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1

Early stage of nanocrystal growth  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

None

2012-01-01

2

Growth Stages 1: Infancy and Early Childhood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the first of a two-part series aimed at introducing students to the different stages of physical growth and development in human beings from birth to 18 years of age. Through the use of student interactives, this lesson helps students become better aware of all the natural physical stages of growth children experience in the first five years of life.

Science Netlinks;

2003-03-29

3

Growth Stages 2: Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lesson plans from Science NetLinks form a two-part series designed to introduce students (grades 3-5) to human growth and development from infancy through puberty. Each lesson contains detailed background information, discussion questions, and other resources that help students learn about the "key physical stages or milestones, which are research and science-supported indicators that help to track the progress of a child's physical development at different stages of life." Using these lesson plans in the classroom could prove a popular choice, as "research shows that children are fascinated by films and stories about early stages of human development and they are particularly intrigued by comparisons of themselves now and earlier." Each lesson plans comes with a comprehensive teaching guide.

4

Growth Stages 2: Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the second of a two-part series aimed at introducing students to the different stages of growth and development in human beings from birth to 18 years of age. In this lesson, student interactives are used to help students focus on the kinds of physical changes that children of their age range begin to undergo during puberty.

Science Netlinks;

2003-03-29

5

Grain growth during the early stage of sintering of nanosized WC–Co powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid grain growth during the early stage of sintering has been found in many nano material systems including cemented tungsten carbide WC–Co. To date, however, there have been few reported studies in the literature that deal directly with the kinetics or the mechanisms of this part of grain growth. In this work, the grain growth of nanosized WC during the

Xu Wang; Zhigang Zak Fang; Hong Yong Sohn

2008-01-01

6

Controlling the Early Stages of Pentacene Growth by Supersonic Molecular Beam Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key role of the pentacene kinetic energy (Ek) in the early stages of growth on SiOx\\/Si is demonstrated: islands with smooth borders and increased coalescence differ remarkably from fractal-like thermal growth. Increasing Ek to 6.4 eV, the morphology evolves towards higher density of smaller islands. At higher coverage, coalescence grows with Ek up to a much more uniform, less

Yu Wu; Tullio Toccoli; Norbert Koch; Erica Iacob; Alessia Pallaoro; Petra Rudolf; Salvatore Iannotta

2007-01-01

7

Nanoscale duplex oxide growth during early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100)  

SciTech Connect

A combination of real-time in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and ex situ transmission electron microscopy is utilized to investigate the early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100). Sequential formation of NiO and Cu{sub 2}O oxides was observed by increasing oxygen partial pressure, and the Cu{sub 2}O phase was identified to form preferentially on top of NiO nanoislands. The origin of this unexpected phenomenon is attributed to localized enrichment of Cu atoms accompanied with NiO growth, which thermodynamically drives the nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O/NiO duplex oxide growth.

Zhou Guangwen [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Multidisciplinary Program in Materials Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Fong, Dillon D.; Fuoss, Paul H.; Baldo, Peter M.; Thompson, Loren J.; Eastman, Jeffrey A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wang Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2009-10-01

8

Nerve growth factor regulates axial rotation during early stages of chick embryo development  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor (NGF) was discovered because of its neurotrophic actions on sympathetic and sensory neurons in the developing chicken embryo. NGF was subsequently found to influence and regulate the function of many neuronal and non neuronal cells in adult organisms. Little is known, however, about the possible actions of NGF during early embryonic stages. However, mRNAs encoding for NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75NTR are expressed at very early stages of avian embryo development, before the nervous system is formed. The question, therefore, arises as to what might be the functions of NGF in early chicken embryo development, before its well-established actions on the developing sympathetic and sensory neurons. To investigate possible roles of NGF in the earliest stages of development, stage HH 11–12 chicken embryos were injected with an anti-NGF antibody (mAb ?D11) that binds mature NGF with high affinity. Treatment with anti-NGF, but not with a control antibody, led to a dose-dependent inversion of the direction of axial rotation. This effect of altered rotation after anti NGF injection was associated with an increased cell death in somites. Concurrently, a microarray mRNA expression analysis revealed that NGF neutralization affects the expression of genes linked to the regulation of development or cell proliferation. These results reveal a role for NGF in early chicken embryo development and, in particular, in the regulation of somite survival and axial rotation, a crucial developmental process linked to left–right asymmetry specification.

Manca, Annalisa; Capsoni, Simona; Di Luzio, Anna; Vignone, Domenico; Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Brandi, Rossella; Arisi, Ivan; Cattaneo, Antonino; Levi-Montalcini, Rita

2012-01-01

9

Hypoxia-mediated carbohydrate metabolism and transport promote early-stage murine follicle growth and survival.  

PubMed

Oxygen tension is critical for follicle growth and metabolism, especially for early-stage follicles, where vascularity is limited. Its role and underlying mechanism in the in vitro activation and maturation of immature to ovulatory follicles is largely unknown. In this study, early secondary (110 ?m) murine follicles were isolated and encapsulated in alginate hydrogels to replicate the in vivo environment of the growing/maturing follicle. Encapsulated follicles were cultured for 8 days at either 2.5 or 20% O2. Survival (2.6-fold) and growth (1.2-fold) were significantly higher for follicles cultured at 2.5% compared with 20% O2. Using a mouse hypoxia-signaling pathway qRT-PCR array and GeneGo Metacore analysis, we found that direct target genes of the hypoxia-activated HIF1-complex were significantly upregulated in follicles cultured for 8 days at 2.5% compared with 20% O2, including the carbohydrate transport and metabolism genes Slc2a3, Vegfa, Slc2a1, Edn1, Pgk1, Ldha, and Hmox1. Other upregulated genes included carbohydrate transporters (Slc2a1, Slc2a3, and Slc16a3) and enzymes essential for glycolysis (Pgk1, Hmox1, Hk2, Gpi1, Pfkl, Pfkp, Aldoa, Gapdh, Pgam1, Eno1, Pkm2, and Ldha). For follicles cultured at 2.5% O2, a 7.2-fold upregulation of Vegfa correlated to an 18-fold increase in VEGFA levels, and a 3.2-fold upregulation of Ldha correlated to a 4.8-fold increase in lactate levels. Both VEGFA and lactate levels were significantly higher in follicles cultured at 2.5% compared with 20% O2. Therefore, enhanced hypoxia-mediated glycolysis is essential for growth and survival of early secondary follicles and provides vital insights into improving in vitro culture conditions. PMID:24569591

Makanji, Yogeshwar; Tagler, David; Pahnke, Jennifer; Shea, Lonnie D; Woodruff, Teresa K

2014-04-15

10

Study on the early stage of thin film growth in pulsed beam deposition by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a pulse beam (PB) deposition model based on a square lattice is proposed and is used to simulate the process of thin film growth with the kinetic Monte Carlo method. The influence of frequency and duration of pulse on the nucleation, aggregation, and morphology of thin film growth in the early stage is investigated and discussed. The

Q. Y Zhang; P. K Chu

2002-01-01

11

Observations of Nucleation and Early Stage Growth of Amorphous Silica on Carboxyl-Terminated Model Biosubstrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over Earth history, organisms have developed the ability to control the nucleation and growth of a broad range of nanocrystalline and amorphous materials. The formation of amorphous biosilica is of particular interest because silicifiers sequester gigatons of silica annually, and suppress dissolved silica levels in the ocean to current low levels. The ecological success of marine diatoms, which are arguably the most important silicifiers, places them alongside marine calcifiers as major players in the sequestration of organic carbon. Thus, the biologically mediated formation of amorphous silica plays a key role in the global cycling of silicon and carbon. During controlled biomineralization, nucleation typically occurs in designated locations. There is a substantial body of evidence suggesting that macromolecules in the cellular environment determine these locations by acting as templates to provide energetically favorable sites for the onset of mineral and amorphous material nucleation. In diatoms, silica formation is likely initiated through heterogeneous nucleation on functional portions of macromolecules inside the Silica Deposition Vesicle (SDV). Previous studies of silica nucleation have implicated multiple chemical moieties associated with the constituent amino acids and sugars of polysaccharides, proteins, and glycoproteins as probable sites for in vivo surface nucleation and patterning. These investigations have usually employed complex macromolecules that exhibit multiple functionalities, and un-characterized solution compositions, thus rendering a quantitative analysis of kinetic and thermodynamic processes impossible. The objective of this research is to experimentally test kinetic and thermodynamic controls exercised by surface moieties on silica nucleation. Our experimental model system uses synthetic organic substrates designed to mimic key features of the interfacial regions between the surrounding cellular environment and the amorphous silica surface. While controlling solution chemistry, we can make in situ measurements of nucleation and early stage growth at these interfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Preliminary experiments show that at pH 4 to 7, and supersaturations of 0.76 to 1.45 (? = ln([H4SiO4]/Ksp)), silica nucleates on carboxyl-terminated areas of the surface, that are less than 30 nm in diameter. The nuclei evolve during early stages of growth to spread over the surface into a sheet like form.

Wallace, A. F.; Dove, P. M.

2005-12-01

12

Early Stages in Polymer Crystal Growth for Isotactic Poly-1-Butene: From Nucleation to Network Percolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isothermal crystallization experiments on isotactic poly-1-butene at early stages of spherulite growth provide quantitative information about nucleation density, volume fraction of spherulites and their crystallinity, and the mechanism of connecting into a sample spanning structure. An attempt is made to connect the crystal fraction inside spherulites with the average crystallinity of the entire sample. The crystal fraction inside spherulites is very small initially but increases with time and catches up with the sample crystallinity later on. Experiments include optical microscopy, DSC, SALS, and rheology. Optical microscopy near the fluid-to-solid transition suggests that the transition, as determined by rheology, is not caused by packing/jamming of spherulites but by the formation of a percolating structure. Impingement of pairs of spherulites occurs already much before percolation. This makes it difficult to predict crystal growth and define spherulitic impingement for the whole sample. At percolation, the absolute crystallinity is about 7-8 vol%. This shows that spherulites are mostly amorphous before impingement.

Arora, Deepak; Winter, Horst

2010-03-01

13

Growth characteristics of algae during early stages of phytoplankton bloom in Lake Taihu, China.  

PubMed

Three treatments, sediment plus lake water (S+W), sterilized sediment plus lake water (SS+W), and sediment plus filtered lake water (S+FW), were recruited to investigate the growth characteristics of algae during pre-bloom and the importance of algal inocula in the water column and sediment. The results showed that in the water column, biomass of all algae increased in all treatments when recruitment was initiated, whereas this tendency differed among treatments with further increment of temperature. The process of algal growth consisted of two stages: Stage I, the onset of recruitment and Stage II, the subsequent growth of algae. Compared with S+W, in Stage I, SS+W significantly increased the biomass of cyanophytes by 178.70%, and decreased the biomass of non-cyanophytes by 43.40%; In Stage II, SS+W notably stimulated the growth of all algae, thus incurring the occurrence of phytoplankton bloom. Further analyses revealed that both metabolic activity and photochemical activity of algae were enhanced in SS+W, which resulted from the releasing of nutrients from sediment. These results suggest that algal growth in Stage II and algal inocula in the water column can be important factors for the formation of phytoplankton bloom. In addition, possible mechanisms promoting algal recruitment and subsequent growth of algae were explored. PMID:23596943

Jia, Yuhong; Dan, Johnson; Zhang, Min; Kong, Fanxiang

2013-02-01

14

Effects of potassium deficiency on tomato growth and mineral nutrition at the early production stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of potassium deficiency on hydroponically grown tomato were investigated at the early production stage (23 leaves, 3 trusses). Two types of potassium deficiency were applied : the permanent deficiency lasted for 23 days whereas the 10-day temporary deficiency was followed by a 7-day period of potassium supply resumption.

A. Pujos; P. Morard

1997-01-01

15

Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Our current knowledge of the neurobiology of romantic love remains scanty. In view of the complexity of a sentiment like love, it would not be surprising that a diversity of biochemical mechanisms could be involved in the mood changes of the initial stage of a romance. In the present study, we have examined whether the early romantic phase of

Enzo Emanuele; Pierluigi Politi; Marika Bianchi; Piercarlo Minoretti; Marco Bertona; Diego Geroldi

2006-01-01

16

Early stage growth structure of indium tin oxide thin films deposited by reactive thermal evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial stage of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film growth, deposited by reactive thermal evaporation (RTE), was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Five ITO thin films were deposited by RTE of an In:Sn alloy in the presence of added oxygen on heated oxide substrates (Ts=440K), with film thickness as the deposition variable. Surface imaging as well as

A. Amaral; P. Brogueira; C. Nunes de Carvalho; G. Lavareda

2000-01-01

17

Early life-stage test in zebrafish versus a growth test in rainbow trout to evaluate toxic effects  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the work presented in this paper was to compare toxic threshold concentrations of three substances obtained from growth test in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with data from early life-stages in zebrafish. The growth test was conducted over a period of 7 wk in case of 4-chloroaniline and 4 wk in case of 3,4-dichloroaniline and diazinon. The data from the experiment in zebrafish originate from life-cycle studies; here, only the results obtained within the first 6 wk of development after fertilization are considered. These time limits have been set, as in the FRG a growth test in rainbow trout extending over 4 wk and an early life-stage test in zebrafish extending over 6 wk are being discussed for the Chemical Act.

Bresch, H. (Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Karlsruhe (Germany))

1991-05-01

18

Hypoxia and Acidification Have Additive and Synergistic Negative Effects on the Growth, Survival, and Metamorphosis of Early Life Stage Bivalves  

PubMed Central

Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria), marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale ?=?7.4–7.6) reduced survivorship (by >50%), low oxygen (30–50 µM) inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%), and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%). Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40%) reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios.

Gobler, Christopher J.; DePasquale, Elizabeth L.; Griffith, Andrew W.; Baumann, Hannes

2014-01-01

19

Hypoxia and acidification have additive and synergistic negative effects on the growth, survival, and metamorphosis of early life stage bivalves.  

PubMed

Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria), marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale ?=?7.4-7.6) reduced survivorship (by >50%), low oxygen (30-50 µM) inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%), and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%). Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40%) reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios. PMID:24416169

Gobler, Christopher J; DePasquale, Elizabeth L; Griffith, Andrew W; Baumann, Hannes

2014-01-01

20

Disruption of Smad-dependent signaling for growth of GST-P-positive lesions from the early stage in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the involvement of signaling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} during the hepatocarcinogenesis, the immunohistochemical distribution of related molecules was analyzed in relation with liver cell lesions expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) during liver tumor promotion by fenbendazole, phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, or thioacetamide, using rats. Our study focused on early-stage promotion (6 weeks after starting promotion) and late-stage promotion (57 weeks after starting promotion). With regard to Smad-dependent signaling, cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated Smad (phospho-Smad)-2/3 - identified as Smad3 by later immunoblot analysis - increased in the subpopulation of GST-P{sup +} foci, while Smad4, a nuclear transporter of Smad2/3, decreased during early-stage promotion. By late-stage promotion, GST-P{sup +} lesions lacking phospho-Smad2/3 had increased in accordance with lesion development from foci to carcinomas, while Smad4 largely disappeared in most proliferative lesions. With regard to Smad-independent mitogen-activated protein kinases, GST-P{sup +} foci that co-expressed phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase increased during early-stage promotion; however, p38-downstream phospho-activating transcriptional factor (ATF)-2, ATF3, and phospho-c-Myc, were inversely downregulated without relation to promotion. By late-stage promotion, proliferative lesions downregulated phospho-ATF2 and phospho-c-Myc along with lesion development, as with downregulation of phospho-p38 in all lesions. These results suggest that from the early stages, carcinogenic processes were facilitated by disruption of tumor suppressor functions of Smad-dependent signaling, while Smad-independent activation of p38 was an early-stage phenomenon. GST-P{sup -} foci induced by promotion with agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} did not change Smad expression, suggesting an aberration in the Smad-dependent signaling prerequisites for induction of GST-P{sup +} proliferative lesions.

Ichimura, Ryohei, E-mail: red0828@hotmail.co.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Mizukami, Sayaka, E-mail: non_sugar_life@hotmail.co.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takahashi, Miwa, E-mail: mtakahashi@nihs.go.j [Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Taniai, Eriko, E-mail: taniaie@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Kemmochi, Sayaka, E-mail: msayaka@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Mitsumori, Kunitoshi, E-mail: mitsumor@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

2010-08-01

21

Comparing the Effects of Symbiotic Algae (Symbiodinium) Clades C1 and D on Early Growth Stages of Acropora tenuis  

PubMed Central

Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades — including A and D — have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages.

Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

2014-01-01

22

Comparing the Effects of Symbiotic Algae (Symbiodinium) Clades C1 and D on Early Growth Stages of Acropora tenuis.  

PubMed

Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades - including A and D - have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages. PMID:24914677

Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

2014-01-01

23

Evolution of Hydraulic Roughness During Early Stages of Conduit Growth: Effects on Conduit Enlargement Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic roughness exerts an important but poorly constrained control on the hydraulic capacity and enlargement rates of subglacial conduits. In an ideal, inviscid fluid, energy and mass are conserved along a flow line and the sum of the velocity, pressure and elevation heads equals the potential energy of the system, as described by the Bernoulli Equation. In real fluid flows, however, some of this energy is dissipated as heat due to friction and turbulence, resulting in a total head that is lower than predicted by the Bernoulli Equation. This departure from ideal is termed head loss, which is accounted for in simple hydrological models, such as the Manning or Darcy Weisbach equations, through the use of a roughness coefficient (n -s m1/3) or a friction factor (f - dimensionless), respectively. Both f and n relate hydraulic roughness to a relative roughness, or the ratio of the height that projections extend from the floor or wall of a conduit to the conduit hydraulic diameter. Such relationships, however, are empirically derived and only valid for relative roughness values that are <5%. Relative roughness values that are >5% likely occur in subglacial conduits, particularly during early stages of conduit enlargement, which may limit ability to use relative roughness to calculate values of n or f. Understanding changes in roughness in the early stages of conduit enlargement is crucial for accurate modeling of glacier hydrological systems because nearly all glacier hydrological models rely on a hydraulic roughness parameterization to drive conduit melting. To address this knowledge gap, we calculated hydraulic roughness values from dye traces conducted at Rieperbreen, in Svalbard, Norway. Because conduit area and hydraulic gradients were constrained by direct mapping, and average flow velocities were obtained from dye traces, we were able to calculate f and n for each trace. Values of f and n declined from 75.01 and 0.68 s m1/3, respectively, to 0.97 and 0.04 s m1/3 over the melt season. Values of f and n calculated from dye tracing data exceeded values of f and n calculated solely from direct measurements of relative roughness by several orders of magnitude. Despite these discrepancies, values of f and n that were calculated from dye tracing data were highly correlated to measured relative roughness values using a power law, suggesting that new relationships may be developed for glacier hydrological systems. When we paramaterized a simple conduit enlargement model using our newly-discovered relationship between f, n and relative roughness, we found that the timescale required for conduits to grow from 0.5 m in diameter to a diameter where relative roughness was <5% was 4-9 times longer than enlargement times obtained using roughness parameterization schemes commonly used in glacier hydrological models.

Gulley, J. D.; Spellman, P.; Covington, M. D.; Martin, J. B.; Benn, D.; Catania, G. A.

2012-12-01

24

Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love.  

PubMed

Our current knowledge of the neurobiology of romantic love remains scanty. In view of the complexity of a sentiment like love, it would not be surprising that a diversity of biochemical mechanisms could be involved in the mood changes of the initial stage of a romance. In the present study, we have examined whether the early romantic phase of a loving relationship could be associated with alterations in circulating levels of neurotrophins (NTs). Plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4 were measured in a total of 58 subjects who had recently fallen in love and compared with those of two control groups, consisting of subjects who were either single or were already engaged in a long-lasting relationship. NGF level was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the subjects in love [mean (SEM): 227 (14) pg/ml] than in either the subjects with a long-lasting relationship [123 (10) pg/ml] or the subjects with no relationship [149 (12) pg/ml]. Notably, there was also a significant positive correlation between levels of NGF and the intensity of romantic love as assessed with the passionate love scale (r = 0.34; p = 0.007). No differences in the concentrations of other NTs were detected. In 39 subjects in love who-after 12-24 months-maintained the same relationship but were no longer in the same mental state to which they had referred during the initial evaluation, plasma NGF levels decreased and became indistinguishable from those of the control groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that some behavioural and/or psychological features associated with falling in love could be related to raised NGF levels in the bloodstream. PMID:16289361

Emanuele, Enzo; Politi, Pierluigi; Bianchi, Marika; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Bertona, Marco; Geroldi, Diego

2006-04-01

25

Early stages of Ostwald ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Becker-Döring (BD) nucleation equation is known to predict a narrow double-exponential front (DEF) in the distribution of growing particles over sizes, which is due to early transient effects. When mass conservation is included, nucleation is eventually exhausted while independent growth is replaced by ripening. Despite the enormous difference in the associated time scales, and the resulting demand on numerics, within the generalized BD model the early DEF is shown to be crucial for the selection of the unique self-similar Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner asymptotic regime. Being preserved till the latest stages of growth, the DEF provides a universal part of the initial conditions for the ripening problem, regardless of the mass exchange mechanism between the nucleus and the matrix.

Shneidman, Vitaly A.

2013-07-01

26

THE EFFECT OF VENTURE CAPITALISTS ON THE EARLY STAGE GROWTH OF HIGH TECH VENTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the cross borders of growth literature and venture capital literature, quite a lot of research has been done on the impact of VC on company growth. The confusion on the role of VC however remains. This confusion can be partially related to the relatively simplistic view the aformentioned studies have on the role of VCs. Despite the large heterogeneity

Mirjam Knockaert

2006-01-01

27

Early stages of growth of gold layers sputter deposited on glass and silicon substrates  

PubMed Central

Extremely thin gold layers were sputter deposited on glass and silicon substrates, and their thickness and morphology were studied by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods. The deposited layers change from discontinuous to continuous ones for longer deposition times. While the deposition rate on the silicon substrate is constant, nearly independent on the layer thickness, the rate on the glass substrate increases with increasing layer thickness. The observed dependence can be explained by a simple kinetic model, taking into account different sticking probabilities of gold atoms on a bare glass substrate and regions with gold coverage. Detailed analysis of the shape of the RBS gold signal shows that in the initial stages of the deposition, the gold layers on the glass substrate consist of gold islands with significantly different thicknesses. These findings were confirmed by AFM measurements, too. Gold coverage of the silicon substrate is rather homogeneous, consisting of tiny gold grains, but a pronounced worm-like structure is formed for the layer thickness at electrical continuity threshold. On the glass substrate, the gold clusters of different sizes are clearly observed. For later deposition stages, a clear tendency of the gold atoms to aggregate into larger clusters of approximately the same size is observed. At later deposition stages, gold clusters of up to 100?nm in diameter are formed.

2012-01-01

28

Observations of Nucleation and Early Stage Growth of Amorphous Silica on Carboxyl-Terminated Model Biosubstrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over Earth history, organisms have developed the ability to control the nucleation and growth of a broad range of nanocrystalline and amorphous materials. The formation of amorphous biosilica is of particular interest because silicifiers sequester gigatons of silica annually, and suppress dissolved silica levels in the ocean to current low levels. The ecological success of marine diatoms, which are arguably

A. F. Wallace; P. M. Dove

2005-01-01

29

Modeling of early stages of island growth during pulsed deposition: Role of closed compact islands  

SciTech Connect

After a brief review of recent modeling of growth during Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD), we present the study of a role of adatom interactions on growth of surface islands during PLD in submonolayer regime. We employ kinetic Monte Carlo simulation with reversible growth. Attachment of monomers to islands is irreversible at low temperatures while it becomes reversible at higher temperatures, small islands become unstable with growing temperature. In the case of real system we have to take into account not only diffusion of monomers but also diffusivity of dimers and larger clusters and theirs stability. Our new code allows us to study processes which proceed on different time scales which are typical in PLD experiments: fast deposition (on scale order of 10{sup -5} s) during individual pulses, and relaxation of a system between pulses (on scale order of 0.1 s). We calculate and compare the temperature dependence of island density for two modes pulsed deposition and continuous Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth. The island densities in PLD mode are substantially higher than in MBE mode, provided the temperature is sufficiently high. In the case of PLD, we observe anomalous temperature dependence of the island density in a certain temperature interval. It is due to the interplay between a cluster decay time and an interval between pulses. The cluster decay time depends not only on temperature but also on clusters size and shape. The anomalous behavior is caused by the temperature limited stability of the closed--compact clusters. This scenario was revealed for the simplified model with only nearest-neighbor interaction. Now, it is elucidated further and we also include interaction to second and third neighbors. We analyze role of the closed-compact surface island in kinetics of both growth modes. Furthermore, by varying interactions energies, diffusion barrier and parameters of deposition, we compare results of simulations with the PLD experiment for Fe/Mo system.

Kotrla, M.; Masin, M. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21, Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

2011-03-24

30

Androgens stimulate early stages of follicular growth in the primate ovary.  

PubMed Central

The concept that androgens are atretogenic, derived from murine ovary studies, is difficult to reconcile with the fact that hyperandrogenic women have more developing follicles than normal-cycling women. To evaluate androgen's effects on primate follicular growth and survival, normal-cycling rhesus monkeys were treated with placebo-, testosterone-(T), or dihydrotestosterone-sustained release implants, and ovaries were taken for histological analysis after 3-10 d of treatment. Growing preantral and small antral follicles up to 1 mm in diameter were significantly and progressively increased in number and thecal layer thickness in T-treated monkeys from 3-10 d. Granulosa and thecal cell proliferation, as determined by immunodetection of the Ki67 antigen, were significantly increased in these follicles. Preovulatory follicles (> 1 mm), however, were not increased in number in androgen-treated animals. Follicular atresia was not increased and there were actually significantly fewer apoptotic granulosa cells in the T-treated groups. Dihydrotestosterone treatment had identical effects, indicating that these growth-promoting actions are mediated by the androgen receptor. These findings show that, over the short term at least, androgens are not atretogenic and actually enhance follicular growth and survival in the primate. These new data provide a plausible explanation for the pathogenesis of "polycystic" ovaries in hyperandrogenism.

Vendola, K A; Zhou, J; Adesanya, O O; Weil, S J; Bondy, C A

1998-01-01

31

Early Stage Treatment of Compartment Syndrome Using Polymer Sol-Gel Composite Growth Factor Delivery Wound Dressings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Compartment syndrome (CS) as a result of blast or traumatic injury is a devastating problem in the battlefield. The ultimate goal of this study is to develop an integrated toolkit of novel, biodegradable wound dressing composites for early stage treatment...

C. Knabe H. Qu J. Kim P. Ducheyne S. Radin

2008-01-01

32

Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed.

Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2012-01-01

33

Potential of very high spatial resolution Pleiades images for discriminating between crops at early growth stage and bare agricultural soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out in the framework of the Optical and Radar Federated Earth Observation (ORFEO) accompaniment program of the French Space Agency (CNES). It is also part of the other projects (Prostock-Gessol3, BASC-SOCSENSIT) aiming at spatially monitoring the effects of exogenous organic matter land application on soil organic carbon sequestration, and necessitating for this purpose the gathering of spatial data about crops and crop successions as inputs into mechanistic crop models. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of very high spatial resolution (VHSR) Pleiades images (2 m -spatial resolution) to the mapping of different crops at various growth stages and various bare soil surface conditions related to tillage operations over an agricultural region in the western peri-urban suburbs of Paris: the Versailles plain (Yvelines, France). About 300 field observations describing soil surface conditions or crop phenological stages were collected at ~150 agricultural fields spread over 21 km², synchronously with the Pleiades images acquisitions of 3 and 24 April 2013. Field data were GIS-structured and used as a basis for delimitating within-field training and test zones. The performance of various classifiers was compared either on the spectral bands with or without NDVI or on the principal components of a series of spectral and textural features of an object-based classifier (ENVI FX®): the Bayesian maximum likelihood classifier (ML), the neural network classifier (NN), the support vector machine classifier with polynomial function kernel (SVM). The overall accuracy of the SVM classifier computed on the 4 spectral bands and the NDVI and followed by a median filter and class recombination according to crops reached about 78% for the Pleiades image of 3 April and 82% for that of 24 April. Tillage operations were very well detected (>77%, user's or producer's accuracies) as well as winter cereals (>70%, user's or producer's accuracies). Both Pleiades images enabled to perfectly discriminate between early stage winter cereals and bare cropped soils. They brought unique information about within-field spatial heterogeneity of crop varieties, seedbed preparation and crop development stages and enabled to detect practices of organic amendment application.

Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Noirot-Cosson, Paul-Emile; Membrive, Olivier; Hadjar, Dalila

2014-05-01

34

Overexpression of AtWRKY30 enhances abiotic stress tolerance during early growth stages in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

AtWRKY30 belongs to a higher plant transcription factor superfamily, which responds to pathogen attack. In previous studies, the AtWRKY30 gene was found to be highly and rapidly induced in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves after oxidative stress treatment. In this study, electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that AtWRKY30 binds with high specificity and affinity to the WRKY consensus sequence (W-box), and also to its own promoter. Analysis of the AtWRKY30 expression pattern by qPCR and using transgenic Arabidopsis lines carrying AtWRKY30 promoter-?-glucuronidase fusions showed transcriptional activity in leaves subjected to biotic or abiotic stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively overexpressing AtWRKY30 (35S::W30 lines) were more tolerant than wild-type plants to oxidative and salinity stresses during seed germination. The results presented here show that AtWRKY30 is responsive to several stress conditions either from abiotic or biotic origin, suggesting that AtWRKY30 could have a role in the activation of defence responses at early stages of Arabidopsis growth by binding to W-boxes found in promoters of many stress/developmentally regulated genes. PMID:23794142

Scarpeci, Telma E; Zanor, María I; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Valle, Estela M

2013-10-01

35

Early Stages Of Biome Shift in Boreal Alaska: Climate Sensitivity of Tree Growth and Accelerated Tree Mortality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boreal forest region of Alaska is characterized by a major east-west climate gradient, in addition to a widely appreciated north-south gradient. Low elevations of the eastern and central Interior experience warm summer temperatures and low annual precipitation, while coastal western Alaska has cool summer temperatures and greater precipitation. In the Interior the four dominant tree species of white and black spruce, aspen, and Alaska birch on low elevation sites nearly all register a strong negative radial growth relationship to summer temperatures, concentrated in May and July. Precipitation, particularly in late winter and midsummer, plays a supplemental role as a positive factor in growth. Floodplain white spruce along the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers transition from negative temperature response to positive response in western Alaska near the tree limit. Populations of white spruce on treeline sites display both negative growth response to July temperature and positive response to spring temperatures, with the negative response dominant in the east and the positive response dominant in the west. Across boreal Alaska summer temperatures increased abruptly in 1974, and have remained at historically high levels since. Correspondingly, climatic favorability for radial growth of Interior trees on most low elevation sites has been at extreme low levels particularly in the 21st century. Satellite-based NDVI coverage confirms that forest growth reduction is widespread in boreal Alaska since the 1980s. Defoliating and wood boring insects have reached outbreak population levels across most of boreal Alaska, partly from release of direct temperature control on the insects and partly from increased tree host susceptibility. Major outbreak species include aspen leaf miner, spruce engraver beetle, and spruce budworm. About a dozen tall willow species have been subjected to widespread attack by willow leaf blotch miner, and a new disease and defoliating insect have spread rapidly in alder shrubs, so nearly all woody species face health challenges. Temperatures and precipitation on many Interior sites are now at or beyond tolerance limits for white spruce, aspen, and Alaska birch. Two episodes of acute drought injury were widespread in birch during the last decade. Deficits in climate predicted tree growth are synchronous with the major insect outbreaks as recorded in insect trapping records and aerial surveys of area affected. Over the past 25 years tree mortality of 50% or more occurred in nearly all long-term monitoring plots in mature stands on productive sites in the Interior, but to date trees have successfully regenerated on most disturbed sites. These environmental changes and tree responses, including opposite responses, are coherent, and consistent with early stages of a biome shift eliminating boreal forest on dry Interior sites, and emergence of a new climate optimum zone in western Alaska currently only sparsely populated with forest.

Juday, G. P.; Grant, T.; Alix, C. M.; Spencer, D. L.; Beck, P. S.

2012-12-01

36

The Effect of Hypercholesterolemia on Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Nitrite Concentrations in Early Stage of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Nitric Oxide (NO) play an important role for maintaining endothelial integrity. The purpose is to investigate the VEGF alteration during early atherosclerosis lesion formation in an animal model of hypercholesterolemia. We also measured nitrite to observe the relationship between VEGF and endothelial NO production. 20 white male rabbits randomly assigned in 2

Shaghayegh Haghjooyjavanmard; Mehdi Nematbakhsh; Masoud Soleimani

2009-01-01

37

Molecular beam epitaxy of SrTiO{sub 3} on Si (001): Early stages of the growth and strain relaxation  

SciTech Connect

The molecular beam epitaxy of SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) layers on Si (001) is studied, focusing on the early stages of the growth and on the strain relaxation process. Evidence is given that even for optimized growth conditions, STO grows initially amorphous on silicon and recrystallizes, leading to the formation of an atomically abrupt heterointerface with silicon. Just after recrystallization, STO is partially strained. Further increase in its thickness leads to the onset of a progressive plastic relaxation mechanism. STO recovers its bulk lattice parameter for thicknesses of the order of 30 ML.

Niu, G.; Saint-Girons, G.; Vilquin, B.; Delhaye, G.; Botella, C.; Robach, Y.; Hollinger, G. [INL/UMR5270, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Maurice, J.-L. [Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales Associee a l'Universite Paris Sud, Campus de Polytechnique, 1 Avenue A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France)

2009-08-10

38

Growth and feeding patterns of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) early life stages in the Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to describe inter- and intra-annual variations in the environmental characteristics of the North-eastern Aegean Sea and to relate these changes to the egg and larval distributions, growth and feeding of larval anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus). Four cruises, two in July and two in September in 2003 and 2004 were performed. The distributions of eggs and larvae were associated with i) salinity fronts related to the Black Sea Water and ii) shallow areas of high productivity over the continental shelf, some of them with high riverine influence. The first published description of the anchovy larval diet in the Eastern Mediterranean was conducted in individuals ranging from 2.2 to 17 mm standard length. The number of non-empty guts was relatively high (between 20% and 30%), and the diet was described through 15 main items. The mean size of the prey increased with larval size, and was generally dominated by prey widths smaller than 80 ?m (mainly the nauplii and copepodite stages of copepods). Small larvae positively selected copepod nauplii. As larvae grew, they shifted to larger copepod stages. At all sizes, larvae rejected abundant taxa like cladocerans. The average trophic level calculated for anchovy of all size ranges was 2.98 ± 0.16 (SE). Growth rates varied from 0.41 to 0.75 mm d -1, with the highest growth rates generally observed in September. Variability in the Black Sea Water influence and the recorded inter- and intra-annual changes in primary and secondary production, combined with marked changes in temperature over the first 20 m depth, are used to frame the discussion regarding the observed significant differences in growth rates in terms of both length and weight.

Catalán, Ignacio A.; Folkvord, Arild; Palomera, Isabel; Quílez-Badía, Gemma; Kallianoti, Fotini; Tselepides, Anastasios; Kallianotis, Argyris

2010-01-01

39

Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Haddix, T. M.; Holte, L. D.; Wilson, R. H.; Bartron, M. L.; Kalie, J. A.; DeHaan, P. W.; Ardren, W. R.; Holm, R. J.; Jaeger, M. E.

2012-01-01

40

Evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Prognostic Marker for Local Relapse in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important protein involved in the process of angiogenesis that has been found to correlate with relapse-free and overall survival in breast cancer, predominantly in locally advanced and metastatic disease. A paucity of data is available on the prognostic implications of VEGF in early-stage breast cancer; specifically, its prognostic value for local relapse after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to assess VEGF expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with BCT and to correlate the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes with overexpression of VEGF. Methods and Materials: After obtaining institutional review board approval, the paraffin specimens of 368 patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT between 1975 and 2005 were constructed into tissue microarrays with twofold redundancy. The tissue microarrays were stained for VEGF and read by a trained pathologist, who was unaware of the clinical details, as positive or negative according the standard guidelines. The clinical and pathologic data, long-term outcomes, and results of VEGF staining were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 6.5 years. VEGF expression was positive in 56 (15%) of the 368 patients. Although VEGF expression did not correlate with age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, histologic type, family history, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or HER-2 status, a trend was seen toward increased VEGF expression in the black cohort (26% black vs. 13% white, p = .068). Within the margin-negative cohort, VEGF did not predict for local relapse-free survival (RFS) (96% vs. 95%), nodal RFS (100% vs. 100%), distant metastasis-free survival (91% vs. 92%), overall survival (92% vs. 97%), respectively (all p >.05). Subset analysis revealed that VEGF was highly predictive of local RFS in node-positive, margin-negative patients (86% vs. 100%, p = .029) on univariate analysis, but it did not retain its significance on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.804-7.920, p = .113). No other subgroups were identified in which a correlation was found between VEGF expression and local relapse. Conclusion: To our knowledge, our study is the first to assess the prognostic value of VEGF with the endpoint of local relapse in early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT, an important question given the recent increased use of targeted antiangiogenic agents in early-stage breast cancer. Our study results suggest that VEGF is not an independent predictor of local RFS after BCT, but additional, larger studies specifically analyzing the endpoint of VEGF and local relapse are warranted.

Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yang Qifeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of China (China); Goyal, Sharad [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Harris, Lyndsay; Chung, Gina [Department of Medical Oncology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

2011-12-01

41

Biochemical composition during growth and starvation of early larval stages of cultured spiny lobster ( Jasus edwardsii) phyllosoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined biochemical changes accompanying feeding and starvation from hatch to Stage VI (day 74 after hatch) in spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, phyllosoma larvae. Larval dry weights (dw) increased 17-fold from hatch (80±1 ?g) to Stage VI (1415±44 ?g). Larvae starved for 6–11 days at Stages II, IV and VI were 14–40% lighter than their fed counterparts fed enriched Artemia.

Arthur J. Ritar; Graeme A. Dunstan; Bradley J. Crear; Malcolm R. Brown

2003-01-01

42

Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor is Required for In vivo Cardiac Myocyte Proliferation at Early Embryonic Stages of Heart Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In birds and mammals, cardiac myocytes terminate mitotic activity in the neonatal period and regeneration of cardiac muscle does not occur after myocardial injury in adult hearts. Even embryonic myocytes, which actively proliferate in vivo, quickly lose mitotic activity when placed in cell culture. Several growth factors, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF), have been documented in embryonic hearts and some

T. Mima; H. Ueno; D. A. Fischman; L. T. Williams; T. Mikawa

1995-01-01

43

Biochemical composition during growth and starvation of early larval stages of cultured spiny lobster (Jasus edwardsii) phyllosoma.  

PubMed

We examined biochemical changes accompanying feeding and starvation from hatch to Stage VI (day 74 after hatch) in spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, phyllosoma larvae. Larval dry weights (dw) increased 17-fold from hatch (80+/-1 microg) to Stage VI (1415+/-44 microg). Larvae starved for 6-11 days at Stages II, IV and VI were 14-40% lighter than their fed counterparts fed enriched Artemia. The increases and losses in total dry weight during feeding and starvation were associated with changes in the content of protein (constituting 31.4-41.7% of dw) and carbohydrate (constituting 2.6-5.3% of dw), while larger changes in lipid content indicated its greater importance as an energy substrate. Lipid content increased from 7.9% of dw at hatch to its highest of 12.5% at Stage IV, but declined by 50% or more during starvation. This suggests that protein, carbohydrate and lipid are all important energy stores, although lipids are catabolized at a greater rate during food deprivation. The principal lipid class was polar lipid (PL; 79-92% of total lipid), followed by sterol (ST; 6-20%), with triacylglycerol and other lipid classes at <2%. PL were catabolized and ST were conserved during starvation. Changes in the fatty acid (FA) profile had mostly occurred before the first moult at day 8 after hatch, with gradual changes thereafter to Stage VI, reflecting their abundance in the Artemia diet. There was some conservation of the major essential FAs, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 22:6n-3, and the FA profile showed large gains in the C(18) polyunsaturated FA, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6. Ascorbic acid content increased 10-fold from hatch to the end of Stage I (36 and 333 microgg(-1) dw, respectively), while the content at the end of Stage II was higher in fed than that in starved larvae (439 and 174 microgg(-1) dw, respectively). Our study will assist in the development of alternatives to nutritionally incomplete diets, such as live ongrown Artemia, to meet the requirements of phyllosoma in culture. PMID:14511754

Ritar, Arthur J; Dunstan, Graeme A; Crear, Bradley J; Brown, Malcolm R

2003-10-01

44

Electronic structure and growth mode of the early stages of C 60 adsorption at the Ag(001) surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure and growth mode of C 60 molecules deposited on Ag(001) have been studied as a function of deposition parameters and annealing temperature. The measurements show that C 60 molecules are chemically bound to the Ag(001) surface even when deposited at 150 K, and the bond properties do not change significantly after annealing up to 670 K. In the resulting ordered C 60 overlayer, a mixed contrast of the buckyballs, as seen by scanning tunneling microscopy, is discussed in terms of non-equivalent orientations of the adsorbed molecules.

Cepek, C.; Giovanelli, L.; Sancrotti, M.; Costantini, G.; Boragno, C.; Valbusa, U.

2000-05-01

45

Rotavirus Nonstructural Protein 1 Suppresses Virus-Induced Cellular Apoptosis To Facilitate Viral Growth by Activating the Cell Survival Pathways during Early Stages of Infection ? ‡  

PubMed Central

Following virus infection, one of the cellular responses to limit the virus spread is induction of apoptosis. In the present study, we report role of rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1) in regulating apoptosis by activating prosurvival pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B) during early hours of infections (2 to 8 hpi). The NSP1 mutant strain A5-16 induces weak and transient activation of Akt (protein kinase B) and p65 NF-?B compared to the isogenic wild-type strain A5-13 in MA104 or HT29 cells. The weak NF-?B promoter activity or Akt phosphorylation after A5-16 infection could be complemented in cells transfected with plasmid expressing NSP1 after infection with the rotavirus A5-16 strain. In cells either infected with A5-13 or transfected with pcD-NSP1, coimmunoprecipitation of NSP1 with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) was observed, indicating that strong activation of PI3K/Akt could be due to its interaction with NSP1. In addition, after infection with same multiplicity of infection, A5-16 showed reduced number of viral particles compared to the A5-13 strain at the end of the replication cycle. A lower growth rate could be due to weak induction of PI3K/Akt and NF-?B, since the A5-13 strain also showed reduced growth in the presence of PI3K or NF-?B inhibitors. This effect was interferon independent; however, it was partly due to significantly higher caspase-3 activity, poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and apoptosis during earlier stages of infection with the NSP1 mutant. Thus, our data suggest that NSP1 positively supports rotavirus growth by suppression of premature apoptosis for improved virus growth after infection.

