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1

Early stage of nanocrystal growth  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

None

2012-01-01

2

DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages  

E-print Network

DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages by Huimin Liu David S. Dandy Department of Chemical and Bioresource Engineering Colorado State University The chemical vapor deposition Techniques 3.1 Hot-Filament CVD 3.2 Plasma Assisted CVD 3.3 Flame CVD 3.4 Summary of General Characteristics

Dandy, David

3

Characterization of early growth stages of Pb/Ge(001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early stages of thin Pb film growth on Ge(001) substrate, exhibiting quantum size effects (QSE), are characterized by means of Photoelectron Diffraction and Helium Atom Scattering. Pb is found to form a commensurate first monolayer, while an ordered layer-by-layer growth only sets in after deposition of 4 monolayers. In the intermediate coverage range no long range order of the overlayer is established and we find that uncorrelated islands of preferred four-layer thickness are formed. Continuous Pb film with long range order emerges through islands coalescence close to a coverage of 4 monolayers, upon which a more regular layer-by-layer growth mode sets in.

Bavdek, G.; Verdini, A.; Cossaro, A.; Morgante, A.; Floreano, L.; Cvetko, D.

2014-12-01

4

Implications of early stages in the growth of stress corrosion cracking on component reliability  

SciTech Connect

Environment-induced crack growth generally progresses through several stages prior to component failure. Crack initiation, short crack growth, and stage 1 growth are early stages in crack development that are summarized in this paper. The implications of these stages on component reliability, derive from the extended time that the crack exists in the early stages because crack velocity is slow. The duration of the early stages provides a greater opportunity for corrective action if cracks can be detected. Several important factors about the value of understanding short crack behavior include: (1) life prediction requires a knowledge of the total life cycle of the crack including the early stages, (2) greater reliability is possible if the transition between short and long crack behavior is known component life after this transition is short and (3) remedial actions are more effective for short than long cracks.

Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

1995-04-01

5

Grain growth during the early stage of sintering of nanosized WC–Co powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid grain growth during the early stage of sintering has been found in many nano material systems including cemented tungsten carbide WC–Co. To date, however, there have been few reported studies in the literature that deal directly with the kinetics or the mechanisms of this part of grain growth. In this work, the grain growth of nanosized WC during the

Xu Wang; Zhigang Zak Fang; Hong Yong Sohn

2008-01-01

6

Melting point depression of Al clusters generated during the early stages of film growth: Nanocalorimetry measurements  

E-print Network

Melting point depression of Al clusters generated during the early stages of film growth in microelectronics: i melt- ing point depression as related to the Al reflow process,7�10 ii coalescence during been learned about the size-dependent melting point depression in recent times. Studies in model

Allen, Leslie H.

7

Intra and interspecific competition among invasive and native species during early stages of plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant competition is a primary ecological process limiting grassland restoration success. Appropriate restoration techniques\\u000a require an understanding of the degree to which intra and interspecific competition control invasive and native plant growth.\\u000a The objective of this study was to determine how the intensity of intra and interspecific competition changes during early\\u000a stages of plant growth. Two invasive (Bromus\\u000a tectorum and

Seema ManglaRoger; Roger L. Sheley; Jeremy J. James; Steven R. Radosevich

2011-01-01

8

Early-Stage Caregiving  

MedlinePLUS

... alz.org » Caregiver Center » Stages & Behaviors » Caring for Early-Stage Alzheimer's Text size: A A A Stages Early-Stage ... partner in this stage varies. A person with early-stage Alzheimer's may need cues and reminders to help with ...

9

Early stages of nanosecond pulsed-laser growth of silicon pillars in vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stages of pulsed-laser growth of silicon microcolumns were studied by performing a series of ablation experiments with increasing the number of KrF laser shots from 1 to 50. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that after just one laser shot, the original flat surface was clearly modified by the formation of disordered cavities (pores) that form disordered labyrinths by coalescence and creation of small dome-like features within it. Initially, as the number of laser shots increases, new microcolumns grow slowly, and then, after a number of about 20 shots is reached, growth rapidly speeds up. Finally, our data suggest that growth occurs through a combination of pulsed-laser melting of the columns and walls and redeposition there of the intense flux of Si-rich vapour produced by ablation from especially grooves or pits.

Belaroussi, Y.; Kerdja, T.; Yaddadene, C.; Djemaa, A.; Keffous, A.; Gabouze, N.

2011-12-01

10

Chromatin-associated ornithine decarboxylase at early stages of growth and differentiation of etiolated mono- and dicotyledonous plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) of barley, corn, bean and pea plants was associated with chromatin at early stages of growth. In corn, bean and pea plants the chromatin of roots possessed ODC with the highest specific activity of 30–65 units per mg protein. After 200 h of growth ODC activity of chromatin declined, while ODC activity of cytosol increased linearly to

Athina Ch. Foudouli; Dimitrios A. Kyriakidis

1989-01-01

11

Origins of carbon sustaining the growth of whitefish Coregonus lavaretus early larval stages in Lake Annecy  

E-print Network

alpinus (L.), perch Perca fluviatilis L. or brown trout Salmo trutta L. (SILA, 2007). Coregonus lavaretus of fish early larval stages in lakes. The whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.) constitutes a major fisheries

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

12

Multiscale modeling of early stage growth of CNTs produced by a catalytic CVD process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catalytic chemical vapour deposition process is a widely used method for the production of single and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs), but there remain many uncertainties concerning the precise synthesis mechanisms and therefore the degree of control over the types of CNT that can be produced. Hence, we have developed a parameterized mesoscale model to simulate the early stages of growth of CNTs, and used this to establish a connection between the carbon-catalyst interaction energy, carbon deposition rate and catalyst particle shape and size and the type of CNT produced. The interaction energies for the various components of the model were determined using molecular dynamics simulations [1] using potential functions previously derived from density functional calculations [2] for cobalt, iron and nickel catalyst particles interacting with carbon. We present results from atomistic simulations for the different surface energies of the carbon mesh on various metal nanoparticles, and also influence of additives, such as sulfur or oxygen, on the graphitization ability of transition metals via semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations. [1] Y. Shibuta, J.A. Elliott, Chem. Phys. Lett., 427, 365-370 (2006). [2] Y. Shibuta and S. Maruyama, Comp. Mater. Sci., 39, 842-848 (2007).

Elliott, James; Shibuta, Yasushi

2008-03-01

13

Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Our current knowledge of the neurobiology of romantic love remains scanty. In view of the complexity of a sentiment like love, it would not be surprising that a diversity of biochemical mechanisms could be involved in the mood changes of the initial stage of a romance. In the present study, we have examined whether the early romantic phase of

Enzo Emanuele; Pierluigi Politi; Marika Bianchi; Piercarlo Minoretti; Marco Bertona; Diego Geroldi

2006-01-01

14

Early-stage returns?  

