface.

Kleber, Ch.; Weissenrieder, J.; Schreiner, M.; Leygraf, C.

2002-06-01

425

Initial stages of growth of pentacene on graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined by scanning probe microscope submonolayer coverages of pentacene on graphene fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and exfoliated graphene. Inherent to CVD-graphene, even upon transferring onto SiO2 substrates is the presence of varying surface density of folds-grafolds. By means of Kelvin force microscopy we observe about 0.3 eV higher workfunction on multiply-folded grafolds, but within our resolution, observe no change in workfunction for singly folded grafolds. By atomic force microscopy we observe that grafolds act as nucleation centers for pentacene, inducing three-dimensional (3D) morphology of pentacene layers in the nucleation phase of growth. Moreover, the resulting elongated islands exhibit a preferential orientation perpendicular to the dominant direction of a grafold. We associate this behavior in terms of elastic strain and enhanced chemical reactivity of the grafolds. This type of morphology is at strong variance with the morphology of pentacene layers that we observe on exfoliated graphene. There we observe two-dimensional (2D) islands whose height of 1.5 nm corresponds to a thin-film phase of pentacene. We observe the onset of 3D island nucleation on the surface of the 2D islands that have attained a critical size. We interpret this behavior in terms of surface energy of pentacene that depends on the underlying substrate.

Bratina, Gvido; Chikkara, Manisha; Pavlica, Egon; Matkovic, Aleksandar; Beltaoš, Angela; Jovanovic, Djordje; Stojanovic, Danka; Gajic, Radoš

2013-03-01

426

Phase-field crystal modeling of early stage clustering and precipitation in metal alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phase-field crystal model is used to investigate the mechanisms of formation and growth of early clusters in quenched/aged dilute binary alloys, a phenomenon typically outside the scope of molecular dynamics time scales. We show that formation of early subcritical clusters is triggered by the stress relaxation effect of quenched-in defects, such as dislocations, on the energy barrier and the critical size for nucleation. In particular, through analysis of system energetics, we demonstrate that the growth of subcritical clusters into overcritical sizes occurs due to the fact that highly strained areas in the lattice locally reduce or even eliminate the free energy barrier for a first-order transition.

Fallah, Vahid; Stolle, Jonathan; Ofori-Opoku, Nana; Esmaeili, Shahrzad; Provatas, Nikolas

2012-10-01

427

Molecular and developmental effects of exposure to pyrene in the early life-stages of Cyprinodon variegatus.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been connected to developmental toxicity in the early life-stages of many species by their ability to bind to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which dimerizes with ARNT (AHR nuclear translocator) to induce transcription of genes such as CYP1A1. ARNT also dimerizes with HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor alpha) to induce transcription of genes such as VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), suggesting that PAHs may interfere with transcription of VEGF by competing for ARNT. Herein, we address the molecular and developmental effects of exposures to the weak AHR agonist pyrene on the early life-stages of the sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus. Embryos were exposed under flow-through conditions to 0, 20, 60, or 150 ppb pyrene up to 432 hours post-fertilization (hpf). RNA was extracted at 5 time points (12, 24, 48, 96, and 432 hpf) and changes in CYP1A1 and VEGF expression were assessed by real-time RT-PCR. Since few genes have been documented for the sheepshead minnow, we first cloned and sequenced CYP1A1, VEGF and internal standard 18S rRNA. Pyrene significantly induced the AHR-regulated gene, CYP1A1, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while pyrene failed to alter the HIF-regulated gene, VEGF. However, VEGF was found to change during various stages of normal development in this study. Although a normal hatch time (5 dpf) was observed for all treatments, pyrene-treated embryos showed dose-dependent abnormalities such as severe dorsal body curvature, mild pericardial and yolk-sac edema, and increased mortality. Taken together, these data indicate that embryonic exposure of sheepshead minnows to pyrene disrupts normal development and alters expression of an AHR/ARNT-regulated gene. In addition, embryonic exposure to pyrene failed to provide evidence of possible AHR-HIF pathway cross-talk since developmental expression of VEGF was unaltered. PMID:17962083

Hendon, Laura A; Carlson, Erik A; Manning, Steve; Brouwer, Marius

2007-09-29

428

Circadian profiles in young people during the early stages of affective disorder.  

PubMed

Although disturbances of the circadian system are strongly linked to affective disorders, no known studies have examined melatonin profiles in young people in early stages of illness. In this study, 44 patients with an affective disorder underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessments. They were then rated by a psychiatrist according to a clinical staging model and were categorized as having an 'attenuated syndrome' or an 'established disorder'. During the evening, salivary melatonin was sampled under dim light conditions over an 8-h interval and for each patient, the time of melatonin onset, total area under the curve and phase angle (difference between time of melatonin onset and time of habitual sleep onset) were computed. Results showed that there was no difference in the timing of melatonin onset across illness stages. However, area under the curve analyses showed that those patients with 'established disorders' had markedly reduced levels of melatonin secretion, and shorter phase angles, relative to those with 'attenuated syndromes'. These lower levels, in turn, were related to lower subjective sleepiness, and poorer performance on neuropsychological tests of verbal memory. Overall, these results suggest that for patients with established illness, dysfunction of the circadian system relates clearly to functional features and markers of underlying neurobiological change. Although the interpretation of these results would be greatly enhanced by control data, this w