Bagchi, Parikshit; Dutta, Dipanjan; Chattopadhyay, Shiladitya; Mukherjee, Anupam; Halder, Umesh Chandra; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Komoto, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Koki; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta

2010-01-01

46

Early growth stage of a large delta — Transformation from estuarine-platform to deltaic-progradational conditions (the northeastern Mekong River Delta, Vietnam)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial growth stage of a river delta can be defined either as the beginning geomorphologic expansion of the river-dominated coastal lowland or as the starting basinward-directed progradation of the geological/stratigraphic delta body. Differentiating between these two perspectives is necessary for understanding the sensitive reaction of a deltaic system to dynamic changes in sea-level and sediment availability. The Holocene evolution of the northeastern part of the Mekong River delta (Southern Vietnam) offers a great chance to depict these two different definitions and relate them genetically to each other since the transition between an old abrasion platform (inner delta) and the continental-shelf basin (outer delta) is well developed in this marginal part of the delta. The early stage of delta growth taking place during transgression-related inundation between 8 cal ka BP (maximum flooding) and 5.7 (6.0-4.8) cal ka BP (sea-level highstand) was characterized by tide-and saltwater-influenced nearshore conditions allowing extensive mangrove and tidal-flat deposits to aggradate on the wide abrasion platform. With the onset of regression around 4.8 cal ka BP the depositional center shifted immediately beyond the seaward margin of this estuarine platform and thus true deltaic progradation could develop leading to rapid construction of a delta body (and, in addition, to subsidence/tilting of the inner delta zone). Directly at the transition of these two deposystems, remains of shore-related deposits indicate the sudden breakdown of the estuarine platform conditions around 4.6 cal ka BP.

Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Proske, Ulrike; Saito, Yoshiki; Nguyen, Van Lap; Ta, Thi Kim Oanh

2012-06-01

47

Early stage heteroepitaxial growth of SrRuO 3 films on SrTiO 3 (001) depending on the growth temperature during pulsed laser deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth behavior of ultrathin (?5 nm) SrRuO3 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on SrTiO3 (001) was investigated particularly as a function of growth temperature mainly using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. At a critical growth temperature (~500 °C), below which no crystallization occurs, an epitaxial SrRuO3 film starts to grow with a broad distribution of single (110) domain along

Han Cheol Choe; Tae Soo Kang; Jung Ho Je; Jong Ha Moon; Byung-Teak Lee; Sang Sub Kim

2005-01-01

48

Microstructure and growth mode at early growth stage of laser-ablated epitaxial Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films on a SrTiO3 substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface morphology and microstructure of laser-ablated Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films on a (100) SrTiO3 (STO) substrate at early growth stage are characterized by means of atomic-force microscope, x-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. The (100) STO surface is found to be very favorable for epitaxial growth of (001) PZT films, which undergo a three-dimensional island growth mode. We observed a two-layer structure at the film thickness around 40-50 nm when small nuclei/grains merge into large grains. With further increase of film thickness, a column-like growth mode dominates the film crystalline structure, which results in an almost independent in-plain grain size of 100-150 nm with increasing film thickness and a limited film roughness. A very sharp interface between the PZT thin film and STO substrate is observed. The PZT film shows a perfect stacking lattice at a thickness of around 20 nm and above, indicating that the misalignment due to the interface stress and defects is healed after stacking about 50 ML of the film. These results have shed some light on the growth mechanism of epitaxial PZT film on YBCO or other bottom layers for microelectromechanical systems application.

Goh, W. C.; Xu, S. Y.; Wang, S. J.; Ong, C. K.

2001-04-01

49

Early growth stage of a large delta - Transformation from estuarine-platform to deltaic-progradational conditions (the northeastern Mekong River Delta, Vietnam)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial growth stage of a river delta can be defined either as the beginning geomorphologic expansion of the river-dominated coastal lowland or as the starting basinward-directed progradation of the geological\\/stratigraphic delta body. Differentiating between these two perspectives is necessary for understanding the sensitive reaction of a deltaic system to dynamic changes in sea-level and sediment availability. The Holocene evolution

Till J. J. Hanebuth; Ulrike Proske; Yoshiki Saito; Van Lap Nguyen; Ta Thi Kim Oanh

2012-01-01

50

Gene expression analysis in soybean in response to the causal agent of Asian soybean rust ( Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow) in an early growth stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian soybean rust (ASR) caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow is a potentially devastating disease posing a serious threat to the soybean industry. Understanding plant host response\\u000a at the molecular level is certainly important for control of the disease. The main objective of this study was to perform\\u000a a transcriptome profiling of P. pachyrhizi-exposed young soybean plants (V2 growth stage) using

D. R. Panthee; J. S. Yuan; D. L. Wright; J. J. Marois; D. Mailhot; C. N. Stewart Jr

2007-01-01

51

Favorable early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

The category of favorable early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) includes patients with Ann Arbor stages I or II disease with no bulky disease or B symptoms. The precise definition of favorable versus unfavorable early-stage disease may vary among American and European cooperative groups. The overall 10-year survival rate of patients with favorable early-stage HL exceeds 90%. Indeed, effective treatments for this group of patients have been available for more than 4 decades. However, treatment strategies have radically changed over the past 15 years and focus now on maintaining the high cure rate while reducing the risk of treatment-related long-term morbidity. The optimal treatment is still evolving, and more recently, reduction in the total amount of chemotherapy and in radiation field and dose has shown excellent results. Combined modality therapy is the preferred treatment for patients with classical favorable early-stage HL (nodular sclerosis or mixed cellularity histology). Patients with early-stage lymphocyte predominance HL are highly curable using involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) alone and do not require chemotherapy. Classical favorable HL is also curable with radiotherapy alone or with chemotherapy alone, but larger fields and higher-dose radiation or longer chemotherapy is required compared with combined modality. The freedom from treatment failure rate is significantly better with a combination of short chemotherapy and IFRT than with either chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone. Although combined modality is the standard preferred treatment for favorable disease, radiation therapy alone or chemotherapy alone could be considered under special circumstances or as part of an investigational protocol. PMID:16507270

Yahalom, Joachim

2006-03-01

52

Temperature and ration effects on components of the IGF system and growth performance of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the transition from late stage embryos to early stage juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the effects of incubation temperature, and the size of ration fed to the transitional embryo\\/juvenile stage of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on growth, liver and gastrointestinal (GI) tract IGF-1 content, and the expression of insulin-like growth factor-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-RIa, and IGF-RIb) by the liver and GI tract. Embryos were reared from zygote to “swim-up” at

Mao Li; John Leatherland

2008-01-01

53

Endoscopic Classification can Predict the Infiltrative Growth Patterns of Early-Stage Esophageal Cancer: A Retrospective Study of 133 Patients at a Single Academic Tertiary Care Center.  

PubMed

The relationships between two endoscopic classification systems (type I and II) and the infiltrative growth patterns (INF) of early esophageal cancers were evaluated. Among type I carcinomas, the INFs were mainly INFb in the polypoid and mixed types, INFa in the superficial type, and INFc in the excavated type. Among type II carcinomas, INFa was the main pattern in the surface-propagating type, whereas INFb was observed in the intraluminal, bilateral, and mixed types. INFb and INFc were observed in the intramural type. Our results indicate that the superficial and surface-propagating types had the weakest infiltrative potential, whereas the excavated and intramural types had the highest infiltrative potential. PMID:24800781

Wu, Yue; Zhou, Xue; Chen, Yao; Dai, Jianhua; Yuan, Yue; Peng, Guiyong

2014-07-01

54

Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In addition, the toxicity profiles are quite favorable. In addition to stereotactic radiation, advances in brachytherapy techniques have enabled high local control rates in operable patients who receive sublobar resections due to compromised pulmonary function. Isotopes that have been used include iodine-125, palladium-103, and cesium-131. In this review article, the role of radiation therapy in treatment of lung cancer, patient selection, outcomes, toxicity and recent technological advancements are discussed. The radiation therapy techniques described in this article are also being used in the management of locally advanced lung cancers.

Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

2013-01-01

55

Gene expression analysis in soybean in response to the causal agent of Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow) in an early growth stage.  

PubMed

Asian soybean rust (ASR) caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow is a potentially devastating disease posing a serious threat to the soybean industry. Understanding plant host response at the molecular level is certainly important for control of the disease. The main objective of this study was to perform a transcriptome profiling of P. pachyrhizi-exposed young soybean plants (V2 growth stage) using whole genome Affymetrix microarrays of soybean. Three-week-old soybean cv. 5601 T plants at the V2 growth stage were inoculated with P. pachyrhizi, and leaf samples were collected 72 h post inoculation with subsequent microarray analysis performed. A total of 112 genes were found to be differentially expressed from P. pachyrhizi exposure, of which 46 were upregulated, and 66 were downregulated. Most of the differentially expressed genes were general defense and stress-related genes, and 34 of these were unknown. Confirmational real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on a subset of 5 out of 112 differentially expressed genes. These results were congruent with the microarray analysis. Our results indicated that low and nonspecific innate response to the pathogen may account for the failure to develop rust resistance in the soybean variety studied. To our knowledge, this is the first microarray analysis of soybean in response to ASR. PMID:17318271

Panthee, D R; Yuan, J S; Wright, D L; Marois, J J; Mailhot, D; Stewart, C N

2007-10-01

56

Treatment Choices for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Treatment Choices for Men With Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Posted: 02/11/2011 Treatment Choices for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer About This Booklet Facts about Prostate Cancer Thinking About Treatment Choices ...

57

Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

58

New antimalarial indolone-N-oxides, generating radical species, destabilize the host cell membrane at early stages of Plasmodium falciparum growth: role of band 3 tyrosine phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Although indolone-N-oxide (INODs) genereting long-lived radicals possess antiplasmodial activity in the low-nanomolar range, little is known about their mechanism of action. To explore the molecular basis of INOD activity, we screened for changes in INOD-treated malaria-infected erythrocytes (Pf-RBCs) using a proteomics approach. At early parasite maturation stages, treatment with INODs at their IC50 concentrations induced a marked tyrosine phosphorylation of the erythrocyte membrane protein band 3, whereas no effect was observed in control RBCs. After INOD treatment of Pf-RBCs we also observed: (i) accelerated formation of membrane aggregates containing hyperphosphorylated band 3, Syk kinase, and denatured hemoglobin; (ii) dose-dependent release of microvesicles containing the membrane aggregates; (iii) reduction in band 3 phosphorylation, Pf-RBC vesiculation, and antimalarial effect of INODs upon addition of Syk kinase inhibitors; and (iv) correlation between the IC50 and the INOD concentrations required to induce band 3 phosphorylation and vesiculation. Together with previous data demonstrating that tyrosine phosphorylation of oxidized band 3 promotes its dissociation from the cytoskeleton, these results suggest that INODs cause a profound destabilization of the Pf-RBC membrane through a mechanism apparently triggered by the activation of a redox signaling pathway rather than direct oxidative damage.

Pantaleo, Antonella; Ferru, Emanuela; Vono, Rosa; Giribaldi, Giuliana; Lobina, Omar; Nepveu, Francoise; Ibrahim, Hany; Nallet, Jean-Pierre; Carta, Franco; Mannu, Franca; Pippia, Proto; Campanella, Estela; Low, Philip S.; Turrini, Francesco

2012-01-01

59

Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch date distributions predicted by flow-independent (84-93%) and flow-dependent (82-91%) incubation loss models were similar. Age-0 abundance was generally independent of viable egg deposition, except in one year when egg deposition was 10-fold lower due to reduced spawning activity. There was no evidence from the hatch date or stock-recruitment analysis that flow-dependent incubation losses, although large in experimental years, affected the abundance of the age-0 population. The data indicate that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of flow-dependent losses. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that the March 2008 high flow experiment (HFE) resulted in a large increase in early survival rates (fertilization to ~1-2 months from emergence) of age-0 trout due an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis indicated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over four-fold higher than expected given the number of viable redds that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about two months after the HFE. These cohorts, which were fertilized after the HFE, were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better quality habitat. Inter annual differences in growth of age-0 trout based on otolith microstructure support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm·day-1) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm·day-1), the highest recorded over six years, even though abundance was eight-fold greater in 2008. I speculate that high flows in 2008 increased interstitial spaces in the substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth during summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was over two-fold higher than expected, possibly indicating that the effect of the HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent.

Korman, Josh

2010-05-01

60

Research on the early planet formation stages with IPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stages of planet formation are characterized by growth of fractal aggregates, starting from (sub-)micrometer-sized grains to (fractal) aggregates of roughly mm size. In the last 20 years a number of experiments on the behaviour and growth mechanisms of aggregates has been carried out. Laboratory experiments are limited due to sedimentation (e.g. Heim and Blum 1998, Wurm et al 2001). Previous long-term microgravity experiments CODAG (Blum et al 2000) and CODAG-SRE (Krause and Blum 2004) were mainly limited by the diffusion of particles, a fact which IPE tries to overcome by means of a particle trap. We present how IPE will help to extend these experimental boundaries and how we plan to utilize IPE. Finally we outline the expectations on the facility from a planet formation point of view in the domain of the mutual interactions, evolution, growth and morphology of fractal aggregates.

Ingo von Borstel, Olaf; Blum, Jurgen; Schraepler, Rainer

61

Pancreatic Perfusion CT in Early Stage of Severe Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Early intensive care for severe acute pancreatitis is essential for improving SAP mortality rates. However, intensive therapies for SAP are often delayed because there is no ideal way to accurately evaluate severity in the early stages. Currently, perfusion CT has been shown useful to predict prognosis of SAP in the early stage. In this presented paper, we would like to review the clinical usefulness and limitations of perfusion CT for evaluation of local and systemic complications in early stage of SAP.

Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Naoki; Tsutomu, Chiba

2012-01-01

62

Regulation of the Human Growth Hormone Gene Family: Possible Role for Pit1 in Early Stages of Pituitary-Specific Expression and Repression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The somatic cells of a multicellular organism contain an identical complement of genes that need to be expressed specifically and appropriately to allow the normal development and functions associated with an organism. In the eukaryotic cell nucleus, genes are packaged with nucleoprotein histones into chromatin. The human growth hormone (GH)\\/chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) gene family offers an excellent model to study

Peter A. Cattini; Xiaoyang Yang; Yan Jin; Karen A. Detillieux

2006-01-01

63

Interactive sketching for the early stages of user interface design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current interactive user interface construction tools are often more of a hindrance than a benefit during the early stages of user interface design. These tools take too much time to use and force designers to specify more of the design details than they wish at this early stage. Most interface designers, especially those who have a background in graphic design,

James A. Landay; Brad A. Myers

1995-01-01

64

Imaging of early stages of osteonecrosis of the knee.  

PubMed

Osteonecrosis of the knee can present as a spontaneous and primary or a secondary clinical entity. The natural history of osteonecrosis follows a course of several sequential stages, and the later stages of both entities seem to be irreversible. Early diagnosis of osteonecrosis is crucial: the earlier the stage of the lesion at the time of diagnosis, the better the prognosis.Clinically, early diagnosis and treatment of osteonecrosis might prevent unnecessary surgery in cases with a concomitant degenerative meniscal tear. Early-stage osteonecrosis should be ruled out before surgery, because arthroscopy has lately been associated with osteonecrosis. Not every imaging method is equally suitable for detecting pathognomonic changes in each stage of osteonecrosis. Early-stage osteonecrosis is difficult to diagnose,because various differential diagnoses must be kept in mind. Moreover, there is a diagnostic window between the onset of symptoms and the appearance of pathognomonic changes on plain radiographs and MRI. PMID:15271537

Pape, Dietrich; Seil, Romain; Kohn, Dieter; Schneider, Gunther

2004-07-01

65

Increasing experience in laparoscopic staging of early ovarian cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effect of increasing experience of a single surgeon (learning curve) in the laparoscopic staging procedure\\u000a for women with early ovarian cancer and compared the results with the literature. We retrospectively analysed a total of 25\\u000a women with apparent early-stage ovarian cancer who underwent a laparoscopic staging procedure by the same surgeon. Three time\\u000a periods, based on date

Henk W. R. Schreuder; Thyrza O. S. Pattij; Ronald P. Zweemer; Marchien W. van Baal; René H. M. Verheijen

66

Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease

F. P. H. Gazeau; J.-P. Gattuso; C. Dawber; A. E. Pronker; F. Peene; J. Peene; C. H. R. Heip; J. J. Middelburg

2010-01-01

67

Stages and stage distribution in early oogenesis in the Annelid, Platynereis dumerilii  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The coelomic stages of oogenesis up to early vitellogenesis are described in Platynereis dumerilii.2.Early stages up to 26—27 µm in diameter are attached to each other in variable numbers thus forming clusters of variable size. Sheath cells cover the oocyte clusters initially and in later stages wrap up the clustered oocytes individually.3.Thereafter, the oocytes fall apart and loose their sheath

Albrecht Fischer

1974-01-01

68

Thalidomide as initial therapy for early-stage myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with early-stage myeloma are typically observed without therapy until symptomatic disease occurs. However, they are at high risk of progression to symptomatic myeloma, with a median time to progression of approximately 1–2 years. We report the final results of a phase II trial of thalidomide as initial therapy for early-stage multiple myeloma in an attempt to delay progression to

S V Rajkumar; M A Gertz; M Q Lacy; A Dispenzieri; R Fonseca; S M Geyer; N Iturria; S Kumar; J A Lust; R A Kyle; P R Greipp; T E Witzig

2003-01-01

69

U87MG glioma cells overexpressing IL-17 acclerate early-stage growth in vivo and cause a higher level of CD31 mRNA expression in tumor tissues  

PubMed Central

Immunological alterations have been reported to be involved in glioma, the most common malignant disease of the adult brain. Our recent study identified higher levels of IL-17 in glioma specimens. The present study investigated the role and possible mechanisms of IL-17 in glioma tumorigenesis. Human IL-17 cDNA was cloned and inserted into the eukaryotic pEGFP-N1 expression vector, which was used to transfect the glioma U87MG cell line, resulting in a high level of IL-17 expression in these cells. The cells were then transfected with IL-17 (pEGFP-N1-IL-17-U87MG) or mock (pEGFP-N1-U87MG) vector or left untransfected (U87MG) and subcutaneously inoculated into the right flank of nude mice. The results revealed that the pEGFP-N1-IL-17-U87MG cells grew more rapidly in the early stages (P<0.05, determined on day 32 post-inoculation compared with the other two groups). Quantitative (q)PCR detected higher mouse (m)CD31 mRNA levels in the IL-17-transfected group (P<0.01) compared with the mock-transfected and untransfected groups. IL-17 transfection altered the mRNA expression of a panel of molecules that are associated with immunity and inflammation in U87MG cells in vitro. An effect of the vector was identified, whereby the mock transfection strongly inhibited cell growth in vivo and dramatically altered the mRNA levels of multiple molecules in the cell culture in vitro compared with the untransfected cells. The present study confirmed that IL-17 overexpression may enhance glioma cell growth in vivo, which may be associated with accelerated angiogenesis. IL-17 overexpression may also alter the cellular mRNA expression of immune-related molecules.

HU, JINHUI; YE, HONGXING; ZHANG, DENGHAI; LIU, WEIWEI; LI, MIN; MAO, YING; LU, YUAN

2013-01-01

70

Using early stage project data to predict change-proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several previous studies have suggested methods for predicting change-proneness based on software complexity metrics. We hypothesise that data from the early stages of a development project such as requirements and design could also be used to make such predictions. We define here a set of new metrics to capture data from the requirements and\\/or design stages, and derive values for

Claire Ingram; Steve Riddle

2012-01-01

71

Modeling the early stages of reactive wetting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experimental studies of molten metal droplets wetting high-temperature reactive substrates have established that the majority of triple-line motion occurs when inertial effects are dominant. In light of these studies, this paper investigates wetting and spreading on reactive substrates when inertial effects are dominant using a thermodynamically derived diffuse interface model of a binary three-phase material. The liquid-vapor transition is modeled using a van der Waals diffuse interface approach, while the solid-fluid transition is modeled using a phase field approach. The results from the simulations demonstrate an O(t-1/2) spreading rate during the inertial regime and oscillations in the triple-line position when the metal droplet transitions from inertial to diffusive spreading. It is found that the spreading extent is reduced by enhancing dissolution by manipulating the initial liquid composition. The results from the model exhibit good qualitative and quantitative agreement with a number of recent experimental studies of high-temperature droplet spreading, particularly experiments of copper droplets spreading on silicon substrates. Analysis of the numerical data from the model suggests that the extent and rate of spreading are regulated by the spreading coefficient calculated from a force balance based on a plausible definition of the instantaneous interface energies. A number of contemporary publications have discussed the likely dissipation mechanism in spreading droplets. Thus, we examine the dissipation mechanism using the entropy-production field and determine that dissipation primarily occurs in the locality of the triple-line region during the inertial stage but extends along the solid-liquid interface region during the diffusive stage.

Wheeler, Daniel; Warren, James A.; Boettinger, William J.

2010-11-01

72

Discovering colorons at the early stage LHC  

SciTech Connect

Prospects are investigated for the discovery of massive hypergluons using data from the early runs of the Large Hadron Collider. A center of mass energy of 7 TeV and an integrated luminosity of 1 fb{sup -1} or 5 fb{sup -1} are assumed. A phenomenological Lagrangian is adopted to evaluate the cross section of a pair of colored vector bosons (colorons, {rho}-tilde) decaying into four colored scalar resonances (hyperpions, {pi}-tilde), which then decay into eight gluons. The dominant eight-jet background from the production of 8g, 7g1q, 6g2q, and 5g3q is included. We find an abundance of signal events and that realistic cuts reduce the background enough to establish a 5{sigma} signal for the coloron mass of up to 733 GeV with 1 fb{sup -1} or 833 GeV with 5 fb{sup -1}.

Dicus, Duane A. [Center for Particles and Fields and Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Kao, Chung; Sayre, Joshua [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy and Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Nandi, S. [Department of Physics and Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

2011-05-01

73

Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat  

SciTech Connect

It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko (Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

1989-09-01

74

Attenuation of Hyperlipidemia- and Diabetes-Induced Early-Stage Apoptosis and Late-Stage Renal Dysfunction via Administration of Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Is Associated with Suppression of Renal Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Lipotoxicity is a key feature of the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease, and is attributed to excessive lipid accumulation (hyperlipidemia). Increasing evidence suggests that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21 has a crucial role in lipid metabolism under diabetic conditions. Objective The present study investigated whether FGF21 can prevent hyperlipidemia- or diabetes-induced renal damage, and if so, the possible mechanism. Methods Mice were injected with free fatty acids (FFAs, 10 mg/10 g body weight) or streptozotocin (150 mg/kg) to establish a lipotoxic model or type 1 diabetic model, respectively. Simultaneously the mice were treated with FGF21 (100 µg/kg) for 10 or 80 days. The kidney weight-to-tibia length ratio and renal function were assessed. Systematic and renal lipid levels were detected by ELISA and Oil Red O staining. Renal apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis were assessed by Western blot. Results Acute FFA administration and chronic diabetes were associated with lower kidney-to-tibia length ratio, higher lipid levels, severe renal apoptosis and renal dysfunction. Obvious inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis also observed in the kidney of both mice models. Deletion of the fgf21 gene further enhanced the above pathological changes, which were significantly prevented by administration of exogenous FGF21. Conclusion These results suggest that FFA administration and diabetes induced renal damage, which was further enhanced in FGF21 knock-out mice. Administration of FGF21 significantly prevented both FFA- and diabetes-induced renal damage partially by decreasing renal lipid accumulation and suppressing inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis.

Zhang, Chi; Shao, Minglong; Yang, Hong; Chen, Liangmiao; Yu, Lechu; Cong, Weitao; Tian, Haishan; Zhang, Fangfang; Cheng, Peng; Jin, Litai; Tan, Yi; Li, Xiaokun; Cai, Lu; Lu, Xuemian

2013-01-01

75

Gas exchange and leaf metabolism of irrigated maize at different growth stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net ecosystem exchange (NEE), leaf gas exchange and biochemical traits were investigated in an irrigated maize crop grown under Mediterranean conditions. Sub-optimal irrigation water supply determined a drought stress during the early vegetative growth stage (45–49 days after swing) that decreased NEE. Drought, in the late vegetative stage, also caused a reduction of leaf gas exchange. In the latter period,

L. Vitale; C. Arena; P. Carillo; P. Di Tommasi; B. Mesolella; F. Nacca; A. Virzo De Santo; A. Fuggi; V. Magliulo

2011-01-01

76

Toxicity of Aldicarb and Fonofos to the Early-Life-Stage of the Fathead Minnow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flow-through early-life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with the pesticides aldicarb (Temik) and fonofos (Dyfonate) to determine their effect on the survival and growth of fathead minnows. Concentrations of 78 micrograms/L of aldicarb and 16 mic...

Q. H. Pickering, W. T. Gilliam

1982-01-01

77

TOXICITY OF ALDICARB AND FONOFOS TO THE EARLY-LIFE-STAGE OF THE FATHEAD MINNOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through early-life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with the pesticides aldicarb (Temik) and fonofos (Dyfonate) to determine their effect on the survival and growth of fathead minnows. Concentrations of 78 micrograms/L of aldicarb and 16 micrograms/L of fonofos did ...

78

Effects of hydrazine and other toxicants on early life stages of California brown algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity of hydrazine to early life stages of several species of California brown algae was demonstrated to occur at environmentally relevant concentrations. Effects of hydrazine on benthic organisms had not been previously studied. A reliable bioassay technique was developed using digital image analysis to measure vegetative growth inhibition of brown algal gametophytes. Hydrazine toxicity threshold of Macrocystis pyrifera gametophytes was

1989-01-01

79

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil developmental stages on herbaceous plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mount Fuji  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot culture experiment was conducted to examine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and soil developmental stages on the growth and nutrient absorption of pioneer plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mt. Fuji. Four herbaceous plants, Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae), Miscanthus oligostachyus (Gramineae), Aster ageratoides var. ovatus (Compositae), and Hedysarum vicioides (Leguminosae), were grown from

Masaaki Fujiyoshi; Atsushi Kagawa; Takayuki Nakatsubo; Takehiro Masuzawa

2006-01-01

80

Using Spirituality to Cope with Early Stage Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) robs persons living with this disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early stage AD cope is a critical step to enhance their adaptive abilities and ultimately improve their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnography study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability for people with early stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with Alzheimer’s.

Grando, Victoria T.

2010-01-01

81

Production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in early stage B-CLL: suppression by interferons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play critical roles in angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. Increased angiogenesis is observed in chronic B lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and published data reported VEGF and bFGF production in this disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate MMP expression in early stage B-CLL. Elevated

B Bauvois; J Dumont; C Mathiot; J-P Kolb

2002-01-01

82

Radiofrequency Ablation for Early-Stage Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

This review examines studies of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and discusses the role of RFA in treatment of early-stage NSCLC. RFA is usually performed under local anesthesia with computed tomography guidance. RFA-associated mortality, while being rare, can result from pulmonary events. RFA causes pneumothorax in up to 63% of cases, although pneumothorax requiring chest drainage occurs in less than 15% of procedures. Other severe complications are rare. After RFA of stage I NSCLC, 31–42% of patients show local progression. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates after RFA of stage I NSCLC were 78% to 100%, 53% to 86%, 36% to 88%, and 25% to 61%, respectively. The median survival time ranged from 29 to 67 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year cancer-specific survival rates after RFA of stage I NSCLC were 89% to 100%, 92% to 93%, and 59% to 88%, respectively. RFA has a higher local failure rate than sublobar resection and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Therefore, RFA may currently be reserved for early-stage NSCLC patients who are unfit for sublobar resection or SBRT. Various technologies are being developed to improve clinical outcomes of RFA for early-stage NSCLC.

Hiraki, Takao; Gobara, Hideo; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Matsui, Yusuke; Kanazawa, Susumu

2014-01-01

83

A collaborative approach to health promotion in early stage dementia.  

PubMed

Dementia affects all aspects of a person's life, including memory, functioning, emotions and social relationships. Dementia care is a national priority because of an increasingly older population and the effect of the condition on individuals, families and communities. Early recognition, and appropriate care and treatment improve the experiences of people with dementia, particularly in hospital or care settings. Nurses can work collaboratively with pharmacists to promote health and maintain the wellbeing of people in the early stages of dementia. PMID:23821990

Jenkins, Catharine; McKay, Ailsa

84

Vitrification of early-stage bovine and equine embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine an optimal method and stage of development for vitrification of bovine zygotes or early embryos; and (2) use the optimal procedure for bovine embryos to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of early embryos. Initially, bovine embryos produced by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) were frozen and vitrified in 0.25mL straws with

L. F. Campos-Chillòn; T. K. Suh; M. Barcelo-Fimbres; G SEIDELJR; E. M. Carnevale

2009-01-01

85

TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

86

Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

2008-08-01

87

Metformin to Treat Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, nondiabetic women or men younger than age 75 who have been diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer within the previous 12 months and who have undergone surgery to remove their tumor will be randomly assigned to take metformin or placebo pills twice a day for 5 years.

88

Clinical MR Evaluation of Early Stage Articular Cartilage Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early stages of articular cartilage disease, the most prevalent of which is osteoarthritis (OA), changes occur in the cartilage matrix, where a loss of proteoglycans and changes to the network of collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix are observed (1). This occurs before any morphological changes to the cartilage, and therefore both thickness and volume measurements are insensitive

Peter Del-Manso; Martin Fry; Andrew Todd-Pokropek

89

Resource availability shapes microbial motility and mediates early-stage formation of microbial clusters in biological wastewater treatment processes.  

PubMed

Microbial cluster functions as a key unit in biological wastewater treatment. Mechanistic understanding of early-stage microbial clustering, including kinetics of microbial cluster formation and the driving forces, remains largely unclear. We report an experimental observation of resource availability, in terms of dissolved oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen sources, mediating early-stage formation of microbial clusters. We proposed a simple model for quantifying the role of microbial motility mediated by resources availability in early-stage microbial clustering processes. Simulation results reflected that limited resource availability promotes early-stage microbial cluster formation through enhanced microbial motility essential for sufficient foraging. The results indicate that microorganisms prefer a relative clustering growth pattern to disperse mode in resource-limited environment for survival. It provides new insights on early-stage microbial cluster formation and its dynamics that may improve future design and operations in biological wastewater treatment. PMID:23907257

Chen, Guowei; Zhu, Ning; Tang, Zebing; Ye, Peng; Hu, Zhenhu; Liu, Li

2014-02-01

90

Narrow band imaging: application for early-stage gastrointestinal neoplasia.  

PubMed

Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is an imaging technique for endoscopy using optical filters to narrow the bandwidth of spectral transmittance. Through this narrow spectrum, NBI contrasts surface structure and microvascular architecture of various lesions. In this article we focus on the application of NBI for early-stage neoplasia in the esophagus, stomach and colon with a three-step strategy of endoscopic diagnosis: (i) the detection of abnormality; (ii) the differentiation between non-neoplasia and neoplasia; and (iii) staging for tumor extension and depth of invasion. PMID:24868598

Zhu, Ling Yin; Li, Xiao Bo

2014-05-01

91

Taxanes: optimizing adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxanes are among the most widely used chemotherapy agents for advanced breast cancer. Results are now available from 21 trials that randomly allocated nearly 36,000 women with early-stage breast cancer to receive first-generation taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy versus non-taxane-based adjuvant regimens. Three recent meta-analyses suggest that taxanes are beneficial in the adjuvant setting, irrespective of the patient's age, lymph-node involvement, hormone-receptor

Philippe L. Bedard; Angelo Di Leo; Martine J. Piccart-Gebhart

2009-01-01

92

Cognitive impairment in early stages of multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive dysfunction involves 40–65% of multiple sclerosis patients and can have a great functional impact. It can be detected\\u000a in all the disease phenotypes since the early stages of the disease, and tends to progress over time. Memory, complex attention,\\u000a information-processing speed and executive functions are most commonly involved. The relationship between cognitive changes\\u000a and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings

Maria Pia AmatoE; E. Portaccio; B. Goretti; V. Zipoli; B. Hakiki; M. Giannini; L. Pastò; L. Razzolini

2010-01-01

93

The Development of Children's Early Numeracy through Key Stage 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a limited longitudinal study of young children's early numeracy development within three testing cycles, at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-of-age), located within the broader context of progress through to Key Stage 1 SAT…

Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray

2003-01-01

94

Motor-cortical oscillations in early stages of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Pathophysiological changes in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits are well established in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it remains open whether such alterations already occur at early stages representing a characteristic neurophysiological marker of PD. Therefore, the present study aims at elucidating changes of synchronised oscillatory activity in early PD patients. In this study, we performed whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a resting condition and during steady state contraction of the more severely affected forearm in 10 drug–naive, de novo patients, in 10 early-stage patients with chronic medication and in 10 age-matched control subjects. While cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) did not differ between groups, patients showed increased sensori-motor cortical power at beta frequency (13–30 Hz) during rest as well as during isometric contraction compared to controls. In healthy control subjects the power of the contralateral hemisphere was significantly suppressed during isometric contraction. By contrast, both hemispheres were activated equally strongly in de novo patients. In medicated patients, the pattern was found to be reversed. Contralateral beta power was significantly correlated with motor impairment during isometric contraction but not during rest. The present results suggest that the reduced ability of the primary motor cortex to disengage from increased beta band oscillations during the execution of movements is an early marker of PD.

Pollok, B; Krause, V; Martsch, W; Wach, C; Schnitzler, A; Sudmeyer, M

2012-01-01

95

Can wood density be efficiently selected at early stage in maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster Ait.)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and stem straightness are the two main selection criteria in the French maritime pine breeding programme. In this contribution,\\u000a our objective was to study the possibility of selecting for wood density assessed at an early stage. We measured X-ray wood\\u000a density, in three progeny tests, on more than 1 900 breast high increment cores. High relative expected genetic gain

Laurent Bouffier; Céline Charlot; Annie Raffin; Philippe Rozenberg; Antoine Kremer

2008-01-01

96

Usefulness of sentinel lymph node detection in early stages of cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in combination with surgical biopsy is an emerging tech- nique for use in the early stages of cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technique in a series of 40 consecutive women with early stage cervical cancer. Methods: Forty patients with early stage cervical cancer (FIGO stage IA2 (2), IB1

I. Roca; A. P. Caresia; A. Gil-Moreno; P. Pifarre; S. Aguade-Bruix; J. Castell-Conesa; J. M. Martínez-Palones; J. Xercavins

2005-01-01

97

Visual perception in prediagnostic and early stage Huntington's disease  

PubMed Central

Disturbances of visual perception frequently accompany neurodegenerative disorders but have been little studied in Huntington’s disease (HD) gene carriers. We used psychophysical tests to assess visual perception among individuals in the prediagnostic and early stages of HD. The sample comprised four groups, which included 201 nongene carriers (NG), 32 prediagnostic gene carriers with minimal neurological abnormalities (PD1); 20 prediagnostic gene carriers with moderate neurological abnormalities (PD2), and 36 gene carriers with diagnosed HD. Contrast sensitivity for stationary and moving sinusoidal gratings, and tests of form and motion discrimination, were used to probe different visual pathways. Patients with HD showed impaired contrast sensitivity for moving gratings. For one of the three contrast sensitivity tests, the prediagnostic gene carriers with greater neurological abnormality (PD2) also had impaired performance as compared with NG. These findings suggest that early stage HD disrupts visual functions associated with the magnocellular pathway. However, these changes are only observed in individuals diagnosed with HD or who are in the more symptomatic stages of prediagnostic HD.

O'DONNELL, BRIAN F.; BLEKHER, TANYA M.; WEAVER, MARJORIE; WHITE, KERRY M.; MARSHALL, JEANINE; BERISTAIN, XABIER; STOUT, JULIE C.; GRAY, JACQUELINE; WOJCIESZEK, JOANNE M.; FOROUD, TATIANA M.

2009-01-01

98

Early growth faltering in healthy term infants predicts longitudinal growth  

PubMed Central

Background Early growth monitoring may not identify infants at-risk for later growth faltering because it is difficult for the provider to recognize how large of a negative shift might be problematic. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether a slowing in early weight-for-age could be used to identify children at increased risk of later growth faltering. Methods Longitudinal data for infants aged birth to two years were analyzed for 1978 healthy, term infants born between 1999-2001. Logistic regression techniques were used to determine whether a negative change in weight-for-age, across well-child visit intervals, can identify infants at risk for growth faltering. Results The period prevalence of underweight was 24%. The odds ratio (OR) for infants with a negative shift in z-scores ? -0.85 between four and six months was 2.4 (95% CI 1.5, 3.9) compared to those without this shift, holding birth weight constant. Sensitivity analyses revealed the model was significant when either the 2000 CDC growth charts (p<.0001) or the 2006 WHO growth charts (p<.0001) were used as the reference, although the prevalence of underweight was lower (14.7%) when the 2006 WHO growth charts were the reference. Conclusion The findings support the hypothesis that a downward shift in weight-for-age of this magnitude during early infancy when well-child visits are most frequent can be used to identify children at-risk of later poor growth.

Ross, Erin S.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.; Dickinson, L. Miriam; Barrett, Paul H.; Johnson, Susan L.

2009-01-01

99

Photosynthetic response of sweet sorghum to drought and re-watering at different growth stages.  

PubMed

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 drought resistant species with a huge potential for bioenergy. Accentuated reductions in water availability for crop production and altered rainfall distribution patterns, however, will have direct impact on its physiological attributes, metabolic functions and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and re-watering on the photosynthetic efficiency of sweet sorghum. Durable or short transient drought stress periods were imposed at early and late growth stages and compared with well-watered plants. In spite of very similar drought levels at early and late growth stages (?soil ?=?-1.6 and -1.7 MPa), the decrements in maximum quantum yield (?Po ) and performance index (PI) were about twice at late than at early growth stages. All the PI components, that is, density of active reaction centers (RCs), excitation energy trapping and conversion of excitation energy into electron flow followed a similar decreasing pattern. Upon re-watering and regardless the duration and growth stage of the drought period, all the photosynthetic functions, and particularly those of photosystem II (PSII), fully recovered. Such effective self-regulating functional activity by PSII photochemistry likely contributes to both high drought resistance and photosynthetic recovery capacity of sweet sorghum. At vegetative growth stages, the down regulation of the photochemistry seems to be the main photoprotective/regulative mechanisms, while at late growth stages, the accumulation of compatible solutes likely has a more preponderant role. The observed sugar concentration increments likely contributed to prevent permanent photo-oxidative destruction of the PSII RCs of mature droughted sweet sorghum plants. PMID:23198740

Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea

2013-09-01

100

Contour Instabilities in Early Tumor Growth Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent tumor growth models are often based on the multiphase mixture framework. Using bifurcation theory techniques, we show that such models can give contour instabilities. Restricting to a simplified but realistic version of such models, with an elastic cell-to-cell interaction and a growth rate dependent on diffusing nutrients, we prove that the tumor cell concentration at the border acts as a control parameter inducing a bifurcation with loss of the circular symmetry. We show that the finite wavelength at threshold has the size of the proliferating peritumoral zone. We apply our predictions to melanoma growth since contour instabilities are crucial for early diagnosis. Given the generality of the equations, other relevant applications can be envisaged for solving problems of tissue growth and remodeling.

Ben Amar, M.; Chatelain, C.; Ciarletta, P.

2011-04-01

101

Initial stages of silicon growth on the (100) surface of silicon by localized laser CVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports initial results of an experimental study of the early stages of silicon thin film growth on well prepared (100) c-Si surfaces by pyrolytic deposition from silane (SiH4) during localized laser chemical vapor deposition (LLCVD). The rate of silicon thin film growth during low pressure (less than 10 Torr) deposition using tightly focussed laser beams (514.5 nm, approximately

D. E. Kotecki; I. P. Herman

1987-01-01

102

Early-stage Hodgkin's disease: current approaches to treatment.  

PubMed Central

Most patients with early-stage Hodgkin's disease can now be cured by one of several therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the developments in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease that have led to long-term survival rates greater than 90%. Past and present radio-therapy (RT) planning and treatment practices are discussed in the context of both clinical and pathological staging. The role of initial bimodal therapy (RT and chemotherapy [CT]) and the use of CT in patients who suffer relapse after initial treatment with RT alone are reviewed. On the basis of prognostic factors, subgroups of patients for whom bimodal therapy is recommended, including those with a bulky mediastinal mass, have now been identified. Although treatment is highly successful, debilitating consequences of RT and CT, such as infertility, infection and second malignant diseases, remain. Newer treatment regimens may reduce morbidity and have similar or better long-term results with respect to survival and quality of life.

Rusthoven, J J; MacKenzie, R

1985-01-01

103

Early intensification treatment approach in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

The key question in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma for many years now has been, should intensified chemotherapy be applied upfront or be reserved for relapsing patients. The early intensification approach with BEACOPP(escalated) (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone) aims at curing patients with first-line chemotherapy definitely. The added toxicity of this approach as compared to less intensive regimens as ABDV (doxorubicin, bleomycin, dacarbazine, vinblastine) is mainly restricted to acute haematotoxicity and gonadal damage. However, regarding efficacy, there is a meaningful survival-benefit over ABVD (10% at 5years) and the intensified first-line treatment strategy is thus rightly regarded as standard of care. PMID:24287068

Borchmann, Peter

2014-02-01

104

Inflammation in the early stages of neurodegenerative pathology  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is secondary to protein accumulation in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Emerging evidence indicate sustained inflammatory responses, involving microglia and astrocytes in animal models of neurodegeneration. It is unknown whether inflammation is beneficial or detrimental to disease progression and how inflammatory responses are induced within the CNS. Persistence of an inflammatory stimulus or failure to resolve sustained inflammation can result in pathology, thus, mechanisms that counteract inflammation are indispensable. Here we review studies on inflammation mediated by innate and adaptive immunity in the early stages of neurodegeneration and highlight important areas for future investigation.