PubMed

Contrary to conventional thinking, there are compelling reasons for investors to consider early-stage life science ventures, especially in the context of a maturing biotech business 'ecosystem'. PMID:17093473

Booth, Bruce L

2006-11-01

15

Early life-stage test in zebrafish versus a growth test in rainbow trout to evaluate toxic effects  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the work presented in this paper was to compare toxic threshold concentrations of three substances obtained from growth test in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with data from early life-stages in zebrafish. The growth test was conducted over a period of 7 wk in case of 4-chloroaniline and 4 wk in case of 3,4-dichloroaniline and diazinon. The data from the experiment in zebrafish originate from life-cycle studies; here, only the results obtained within the first 6 wk of development after fertilization are considered. These time limits have been set, as in the FRG a growth test in rainbow trout extending over 4 wk and an early life-stage test in zebrafish extending over 6 wk are being discussed for the Chemical Act.

Bresch, H. (Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Karlsruhe (Germany))

1991-05-01

16

Hypoxia and Acidification Have Additive and Synergistic Negative Effects on the Growth, Survival, and Metamorphosis of Early Life Stage Bivalves  

PubMed Central

Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria), marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale ?=?7.4–7.6) reduced survivorship (by >50%), low oxygen (30–50 µM) inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%), and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%). Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40%) reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios. PMID:24416169

Gobler, Christopher J.; DePasquale, Elizabeth L.; Griffith, Andrew W.; Baumann, Hannes

2014-01-01

17

Growth pattern switch of renal cells and expression of cell cycle related proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy  

SciTech Connect

Renal hypertrophy, partly due to cell proliferation and hypertrophy, has been found correlated to renal function deterioration in diabetes mellitus. We screened the up-regulated cell cycle related genes to investigate cell growth and the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy using STZ-induced diabetic rats. Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2} and P{sup 27} were found significantly up-regulated in diabetic kidney. Increased cell proliferation in the kidney was seen at day 3, peaked at day 5, and returned to normal level at day 30. Cyclin E and CDK{sub 2} expression also peeked at day 5 and P{sup 27} activity peaked at day 14. These findings indicate that a hyperplastic growth period of renal cells is followed by a hypertrophic growth period at the early stage of diabetes. The growth pattern switch may be regulated by cell cycle regulating proteins, Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2}, and P{sup 27}.

Zhang Yanling [Department of Nephrology, Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Shi Yonghong [Department of Pathology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017 (China); Liu Yaling [Department of Dermatology, Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Dong Hui [Department of Neurology, Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050003 (China); Liu, Maodong; Li Ying [Department of Nephrology, Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Duan Huijun [Department of Pathology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017 (China)], E-mail: duanhj999@163.com

2007-11-09

18

Disruption of Smad-dependent signaling for growth of GST-P-positive lesions from the early stage in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the involvement of signaling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} during the hepatocarcinogenesis, the immunohistochemical distribution of related molecules was analyzed in relation with liver cell lesions expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) during liver tumor promotion by fenbendazole, phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, or thioacetamide, using rats. Our study focused on early-stage promotion (6 weeks after starting promotion) and late-stage promotion (57 weeks after starting promotion). With regard to Smad-dependent signaling, cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated Smad (phospho-Smad)-2/3 - identified as Smad3 by later immunoblot analysis - increased in the subpopulation of GST-P{sup +} foci, while Smad4, a nuclear transporter of Smad2/3, decreased during early-stage promotion. By late-stage promotion, GST-P{sup +} lesions lacking phospho-Smad2/3 had increased in accordance with lesion development from foci to carcinomas, while Smad4 largely disappeared in most proliferative lesions. With regard to Smad-independent mitogen-activated protein kinases, GST-P{sup +} foci that co-expressed phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase increased during early-stage promotion; however, p38-downstream phospho-activating transcriptional factor (ATF)-2, ATF3, and phospho-c-Myc, were inversely downregulated without relation to promotion. By late-stage promotion, proliferative lesions downregulated phospho-ATF2 and phospho-c-Myc along with lesion development, as with downregulation of phospho-p38 in all lesions. These results suggest that from the early stages, carcinogenic processes were facilitated by disruption of tumor suppressor functions of Smad-dependent signaling, while Smad-independent activation of p38 was an early-stage phenomenon. GST-P{sup -} foci induced by promotion with agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} did not change Smad expression, suggesting an aberration in the Smad-dependent signaling prerequisites for induction of GST-P{sup +} proliferative lesions.

Ichimura, Ryohei, E-mail: red0828@hotmail.co.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Mizukami, Sayaka, E-mail: non_sugar_life@hotmail.co.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takahashi, Miwa, E-mail: mtakahashi@nihs.go.j [Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Taniai, Eriko, E-mail: taniaie@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Kemmochi, Sayaka, E-mail: msayaka@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Mitsumori, Kunitoshi, E-mail: mitsumor@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

2010-08-01

19

Early grass seedling growth stage improves explanation of future stand success  

SciTech Connect

Predicting future grass stand success shortly after seeding improves the author's understanding of the mechanism of seeding success and makes possible timely decisions on the potential productivity of new grass stands. A 3-year field study with 5 species and 11 seeding dates per year was conducted to evaluate grass development and success when grass was direct seeded into wheat stubble with a double disk come seeder with depth bands and packer wheels. The number of grass seedlings/m{sup 2}, the number of adventitious roots, Haun stage, leaf length, leaf area, and number of tillers were measured 45 days after emergence. Earlier results showed that grass stand success can be reasonably predicted from the relationship of seedlings/m{sup 2} at 45 days after emergence with grass stems or plants/m{sup 2} 2 years after seeding. However, the simple coefficient of determination (r{sup 2}) for these relationships was quite low. further multiple regression analysis has shown that the R{sup 2} values can be significantly improved by adding the appropriate seedling growth stage to the number of seedlings/m{sup 2} at 45 days. For smooth bromegrass, the r{sup 2} was improved to 0.75 with the addition of adventitious roots, leaf area, and leaf length. The R{sup 2} was increased to 0.58 for crested wheatgrass and improved to 0.38 for western wheatgrass with the addition of number of adventitious roots. The R{sup 2} for blue grama was increased to 0.65 with the addition of number of adventitious roots. These data show that the explanation of the number of stems or plants/m{sup 2} estimated 2 years into the future is improved by knowing something about the developmental stage of the seedlings/m{sup 2} at 45 days after emergence.

Ries, R.E.

1999-07-01

20

Early stages of soldering reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment on the early stages of intermetallic compound layer growth during soldering and its theoretical analysis were conducted with the intent to study the controlling factors of the process. An experimental technique based on fast dipping and pulling of a copper coupon in liquid solder followed by optical microscopy allowed the authors to study the temporal behavior of the sample on a single micrograph. The technique should be of value for different areas of metallurgy because many experiments on crystallization may be described as the growth of a layer of intermediate phase. Comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical calculations allowed one to identify the kinetics of dissolution as the rate-controlling mechanism on the early stages and measure the kinetic coefficient of dissolution. A popular model of intermetallic compound layer structure coarsening is discussed.

Lord, R. A.; Umantsev, A.