Khandelwal, Preeti J.; Herman, Alexander M.; Moussa, Charbel E-H

2011-01-01

105

Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

Bruno, D. W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D. G.

2006-01-01

106

USANS investigation of early stages of metal foam formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic foams are on the verge of being used in industrial applications. However, the mechanism of foam creation, especially the early stages, are still unexplored. Ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), performed with the double-crystal diffractometer (DCD) at the Geesthacht Neutron Facility (GeNF), is a promising method for obtaining a three-dimensional average of a pore size distribution in a wide size range from about 100 nm to about 20 ?m. Analysis of the neutron scattering curves yielded pore size distributions which conformed with the results obtained by microscopy.

Bellmann, D.; Clemens, H.; Banhart, J.

107

The Evolving Role of Radiotherapy in Early Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy has a key role in the combined modality treatment of early-stage Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL). Nevertheless, late toxicity still remains an issue. A modern approach in HL radiotherapy includes lower doses and smaller fields, together with the implementation of sophisticated and dedicated delivery techniques. Aim of the present review is to discuss the current role of radiotherapy and its potential future developments, with a focus on major clinical trials, technological advances and their repercussion in the clinical management of HL patients.

Ricardi, Umberto; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Piva, Cristina; Franco, Pierfrancesco

2014-01-01

108

Late stages of accumulation and early evolution of the planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently developed solutions of problems are discussed that were traditionally considered fundamental in classical solar system cosmogony: determination of planetary orbit distribution patterns, values for mean eccentricity and orbital inclinations of the planets, and rotation periods and rotation axis inclinations of the planets. Two important cosmochemical aspects of accumulation are examined: the time scale for gas loss from the terrestrial planet zone, and the composition of the planets in terms of isotope data. It was concluded that the early beginning of planet differentiation is a function of the heating of protoplanets during collisions with large (thousands of kilometers) bodies. Energetics, heat mass transfer processes, and characteristic time scales of these processes at the early stages of planet evolution are considered.

Vityazev, Andrey V.; Perchernikova, G. V.

1991-01-01

109

Sentinel Node Biopsy for Early-Stage Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate, in an international multicenter phase III trial, the accuracy, use, and morbidity of intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy (LM/SNB) for staging the regional nodal basin of patients with early-stage melanoma. Summary Background Data: Since our introduction of LM/SNB in 1990, this technique has been widely adopted and has become part of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Eleven years ago, the authors began the international Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (MSLT-I) to compare 2 treatment approaches: wide excision (WE) plus LM/SNB with immediate complete lymphadenectomy (CLND) for sentinel node (SN) metastases, and WE plus postoperative observation with CLND delayed until the subsequent development of clinically evident nodal metastases. Methods: After each center achieved 85% accuracy of SN identification during a 30-case learning phase, patients with primary cutaneous melanoma (?1 mm with Clark level ?III, or any thickness with Clark level ?IV) were randomly assigned in a 4:6 ratio to WE plus observation (WEO) with delayed CLND for nodal recurrence, or to WE plus LM/SNB with immediate CLND for SN metastasis. The accuracy of LM/SNB was determined by comparing the rates of SN identification and the incidence of SN metastases in the LM/SNB group versus the subsequent development of nodal metastases in the regional nodal basin of those patients with tumor-negative SNs. Early morbidity of LM/SNB was evaluated by comparing complication rates between the 2 treatment groups. Trial accrual was completed on March 31, 2002, after enrollment of 2001 patients. Results: Initial SN identification rate was 95.3% overall: 99.3% for the groin, 95.3% for the axilla, and 84.5% for the neck basins. The rate of false-negative LM/SNB during the trial phase, as measured by nodal recurrence in a tumor-negative dissected SN basin, decreased with increasing case volume at each center: 10.3% for the first 25 cases versus 5.2% after 25 cases. There were no operative mortalities. The low (10.1%) complication rate after LM/SNB increased to 37.2% with the addition of CLND; CLND also increased the severity of complications. Conclusions: LM/SNB is a safe, low-morbidity procedure for staging the regional nodal basin in early melanoma. Even after a 30-case learning phase and 25 additional LM/SNB cases, the accuracy of LM/SNB continues to increase with a center's experience. LM/SNB should become standard care for staging the regional lymph nodes of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma.

Morton, Donald L.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Thompson, John F.; Elashoff, Robert; Essner, Richard; Glass, Edwin C.; Mozzillo, Nicola; Nieweg, Omgo E.; Roses, Daniel F.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Karakousis, Constantine P.; Reintgen, Douglas S.; Coventry, Brendon J.; Wang, He-jing

2005-01-01

110

Cryoablation of Early-Stage Primary Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, and lobectomy is the gold-standard treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, many patients are poor surgical candidates for various reasons. Recently, image-guided ablation is being used for lung tumors. Cryoablation has been applied for the treatment of cancer in various nonaerated organs; recently it has been adapted to the treatment of lung tumors. Since an ice ball can be detected by computed tomography (CT), cryoablation of lung tumors is performed under CT guidance. Its first clinical application was reported in 2005, and it has been reported to be feasible in a few studies. Minor complications occurred at a high frequency (up to 70.5%), but major complications were rare (up to 1%). The most common complication is pneumothorax, and most cases need no further intervention. Local efficacy depends on tumor size and presence of a thick vessel close to the tumor. Midterm survival after cryoablation is 77%–88% at 3 years in patients with early-stage NSCLC. Although surgery is the gold-standard treatment for such patients, the initial results of cryoablation are promising. In this paper, the current status of cryoablation for primary lung tumors is reviewed.

Nakatsuka, Seishi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

2014-01-01

111

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

SciTech Connect

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Cada, G.F.

1991-01-01

112

Metamorphic density controls on early-stage subduction dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subduction is primarily driven by the densification of the downgoing oceanic slab, due to dynamic P-T-fields in subduction zones. It is crucial to unravel slab densification induced by metamorphic reactions to understand the influence on plate dynamics. By analyzing the density and metamorphic structure of subduction zones, we may gain knowledge about the driving, metamorphic processes in a subduction zone like the eclogitization (i.e., the transformation of a MORB to an eclogite), the breakdown of hydrous minerals and the release of fluid or the generation of partial melts. We have therefore developed a 2D subduction zone model down to 250 km that is based on thermodynamic equilibrium assemblage computations. Our model computes the "metamorphic density" of rocks as a function of pressure, temperature and chemical composition using the Theriak-Domino software package at different time stages. We have used this model to investigate how the hydration, dehydration, partial melting and fractionation processes of rocks all influence the metamorphic density and greatly depend on the temperature field within subduction systems. These processes are commonly neglected by other approaches (e.g., gravitational or thermomechanical in nature) reproducing the density distribution within this tectonic setting. The process of eclogitization is assumed as being important to subduction dynamics, based on the very high density (3.6 g/cm3) of eclogitic rocks. The eclogitization in a MORB-type crust is possible only if the rock reaches the garnet phase stability field. This process is primarily temperature driven. Our model demonstrates that the initiation of eclogitization of the slab is not the only significant process that makes the descending slab denser and is responsible for the slab pull force. Indeed, our results show that the densification of the downgoing lithospheric mantle (due to an increase of pressure) starts in the early subduction stage and makes a significant contribution to the slab pull, where eclogitization does not occur. Thus, the lithospheric mantle acts as additional ballast below the sinking slab shortly after the initiation of subduction. Our calculation shows that the dogma of eclogitized basaltic, oceanic crust as the driving force of slab pull is overestimated during the early stage of subduction. These results improve our understanding of the force budget for slab pull during the intial and early stage of subduction. Therefore, the complex metamorphic structure of a slab and mantle wedge has an important impact on the development and dynamics of subduction zones. Further Reading: Duesterhoeft, Oberhänsli & Bousquet (2013), submitted to Earth and Planetary Science Letters

Duesterhoeft, Erik; Oberhänsli, Roland; Bousquet, Romain

2013-04-01

113

Toxic Effects of Bisphenol A on Early Life Stages of Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed

The toxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) in aquatic organisms have attracted global attention. However, few studies have investigated its effects at the gene transcription level. In this study, we measured the transcriptional response of a set of genes associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis following BPA exposure during the early life stage of Japanese medaka. Transcription of vitellogenin genes was induced in both sexes, indicating estrogenic disruption. However, changes in transcription of the steroid hormone receptor gene and steroidogenesis-regulating genes suggest that BPA also acts as an androgen receptor antagonist. BPA exposure also decreased the hatchability of medaka embryos and increased the growth of female larvae. These pronounced gender-specific effects observed in this study demonstrate that it is important to identify the sex of fish in the early life stage. PMID:24849714

Sun, Liwei; Lin, Xia; Jin, Rong; Peng, Tao; Peng, Zuhua; Fu, Zhengwei

2014-08-01

114

Defective skeletogenesis and oversized otoliths in fish early stages in a changing ocean.  

PubMed

Early life stages of many marine organisms are being challenged by rising seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations, but their physiological responses to these environmental changes still remain unclear. In the present study, we show that future predictions of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (?pH=0.5 units) may compromise the development of early life stages of a highly commercial teleost fish, Solea senegalensis. Exposure to future conditions caused a decline in hatching success and larval survival. Growth, metabolic rates and thermal tolerance increased with temperature but decreased under acidified conditions. Hypercapnia and warming amplified the incidence of deformities by 31.5% (including severe deformities such as lordosis, scoliosis and kyphosis), while promoting the occurrence of oversized otoliths (109.3% increase). Smaller larvae with greater skeletal deformities and larger otoliths may face major ecophysiological challenges, which might potentiate substantial declines in adult fish populations, putting in jeopardy the species' fitness under a changing ocean. PMID:24625652

Pimentel, Marta S; Faleiro, Filipa; Dionísio, Gisela; Repolho, Tiago; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Machado, Jorge; Rosa, Rui

2014-06-15

115

Prognostic role of FGFR1 amplification in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Background:Recently, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) was discovered in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the lung with FGFR1 amplification described as a promising predictive marker for anti-FGFR inhibitor treatment. Only few data are available regarding prevalence, prognostic significance and clinico-pathological characteristics of FGFR1-amplified and early-stage non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). We therefore investigated the FGFR1 gene status in a large number of well-characterised early-stage NSCLC.Methods:FGFR1 gene status was evaluated using a commercially available fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) probe on a tissue microarray (TMA). This TMA harbours 329 resected, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, nodal-negative NSCLC with a UICC stage I-II. The FISH results were correlated with clinico-pathological features and overall survival (OS).Results:The prevalence of an FGFR1 amplification was 12.5% (41/329) and was significantly (P<0.0001) higher in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (20.7%) than in adenocarcinoma (2.2%) and large cell carcinoma (13%). Multivariate analysis revealed significantly (P=0.0367) worse 5-year OS in patients with an FGFR1-amplified NSCLC.Conclusions:FGFR1 amplification is common in early-stage SCC of the lung and is an independent and adverse prognostic marker. Its potential role as a predictive marker for targeted therapies or adjuvant treatment needs further investigation. PMID:24853178

Cihoric, N; Savic, S; Schneider, S; Ackermann, I; Bichsel-Naef, M; Schmid, R A; Lardinois, D; Gugger, M; Bubendorf, L; Zlobec, I; Tapia, C

2014-06-10

116

Model atmospheres for novae during the early stages  

SciTech Connect

Continuum and line blanketing models for the photospheres of novae in the early stages of their outbursts are presented. The expanding envelopes are characterized by a very slow increase of density with decreasing radius which leads to very large geometrical extensions and large temperature differences between the inner and outer parts. The spectra show a large IR excess and a small Balmer jump which may be either in absorption or in emission. For the parameters considered (T{sub eff} = 10{sup 4}, 1.5 {times} 10{sup 4}, 2 {times} 10{sup 4}K, R = 10{sup 11} cm, solar composition), most lines are in absorption. The effects of both modifications in the temperature structure (e.g. by heating from shock fronts) and changes in the abundances of the heavy elements on the emergent spectra are briefly discussed. 13 refs., 11 figs.

Wehrse, R.; Hauschildt, P.H. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Astrophysik); Shaviv, G. (Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Physics); Starrfield, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1989-01-01

117

Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Dupuytren’s Contracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Background and Purpose:\\u000a   In early-stage Dupuytren’s contracture, radiotherapy is applied to prevent disease progression. Long-term outcome and late\\u000a toxicity of the treatment were evaluated in a retrospective analysis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:\\u000a   Between 12\\/1982 and 02\\/2006, 135 patients (208 hands) were irradiated with orthovoltage (120 kV; 20 mA; 4-mm Al filter), in\\u000a two courses with five daily fractions of 3.0 Gy

Nicolas Betz; Oliver J. Ott; Boris Adamietz; Rolf Sauer; Rainer Fietkau; Ludwig Keilholz

2010-01-01

118

Early stage domain coarsening of the isotropic-nematic phase transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study numerically the early stage domain coarsening dynamics of the temperature driven isotropic-nematic (I-N) liquid crystal phase transition. System of rod like objects which interact via the modified Lebwohl-Lasher pairwise interaction is considered in 3D. The coarsening dynamics is followed using Brownian molecular dynamics. The box-restricted lattice point fluctuations are allowed in order to get rid of lattice geometry enforced phenomena. We analyze order parameter growth and domain coarsening in the early regime of the I-N phase transition as a function of the quench rate. We show that soon after the transition bimodal distribution of domains appears, where the shorter branch gradually vanishes. The behavior of the system is in accordance with predictions of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism which was originally introduced to model conditions in the early universe.

Brada?, Z.; Kralj, Samo; Žumer, S.

2011-07-01

119

Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 Sigma Factor K in Early-Stage Sporulation  

PubMed Central

A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that ?K is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods.

Kirk, David G.; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu

2012-01-01

120

Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 sigma factor K in early-stage sporulation.  

PubMed

A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that ?(K) is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods. PMID:22544236

Kirk, David G; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

2012-07-01

121

Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation.

Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2014-01-01

122

Generic Difference Between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Litvak, Maxim L.; Anfimov, Dimitrij S.; Sanin, Anton B.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Preece, Robert D.; Meegan, Charles A.

2001-01-01

123

Vitrification of early-stage bovine and equine embryos.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine an optimal method and stage of development for vitrification of bovine zygotes or early embryos; and (2) use the optimal procedure for bovine embryos to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of early embryos. Initially, bovine embryos produced by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) were frozen and vitrified in 0.25mL straws with minimal success. A subsequent experiment was done using two vitrification methods and super open pulled straws (OPS) with 1- or 8-cell bovine embryos. In Method 1 (EG-O), embryos were exposed to 1.5M ethylene glycol (EG) for 5min, 7M ethylene glycol and 0.6M galactose for 30s, loaded in an OPS, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. In Method 2 (EG-DMSO), embryos were exposed to 1.1M ethylene glycol and 1.1M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 3min, 2.5M ethylene glycol, 2.5M DMSO and 0.5M galactose for 30s, and loaded and plunged as for EG-O. Cryoprotectants were removed after warming in three steps. One- and eight-cell bovine embryos were cultured for 7 and 4.5 d, respectively, after warming, and control embryos were cultured without vitrification. Cleavage rates of 1-cell embryos were similar (P>0.05) for vitrified and control embryos, although the blastocyst rates for EG-O and control embryos were similar and higher (P<0.05) than for EG-DMSO. The blastocyst rate of 8-cell embryos was higher (P<0.05) for EG-O than EG-DMSO. Therefore, EG-O was used to cryopreserve equine embryos. Equine oocytes were obtained from preovulatory follicles. After ICSI, injected oocytes were cultured for 1-3 d. Two- to eight-cell embryos were vitrified, warmed and transferred into recipient's oviducts. The pregnancy rate on Day 20 was 62% (5/8) for equine embryos after vitrification and warming. In summary, a successful method was established for vitrification of early-stage bovine embryos, and this method was used to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of 2- to 8-cell embryos produced by ICSI. PMID:18789516

Campos-Chillòn, L F; Suh, T K; Barcelo-Fimbres, M; Seidel, G E; Carnevale, E M

2009-01-15

124

Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time course bleeds coinciding with early worm development. Seventeen positive clones were isolated using serum obtained at 20 days post infection (dpi). All clones corresponded to one gene that exhibited high sequence identity with the T. spiralis ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX19B which is involved in parasite growth and development. In addition, nine additional positive clones representing 5 unique genes were identified when the library was screened with 30 dpi serum; four of these five genes displayed high similarity with members of a putative T. spiralis serine protease family known to be involved in host invasion and host-parasite interactions. The remaining gene aligned with the T. spiralis hypothetical ORF 11.30. The identification of these antigens provides potential candidates for the early diagnosis of trichinellosis and for the development of a vaccine against this parasite. PMID:23485437

Liu, P; Wu, X P; Bai, X; Wang, X L; Yu, L; Rosenthal, B; Blaga, R; Lacour, S; Vallee, I; Boireau, P; Gherman, C; Oltean, M; Zhou, X N; Wang, F; Zhao, Y; Liu, M Y

2013-05-20

125

Salt sensitivity of corn at various growth stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the relative salt tolerance of corn (Zea mays L.) at different growth stages from germination to maturity when grown in organic soil. Another objective was to determine how rapidly and to what extent the salinity of the irrigation water can be increased during the growing season without decreasing the yield of corn. Germination tests

E. V. Maas; G. J. Hoffman; G. D. Chaba; J. A. Poss; M. C. Shannon

1983-01-01

126

Thymocyte development in early growth response gene 1-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Early growth response gene 1 (Egr1) codes for a transcriptional regulator that contains a zinc-finger DNA binding domain. Egr1 expression is induced by a variety of extracellular stimuli including TCR-ligand interactions. Its pattern of expression in the thymus and dependence on ERK activation have led to speculation that it has a role in T cell development, but the exact nature of this role has been undefined. To more clearly define the role of Egr1 in thymocyte development, we have analyzed thymocytes from Egr1-deficient mice. We find that thymuses from Egr1-deficient mice contain twice as many cells as age-matched controls, and the increase in thymocyte number is apparent at the early CD4/CD8 double negative stage of development. Subsequent maturation to the CD4/CD8 double positive stage and survival of the double positive cells both appear normal in Egr1-deficient animals. We also find that Egr1 promotes positive selection of both CD4 and CD8 single positive cells without playing a major role in negative selection. Egr1 influences positive selection by enhancing expression of the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id3 and the anti-apoptosis molecule bcl-2. Thus, Egr1 translates developmental signals into appropriate changes in gene expression at multiple stages of thymocyte development. PMID:12165491

Bettini, Matthew; Xi, Hongkang; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; Kersh, Gilbert J

2002-08-15

127

Characterization of early stage intermediates in the nucleation phase of A? aggregation.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common form of dementia, which is characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques comprising the amyloid ? peptide (A?). Although the mechanism underlying AD pathogenesis remains elusive, accumulating evidence suggests that the process of amyloid fibril formation is a surface-mediated event, which plays an important role in AD onset and progression. In this study, the mechanism of A? aggregation on hydrophobic surfaces was investigated with dual polarization interferometry (DPI), which provides real-time information on early stages of the aggregation process. Aggregation was monitored on a hydrophobic C18 surface and a polar silicon oxynitride surface. The DPI results showed a characteristic A? aggregation pattern involving a decrease in the density of A? at the surface followed by an increase in the thickness on the hydrophobic C18 chip. Most importantly, the DPI measurements provided unique information on the early stages of A? aggregation, which is characterized by the presence of initially slow nucleus formation process followed by exponential fibril elongation. The dimensions of the putative nucleus corresponded to a thickness of ?5 nm for both A?40 and A?42, which may represent about 10-15 molecules. The results thus support the nucleation-dependent polymerization model as indicated by the presence of a nucleation phase followed by an exponential growth phase. These results are the first reported measurements of the real-time changes in A? molecular structure during the early stages of amyloid formation at the nanometer level. PMID:22283417

Zhai, Jiali; Lee, Tzong-Hsien; Small, David H; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel

2012-02-14

128

Ontogenetic development in the morphology and behavior of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) during early life stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) are a commercially important fish in China and an ideal aquaculture species. However, culturists experience high larval and juvenile mortality during mass production. To provide insight into ways to improve larviculture techniques, we describe the morphological characteristics and behavior of loach during the larval and early juvenile stages. Yolksac larvae ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 mm body length (BL) between days 0 to 4; preflexion larvae ranged from 3.6 to 5.5 mm BL between days 4 to 6; flexion larvae ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 mm BL between days 5 and 14; and postflexion larvae ranged from 7.1 to 15.7 mm BL between days 11 to 27; the minimum length and age of juveniles was 14.1 mm BL and 23 d, respectively. Loach are demersal from hatch through to the early juvenile stages. A suite of morphological characteristics (e.g., external gill filament and ventral mouth opening) and behavioral traits have developed to adapt to demersal living. We observed positive allometric growth in eye diameter, head length, head height, and pectoral fin length during the early larval stages, reflecting the priorities in the development of the organs essential for survival. Our results provide a basis for developing techniques to improve the survival of larval and juvenile loach during mass production.

Gao, Lei; Duan, Ming; Cheng, Fei; Xie, Songguang

2014-05-01

129

Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).  

PubMed

The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae. PMID:24507122

Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

2014-03-01

130

Initial investigation of a hypothesized link between thyroid peroxidase inhibition and fish early-life stage toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

131

Exome Sequencing Identifies Early Gastric Carcinoma as an Early Stage of Advanced Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric carcinoma is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment leads to an excellent prognosis in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC), whereas the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains poor. It is unclear whether EGCs and AGCs are distinct entities or whether EGCs are the beginning stages of AGCs. We performed whole exome sequencing of four samples from patients with EGC and compared the results with those from AGCs. In both EGCs and AGCs, a total of 268 genes were commonly mutated and independent mutations were additionally found in EGCs (516 genes) and AGCs (3104 genes). A higher frequency of C>G transitions was observed in intestinal-type compared to diffuse-type carcinomas (P?=?0.010). The DYRK3, GPR116, MCM10, PCDH17, PCDHB1, RDH5 and UNC5C genes are recurrently mutated in EGCs and may be involved in early carcinogenesis.

Do, In-Gu; Wang, Kai; Kang, So Young; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Kang, Won Ki; Jang, Jiryeon; Choi, Min-Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Seonwoo; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

2013-01-01

132

Free energy and structure of calcium carbonate nanoparticles during early stages of crystallization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a metadynamics based scheme for computing the free energy of nanoparticles as a function of their crystalline order. The method is applied to small nanoparticles of the biomineral calcium carbonate to determine the preferred structure during early stages of crystal growth. For particles 2 nm in diameter, we establish a large energetic preference for amorphous particle morphologies. Particles with partial crystalline order consistent with vaterite are also observed with substantially lower probability. The absence of the stable calcite phase and stability of the amorphous state support recent conjectures that calcite formation starts via the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate.

Quigley, D.; Rodger, P. M.

2008-06-01

133

Effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on gene expression of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) early life stages.  

PubMed

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are known to contaminate aquatic environments and alter the growth and reproduction of organisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and utility of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) early life-stages as a model to measure effects of estrogenic and antiestrogenic EDCs on physiological and gene expression endpoints relative to growth and reproduction. Embryos (<24-h postfertilization, hpf) were exposed to a potent estrogen (17?-ethinyl estradiol, EE(2) , 2, 10, and 50 ng L(-1)); a weak estrogen (mycotoxin zearalenone, ZEAR, same concentrations as above); an antiestrogen (ZM 189, 154; 40, 250, and 1000 ng L(-1)); and to mixtures of EE(2) and ZM until swim-up stage (?170 hpf). Exposure to all concentrations of ZEAR and to the lowest concentration of ZM resulted in increased body sizes, whereas high concentrations of EE(2) decreased body sizes. There was a significant increase in the frequency of abnormalities (mostly edema) in larvae exposed to all concentrations of EE(2), and high ZEAR, and EE(2) + ZM mixture groups. Expression of growth hormone was upregulated by most of the conditions tested. Exposure to 50 ng L(-1) ZEAR caused an induction of insulin-like growth factor 1, whereas exposure to 40 ng L(-1) ZM caused a downregulation of this gene. Expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene was significantly upregulated after exposure to all concentrations of EE(2) and luteinizing hormone expression increased significantly in response to all treatments tested. As expected, EE(2) induced vitellogenin expression; however, ZEAR also induced expression of this gene to similar levels compared to EE(2). Overall, exposure to EE(2) + ZM mixture resulted in a different expression pattern compared to single exposures. The results of this study suggest that an early life stage 7-day exposure is sufficient to recognize and evaluate effects of estrogenic compounds on gene expression in this fish model. PMID:19890895

Johns, Sonia M; Denslow, Nancy D; Kane, Michael D; Watanabe, Karen H; Orlando, Edward F; Sepúlveda, Maria S

2011-04-01

134

Decision Making about Surgery for Early Stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Practice variation in breast cancer surgery has raised concerns about the quality of treatment decisions. We sought to evaluate the quality of decisions about surgery for early stage breast cancer by measuring patient knowledge, concordance between goals and treatments, and involvement in decisions. Study Design A mailed survey of Stage I/II breast cancer survivors was conducted at four sites. The Decision Quality Instrument measured knowledge, goals, and involvement in decisions. A multivariable logistic regression model of treatment was developed. The model-predicted probability of mastectomy was compared to treatment received for each patient. Concordance was defined as having mastectomy and predicted probability >=0.5 or partial mastectomy and predicted probability <0.5. Frequency of discussion about partial mastectomy was compared to discussion about mastectomy using chi-squared tests. Results 440 patients participated (59% response rate). Mean overall knowledge was 52.7%. 45.9% knew that local recurrence risk is higher after breast conservation. 55.7% knew that survival is equivalent for the two options. Most participants (89.0%) had treatment concordant with their goals. Participants preferring mastectomy had lower concordance (80.5%) than those preferring partial mastectomy (92.6%, p=0.001). Participants reported more frequent discussion of partial mastectomy and its advantages than of mastectomy. 48.6% reported being asked their preference. Conclusions Breast cancer survivors had major knowledge deficits, and those preferring mastectomy were less likely to have treatment concordant with goals. Patients perceived that discussions focused on partial mastectomy, and many were not asked their preference. Improvements in the quality of decisions about breast cancer surgery are needed.

Lee, Clara N; Chang, Yuchiao; Adimorah, Nesochi; Belkora, Jeff; Moy, Beverly; Partridge, Ann; Ollila, David W.; Sepucha, Karen

2011-01-01

135

METHOD FOR EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TESTS USING THREE ATHERINID FISHES AND RESULTS WITH CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed methods for obtaining embryos and conducting early life-stage toxicity tests (continuous exposure from the embryonic stage to approximately three weeks or more into the exogenous feeding stage) with three estuarine species of atherinid fishes. Early lif...

136

Endorectal ultrasonography and treatment of early stage rectal cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative staging by endorectal ultrasonography (EUS) and its contribution to treatment of early stage rectal cancer (ESRC). The results of EUS for 154 consecutive patients with ESRC (pTis to pT2) were compared prospectively with histologic findings, assessed according to the TNM classification. Results of treatment selection and long-term outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. There were 35 patients histologically staged as pTis, 8 as pT1-slight (invasion confined to the superficial one-third of the submucosa), 37 as pT1-massive (invasion extending to the deeper submucosa), and 74 as pT2. The equipment used was an echoendoscope GF-UM2 or GF-UM3 (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan). Sensitivity/specificity/overall accuracy rates for detection of slight submucosal invasion, massive submucosal invasion, and muscularis propria invasion were 99%/74%/96%, 98%/88%/97%, and 97%/93%/96%, respectively. Incidences of lymph node metastasis in pTis, pTis to pT1-slight, pT1, pT1-massive, and pT2 cases were 0%, 0%, 18%, 22%, and 30%, respectively. Incidences of lymph node metastasis in ESRCs staged by EUS (u) as uTis, uT1-slight, uT1-massive, uT2, and uT3 by EUS were 0%, 0%, 26%, 36%, and 64%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy rates for detection of positive nodes in overall ESRCs were 53%, 77%, and 72%, respectively. Of the 43 patients with pTis to pT1-slight tumors, 22 underwent endoscopic polypectomy or local excision, 20 radical surgery, and 1 radical surgery after endoscopic polypectomy due to vascular invasion. All these patients are alive and all but one (who refused radical surgery due to vascular invasion after local excision and developed liver and lung metastases) are disease-free. Of the 37 patients with pT1-massive tumors, 34 underwent radical surgery and 3 transcoccygeal segmental resection. All these patients are alive disease-free except for one who died of peritoneal carcinomatosis after radical surgery. All patients with pT2 tumors underwent radical surgery. The overall 5-year survival rates for pTis, pT1, and pT2 cases were 100%, 98%, and 97%, respectively. EUS is an accurate method for evaluating invasion depth in ESRC. Patients with uTis or uT1-slight tumors staged by EUS are at low risk of positive nodes and good candidates for endoscopic polypectomy or local excision. Those with uT1-massive or uT2 lesions should be treated with a radical operation because of the high incidence of positive nodes. PMID:11036283

Akasu, T; Kondo, H; Moriya, Y; Sugihara, K; Gotoda, T; Fujita, S; Muto, T; Kakizoe, T

2000-09-01

137

Clinical therapeutic strategies for early stage of diabetic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease, leading to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. The overall number of patients with DKD will continue to increase in parallel with the increasing global pandemic of type 2 diabetes. Based on landmark clinical trials, DKD has become preventable by controlling conventional factors, including hyperglycemia and hypertension, with multifactorial therapy; however, the remaining risk of DKD progression is still high. In this review, we show the importance of targeting remission/regression of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients, which may protect against the progression of DKD and cardiovascular events. To achieve remission/regression of microalbuminuria, several steps are important, including the early detection of microalbuminuria with continuous screening, targeting HbA1c < 7.0% for glucose control, the use of renin angiotensin system inhibitors to control blood pressure, the use of statins or fibrates to control dyslipidemia, and multifactorial treatment. Reducing microalbuminuria is therefore an important therapeutic goal, and the absence of microalbuminuria could be a pivotal biomarker of therapeutic success in diabetic patients. Other therapies, including vitamin D receptor activation, uric acid-lowering drugs, and incretin-related drugs, may also be promising for the prevention of DKD progression. PMID:24936255

Kitada, Munehiro; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

2014-06-15

138

High resolution MRI of early-stage mouse embryos  

PubMed Central

Both the availability of methods to manipulate genes and the completion of the mouse genome sequence have led to the generation of thousands of genetically modified mouse lines that provide a new platform for studying mammalian development and developmental diseases. Phenotyping of mouse embryos has traditionally been performed on fixed embryos by the use of ex vivo histological, optical and high-resolution MRI techniques. Although potentially powerful, longitudinal imaging of individual animals is difficult or impossible with conventional optical methods due to the inaccessibility of mouse embryos inside the maternal uterus. To address this problem we present a method of imaging the mouse embryo from stages as early as embryonic date (E) 10.5, close to the onset of organogenesis in most physiological systems. This method uses a self-gated MRI protocol combined with image registration to obtain whole-embryo high resolution (100 ?m isotropic) three-dimensional images. Using this approach, we demonstrate high-contrast in the cerebral vasculature, limbs, spine and central nervous system without the use of contrast agents. These results indicate the potential of MRI for longitudinal imaging of developing mouse embryos, in utero, and for future applications in analyzing mutant mouse phenotypes.

Parasoglou, Prodromos; Berrios-Otero, Cesar A; Nieman, Brian J; Turnbull, Daniel H

2012-01-01

139

Clinical therapeutic strategies for early stage of diabetic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease, leading to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. The overall number of patients with DKD will continue to increase in parallel with the increasing global pandemic of type 2 diabetes. Based on landmark clinical trials, DKD has become preventable by controlling conventional factors, including hyperglycemia and hypertension, with multifactorial therapy; however, the remaining risk of DKD progression is still high. In this review, we show the importance of targeting remission/regression of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients, which may protect against the progression of DKD and cardiovascular events. To achieve remission/regression of microalbuminuria, several steps are important, including the early detection of microalbuminuria with continuous screening, targeting HbA1c < 7.0% for glucose control, the use of renin angiotensin system inhibitors to control blood pressure, the use of statins or fibrates to control dyslipidemia, and multifactorial treatment. Reducing microalbuminuria is therefore an important therapeutic goal, and the absence of microalbuminuria could be a pivotal biomarker of therapeutic success in diabetic patients. Other therapies, including vitamin D receptor activation, uric acid-lowering drugs, and incretin-related drugs, may also be promising for the prevention of DKD progression.

Kitada, Munehiro; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

2014-01-01

140

Germacrone inhibits early stages of influenza virus infection.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic influenza viruses pose a serious public health threat to humans. Although vaccines are available, antivirals are needed to efficiently control disease progression and virus transmission due to the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. In this study, germacrone, which is a major component of the essential oils extracted from Rhizoma Curcuma, was found to inhibit influenza virus replication. Germacrone showed antiviral activity against the H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses and the influenza B virus in a dose-dependent manner. The viral protein expression, RNA synthesis and the production of infectious progeny viruses were decreased both in MDCK and A549 cells treated with germacrone. In a time-of-addition study, germacrone was found to exhibit an inhibitory effect on both the attachment/entry step and the early stages of the viral replication cycle. Germacrone also exhibited an effective protection of mice from lethal infection and reduced the virus titres in the lung. Furthermore, the combination of germacrone and oseltamivir exhibited an additive effect on the inhibition of influenza virus infection, both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that germacrone may have the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent alone or in combination with other agents for the treatment of influenza virus infection. PMID:24095670

Liao, Qingjiao; Qian, Zhengxu; Liu, Rui; An, Liwei; Chen, Xulin

2013-12-01

141

Antibody Profiling with Protein Antigen Microarrays in Early Stage Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Proteins not present in normal cells, i.e., cancer cells, may elicit a host immune response that leads to the generation of antibodies that might react with these tumor-associated proteins. In recent years, a growing number of reports have showed that autoantibody profiling may provide an alternative approach for the detection of cancer. However, most studies of antigen-autoantibody reactivity have relied on recombinant proteins. Recombinant proteins lack the proper post-translational modifications present in native proteins. Because of this limitation, native or natural protein antigen microarrays are gaining popularity for profiling antibody responses. Areas covered 1) to illustrate some examples of autoantibodies as signatures for early stage cancer; 2) to briefly outline the various protein antigen microarray platforms; 3) to illustrate the use of native or natural protein microarrays in the discovery of potential biomarkers; and, 4) to discuss the advantages of native protein antigen microarrays over other approaches. Expert opinion The nature of protein microarray platforms is conducive to multiplexing, which amplifies the potential for uncovering effective biomarkers for many significant diseases. However, the major challenge will be in integrating microarray platforms into multiplexed clinical diagnostic tools, as the main drawback is the reproducibility and coefficient of variation of the results from array to array, and the transportability of the array platform to a more automatable platform.

Liu, Brian C.-S.; DiJohnson, Daniel A.; O'Rourke, Dennis J.

2012-01-01

142

A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol Among Aboriginal Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to investigate associations between personality risk factors and risky drinking motives. Stage 3

Christopher J. Mushquash; M. Nancy Comeau; Brian D. McLeod; Sherry H. Stewart

2009-01-01

143

Polyamines stimulate hyphal branching and infection in the early stage of Glomus etunicatum colonization.  

PubMed

Polyamines are known to strongly stimulate hyphal growth in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The effect of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine on spore germination, hyphal elongation and branching by the AM fungus Glomus etunicatum was investigated in this study. The effect of spermine on infection and the development of the host and of daughter spores was further investigated using the dual monoaxenic culture system comprised of Gl. etunicatum fungal cultures in Ri T-DNA transformed carrot hairy roots. Spermidine and spermine showed positive effects on germination and all three polyamines significantly promoted hyphal growth. Hyphal branching was also strongly stimulated by treatment with polyamines, such as an increase in the number of branches. Infection during the early stages of the in vitro co-culture life cycle was enhanced in the presence of spermine, and daughter spores appeared at earlier timepoints compared to the control. Our results demonstrate that polyamines stimulate germination and hyphal branching in the early stage of AM fungal colonization. Moreover, results from the investigations conducted in the fungus-root co-culture suggest that polyamines may be involved in establishing the symbiotic relationship between root and fungus. PMID:22805943

Cheng, Ying; Ma, Wei; Li, Xiaoyu; Miao, Weiyun; Zheng, Lili; Cheng, Beijiu

2012-04-01

144

Salt sensitivity of cowpea at various growth stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative salt tolerance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. California Buckeye No. 5) at different stages of growth was determined in a greenhouse. Plants were grown in sand cultures that were irrigated four times daily with modified half-strength Hoagland's solution. Salination with NaCl and CaCl2 (2:1 molar ratio) provided seven treatment solutions with osmotic potentials (?s) ranging from

E. V. Maas; J. A. Poss

1989-01-01

145

Surface analysis of the initial stages of Si film growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon films were deposited on gold-coated glass, copper-coated glass, bare polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and gold-coated PET substrates for times ranging from 10s to 40min at 130°C for PET and 200°C for the other substrates in order to study the chemistry of the initial stages of film growth. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows the formation of silicon oxide immediately upon commencement

K. Xu; M. M. Waite; S. Ismat Shah

2004-01-01

146

Salt sensitivity of wheat at various growth stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative salt tolerance of two wheat species (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Probred and Triticum turgidum L., Durum Group, cv. Aldura) at different stages of growth was determined in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown in sand cultures that were irrigated four times daily with modified Hoagland's solution. Salinization with NaCl and CaCl2 (2:1 molar ratio) provided seven treatment solutions

E. V. Maas; J. A. Poss

1989-01-01

147

Salinity sensitivity of sorghum at three growth stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative salt tolerance of two sorghum cultivars [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench., cvs. Northrup King 265 and Asgrow Double TX] at three different stages of growth was determined in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown in sand cultures irrigated four times daily with modified Hoagland's solution. A nonsaline solution and six solutions salinized with NaCl and CaCl2 (2: 1 molar

E. V. Maas; J. A. Poss; G. J. Hoffman

1986-01-01

148

Pesticides in urban streams and early life stages of Pacific coho salmon.  

PubMed

Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams and are believed to be primarily the result of homeowner use. Although concentrations in most cases are low (<1?µg/L), there is concern that pesticide inputs threaten efforts to restore and enhance salmon habitat. The authors exposed early life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of those pesticides most frequently reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Life stages were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail simulating those in urban streams in fall and winter when coho salmon eggs and sac fry are present. Nominal concentrations of eight herbicides, two insecticides, a fungicide, and a breakdown product were the maximum detected. Fertilization, hatching success, survival, deformities, and growth of fry were not significantly affected. A reduction in fertilization success (19-25%) was not reproducible even when gametes were exposed to 100 times the maximum concentrations detected. Based on the end points examined in the present study, the results suggest that direct exposure to the pesticides most frequently detected in urban streams in western Washington does not impair early life stages of coho salmon and is not a major factor governing the recovery of salmon populations. The extent to which pesticide exposure would affect smoltification, outmigration, and ocean survival needs to be determined. PMID:23297254

King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J

2013-04-01

149

Aromatase inhibitors and calcium absorption in early stage breast cancer.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of aromatase inhibitors (AI) on intestinal calcium absorption, measured using the gold-standard dual stable calcium isotope method. In this pilot study, we recruited 10 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who planned to initiate AI therapy; women receiving chemotherapy were excluded. Women completed two 24 h inpatient calcium absorption study visits, the first prior to AI therapy and the second at least 6 weeks following onset of AI therapy. We calculated total fractional calcium absorption (TFCA) using the dose-corrected fractional recovery of two stable isotopes from 24 h urine collections. Ten postmenopausal women (mean±SD age, 66±7 years; 25(OH)D 40±7 ng/mL, and total calcium intake of 1,714±640 mg/day) exhibited no change in TFCA related to AI therapy (0.155±0.042 prior to and 0.160±0.064 following AI therapy, p=1.0). Subjects exhibited a surprisingly small decline in serum estradiol levels with AI therapy that was not statistically significant. However, there was a significant correlation between duration of AI therapy and the decline in serum estradiol levels (r=-0.65, p=0.040). In this pilot study, AI therapy did not decrease TFCA. Women with early stage breast cancer exhibited an unexpectedly low TFCA, most likely due to their high calcium intake. The null effect of AI therapy on TFCA might relate to the brief duration of AI therapy, the minimal effect of AI therapy on estradiol levels, subjects' high calcium intake or excellent vitamin D status. PMID:22350731

Tevaarwerk, Amye; Burkard, Mark E; Wisinski, Kari B; Shafer, Martin M; Davis, Lisa A; Gogineni, Jyothi; Crone, Elizabeth; Hansen, Karen E

2012-07-01

150

Aromatase inhibitors and calcium absorption in early stage breast cancer  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effect of aromatase inhibitors (AI) on intestinal calcium absorption, measured using the gold-standard dual stable calcium isotope method. In this pilot study, we recruited 10 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who planned to initiate AI therapy; women receiving chemotherapy were excluded. Women completed two 24 h inpatient calcium absorption study visits, the first prior to AI therapy and the second at least 6 weeks following onset of AI therapy. We calculated total fractional calcium absorption (TFCA) using the dose-corrected fractional recovery of two stable isotopes from 24 h urine collections. Ten postmenopausal women (mean ± SD age, 66 ± 7 years; 25(OH)D 40 ± 7 ng/mL, and total calcium intake of 1,714 ± 640 mg/day) exhibited no change in TFCA related to AI therapy (0.155 ± 0.042 prior to and 0.160 ± 0.064 following AI therapy, p = 1.0). Subjects exhibited a surprisingly small decline in serum estradiol levels with AI therapy that was not statistically significant. However, there was a significant correlation between duration of AI therapy and the decline in serum estradiol levels (r = ?0.65, p = 0.040). In this pilot study, AI therapy did not decrease TFCA. Women with early stage breast cancer exhibited an unexpectedly low TFCA, most likely due to their high calcium intake. The null effect of AI therapy on TFCA might relate to the brief duration of AI therapy, the minimal effect of AI therapy on estradiol levels, subjects’ high calcium intake or excellent vitamin D status.

Tevaarwerk, Amye; Burkard, Mark E.; Wisinski, Kari B.; Shafer, Martin M.; Davis, Lisa A.; Gogineni, Jyothi; Crone, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

151

Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements.

Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

2013-01-01

152

Development of Otolith-Marking Methods to Estimate Survival and Growth of Early Life Stages of Natural and Hatchery-Produced Striped Bass in the Patuxent River in 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationships between striped bass recruitment and egg production, larval growth and survival, and environmental conditions which larvae encounter were investigated in the Patuxent River in 1991. Quantitative surveys of ichthyoplankton, otolith aging ...

D. H. Secor E. D. Houde D. M. Monteleone

1994-01-01

153

Effect of anthelmintics on the early stage of Enterobius vermicularis.  

PubMed

In order to determine the susceptible age of Enterobius vermicularis to anthelmintics and to observe the chronologic growth of female E. vermicularis in man, experimental infections were done. About 500 eggs were challenged to 19 volunteers. After 4, 8, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 35 days of infection, each case was treated by either mebendazole or pyrantel pamoate. On the 40th day of infection all cases including control were treated again to terminate the expermental infection and to evaluate the effect of previous treatment. Each case collected 3-day stools to harvest the expelled worms. The results could be summarized as follows: The infection rates of females were in range of 0.6~13.1% in control cases. Because the collected worms showed comparable growth and development by day, the worns were concluded to be derived from experimental infection. Cases that were treated with mebendazole on 4, 8 and 16 days after infection expelled 37.5%, 2.5% and 67.5% of the number expelled by a control case on the 40th day. Cases treated thereafter expelled no worms on the 40 days. Cases that were treated with pyrantel pamoates on 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, 32 and 35 days, expelled 90.7%, 25%, 45.3%, 8%, 2.7%, 5% and 29.3% of the number collected from control cases in respect. All the worms collected were females. The total body length increased consistently and comparably from the 20th day of infection. Those collected on the 20th day were 2.5~3.0 mm long with vigina, sac-like structure and strands of ovaries; 24 day-old worms may have short uterus, 28 day-old worms had long uterus without eggs, 32 day-old worms began to produce eggs, 35 day-old worms showed wide variations in egg deposit in uterus, and 40 day-old worms had uterus filled with eggs from vulva to anal levels. From the above results, it was inferred that the life span of female Enterobius vermicularis was longer than 40 days, and the developmental stages of worms younger than 16 days resisted considerably to both mebendazole and pyrantel pamoate. PMID:12888681

Cho, Seung Yull; Kang, Shin Yong; Kim, Suk Il; Song, Chul Yong

1985-06-01

154

Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).  

PubMed

Summary The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture. PMID:23534899

Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

2014-08-01

155

Acquisition of Growth-Inhibitory Antibodies against Blood-Stage Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Background Antibodies that inhibit the growth of blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum may play an important role in acquired and vaccine-induced immunity in humans. However, the acquisition and activity of these antibodies is not well understood. Methods We tested dialysed serum and purified immunoglobulins from Kenyan children and adults for inhibition of P. falciparum blood-stage growth in vitro using different parasite lines. Serum antibodies were measured by ELISA to blood-stage parasite antigens, extracted from P. falciparum schizonts, and to recombinant merozoite surface protein 1 (42 kDa C-terminal fragment, MSP1-42). Results Antibodies to blood-stage antigens present in schizont protein extract and to recombinant MSP1-42 significantly increased with age and were highly correlated. In contrast, growth-inhibitory activity was not strongly associated with age and tended to decline marginally with increasing age and exposure, with young children demonstrating the highest inhibitory activity. Comparison of growth-inhibitory activity among samples collected from the same population at different time points suggested that malaria transmission intensity influenced the level of growth-inhibitory antibodies. Antibodies to recombinant MSP1-42 were not associated with growth inhibition and high immunoglobulin G levels were poorly predictive of inhibitory activity. The level of inhibitory activity against different isolates varied. Conclusions Children can acquire growth-inhibitory antibodies at a young age, but once they are acquired they do not appear to be boosted by on-going exposure. Inhibitory antibodies may play a role in protection from early childhood malaria.

McCallum, Fiona J.; Persson, Kristina E. M.; Mugyenyi, Cleopatra K.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.; Simpson, Julie A.; Richards, Jack S.; Williams, Thomas N.; Marsh, Kevin; Beeson, James G.

2008-01-01

156

Analysis in Serum-Free Culture of the Targets of Recombinant Human Hemopoietic Growth Factors: Interleukin 3 and Granulocyte\\/Macrophage-Colony-Stimulating Factor are Specific for Early Developmental Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a serum-free culture system for enriched human hemopoietic progenitors to analyze the developmental stages and lineage specificities of the human hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors. None of the individual factors alone efficiently supported hemopoietic colony formation. Neither interleukin 3 nor granulocyte\\/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor alone or in combination effectively supported proliferation of progenitor cells. However, when combined with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor or

Yoshiaki Sonoda; Yu-Chung Yang; Gordon G. Wong; Steven C. Clark; Makio Ogawa

1988-01-01

157

Evaluation of early life stage fall chinook salmon exposed to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source.  

PubMed

We conducted a laboratory evaluation to assess the risk to early life stage (i.e., eyed egg to swim up) fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for exposure to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source. Local populations of fall Chinook salmon were exposed to Hanford Site source groundwater that was diluted with Columbia River water. Specific endpoints included survival, development rate, and growth. Tissue burdens of fish were also measured to estimate uptake and elimination rates of chromium. Survival, development, and growth of early life stage fall Chinook salmon were not adversely affected by extended exposures (i.e., 98 day) to hexavalent chromium ranging from 0.79 to 260 microg/l. Survival for all treatment levels and controls exceeded 98% at termination of the test. In addition, there were no differences among the mean lengths and weights of fish among all treatment groups. Whole-body concentrations of chromium in early life stage fall Chinook salmon had a typical dose-response pattern; i.e., those subjected to highest exposure concentrations and longest exposure intervals had higher tissue concentrations. Given the spatial extent of chromium concentrations at the Hanford Site, and the dynamics of the groundwater-river water interface, the current cleanup criterion of 10 microg/l chromium appear adequate to protect early life stage fall Chinook salmon. These findings, together with previous research indicate low risk to these populations. PMID:17294282

Patton, Gregory; Dauble, Dennis; McKinstry, Craig

2007-10-01

158

Experimental constrain of hydrogen production during early serpentinization stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks along axial valleys at low spread oceanic ridges lead to the production of hydrogen, hydrocarbons and organic molecules in presence of CO2. The natural production of these compounds is of fundamental interest for the understanding of the emergence of life, and it has a potential economic interest for the production of natural hydrogen. In order to improve our knowledge of the processes involved in the hydrogen production, different sets of experiments have been conducted using powder of natural peridotite as starting material. The experiments were performed at 300°C / 300 bars using autoclaves with a sampling gas system that allows measurement of the amount of produced hydrogen. The exposure times range from 7 to 90 days until the complete reaction is reached. The starting material has been characterized as thin section using SEM, EMPA and µ-XRF maps. Then, the characterization of the altered powders was mainly based on XRD, RAMAN and XANES spectroscopy at the Fe K-edge. XANES measurements on the polycrystalline altered powders were carried out at the SuperXAS beamline of the SLS. Because iron is present in each phase of the altered assemblages, the mineral amount could be determined from linear combination of the XANES spectra, taking into account the Fe-concentration of each phase. Moreover, the averaged oxidation state of iron was accurately derived from the pre-peak features based on a specific calibration curve. Two processes of iron oxidation and hydrogen production were identified from our results. In the experiments shorter than two months, serpentine shows a significant incorporation of ferric iron (up to 60%) and the amount of newly formed iron oxide and/or hydroxide is negligible. In contrast, we show that iron oxides are produced in significant proportions over two months. It follows that, during early serpentinization stages, H2 degassing is not related to the crystallization of iron oxide and/or hydroxide, but is actually related to the bulk Fe3+ content of the sample, contained here exclusively in the serpentine (i.e., lizardite) mineral. Base on these results, we define a non linear model of “Fe3+ in serpentine vs hydrogen production” as a function of time, which can be used to estimate the amount of hydrogen produced in natural rocks.

Marcaillou, C.; Muñoz, M.; Vidal, O.; Parra, T.; Harfouche, M.

2009-12-01

159

Experimental constrain of hydrogen production during early serpentinization stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks along axial valleys at low spread oceanic ridges lead to the production of hydrogen, as well as hydrocarbons and organic molecules in presence of CO2. The natural production of these compounds is of fundamental interest for the understanding of the formation of prebiotic molecules, and has a potential economical interest for the production of natural hydrogen. In order to improve our knowledge of the processes involved in the hydrogen production, different sets of experiments have been conducted using either powder or centimetric fragments of natural peridotites as starting material. Powder samples were altered at 300 bar and different temperatures (50, 150, 250, 300, 350 and 450°C) for different durations from 0 to 170 days.. Rock fragments were altered at 300°C/300 bar, between 0 and 84 days. The characterization of the alteration products was first carried out using SEM, EMPA, XRF and XRD. Then, XANES investigations were used to study the evolution of the oxidation state and structural environment of iron. For each alteration time, the relative amount of phases was determined from linear combinations of the XANES spectra. On the other hand, high resolution µ-XANES maps were collected at the iron K-edge for the characterization of the centrimetric fragments. These maps give information on the speciation of iron from the core to the border of the alteration zones. The results allow us to constrain the kinetics of alteration in natural context. Kinetics of serpentinization is more efficient between 250 and 450°C and is maximized around 300°C. At this temperature, two processes of iron oxidation and hydrogen production were identified from the experimental results. In the experiments shorter than two months, serpentine shows a significant incorporation of ferric iron (up to 60%) and the amount of newly formed iron oxide and hydroxide is less than XXX%. In contrast, iron oxides and hydroxides are produced in significant quantities above XXX months. It follows that the production of hydrogen is not directly related to the amount of iron oxide and hydroxide in the early serpentinization stages, but is related to the bulk Fe3+ content of the sample, included either in oxides or in phyllosilicates. Our results allow us to define a model of "Fe3+ in serpentine vs hydrogen production" as a function of time, which can be used to estimate the amount of hydrogen produced in natural rocks. The evolutions of the Fe3+/Fetotal ratio for both powders and rock fragments allow us to discuss in terms of kinetics of fluid-rock interactions and associated hydrogen production.

Marcaillou, Clément; Muñoz, Manuel; Vidal, Olivier; Parra, Teddy; Harfouche, Messaoud

2010-05-01

160

Chemotherapy alone in the treatment of patients with early stage Hodgkin's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Studies employing chemotherapy in early stage Hodgkin's disease suggest that this approach is at least comparable to radiation therapy in treatment outcome. Since the long-term disease-free survival in early stages approaches 90%, it is unlikely to further improve these results substantially. Thus, the major goal is the reduction of toxicity. The future choice of therapy will be influenced by

D. L. Longo

161

40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...followed by random assignment of a second group of equal number to each...analysis of data derived from early life stage toxicity tests; however...versus each concentration. A second technique is to identify treatment...criteria. (A) An early life stage toxicity test is...

2009-07-01

162

40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...followed by random assignment of a second group of equal number to each...analysis of data derived from early life stage toxicity tests; however...versus each concentration. A second technique is to identify treatment...criteria. (A) An early life stage toxicity test is...

2010-07-01

163

Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surface ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.

Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S. [Inst. de Ciencias Ambientales y Salud, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Programa Seguridad Quimica; Cardellini, P.; Pavanati, C. [Univ. degli Studi di Padova Via Trieste (Italy). Dept. di Biologia

1997-02-01

164

Setting the Stage for Lifetime Physical Activity in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale and suggestions for emphasizing health-related physical education in preschool settings. In order to accomplish this, it will examine what is currently known about early childhood physical activity, as well as the existing professional preparation and accreditation standards for early childhood…

Schneider, Holly; Lounsbery, Monica

2008-01-01

165

Attending breast cancer screening alone does not explain the detection of tumours at an early stage.  

PubMed

The goal of a screening programme is to allow tumour detection at an early stage when treatments are more effective and less invasive. We examined whether attending breast cancer (BC) screening alone can explain the discovery of tumours at an early stage. Women aged 50-74 years, with a first BC diagnosed from January 2006 to December 2008, were eligible. Patients' personal and family characteristics before their BC diagnosis were collected through a questionnaire. Their tumour characteristics were provided by the Côte d'Or BC registry and staging was performed according to the criteria of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) to provide early-stage (AJCC 0/1) and advanced-stage (AJCC 2/3/4) BC. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the predictive factors for the discovery of BC at an early stage. Data from 533 patients with a BC diagnosed from January 2006 to December 2008 were used. Among them, 353 patients (66.2%) had early-stage BC whereas 175 patients (32.8%) had advanced-stage BC. Patients attending mammography screening were more likely to have had early-stage BC (P=0.0003). Multivariate analyses showed that being aged 63-74 years (P=0.008) and having had a previous regular medical follow-up (P=0.02) were independent predictors for the discovery of an early-stage BC. Mammography screening certainly allowed the discovery of BC at an early stage when performed according to the recommended 2-year interval. The regular use of health services could also contribute towards the early detection of tumours and thus towards a reduction in BC mortality. PMID:22751208

Ouédraogo, Samiratou; Dabakuyo, Tienhan Sandrine; Gentil, Julie; Poillot, Marie-Laure; Dancourt, Vincent; Arveux, Patrick

2013-03-01

166

Effects of marine toxins on the reproduction and early stages development of aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. PMID:20161971

Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

2010-01-01

167

Stress development and relaxation during early stages of oxidation of metals and alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been long recognized that oxidation of metals results in the generation of stresses and these stresses play an important role in shaping the microstructure of oxide films. However, the mechanism governing the stress development and relaxation during early stages of oxidation of metals and alloys is still to a significant degree unclear. Using a combination of in-situ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finite element method, we show how oxidation-induced stresses can be used to tailor the initial oxide formation during early-stage oxidation of Cu(100) and Cu-Au(100). From analysis of the observed morphological evolution of Cu2O nanoislands, we establish a close relationship between the stresses generated from the oxide growth and the thermodynamic selection of nanoscale morphology of the oxide film. We expect that our results have implications for controlled production of novel oxide nano structures through controlling the oxidation-induced stresses via oxidation temperature or alloying.

Zhou, Guangwen; Ke, Changhong; Yang, Judith; Eastman, Jeffrey; Pearson, John

2009-03-01

168

Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage air-liquid interface biofilm formation in Mycobacterium smegmatis.  

PubMed

We studied the early stages of pellicle formation by Mycobacterium smegmatis on the surface of a liquid medium [air-liquid interface (A-L)]. Using optical and scanning electron microscopy, we showed the formation of a compact biofilm pellicle from micro-colonies over a period of 8-30 h. The cells in the pellicle changed size and cell division pattern during this period. Based on our findings, we created a model of M. smegmatis A-L early pellicle formation showing the coordinate growth of cells in the micro-colonies and in the homogeneous film between them, where the accessibility to oxygen and nutrients is different. A proteomic approach utilizing high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, in combination with mass spectrometry-based protein identification, was used to analyse the protein expression profiles of the different morphological stages of the pellicle. The proteins identified formed four expression groups; the most interesting of these groups contained the proteins with highest expression in the biofilm development phase, when the floating micro-colonies containing long and more robust cells associate into flocs and start to form a compact pellicle. The majority of these proteins, including GroEL1, are involved in cell wall synthesis or modification, mostly through the involvement of mycolic acid biosynthesis, and their expression maxima correlated with the changes in cell size and the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall observed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:24760966

Sochorová, Zuzana; Petrá?ková, Denisa; Sita?ová, Barbora; Buriánková, Karolína; Bezoušková, Silvia; Benada, Old?ich; Kofro?ová, Olga; Jane?ek, Ji?í; Halada, Petr; Weiser, Jaroslav

2014-07-01

169

Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms  

PubMed Central

Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms.

Vasconcelos, Vitor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vitor

2010-01-01

170

EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST WITH TIDEWATER SILVERSIDES (MENIDIA PENINSULAE) AND CHLORINE-PRODUCED OXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Early life-stage toxicity tests (continuous exposure from embryonic stage to approximately three weeks or more into the exogenous feeding stage) with North American marine fishes have been conducted almost exclusively with cyprinodontids. In this paper, the authors present method...

171

Was Breast Conserving Surgery Underutilized for Early Stage Breast Cancer? Instrumental Variables Evidence for Stage II Patients from Iowa  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the average survival effects of breast conserving surgery plus irradiation relative to mastectomy for marginal stage II breast cancer patients in Iowa from 1989–1994. Data Sources/Data Setting Secondary linked Iowa SEER Cancer Registry—Iowa Hospital Association discharge abstract data for women in Iowa with stage II breast cancer from 1989–1994. Study Design Observational instrumental variables (IV) analysis. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Women with stage II breast cancer from the Iowa SEER Cancer Registry 1989–1994 who received all of their inpatient care in Iowa were linked with their respective hospital discharge abstracts. Principal Findings Breast conserving surgery plus irradiation decreased survival relative to mastectomy for marginal stage II breast cancer patients in Iowa during the early 1990s. In this study marginal patients were those whose surgery choices were affected by differences in area treatment rates and access to radiation facilities. Conclusions If marginal patients are representative of patients whose treatment choices would be affected by changes in treatment rates, an increase in the breast conserving surgery plus irradiation rate for stage II early stage breast cancer patients would have decreased survival in Iowa during the early 1990s. Further research with newer data and broader samples is needed to make more current and specific assessments.

Brooks, John M; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Scott, Shane D; Chen-Hardee, Shari S

2003-01-01

172

Regression of Early and Intermediate Stages of Colon Cancer by Targeting Multiple Members of the EGFR Family with EGFR-Related Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family has been suggested in colon cancer etiology, progression, and\\/ or severity. Our recently identified pan-erbB inhibitor EGFR- related protein (ERRP) targets EGFRs by attenuating their activation and subsequent signaling leading to cellular growth inhibition. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effectiveness of ERRP on early and intermediate stages

Eva M. Schmelz; Hu Xu; Radha Sengupta; Jianhua Du; Sanjeev Banerjee; Fazlul H. Sarkar; Arun K. Rishi; Adhip P. N. Majumdar

173

Growth Stage Modulates Salinity Tolerance of New Zealand Spinach ( Tetragonia tetragonioides, Pall.) and Red Orach ( Atriplex hortensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of two speciality vegetable crops, New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides Pall.) and red orach (Atriplex hortensis L.), to salt application at three growth stages was investigated. Plants were grown with a base nutrient solution in outdoor sand cultures and salinized at 13 (early), 26 (mid), and 42 (late) d after planting (DAP). For the treatment salt concentrations, we

Clyde Wilson; Scott M. Lesch; Catherine M. Grieve

2000-01-01

174

Effects of mixture of pharmaceuticals on early life stages of tench (Tinca tinca).  

PubMed

Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 ?g · L(-1) for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 ?g · L(-1)). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 ?g · L(-1)) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench. PMID:24772417

Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

175

Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia  

PubMed Central

Background Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Results Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low seed set in R. pseudoacacia.

2014-01-01

176

Thermal and chlorophyll-fluorescence imaging distinguish plant-pathogen interactions at an early stage.  

PubMed

Different biotic stresses yield specific symptoms, owing to their distinct influence on a plant's physiological status. To monitor early changes in a plant's physiological status upon pathogen attack, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (Chl-FI) and thermography, which respectively visualize photosynthetic efficiency and transpiration, were carried out in parallel for two fundamentally different plant-pathogen interactions. These non-destructive imaging techniques were able to visualize infections at an early stage, before damage appeared. Under growth-room conditions, a robotized set-up captured time series of visual, thermal and chlorophyll fluorescence images from infected regions on attached leaves. As a first symptom of the plant-virus interaction between resistant tobacco and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), thermal imaging detected a local rise in temperature while Chl-FI monitored a co-localized increase in fluorescence intensity. Chl-FI also revealed pre-symptomatic high-intensity spots for the plant-fungus system sugar beet-Cercospora beticola. Concomitantly, spots of lower temperature were monitored with thermography, in marked contrast with our observations on TMV-infection in tobacco. Knowledge of disease signatures for different plant-pathogen interactions could allow early identification of emerging biotic stresses in crops, facilitating the containment of disease outbreaks. Presymptomatic monitoring clearly opens perspectives for quantitative screening for disease resistance, either on excised leaf pieces or attached leaves. PMID:15295072

Chaerle, Laury; Hagenbeek, Dik; De Bruyne, Erik; Valcke, Roland; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

2004-07-01

177

A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol Among Aboriginal Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage\\u000a 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships\\u000a to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to investigate associations between personality\\u000a risk factors and risky drinking motives. Stage 3

Christopher J. Mushquash; M. Nancy Comeau; Brian D. McLeod; Sherry H. Stewart

2010-01-01

178

Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS. PMID:23126275

Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

2013-03-01

179

On the relative fitness of early and late stage Simian Immunodeficiency Virus isolates  

PubMed Central

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has been shown to evolve from a relatively slowly replicating and mildly cytopathic virus early in the infection (SIVMneCL8) to a faster replicating and more cytopathic virus at later stages of the infection (SIVMne170). It has recently been demonstrated that the early and mildly cytopathic variant SIVMneCL8 out-competed the late and highly cytopathic strain SIVMne170 in cell culture experiments, because the fitness disadvantage derived from the higher cytopathicity was not matched by a sufficient increase in the viral replication rate. However, in another set of experiments where the life span of cells in culture was artificially limited, the late and more cytopathic virus won the competition, because under this condition cytopahticity was not an important determinant of viral fitness. It was hypothesized that the limited life span experiment reflected the immune-mediated high turnover environment in vivo more accurately, and that the presence of immune responses accounts for the selection of the cytopathic strain SIVmne170 during later stages of the infection. This paper investigates the effect of immune responses, in particular cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, on the competition dynamics between these two SIV strains with the help of mathematical models. Model analysis and parameter estimates derived from previously published data on SIV growth kinetics suggest that the SIV-specific CTL response might not be the driving force that leads to the selection of the cytopathic strain SIVMne170 during later stages of the infection. This implies that more complex evolutionary mechanisms might have to be invoked in order to explain the emergence of these strains in vivo. One possibility is that the ability of multiple virus particles to infect the same cell (coinfection) might be a prerequisite for the emergence of the cytopathic strain SIVMne170 as the disease progresses.

2009-01-01

180

Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.  

PubMed

Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. PMID:22044898

Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

2011-01-01

181

Early-stage primary school children attending a school in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) have better reversal learning and lean muscle mass growth than those attending a non-SFP school.  

PubMed

In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6-8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction <0.0001). The results indicate that the SFP in Malawi is associated with an improvement in reversal learning and catch-up growth in lean muscle mass in children in the SFP school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children. PMID:23803471

Nkhoma, Owen W W; Duffy, Maresa E; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Davidson, Philip W; McSorley, Emeir M; Strain, J J; O'Brien, Gerard M

2013-08-01

182

Paired comparison of water, energy and carbon exchanges over two young maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.): effects of thinning and weeding in the early stage of tree growth.  

PubMed

The effects of management practices on energy, water and carbon exchanges were investigated in a young pine plantation in south-west France. In 2009-10, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2)O and heat fluxes were monitored using the eddy covariance and sap flow techniques in a control plot (C) with a developed gorse layer, and an adjacent plot that was mechanically weeded and thinned (W). Despite large differences in the total leaf area index and canopy structure, the annual net radiation absorbed was only 4% lower in plot W. We showed that higher albedo in this plot was offset by lower emitted long-wave radiation. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) from plot W was 15% lower, due to lower rainfall interception and transpiration by the tree canopy, partly counterbalanced by the larger evaporation from both soil and regrowing weedy vegetation. The drainage belowground from plot W was larger by 113 mm annually. The seasonal variability of ET was driven by the dynamics of the soil and weed layers, which was more severely affected by drought in plot C. Conversely, the temporal changes in pine transpiration and stem diameter growth were synchronous between sites despite higher soil water content in the weeded plot. At the annual scale, both plots were carbon sinks, but thinning and weeding reduced the carbon uptake by 73%: annual carbon uptake was 243 and 65 g C m(-2) on plots C and W, respectively. Summer drought dramatically impacted the net ecosystem exchange: plot C became a carbon source as the gross primary production (GPP) severely decreased. However, plot W remained a carbon sink during drought, as a result of decreases in both GPP and ecosystem respiration (R(E)). In winter, both plots were carbon sources, plots C and W emitting 67.5 and 32.4 g C m(-2), respectively. Overall, this study highlighted the significant contribution of the gorse layer to mass and energy exchange in young pine plantations. PMID:21724584

Moreaux, Virginie; Lamaud, Eric; Bosc, Alexandre; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Medlyn, Belinda E; Loustau, Denis

2011-09-01

183

Early-Stage Primary School Children Attending a School in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) Have Better Reversal Learning and Lean Muscle Mass Growth Than Those Attending a Non-SFP School12  

PubMed Central

In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6–8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction <0.0001). The results indicate that the SFP in Malawi is associated with an improvement in reversal learning and catch-up growth in lean muscle mass in children in the SFP school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children.

Nkhoma, Owen W. W.; Duffy, Maresa E.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Davidson, Philip W.; McSorley, Emeir M.; Strain, J. J.; O'Brien, Gerard M.

2013-01-01

184

Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

2014-01-01

185

Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L?1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250??g?L?1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15??g?L?1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50??g?L?1 died soon after hatching; at 25??g?L?1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5??g?L?1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

Richterova, Zuzana; Machova, Jana; Stara, Alzbeta; Tumova, Jitka; Velisek, Josef; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

186

Transforming growth factor-? superfamily ligand trap ACE-536 corrects anemia by promoting late-stage erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates proliferation of early-stage erythrocyte precursors and is widely used for the treatment of chronic anemia. However, several types of EPO-resistant anemia are characterized by defects in late-stage erythropoiesis, which is EPO independent. Here we investigated regulation of erythropoiesis using a ligand-trapping fusion protein (ACE-536) containing the extracellular domain of human activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) modified to reduce activin binding. ACE-536, or its mouse version RAP-536, produced rapid and robust increases in erythrocyte numbers in multiple species under basal conditions and reduced or prevented anemia in murine models. Unlike EPO, RAP-536 promoted maturation of late-stage erythroid precursors in vivo. Cotreatment with ACE-536 and EPO produced a synergistic erythropoietic response. ACE-536 bound growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) and potently inhibited GDF11-mediated Smad2/3 signaling. GDF11 inhibited erythroid maturation in mice in vivo and ex vivo. Expression of GDF11 and ActRIIB in erythroid precursors decreased progressively with maturation, suggesting an inhibitory role for GDF11 in late-stage erythroid differentiation. RAP-536 treatment also reduced Smad2/3 activation, anemia, erythroid hyperplasia and ineffective erythropoiesis in a mouse model of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). These findings implicate transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily signaling in erythroid maturation and identify ACE-536 as a new potential treatment for anemia, including that caused by ineffective erythropoiesis. PMID:24658078

Suragani, Rajasekhar N V S; Cadena, Samuel M; Cawley, Sharon M; Sako, Dianne; Mitchell, Dianne; Li, Robert; Davies, Monique V; Alexander, Mark J; Devine, Matthew; Loveday, Kenneth S; Underwood, Kathryn W; Grinberg, Asya V; Quisel, John D; Chopra, Rajesh; Pearsall, R Scott; Seehra, Jasbir; Kumar, Ravindra

2014-04-01

187

Early Years Foundation Stage: How Much Does It Count?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report of the Williams committee (DCSF, 2008: 68) argues that the revised mathematics Framework (DfES, 2006) "should be reconsidered to achieve a more suitable, user-friendly form." It might also have added that there is not much help and support in it for early years teachers. A much more useful document is the "Practice guidance for…

Thompson, Ian

2008-01-01

188

Invasion by Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae) in NW Argentina: early stage characteristics in different habitat types.  

PubMed

Currently biological invasions are considered one of the world's most serious conservation problems. Ligustrum lucidum is the most abundant exotic tree in secondary forest patches of montane forests of NW Argentina. We studied the determinants of success of the early stages of its life cycle in distinct habitat types, with the hope of identifying vulnerabilities that could be exploited to control the invasion. Seed arrival, germination, seedling recruitment and survival, and sapling growth were studied in edges, gaps and forest interior. Seed arrival was also assessed under perches and in open fields. Germination was studied in forest and grassland patches. L. lucidum seedling survival and sapling growth were compared with the most abundant native species survival and growth. Seed arrival was strongly seasonal with a peak in mid-August. Seed rain did not differ significantly among habitat types, however there was a tendency for edges to receive more seeds when only dispersed seeds were considered. Perches strongly enhanced seed arrival; more than 40 times the number of seeds were dispersed beneath citrus plants (i.e. perches) than found in paired open areas. In the forest, seeds in gaps and edges had higher germination rates, but there was no difference in seedling survival. Fruits under closed canopy exhibited the lowest germination. Germination and survival were low in open areas. Neither seedling recruitment nor sapling growth differed between gaps and forest interior. L. lucidum saplings grew significantly more than saplings of the most common native species, and also showed higher seedling survival. L. lucidum is a prolific fruit producer, is capable of germinating and surviving in a broad range of forest environments, it is relatively shade tolerant and has higher survival and faster growth rate in comparison to the most common native species. All these characteristics highlight its potency as a successful invader, and point to few vulnerabilities that could be targets of control measures. PMID:15162681

Aragón, Roxana; Groom, Martha

2003-03-01

189

Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in early stage Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

A multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors was carried out with a Cox model on 1,139 patients with clinical Stage I + II Hodgkin's disease included in three controlled clinical trials. The following indicators had been prospectively registered: aged, sex, systemic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation, results of staging laparotomy when performed, as well as the date and type of treatment. A linear logistic analysis showed that most of the indicators are interrelated. This emphasizes the necessity of a multivariate analysis in order to assess the independent influence of each of them. The two main prognostic indicators for relapse-free survival are systemic symptoms and/or ESR and number of involved areas. The only significant factor for survival after relapse is age. Sex has a small but significant influence on relapse-free survival. The relative influence of each indicator varies with the type of treatment and these variations may help in understanding the biologic significance of the indicators.

Tubiana, M.; Henry-Amar, M.; van der Werf-Messing, B.; Henry, J.; Abbatucci, J.; Burgers, M.; Hayat, M.; Somers, R.; Laugier, A.; Carde, P.

1985-01-01

190

Early stages of fatigue damage in aluminium and aluminium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper fatigue damage initiation is considered as both microcrack nucleation from microheterogeneities within fatigued material and microcrack growth over distances corresponding to the size of the microstructure. A brief review of the literature shows that, depending on fatigue conditions and microstructure three different types of nucleation sites exist in aluminium and aluminium alloys : slip bands, grain boundaries

R. FOUGERES

1993-01-01

191

What do we know about the initiation and early stages of brittle faulting in crystalline rocks?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The styles of initiation and subsequent growth of faults control fault length-slip scaling, the internal structure of fault zones, and fault-rock properties, influencing seismogenic behavior and fluid flow along the faults. Observations by many researchers over the last several decades have illustrated that faults in the upper crust initiate on pre-existing (inherited) or precursory (early-formed) structures and grow by the mechanical interaction and linkage of these structures. These pre-existing and precursory structures are typically mode I fractures (joints, veins, dikes) but may also be semi-brittle shear zones (such as deformation bands in porous sandstone). Research in the granitic outcrops of the central Sierra Nevada (California) has provided significant insight into the geometry and fundamental mechanics of the early stages of fault development. This work has shown that faults in plutonic rocks initiate on pre-existing or precursory joints or dikes and that the discontinuous nature of early mode I fractures has a strong influence on the subsequent development of the fault zone. In basalt, we have similarly observed the important influence of preexisting joints, and, at a broader scale, precursory, semi-brittle shear zones in the form of fault-tip monoclines. In metamorphic rocks, foliation appears to control the initial development of faults, influencing fault orientation, or enabling precursory structures such as kink bands. Kink bands, like deformation bands in porous sandstone, accommodate only small strains before locking, but then become strong inclusions in the material, serving to localize brittle fractures. The quasi-static mechanics of isotropic, isothermal linear-elastic materials in two and three dimensions provides first order understanding of controls on interaction and linkage of early structures, including the concentration of stresses and local stress reorientation. Fruitful research directions important to faulting in crystalline rock include: the influence of thermal stresses and temperature-dependent mechanical properties; mechanical layering and anisotropic material properties; fluid-assisted deformation; and the geologic signature of dynamic rupture.

Crider, J. G.

2011-12-01

192

RESPONSES OF EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF THE STRIPED BASS, 'MORONE SAXATILIS' TO CHLORINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of total residual chlorination (TRC) to early life stages of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, was determined using percent embryo hatchability, incipient LC50 bioassays, histopathology, and avoidance responses. Beginning 8 to 9 hours after fertilization, developin...

193

Managing Technical Risk: Understanding Private Sector Decision Making on Early Stage, Technology-Based Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Decades of theoretic and empirical work on the process of innovation suggest that commercial firms have inadequate incentives to undertake some varieties of early-stage, high-risk technology development projects that have potential to generate radically n...

K. P. Morse L. M. Branscomb M. J. Roberts

2000-01-01

194

NCI Begins Validation Study of New Test to Detect Early-Stage Liver Cancer  

Cancer.gov

A two-year study to validate a test to detect early-stage liver cancer has been initiated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, at six centers* across the United States.

195

Early Stage Expansion and Time-Resolved Spectral Emission of Laser- Induced Plasma from Polymer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the nanosecond laser ablation regime, absorption of laser energy by the plasma during its early stage expansion critically influences the properties of the plasma and thus its interaction with ambient air. These influences can significantly alter spect...

J. Yu M. Baudelet M. Boueri S. S. Mao X. Mao

2009-01-01

196

Shorter Course of Radiation Effective and Safe for Some Women with Early-stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Giving radiation therapy in fewer but larger doses may be an alternative to standard radiation therapy for some women with early-stage breast cancer, according to a study published in the February 11, 2010, New England Journal of Medicine.

197

77 FR 25042 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...eligibility, distributions, and capital impairment. In addition, the final rule makes...the existing limitations. Capital Impairment. SBA did not propose any exceptions to the existing Capital Impairment regulations for Early Stage...

2012-04-27

198

Emerging role of thiamine therapy for prevention and treatment of early-stage diabetic nephropathy.  

PubMed

Thiamine supplementation may prevent and reverse early-stage diabetic nephropathy. This probably occurs by correcting diabetes-linked increased clearance of thiamine, maintaining activity and expression of thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes that help counter the adverse effects of high glucose concentrations-particularly transketolase. Evidence from experimental and clinical studies suggests that metabolism and clearance of thiamine is disturbed in diabetes leading to tissue-specific thiamine deficiency in the kidney and other sites of development of vascular complications. Thiamine supplementation prevented the development of early-stage nephropathy in diabetic rats and reversed increased urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria in two recent clinical trials. The thiamine monophosphate prodrug, Benfotiamine, whilst preventing early-stage development of diabetic nephropathy experimentally, has failed to produce similar clinical effect. The probable explanations for this are discussed. Further definitive trials for prevention of progression of early-stage diabetic nephropathy by thiamine are now required. PMID:21342411

Rabbani, N; Thornalley, P J

2011-07-01

199

New NIA Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents ... you have a family member or friends with Alzheimer's disease? Are you wondering what they're going ...

200

Verbal Fluency and Awareness of Functional Deficits in Early-Stage Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of activities of daily living is an important element in the diagnosis of dementia, with research suggesting a link between functional ability and cognition. We investigated the relationship between self- and informant ratings of instrumental activities of daily living (iADL) and verbal executive functioning in early-stage dementia. A total of 96 people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease or vascular or

Anthony Martyr; Linda Clare; Sharon M. Nelis; Ivana S. Marková; Ilona Roth; Robert T. Woods; Christopher J. Whitaker; Robin G. Morris

2012-01-01

201

Can some patients avoid adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the risk of relapse and mortality for women with early-stage breast cancer. However, many women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer experience the toxic effects associated with adjuvant chemotherapy without any meaningful benefit. There are a variety of clinicopathological factors—including hormone receptor expression, histology, and proliferation markers such as Ki-67—that can be used to try to identify patients

Fatima Cardoso; Philippe L. Bedard

2011-01-01

202

[Influence of early stage of chronic renal disease on risk of cardiac diseases and stroke].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death among people with kidney diseases. The early stage of chronic kidney disease, with mild decrease of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and small increase of creatinine concentration in serum and/or occurrence of microalbuminuria, is related to the increase of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Kidney insufficiency is also independently connected with the risk of stroke. Patients with early stage of kidney insufficiency should be qualified as those in a cardiovascular high risk group. PMID:16969907

Szkó?ka, Tomasz; My?liwiec, Michal

2006-01-01

203

Studying Children's Early Literacy Development: Confirmatory Multidimensional Scaling Growth Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been considerable debate over the ways in which children's early literacy skills develop over time. Using confirmatory multidimensional scaling (MDS) growth analysis, this paper directly tested the hypothesis of a cumulative trajectory versus a compensatory trajectory of development in early literacy skills among a group of 1233…

Ding, Cody

2012-01-01

204

Formal Verification Toolkit for Requirements and Early Design Stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient flight software development from natural language requirements needs an effective way to test designs earlier in the software design cycle. A method to automatically derive logical safety constraints and the design state space from natural language requirements is described. The constraints can then be checked using a logical consistency checker and also be used in a symbolic model checker to verify the early design of the system. This method was used to verify a hybrid control design for the suit ports on NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Exploration Vehicle against safety requirements.

Badger, Julia M.; Miller, Sheena Judson

2011-01-01

205

Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

2011-01-01

206

Early experience of laparoscopically assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy (Coelio-Schauta) versus abdominal radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare outcomes of laparoscopically assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy (LARVH) vs.\\u000a abdominal radical hysterectomy (RH) for early-stage cervical cancer. This is a retrospective study of all LARVH and RH procedures\\u000a between January 2003 and June 2006 in our tertiary referral centre. Demographic, intraoperative and postoperative parameters\\u000a in both groups were compared. Fourteen women (stage

Evangelos Papacharalabous; Anil Tailor; Thumuluru Madhuri; Theo Giannopoulos; Simon Butler-Manuel

2009-01-01

207

Geomechanical and geochemical changes during early stages of weathering of Karamu Basalt, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in geochemical and geomechanical characteristics were measured through a basalt weathering sequence exposed at an abandoned quarry at Karamu, near Hamilton, New Zealand. Geochemical measurements show that at the early stages of weathering (fresh to slightly weathered) reductions in the concentrations CaO and MgO are rapid, although they are not accompanied by major mineralogical change; during later stages of

Vicki Moon; Jayanthi Jayawardane

2004-01-01

208

Myocardial expression of atrial natriuretic factor gene in early stages of hamster cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventricular cardiomyocytes represent the most important source of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in pathological conditions such as congestive heart failure (CHF). It has been suggested that in cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster ventricles the ANF gene can be reactivated during the hypertrophic stage occurring before heart failure. The present study was undertaken to investigate ANF gene expression during early stages of myocardial

Paolo Di Nardo; Marilena Minieri; Arnaldo Carbone; Nicola Maggiano; Rosella Micheletti; Giuseppe Peruzzi; Giuseppe Tallarida

1993-01-01

209

Renal cell carcinoma in long-term survivors of advanced stage neuroblastoma in early childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare in children and comprises only 1–3% of all pediatric primary renal tumors. Recently, several case reports have described RCC developing in patients previously treated for advanced stage neuroblastoma (NB). Methods and results Our experience with four patients treated for advanced stage NB during early childhood who developed RCC later in life are added

Julie M. Fleitz; Sandra L. Wootton-Gorges; Josephine Wyatt-Ashmead; Loris McGavran; Martin Koyle; Daniel C. West; Eric A. Kurzrock; Kenneth W. Martin; Lorrie F. Odom

2003-01-01

210

Blood and Rumen Changes in Cows in Early Stages of Ketosis[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to de- termine blood and rumen changes in cows in the early stages o£ ketosis. Blood sugars and plasma triglycerides were sig- nificantly depressed, whereas plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and blood ketones were significantly elevated during this stage of ketosis. There was no apparent abnormality in total concentration of ru- minal volatile fatty acids (VFA)

H. D. Radloff; L. H. Schultz

1967-01-01

211

Early solitary small bowel metastasis from stage I cutaneous melanoma  

PubMed Central

Patient Male, 63 Final Diagnosis: Melanoma Symptoms: Gastrointesinal haemorrhage Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Enterectomy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: It is reported that the time interval between the initial diagnosis of malignant melanoma and the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal metastases is 43.8±11.3 months. Case Report: We present the case of a 63-year-old Caucasian man who was operated on for superficial spreading Stage IB melanoma and 8 months later was diagnosed with solitary small bowel metastasis without other systemic metastases. Conclusions: Small bowel melanoma metastasis should be suspected in any patient with previous history of malignant melanoma who develops symptoms of anemia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and non-specific abdominal pain.

Gavriilidis, Paschalis; Efthimiopoulos, Georgios; Zafiriou, Georgios

2013-01-01

212

Vetiver oil production correlates with early root growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain insight into essential oil metabolism we analyzed the oil produced in Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) roots during early growth. Planting of Vetiver in the Campania region of southern Italy was performed in the spring using Vetiver culms with short roots and approximately 20cm leaves. During the first two years of growth Vetiver essential oil was hydrodistilled from

Domenica R. Massardo; Felice Senatore; Pietro Alifano; Luigi Del Giudice; Paola Pontieri

2006-01-01

213

Preoperative staging and early postoperative complications in radical prostatectomy. Experiences in 35 cases.  

PubMed

It is already a textbook item that in patients with prostatic cancer stage T1-T2 N0M0 radical prostatectomy is the only curative treatment. Radical prostatectomy is indicated also for patients in stage T3 N0M0 who underwent antiandrogenic (Fugerel) treatment for 3 months with the aim of reducing tumour volume. In the following 35 cases will be scrutinized, with special regard to preoperative staging and early postoperative complications. PMID:8026924

Romics, I; Bach, D; Widmann, T

1994-01-01

214

Building on the Early Years Foundation Stage: Developing Good Practice for Transition into Key Stage 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum and the independent Cambridge Primary Review both highlight the need to re-think children's educational experiences in English classrooms between the ages of five and seven. Recent government initiatives have led to experiences in these early primary years being adult-directed and often in…

Fisher, Julie

2011-01-01

215

Src Kinase: A Novel Target of Early-Stage ER-Negative Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the last 50 years, the number of cancer related deaths has decreased by only 2%. To achieve reduced breast cancer mortality, it is critical to develop early detection and intervention of breast cancer development at early stages of cancer initiation....