2005-09-01

21

Early stages of soldering reactions  

SciTech Connect

An experiment on the early stages of intermetallic compound layer growth during soldering and its theoretical analysis were conducted with the intent to study the controlling factors of the process. An experimental technique based on fast dipping and pulling of a copper coupon in liquid solder followed by optical microscopy allowed the authors to study the temporal behavior of the sample on a single micrograph. The technique should be of value for different areas of metallurgy because many experiments on crystallization may be described as the growth of a layer of intermediate phase. Comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical calculations allowed one to identify the kinetics of dissolution as the rate-controlling mechanism on the early stages and measure the kinetic coefficient of dissolution. A popular model of intermetallic compound layer structure coarsening is discussed.

Lord, R.A.; Umantsev, A. [Department of Natural Sciences, Fayetteville State University, 1200 Murchison Road, Fayetteville, North Carolina, 28301 (United States)

2005-09-15

22

Comparing the Effects of Symbiotic Algae (Symbiodinium) Clades C1 and D on Early Growth Stages of Acropora tenuis  

PubMed Central

Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades — including A and D — have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages. PMID:24914677

Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

2014-01-01

23

Comparing the effects of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium) clades C1 and D on early growth stages of Acropora tenuis.  

PubMed

Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades - including A and D - have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages. PMID:24914677

Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

2014-01-01

24

Evolution of Hydraulic Roughness During Early Stages of Conduit Growth: Effects on Conduit Enlargement Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic roughness exerts an important but poorly constrained control on the hydraulic capacity and enlargement rates of subglacial conduits. In an ideal, inviscid fluid, energy and mass are conserved along a flow line and the sum of the velocity, pressure and elevation heads equals the potential energy of the system, as described by the Bernoulli Equation. In real fluid flows, however, some of this energy is dissipated as heat due to friction and turbulence, resulting in a total head that is lower than predicted by the Bernoulli Equation. This departure from ideal is termed head loss, which is accounted for in simple hydrological models, such as the Manning or Darcy Weisbach equations, through the use of a roughness coefficient (n -s m1/3) or a friction factor (f - dimensionless), respectively. Both f and n relate hydraulic roughness to a relative roughness, or the ratio of the height that projections extend from the floor or wall of a conduit to the conduit hydraulic diameter. Such relationships, however, are empirically derived and only valid for relative roughness values that are <5%. Relative roughness values that are >5% likely occur in subglacial conduits, particularly during early stages of conduit enlargement, which may limit ability to use relative roughness to calculate values of n or f. Understanding changes in roughness in the early stages of conduit enlargement is crucial for accurate modeling of glacier hydrological systems because nearly all glacier hydrological models rely on a hydraulic roughness parameterization to drive conduit melting. To address this knowledge gap, we calculated hydraulic roughness values from dye traces conducted at Rieperbreen, in Svalbard, Norway. Because conduit area and hydraulic gradients were constrained by direct mapping, and average flow velocities were obtained from dye traces, we were able to calculate f and n for each trace. Values of f and n declined from 75.01 and 0.68 s m1/3, respectively, to 0.97 and 0.04 s m1/3 over the melt season. Values of f and n calculated from dye tracing data exceeded values of f and n calculated solely from direct measurements of relative roughness by several orders of magnitude. Despite these discrepancies, values of f and n that were calculated from dye tracing data were highly correlated to measured relative roughness values using a power law, suggesting that new relationships may be developed for glacier hydrological systems. When we paramaterized a simple conduit enlargement model using our newly-discovered relationship between f, n and relative roughness, we found that the timescale required for conduits to grow from 0.5 m in diameter to a diameter where relative roughness was <5% was 4-9 times longer than enlargement times obtained using roughness parameterization schemes commonly used in glacier hydrological models.

Gulley, J. D.; Spellman, P.; Covington, M. D.; Martin, J. B.; Benn, D.; Catania, G. A.

2012-12-01

25

Formation and Growth of Intermetallic Compound Cu6Sn5 at Early Stages in Lead-Free Soldering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the early stages of the formation and growth of the intermetallic compound Cu6Sn5 during soldering reactions between a Cu substrate and liquid Sn are examined through phase-field simulations. The liquid Sn-based solder (L phase) and the copper substrate (? phase) are considered to be under metastable equilibrium conditions that eventually lead to nucleation of the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC) (? phase) at the solid/liquid interface. Nucleation is incorporated into the model through a classical treatment considering that individual nucleation events follow a Poisson distribution function. The driving forces for the nucleation and phase transformations are obtained by coupling the phase-field simulations to CALPHAD models. In the phase-field simulations, physical properties such as liquid surface as well as IMC interfacial energies are treated parametrically to probe the behavior of the system under various growth conditions. The simulations are compared with previous works and are shown to have good (qualitative) agreement with recent detailed studies on the early stages of the interaction between Cu and liquid Sn.

Park, M. S.; Arroyave, R.

2010-12-01

26

Early development of the postcranial skeleton of the pikeperch Sander lucioperca (Teleostei: Percidae) relating to developmental stages and growth.  

PubMed

The early development of the postcranial skeleton (pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, vertebral column and fins) in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.)) was studied from hatching to days 47 and 43 post fertilization (dpf) at two different rearing temperatures, 15.5 and 18.0°C. Four embryonic and six larval stages were described, ranging from 3.4 ± 0.3 mm to 21.8 ± 2.1 mm in total length. The crucial point in larval development is swimbladder inflation, which enables larvae to swim energy efficiently. Until this time point, only the most essential skeletal elements to enable swimming movements have developed. As the larvae become neutrally buoyant, they grow and differentiate postcranial elements rapidly. Concurrently, swimming performance and foraging success seems to improve. A specific size is correlated with a distinct developmental stage defined by a set of traits that includes the skeletal elements. The developmental sequence of skeletal structures is temperature independent, although growth is slower and the individual developmental stages are reached later at 15.5°C than at 18.0°C. PMID:22505228

Ott, Alice; Löffler, Jasmin; Ahnelt, Harald; Keckeis, Hubert

2012-08-01

27

the early growth stages. Vie Milieu 36(1):9-13. VECCHIONE, M.  

E-print Network

. HIXON, AND W. H. HULET. 1983. Laboratory rearing of Lotigo opatescens, the market squid of California. Growth, behavior and sexual maturation of the market squid Lotigo opalescens cultured through the life April 1986) and Choptank River (9 May 1984 and 13 May 1986) during the spawning season. Age and sex