S. Jain

2012-01-01

216

Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early

Burns, Kellie

2006-01-01

217

Neuroinflammation and regeneration in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology in the neocortex show upregulation of cell cycle proteins, adhesion and inflammation related factors, indicating the early involvement of inflammatory and regenerating pathways in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. These brain changes precede the neurofibrillary pathology and the extensive process of neurodestruction and (astro)gliosis. Amyloid ? deposition, inflammation and regenerative mechanisms are also early pathogenic

J. J. M. Hoozemans; R. Veerhuis; J. M. Rozemuller-Kwakkel; P. Eikelenboom

2006-01-01

218

Genomic changes at the early stage of somatic hybridization.  

PubMed

A broad spectrum of genetic and epigenetic changes is induced by wide hybridization and subsequent polyploidization, but the timing of these events remains obscure because early hybrid cells are very difficult to harvest and analyze. Here, we used both cytological and genetic marker approaches to analyze the constitution of very young somatic hybrid cells between japonica rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp japonica) and indica rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp indica) and between japonica rice and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Chromatin elimination, simple sequence repeats, and retrotransposon profile deletions were already apparent within six days of the fusion event. The evidence we have presented suggests that genomic changes induced by genomic shock occur soon after the formation of hybrid cells. PMID:24668681

Sun, Y; Xu, C H; Wang, M Q; Zhi, D Y; Xia, G M

2014-01-01

219

Vagal activity, early growth and emotional development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the research on infant vagal tone suggests that vagal activity is associated with both infant growth and infant socioemotional development. Vagal activity has been noted to increase following the stimulation of pressure receptors as in massage therapy. Vagal activity, in turn, stimulates gastric motility which mediates weight gain in infants. Vagal activity has also been notably elevated

Tiffany Field; Miguel Diego

2008-01-01

220

Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Embryo resorption is a major problem in human medicine, agricultural animal production and in conservation breeding programs. Underlying mechanisms have been investigated in the well characterised mouse model. However, post mortem studies are limited by the rapid disintegration of embryonic structures. A method to reliably identify embryo resorption in alive animals has not been established yet. In our study we aim to detect embryos undergoing resorption in vivo at the earliest possible stage by ultra-high frequency ultrasound. Methods In a longitudinal study, we monitored 30 pregnancies of wild type C57BI/6 mice using ultra-high frequency ultrasound (30-70 MHz), so called ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). We compared the sonoembryology of mouse conceptuses under spontaneous resorption and neighbouring healthy conceptuses and correlated the live ultrasound data with the respective histology. Results The process of embryo resorption comprised of four stages: first, the conceptus exhibited growth retardation, second, bradycardia and pericardial edema were observed, third, further development ceased and the embryo died, and finally embryo remnants were resorbed by maternal immune cells. In early gestation (day 7 and 8), growth retardation was characterized by a small embryonic cavity. The embryo and its membranes were ill defined or did not develop at all. The echodensity of the embryonic fluid increased and within one to two days, the embryo and its cavity disappeared and was transformed into echodense tissue surrounded by fluid filled caverns. In corresponding histologic preparations, fibrinoid material interspersed with maternal granulocytes and lacunae filled with maternal blood were observed. In later stages (day 9–11) resorption prone embryos were one day behind in their development compared to their normal siblings. The space between Reichert’s membrane and inner yolk sac membrane was enlarged The growth retarded embryos exhibited bradycardia and ultimately cessation of heart beat. Corresponding histology showed apoptotic cells in the embryo while the placenta was still intact. In the subsequent resorption process first the embryo and then its membranes disappeared. Conclusions Our results provide a temporal time course of embryo resorption. With this method, animals exhibiting embryo resorption can be targeted, enabling the investigation of underlying mechanisms before the onset of total embryo disintegration.

2014-01-01

221

The ?-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the ?-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the ?1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the ?3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the ?1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

222

Heterogeneous Directional Mobility in the Early Stages of Polymer Crystallization  

SciTech Connect

Recently we demonstrated via large large-scale molecular dynamics simulations a 'coexistence period' in polymer melt ordering before crystallization, where nucleation and growth mechanisms coexist with a phase phase-separation mechanism. Here we present an extension of this work, where we analyze the directional displacements as a measure of the mobility of monomers as they order during crystallization over more than 100 ns of simulation time. It is found that the polymer melt, after quenching, rapidly separates into many ordered hexagonal domains separated by amorphous regions, where surprisingly, the magnitude of the monomer's displacement in the ordered state, parallel to the domain axial direction, is similar to its magnitude in the melt. T. The monomer he displacements in the domain's lateral direction are found to decrease during the time of the simulation. The ordered hexagonal domains do not align into uniform lamellar structures during the timescales of our simulations.

Lacevic, N; Fried, L E; Gee, R H

2008-11-01

223

Parasitostatic effect of maslinic acid. I. Growth arrest of Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic stages  

PubMed Central

Background Natural products have played an important role as leads for the development of new drugs against malaria. Recent studies have shown that maslinic acid (MA), a natural triterpene obtained from olive pomace, which displays multiple biological and antimicrobial activities, also exerts inhibitory effects on the development of some Apicomplexan, including Eimeria, Toxoplasma and Neospora. To ascertain if MA displays anti-malarial activity, the main objective of this study was to asses the effect of MA on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in vitro. Methods Synchronized P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte cultures were incubated under different conditions with MA, and compared to chloroquine and atovaquone treated cultures. The effects on parasite growth were determined by monitoring the parasitaemia and the accumulation of the different infective stages visualized in thin blood smears. Results MA inhibits the growth of P. falciparum Dd2 and 3D7 strains in infected erythrocytes in, dose-dependent manner, leading to the accumulation of immature forms at IC50 concentrations, while higher doses produced non-viable parasite cells. MA-treated infected-erythrocyte cultures were compared to those treated with chloroquine or atovaquone, showing significant differences in the pattern of accumulation of parasitic stages. Transient MA treatment at different parasite stages showed that the compound targeted intra-erythrocytic processes from early-ring to schizont stage. These results indicate that MA has a parasitostatic effect, which does not inactivate permanently P. falciparum, as the removal of the compound allowed the infection to continue Conclusions MA displays anti-malarial activity at multiple intraerythrocytic stages of the parasite and, depending on the dose and incubation time, behaves as a plasmodial parasitostatic compound. This novel parasitostatic effect appears to be unrelated to previous mechanisms proposed for current anti-malarial drugs, and may be relevant to uncover new prospective plasmodial targets and opens novel possibilities of therapies associated to host immune response.

2011-01-01

224

Microscopic and early stage ovarian cancers in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers: building a model for early BRCA-associated tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is the cornerstone of ovarian cancer prevention in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Occult fallopian tube and ovarian cancers have been reported in a small percentage of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers undergoing RRSO. Here, we review our single institution experience with RRSO in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers to characterize cases of microscopic cancers in these patients. At the time of RRSO, 7.9% of BRCA1 mutation carriers were diagnosed with microscopic fallopian tube or ovarian cancers and zero cases were diagnosed in BRCA2 mutation carriers. The majority of the microscopic cancers include cases that were confined to the fallopian tubes, although there were also cases involving ovaries only or peritoneal washings only. This suggests that the site of origin may be in the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum for BRCA-associated serous cancers. However, an analysis of early stage (stage I and II) ovarian and fallopian tube cancers diagnosed in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers confirms that the ovary is a preferred site for tumor growth with 11 of 14 early stage cancers having a dominant ovarian mass. Overall, these data suggest that cancer initiation may occur in the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum, but tumor growth and progression is favored in the ovary. We present an updated model for BRCA1/2-associated ovarian and fallopian tube carcinogenesis, which may aid in identifying improved prevention strategies for high-risk women that delay or decline RRSO.

Yates, Melinda S.; Meyer, Larissa A.; Deavers, Michael T.; Daniels, Molly S.; Keeler, Elizabeth R.; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.; Lu, Karen H.

2011-01-01

225

Early and Late Stage Metals and Sulfides in Diogenites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diogenites are typically highly brecciated orthopyroxenites that contain 84-100 vol.% orthopyroxene. Common accessory minerals include olivine, chromite, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase, silica, troilite and Fe-Ni metal. Metal and sulfides are minor phases in diogenites with an average abundance of < 1 vol.% and 0-2 vol.% respectively. However their presence is important, as they could provide information on T-fO2-fS2 conditions and the evolution of the diogenite parent magma during crystallization and/or later metamorphism. We have examined the occurrence of Fe-Ni metal and sulfides in thin sections of several diogenites including, Johnstown, Manegaon, Roda, Shalka, Bilanga, and Tatahouine using optical microscopy and the electron microprobe. Here, we describe three features of metals and sulfides that are common in most of these diogenites. These are: i) The widespread occurrence of pentlandite associated with copper and copper sulfide minerals; ii) Textural evidence that at least some of the metal and sulfide occurring interstitially between, and as inclusions within, orthopyroxene formed from an early immiscible sulfide-oxide liquid; iii) That this sulfide- oxide liquid subsequently fractionated into assemblages containing either Fe-Ni metal, troilite, and chromite or pentlandite, troilite, and copper-bearing sulfide.

Sideras, L. C.; Domanik, K. J.; Lauretta, D. S.

2004-01-01

226

Seismic anisotropy and texture development during early stages of subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wave splitting measurements are frequently used to infer upper mantle flow trajectory, based on the fact that, under strain, olivine develops lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) textures in the convecting mantle. However, such inferences ought to be made carefully, since the relationship between splitting fast polarisation and olivine LPO depends on several factors, one of them being the deformation history of the volume of mantle in question. This is especially the case in regions such as subduction zones, where complex and time-dependent mantle flow occurs. Here, we present an integrated model to simulate strain-history-dependent LPO development and measure the resulting shear wave splitting in a subduction setting. We do this for a subduction model that approximates the geometry of the double-sided Molucca Sea subduction system in eastern Indonesia. We test a single-sided and a double-sided subduction case, and compare the results to shear wave splitting observations of this region. Since the subduction zone is fairly young, early textures from the slab's descent from the near-surface to the bottom of the mantle transition zone - which we simulate in our models - have not yet been overprinted by subsequent continuous flow. It further allows us to test the significance of the double-sided geometry, i.e., the need for a rear barrier to achieve trench-parallel sub-slab mantle flow. We simulate olivine LPO evolution in polycrystalline aggregates as they move and deform along pathlines extracted from a 3-D mantle flow model. Interactions between crystals are described using the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) approach. Unlike previous studies, we consider the entire subduction history from subduction initiation onwards. After calculating elastic properties associated with LPO textures, we estimate the resulting splitting parameters (fast direction ?, delay time ?t) for synthetic SKS phases. Our models demonstrate that complex, backazimuth-dependent behaviour in ? appears in even apparently simple models of subduction zone mantle flow. We also show that although a rear barrier amplifies trench-parallel sub-slab anisotropy due to mantle flow, it is not essential for producing trench-parallel fast directions. In a simple model of one-sided subduction and deformation dominated by the motion of dislocations belonging to the (010)[100] slip system, trench-parallel fast directions result from a combination of simple shear and deformation by axial compression in the sub-slab mantle.

Di Leo, Jeanette; Walker, Andrew; Li, Zhong-Hai; Wookey, James; Ribe, Neil; Kendall, J.-Michael; Tommasi, Andréa

2014-05-01

227

Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion-deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case-control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4-5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7-5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

228

Vagal Activity, Early Growth and Emotional Development  

PubMed Central

A review of the research on infant vagal tone suggests that vagal activity is associated with both infant growth and infant socioemotional development. Vagal activity has been noted to increase following the stimulation of pressure receptors as in massage therapy. Vagal activity, in turn, stimulates gastric motility which mediates weight gain in infants. Vagal activity has also been notably elevated during synchronous mother-infant interactions and positive affect, providing confirmatory data for the Porges “Social Engagement System” model. In contrast, low vagal activity has been noted in prenatally depressed mothers (and prenatally angry and anxious mothers) and their infants, as well as in children with autism. These studies highlight the relations between vagal activity and the social behaviors of attentiveness, facial expressions and vocalizations.

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel

2008-01-01

229

Vagal activity, early growth and emotional development.  

PubMed

A review of the research on infant vagal tone suggests that vagal activity is associated with both infant growth and infant socioemotional development. Vagal activity has been noted to increase following the stimulation of pressure receptors as in massage therapy. Vagal activity, in turn, stimulates gastric motility which mediates weight gain in infants. Vagal activity has also been notably elevated during synchronous mother-infant interactions and positive affect, providing confirmatory data for the Porges "social engagement system" model. In contrast, low vagal activity has been noted in prenatally depressed mothers (and prenatally angry and anxious mothers) and their infants, as well as in children with autism. These studies highlight the relations between vagal activity and the social behaviors of attentiveness, facial expressions and vocalizations. PMID:18295898

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel

2008-09-01

230

Estimates of the duration of the early and late stage of gambiense sleeping sickness  

PubMed Central

Background The durations of untreated stage 1 (early stage, haemo-lymphatic) and stage 2 (late stage, meningo-encephalitic) human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are poorly quantified, but key to predicting the impact of screening on transmission. Here, we outline a method to estimate these parameters. Methods We first model the duration of stage 1 through survival analysis of untreated serological suspects detected during Médecins Sans Frontières interventions in Uganda and Sudan. We then deduce the duration of stage 2 based on the stage 1 to stage 2 ratio observed during active case detection in villages within the same sites. Results Survival in stage 1 appears to decay exponentially (daily rate = 0.0019; mean stage 1 duration = 526 days [95%CI 357 to 833]), possibly explaining past reports of abnormally long duration. Assuming epidemiological equilibrium, we estimate a similar duration of stage 2 (500 days [95%CI 345 to 769]), for a total of nearly three years in the absence of treatment. Conclusion Robust estimates of these basic epidemiological parameters are essential to formulating a quantitative understanding of sleeping sickness dynamics, and will facilitate the evaluation of different possible control strategies.

Checchi, Francesco; Filipe, Joao AN; Haydon, Daniel T; Chandramohan, Daniel; Chappuis, Francois

2008-01-01

231

16S rDNA-Based Analysis of Dominant Bacterial Populations Associated with Early Life Stages of Coho Salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we used a 16S rDNA–based approach to determine bacterial populations associated with coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in its early life stages, highlighting dominant bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract during growth in freshwater. The present article is the first molecular analysis of bacterial communities of coho salmon. Cultivability of the salmon gastrointestinal microbiota was estimated by comparison of

Jaime Romero; Paola Navarrete

2006-01-01

232

Early stages in the high temperature cyclic oxidation of {beta}-NiAl: An x-ray reflectivity study  

SciTech Connect

Early stages in the cyclic oxidation of {beta}-NiAl at 500{degrees}C, 600{degrees}C, 700{degrees}C and 800{degrees}C were investigated using the technique of x-ray reflectivity. By fitting the data to a model function, oxide layer thickness, roughness of the oxide-vapor interface, and the roughness of the oxide-substrate interface were obtained as a function of oxidation time and temperature of oxidation. The time dependence of the oxide thickness was observed to be logarithmic at lower temperatures (500{degrees}C and 600{degrees}C) while a conventional t{sup 0.5} kinetics was observed at the higher temperatures. Comparison of the roughness of the oxide-substrate interface with that of the oxide-vapor interface shows that for comparable oxide thicknesses and identical substrate conditions, the oxide-vapor interface was rougher than the oxide-substrate interface at all temperatures. This is consistent with the previously postulated growth mechanism (outward diffusion of cations) for oxide growth during the early stages of oxidation at these temperatures. Thus, x-ray reflectivity offers a convenient way of determining the oxide growth rates, and the roughness of the interfaces when the oxide layer is thin; this regime cannot be easily studied with the techniques that are currently used for oxidation studies.

Muralidharan, G.; You, Hoydoo; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W. [and others

1996-12-31

233

Early neural activity and dendritic growth in turtle retinal ganglion cells.  

PubMed

Early neural activity, both prenatal spontaneous bursts and early visual experience, is believed to be important for dendritic proliferation and for the maturation of neural circuitry in the developing retina. In this study, we have investigated the possible role of early neural activity in shaping developing turtle retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendritic arbors. RGCs were back-labelled from the optic nerve with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Changes in dendritic growth patterns were examined across development and following chronic blockade or modification of spontaneous activity and/or visual experience. Dendrites reach peak proliferation at embryonic stage 25 (S25, one week before hatching), followed by pruning in large field RGCs around the time of hatching. When spontaneous activity is chronically blocked in vivo from early embryonic stages (S22) with curare, a cholinergic nicotinic antagonist, RGC dendritic growth is inhibited. On the other hand, enhancement of spontaneous activity by dark-rearing (Sernagor & Grzywacz (1996)Curr. Biol., 6, 1503-1508) promotes dendritic proliferation in large-field RGCs, an effect that is counteracted by exposure to curare from hatching. We also recorded spontaneous activity from individual RGCs labelled with lucifer yellow (LY). We found a tendency of RGCs with large dendritic fields to be spontaneously more active than small-field cells. From all these observations, we conclude that immature spontaneous activity promotes dendritic growth in developing RGCs. PMID:16930407

Mehta, Vandana; Sernagor, Evelyne

2006-08-01

234

Early influences of nutrition on fetal growth.  

PubMed

During pregnancy, the metabolic requirements of the mother are increased; however, the relationship between maternal intake of key nutrients and optimal fetal growth is not always clear. In this chapter, we have reviewed randomized controlled trials of nutritional interventions during pregnancy, with a particular focus on birthweight and infants who are small for gestational age (SGA). Of the trials that have investigated changing macronutrient and energy intakes during pregnancy, supplements in which <25% of the energy is provided by protein yielded the most promising results, producing a 31-32% reduction in the risk of SGA infants and an increase in birthweight (38-60 g) compared with control. Single-nutrient intervention trials using n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplements demonstrated small increases in birthweight (?50 g) and birth length (?0.5 cm), which may be explained by small increases in gestation length (approximately 2.5 days). n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnancy did not however decrease the proportion of SGA infants. Multiple-micronutrient supplementation trials in developing countries have resulted in increased mean birthweight (22-44 g) and reduced the risk SGA by 9-15%. Further nutritional intervention studies which are rigorously designed and implemented are needed particularly to delineate differential effects in developed and developing countries. PMID:23502134

Makrides, Maria; Anderson, Amanda; Gibson, Robert A

2013-01-01

235

Fox Chase researchers discover novel role of the NEDD9 gene in early stages of breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

A protein called NEDD9—which regulates cell migration, division and survival—has been linked to tumor invasion and metastasis in a variety of cancers. Researchers at Fox Chase Cancer Center have now shown that NEDD9 plays a surprising role in the early stages of breast tumor development by controlling the growth of progenitor cells that give rise to tumors. The findings, published in the journal Oncogene on January 14, 2013, could lead to personalized treatment strategies for women with breast cancer based on the levels of NEDD9 in their tumors.

236

Sustained Expression of Early Growth Response Protein1 Blocks Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient induction of the transcription factor early growth response protein-1 (EGR-1) plays a pivotal role in the transcriptional response of endothelial cells to the angiogenic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which are produced by most tumors and are involved in the angiogenic switch. We report here that sustained expression of EGR-1 by

Markus Lucerna; Jiri Pomyje; Diana Mechtcheriakova; Alexandra Kadl; Florian Gruber; Martin Bilban; Yuri Sobanov; Gernot Schabbauer; Johannes Breuss; Oswald Wagner; Markus Bischoff; Matthias Clauss; Erhard Hofer

2006-01-01

237

Microstructural evolution at the bonding interface during the early-stage infrared active brazing of alumina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared brazing of Al2O3 and alloy 42 using a silver-base active braze alloy was investigated at 900 °C for 0 to 300 seconds, with a heating rate of 3000 °C/min. Experimental results show that Ti3(Cu, Al)3O intermetallic with various amounts of Al is observed in the reaction layer and plays an important role in the early stage of reactive wetting. A two-layer structure is observed at the reaction interface brazed at 900 °C for 5 seconds. The reaction layer close to the alumina contains large amounts of Al, so the mass balance of the system is maintained. The growth of the reaction layer is not rate controlled by diffusion within the first 120 seconds. After 120 seconds, the rate controlling mechanism of the reaction layer becomes the diffusion control, satisfying the parabolic law. Dynamic wetting angle measurements using a traditional vacuum furnace at the heating rate of 10 °C/min demonstrate that the wetting angle rapidly decreases within the first 150 seconds, especially 0 to 80 seconds, and eventually stabilizes after 600 seconds.

Shiue, R. K.; Wu, S. K.; O, J. M.; Wang, J. Y.

2000-10-01

238

Impacts of treated municipal wastewaters on early life stages of fishes  

SciTech Connect

The Hudson-Raritan Estuary is a typical urban estuary that receives a tremendous burden of pollutants from many point- and non-point sources. Treated municipal wastewater (TMW) accounts for about 13% of the freshwater input, 90% of point-source volume and >98% of point-source pollutants. Most sources of TMW have a substantial industrial input, so the effluents include organics and heavy metals. While secondary treatment substantially reduces TMW toxicity, chlorination of the effluent restores the toxicity by producing oxidized and chlorinated compounds not previously present. The authors are attempting to assess the biological impacts of such effluents. They report here results to date of laboratory analyses of realistic dilutions of such secondarily-treated and chlorinated TMW. They have targeted three species of fish common to the Hudson-Raritan Estuary, the winter flounder (Pseudopleuonectes americanus), the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and the striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The estuary is a spawning area for the first two species and a significant overwintering area for the third, a protected species. Because the early life stages of fish are especially sensitive, they are focusing on development and growth.

Weis, P. (New Jersey Medical School, Newark (USA)); Weis, J.S. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Newark (USA)); Greenberg, A. (New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark (USA))

1988-09-01

239

Early stages of amyloid fibril formation studied by liquid-state NMR: the peptide hormone glucagon.  

PubMed

The 29-residue peptide hormone glucagon forms amyloid fibrils within a few hours at low pH. In this study, we use glucagon as a model system to investigate fibril formation by liquid-state (1)H-NMR spectroscopy One-dimensional, correlation, and diffusion experiments monitoring the fibril formation process provide insight into the early stages of the pathway on which the molecules aggregate to fibrils. In conjunction with these techniques, exchange experiments give information about the end-state conformation. Within the limits of detection, there are no signs of larger oligomeric intermediates in the course of the fibril formation process. Kinetic information is extracted from the time course of the residual free glucagon signal decay. This suggests that glucagon amyloids form by a nucleated growth mechanism in which trimers (rather than monomers) of glucagon interact directly with the growing fibrils rather than with each other. The results of proton/deuterium exchange experiments on mature fibrils with subsequent dissolution show that the N-terminal of glucagon is the least amenable to exchange, which indicates that this part is strongly involved in the intermolecular bonds of the fibrils. PMID:18339765

Svane, Anna Sigrid Pii; Jahn, Kasper; Deva, Taru; Malmendal, Anders; Otzen, Daniel Erik; Dittmer, Jens; Nielsen, Niels Chr

2008-07-01

240

Limitations of waterborne exposure of fish early life stages to BDE-47.  

PubMed

2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is acknowledged as the most abundant congener of all polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Despite its limited residence in the water column, most ecotoxicological research using fish early life stages (ELS) has focused on its waterborne bioavailability. These studies have been supported either by chemical analysis in solutions or in tissues after ? 168 h exposures to relatively high waterborne concentrations with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent carrier (? 0.5%). Using noninvasive physiological and anatomical features in medaka ELS, we investigated the viability of waterborne BDE-47 exposures (100-10,000 ?g/L; 1% DMSO) and evaluated the developmental effects in relation to the actual BDE-47 present in water. Embryos were exposed for 10 days under semi-static (24-h renewal) conditions and waterborne BDE-47 concentrations (i.e., dissolved) were quantitated daily and their accumulation in eleutheroembryonic tissues was analyzed 4 days after exposures finished. BDE-47 in solution rapidly decreased after each renewal by >50% in 24h. This was confirmed by discernible precipitation occurring at ? 5,000 ?g/L on the bottom of the container and attached to the chorionic filaments of eggshell. The fast dissipation from water may explain why, besides the subtle, yet significant effects on post-hatching growth (short length at ?5000?g/L), no other significant deleterious developmental effects were observed despite the fact that BDE-47 accumulated in tissues in response to BDE-47 treatment. Waterborne BDE-47 exposure was unachievable under traditional semi-static exposure conditions, but was achievable in repeated pulse exposures lasting a few hours whenever the medium was renewed. Hence, this research encourages the use of alternate - more realistic - exposure routes (e.g., particulate matter or sediments) when evaluating early developmental toxicity of BDE-47 or any other PBDE sharing similar properties. PMID:24508762

González-Doncel, Miguel; Torija, Carlos Fernández; Beltrán, Eulalia María; García-Mauriño, José Enrique; Sastre, Salvador; Carbonell, Gregoria

2014-03-01

241

Contribution of Early Life Stages to lnterannual Variability in Recruitment of Northern Anchovy (Engradis mordax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested HjoKs and Lasker's hypotheses that the abundance of recruits in fishes is determined at an early life stage. Using 13 yr of data on components of population dynamics of the well-studied northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), we reconstructed the abundance of anchovy in each year at three stages: eggs, 4.5d-old yolk-sac larvae, and 19d-old larvae. No abundance measure was

Randall M. Peterman; Nancy C. H. Lo; Richard D. Methot

242

Characterising a technology development at the stage of early emerging applications: nanomaterial-enhanced biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We devise future-oriented technology analyses tools to investigate a technology at an interesting development stage of early emerging applications. At this stage, technologies show great potential with little established commercialisation. Future development pathways are highly uncertain and heavily dependent on contextual interactions. We apply R&D profiling, R&D-to-applications cross-charting, and technology delivery system modelling to help understand the phenomena that bear

Lu Huang; Ying Guo; Zhengchun Peng; Alan L. Porter

2011-01-01

243

Effects of acidified seawater on early life stages of scleractinian corals (Genus Acropora )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification, caused by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, is currently an important environmental problem. It is therefore necessary to investigate the effects of\\u000a ocean acidification on all life stages of a wide range of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the effects\\u000a of increased CO2 on early life stages of organisms, including corals. Using a range of

Ryota Suwa; Masako Nakamura; Masaya Morita; Kazuaki Shimada; Akira Iguchi; Kazuhiko Sakai; Atsushi Suzuki

2010-01-01

244

CAN TELEPHONE COUNSELING POST-TREATMENT IMPROVE PSYCHOSOCIAL OUTCOMES AMONG EARLY STAGE BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether a telephone counseling program can improve psychosocial outcomes among breast cancer patients post-treatment. Methods A randomized trial was conducted involving 21 hospitals and medical centers, with assessments (self-administered questionnaires) at baseline, 12 and 18 months post-enrollment. Eligibility criteria included early stage diagnosis, enrollment during last treatment visit, and the ability to receive the intervention in English. Endpoints included distress (Impact of Event Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and two study-specific measures: sexual dysfunction and personal growth. The control group (n = 152) received a resource directory for breast cancer; the intervention group (n = 152) also received a one year, 16 session telephone counseling program augmented with additional print materials. Results Significant intervention effects were found for sexual dysfunction at 12 (p = 0.03) and 18 months (p = 0.04) and personal growth (12 months: p = 0.005; 18 months: p = 0.03). No differences by group were found in mean scores for distress and depression, with both groups showing significant improvement at 12 and 18 months (all p values for within-group change from baseline were ? .003). However, when dichotomized at cutpoints suggestive of the need for a clinical referral, the control group showed virtually no change at 18 months while the intervention group showed about a 50% reduction for both distress (p = 0.07) and depression (p = 0.06). Conclusions Telephone counseling may provide a viable method for extending psychosocial services to cancer survivors nationwide.

Garrett, Kathleen M.; Cella, David; Wenzel, Lari; Brady, Marianne J.; Fairclough, Diane; Pate-Willig, Meredith; Barnes, Denise; Emsbo, Susan Powell; Kluhsman, Brenda C.; Crane, Lori; Sedlacek, Scot; Flynn, Patrick J.

2009-01-01

245

Treatment options in early stages of Hodgkin's Lymphoma, high cure rate with lower short and long-term toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of early stages in HL varied among cooperative groups and clinical trials. Most of them considered early stages; stage I, II, and IIIA without bulky disease. Bulky disease has been defined at the Costwolds Meeting as those tumors with more than 10 cm or a mediastinal involvement of more than one-third of the chest wall diameter. Other factors

Santiago Pavlovsky

2005-01-01

246

Prevalence and characteristics of pain in early and late stages of ALS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare pain frequency in early and late stages of ALS and to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status. Sixty-four patients in different stages of ALS were asked to complete the Neuropathic Pain Scale and to draw the localization of their pain on a body cartoon. The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) values were obtained from the medical record. A ?(2) correlation was used to compare the proportion of patients with pain in different stages of ALS. Correlation coefficient was used to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status (ALSFRS-R). Pain was reported by about half the patients. Using FVC values, patients were subdivided into early, intermediate and late stage of the disease. There was a negative correlation between pain intensity and functional status. There was no statistically significant difference in the presence of pain among patients in the different stages of ALS. In conclusion, our study showed that pain is common in ALS patients. Although pain intensity did correlate negatively with functional status, as expected, we were surprised to find that pain was also present in the early stages of the disease. PMID:23286754

Rivera, Itza; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Casey, Pat; Heller, Scott; Allen, Jeffrey; Siddique, Teepu; Sufit, Robert

2013-09-01

247

Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

Meeuwig, M. H.; Bayer, J. M.; Seelye, J. G.

2005-01-01

248

Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.  

PubMed

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 ?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 ?-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. PMID:24713117

Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

2014-07-01

249

Choice of organizational structure for software companies in growth stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text has analyzed IT enterprise's property and its product system from the angle of software engineering, furthermore, discuss the proper IT enterprise's organization structure in growing stage combined with the life cycle of business.

Li Jianshe; Li Ting

2010-01-01

250

Impact of [ 18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Staging and Management of Early-Stage Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Accurate staging is critical to select patients with early-stage (I-II) follicular lymphoma (ESFL) suitable for involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) and to define the radiotherapy portal. We evaluated the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET on staging, treatment, and outcome for patients with ESFL on conventional staging. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with untreated ESFL (World Health Organization Grade I-IIIa, or 'low

Andrew Wirth; Marcus Foo; John F. Seymour; Michael P. MacManus; Rodney J. Hicks

2008-01-01

251

Additional data on the distribution and early stages of Chrysoesthia verrucosa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently described gelechiid moth Chrysoesthia verrucosa Tokár, 1999 is recorded for the first time for Italy, where it was found in the Aosta region on 3 August 2002. Larvae were found mining the leaves of goosefoot (Chenopodium sp.) and the adults were reared; the early stages and foodplant(s) of this species were still unknown. Identification, bionomics and geographical distribution

J. H. Kuchlein

252

Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including actinic keratosis (AK) is in- creasing all over the world. The detection and diagnosis of NMSC is not optimal in clinical practice. Complementary methods for detection and accurate demarcation of NMSC at an early stage are needed in order to limit the damage caused by tumours. Objective: The purpose of the

Jaap de Leeuw; Nick van der Beek; W. Dieter Neugebauer; Peter Bjerring; H. A. Martino Neumann

2009-01-01

253

Early-stage plasma dynamics with air ionization during ultrashort laser ablation of metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the early-stage plasma evolution generated by an ultrashort laser pulse is investigated through pump-probe shadowgraph measurements and simulations. The measurements are performed to show the evolution of the plasma front, while the simulation model is used to further investigate the evolution process and mechanism. Specifically, the laser pulse propagation in air is simulated using the beam propagation

Wenqian Hu; Yung C. Shin; Galen King

2011-01-01

254

Acoustic emission technique used for detecting early stages of precipitation during aging of Inconel 625  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging behavior of Inconel 625 has been studied at 540 °C. The Ni2(Cr,Mo) phase, found in this material only after a long service life, has been detected along with the ?? phase after a short aging. Acoustic emission technique has been found sensitive enough to detect early stages of precipitation.

J. Mittra; J. S. Dubey; S. Banerjee

2003-01-01

255

Treatment of Early-Stage Pressure Ulcers by Using Autologous Adipose Tissue Grafts  

PubMed Central

Assessing pressure ulcers (PUs) in early stages allows patients to receive safer treatment. Up to now, in addition to clinical evaluation, ultrasonography seems to be the most suitable technique to achieve this goal. Several treatments are applied to prevent ulcer progression but none of them is totally effective. Furthermore, the in-depth knowledge of fat regenerative properties has led to a wide use of it. With this study the authors aim at introducing a new approach to cure and prevent the worsening of early-stage PUs by using fat grafts. The authors selected 42 patients who showed clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of early-stage PUs. Values of skin thickness, fascial integrity, and subcutaneous vascularity were recorded both on the PU area and the healthy trochanteric one, used as control region. Fat grafting was performed on all patients. At three months, abnormal ultrasonographic findings, such as reduction of cutaneous and subcutaneous thickness, discontinuous fascia, and decrease in subcutaneous vascularity, all were modified with respect to almost all the corresponding parameters of the control region. Results highlight that the use of fat grafts proved to be an effective treatment for early-stage PUs, especially in the care of neurological and chronic bedridden patients.

Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Pallara, Tiziano; Cagli, Barbara; Schena, Emiliano; Giurazza, Francesco; Faiella, Elio; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Persichetti, Paolo

2014-01-01

256

Communication in the Early Stage of Language Development in Children with CHARGE Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CHARGE syndrome is characterized by multiple physical abnormalities, and impaired vision and hearing. In this pilot study, communication in the early stage of language development in three one- to eight-year-old children with CHARGE syndrome was explored using video recorded free-play interaction sessions and a parental questionnaire. The children…

Peltokorpi, Sini; Huttunen, Kerttu

2008-01-01

257

Aldosterone receptor blockade inhibits degenerative processes in the early stage of calcific aortic stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcific aortic valve disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly. To date, pharmacological therapies have not proven as effective as surgical intervention. Here, we used a hyperlipidemic rabbit model to investigate the potential effects of selective aldosterone inhibition on the early stages of aortic valve calcification, a pharmacological strategy that has not yet been tested.

Spyridon Gkizas; Dimitra Koumoundourou; Xara Sirinian; Stamatina Rokidi; Dimosthenis Mavrilas; Petros Koutsoukos; Apostolos Papalois; Efstratios Apostolakis; Dimitrios Alexopoulos; Helen Papadaki

2010-01-01

258

The significance of lipids at early stages of marine fish: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work reviews the significance of lipids at different early stages of marine fish larvae. Lipids in broodstock nutrition are considered to be important for the quality of the larvae. Lipids affect the spawning and the egg quality of many fish species and a deficiency in (n?3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in broodstock negatively affects fecundity, fertilization rate

Jose R. Rainuzzo; Kjell I. Reitan; Yngvar Olsen

1997-01-01

259

Proliferative Activity, Apoptosis, and Histogenesis in the Early Stages of Rat Tooth Extraction Wound Healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the proliferative activity, apoptosis, and histogenesis in the early stages of the rat healing socket from just after extraction until new bone formation occurs. Thirty 11-week-old male Wistar rats underwent bilateral maxillary first molar tooth extraction. Five craniomaxillary tissue specimens were dissected at the following time points: at 12 h, days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after

Hirotaka Sato; Yasunori Takeda

2007-01-01

260

Toxicity of Acenaphthene and Isophorone to Early Life Stages of Fathead Minnows (Journal Version).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flow-through 96-hr and early-life stage toxicity tests were conducted with acenaphthene and isophorone, using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test animals. The 96-hr LC50's were 608 micro/L for acenaphthene and 145 and 255 micro/L for isophorone,...

M. A. Cairns A. V. Nebeker

1982-01-01

261

TOXICITY OF ACENAPHTHENE AND ISOPHORONE TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF FATHEAD MINNOWS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through 96-hr and early-life stage toxicity tests were conducted with acenaphthene and isophorone, using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test animals. The 96-hr LC50's were 608 micro/L for acenaphthene and 145 and 255 micro/L for isophorone, depending on fish age. N...

262

EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST METHODS FOR GULF TOADFISH, 'OPSANUS BETA', AND RESULTS USING CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) were continuously exposed as embryos, sac fry and juveniles to technical chlorpyrifos in two 49-day early life-stage toxicity tests. Survival was significantly (alpha = 0.05) reduced only in 150 micrograms/l). However, toadfish exposed to chlorpyrifos...

263

Early Gamma Interferon Responses in Lethal and Nonlethal Murine Blood-Stage Malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to explore early differences in cytokine production during nonlethal and lethal blood-stage murine malaria infections. Cytokine analysis of spleens during these infections showed that the principal difference between two nonlethal and two lethal Plasmodium species was the production of gamma interferon 24 h after infection with nonlethal parasites. In contrast, no increases in interleukin-4 production were

J. BRIAN DE SOUZA; KATE H. WILLIAMSON; TSUYOSHI OTANI; H. L. PLAYFAIR

1997-01-01

264

Early Nonspecific Immune Responses and Immunity to Blood-Stage Nonlethal Plasmodium yoelii Malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early role of natural killer cells and gamma delta T cells in the development of protective immunity to the blood stage of nonlethal Plasmodium yoelii infection was studied. Splenic cytokine levels were measured 24 h after infection of natural killer cell-depleted immunodeficient and littermate mice or transiently T-cell- depleted normal mice. Splenic gamma interferon levels were significantly increased above

HASIB R. CHOUDHURY; NADEEM A. SHEIKH; GREGORY J. BANCROFT; DAVID R. KATZ; J. BRIAN DE SOUZA

2000-01-01

265

A Functional Account of Verb Use in the Early Stages of English Multiword Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates flexibility of verb use in the early stages of English multiword development, and its relationship with patterns attested in the input. The data is taken from a case study of a monolingual English-speaking boy aged 2; 5-2; 9 and his mother while engaged in daily activities in the home. Data were coded according to…

Cameron-Faulkner, Thea

2012-01-01

266

Defining Early Human NK Cell Developmental Stages in Primary and Secondary Lymphoid Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A better understanding of human NK cell development in vivo is crucial to exploit NK cells for immunotherapy. Here, we identified seven distinctive NK cell developmental stages in bone marrow of single donors using 10-color flow cytometry and found that NK cell development is accompanied by early expression of stimulatory co-receptor CD244 in vivo. Further analysis of cord blood (CB),

Diana N. Eissens; Jan Spanholtz; Arnold van der Meer; Bram van Cranenbroek; Harry Dolstra; Jaap Kwekkeboom; Frank W. M. B. Preijers; Irma Joosten

2012-01-01

267

Investigation of the early stages of deformation of two phase copper-aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of the early stages of deformation of a series of two phase (? + ??) Cu-Al alloys in terms of the behavior of the constituent phases. The two phase structures of constant martensite and? phase composition with varying amount of martensite phase are obtained by quenching from the two phase field. By being able\\u000a to

A. H. Yegneswaran; K. Tangri

1983-01-01

268

Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

2014-01-01

269

Serum Lipids and Outcome of Early-stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The prognosis of women with early-stage breast cancer is influenced by insulin and body mass index (BMI). High levels of serum insulin and obesity often coexist with dyslipidemia in the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), but the contribution of lipids to breast cancer outcome is unclear. Here, we examine whether serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) influence

Mala Bahl; Marguerite Ennis; Ian F. Tannock; Jan E. Hux; Kathleen I. Pritchard; Jarley Koo; Pamela J. Goodwin

2005-01-01

270

Adding Radiation to Chemotherapy May Improve Outcomes in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not known.

271

Effects of Temperature on Survival and Development of Early Life Stage Pacific and Western Brook Lampreys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22°C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the

Michael H. Meeuwig; Jennifer M. Bayer; James G. Seelye

2005-01-01

272

A Comparison of Item Selection Rules at the Early Stages of Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared five item selection rules with respect to the efficiency and precision of trait (theta) estimation at the early stages of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The Fisher interval information, Fisher information with a posterior distribution, Kullback-Leibler information, and Kullback-Leibler information with a posterior distribution…

Chen, Shu-Ying; Ankenmann, Robert D.; Chang, Hua-Hua

2000-01-01

273

"It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

Roberts-Holmes, Guy

2012-01-01

274

The Night before the LHC -thoughts about expectations in the early stage and beyond-  

SciTech Connect

I review recent developments on the use of m{sub T2} variables for SUSY parameter study, which might be useful for analyses of the data in the early stage of the LHC experiments. I will also mention some of recent interesting studies relevant to the SUSY analysis.

Nojiri, Mihoko M. [IPNS, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan) and IPMU, Tokyo University, Kashiwano-ha, Kashiwa, 277-8568 (Japan)

2008-11-23

275

A Duplex Theory of Spike Coding in the Early Stages of the Auditory System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a duplex theory of spike coding in the early stages of the auditory system based on the intensity and noise levels of the acoustic stimuli. According to this concept, at low intensity levels, where auditory nerve firings cannot generate a high enough synchrony among neuron ensembles, rate coding is more likely favored against phase-locking via synchrony coding. To

Ismail Uysal; Harsha Sathyendra; John G. Harris

2007-01-01

276

Effects of Fenvalerate on the Early Life Stages of Topsmelt ('Atherinops affinis').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flow-through acute and early-life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. The 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 micrograms/L. In ...

L. R. Goodman M. J. Hemmer D. P. Middaugh J. C. Moore

1992-01-01

277

Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a phase III clinical trial.

278

Do reaction time measures enhance diagnosis of early-stage dementia of the Alzheimer type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction times (RT) typically are slower in demented individuals than in healthy older people, but it is unclear if this deficit is useful in diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease, particularly in its early stages. In this study we compared 131 nondemented, 73 very mildly demented, and 45 mildly demented individuals on simple, choice, and choice with distraction RT tasks. Less than half

Martha Storandt; Sherry Beaudreau

2004-01-01

279

Simple tool to evaluate energy demand and indoor environment in the early stages of building design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified building simulation tool to evaluate energy demand and thermal indoor environment in the early stages of building design is presented. Simulation is performed based on few input data describing the building design, HVAC systems and control strategies. Hourly values for energy demand and indoor temperature are calculated based on hourly weather data. Calculation of the solar energy transmitted

Toke Rammer Nielsen

2005-01-01

280

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

281

ECT2 amplification and overexpression as a new prognostic biomarker for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Genetic abnormality in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma was examined to search for new prognostic biomarkers. Six in situ lung adenocarcinomas and nine small but invasive adenocarcinomas were examined by array-comparative genomic hybridization, and candidate genes of interest were screened. To examine gene abnormalities, 83 cases of various types of lung carcinoma were examined by quantitative real-time genomic PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results were then verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas. Array-comparative genomic hybridization indicated frequent amplification at chromosome 3q26. Of the seven genes located in this region, we focused on the epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (ECT2) oncogene, as ECT2 amplification was detected only in invasive adenocarcinoma, and not in in situ carcinoma. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses also detected overexpression of ECT2 in invasive adenocarcinoma, and this was correlated with both the Ki-67 labeling index and mitotic index. In addition, it was associated with disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. These results were verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas resected at another hospital. Abnormality of the ECT2 gene occurs at a relatively early stage of lung adenocarcinogenesis and would be applicable as a new biomarker for prognostication of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24484057

Murata, Yoshihiko; Minami, Yuko; Iwakawa, Reika; Yokota, Jun; Usui, Shingo; Tsuta, Koji; Shiraishi, Kouya; Sakashita, Shingo; Satomi, Kaishi; Iijima, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Masayuki

2014-04-01

282

MACC1 as a Prognostic Biomarker for Early-Stage and AFP-Normal Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 gene (MACC1) has been found to be associated with cancer development and progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of MACC1 in early-stage and AFP-normal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods mRNA and protein levels of MACC1 expression in one normal liver epithelial cells THLE3 and 15 HCC cell lines were examined using reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. MACC1 expression was also comparatively studied in 6 paired HCC lesions and the adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry was employed to analyze MACC1 expression in 308 clinicopathologically characterized HCC cases. Statistical analyses were applied to derive association between MACC1 expression scores and clinical staging as well as patient survival. Results Levels of MACC1 mRNA and protein were higher in HCC cell lines and HCC lesions than in normal liver epithelial cells and the paired adjacent noncancerous tissues. Significant difference in MACC1 expression was found in patients of different TNM stages (P<0.001). Overall survival analysis showed that high MACC1 expression level correlated with lower survival rate (P?=?0.001). Importantly, an inverse correlation between MACC1 level and patient survival remained significant in subjects with early-stage HCC or with normal serum AFP level. Conclusions MACC1 protein may represent a promising biomarker for predicting the prognosis of HCC, including in early-stage and AFP-normal patients.

Xie, Chan; Wu, Jueheng; Yun, Jingping; Lai, Jiaming; Yuan, Yunfei; Gao, Zhiliang; Li, Mengfeng; Li, Jun; Song, Libing

2013-01-01

283

Analysis of Turbulent flow in early stages of atherosclerosis of coronary artery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the early stages of atherosclerotic heart disease, fatty material accumulates in the coronary artery resulting in development of streaks of plaque and creating high levels of turbulence, and with significantly modified flow parameters. Diagnostic measures performed during this early stage may not show any evidence of coronary artery disease, because the lumen of the coronary artery has not decreased in caliber. These streaks do not obstruct the flow of blood but alter the flow characteristics, even at this preclinical stage. This talk presents the preliminary results for the analysis of turbulent flow characteristics for a range of atherosclerotic plaque configurations in the left main coronary artery. For this purpose a CAD/medical imaging based direct-simulation (DNS) tool has been developed. The Navier-stokes equations are solved in the vertical vorticity-velocity formulation. The plaque is introduced using immersed body technique. The geometric acquisition of the artery geometry and plaque morphology is obtained using CAD based commercial software.

Bhaganagar, Kiran

2005-11-01

284

Evidence of the early stage of porphyrin aggregation by enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stage of fractal porphyrin diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), induced by addition of a polyamine, is observed in aqueous solution by enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence quenching. The enhancement of Raman scattering is due to nonlinear optical properties typical of fractal composites. Although this early stage (reaction-limited aggregation) has been theoretically predicted (by mean-field theory and molecular dynamics simulation), it is experimentally difficult to observe. During this initial stage, fluorescence quenching gives direct information on the decrease of the concentration of monomeric porphyrins, whereas Raman scattering (through characteristic vibrational modes of the aggregate) reports on the concentration of porphyrins in the aggregated form. These small clusters constitute the seeds for the DLA aggregation process leading to micrometric-sized fractals.

Micali, Norberto; Villari, Valentina; Romeo, Andrea; Castriciano, Maria Angela; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù

2007-07-01

285

Ocean Acidification Effects on the Early Life-Stages of Commercially Important Flatfish of the Northeast USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limited available evidence about effects on finfish of high CO2 levels and acidification of our oceans suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. A carefully planned, experimental framework was developed to cast an extensive yet strategic inferential net. Three key elements of our approach are the use of 1) multiple marine finfish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat of early life-stages; 2) a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures), and 3) a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. The response variable set reflects fish condition, fitness, and likelihood of recruitment, and includes measures of viability, physiology, histopathology, growth, development, and behavior expressed during fish early life-stages (i.e., gametes, embryos, and larvae). Early life-stages were chosen due to the anticipation of their vulnerability to acid-base challenges in their environment. To date, factorial experiments have been implemented on summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Initial results reveal survival of summer flounder embryos is compromised by pH < 7.7 (CO2 > 790 ppm). These results were similar across offspring groups (i.e., embryos from different parents). Winter flounder are larger at hatching when exposed to high CO2 levels in the coolest environment implemented in our experiments (range 4 to 10 ?C). Further responses of advanced larvae of both flounder species are currently being assessed for evidence of other whole body, component organ, and biochemical impairment. This study will aid researchers and resource managers in identifying species types, life-stages, and biotic responses that are most sensitive to the expected future levels of CO2 and water temperature in our oceans.

Chambers, R. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Candelmo, A. C.; Poach, M.; Wieczorek, D.; Phelan, B.; Caldarone, E.; Cooper, K. R.

2012-12-01

286

Cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral toxicity of carbofuran on Oreochromis niloticus early life stages.  

PubMed

Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 9 days post-hatch were exposed in semi-static experiments to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which is applied in agricultural systems in Brazil. Although the molecular mechanism of carbofuran toxicity is well known, a detailed understanding of the ecological mechanisms through which carbofuran effects can propagate towards higher levels of biological organization in fish is incomplete. Mortality rates were quantified for larvae exposed for 96 h to 8.3, 40.6, 69.9, 140, 297 and 397 ?g/L carbofuran, and the LC(50) 96 h was 214.7 ?g/L. In addition, the biochemical biomarker cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral biomarkers related to vision, swimming, prey capture and predator avoidance were quantified in individual larvae, as well as their growth in weight. The behavioral parameters were quantified by analysis of digitally recorded videos of individual larvae within appropriate experimental setups. The activity of the enzyme cholinesterase decreased after exposure to carbofuran with a lowest observed effects concentration (LOEC) of 69.9 ?g/L. Visual acuity deficits were detected after carbofuran exposure with a LOEC of 40.6 ?g/L. Swimming speed decreased with carbofuran exposure, with a LOEC of 397.6 ?g/L. The number of attacks to prey (Daphnia magna nauplii) decreased in larvae exposed to carbofuran, with a LOEC of 397.6 ?g/L. Growth in weight was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner, and all carbofuran groups exhibited a statistically significant decrease in growth when compared to controls (p<0.05). The number of predator attacks necessary to capture larvae decreased after exposure to carbofuran, and the LOEC was 69.9 ?g/L. These results show that exposure of sensitive early life stages of tilapia O. niloticus to sublethal concentrations of carbofuran can affect fundamental aspects of fish larval ecology that are relevant to recruitment of fish populations, and that can be better understood by the application of behavioral biomarkers. PMID:21794226

Pessoa, P C; Luchmann, K H; Ribeiro, A B; Veras, M M; Correa, J R M B; Nogueira, A J; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

2011-10-01

287

Non-lethal effects of an invasive species in the marine environment: the importance of early life-history stages.  

PubMed

Studies examining the effects of invasive species have focussed traditionally on the direct/lethal effects of the invasive on the native community but there is a growing recognition that invasive species may also have non-lethal effects. In terrestrial systems, non-lethal effects of invasive species can disrupt early life-history phases (such as fertilisation, dispersal and subsequent establishment) of native species, but in the marine environment most studies focus on adult rather than early life-history stages. Here, we examine the potential for an introduced sessile marine invertebrate (Styela plicata) to exert both lethal and non-lethal effects on a native species (Microcosmus squamiger) across multiple early life-history stages. We determined whether sperm from the invasive species interfered with the fertilisation of eggs from the native species and found no effect. However, we did find strong effects of the invasive species on the post-fertilisation performance of the native species. The invasive species inhibited the settlement of native larvae and, in the field, the presence of the invasive species was associated with a ten-fold increase in the post-settlement mortality of the native species, as well as an initial reduction of growth in the native. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species avoid settling near the invasive species due to reduced post-settlement survival in its presence. Overall, we found that invasive species can have complex and pervasive effects (both lethal and non-lethal) across the early life-history stages of the native species, which are likely to result in its displacement and to facilitate further invasion. PMID:19156442

Rius, Marc; Turon, Xavier; Marshall, Dustin J

2009-04-01

288

Exploration of novel predictive markers in rat plasma of the early stages of chronic renal failure.  

PubMed

To identify blood markers for early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), blood samples were collected from rats with adenine-induced CKD over 28 days. Plasma samples were subjected to metabolomic profiling by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by multivariate analyses. In addition to already-identified uremic toxins, we found that plasma concentrations of N6-succinyl adenosine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine 20:4, and glycocholic acid were altered, and that these changes during early CKD were more sensitive markers than creatinine concentration, a universal indicator of renal dysfunction. Moreover, the increase in plasma indoxyl sulfate concentration occurred earlier than increases in phenyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate. These novel metabolites may serve as biomarkers in identifying early stage CKD. PMID:24232639

Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Yuriko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Kouichi; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kohno, Masahiro

2014-02-01

289

Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Early-Stage Lung Cancer Based on Longitudinal and Balanced Data  

PubMed Central

Background Lung cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer resulting in over a million deaths per year worldwide. Typically, the problem can be approached by developing more discriminative diagnosis methods. In this paper, computer-aided diagnosis was used to facilitate the prediction of characteristics of solitary pulmonary nodules in CT of lungs to diagnose early-stage lung cancer. Methods The synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) was used to account for raw data in order to balance the original training data set. Curvelet-transformation textural features, together with 3 patient demographic characteristics, and 9 morphological features were used to establish a support vector machine (SVM) prediction model. Longitudinal data as the test data set was used to evaluate the classification performance of predicting early-stage lung cancer. Results Using the SMOTE as a pre-processing procedure, the original training data was balanced with a ratio of malignant to benign cases of 1?1. Accuracy based on cross-evaluation for the original unbalanced data and balanced data was 80% and 97%, respectively. Based on Curvelet-transformation textural features and other features, the SVM prediction model had good classification performance for early-stage lung cancer, with an area under the curve of the SVMs of 0.949 (P<0.001). Textural feature (standard deviation) showed benign cases had a higher change in the follow-up period than malignant cases. Conclusions With textural features extracted from a Curvelet transformation and other parameters, a sensitive support vector machine prediction model can increase the rate of diagnosis for early-stage lung cancer. This scheme can be used as an auxiliary tool to differentiate between benign and malignant early-stage lung cancers in CT images.

Sun, Tao; Zhang, Regina; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Xia; Guo, Xiuhua

2013-01-01

290

Segmentectomy or lobectomy for early stage lung cancer: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Early stage lung cancer is routinely treated by lobectomy whenever clinically feasible, whereas the role of segmentectomy is controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of segmentectomy vs lobectomy for early stage lung cancer through a meta-analysis of published data. Eligible studies were identified from MEDLINE through February 2013. The manual selection of relevant studies was based on the summary analysis. We used published hazard ratios (HRs) if available or estimates from the published survival data. Lobectomy was chosen as the reference in all HR calculations. We compared the effect of segmentectomy and lobectomy for Stage I, Stage IA, Stage IA with tumours larger than 2?cm but smaller than 3?cm in size and Stage IA with tumours of 2?cm or smaller in 22 observational studies. The HRs of overall and cancer-specific survival indicated significant benefits of lobectomy for Stage I, Stage IA and Stage IA with tumours larger than 2?cm but smaller than 3?cm at 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.38; P?=?0.011), 1.24 (95% CI 1.08-1.42; P?=?0.002) and 1.41 (95% CI 1.14-1.71; P?=?0.001), respectively. For tumours 2?cm or smaller, segmentectomy provided an effect equivalent to that of lobectomy (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.89-1.24; P?=?0.550). No significant publication bias was detected in any part of the analysis. These findings should be interpreted in the context of the inherent limitations of meta-analyses of retrospective studies, including the heterogeneity of patient characteristics. PMID:24321996

Bao, Feichao; Ye, Peng; Yang, Yunhai; Wang, Luming; Zhang, Chong; Lv, Xiayi; Hu, Jian

2014-07-01

291

Self-Consistent Simulation of the Brownian Stage of Dust Growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is a widely accepted view that in proto-planetary accretion disks the collision and following sticking of dust particles embedded in the gas eventually leads to the formation of planetesimals (coagulation). For the smallest dust grains, Brownian motion is assumed to be the dominant source of their relative velocities leading to collisions between these dust grains. As the dust grains grow they eventually couple to the turbulent motion of the gas which then drives the coagulation much more efficiently. Many numerical coagulation simulations have been carried out to calculate the fractal dimension of the aggregates, which determines the duration of the ineffective Brownian stage of growth. Predominantly on-lattice and off-lattice methods were used. However, both methods require simplification of the astrophysical conditions. The aggregates found by those methods had a fractal dimension of approximately 2 which is equivalent to a constant, mass-independent friction time. If this value were valid for the conditions in an accretion disk, this would mean that the coagulation process would finally 'freeze out' and the growth of a planetesimal would be impossible within the lifetime of an accretion disk. In order to investigate whether this fractal dimension is model independent, we simulate self-consistently the Brownian stage of the coagulation by an N-particle code. This method has the advantage that no further assumptions about homogeneity of the dust have to be made. In our model, the dust grains are considered as aggregates built up of spheres. The equation of motion of the dust grains is based on the probability density for the diffusive transport within the gas atmosphere. Because of the very low number density of the dust grains, only 2-body-collisions have to be considered. As the Brownian stage of growth is very inefficient, the system is to be simulated over long periods of time. In order to find close particle pairs of the system which are most likely to undergo a collision, we use a particle-in-cell (PIC) method for the early stages of the simulation where the system is still very homogeneous and a tree method later when the particles are more clustered.

Kempf, S.; Pfalzner, S.; Henning, Th.

1996-01-01

292

Poor prognosis of uterine serous carcinoma compared with grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma in early stage patients.  

PubMed

Difference in prognosis between grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma (G3EC) of the endometrium and uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is controversial. In this study, we further evaluated the difference in prognosis, if any, between G3EC (n?=?61) and USC (n?=?47) on a total of 565 patients with endometrial cancer. In addition, meta-analysis was performed using data from seven previous publications (n?=?8,637) and from the Asan Medical Center (n?=?108). Regarding the cases from our institution, USC tended to occur in older patients (?65 years) than G3EC (P?=?0.011). Deep myometrial invasion (more than or equal to half) was more frequently identified in G3EC (36/61, 59.0 %) than in USC (17/47, 36.2 %) (P?=?0.021). Between patients with early stage G3EC and USC (stages I and II), there were no significant differences in any clinicopathological parameter, but there was a significant difference in overall survival (P?=?0.017) that was not found in advanced stage (P?=?0.588). USC was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 6.125; P?=?0.030) in early stage patients. In the meta-analysis on 5-year survival in patients with early stage cancers, which also included our study results, a higher relative risk (1.92, 95 % CI 1.62-2.27) was demonstrated in USC than in G3EC (P?early stage carcinoma, suggesting that different treatment strategies should be considered according to the histologic type in order to improve treatment outcome. PMID:23417747

Park, Ji Young; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tak; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Sohn, Insuk; Lee, Shin-Wha; Sung, Chang Ohk; Kim, Kyu-Rae

2013-03-01

293

Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses.  

PubMed

Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life (SGI group) and twelve controls. Subjects ate a test meal (whey meal, casein meal, SFA meal and PUFA meal) once in a random order. Plasma glucose, insulin, TAG, NEFA, ghrelin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 and a satiety profile were measured in the fasting state and for 4 h after each test meal. Compared with the controls, the SGI group had about 1·5-fold higher insulin responses after the whey meal (P= 0·037), casein meal (P= 0·023) and PUFA meal (P= 0·002). TAG responses were 34-69 % higher for the SGI group, but only the PUFA-meal responses differed significantly between the groups. The PYY response of the SGI group was 44 % higher after the whey meal (P= 0·046) and 115 % higher after the casein meal (P= 0·025) compared with the controls. No other statistically significant differences were seen between the groups. In conclusion, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels. PMID:23597289

Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M; Holst, Jens J; Leiviskä, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G

2013-11-14

294

Transcriptome analyses of early cucumber fruit growth identifies distinct gene modules associated with phases of development  

PubMed Central

Background Early stages of fruit development from initial set through exponential growth are critical determinants of size and yield, however, there has been little detailed analysis of this phase of development. In this study we combined morphological analysis with 454 pyrosequencing to study transcript level changes occurring in young cucumber fruit at five ages from anthesis through the end of exponential growth. Results The fruit samples produced 1.13 million ESTs which were assembled into 27,859 contigs with a mean length of 834 base pairs and a mean of 67 reads per contig. All contigs were mapped to the cucumber genome. Principal component analysis separated the fruit ages into three groups corresponding with cell division/pre-exponential growth (0 and 4 days post pollination (dpp)), peak exponential expansion (8dpp), and late/post-exponential expansion stages of growth (12 and 16 dpp). Transcripts predominantly expressed at 0 and 4 dpp included homologs of histones, cyclins, and plastid and photosynthesis related genes. The group of genes with peak transcript levels at 8dpp included cytoskeleton, cell wall, lipid metabolism and phloem related proteins. This group was also dominated by genes with unknown function or without known homologs outside of cucurbits. A second shift in transcript profile was observed at 12-16dpp, which was characterized by abiotic and biotic stress related genes and significant enrichment for transcription factor gene homologs, including many associated with stress response and development. Conclusions The transcriptome data coupled with morphological analyses provide an informative picture of early fruit development. Progressive waves of transcript abundance were associated with cell division, development of photosynthetic capacity, cell expansion and fruit growth, phloem activity, protection of the fruit surface, and finally transition away from fruit growth toward a stage of enhanced stress responses. These results suggest that the interval between expansive growth and ripening includes further developmental differentiation with an emphasis on defense. The increased transcript levels of cucurbit-specific genes during the exponential growth stage may indicate unique factors contributing to rapid growth in cucurbits.

2012-01-01

295

Knowledge-based compact disease models identify new molecular players contributing to early-stage Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Background High-throughput profiling of human tissues typically yield as results the gene lists comprised of a mix of relevant molecular entities with multiple false positives that obstruct the translation of such results into mechanistic hypotheses. From general probabilistic considerations, gene lists distilled for the mechanistically relevant components can be far more useful for subsequent experimental design or data interpretation. Results The input candidate gene lists were processed into different tiers of evidence consistency established by enrichment analysis across subsets of the same experiments and across different experiments and platforms. The cut-offs were established empirically through ontological and semantic enrichment; resultant shortened gene list was re-expanded by Ingenuity Pathway Assistant tool. The resulting sub-networks provided the basis for generating mechanistic hypotheses that were partially validated by literature search. This approach differs from previous consistency-based studies in that the cut-off on the Receiver Operating Characteristic of the true-false separation process is optimized by flexible selection of the consistency building procedure. The gene list distilled by this analytic technique and its network representation were termed Compact Disease Model (CDM). Here we present the CDM signature for the study of early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. The integrated analysis of this gene signature allowed us to identify the protein traffic vesicles as prominent players in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s. Considering the distances and complexity of protein trafficking in neurons, it is plausible that spontaneous protein misfolding along with a shortage of growth stimulation result in neurodegeneration. Several potentially overlapping scenarios of early-stage Alzheimer pathogenesis have been discussed, with an emphasis on the protective effects of AT-1 mediated antihypertensive response on cytoskeleton remodeling, along with neuronal activation of oncogenes, luteinizing hormone signaling and insulin-related growth regulation, forming a pleiotropic model of its early stages. Alignment with emerging literature confirmed many predictions derived from early-stage Alzheimer’s disease’ CDM. Conclusions A flexible approach for high-throughput data analysis, the Compact Disease Model generation, allows extraction of meaningful, mechanism-centered gene sets compatible with instant translation of the results into testable hypotheses.

2013-01-01

296

Selecting optimal eggs and embryonic developmental stages of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for early life-stage toxicity tests.  

PubMed

Aquaculture research has indicated that fish embryo hatching success and larval survival can sometimes be predicted by embryo characteristics, such as blastomere cleavage patterns. An analogous strategy of individual assessment of spawned eggs could also be used to improve the quality of toxicity tests using early life-stages of fish where control-group survival determines experimental validity. Here we explored whether a simple method of assessing fathead minnow eggs and embryos for abnormalities could predict hatch success, and larval size at hatch, as indicators of embryo larval quality. Embryos were classified according to both their developmental stage and the presence of any abnormalities: uneven blastomere cleavage, atypical embryo size or shape, and the presence of inclusions in the yolk. Clutch size and fertilization rate did not predict embryo larval quality. Fewer abnormalities in embryos with ?32 cells correlated with longer larvae at hatch. Normal embryos were more likely to hatch successfully than abnormal embryos of the same clutch, but because abnormality rates were generally low, much of the variation in hatch success could not be attributed to visible embryo malformations. Blastomere symmetry may be a useful selection criterion in embryos <3 h postfertilization. Where toxicant exposures early in embryonic development are not required or possible, hatch success could be increased by using older embryos that have survived gastrulation. Purposeful selection of embryos with at least two blastomeres, blastomere symmetry, and few inclusions can improve control survival and improve the quality of any generated (sub)lethality data. In our laboratory, application of the egg-selection criteria significantly improved control group hatch success increasing it from a mean of 84.4 to 94.2%. PMID:24346244

Marentette, Julie R; Chiorean, Sorina; Lavalle, Christine; Sullivan, Cheryl; Parrott, Joanne L

2014-02-01

297

Malignant pleural mesothelioma: clinicopathology of 16 extrapleural pneumonectomy patients with special reference to early stage features.  

PubMed

The earliest pathological events in the development of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are not understood. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the early histopathological features of MPM. A total of 16 extrapleural MPM pneumonectomy patients were investigated. Early stage mesothelioma was arbitrarily defined as a tumor < or =5 mm in thickness regardless of the nodal status or other organ involvement. Eight of these patients (six with epithelioid, two with biphasic) had early stage mesothelioma by this definition. Macroscopically there was no visible tumor, but the parietal and visceral pleura were thickened and there was focal adhesion between them. Microscopically, the mesothelioma lesions were multifocal and discontinuous on the pleura. In extremely early cases of epithelioid mesothelioma, tumor cells were generally arrayed in a single layer, but papillary proliferation was observed elsewhere. In sarcomatoid mesothelioma, mesothelioma cells proliferated, forming multiple small polypoid nodules on the pleura. Epithelial membrane antigen was helpful to distinguish reactive from neoplastic mesothelium, but glucose transporter-1 was not. Mesothelioma cells disseminate diffusely throughout the parietal and visceral pleura and mediastinal fat tissue before becoming visible. Stage Ia mesothelioma (neoplasm limited to the parietal pleura) would not be observed in daily practice. PMID:19627537

Hiroshima, Kenzo; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kameya, Toru; Ito, Ichiro; Kaneko, Kou; Kadoyama, Chikabumi; Kishi, Hirohisa; Saitoh, Yukio; Ozaki, Daisuke; Itami, Makiko; Iwata, Takekazu; Iyoda, Akira; Kawai, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Ichiro; Nakatani, Yukio

2009-08-01

298

The Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine in Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Model  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted to elucidate neuroprotective effect of carnosine in early stage of stroke. Methods Early stage of rodent stroke model and neuroblastoma chemical hypoxia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and antimycin A. Neuroprotective effect of carnosine was investigated with 100, 250, and 500 mg of carnosine treatment. And antioxidant expression was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in brain and blood. Results Intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg carnosine induced significant decrease of infarct volume and expansion of penumbra (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant increase than in saline group in blood and brain (p<0.05). In the analysis of chemical hypoxia, carnosine induced increase of neuronal cell viability and decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Conclusion Carnosine has neuroprotective property which was related to antioxidant capacity in early stage of stroke. And, the oxidative stress should be considered one of major factor in early ischemic stroke.

Park, Hui-Seung; Han, Kyung-Hoon; Shin, Jeoung-A; Park, Joo-Hyun; Song, Kwan-Young

2014-01-01

299

Catch-up growth occurs after diarrhea in early childhood.  

PubMed

Diarrhea and linear growth faltering continue to burden low-income countries and are among the most important contributors to poor health during early childhood. Diarrhea is thought to adversely affect linear growth, but catch-up growth can occur if no additional insults are experienced. We sought to characterize catch-up growth in relation to diarrhea burden in a multisite dataset of 1007 children. Using longitudinal anthropometry and diarrheal surveillance data from 7 cohort studies in 4 countries, we examined the relation between diarrhea prevalence and growth in 3- to 6-mo periods using linear mixed-effect models. Growth during each period was calculated as a function of age using linear splines. We incorporated the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea in both current and previous periods into the model. Diarrhea during the current period was associated with slower linear and ponderal growth. Faster (catch-up) growth in length was observed in children with no diarrhea in age groups immediately after an age group in which diarrhea was experienced [age group >6-12 mo: 0.03 mm/mo for each percentage diarrhea prevalence in the previous period (95% CI: 0.007, 0.06) relative to 11.3 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >12-18 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.02, 0.06) relative to 8.9 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >18-24 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.003, 0.09) relative to 7.9 mm/mo mean growth rate]. The associations were stronger in boys than in girls when separate models were run. Similar results were observed when weight was the outcome variable. When diarrheal episodes are followed by diarrhea-free periods in the first 2 y of life, catch-up growth is observed that may allow children to regain their original trajectories. The finding of a greater effect of diarrhea on linear growth in boys than in girls was unexpected and requires additional study. Diarrhea burdens are high throughout the first 2 y of life in these study sites, therefore reducing the likelihood of catch-up growth. Extending diarrhea-free periods may increase the likelihood of catch-up growth and decrease the prevalence of stunting. PMID:24699805

Richard, Stephanie A; Black, Robert E; Gilman, Robert H; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Lanata, Claudio F; Mølbak, Kåre; Rasmussen, Zeba A; Sack, R Bradley; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Checkley, William

2014-06-01

300

Early Growth Response Gene 1 Regulates Bone Properties in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcriptional regulation of the postnatal skeleton is incompletely understood. Here, we determined the consequence of loss\\u000a of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on bone properties. Analyses were performed on both the microscopic and molecular\\u000a levels utilizing micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI), respectively. Mice deficient\\u000a in EGR-1 (Egr-1\\u000a ?\\/?) were studied and compared to sex- and

Marie K. Reumann; Olga Strachna; Lyudmila Lukashova; Kostas Verdelis; Eve Donnelly; Adele L. Boskey; Philipp Mayer-Kuckuk

2011-01-01

301

The nutritive value for sheep of quackgrass and timothy hays harvested at two stages of growth.  

PubMed

Thirty-two wethers were used to compare the nutritive value of Climax timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and quackgrass (Agropyron repens L. Beauv.) harvested at two stages of maturity, joint and early heading, and fed as hay. Crude protein was higher for quackgrass than for timothy (P less than .01). As maturity advanced, CP decreased (P less than .01), but NDF and ADL increased (P less than .01). Dry matter intake was similar between species but decreased by 8% with increasing maturity (P less than .01). Intake of NDF (g/kg.75) was similar for all hays. With increasing plant maturity, apparent digestibility decreased, the effect being more pronounced for quackgrass. Apparent digestibilities of DM and energy were slightly higher (P less than .06) for timothy, and those of CP and hemicellulose were higher for quackgrass (P less than .01). Apparent digestibilities of NDF, ADF, ADL, crude fiber and cellulose were similar between species. Dry matter intake and digestibility were correlated negatively with the ADL/ADF ratio of the hay (r = -.99, P less than .01), whereas CP intake and CP digestibility were correlated with CP of the hay (r = .99, P less than .01). The Lucas test estimated true protein digestibility at 88.1% and metabolic fecal protein at 29.4 g per kg of DM intake. During the growth trial, DM intake was similar between hays, but ADG of sheep was lower (P less than .01) for those fed hays at early heading vs those receiving hays at the joint stage of maturity. The feed to gain ratio was slightly lower for hays at joint (P less than .08). Under the climatic conditions of the 1988 growing season, the nutritive value of quackgrass was similar to that of Climax timothy. PMID:2174849

Christen, A M; Seoane, J R; Leroux, G D

1990-10-01

302

Ventilation Homogeneity Improves with Growth Early in Life  

PubMed Central

Some studies have suggested that lung clearance index (LCI) is age-independent among healthy subjects early in life, which implies that ventilation distribution does not vary with growth. However, other studies of older children and adolescents suggest that ventilation becomes more homogenous with somatic growth. We describe a new technique to obtain multiple breath washout (MBWO) in sedated infants and toddlers using slow augmented inflation breaths that yields an assessment of LCI and the slope of phase III, which is another index of ventilation inhomogeneity. We evaluated whether ventilation becomes more homogenous with increasing age early in life, and whether infants with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) have increased ventilation inhomogeneity relative to full term controls. Fullterm controls (N = 28) and CLDI (N = 22) subjects between 3 and 28 months corrected-age were evaluated. LCI decreased with increasing age; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (9.3 vs. 9.5; p = 0.56). Phase III slopes adjusted for expired volume (SND) increased with increasing breath number during the washout and decreased with increasing age. There was no significant difference in SND between fullterm and CLDI subjects (211 vs. 218; P = 0.77). Our findings indicate that ventilation becomes more homogenous with lung growth and maturation early in life; however, there is no evidence that ventilation inhomogeneity is a significant component of the pulmonary pathophysiology of CLDI.

Chakr, Valentina C.; Llapur, Conrado J.; Sarria, Edgar E.; Mattiello, Rita; Kisling, Jeffrey; Tiller, Christina; Kimmel, Risa; Poindexter, Brenda; Tepper, Robert S.

2011-01-01

303

Chemokines and neurodegeneration in the early stage of experimental ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Neurodegeneration is a hallmark of most of the central nervous system (CNS) disorders including stroke. Recently inflammation has been implicated in pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was analysis of expression of several inflammatory markers and its correlation with development of neurodegeneration during the early stage of experimental stroke. Ischemic stroke model was induced by stereotaxic intracerebral injection of vasoconstricting agent endothelin-1 (ET-1). It was observed that neurodegeneration appears very early in that model and correlates well with migration of inflammatory lymphocytes and macrophages to the brain. Although the expression of several studied chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) was significantly increased at the early phase of ET-1 induced stroke model, no clear correlation of this expression with neurodegeneration was observed. These data may indicate that chemokines do not induce neurodegeneration directly. Upregulated in the ischemic brain chemokines may be a potential target for future therapies reducing inflammatory cell migration to the brain in early stroke. Inhibition of inflammatory cell accumulation in the brain at the early stage of stroke may lead to amelioration of ischemic neurodegeneration. PMID:24324296

Wolinski, Pawel; Glabinski, Andrzej

2013-01-01

304

Neuropsychological detection of the early stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment without objective memory impairment.  

PubMed

Aim: We investigate the assessment method to detect the early stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III). Methods: Three groups (normal group, aMCI group, and early aMCI group), controlled for age and years of education, underwent brain (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET), WAIS-III, WMS-R, and other tests. The early aMCI group does not fulfill the clinical diagnostic criteria of aMCI because patients do not have objective memory impairment, but their clinical symptoms and results of (18)F-FDG PET indicate that they should be included in the category of aMCI. Results: The discrepancy of scores between Verbal IQ and General Memory had the highest accuracy in discriminating between normal and early aMCI groups. Conclusion: The cutoff point determined in this study is useful to detect an early stage of aMCI, which may be distinguished from aMCI using the current criteria. PMID:23392179

Murayama, Norio; Tagaya, Hirokuni; Ota, Kazumi; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Manabe, Yuta; Sato, Kiyoshi; Isek, Eizo

2013-01-01

305

Addition of bevacizumab to three docetaxel regimens as adjuvant therapy for early stage breast cancer.  

PubMed

Docetaxel-containing chemotherapy improves disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival in patients with early stage breast cancer. Bevacizumab improves response rate and DFS in metastatic breast cancer. However, adding antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy to anthracycline-containing chemotherapy may increase cardiotoxicity. This trial evaluates the feasibility of adding bevacizumab to three standard adjuvant docetaxel regimens with a primary endpoint of grade ?3 congestive heart failure (CHF). Phase IIb, randomized, non-comparative study of women with previously untreated node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative patients were randomized to: (arm A) doxorubicin + cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel or (arm B) docetaxel + doxorubicin + cyclophosphamide. HER2-positive patients (arm C) received docetaxel + carboplatin + trastuzumab for 52 weeks. All patients received bevacizumab beginning on day 1 for 52 weeks. Safety data in 212 women (mean age = 53.1 years) show that 1 patient each in arm A (1.3 %) and arm C (1.7 %), and 3 patients in arm B (4.0 %) experienced clinical CHF grade ?3. A decreased ejection fraction was observed in 1 patient each in arms A and C, and cardiac disorder was observed in 12.8, 22.7, and 8.5 % in arms A, B, and C, respectively. A grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse event was reported in 82.1, 84.0, and 52.5 % of participants in arms A, B, and C, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates of DFS show rates at 24 months of 85.5, 90.4, and 90.4 % in arms A, B, and C, respectively. Adding bevacizumab to three standard docetaxel-based chemotherapy regimens as adjuvant treatment in patients with node-positive and high-risk node-negative breast cancer resulted in a low rate of clinical CHF grade ?3. Maintenance bevacizumab monotherapy did not identify any new safety signals. Breast cancer recurrence/relapse, secondary malignancies, and death were uncommon, although the follow-up time in this study was relatively short. PMID:24253810

Yardley, Denise A; Hart, Lowell; Waterhouse, David; Whorf, Robert; Drosick, D Randolph; Murphy, Patrick; Badarinath, Suprith; Daniel, Brooke R; Childs, Barrett H; Burris, Howard

2013-12-01

306

The Early Stages of Taxol Biosynthesis: An Interim Report on the Synthesis and Identification of Early Pathway Metabolites  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of the anti-cancer drug taxol (paclitaxel) has required the collaborative efforts of several research groups to tackle the synthesis and labeling of putative biosynthetic intermediates, in concert with the identification, cloning and functional expression of the biosynthetic genes responsible for the construction of this complex natural product. Based on a combination of precursor labeling and incorporation experiments, and metabolite isolation from Taxus spp., a picture of the complex matrix of pathway oxygenation reactions following formation of the first committed intermediate, taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene, is beginning to emerge. An overview of the current state of knowledge on the early-stages of taxol biosynthesis is presented.

Guerra-Bubb, Jennifer; Croteau, Rodney; Williams, Robert M.

2012-01-01

307

Attribute-invariant orientation discrimination at an early stage of processing in the human visual system.  

PubMed

This study investigated event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during selective attention to the orientation of a bar comprised of two squares, which were defined by only color or motion (intra-attribute conditions) or both (interattribute condition). An early positive potential in association with orientation selection was elicited for all conditions in similar latency ranges but with different scalp distributions. These results suggest that attribute-invariant orientations can be discriminated at an early stage of processing in the human brain, which fills a gap between monkey electrophysiology and human psychophysics, while attribute-specific orientations are also available in a given context. PMID:17092533

Kasai, Tetsuko; Morita, Hiromi; Kumada, Takatsune

2007-01-01

308

Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation. PMID:20483354

Hong, Dun; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Qiang; Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie; Lian, Qing-Quan; Deng, Hai-Teng; Ge, Ren-Shan

2010-08-15

309

Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells  

SciTech Connect

Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.

Hong, Dun [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China); Chen, Hai-Xiao, E-mail: Hxchen-1@163.net [Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China)] [Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China); Yu, Hai-Qiang [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)] [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)] [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Lian, Qing-Quan [The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China)] [The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China); Deng, Hai-Teng, E-mail: dengh@mail.rockefeller.edu [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)] [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Ge, Ren-Shan, E-mail: rge@popcbr.rockefeller.edu [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China)

2010-08-15

310

Transcriptome Analysis of Early Surface-Associated Growth of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilm formation starts with single cells attaching to a surface, however, little is known about the initial attachment steps and the adaptation to the surface-associated life style. Here, we describe a hydrodynamic system that allows easy harvest of cells at very early biofilm stages. Using the metal ion-reducing gammaproteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a model organism, we analyzed the transcriptional changes occurring during surface-associated growth between 15 and 60 minutes after attachment. 230 genes were significantly upregulated and 333 were downregulated by a factor of ?2. Main functional categories of the corresponding gene products comprise metabolism, uptake and transport, regulation, and hypothetical proteins. Among the genes highly upregulated those implicated in iron uptake are highly overrepresented, strongly indicating that S. oneidensis MR-1 has a high demand for iron during surface attachment and initial biofilm stages. Subsequent microscopic analysis of biofilm formation under hydrodynamic conditions revealed that addition of Fe(II) significantly stimulated biofilm formation of S. oneidensis MR-1 while planktonic growth was not affected. Our approach to harvest cells for transcriptional analysis of early biofilm stages is expected to be easily adapted to other bacterial species.

Godeke, Julia; Binnenkade, Lucas; Thormann, Kai M.

2012-01-01

311

MUC1 is expressed at high frequency in early-stage basal-like triple-negative breast cancer.  

PubMed

Triple-negative breast cancer comprises 10% to 15% of newly diagnosed breast cancer and lacks expression of the estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu receptors. Many such tumors are basal like, a molecular intrinsic subtype of breast cancer associated with poor clinical outcomes. Patients with early-stage basal-like triple-negative breast cancer are at a high risk for relapse and may, therefore, benefit from novel therapies, including immunotherapy. MUC1 is a tumor antigen expressed on adenocarcinomas and represents an ideal target for MUC1-based vaccination. We evaluated 52 cases of early-stage basal-like triple-negative breast cancer for MUC1 expression by immunohistochemistry. The intensity of staining was graded according to the intensity (negative [0], positive [1], or strongly positive [2]) and percentage (0%-100%) of tumor cells staining for MUC1. An overall score of 0 to 2.0 was calculated for each case by multiplying the intensity of staining by the percentage of tumor cells staining positively. Four staining patterns for MUC1 were identified: apical, cytoplasmic, membranous, and combination. Of the 52 cases of basal-like triple-negative breast cancers, 49 (94%) were positive for MUC1 expression. The mean score was 0.90 (range, 0-1.9). Cases were evenly distributed over this range, where most (67%) exhibited moderate to strong MUC1 expression (score, 0.5-1.90), 27% demonstrated weak MUC1 expression, and 6% lacked MUC1 expression. There was a significant difference in MUC1 score and percent MUC1+ cells in favor of the combination pattern. This study indicates that a large proportion of early-stage basal-like triple-negative breast cancer expresses MUC1 and provides a rationale for MUC1-based immunotherapy in this high-risk patient cohort. PMID:23845471

Siroy, Alan; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W; Miedler, John; Fong, Nancy; Fu, Pingfu; Gilmore, Hannah; Baar, Joseph

2013-10-01

312

The D-Optimality Item Selection Criterion in the Early Stage of CAT: A Study with the Graded Response Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), item selection criteria based on Fisher"s information often produce less stable latent trait estimates than the Kullback-Leibler global information criterion. Robustness against early stage instability has been reported for the D-optimality criterion in a polytomous CAT with the…

Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E. S.

2008-01-01

313

Fronto-temporal-lobe atrophy in early-stage Alzheimer's disease identified using an improved detection methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with widespread brain atrophy including structures subserving memory. We applied an improved structural detection methodology to examine the less well known progression of atrophy in early-stage AD. We sought to i) longitudinally study volumetric differences in patients with early-stage AD and healthy volunteers; and ii) test the hypothesis that hippocampal volumes would be correlated with

Tom F. D. Farrow; Subha N. Thiyagesh; Iain D. Wilkinson; Randolph W. Parks; Leanne Ingram; Peter W. R. Woodruff

2007-01-01

314

Investigation of the early stages in laser-induced ignition by Schlieren photography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser ignition has been discussed widely as a potentially superior ignition source for technical appliances such as internal combustion engines. Ignition strongly affects overall combustion, and its early stages in particular have strong implications on subsequent pollutant formation, flame quenching, and extinction. Our research here is devoted to the experimental investigation of the early stages of laser-induced ignition of CH4\\/air

Maximilian Lackner; S. Charareh; F. Winter; K. F. Iskra; D. Rüdisser; T. Neger; H. Kopecek; E. Wintner

2004-01-01

315

Young female incest victims in treatment: Stages of growth seen with a group art therapy model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a treatment model for female child incest victims combining art and group therapy. Five stages of growth are identified: gathering, self-disclosure, regression, reconstruction, and ending.

Phyllis M. Carozza; Catherine L. Heirsteiner

1982-01-01

316

Modern Risk Assessment for Individualizing Treatment Concepts in Early-stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Validated prognostic and predictive factors currently play an important role in treatment planning for patients with early-stage breast cancer. The role of personalized medicine has led to the search for markers that can be applied to individual patients to optimize treatment regimens. In addition to traditional clinicopathologic measures, scores and gene tests have been developed to independently predict risk of patients in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. The discovery of these markers provides the opportunity to identify patients at such low risk of recurrence that toxic therapy side effects are not justified. Selection and management of patients with early-stage, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who are appropriately treated with endocrine therapy alone after receiving locoregional therapy but do not necessarily require adjuvant chemotherapy is currently problematic. This article reviews the current state-of-theart biomarker assessment methods and discusses the potential role for the prediction of chemotherapy benefit focusing on endocrine sensitive disease.