28

Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed. PMID:22363438

Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2012-01-01

29

Potential of very high spatial resolution Pleiades images for discriminating between crops at early growth stage and bare agricultural soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out in the framework of the Optical and Radar Federated Earth Observation (ORFEO) accompaniment program of the French Space Agency (CNES). It is also part of the other projects (Prostock-Gessol3, BASC-SOCSENSIT) aiming at spatially monitoring the effects of exogenous organic matter land application on soil organic carbon sequestration, and necessitating for this purpose the gathering of spatial data about crops and crop successions as inputs into mechanistic crop models. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of very high spatial resolution (VHSR) Pleiades images (2 m -spatial resolution) to the mapping of different crops at various growth stages and various bare soil surface conditions related to tillage operations over an agricultural region in the western peri-urban suburbs of Paris: the Versailles plain (Yvelines, France). About 300 field observations describing soil surface conditions or crop phenological stages were collected at ~150 agricultural fields spread over 21 km², synchronously with the Pleiades images acquisitions of 3 and 24 April 2013. Field data were GIS-structured and used as a basis for delimitating within-field training and test zones. The performance of various classifiers was compared either on the spectral bands with or without NDVI or on the principal components of a series of spectral and textural features of an object-based classifier (ENVI FX®): the Bayesian maximum likelihood classifier (ML), the neural network classifier (NN), the support vector machine classifier with polynomial function kernel (SVM). The overall accuracy of the SVM classifier computed on the 4 spectral bands and the NDVI and followed by a median filter and class recombination according to crops reached about 78% for the Pleiades image of 3 April and 82% for that of 24 April. Tillage operations were very well detected (>77%, user's or producer's accuracies) as well as winter cereals (>70%, user's or producer's accuracies). Both Pleiades images enabled to perfectly discriminate between early stage winter cereals and bare cropped soils. They brought unique information about within-field spatial heterogeneity of crop varieties, seedbed preparation and crop development stages and enabled to detect practices of organic amendment application.

Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Noirot-Cosson, Paul-Emile; Membrive, Olivier; Hadjar, Dalila

2014-05-01

30

Neoadjuvant therapy of early stage human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive breast cancer: latest evidence and clinical implications  

PubMed Central

Neoadjuvant therapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer is exactly the paradigm of targeted therapy and a suitable setting to develop and test rapidly novel therapies in early stages. Moreover, neoadjuvant approaches provide a significant source of tumour tissue to identify molecular heterogeneity and potential predictive biomarkers of response. The addition of trastuzumab to primary chemotherapy revolutionized the treatment of this tumour subtype, increasing pathological complete response rate (pCR) that, even with its limitations, has also been shown to be an early marker of survival in HER2-positive disease. HER2-positive breast cancer is a biological heterogeneous disease with different characteristics and clinical outcomes. Multiple promising anti-HER2 drugs with nonoverlapping mechanisms of action have recently been developed. Combined administration of two different HER2-targeted agents, that is, trastuzumab with lapatinib or pertuzumab, and primary chemotherapy shows enhanced antitumour activity, with an increase in pCR to values never reached in the past. Moreover, results of recent studies show that the combination of targeted therapy alone (dual HER2 blockade with or without endocrine therapy) also has activity in a substantial percentage of patients, eradicating HER2-positive tumours without chemotherapy and with a favourable toxicity profile. It is still necessary to be able to select the appropriate group of patients who can avoid chemotherapy (approximately 25%), and to establish robust predictive biomarkers of response or resistance to the anti-HER2 approach. Neoadjuvant therapy represents an enormous step forward in HER2-positive breast cancer. The results of the most relevant neoadjuvant studies and latest evidence are described in this review, though new questions have emerged. PMID:25342988

2014-01-01

31

The Yellow Brick Road and the Emerald City: Benefit Finding, Positive Reappraisal Coping, and Posttraumatic Growth in Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictors and outcomes of benefit finding, positive reappraisal coping, and posttraumatic growth were examined using interviews and questionnaires from a longitudinal study of women with early-stage breast cancer followed from primary medical treatment completion to 3 (n = 92) and 12 months (n = 60) later. Most women (83%) reported at least 1 benefit of their breast cancer experience. Benefit

Sharon R. Sears; Annette L. Stanton; Sharon Danoff-Burg

2003-01-01

32

Origins of carbon sustaining the growth of whitefish Coregonus lavaretus early larval stages in Lake Annecy: insights from fatty-acid biomarkers.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that diatom carbon (C) produced during the spring peak supported spring zooplankton production and, ultimately, the growth of Coregonus lavaretus early larval stages from March to May 2006 in Lake Annecy, France, was tested using gut content analyses and fatty acid biomarkers. Gut content results showed that C. lavaretus larvae from stages 1 to 4 preferentially fed on copepods with Daphnia sp. only a minor proportion of larval diet. The levels of diatom-marker fatty acids (C16:1n-7 and C20:5n-3) were high in Daphnia sp., but lower in both copepods and C. lavaretus larvae from stages 0 to 4. These results indicated that the spring diatom biomass was actually grazed by Daphnia sp., but, contrary to what was expected, the spring bloom was not the only C source supporting copepods secondary production and, consequently, the growth of C. lavaretus early larval stages. In contrast, levels of terrestrial fatty acid marker (C24:0) were low in Daphnia sp. but high in copepods and C. lavaretus larvae, indicating a significant contribution of terrestrial carbon to copepods and, ultimately, to the growth of C. lavaretus early larval stages. PMID:20735521

Perga, M-E; Bec, A; Anneville, O

2009-01-01

33

Early Stages Of Biome Shift in Boreal Alaska: Climate Sensitivity of Tree Growth and Accelerated Tree Mortality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boreal forest region of Alaska is characterized by a major east-west climate gradient, in addition to a widely appreciated north-south gradient. Low elevations of the eastern and central Interior experience warm summer temperatures and low annual precipitation, while coastal western Alaska has cool summer temperatures and greater precipitation. In the Interior the four dominant tree species of white and black spruce, aspen, and Alaska birch on low elevation sites nearly all register a strong negative radial growth relationship to summer temperatures, concentrated in May and July. Precipitation, particularly in late winter and midsummer, plays a supplemental role as a positive factor in growth. Floodplain white spruce along the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers transition from negative temperature response to positive response in western Alaska near the tree limit. Populations of white spruce on treeline sites display both negative growth response to July temperature and positive response to spring temperatures, with the negative response dominant in the east and the positive response dominant in the west. Across boreal Alaska summer temperatures increased abruptly in 1974, and have remained at historically high levels since. Correspondingly, climatic favorability for radial growth of Interior trees on most low elevation sites has been at extreme low levels particularly in the 21st century. Satellite-based NDVI coverage confirms that forest growth reduction is widespread in boreal Alaska since the 1980s. Defoliating and wood boring insects have reached outbreak population levels across most of boreal Alaska, partly from release of direct temperature control on the insects and partly from increased tree host susceptibility. Major outbreak species include aspen leaf miner, spruce engraver beetle, and spruce budworm. About a dozen tall willow species have been subjected to widespread attack by willow leaf blotch miner, and a new disease and defoliating insect have spread rapidly in alder shrubs, so nearly all woody species face health challenges. Temperatures and precipitation on many Interior sites are now at or beyond tolerance limits for white spruce, aspen, and Alaska birch. Two episodes of acute drought injury were widespread in birch during the last decade. Deficits in climate predicted tree growth are synchronous with the major insect outbreaks as recorded in insect trapping records and aerial surveys of area affected. Over the past 25 years tree mortality of 50% or more occurred in nearly all long-term monitoring plots in mature stands on productive sites in the Interior, but to date trees have successfully regenerated on most disturbed sites. These environmental changes and tree responses, including opposite responses, are coherent, and consistent with early stages of a biome shift eliminating boreal forest on dry Interior sites, and emergence of a new climate optimum zone in western Alaska currently only sparsely populated with forest.

Juday, G. P.; Grant, T.; Alix, C. M.; Spencer, D. L.; Beck, P. S.

2012-12-01

34

Cadmium alters the reproductive endocrine disruption and enhancement of growth in the early and adult stages of Oreochromis mossambicus.  

PubMed

Heavy metal cadmium (Cd) traces are able to promote growth (growth promoter) and induce early maturation in Oreochromis mossambicus fries of both sexes, whereas, in the adults, they degenerate the gonads and their function. The gathered data on length-weight relation, gonado-somatic index, hepato-somatic index, egg numbers and reproductive hormones such as gonadotropins (GtH-I and GtH-II) and gonadial hormones such as progesterone, testosterone and estradiol levels all prove Cd as an endocrine disruptor. PMID:22903387

Amutha, C; Subramanian, P

2013-04-01

35

Influence of beta instabilities on the early stages of nucleation and growth of alpha in beta titanium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructural evolution in beta Titanium alloys is an important factor that governs the properties exhibited by them. Intricate understanding of complex phase transformations in these alloys is vital to tailor their microstructures and in turn their properties to our advantage. One such important subject of study is the nucleation and growth of alpha precipitates triggered by the compositional instabilities in the beta matrix, instilled in them during non equilibrium heat treatments. The present work is an effort to investigate such a phenomenon. Here studies have been conducted primarily on two different beta-Titanium alloys of commercial relevance- Ti5553 (Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-0.5Fe), an alloy used in the aerospace industry for landing gear applications and, TNZT (Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta), a potential load bearing orthopedic implant alloy. Apart from the effect of thermal treatment on these alloys, the focus of this work is to study the interplay between different alpha and beta stabilizers present in them. For this, advanced nano-scale characterization tools such as High Resolution STEM, High Resolution TEM, EFTEM and 3D Atom Probe have been used to determine the structure, distribution and composition of the non equilibrium instabilities such as beta' and o, and also to investigate the subsequent nucleation of stable alpha. Thus in this work, very early stages of phase separation via spinodal decomposition and second phase nucleation in titanium alloys are successfully probed at an atomic resolution. For the first time, atomically resolved HRSTEM 'Z'-contrast image is recorded showing modulated structures within the as-quenched beta matrix. Also in the same condition HRTEM results showed the presence of nanoscale alpha regions. These studies are revalidated by conventional selected area diffraction and 3D atom probe reconstruction results. Also TEM dark field and selected are diffraction studies are conducted to understand the effect of quenching and subsequent aging of o precipitates. Using 3D atom probe tomography, the elemental partitioning involved in coarsening of o is investigated in detail. Finally by performing a series of well planned heat treatments, an effort is made to reason out the influence of these instabilities on the morphology, volume fraction and nucleation site of alpha.

Nag, Soumya

36

Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

Farley, Jr. , E. V.; Murphy, J. M.; Adkison, M. D.; Eisner, L. B.; Helle, J. H.; Moss, J. H.; Nielsen, J.

2007-01-01

37

Growth and feeding patterns of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) early life stages in the Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to describe inter- and intra-annual variations in the environmental characteristics of the North-eastern Aegean Sea and to relate these changes to the egg and larval distributions, growth and feeding of larval anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus). Four cruises, two in July and two in September in 2003 and 2004 were performed. The distributions of eggs and larvae were associated with i) salinity fronts related to the Black Sea Water and ii) shallow areas of high productivity over the continental shelf, some of them with high riverine influence. The first published description of the anchovy larval diet in the Eastern Mediterranean was conducted in individuals ranging from 2.2 to 17 mm standard length. The number of non-empty guts was relatively high (between 20% and 30%), and the diet was described through 15 main items. The mean size of the prey increased with larval size, and was generally dominated by prey widths smaller than 80 ?m (mainly the nauplii and copepodite stages of copepods). Small larvae positively selected copepod nauplii. As larvae grew, they shifted to larger copepod stages. At all sizes, larvae rejected abundant taxa like cladocerans. The average trophic level calculated for anchovy of all size ranges was 2.98 ± 0.16 (SE). Growth rates varied from 0.41 to 0.75 mm d -1, with the highest growth rates generally observed in September. Variability in the Black Sea Water influence and the recorded inter- and intra-annual changes in primary and secondary production, combined with marked changes in temperature over the first 20 m depth, are used to frame the discussion regarding the observed significant differences in growth rates in terms of both length and weight.

Catalán, Ignacio A.; Folkvord, Arild; Palomera, Isabel; Quílez-Badía, Gemma; Kallianoti, Fotini; Tselepides, Anastasios; Kallianotis, Argyris

2010-01-01

38

[Introduction of the human recombinant angiogenin at the early stages of postnatal development inhibits the growth of mice].  

PubMed

We studied the influence of recombinant DNA containing the cloned angiogenin gene, plasmid DNA without angiogenin gene, and purified recombinant angiogenin injected to Tg8 mice at the age of two days on the body mass of 28- and 40-day old mice. The body mass of mice that were injected with the cloned angiogenin gene or purified angiogenin was less than in the control mice. The body mice of Tg8 mice injected with recombinant DNA containing the cloned angiogenin gene did not increase from day 2 to day 40, while in the mice with purified recombinant angiogenin and control mice it increased by 24 and 57%, respectively. These data suggest that the elevated level of angiogenin at the early developmental stages inhibits the increase of body mass. The effect we described as related, in al likelihood, to the known inhibitory effect of angiogenin on protein synthesis. PMID:12500555

Mertvetsov, N P; Vo?tenko, N N; Dudarev, A N; Ivanova, E A; Kha?darova, N V; Popova, N K; Tarantul, V Z

2002-01-01

39

Serum influences the expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing genes and QS-controlled virulence genes during early and late stages of growth  

PubMed Central

In response to diverse environmental stimuli at different infection sites, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a serious nosocomial pathogen, coordinates the production of different virulence factors through a complicated network of the hierarchical quorum-sensing (QS) systems including the las, rhl, and the 2-alkyl-4-quinolone-related QS systems. We recently showed that at early stages of growth serum alters the expression of numerous P. aeruginosa genes. In this study, we utilized transcriptional analysis and enzyme assays to examine the effect of serum on the QS and QS-controlled virulence factors during early and late phases of growth of the P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. At early phase, serum repressed the transcription of lasI, rhlI, and pqsA but not lasR or rhlR. However, at late phase, serum enhanced the expression of all QS genes. Serum produced a similar effect on the synthesis of the autoinducers 3OC12-HSL, C4-HSL, and HHQ/PQS. Additionally, serum repressed the expression of several QS-controlled genes in the early phase, but enhanced them in the late phase. Furthermore, serum influenced the expression of different QS-positive (vqsR, gacA, and vfr) as well as QS-negative (rpoN, qscR, mvaT, and rsmA) regulatory genes at either early or late phases of growth. However, with the exception of PAO?vfr, we detected comparable levels of lasI/lasR expression in PAO1 and PAO1 mutants defective in these regulatory genes. At late stationary phase, serum failed to enhance lasI/lasR expression in PAO?vfr. These results suggest that depending on the phase of growth, serum differentially influenced the expression of P. aeruginosa QS and QS-controlled virulence genes. In late phase, serum enhanced the expression of las genes through vfr. PMID:24436158