Farr, Alex; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Heiduschka, Annika; Singer, Christian F; Harbeck, Nadia

2013-01-01

317

Imaging capability of an early stage breast tumor by CP-MCT.  

PubMed

Capability of diagnostic imaging of an early stage breast tumor using microwaves has been investigated by means of FDTD-based numerical simulations. More than ten years ago, we developed chirp pulse microwave computed tomography (CP-MCT) for microwave imaging of a human body. In this study, we'll show that CP-MCT provides useful information on the tumor region in the breast. To specify the exact location of an early stage tumor inside the breast, image restoration has been attempted by computing the point spread function (PSF) of CP-MCT in two- or three-dimensional ways by assuming the function is linear. Another solution is given by using radar imaging system simultaneously with CP-MCT. PMID:17271962

Miyakawa, M; Ishida, T; Watanabe, M

2004-01-01

318

Molecular Imaging Insights into Early Inflammatory Stages of Arterial and Aortic Valve Calcification  

PubMed Central

Traditional imaging modalities such as computed tomography, although perfectly adept at identifying and quantifying advanced calcification, cannot detect the early stages of this disorder and offer limited insight into the mechanisms of mineral dysregulation. This review presents optical molecular imaging as a promising tool that simultaneously detects pathobiological processes associated with inflammation and early stages of calcification in vivo at the (sub)cellular levels. Research into treatment of cardiovascular calcification is lacking, as shown by clinical trials that have failed to demonstrate the reduction of calcific aortic stenosis. Hence the need to elucidate the pathways that contribute to cardiovascular calcification and to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse calcification has driven investigations into the use of molecular imaging. This review discusses studies that have used molecular imaging methods to advance knowledge of cardiovascular calcification, focusing in particular on the inflammation-dependent mechanisms of arterial and aortic valve calcification.

New, Sophie E. P.; Aikawa, Elena

2011-01-01

319

Deep Brain Stimulation in Early Stage Parkinson's Disease: Operative Experience from a Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence suggests that STN-DBS may have a disease-modifying effect in early PD. A randomized, prospective study is underway to determine whether STN-DBS in early PD is safe and tolerable. Objectives / Methods Fifteen of thirty early PD patients were randomized to receive STN-DBS implants in an IRB-approved protocol. Operative technique, location of DBS leads, and perioperative adverse events are reported. Active contact used for stimulation in these patients were compared with 47 advanced PD patients undergoing an identical procedure by the same surgeon. Results Fourteen of the 15 patients did not sustain any long-term (> 3 months) complications from the surgery. One subject suffered a stroke resulting in mild cognitive changes and slight right arm and face weakness. The average optimal contact used in symptomatic treatment of early PD patients was: anterior ?1.1±1.7mm, lateral 10.7±1.7mm, superior ?3.3±2.5mm (AC-PC coordinates). This location is statistically no different (0.77mm, p> 0.05) than the optimal contact used in treatment of 47 advanced PD patients. Conclusions The perioperative adverse events in this trial of subjects with early stage PD are comparable to that reported for STN-DBS in advanced PD. The active contact position used in early PD is not significantly different from that used in late stage disease. This is the first report of the operative experience from a randomized, surgical-versus-best-medical-therapy trial for the early treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

Kahn, Elyne; D'Haese, Pierre-Francois; Dawant, Benoit; Allen, Laura; Kao, Chris; Charles, P. David; Konrad, Peter

2013-01-01

320

Impact of Early Growth on Postprandial Responses in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Background Low birth weight and slow growth during infancy are associated with increased rates of chronic diseases in adulthood. Associations with risk factors such as fasting glucose and lipids concentrations are weaker than expected based on associations with disease. This could be explained by differences in postprandial responses, which, however, have been little studied. Our aim was to examine the impact of growth during infancy on postprandial responses to a fast-food meal (FF-meal) and a meal, which followed the macro-nutrient composition of the dietary guidelines (REC-meal). Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 24 overweight 65–75 year-old subjects, 12 with slow growth during infancy (SGI-group) and 12 with normal early growth. All the subjects were born at term. The study meals were isocaloric and both meals were consumed once. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured in fasting state and over a 4-h period after both meals. Subjects who grew slowly during infancy were also smaller at birth. Fasting glucose, insulin or lipid concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups. The TG responses were higher for the SGI-group both during the FF-meal (P?=?0.047) and the REC-meal (P?=?0.058). The insulin responses were significantly higher for the SGI-group after the FF-meal (P?=?0.036). Glucose and FFA responses did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions Small birth size and slow early growth predict postprandial TG and insulin responses. Elevated responses might be one explanation why subjects who were small at birth and experiencing slow growth in infancy are at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in later life.

Perala, Mia-Maria; Valsta, Liisa M.; Kajantie, Eero; Leiviska, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G.

2011-01-01

321

Effect of maximum Cu ratio during three-stage CIGS growth documented by design of experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a Cu-rich growth period during three-stage CIGS co-evaporation on device performance was examined. Design of experiments was utilized to determine effect magnitudes and statistical significance. It was found that a Cu-rich growth period yields a statistically significant benefit for device performance. By varying film thickness, the number of moles deposited in stage 3 was also included as

L. L. Repins; D. C. Fisher; M. E. Beck; J. S. Britt

2005-01-01

322

Prognostic analysis of early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to analyze prognostic factors of early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 35 patients who were treated for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from January 1980 to December 2005. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to compare the different strategies of operation and to analyze the prognostic factors. Results Thirty-five patients had early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Of these cases, 26 were well differentiated, seven were moderately differentiated, and two were poorly differentiated. The five-year survival rate was 77.1%. Five cases were in FIGO stage 1a and 30 cases were in stage 1b; median survival times were 182.3 months and 152.5 months, and the five-year survival rates were 100% and 81.5% (P >0.05), respectively. The five-year survival of the patients who underwent local excision; radical vulvectomy and en bloc resection of inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy; orradical vulvectomyen bloc resection of inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, and pelvic lymph nodes was 50%, 81.8%, and 83.9%, respectively. For these cases, 74.3% of the tumors were medial while 25.7% were lateral, and the five-year survival rates of patients according to tumor location were 87.0% and 64.8% (P <0.05), respectively. The inguinal lymph node not increased and active were 16 cases (45.7%), and increased, active and hard were 17 cases (48.6%), and syncretic were two cases (5.7%), five-year survival rates were 73.3%, 92.9% and 50% (P <0.05), respectively. Of these cases, 74.3% of the tumors were cauliflower-like and 25.7% were nodular; five-year survival rates by tumor type were 91.3% and 66.7% (P <0.05), respectively. Conclusions For patients with early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, surgical operation is the primary, yet the best, treatment. The related prognostic factors were tumor location (lateral/medial), stage, gross morphology, and clinical state of the inguinal lymph node.

2013-01-01

323

High-dose-rate brachytherapy as sole modality for early-stage endobronchial carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate exclusive high-dose-rate brachytherapy for localized early-stage non–small-cell bronchial carcinoma; to develop new insights in treatment-catheter positioning and tumor-volume assessment by computed tomography (CT) scan.Methods and Materials: Between 1992 and 1996, 34 patients with non–small-cell bronchial carcinoma were treated by brachytherapy alone. All patients were medically inoperable and had contraindications for external beam irradiation. The treatment protocol was

Hugo Marsiglia; Pierre Baldeyrou; Eric Lartigau; Edith Briot; Christine Haie-Meder; Thierry Le Chevalier; Giuseppe Sasso; Alain Gerbaulet

2000-01-01

324

Comparative toxicity of Corexit® 7664 to the early life stages of four marine species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of the oil dispersing agent Corexit® 7664 was evaluated using the early life stages of four California marine species: the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), the topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a mysid (Holmesimysis costata), and the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Spiked-exposure, continuous-flow toxicity tests of 48–96 h were performed in triplicate in closed test chambers. Dispersant concentrations were measured by

M. M. Singer; S. George; S. Jacobson; I. Lee; R. S. Tjeerdema; M. L. Sowby

1994-01-01

325

Posttreatment biopsy results following interstitial brachytherapy in early-stage prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess pathologic control rates for prostatic carcinoma as determined by postimplant prostate biopsy in a large series of consecutive patients who have received permanent interstitial brachytherapy using a contemporary transrectal ultrasound-directed, transperineal, computer generated, volume technique.Methods and Materials: Four hundred and two patients received permanent 125I or 103Pd interstitial brachytherapy as primary treatment for early stage prostatic carcinoma

Bradley R. Prestidge; David C. Hoak; Peter D. Grimm; Haakon Ragde; William Cavanagh; John C. Blasko

1997-01-01

326

Stability of Early-Stage Amyloid-?(1-42) Aggregation Species  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of aggregated amyloid-? protein (A?) is an important feature of Alzheimer’s disease. There is significant interest in understanding the initial steps of A? aggregation due to the recent focus on soluble A? oligomers. In vitro studies of A? aggregation have been aided by the use of conformation-specific antibodies which recognize shape rather than sequence. One of these, OC antiserum, recognizes certain elements of fibrillar A? across a broad range of sizes. We have observed the presence of these fibrillar elements at very early stages of A? incubation. Using a dot blot assay, OC-reactivity was found in size exclusion chromatography (SEC)-purified A?(1-42) monomer fractions immediately after isolation (early-stage). The OC-reactivity was not initially observed in the same fractions for A?(1-40) or the aggregation-restricted A?(1-42) L34P but was detected within 1–2 weeks of incubation. Stability studies demonstrated that early-stage OC-positive A?(1-42) aggregates were resistant to 4M urea or guanidine hydrochloride but sensitive to 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Interestingly, the sensitivity to SDS diminished over time upon incubation of the SEC-purified A?(1-42) solution at 4° C. Within 6–8 days the OC-positive A?42 aggregates were resistance to SDS denaturation. The progression to, and development of, SDS resistance for A?(1-42) occurred prior to thioflavin T fluorescence. In contrast, A?(1-40) aggregates formed after 6 days of incubation were sensitive to both urea and SDS. These findings reveal information on some of the earliest events in A? aggregation and suggest that it may be possible to target early-stage aggregates before they develop significant stability.

Coalier, Kelley A.; Paranjape, Geeta S.; Karki, Sanjib; Nichols, Michael R.

2012-01-01

327

Calreticulin enriched as an early-stage encapsulation protein in wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the molecular mechanism of the early-stage encapsulation reaction in insects, we purified a 47kDa protein from injected beads into Galleria mellonella larvae. When a cDNA clone was isolated, the 47kDa protein showed high homology with Drosophila and human calreticulin. Western blotting analysis showed that the 47kDa protein was present in the hemocytes, but not in the plasma. When

J. Y. Choi; M. M. A. Whitten; M. Y. Cho; K. Y. Lee; M. S. Kim; N. A. Ratcliffe; B. L. Lee

2002-01-01

328

Abnormal amino acid metabolism in patients with early stage Alzheimer dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Plasma levels of several amino acids were studied in 14 patients with early stage probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 17\\u000a age-matched controls. In the AD patients a possible relationship between amino acid levels and behavioural symptomatology\\u000a was also investigated. We found significantly reduced levels of tryptophan and methionine in plasma samples from the AD patients\\u000a compared to the control

D. Fekkes; T. J. M. van der Cammen; C. P. M. van Loon; C. Verschoor; F. van Harskamp; I. de Koning; W. J. Schudel; L. Pepplinkhuizen

1998-01-01

329

New methodology for early-stage, microarchitecture-level power-performance analysis of microprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PowerTimer toolset has been developed for use in early-stage, microarchitecture-level power-performance analysis of microprocessors. The key component of the toolset is a parameterized set of energy functions that can be used in conjunction with any given cycle-accurate microarchitectural simulator. The energy functions model the power consumption of primitive and hierarchically composed building blocks which are used in microarchitecture-level performance

David Brooks; Pradip Bose; Viji Srinivasan; Michael Gschwind; Philip G. Emma; Michael G. Rosenfield

2003-01-01

330

Less invasive treatment associated with improved survival in early stage breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Patients with early stage breast cancer who were treated with lumpectomy plus radiation may have a better chance of survival compared with those who underwent mastectomy, according to a study from Duke Medicine and the Duke Cancer Institute. The study, which appears online Jan. 28, 2013, in the journal CANCER, raises new questions as to the comparative effectiveness of breast-conserving therapies such as lumpectomy, where only the tumor and surrounding tissue is surgically removed.

331

Outcomes following local therapy for early-stage breast cancer in non-trial populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest trends toward more mastectomies for primary breast cancer treatment. We assessed survival after mastectomy\\u000a and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with radiation for early-stage breast cancer among non-selected populations of women and\\u000a among women similar to those in clinical trials. Using population-based data from Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results\\u000a cancer registries linked with Medicare administrative data from 1992 to

Nancy L. KeatingMary; Mary Beth Landrum; John M. Brooks; Elizabeth A. Chrischilles; Eric P. Winer; Kara Wright; Rita Volya

2011-01-01

332

Comparison of Favorable Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatments: A Single-Institution Review  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained. Results: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL (49% men, 51% women, median age 33 [range 17-82] years). Treatment was as follows: extended-field radiotherapy alone (EFRT) 49%; chemotherapy alone (CTA) 13%; and CMT 38%. Among CMT patients, 36% received abbreviated doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy (three to four cycles) followed by involved-field radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 8.3 years, the estimated 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for the entire cohort were 78% and 85%, respectively. The 10-year RFS and OS rates for the various groups were as follows: 69% and 81% for EFRT; 78% and 84% for CTA; and 87% and 89% for CMT. The 10-year RFS rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) among CMT patients. The use of EFRT has diminished from approximately 90% in the 1980s to virtually no use at present, whereas the use of CTA and CMT has increased significantly (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Early-stage HL treatment has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, and our results support the superiority and continued use of CMT, specifically abbreviated-course chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy, as an appropriate treatment approach.

Samant, Rajiv, E-mail: rsamant@ottawahospital.on.c [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Alomary, Ibraheem [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Alsaeed, Eyad [King Faisal Specialty Hospital, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-jasir, Badr [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cross, Peter; Genest, Paul [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Huebsch, Lothar [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

2010-03-15

333

Pregnancies after radical vaginal trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of fertility-preserving surgery in the treatment of early-stage cervical cancer. Study Design: We retrospectively reviewed our first 30 patients treated by laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy, followed by radical vaginal trachelectomy, from October 1991 to April 1998. Results: The median age of the patients was 32 years (range 22-42 years); 15

Michel Roy; Marie Plante

1998-01-01

334

First-Year Recruitment of Largemouth Bass: The Interdependency of Early Life Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four early life events (i.e., hatching, the ontogenetic diet shift to piscivory, fall lipid accumulation, and the first winter) are conceptualized as being critical to 1st-yr recruitment success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) via cause-and-effect as- sociations among them. Toward this end, we conducted a multiple life-stage investigation of largemouth bass to examine the functional dependency and significance to recruitment

Stuart A. Ludsin; Dennis R. DeVries

1997-01-01

335

Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with osseous metaplasia: a rare occurrence possibly associated with early stage?  

PubMed Central

Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of malignant pulmonary tumor, but osseous metaplasia of this tumor is extremely rare. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature worldwide. Here, we report a case of primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma with benign osseous stromal metaplasia in a 60-year-old woman and discuss the pathogenesis of intratumoral ossification and review the relevant literature. We found that pulmonary adenocarcinoma with osseous metaplasia may be more likely to occur in early tumor stages.

Zhang, Qingfu; Yin, Liying; Li, Bo; Meng, Rui; Dao, Runa; Hu, Suxiang; Qiu, Xueshan

2013-01-01

336

Diversity and dynamics of bacterial communities in early life stages of the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examine microbial communities of early developmental stages of the coral Porites astreoides by sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging. Bacteria are associated with the ectoderm layer in newly released planula larvae, in 4-day-old planulae, and on the newly forming mesenteries surrounding developing

Koty H Sharp; Dan Distel; Valerie J Paul

2012-01-01

337

Background and Rationale for Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has undergone substantial transformation over the last several decades,\\u000a from being the sole treatment modality using large treatment fields to adjuvant local therapy directed to limited site(s)\\u000a after systemic therapy. Radiation doses and field sizes have decreased, leading to dramatic reductions in risks of long-term\\u000a complications from radiotherapy compared with the treatments of the

Lena Specht; Andrea K. Ng

338

Diagnosis of second breast cancer events after initial diagnosis of early stage breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether there are any characteristics of women or their initial tumors that might be useful for tailoring surveillance\\u000a recommendations to optimize outcomes. We followed 17,286 women for up to 5 years after an initial diagnosis of ductal carcinoma\\u000a in situ (DCIS) or early stage (I\\/II) invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 1996 and 2006. We calculated rates per 1,000\\u000a women

Diana S. M. Buist; Linn A. Abraham; William E. Barlow; Arun Krishnaraj; Regan C. Holdridge; Edward A. Sickles; Patricia A. Carney; Karla Kerlikowske; Berta M. Geller

2010-01-01

339

Early Stage of Silicon Oxidation Studied by in situ X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a clean silicon surface is oxidized in a UHV chamber and the surface suboxide compositions are analyzed using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that the predominant suboxides are Si2O3 and SiO irrespective of crystallographic orientations in the early stages of oxidation. This is interpreted in terms of a significant number of atomic steps existing

Masaru Takakura; Tsuyoshi Ogura; Tsukasa Hayashi; Masataka Hirose

1988-01-01

340

Environmental aspects of VOCs evolved in the early stages of human decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the time profile, measured as “accumulation”, of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during the early stages of human decomposition was investigated. A human cadaver was placed in a sealed bag at approximately the 4th day after death. Evolved VOCs were monitored for 24 h by sampling at different time intervals. VOCs produced were analyzed by thermal desorption\\/gas chromatography\\/mass

M. Statheropoulos; A. Agapiou; C. Spiliopoulou; G. C. Pallis; E. Sianos

2007-01-01

341

Detecting physiological and pesticide-induced apoptosis in early developmental stages of invasive bivalves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, embryos and early larval stages of two invasive bivalves, the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), were assayed for physiological apoptosis and stress-induced apoptosis post-exposure to a molluscicide, Bayluscide®. Physiological apoptosis was measured at 4-h intervals and Bayluscide® exposures were 4 h and 24 h beginning at both 30 min post-fertilization and at 24 h post-fertilization. Apoptosis was

Karen Perry; John Lynn

2009-01-01

342

The effect of moisture stress at three growth stages on the yield, components of yield and processing quality of eight potato varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted over a three year period in southern Alberta to establish the yield and quality responses of eight potato\\u000a varieties-Atlantic, Conestoga, Norchip, Niska, Shepody, Ranger Russet (Idaho clone), Ranger Russet (Amisk clone) and Russet\\u000a Burbank to a single transient moisture stress (-80 kPa) at three growth stages in crop development (early, midseason and late).\\u000a Early and midseason

D. R. Lynch; N. Foroud; G. C. Kozub; B. C. Farries

1995-01-01

343

Endonasal resection of early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule.  

PubMed

The squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule (SCCNV) is a comparatively rare malignant disease. It occurs in the transition zone at the limen nasi. The choice of treatment for small tumors is a matter of controversy. Due to better cosmetic results, radiation therapy is usually recommended, however some recent reports have suggested that early stage tumors are equally or even more effectively managed by surgery. There was no standardized surgical procedure applied in these studies, though. The goal of our investigation was the retrospective evaluation of patients with a T1 or T2 carcinoma of the nasal vestibule who were treated surgically with an endonasal, endoscope-controlled approach at our ENT clinic between 2008 and 2010. Given the rarity of SCCNV, the 10 included cases represent the largest group of patients with early stage SCCNV treated primarily surgically by an endonasal approach so far. Our study shows that the endonasal resection of an early stage vestibular carcinoma seems adequate as a possible therapy. In the follow-up observation period no local or loco-regional recurrence was observed. The external cosmetic damage and endonasal scarring do not appear to be pronounced even following cartilage resection and were regarded as not seriously disadvantageous. PMID:23974332

Ledderose, Georg J; Reu, Simone; Englhard, Anna S; Krause, Eike

2014-05-01

344

Proapoptotic and survival signaling in the neuroretina at early stages of diabetic retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been classically considered a microcirculatory disease of the retina. However, before any microcirculatory abnormalities can be detected in ophthalmoscopic examination, retinal neurodegeneration is already present. The aim of the study was to analyze proapoptotic and survival signaling in the neuroretinas of diabetic patients at early stages of DR. Methods The retinas from five diabetic donors at early stages of DR were compared with the retinas from five nondiabetic donors matched by age. Glial activation was evaluated by assessing glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) with western blot and immunofluorescence. Proapoptotic molecules (FasL, procaspase-8, active caspase-8, total Bid, truncated Bid, Bim, and active caspase-3), as well as antiapoptotic markers (FLIP, BclxL, and cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2]) were assessed with western blot. Results GFAP and proapoptotic molecules (FasL, active caspase-8, truncated Bid (t-Bid), Bim, and active caspase-3) were significantly increased in the neuroretinas from diabetic patients compared to the control neuroretinas. In contrast, no significant differences in the expression of the antiapoptotic markers were found. Conclusions An imbalance between proapoptotic and survival signaling was found in diabetic neuroretinas. Our results reveal key mechanistic pathways involved in the neurodegenerative process that occurs in the early stages of DR.

Valverde, Angela M.; Miranda, Soledad; Garcia-Ramirez, Marta; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Agueda; Hernandez, Cristina

2013-01-01

345

Promoting Quality and Evidence-Based Care in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Follow-up.  

PubMed

Evidence-based guidelines for long-term follow-up of early-stage breast cancer patients developed by oncology societies in the United States and Europe recommend that breast cancer survivors undergo regular evaluation with history and physical examination, as well as annual mammography. Routine blood tests, circulating tumor markers, and/or surveillance imaging studies beyond mammography are not recommended in the absence of concerning symptoms or physical examination findings because of lack of supportive clinical evidence. Despite these guidelines, studies have shown that 20% to 40% of oncologists assess serum tumor markers as part of routine monitoring of early-stage breast cancer patients. As part of efforts to both address the financial challenges confronting the health-care system and optimize patient outcomes, the American Society of Clinical Oncology's Cost of Care Task Force identified adherence to breast cancer surveillance guidelines as an opportunity to improve care and reduce cost. However, these recommendations are based on trials done in an era of outdated technology and limited therapeutic options. It is possible that recent improvements in diagnostics and treatments could make earlier detection of recurrent disease important for improving both survival and quality of life outcomes. Research is necessary to further inform optimal breast cancer follow-up strategies, which could impact these recommendations. At this time, outside of well-conducted clinical trials, there is no role for ordering routine serial blood or imaging tests in monitoring for recurrence in early-stage breast cancer patients. PMID:24627271

Henry, Lynn N; Hayes, Daniel F; Ramsey, Scott D; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Barlow, William E; Gralow, Julie R

2014-04-01

346

Effects of Losartan on expression of connexins at the early stage of atherosclerosis in rabbits  

PubMed Central

Aim: to investigate effects of Losartan on expression of connexin 40 and 43 (Cx40 and Cx43), in arteries at the early stage of atherosclerosis in a rabbit model. Methods: A total of 28 male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into following groups: control group, high fat diet group, and Losartan group (10 mg/kg/day). Losartan was administrated in food for two weeks. Iliac arteries were obtained for immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, Western blot, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Transmission electron microscopy revealed abundant gap junctions between neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which were markedly reduced by treatment. RT-PCR and Western blot assay showed that the mRNA and protein expression of Cx40 and Cx43 were elevated in the neointimal area at the early stage of atherosclerosis. The mRNA and protein expression of Cx43 were significantly down-regulated by losartan treatment but those of Cx40 were not markedly changed. Conclusion: Cx40 and Cx43 in the neointimal SMCs were up-regulated at the early stage of atherosclerosis. Losartan (an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) could reduce neointima proliferation and down-regulate the elevated protein expression of Cx43, suggesting the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the remodeling of gap junction between ventricular myocytes under pathological conditions.

Ruan, Li-ming; Cai, Wei; Chen, Jun-zhu; Duan, Jin-feng

2010-01-01

347

Early stage expansion and time-resolved spectral emission of laser-induced plasma from polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the nanosecond laser ablation regime, absorption of laser energy by the plasma during its early stage expansion critically influences the properties of the plasma and thus its interaction with ambient air. These influences can significantly alter spectral emission of the plasma. For organic samples especially, recombination of the plasma with the ambient air leads to interfering emissions with respect to emissions due to native species evaporated from the sample. Distinguishing interfering emissions due to ambient air represents a critical issue for the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the analysis of organic materials. In this paper, we report observations of early stage expansion and interaction with ambient air of the plasma induced on a typical organic sample (nylon) using time-resolved shadowgraph. We compare, in the nanosecond ablation regime, plasmas induced by infrared (IR) laser pulses (1064 nm) and ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses (266 nm). Nanosecond ablation is compared with femtosecond ablation where the post-ablation interaction is absent. Subsequent to the early stage expansion, we observe for each studied ablation regime, spectral emission from CN, a typical radical for organic and biological samples. Time-resolved LIBS allows identifying emissions from native molecular species and those due to recombination with ambient air through their different time evolution behaviors.

Boueri, Myriam; Baudelet, Matthieu; Yu, Jin; Mao, Xianglei; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard

2009-09-01

348

Recurrence of Early Stage Colon Cancer Predicted by Expression Pattern of Circulating microRNAs  

PubMed Central

Systemic treatment of patients with early-stage cancers attempts to eradicate occult metastatic disease to prevent recurrence and increased morbidity. However, prediction of recurrence from an analysis of the primary tumor is limited because disseminated cancer cells only represent a small subset of the primary lesion. Here we analyze the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRs) in serum obtained pre-surgically from patients with early stage colorectal cancers. Groups of five patients with and without disease recurrence were used to identify an informative panel of circulating miRs using quantitative PCR of genome-wide miR expression as well as a set of published candidate miRs. A panel of six informative miRs (miR-15a, mir-103, miR-148a, miR-320a, miR-451, miR-596) was derived from this analysis and evaluated in a separate validation set of thirty patients. Hierarchical clustering of the expression levels of these six circulating miRs and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the risk of disease recurrence of early stage colon cancer can be predicted by this panel of miRs that are measurable in the circulation at the time of diagnosis (P?=?0.0026; Hazard Ratio 5.4; 95% CI of 1.9 to 15).

Shivapurkar, Narayan; Weiner, Louis M.; Marshall, John L.; Madhavan, Subha; Deslattes Mays, Anne; Juhl, Hartmut; Wellstein, Anton

2014-01-01

349

Sentinel node biopsy as an indicator for pelvic nodes dissection in early stage cervical cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of sentinel node frozen biopsy to minimize the extensive pelvic lymph nodes dissection in early stage cervical cancer patients on the basis that the risk of skip metastasis to the paraaortic area is negligible. Twenty-six patients with early stage cervical cancer were enrolled in this study. Technetium-99m colloid albumin (Tc(99m)) was injected intradermally around the tumor for allowing preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative hand-held gama probe detection of seninel nodes. For visual detection, isosulfan blue dye was injected into the peritumoral sites before peritoneal opening. Postoperative morbidity and negative predictive value were the endpoints of this study. The 26 patients, ranging in age from 32 to 71 yr, underwent intraoperative sentinel nodes mapping. All the patients underwent complete pelvic lymph nodes dissection including para-aortic nodes. There was one case with positive non-sentinel nodes despite the negative sentinel node by frozen biopsy (negative predictive value, 95.2%). This new technique of sentinel node mapping is safe and simple to perform. Further clinical trials using the combination of Tc(99m) and isosulfan blue dye are warranted and this technique will make a true advance for less aggressive management of patients with early stage cervical cancer. PMID:12172047

Rhim, Chae-Chun; Park, Jong-Sup; Bae, Seog-Nyeon; Namkoong, Sung-Eun

2002-08-01

350

Toxicity of chlorine dioxide to early life stages of marine organisms  

SciTech Connect

With increasing interest in minimizing exposure to chlorine, many electric generating and water treatment plants are exploring the use of alternative biocides such as chlorine dioxide. Unlike chlorine, chlorine dioxide does not react with ambient organic compounds to form potentially carcinogenic trihalomethanes such as chloroform. However, the toxicity of chlorine dioxide to aquatic organisms has received little study. No information exists on chlorine toxicity to marine organisms. Furthermore, West Coast electric power stations usually discharge chlorine intermittently once or twice daily and substantial mixing of receiving water occurs between treatments. Therefore, this study sought to obtain information on chlorine dioxide toxicity using an exposure schedule typical of generating stations which discharge into the marine environment. Early life history stages of a plant, invertebrate and fish were tested since these stages are generally acknowledged to be most sensitive to toxicants and are the stages that are most likely to be exposed to the effluent.

Hose, J.E.; Di Fiore, D.; Parker, H.S.; Sciarrotta, T.

1989-03-01

351

Less Radical Surgery for Patient With Early-Stage Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Surgery in cervical cancer should be used with intention of cure. Radical abdominal trachelectomy is a feasible operation for selected patients with stage I?-1? cervical cancer which fertility can be preserved. Case Report A 30-years-old woman with squamous cell cervical cancer stage (1 A II) diagnosed at September 2011 expressed a wish for fertility-sparing treatment. Radical abdominal hysterectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy were performed which showed no evidence of lymphatic metastasis. Subsequently, at last follow-up (5 months post-surgery), good oncologic outcomes were found after this procedure. This was the first case of fertility-sparing radical trachelectomy procedures performed at our institution. Conclusions Trachelectomy represents a valuable conservative surgical approach for early stage invasive cervical cancer.

Yousefi, Zohreh; Kazemianfar, Zahra; Kadghodayan, Sima; Hasanzade, Malieheh; Kalantari, Mahmoudreza; Mottaghi, Mansoureh

2013-01-01

352

Treatment of early stage breast cancer by limited surgery and radical irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Eighty-five female patients with early stage breast cancer, i.e., Stage I and II were treated by limited surgery followed by radical radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between January, 1956 and December, 1974. Patients included those who were medically inoperable or who refused mastectomy. The 5-year survival rate was 83% and 76% for Stage I and II, respectively. The corresponding disease free survival (absolute) was 67% and 42%. Although the number of patients so treated is small, there was no significant difference in survival from the results of the radical mastectomy series at the same institution. No major complications were encountered. Seventeen of eighty-five patients developed minor problems; mostly fibrosis and minimal arm lymphedema stemmming from older orthovoltage equipment and treatment techniques. With the current availability of megavoltage equipment, improvements in techniques and dosimetry, complications should decrease. Combined limited surgery and radical radiation therapy should be considered in those patients where a radical mastectomy is not feasible because of psychological or medical problems. Since this procedure results in a cosmetically acceptable breast, radical radiation in early stage breast cancer seems a reasonable alternative to radical mastectomy.

Chu, A.M.; Cope, O.; Russo, R.; Wang, C.C.; Schulz, M.D.; Wang, C.; Rodkey, G.

1980-01-01

353

Toxicity of dispersed weathered crude oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).  

PubMed

Reports of the chronic toxicity of dispersed crude oil to early life stages of fish perpetuate uncertainty about dispersant use. However, realistic exposures to dispersed oil in the water column are thought to be much briefer than exposures associated with chronic toxicity testing. To address this issue, the toxicity of dispersed weathered oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) was tested for short exposure durations, ranging from 1 to 144 h. Toxicity was a function of concentration and duration of exposure, as well as of the life stage exposed. Medium South American crude oil dispersed with Corexit 9500 caused blue sac disease in embryos, but not in free-swimming embryos. The age of embryos was negatively correlated with their sensitivity to oil; those freshly fertilized were most sensitive. Sensitivity increased after hatch, with free-swimming embryos showing signs of narcosis. Gametes were also tested; dispersed oil dramatically impaired fertilization success. For exposures of less than 24 h, gametes and free-swimming embryos were the most sensitive life stages. For those of more than 24 h, young embryos (<1 d old) were most sensitive. The results are presented as statistical models that could assist decisions about dispersant use in the vicinity of fish spawning habitats. PMID:20821553

McIntosh, Stephen; King, Tom; Wu, Dongmei; Hodson, Peter V

2010-05-01

354

Fertility-Preserving Surgery in Patients with Early Stage Cervical Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Fertility preservation is an important issue for patients in reproductive age with early stage cervical cancer. In view of recent developments, our purpose was to review and discuss available surgical alternatives. A literature search was conducted using PUBMED, including papers between 1980 and December 2011. In patients with stage IA1 cervical cancer, conization is a valid alternative. Patients with stage IA2-IB1 disease can be conservatively treated by radical trachelectomy. This is as well-established conservative approach and appears to be safe and effective in allowing a high chance of conception. Prematurity is the most serious issue in pregnancies following trachelectomy. Less invasive options such as simple trachelectomy or conization seem to be feasible for stages IA2-IB1, but more and better evidence is needed. Neoadjuvant therapy might allow conservative surgery to be performed also in patients with more extensive lesions. Ovarian transposition is important when adjuvant radiation is needed. In conclusion, available literature shows that there are interesting fertility-sparing treatment alternatives to the “golden standard” for the management of early cervical cancer in young women.

Kardakis, Spyridon

2012-01-01

355

Early-stage hypogene karstification in a mountain hydrologic system: A coupled thermohydrochemical model incorporating buoyant convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stage of hypogene karstification is investigated using a coupled thermohydrochemical model of a mountain hydrologic system, in which water enters along a water table and descends to significant depth (˜1 km) before ascending through a central high-permeability fracture. The model incorporates reactive alteration driven by dissolution/precipitation of limestone in a carbonic acid system, due to both temperature- and pressure-dependent solubility, and kinetics. Simulations were carried out for homogeneous and heterogeneous initial fracture aperture fields, using the FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer) code. Initially, retrograde solubility is the dominant mechanism of fracture aperture growth. As the fracture transmissivity increases, a critical Rayleigh number value is exceeded at some stage. Buoyant convection is then initiated and controls the evolution of the system thereafter. For an initially homogeneous fracture aperture field, deep well-organized buoyant convection rolls form. For initially heterogeneous aperture fields, preferential flow suppresses large buoyant convection rolls, although a large number of smaller rolls form. Even after the onset of buoyant convection, dissolution in the fracture is sustained along upward flow paths by retrograde solubility and by additional "mixing corrosion" effects closer to the surface. Aperture growth patterns in the fracture are very different from those observed in simulations of epigenic karst systems, and retain imprints of both buoyant convection and preferential flow. Both retrograde solubility and buoyant convection contribute to these differences. The paper demonstrates the potential value of coupled models as tools for understanding the evolution and behavior of hypogene karst systems.

Chaudhuri, A.; Rajaram, H.; Viswanathan, H.

2013-09-01

356

Formation of a high-cycle fatigue fracture surface and a crack growth mechanism of ultrafine-grained copper with different stages of microstructural evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue tests were conducted on smooth specimens of ultrafine-grained copper produced by 4 and 12 passes of equal channel angular pressing (henceforth referred to as UFG4 and UFG12, respectively). A major crack was initiated from shear bands at an early stage of stressing. The UFG4 and UFG12 samples exhibited different growth behavior tendencies at a low crack growth rate (CGR).

M. Goto; S. Z. Han; K. Euh; J.-H. Kang; S. S. Kim; N. Kawagoishi

2010-01-01

357

Seasonal variation in essential oil yield and composition from Thymus vulgaris L. during different growth stages in the south of Jordan.  

PubMed

The effect of plant space and time of harvesting on yield and quality of Thymus vulgaris was evaluated in Jordan. Thyme was cultivated in rows of 50?cm apart with inter-row spacing of 15, 30 or 45?cm and was grown at various development stages. Plants were harvested during different growth stages including vegetation, beginning of blooming, full blooming and fruit maturation. Results indicated that oil yields of thyme were affected by growth stage and inter-row spacing. The maximum oil yields was obtained by harvesting at the early growth stage, which was found superior to oil yield corresponding to the later stages of collection. With 45?cm inter-row spacing, the maximum oil yield was recorded when the samples were collected at growth stage. Indicated results showed that the chemical composition during various growth stages was characterised by high percentage of carvacrol and its corresponding monoterpenic hydrocarbon precursors ?-cymene and ?-terpinene, and ether 1,4-cineol. PMID:21707257

Abu-Darwish, Mohammad S; Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Al-Tawaha, Abdel Rahman; Ereifej, Khalil; Almajwal, Ali; Odat, Nidal; Al Khateeb, Wesam

2012-01-01

358

Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

2009-01-01

359

Outcomes following local therapy for early-stage breast cancer in non-trial populations  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest trends toward more mastectomies for primary breast cancer treatment. We assessed survival after mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with radiation for early-stage breast cancer among non-selected populations of women and among women similar to those in clinical trials. Using population-based data from Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries linked with Medicare administrative data from 1992 to 2005, we conducted propensity score analysis of survival following primary therapy for early-stage breast cancer, including BCS with radiation, BCS without radiation, mastectomy with radiation, and mastectomy without radiation. Adjusted survival was greatest among women who had BCS with radiation (median survival = 10.98 years). Compared with this group, mortality was higher among women who had mastectomy without radiation (median survival 10.04 years, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14–1.23), mastectomy with radiation (median survival 10.02 years, HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.14–1.27), and BCS without radiation (median survival 7.63 years, HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.70–1.92). Among women representative of those eligible for clinical trials (age ?70 years, Charlson comorbidity score = 0/1, and stage 1 tumors), there were no differences in survival for women who underwent BCS with radiation or mastectomy. In conclusion, after careful adjustment for differences in patient, physician, and hospital characteristics, we found better survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among older early-stage breast cancer patients, with no difference in survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among women representative of those in clinical trials. These findings are reassuring in light of recent trends towards more aggressive primary breast cancer therapy.

Keating, Nancy L.; Landrum, Mary Beth; Brooks, John M.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Winer, Eric P.; Wright, Kara; Volya, Rita

2010-01-01

360

Understanding the management of early-stage chronic kidney disease in primary care: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Primary care is recognised to have an important role in the delivery of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is evidence that CKD management is currently suboptimal, with a range of practitioner concerns about its management. Aim To explore processes underpinning the implementation of CKD management in primary care. Design and setting Qualitative study in general practices participating in a chronic kidney disease collaborative undertaken as part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses (n = 21). Normalisation Process Theory provided a framework for generation and analysis of the data. Results A predominant theme was anxiety about the disclosure of early-stage CKD with patients. The tensions experienced related to identifying and discussing CKD in older people and patients with stage 3A, embedding early-stage CKD within vascular care, and the distribution of work within the practice team. Participants provided accounts of work undertaken to resolve the difficulties encountered, with efforts having tended to focus on reassuring patients. Analysis also highlighted how anxiety surrounding disclosure influenced, and was shaped by, the organisation of care for people with CKD and associated long-term conditions. Conclusion Offering reassurance alone may be of limited benefit, and current management of early-stage CKD in primary care may miss opportunities to address susceptibility to kidney injury, improve self-management of vascular conditions, and improve the management of multimorbidity.

Blakeman, Tom; Protheroe, Joanne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne

2012-01-01

361

Narrowband Ultraviolet B Phototherapy of Early Stage Mycosis Fungoides in Korean Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Narrowband UVB (NBUVB) is currently used to treat early mycosis fungoides (MF). There are a number of reports on the efficacy and safety of NBUVB in Caucasians, but little data is available for Asians. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of NBUVB for early stage MF in Korean patients. Methods We enrolled 14 patients (12 men, 2 women; age range, 10~64 years) with clinically and histologically proven MF. Three patients were stage IA, and the others were stage IB. The patients received NBUVB phototherapy three times a week. The starting dose was 70% of the minimal erythema dose and was increased in 20 percent increments if the previous treatment did not cause erythema. Clinical response, total number of treatments, total cumulative dose, duration of remission and side effects were investigated. Results Eleven of 14 patients (78.6%) achieved complete remission within a mean of 15.36±5.71 weeks (range, 5~27 weeks), 31.0±7.4 treatments (range, 16~39 treatments) and a mean cumulative UVB dose of 31.31±12.16 J/cm2 (range, 11.4~46.8 J/cm2). Three of the 14 patients (21.4%) achieved a partial remission. After discontinuation of treatment, 6 of 11 patients (54.5%) with complete remission relapsed after a mean of 8.5±4.09 months. No serious adverse effects were observed except for hyperpigmentation (7/14, 50%). Conclusion Our data suggest that NBUVB therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of early stage MF in Korean patients.

Jang, Min Soo; Baek, Jae Woo; Park, Jong Bin; Kang, Dong Young; Kang, Jin Seuk; Suh, Kee Suck

2011-01-01

362

Hallux abductus interphalangeus in normal feet, early-stage hallux limitus, and hallux valgus.  

PubMed

Background : Excessive deviation of the distal phalanx in abduction frequently occurs in advanced stages of hallux rigidus but not in hallux valgus. Therefore, theoretically there should be no significant differences in the hallux interphalangeal angle (HIPA) between individuals with normal feet, those with hallux valgus, and those with mild hallux limitus. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if significant differences in HIPA exist in the early stages of hallux valgus or hallux limitus deformities. Methods : The hallux interphalangeal angle was measured in three groups of participants: a control group with normal feet (45 participants), a hallux valgus group (49 participants), and a hallux limitus group (48 participants). Both of the pathologies were at an early stage. A dorsoplantar radiograph under weightbearing conditions was taken for each individual, and measurements (HIPA and hallux abductus angle [HAA]) were taken using AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, California) software. Intergroup comparisons of HIPA, and correlations between HIPA, HAA, and hallux dorsiflexion were calculated. Results : The comparisons revealed no significant differences in the values of HIPA between any of the groups (15.2 ± 5.9 degrees in the control group, 15.5 ± 3.9 degrees in the hallux valgus group, and 16.15 ± 4.3 in the hallux limitus group; P ?=? 0.634). The Pearson correlation coefficients in particular showed no correlation between hallux dorsiflexion, HAA, and HIPA. Conclusions : For the study participants, there were similar deviations of the distal phalanx of the hallux with respect to the proximal phalanx in normal feet and in feet with the early stages of the hallux limitus and hallux valgus deformities. PMID:24725037

Castillo-Lopez, Jose M; Ramos-Ortega, Javier; Reina-Bueno, Maria; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Palomo-Toucedo, Inmaculada C; Munuera, Pedro V

2014-03-01

363

Self-assembly of steps and vacancy lines during the early stages of Ge/Si(001) heteroepitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wetting layer formed during the early stages of Ge/Si(001) growth has been found in recent experiments to undergo a roughening process, where the SA surface steps affect the spatial organization of vacancy lines (VLs) by increasing (stretching) or decreasing (squeezing) their average spacing. Using a combination of atomistic simulations and elastic theory of surface defects, we have computed the interaction energy of the SA steps and VLs for each of the observed defect configurations. We find that the repulsive SA-VL interactions lead to an increase in the spacing of the VLs in the ``stretch'' arrangement, but do not significantly affect the VL spacing in the ``squeeze'' configuration, providing an explanation for the observed correlations in the wetting layer roughness.