Kruczek, Cassandra; Qaisar, Uzma; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A; Hamood, Abdul N

2014-01-01

40

Growth inhibition in early life-stage tests predicts full life-cycle toxicity effects of lead in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive freshwater organism tested to date for several metals (Co, Cu, Pb, Ni) based on 28 d early life-stage (ELS) tests in which growth was the most sensitive endpoint. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has expressed concern that growth in 28 d ELS tests with mollusks may overpredict toxicity because of the potential for recovery in a full life-cycle (LC) test. Consequently, the USEPA only accepts the survival endpoint for these tests in establishing water quality criteria (WQC). To address this concern, the current study aimed to test the sensitivity of L. stagnalis to Pb in a 56 d full LC test evaluating survival, growth, reproductive and embryonic growth endpoints and compare the estimated effect levels to those established using the 28 d ELS test design. The most sensitive endpoints in this study were 28 d growth and 56 d egg mass production, both with a NOEC of <1.0 ?g L(-1) and a LOEC of 1.0 ?g L(-1), showing that the ELS growth endpoint is predictive of the 56 d reproduction endpoint. Snails exposed to 1.0 and 2.7 ?g L(-1) Pb showed full and partial recovery from growth inhibition between 28 and 56 d. While this recovery supports the USEPA's concern about the 28 d growth endpoint; considering the reproductive lifespan of L. stagnalis and the recovery dose-response, we conclude that the 28 d growth endpoint will be within a factor of 3 of full LC endpoints. This is consistent with the level of precision previously determined for fish ELS tests, which the USEPA accepts for WQC derivation, and suggests that tests using 28 d ELS growth endpoint for L. stagnalis may be acceptable for inclusion in WQC derivation. PMID:23274352

Munley, Kathleen M; Brix, Kevin V; Panlilio, Jennifer; Deforest, David K; Grosell, Martin

2013-03-15

41

Evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Prognostic Marker for Local Relapse in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important protein involved in the process of angiogenesis that has been found to correlate with relapse-free and overall survival in breast cancer, predominantly in locally advanced and metastatic disease. A paucity of data is available on the prognostic implications of VEGF in early-stage breast cancer; specifically, its prognostic value for local relapse after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to assess VEGF expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with BCT and to correlate the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes with overexpression of VEGF. Methods and Materials: After obtaining institutional review board approval, the paraffin specimens of 368 patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT between 1975 and 2005 were constructed into tissue microarrays with twofold redundancy. The tissue microarrays were stained for VEGF and read by a trained pathologist, who was unaware of the clinical details, as positive or negative according the standard guidelines. The clinical and pathologic data, long-term outcomes, and results of VEGF staining were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 6.5 years. VEGF expression was positive in 56 (15%) of the 368 patients. Although VEGF expression did not correlate with age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, histologic type, family history, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or HER-2 status, a trend was seen toward increased VEGF expression in the black cohort (26% black vs. 13% white, p = .068). Within the margin-negative cohort, VEGF did not predict for local relapse-free survival (RFS) (96% vs. 95%), nodal RFS (100% vs. 100%), distant metastasis-free survival (91% vs. 92%), overall survival (92% vs. 97%), respectively (all p >.05). Subset analysis revealed that VEGF was highly predictive of local RFS in node-positive, margin-negative patients (86% vs. 100%, p = .029) on univariate analysis, but it did not retain its significance on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.804-7.920, p = .113). No other subgroups were identified in which a correlation was found between VEGF expression and local relapse. Conclusion: To our knowledge, our study is the first to assess the prognostic value of VEGF with the endpoint of local relapse in early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT, an important question given the recent increased use of targeted antiangiogenic agents in early-stage breast cancer. Our study results suggest that VEGF is not an independent predictor of local RFS after BCT, but additional, larger studies specifically analyzing the endpoint of VEGF and local relapse are warranted.

Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yang Qifeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of China (China); Goyal, Sharad [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Harris, Lyndsay; Chung, Gina [Department of Medical Oncology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

2011-12-01

42

Influence of beta instabilities on the early stages of nucleation and growth of alpha in beta titanium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructural evolution in beta Titanium alloys is an important factor that governs the properties exhibited by them. Intricate understanding of complex phase transformations in these alloys is vital to tailor their microstructures and in turn their properties to our advantage. One such important subject of study is the nucleation and growth of alpha precipitates triggered by the compositional instabilities in

Soumya Nag

2008-01-01

43

Biotic elicitation of isoflavone metabolism with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in early stages of development in Glycine max var. Osumi.  

PubMed

Nine plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from different backgrounds were assayed on Glycine max var. Osumi to evaluate their potential as biotic elicitors to increase isoflavone (IF) levels. Strains were inoculated on 2 day old pregerminated seeds. Six days after inoculation, the seedlings were harvested. Biometric parameters were registered, and IFs were determined. Although only one strain (N21.4) increased total IF contents and only one (M84) caused significant decreases in total IF, five different behaviors were detected when the daidzein and genistein families were analyzed separately. All strains triggered IF metabolism so further studies have to be developed since the different beneficial effects of IF through the diet may be due to the different IF profiles. These are encouraging results from two points of view: (1) N21.4 increases IF in seedlings, and (2) all other beneficial strains trigger IF metabolism differentially; hence, both facts could be used to prepare food supplements or as enriched standardized foods after full development of the biotechnological procedure. PMID:20073465

Ramos-Solano, Beatriz; Algar, Elena; García-Villaraco, Ana; García-Cristóbal, Jorge; Lucas García, J Antonio; Gutierrez-Mañero, F Javier

2010-02-10

44

On developing business architectures : a multi-framework evaluation of an early-stage enterprise  

E-print Network

Early-stage enterprises are characterized by leveraging limited resources during periods of accelerating industry growth and relatively high uncertainty. This thesis is an examination of an early-stage enterprise within ...

Montoya, Mario, 1978-

2010-01-01

45

Early stage heteroepitaxial growth of SrRuO 3 films on SrTiO 3 (001) depending on the growth temperature during pulsed laser deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth behavior of ultrathin (?5 nm) SrRuO3 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on SrTiO3 (001) was investigated particularly as a function of growth temperature mainly using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. At a critical growth temperature (~500 °C), below which no crystallization occurs, an epitaxial SrRuO3 film starts to grow with a broad distribution of single (110) domain along

Han Cheol Choe; Tae Soo Kang; Jung Ho Je; Jong Ha Moon; Byung-Teak Lee; Sang Sub Kim

2005-01-01

46

SPIN90 Knockdown Attenuates the Formation and Movement of Endosomal Vesicles in the Early Stages of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Endocytosis  

PubMed Central

The finding that SPIN90 colocalizes with epidermal growth factor (EGF) in EEA1-positive endosomes prompted us to investigate the role of SPIN90 in endocytosis of the EGF receptor (EGFR). In the present study, we demonstrated that SPIN90 participates in the early stages of endocytosis, including vesicle formation and trafficking. Stable HeLa cells with knockdown of SPIN90 displayed significantly higher levels of surface EGFR than control cells. Analysis of the abundance and cellular distribution of EGFR via electron microscopy revealed that SPIN90 knockdown cells contain residual EGFR at cell membranes and fewer EGFR-containing endosomes, both features that reflect reduced endosome formation. The delayed early endosomal targeting capacity of SPIN90 knockdown cells led to increased EGFR stability, consistent with the observed accumulation of EGFR at the membrane. Small endosome sizes and reduced endosome formation in SPIN90 knockdown cells, observed using fluorescent confocal microscopy, strongly supported the involvement of SPIN90 in endocytosis of EGFR. Overexpression of SPIN90 variants, particularly the SH3, PRD, and CC (positions 643 - 722) domains, resulted in aberrant morphology of Rab5-positive endosomes (detected as small spots located near the cell membrane) and defects in endosomal movement. These findings clearly suggest that SPIN90 participates in the formation and movement of endosomes. Consistent with this, SPIN90 knockdown enhanced cell proliferation. The delay in EGFR endocytosis effectively increased the levels of endosomal EGFR, which triggered activation of ERK1/2 and cell proliferation via upregulation of cyclin D1. Collectively, our findings suggest that SPIN90 contributes to the formation and movement of endosomal vesicles, and modulates the stability of EGFR protein, which affects cell cycle progression via regulation of the activities of downstream proteins, such as ERK1/2, after EGF stimulation. PMID:24340049

Oh, Hyejin; Kim, Hwan; Chung, Kyung-Hwun; Hong, Nan Hyung; Shin, Baehyun; Park, Woo Jin; Jun, Youngsoo; Rhee, Sangmyung; Song, Woo Keun

2013-01-01

47

Detection of Early-Stage Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an almost universally lethal disease, in large part, due to our inability to detect early-stage disease. Monoclonal antibody PAM4 is reactive with a unique biomarker expressed by greater than 85% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. In this report, we examined the ability of a PAM4-based immunoassay to detect early-stage disease. Methods The PAM4-based immunoassay was used to quantitate antigen in the serum of healthy volunteers (N=19), patients with known pancreatic adenocarcinoma (N=68), and patients with a primary diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (N=29). Results Sensitivity for detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma was 82%, with a false-positive rate of 5% for healthy controls. Patients with advanced disease had significantly higher antigen levels than those with early-stage disease (P<0.01), with a diagnostic sensitivity of 91%, 86%, and 62% for stage 3/4 advanced disease, stage-2, and stage-1, respectively. We also evaluated chronic pancreatitis sera, finding 38% positive for antigen; however, this was discordant with immunohistochemical findings that suggest the PAM4-antigen is not produced by inflamed pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, several of the serum-positive pancreatitis patients, for whom tissue specimens were available for pathological interpretation, had evidence of neoplastic precursor lesions. Conclusions These results suggest the use of the PAM4-serum assay to detect early-stage pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and that positive levels of PAM4-antigen are not derived from inflamed pancreatic tissues, but rather may provide evidence of subclinical pancreatic neoplasia. Impact The ability to detect pancreatic adenocarcinoma at an early stage could provide for early therapeutic intervention with potentially improved patient outcomes. PMID:20810605

Gold, David V.; Goggins, Michael; Modrak, David E.; Newsome, Guy; Liu, Mengling; Shi, Chanjuan; Hruban, Ralph H.; Goldenberg, David M.

2010-01-01

48

Delirium in Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Delirium is a disorder of acute onset with fluctuating symptoms and is characterized by inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered levels of consciousness. The risk for delirium is greatest in individuals with dementia, and the incidence of both is increasing worldwide because of the aging of our population. Although several clinical trials have tested interventions for delirium prevention in individuals without dementia, little is known about the mechanisms for the prevention of delirium in early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The purpose of this article is to explore ways of preventing delirium and slowing the rate of cognitive decline in early-stage AD by enhancing cognitive reserve. An agenda for future research on interventions to prevent delirium in individuals with early-stage AD is also presented. PMID:19326827

Fick, Donna M.; Kolanowski, Ann; Beattie, Elizabeth; McCrow, Judith

2010-01-01

49

Response of Peanuts to Irrigation Management at Different Crop Growth Stages  

E-print Network

had a different schedule of either irrigating or stressing the peanut plant during one or more of three crop growth stages. The three crop growth stages were: (1) pegging; (2) early maturation; and (3) late maturation. Rainfall during the vegetative...

Howell, T. A.; McFarland, M. J.; Reddell, D. L.; Brown, K. W.; Newton, R. J.; Dahmen, P.

50

Gene expression analysis in soybean in response to the causal agent of Asian soybean rust ( Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow) in an early growth stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian soybean rust (ASR) caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow is a potentially devastating disease posing a serious threat to the soybean industry. Understanding plant host response\\u000a at the molecular level is certainly important for control of the disease. The main objective of this study was to perform\\u000a a transcriptome profiling of P. pachyrhizi-exposed young soybean plants (V2 growth stage) using

D. R. Panthee; J. S. Yuan; D. L. Wright; J. J. Marois; D. Mailhot; C. N. Stewart Jr

2007-01-01

51

Laparoscopic surgical staging of early ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Since its advent in the early 1990s, laparoscopic surgical staging for early ovarian cancer has been explored as an option with the potential to offer women equivalent cancer control and survival as provided by laparotomy but with the clear benefits of minimally invasive surgery. A limited but expanding body of literature suggests aggressive surgical staging can be performed with equivalent tissue assessment compared with laparotomy. Given the lack of randomized, controlled trials, the risks and benefits of such a procedure remain ambiguous. This review summarizes the current body of literature regarding the role of laparoscopy in upfront surgical staging of ovarian cancer. This review presents the history, rationale, and established benefits and risks of utilizing this approach in women who present with malignancy that appears confined to the ovary. Although retrospective data confirm the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of laparoscopic staging of early ovarian cancer, more prospective data will be required to confirm equivalent survival in a patient population that has the potential to be cured. PMID:22229064

Weber, Sarah; McCann, Christopher K; Boruta, David M; Schorge, John O; Growdon, Whitfield B

2011-01-01

52

Laparoscopic Surgical Staging of Early Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

Since its advent in the early 1990s, laparoscopic surgical staging for early ovarian cancer has been explored as an option with the potential to offer women equivalent cancer control and survival as provided by laparotomy but with the clear benefits of minimally invasive surgery. A limited but expanding body of literature suggests aggressive surgical staging can be performed with equivalent tissue assessment compared with laparotomy. Given the lack of randomized, controlled trials, the risks and benefits of such a procedure remain ambiguous. This review summarizes the current body of literature regarding the role of laparoscopy in upfront surgical staging of ovarian cancer. This review presents the history, rationale, and established benefits and risks of utilizing this approach in women who present with malignancy that appears confined to the ovary. Although retrospective data confirm the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of laparoscopic staging of early ovarian cancer, more prospective data will be required to confirm equivalent survival in a patient population that has the potential to be cured. PMID:22229064