Tambe, D. T.; Ciobanu, C. V.; Shenoy, V. B.

2005-12-01

364

Therapeutic Comparison of Chemotherapy and Surgery for Early Stage Diffuse Large B-cell Gastric Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose The use of surgery versus stomach-preserving treatment for primary gastric lymphoma has caused controversy among doctors. This retrospective, single center study aims to evaluate the efficacy and benefit of stomach-preserving treatment against surgery for early stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of stomach. Materials and Methods From August 1991 to January 2006, 43 cases of early-stage diffuse large B-cell gastric lymphoma were reviewed. Results Eleven cases were treated with chemotherapy or chemotherapy plus radiation (CT ± RT), 17 were treated with surgery alone (OP), and 15 were treated with surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (OP + CT). The complete remission and response rates were 63.6% and 90.9% in those treated with CT ± RT (7 complete responders, 3 partial responders, 1 non-responder), 100% and 100% in those treated with OP, and 100% and 100% in those treated with OP + CT, respectively. Five-year overall survival rates were 85.7%, 87.5%, and 100% in those treated by CT ± RT, OP, and OP + CT, respectively (p = 0.76). The five-year disease free survival rates were 100%, 87.5% and 100% in those treated by CT ± RT, OP, and OP + CT, respectively (p = 0.99). There was no significant difference in overall survival and disease free survival between modalities. Even though there are no definite differences in the number of complications between those treated by CT ± RT or OP, these facts reflect little concern on complications after surgery. Conclusion In preventing morbidity arising from early or late complications from surgery and promoting quality of life, chemotherapy should be a primary consideration for early stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the stomach.

Kim, Soo-Jeong; Cheong, June-Won

2007-01-01

365

Towards Characterizing Early-stage SEP Fluxes with High-Cadence EUV Coronal Shock Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in space-based solar observing have enabled unprecedented access to high-cadence, high-resolution observations of the coronal dynamics. This is extremely important, since transient phenomena in the corona usually cover multiple scales - from the current spatial resolution limit in the case of reconnection, to several solar radii in the case of coronal waves and mass ejections. The latter are also thought to drive shocks in the corona, which in turn have been shown capable of accelerating protons, electrons, and other species up to GeV energies in a matter of tens of minutes. These solar energetic particles (SEPs) are a prime source of space weather. Historically, it has been notoriously difficult to extract information about energetic particle spectra in the corona, due to the lack of in situ measurements. It is possible, however, to use remote observations in order to deduce coronal shock dynamics and related particle spectra, with some reasonable assumptions. We present an effort towards building a framework for estimating coronal SEP spectra in the early stages of real CME events, based on a combination of fast-cadence extreme ultraviolet imaging (from the SDO/AIA instrument), potential coronal magnetic field models, and differential emission measure models. The ultimate goal for this framework is to give predictions for early-stage SEP spectra for various source populations and coronal turbulence levels. It is designed in a modular fashion, and may be adapted for near real time use. This system can be applied for early warning and predicting the severity of the impulsive early stages of SEP events.

Kozarev, Kamen A.; Raymond, John C.; Hammer, Michael

2014-06-01

366

Induction therapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Data from adjuvant trials clearly indicate that one of the most important problems in patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is compliance to chemotherapy. In the postoperative setting, significant comorbidities and incomplete recovery after surgery often make it difficult for patients to tolerate or comply with systemic therapy. Therefore, it may be preferable to deliver chemotherapy before surgery as "neoadjuvant" or "induction" chemotherapy. The rationale for using induction chemotherapy is based on evidence that chemotherapy might reduce tumor burden and possess activity against micrometastases, resulting in improved results by surgery, radiotherapy, or a combination. Moreover, induction therapy facilitates in vivo assessment of tumor response or resistance. Potential drawbacks include the risk of perioperative complications, and the possibility that the tumor mass may become unresectable due to disease progression. During the past decade, four phase III randomized trials evaluated the role of induction chemotherapy in stage IIIA NSCLC. The first three studies consistently showed that induction chemotherapy improves survival compared with surgery alone. More recently, a large phase III trial performed by French investigators suggested a survival benefit in stage I/II patients, but not stage IIIA. The high activity of new platinum-based chemotherapy--based on response rate and 1-year survival in advanced disease--reinforces the rationale for the use of these new combinations in early-stage NSCLC, especially for a subset of patients traditionally treated with surgery alone. Several phase III trials are currently evaluating the role of new doublets as induction chemotherapy; these are discussed in the article. The results of these ongoing phase III trials should help clarify the role of induction chemotherapy in early-stage disease. PMID:15339057

Cappuzzo, Federico; Bartolini, Stefania; Calandri, Cesare; Crinò, Lucio

2004-07-01

367

Treatment Outcomes After Radiotherapy Alone for Patients With Early-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the treatment outcomes of patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy (RT) alone and discuss the effects of different T and N stages on the prognosis. Methods and Materials: The clinical data from 362 early-stage (T1-T2N0-N1M0, 1992 Fuzhou, China staging system) nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who had undergone RT alone between January 1999 and December 2001 and were hospitalized in the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University were collected and reviewed. Results: The median follow-up was 70 months. The 5-year overall survival rate for the whole group was 85%. The 5-year overall survival rate of those with T1N0, T2N0, and T1N1 was 96.6%, 91.3%, and 85.8%, respectively, with no statistically significant difference detected among the three groups (p > .05). However, the 5-year overall survival rate of 73.1% for those with Stage T2N1 was significantly different from that of the former three groups. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival and 5-year regional recurrence-free survival rates among the four groups was not significantly different (p < .05). The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rate of those with Stage T1N0, T2N0, and T1N1 was 94.9%, 97.5%, and 95.6%, respectively, without any significant differences (p > .05); however, the 81.2% rate for those with Stage T2N1 was significantly different (p < .05). Conclusion: RT alone for Stage T1N0, T2N0, and T1N1 yielded satisfactory results. The outcome for those with T2N1 was obviously poorer than that for the other three groups. The main reason for treatment failure in this group was distant metastasis. Patients who have a high risk of distant metastasis in the T2N1 group may need combined treatment instead of RT alone.

Xiao Weiwei; Han Fei [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lu Taixiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: ice_vivi@126.com; Chen, C.-Y.; Huang Ying; Zhao Chong [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

2009-07-15

368

Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits the expression of early growth-response genes and arrests fibroblasts at quiescence.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment of mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) at the early hours of mitogenic stimuli resulted in the inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis; delayed treatment of serum-stimulated cells with DMSO had little effect on the synthesis of these macromolecules. Here, we demonstrate the specific inhibition of expression of early growth response genes by DMSO in serum-stimulated MEF. The expression of interleukin 6, and of oncogenes c-myc and c-fos were inhibited when the cells were treated with 2% DMSO from the beginning of serum-stimulated growth but not after 3 h of mitogenic stimuli. Although the actin gene is an early serum-response gene, its expression was not affected by DMSO. The synthesis of another serum-induced protein, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was blocked during concurrent and delayed (after 3 h of stimulation) treatment of serum-stimulated fibroblasts with DMSO. The expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was not affected by DMSO. These results indicate that the expression of non-growth-related genes are either not affected or affected nonspecifically both at early and late stages of serum-induced growth of mouse embryo fibroblasts. The serum-induced expression of c-fos gene was abolished by DMSO treatment of MEF while the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced expression of fos gene was not, indicating that the PMA signaling pathway was refractory to DMSO. Treatment of cells with medium containing 2% DMSO for 24-48 h prevents them from progression into cell cycle by preventing the expression of genes involved in G0-G1 transition of quiescent cells. PMID:1909967

Srinivas, S; Sironmani, T A; Shanmugam, G

1991-10-01

369

Bcl-2 Expression Identifies an Early Stage of Myogenesis and Promotes Clonal Expansion of Muscle Cells  

PubMed Central

We show that Bcl-2 expression in skeletal muscle cells identifies an early stage of the myogenic pathway, inhibits apoptosis, and promotes clonal expansion. Bcl-2 expression was limited to a small proportion of the mononucleate cells in muscle cell cultures, ranging from ?1–4% of neonatal and adult mouse muscle cells to ?5–15% of the cells from the C2C12 muscle cell line. In rapidly growing cultures, some of the Bcl-2–positive cells coexpressed markers of early stages of myogenesis, including desmin, MyoD, and Myf-5. In contrast, Bcl-2 was not expressed in multinucleate myotubes or in those mononucleate myoblasts that expressed markers of middle or late stages of myogenesis, such as myogenin, muscle regulatory factor 4 (MRF4), and myosin. The small subset of Bcl-2–positive C2C12 cells appeared to resist staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, though myogenic cells from genetically Bcl-2–null mice formed myotubes normally, the muscle colonies produced by cloned Bcl-2–null cells contained only about half as many cells as the colonies produced by cells from wild-type mice. This result suggests that, during clonal expansion from a muscle progenitor cell, the number of progeny obtained is greater when Bcl-2 is expressed.

Dominov, Janice A.; Dunn, Jonathan J.; Miller, Jeffrey Boone

1998-01-01

370

Efficient and rapid isolation of early-stage embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.  

PubMed

In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays. PMID:23770918

Raissig, Michael T; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

2013-01-01

371

Diversity and dynamics of bacterial communities in early life stages of the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides.  

PubMed

In this study, we examine microbial communities of early developmental stages of the coral Porites astreoides by sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging. Bacteria are associated with the ectoderm layer in newly released planula larvae, in 4-day-old planulae, and on the newly forming mesenteries surrounding developing septa in juvenile polyps after settlement. Roseobacter clade-associated (RCA) bacteria and Marinobacter sp. are consistently detected in specimens of P. astreoides spanning three early developmental stages, two locations in the Caribbean and 3 years of collection. Multi-response permutation procedures analysis on the TRFLP results do not support significant variation in the bacterial communities associated with P. astreoides larvae across collection location, collection year or developmental stage. The results are the first evidence of vertical transmission (from parent to offspring) of bacteria in corals. The results also show that at least two groups of bacterial taxa, the RCA bacteria and Marinobacter, are consistently associated with juvenile P. astreoides against a complex background of microbial associations, indicating that some components of the microbial community are long-term associates of the corals and may impact host health and survival. PMID:22113375

Sharp, Koty H; Distel, Dan; Paul, Valerie J

2012-04-01

372

Diversity and dynamics of bacterial communities in early life stages of the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examine microbial communities of early developmental stages of the coral Porites astreoides by sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging. Bacteria are associated with the ectoderm layer in newly released planula larvae, in 4-day-old planulae, and on the newly forming mesenteries surrounding developing septa in juvenile polyps after settlement. Roseobacter clade-associated (RCA) bacteria and Marinobacter sp. are consistently detected in specimens of P. astreoides spanning three early developmental stages, two locations in the Caribbean and 3 years of collection. Multi-response permutation procedures analysis on the TRFLP results do not support significant variation in the bacterial communities associated with P. astreoides larvae across collection location, collection year or developmental stage. The results are the first evidence of vertical transmission (from parent to offspring) of bacteria in corals. The results also show that at least two groups of bacterial taxa, the RCA bacteria and Marinobacter, are consistently associated with juvenile P. astreoides against a complex background of microbial associations, indicating that some components of the microbial community are long-term associates of the corals and may impact host health and survival.

Sharp, Koty H; Distel, Dan; Paul, Valerie J

2012-01-01

373

Autonomic function in the early stage of panic disorder: power spectral analysis of heart rate variability.  

PubMed

Previous studies of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in panic disorder (PD) patients have yielded conflicting results. We speculate that these differences might result from the variety of clinical stages of PD. In order to investigate this, we compared ANS activity in untreated patients in the early stage of PD with control subjects using power spectral analysis of electrocardiogram R-R intervals (PSR-R) in supine rest and during head-up tilt, which was performed according to the maximum entropy method (MEM). It recognizes two main components: high-frequency power (HF), which mainly reflects cardiac parasympathetic activity, and low-frequency power (LF), which reflects both cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. The patients with PD had significantly higher values for all components of PSR-R only in tilt position total power (TP), LF, and HF than did the control subjects (P<0.01, <0.01, <0.02, respectively). However, the LF/HF ratio which indicated sympathovagal balance did not differ significantly between the two groups in tilt position. Our findings suggest that patients with PD in the early stage of illness have co-activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which might act to maintain a balance between the two autonomic systems. PMID:10687748

Ito, T; Inoue, Y; Sugihara, T; Yamada, H; Katayama, S; Kawahara, R

1999-12-01

374

Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin.  

PubMed

Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered. PMID:24962806

Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S; Di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A; Bianconi, Antonio

2014-01-01

375

Measurement of the human esophageal cancer in an early stage with Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The esophageal cancer has a tendency to transfer to another part of the body and the surgical operation itself sometimes gives high risk in vital function because many delicate organs exist near the esophagus. So the esophageal cancer is a disease with a high mortality. So, in order to lead a higher survival rate five years after the cancer's treatment, the investigation of the diagnosis methods or techniques of the cancer in an early stage and support the therapy are required. In this study, we performed the ex vivo experiments to obtain the Raman spectra from normal and early-stage tumor (stage-0) human esophageal sample by using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are collected by the homemade Raman spectrometer with the wavelength of 785 nm and Raman probe with 600-um-diameter. The principal component analysis (PCA) is performed after collection of spectra to recognize which materials changed in normal part and cancerous pert. After that, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is performed to predict the tissue type. The result of PCA indicates that the tumor tissue is associated with a decrease in tryptophan concentration. Furthermore, we can predict the tissue type with 80% accuracy by LDA which model is made by tryptophan bands.

Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ishigaki, Mika; Taketani, Akinori; Andriana, Bibin B.; Ishihara, Ryu; Sato, Hidetoshi

2014-02-01

376

Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage.  

PubMed

Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10-15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, including isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, vitexin, and rutin were separated from buckwheat sprouts by HPLC and identified by LC-MS. The highest rutin content in germinated buckwheat was found to be 15.8 mg/100 g DW at 20 h after germination. Buckwheat sprouts contained five kinds of major phenols. The highest amounts of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin were measured at day 3, with the exception of rutin, and then a gradual decrease was observed as the sprouts grew. The quantities of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin at day 3 were 5.8, 11.7, 26.2, and 28.9 mg/100 g FW, respectively. The rutin content rapidly increased to 109.0 mg/100 g FW until day 6. The highest total phenols in buckwheat sprouts were 162.9 mg/100 g FW at day 6. Germinated buckwheat soaked for 20 h and buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 6 days were rich in dietary phenol(s), which makes these plants a valuable functional food for human consumption. PMID:24425891

Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chiho; Nakamura, Kozo

2013-02-01

377

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Only Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Background: We report the results of a single-institution, phase II trial of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using a single dose of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) in patients with low-risk early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 226 patients with low-risk, early stage breast cancer were treated with local excision and axillary management (sentinel node biopsy with or without axillary node dissection). After the surgeon temporarily reapproximated the excision cavity, a dose of 21 Gy using IOERT was delivered to the tumor bed, with a margin of 2 cm laterally. Results: With a mean follow-up of 46 months (range, 28-63 months), only 1 case of local recurrence was reported. The observed toxicity was considered acceptable. Conclusions: APBI using a single dose of IOERT can be delivered safely in women with early, low-risk breast cancer in carefully selected patients. A longer follow-up is needed to ascertain its efficacy compared to that of the current standard treatment of whole-breast irradiation.

Maluta, Sergio [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Dall'Oglio, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.dalloglio@ospedaleuniverona.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Marciai, Nadia; Gabbani, Milena [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Franchini, Zeno [Department of Surgery 1, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Surgery 1, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Pietrarota, Paolo [Department of Surgery 2, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Surgery 2, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Meliado, Gabriele; Guariglia, Stefania; Cavedon, Carlo [Department of Health Physics, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Health Physics, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)

2012-10-01

378

Mechanical properties of the porcine growth plate vary with developmental stage.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of the growth plate at four different stages of growth and to compare two different methods of extracting these properties. Porcine distal ulnar growth plate samples were obtained from newborn, 4-, 8-, and 18-week (W) pigs and were tested using stress relaxation tests under unconfined compression. A four-parameter curve fitting procedure was developed to extract mechanical properties using the Transversely Isotropic Biphasic Elastic model(TIBPE) (Cohen et al. in J Biomech Eng Trans Asme 120(4):491-496, 1998) and the Differential Evolution (DE) optimization algorithm (Price et al. Natural computing series, Springer, Germany 2005). Optimization was done on all experimental curves for the first method and on one average experimental curve per developmental stage in the second. The 4-week stage was studied in two subgroups (a) and (b) due to distinct differences in mechanical properties. Intrinsic mechanical properties of the growth plate varied nonlinearly with developmental stage. Both methods showed that transverse and out-of-plane Young's moduli (E (1), E (3)) decrease with developmental stage, whereas transverse permeability (k (1)) increases. The exception is a sharp increase in stiffness and reduction in permeability at the 4W(a) stage, which may be associated with rapid porcine developmental changes at the 3-4 week period. The second method provides a more reliable representation of the average mechanical behavior, whereas the first method allows statistical comparison of optimized mechanical properties. This study characterizes, for the first time, the variation in growth plate mechanical properties for the same animal (porcine) and bone (ulna) model with developmental stage and provides new insight into the progression of musculoskeletal diseases during growth spurts in response to mechanical loading. PMID:21559968

Wosu, Roxanne; Sergerie, Kim; Lévesque, Martin; Villemure, Isabelle

2012-03-01

379

Changes in activity of free radical oxidation processes in the early stages of BCG granulomatosis.  

PubMed

We studied the intensity of free radical oxidation in the liver and activity of oxidative metabolism in mouse peritoneal exudate phagocytes at the early stages of chronic generalized BCG-induced granulomatosis (days 3 and 30 after a single intraperitoneal or intravenous administration of 0.5 mg of BCG vaccine). It was found that both methods of injection did not change the intensity of free radical lipid peroxidation in the liver in comparison with the control, but activity of free radical oxidation mediated by production of hydrogen peroxide was increased in the liver and peritoneal exudate at the stages of mature granuloma formation (day 30). At the same time, intraperitoneal injection contributed to more pronounced activation of lipid peroxidation and synthesis of hydrogen peroxide in the liver. PMID:23330128

Shkurupiy, V A; Menshchikova, E B; Tkachev, V O; Zenkov, N K

2012-12-01

380

Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR) over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.

Brooks, John M.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Landrum, Mary Beth; Wright, Kara B.; Fang, Gang; Winer, Eric P.; Keating, Nancy L.

2012-01-01

381

Survival implications associated with variation in mastectomy rates for early-staged breast cancer.  

PubMed

Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR) over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach. PMID:22928097

Brooks, John M; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Landrum, Mary Beth; Wright, Kara B; Fang, Gang; Winer, Eric P; Keating, Nancy L

2012-01-01

382

Early stage endometrial carcinoma--a study of management and outcome.  

PubMed

The surgical management of early stage endometrial carcinoma is controversial. The benefits of pelvic lymphadenectomy and administration of radiotherapy in this group have been disputed. We aimed to document the experience of stage 1 endometrial carcinoma at the National Maternity Hospital during the 10 year period 1989-1998 and to evaluate and compare clinical outcomes between retrospectively-assigned low and high-risk tumour groups. Seventy seven women were diagnosed with Stage 1 endometrial carcinoma in this period. Thirty-nine women had low-risk and 38 had high-risk tumours. Women with high-risk tumours were older and had a higher rate of lymph-vascular space invasion by tumour on histological examination. Three women (3.9%) developed disease recurrence and died of their disease; one low-risk and two high-risk tumour patients. Survival without recurrence did not differ between the two risk groups. No consistent pattern existed in surgical staging between the two risk groups. A prospectively-assigned definition of risk would minimise variations in clinical practice by providing a basis for a more tailored approach to adjuvant treatments. PMID:18277731

Burke, C; Foley, M; Lenehan, P; Kelehan, P; Flannelly, G

2007-01-01

383

Miniprobe Endoscopic Ultrasonography Has Limitations in Determining the T Stage in Early Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Mini-probe endoscopic ultrasonography (mEUS) is a useful diagnostic tool for accurate assessment of tumor invasion. The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of mEUS in patients with early colorectal cancer (ECC). Methods Ninety lesions of ECC underwent mEUS for pre-treatment staging. We divided the lesions into either the mucosal group or the submucosal group according to the mEUS findings. The histological results of the specimens were compared with the mEUS findings. Results The overall accuracy for assessing the depth of tumor invasion (T stage) was 84.4% (76/90). The accuracy of mEUS was significantly lower for submucosal lesions compared to mucosal lesions (p=0.003) and it was lower for large tumors (?2 cm) (p=0.034). The odds ratios of large tumors and submucosal tumors affecting the accuracy of T staging were 3.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 11.39) and 6.25 (95% CI, 1.85 to 25.14), respectively. When submucosal tumors were combined with large size, the odds ratio was 14.67 (95% CI, 1.46 to 146.96). Conclusions The overall accuracy of T stage determination with mEUS was considerably high in patients with ECC; however, the accuracy decreased when tumor size was >2 cm or the tumor had invaded the submucosal layer.

Tsung, Pei Chuan; Park, Jong Hyeok; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Won Wo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, Jin Nam; Kang, Yun Kyung; Moon, Jeong Seop

2013-01-01

384

Supradiaphragmatic early stage Hodgkin's disease: does mantle radiation therapy still have a role?  

PubMed

Extended field radiation therapy represents the main therapeutic option in early stage Hodgkin's disease with favorable prognostic features. Its role however has recently been criticized, mainly due to the high incidence of late complications in irradiated tissues. Furthermore, surgical staging, which in the opinion of many is mandatory for proper selection of patients for radiotherapy alone, has a well-known morbidity, and splenectomy has been associated with a high risk of secondary leukemias. Lastly, the failure rate after radiotherapy only is not negligible and second-line treatment is not always successful. A review of our experience and of the recent literature has allowed us to refute these objections. The results of radiotherapy, when properly performed, are highly reliable and have been reproducible in many Institutions. Chemotherapy alone cannot yet be regarded as an alternative to radiotherapy in these patients since data reported on this issue are conflicting. Present knowledge regarding the relationship between clinical features and the risk of occult subdiaphragmatic spread allows patients with localized disease to be selected without surgical staging; the results of radiotherapy in clinically staged patients confirm this statement. Concern for the late effects in irradiated tissues is justified, and future efforts should be directed at reducing the toxicity of this treatment. Associating a short chemotherapy course with low-dose radiotherapy to involved sites could help to achieve this goal. PMID:8641642

Frezza, G; Barbieri, E; Zinzani, P L; Babini, L; Tura, S

1996-01-01

385

Defining the Role of PET-CT in Staging Early Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Currently, there is a lack of data on the role of combined positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET–CT) in the staging of early invasive primary breast cancer. We therefore evaluated the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-PET–CT in this patient population. Methods. We prospectively recruited 70 consecutive patients (69 women, one man; mean age, 61.9 ± 8.1 years) with early primary breast cancer for staging with 18F-FDG-PET–CT. All PET–CT images were interpreted by two readers (independently of each other). A third reader adjudicated any discrepancies. All readers had ?5 years of specific experience. Ethics board approval and informed consent were obtained. Results. The mean clinical follow-up was 22.7 ± 12.6 months. The primary tumor was identified with PET–CT in 64 of 70 patients. Of the unidentified lesions, surgical pathology revealed two intraductal carcinomas, one invasive tubular carcinoma, and three invasive lobular carcinomas. Undiagnosed multifocal breast disease was shown in seven of 70 patients. PET–CT identified avid axillary lymph nodes in 19 of 70 patients, compared with 24 of 70 confirmed during surgery. There were four patients who were axillary node positive on PET but had no axillary disease at surgery. Five patients were reported with avid metastases. Two of those patients were treated for metastatic disease (nodal, lung, and liver in one and bone metastases in the other) following further imaging and clinical assessment. In the other three patients, lesions (lung, n = 1; pleural, n = 1; paratrachael node, n = 1) were subsequently diagnosed as benign lesions. Conclusion. Integrated 18F-FDG-PET–CT may have a role in staging patients presenting with early breast cancer.

Shastry, Manu; Ben-Haim, Simona; Kayani, Irfan; Malhotra, Anmol; Davidson, Timothy; Kelleher, Tina; Whittaker, Diane; Meagher, Marie; Holloway, Brian; Warren, Ruth M.; Ell, Peter J.; Keshtgar, Mohammed R.

2012-01-01

386

Depressive Symptoms are Increased in the Early Perimenopausal Stage in Ethnically Diverse HIV+ and HIV- Women  

PubMed Central

Objective The risk of clinically significant depressive symptoms increases during the perimenopause. With highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), more HIV-infected women survive to transition through the menopause. In a cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated the association of menopausal stage and vasomotor symptoms with depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse, cohort of women with a high prevalence of HIV. Methods Participants included 835 HIV-infected women and 335 HIV-uninfected controls from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS; 63% African-American). The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale was used to screen for elevated depressive symptoms. Menopausal stages were defined according to standard definitions. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of elevated depressive symptoms. Results Compared to premenopausal women, early perimenopausal (OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.17–2.60), but not late perimenopausal or postmenopausal women were more likely to show elevated depressive symptoms in adjusted analyses. The odds were similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Persistent vasomotor symptoms also predicted elevated depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and uninfected women (OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.02–2.06). In HIV-infected women, menopausal stage interacted with antiretroviral use (p=0.02); the likelihood of elevated depressive symptoms in early perimenopause compared with premenopause was especially high in HAART-untreated women (OR 3.87, 95%CI 1.57–9.55). Conclusions In HIV+ and HIV? women, the odds of elevated depressive symptoms were significantly higher during the early perimenopause. Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with nonadherence to HAART, underscoring the importance of screening and treating depressive symptoms in HIV+ women who have experienced a change in the regularity of their menstrual cycles.

Maki, Pauline M.; Rubin, Leah H.; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Young, Mary; Schwartz, Rebecca M.; Anastos, Kathryn; Cook, Judith A.

2012-01-01

387

Prognostic Gene-Expression Signature for Patients with Hepatitis C-Related Early-Stage Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Liver cirrhosis affects 1%–2% of population and is the major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis C cirrhosis-related HCC is the most rapidly increasing cause of cancer death in the US. Non-invasive methods have been developed to identify patients with asymptomatic, early-stage cirrhosis, increasing the burden of HCC surveillance, but biomarkers are needed to identify patients with cirrhosis who are most in need of surveillance. We investigated whether a liver-derived 186-gene signature previously associated with outcomes of patients with HCC is prognostic for patients newly diagnosed with cirrhosis but without HCC. Methods We performed gene expression profile analysis of formalin-fixed needle biopsies from the livers of 216 patients with hepatitis C-related early-stage (Child-Pugh class A) cirrhosis who were prospectively followed for a median of 10 years at an Italian center. We evaluated whether the 186-gene signature was associated with death, progression of cirrhosis, and development of HCC. Results Fifty-five (25%), 101 (47%), and 60 (28%) patients were classified as having poor-, intermediate-, and good-prognosis signatures, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression modeling, the poor-prognosis signature was significantly associated with death (P=.004), progression to advanced cirrhosis (P<.001), and development of HCC (P=.009). The 10-year rates of survival were 63%, 74%, and 85% and the annual incidences of HCC were 5.8%, 2.2%, and 1.5% for patients with poor-, intermediate-, and good-prognosis signatures, respectively. Conclusions A 186-gene signature used to predict outcomes of patients with HCC is also associated with outcomes of patients with hepatitis C-related early-stage cirrhosis. This signature might be used to identify patients with cirrhosis in most need of surveillance and strategies to prevent their development of HCC.

Hoshida, Yujin; Villanueva, Augusto; Sangiovanni, Angelo; Sole, Manel; Hur, Chin; Andersson, Karin L.; Chung, Raymond T; Gould, Joshua; Kojima, Kensuke; Gupta, Supriya; Taylor, Bradley; Crenshaw, Andrew; Gabriel, Stacey; Minguez, Beatriz; Iavarone, Massimo; Friedman, Scott L.; Colombo, Massimo; Llovet, Josep M.; Golub, Todd R.

2013-01-01

388

Biopsy Findings After Breast Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the patterns and factors predictive of positive ipsilateral breast biopsy after conservation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of Stage I-II breast cancer patients initially treated with lumpectomy and radiotherapy between 1977 and 1996, who later underwent post-treatment ipsilateral breast biopsies. Results: A total of 223 biopsies were performed in 193 treated breasts: 171 single and 22 multiple biopsies. Of the 223 biopsies, 56% were positive and 44% were negative for recurrence. The positive biopsy rate (PBR) was 59% for the first and 32% for subsequent biopsies. The median time to the first post-treatment biopsy was 49 months. Of the patients with negative initial biopsy findings, 11% later developed local recurrence. The PBR was 40% among patients with physical examination findings only, 65% with mammographic abnormalities only, and 79% with both findings (p = 0.001). Analysis of the procedure type revealed a PBR of 86% for core and 58% for excisional biopsies compared with 28% for aspiration cytology alone (p = 0.025). The PBR varied inversely with age at the original diagnosis: 49% if {>=}51 years, 57% if 36-50 years, and 83% if {<=}35 years (p = 0.05). The PBR correlated directly with the interval after radiotherapy: 49% if {<=}60 months, 59% if 60.1-120 months, 77% if 120.1-180 months, and 100% if >180 months after completing postlumpectomy radiotherapy (p = 0.01). The PBR was not linked with recurrence location, initial pathologic T or N stage, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or final pathologic margins (all p {>=} 0.15). Conclusion: After definitive radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, a greater PBR was associated with the presence of both mammographic and clinical abnormalities, excisional or core biopsies, younger age at the initial diagnosis, and longer intervals after radiotherapy completion.

Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: vapiwala@xrt.upenn.edu; Starzyk, Jill; Harris, Eleanor E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tchou, Julia C.; Boraas, Marcia C.; Czerniecki, Brian J.; Rosato, Ernest F. [Department of Surgery, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Orel, Susan G. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Solin, Lawrence J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2007-10-01

389

Aortic endothelial and sub-endothelial lesions in early stages of experimental atherogenesis and in scurvy.  

PubMed

The endothelial and sub-endothelial lesions during early stages of experimental atherogenesis and scurvy have been studied by means of scanning EM and transmission EM, making use also of the Con-A reaction. The surface coat modifications were accompanied by formation of vacuoles in the endothelial cells and by sub-endothelial 'oedema', not only in rabbits fed a hypercholesterolic diet but also in scorbutic guinea pigs. The endothelial lesions were sometimes found even before clear modifications of the Con-A surface reactive layer were apparent. PMID:1026918

Weber, G; Fabbrini, P; Resi, L; Pierli, C; Tanganelli, P

1976-01-01

390

Microstructural evolution of 7012 alloy during the early stages of artificial ageing  

SciTech Connect

A study of the microstructural evolution of a commercial 7012 (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) age-hardenable alloy following artificial ageing by high resolution and conventional transmission electron microscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is presented. At the early stages of decomposition, the microstructure included precipitation of either pre-precipitate solute clusters or Guinier-Preston zones and semi-coherent {eta}{prime} precipitates, with typical sizes between 1 and 10 nm. Quantitative information on the size, number density and morphology of the particles present in the microstructure was obtained. The results were correlated with those obtained using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

Ferragut, R.; Somoza, A.; Tolley, A.

1999-11-26

391

Clean Energy Finance: Challenges and Opportunities of Early-Stage Energy Investing (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Characterized by a changing landscape and new opportunities, today's increasingly complex energy decision space will need innovative financing and investment models to appropriately assess risk and profitability. This report provides an overview of the current state of clean energy finance across the entire spectrum but with a focus on early stage investing, and it includes insights from investors across all investment classes. Further, this report aims to provide a roadmap with the mechanisms, limitations, and considerations involved in making successful investments by identifying risks, challenges, and opportunities in the clean energy sector.

Heap, D.; Pless, J.; Aieta, N.

2013-12-01

392

Assessment of uptake and toxicity of fluorescent silica nanoparticles in zebrafish ( Danio rerio) early life stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we determined uptake and toxicity of fluorescent core-shell silica nanoparticles (FSNP) in early life stages of zebrafish. For this purpose fluorescent Ru@SiO2 nanoparticles with average size of ?200nm encapsulating [Ru(bpy)3]2+Cl2 dye (excitation wavelength ?exci=488nm), and Cy5.5@SiO2 with average size of ?60nm (?exci=700nm) were synthesized. The FSNP were highly luminescent. Field emission SEM analysis showed monodispersed dual-shell Ru@SiO2

Karl Fent; Christin J. Weisbrod; Amina Wirth-Heller; Uwe Pieles

2010-01-01

393

Molecular cloning of a novel chemokine receptor-like gene from early stage chick embryos.  

PubMed

Proliferation, differentiation and regulated trafficking of cells are the hallmarks of development and embryogenesis. This led us to speculate a role for chemokines and their receptors in this process. Here, we report the molecular cloning of AvCRL1, a novel member of the G-protein coupled receptor family from early stage 3 days old chick embryos. While the function and ligand for this receptor remain unknown, its sequence and gene structure indicates that it is most related to the family of chemokine receptors, with highest homology to the virally induced human BLR-1 and the CXCR3 or gammaIP-10/Mig-1 receptors. PMID:9584981

Gupta, S K; Pillarisetti, K; Gray, S L; Stadel, J M

1998-04-01

394

Lumpectomy with and without radiation for early-stage breast cancer and DCIS.  

PubMed

Breast-conserving therapy with lumpectomy and breast irradiation is an accepted standard treatment for patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). For both diseases, investigators have tried to identify subgroups of patients who can be "safely" treated with lumpectomy without radiation. Some data suggest that it may be reasonable to omit radiation therapy in patients with small, low-grade invasive or noninvasive tumors and/or in "elderly" patients. Additional studies are needed to better identify criteria to prospectively select appropriate patients for treatment with lumpectomy alone. PMID:9306425

Marks, L B; Prosnitz, L R

1997-09-01

395

[A differentiated approach to Parkinson's disease treatment in early stage of the disease].  

PubMed

A conception of the approach to Parkinson's disease treatment at early stage, which could be realized in practice is suggested. The conception is based on the results of dopaminergic drugs treatment of 149 patients, aged 33-87 years. The patient's state was assessed by neurological examination and clinical scales with regard to different disease types, tremor and rigid, and levodopa doses--from moderate (up to 500 mg) to high (above 500 mg). A general treatment policy, including therapy directed to activation of regulatory and compensatory influences and differentiated usage of levodopa and combined therapy with levodopa and dopamine agonists, is presented. PMID:15270296

Selikhova, M V; Piatnitski?, A N; Aristova, R A; Belikova, L P; Vialkova, A B; Gusev, E I

2004-01-01

396

Quantitative classification of primary progressive aphasia at early and mild impairment stages  

PubMed Central

The characteristics of early and mild disease in primary progressive aphasia are poorly understood. This report is based on 25 patients with aphasia quotients >85%, 13 of whom were within 2 years of symptom onset. Word-finding and spelling deficits were the most frequent initial signs. Diagnostic imaging was frequently negative and initial consultations seldom reached a correct diagnosis. Functionality was preserved, so that the patients fit current criteria for single-domain mild cognitive impairment. One goal was to determine whether recently published classification guidelines could be implemented at these early and mild disease stages. The quantitative testing of the recommended core and ancillary criteria led to the classification of ?80% of the sample into agrammatic, logopenic and semantic variants. Biological validity of the resultant classification at these mild impairment stages was demonstrated by clinically concordant cortical atrophy patterns. A two-dimensional template based on orthogonal mapping of word comprehension and grammaticality provided comparable accuracy and led to a flexible road map that can guide the classification process quantitatively or qualitatively. Longitudinal evaluations of initially unclassifiable patients showed that the semantic variant can be preceded by a prodromal stage of focal left anterior temporal atrophy during which prominent anomia exists without word comprehension or object recognition impairments. Patterns of quantitative tests justified the distinction of grammar from speech abnormalities and the desirability of using the ‘agrammatic’ designation exclusively for loss of grammaticality, regardless of fluency or speech status. Two patients with simultaneous impairments of grammatical sentence production and word comprehension displayed focal atrophy of the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior temporal lobe. These patients represent a fourth variant of ‘mixed’ primary progressive aphasia. Quantitative criteria were least effective in the distinction of the agrammatic from the logopenic variant and left considerable latitude to clinical judgement. The widely followed recommendation to wait for 2 years of relatively isolated and progressive language impairment before making a definitive diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia has promoted diagnostic specificity, but has also diverted attention away from early and mild disease. This study shows that this recommendation is unnecessarily restrictive and that quantitative guidelines can be implemented for the valid root diagnosis and subtyping of mildly impaired patients within 2 years of symptom onset. An emphasis on early diagnosis will promote a better characterization of the disease stages where therapeutic interventions are the most likely to succeed.

Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra

2012-01-01

397

Scintigraphic appearance of the tibia in the early stages following fracture  

SciTech Connect

A scintigraphic study of the human tibia in the early stages following fracture of the shaft was carried out to investigate the condition of the blood supply of the main fracture fragments. Using a gamma camera and 99mTc-MDP, scintigraphs were obtained from less than 24 hours to 21 days after injury. A generalized increase in tracer uptake was found in the tibia in all cases. In some cases very early after injury there was an additional local increase at the fracture site. In 10% of cases ''cold spots'' were observed, which may indicate an impaired blood supply to bone tissue adjacent to the fracture. Neither the presence of a ''cold spot'' nor any other scintigraphic feature could be correlated with the progress or time to fracture union.

Gregg, P.J.; Barsoum, M.K.; Clayton, C.B.

1983-05-01

398

True Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Since its inception, minimally invasive surgery has made a dramatic impact on all branches of surgery. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was first described in the early 1990s and has since become popular in a number of tertiary referral centers. Proponents of this relatively new procedure cite a number of potentially favorable perioperative outcomes, possibly due to reduced surgical trauma and stress. However, a significant proportion of the cardiothoracic community remains skeptical, as there is still a paucity of robust clinical data on long-term survival and recurrence rates. The definition of ‘true’ VATS has also been under scrutiny, with a number of previous studies being considered ‘mini-thoracotomy lobectomy’ rather than VATS lobectomy. We hereby examine the literature on true VATS lobectomy, with a particular focus on comparative studies that directly compared VATS lobectomy with conventional open lobectomy.

Cao, Christopher Q.; Stine, Munkholm-Larsen; Yan, Tristan D.

2009-01-01

399

Continuous Two-Stage ABE-Fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B592 Operating with a Growth Rate in the First Stage Vessel Close to its Maximal Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage continuous cultivation experiment with Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B592 is described. The experiment was designed to mimic the two phases of batch culture growth of the organism in a two-stage continuous process. Thus in the first stage turbidostat the organism was grown acidogenically as rapidly as possible, and transferred to the second stage at the 'acid break point'. The

O. Mutschlechner; H. Swoboda; J. R. Gapes

400

Impact of [{sup 18}F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Staging and Management of Early-Stage Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Accurate staging is critical to select patients with early-stage (I-II) follicular lymphoma (ESFL) suitable for involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) and to define the radiotherapy portal. We evaluated the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET on staging, treatment, and outcome for patients with ESFL on conventional staging. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with untreated ESFL (World Health Organization Grade I-IIIa, or 'low grade') following a minimum of physical examination, computerized tomography, and bone marrow examination (conventional assessment) and who had staging PET from June 1997 to June 2006 were studied retrospectively. Stage allocation was based on routine imaging reports. Disease sites, stage, and management plan were recorded based on conventional assessment or conventional assessment plus PET. Results: FDG avidity was demonstrated in 97% of patients in whom disease was evident on conventional assessment after biopsy. PET findings suggested a change of stage or management in 19 patients: 13 (31%) who were upstaged to Stage III-IV, altering ideal management from IFRT to systemic therapy, and 6 (14%) who had the involved field enlarged, including 4 upstaged from Stage I to II. Of these 19 cases, PET findings were considered true positive in 8 patients, indeterminate in 10, and false positive in only 1 patient. Conclusions: Our data confirm that ESFL is usually FDG-avid. In routine practice, PET has the potential to upstage and thereby alter management in a high proportion of patients with apparent ESFL.

Wirth, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)], E-mail: andrew.wirth@petermac.org; Foo, Marcus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Seymour, John F. [Department of Hematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); MacManus, Michael P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Department of Metabolic Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

2008-05-01

401

Theoretical and Experimental Reevaluation of Stable Isotope Kinetics During Microbial Growth Stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior studies of stable isotope fractionation caused by microbial processes have presented data suggesting that fractionation factors change during microbial growth stages. This presents a major problem when attempting to quantify various biochemical processes with stable isotopes, for example, the extent of biodegradation following a chemical perturbation. In these situations, both the stage of microbial growth as well as the associated fractionation factor must be known to accurately determine the fraction of the sample that has biochemically reacted. Reanalysis of prior methanogenic experimental data as well as recent experiments in both the Gulf of Mexico and the laboratory suggest that isotopic fractionation factors can in fact be described as constant throughout all stages of microbial growth. This finding enables the use of this relatively fundamental measurement to produce quantitative results.

Chan, E. W.; Kessler, J. D.

2013-12-01

402

Effects of Diet Quantity on Sheepshead Minnows 'Cyprinodon variegatus' during Early Life-Stage Exposures to Chlorpyrifos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of food quantity on the effects of chlorpyrifos was determined in six early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests with estuarine sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus. Three ELS tests were conducted simultaneously, each with a different feedin...

G. M. Cripe D. J. Hansen S. F. Macauley J. Forester

1985-01-01

403

Medicines for Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults with Kidney Disease and Diabetes ....  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Pressure" /> Consumer Summary – Oct. 11, 2012 Medicines for Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review ... and blood vessel diseases. About Your Options What medicines may help? There are four types of medicine ...