Weber, Sarah; McCann, Christopher K; Boruta, David M; Schorge, John O; Growdon, Whitfield B

2011-01-01

53

Growth Stage -Based Phenotypic Analysis of Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

With the completion of the Arabidopsis genome sequencing project, the next major challenge is the large-scale determination of gene function. As a model organism for agricultural biotechnology, Arabidopsis presents the opportunity to provide key insights into the way that gene function can affect commercial crop production. In an attempt to aid in the rapid discovery of gene function, we have established a high throughput phenotypic analysis process based on a series of defined growth stages that serve both as developmental landmarks and as triggers for the collection of morphological data. The data collection process has been divided into two complementary platforms to ensure the capture of detailed data describing Arabidopsis growth and development over the entire life of the plant. The first platform characterizes early seedling growth on vertical plates for a period of 2 weeks. The second platform consists of an extensive set of measurements from plants grown on soil for a period of ?2 months. When combined with parallel processes for metabolic and gene expression profiling, these platforms constitute a core technology in the high throughput determination of gene function. We present here analyses of the development of wild-type Columbia (Col-0) plants and selected mutants to illustrate a framework methodology that can be used to identify and interpret phenotypic differences in plants resulting from genetic variation and/or environmental stress. PMID:11449047

Boyes, Douglas C.; Zayed, Adel M.; Ascenzi, Robert; McCaskill, Amy J.; Hoffman, Neil E.; Davis, Keith R.; Gorlach, Jorn

2001-01-01

54

Endoscopic classification can predict the infiltrative growth patterns of early-stage esophageal cancer: A retrospective study of 133 patients at a single academic tertiary care center.  

PubMed

The relationships between two endoscopic classification systems (type I and II) and the infiltrative growth patterns (INF) of early esophageal cancers were evaluated. Among type I carcinomas, the INFs were mainly INFb in the polypoid and mixed types, INFa in the superficial type, and INFc in the excavated type. Among type II carcinomas, INFa was the main pattern in the surface-propagating type, whereas INFb was observed in the intraluminal, bilateral, and mixed types. INFb and INFc were observed in the intramural type. Our results indicate that the superficial and surface-propagating types had the weakest infiltrative potential, whereas the excavated and intramural types had the highest infiltrative potential. PMID:24800781

Wu, Yue; Zhou, Xue; Chen, Yao; Dai, Jianhua; Yuan, Yue; Peng, Guiyong

2014-07-01

55

Early Diagnosis and Staging of Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

The need for accurate methods of ascertaining the malignant potential of any given man’s prostate cancer has never been greater than it is today. The presenters at the session of the 13th International Prostate Cancer Update addressing early diagnosis and staging of disease discussed combined-modality staging of disease; color Doppler imaging for detection of cancer; pelvic lymphadenectomy as a diagnostic tool; and a new, artificial intelligence—based model to predict survival. A summary of these presentations is provided here. PMID:16985972

Brawer, Michael K; Bartsch, Georg; D'Amico, Anthony V; Donohue, Robert E; Siam, Oottamasathien; Tewari, Ashutosh

2003-01-01

56

Gene expression analysis in soybean in response to the causal agent of Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow) in an early growth stage.  

PubMed

Asian soybean rust (ASR) caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow is a potentially devastating disease posing a serious threat to the soybean industry. Understanding plant host response at the molecular level is certainly important for control of the disease. The main objective of this study was to perform a transcriptome profiling of P. pachyrhizi-exposed young soybean plants (V2 growth stage) using whole genome Affymetrix microarrays of soybean. Three-week-old soybean cv. 5601 T plants at the V2 growth stage were inoculated with P. pachyrhizi, and leaf samples were collected 72 h post inoculation with subsequent microarray analysis performed. A total of 112 genes were found to be differentially expressed from P. pachyrhizi exposure, of which 46 were upregulated, and 66 were downregulated. Most of the differentially expressed genes were general defense and stress-related genes, and 34 of these were unknown. Confirmational real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on a subset of 5 out of 112 differentially expressed genes. These results were congruent with the microarray analysis. Our results indicated that low and nonspecific innate response to the pathogen may account for the failure to develop rust resistance in the soybean variety studied. To our knowledge, this is the first microarray analysis of soybean in response to ASR. PMID:17318271

Panthee, D R; Yuan, J S; Wright, D L; Marois, J J; Mailhot, D; Stewart, C N

2007-10-01

57

INTRODUCTION The early juvenile stages of all species of sea turtles,  

E-print Network

growth model of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta: duration of pelagic stage Karen A juvenile stage of sea turtles is poorly studied. We present a growth model and estimates for durationINTRODUCTION The early juvenile stages of all species of sea turtles, except Natator depressus

Florida, University of

58

Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processes in growth of short cracks and stage 1 of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl(-), with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl(-) or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage 1 behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK(sup m) where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

Jones, R. H.; Simonen, E. P.

59

Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks  

SciTech Connect

Processes in growth of short cracks and stage I of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl{sup {minus}}, with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl{sup {minus}} or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage I behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK{sup m} where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

1993-12-01

60

Towards the identification of early stage osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Summary A variety of genetic and environmental factors contribute to the progressive develop of OA. It is necessary to identify people who are developing initial changes in cartilage and/or subchondral bone before onset of classical radiological features in order to detect early phase of OA. Recent quantitative MRI techniques can evaluate the structural, mechanical and biochemical characteristics of cartilage. T2 mapping is able to assess cartilage volume and defects measurement, delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI (dGEMRIC) and Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) can reveal Cartilage GAG content. Accurate and reliable serum, urine and synovial fluid biomarkers are also requested. Several biomarkers have been studied and proposed, but there are many critical issues to consider for inferring useful data from studies on biomarkers in early OA such as phase of disease, specific joint sites, systemic concentrations, circadian rhythm, their clearance from the joint, etc. Recently proteomics has produced great expectations to improve the early diagnosis of OA. These discoveries may open opportunities for the identification of early stage of OA leading to manage the symptoms and ultimately slow the progression of OA. PMID:25285138

Migliore, Alberto; Massafra, Umberto

2014-01-01

61

Open architecture framework for improved early stage submarine design  

E-print Network

Could transparency between current disparate methods improve efficiency in early stage submarine design? Does the lack of transparency between current design methods hinder the effectiveness of early stage submarine design? ...

Sewell, Eli A. (Eli Anthony)

2010-01-01

62

15.391 Early Stage Capital, Fall 2003  

E-print Network

15.391 examines the elements of raising early stage capital, focusing on start-up ventures and the early stages of company development. This course also prepares entrepreneurs to make the best use of outside advisors, and ...

Loessberg, Shari

63

Treatment Choices for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Treatment Choices for Men With Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Posted: 02/11/2011 Treatment Choices for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer About This Booklet ... NCI Publications Español About This Booklet As a man with early-stage prostate cancer , you will be ...

64

Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch date distributions predicted by flow-independent (84-93%) and flow-dependent (82-91%) incubation loss models were similar. Age-0 abundance was generally independent of viable egg deposition, except in one year when egg deposition was 10-fold lower due to reduced spawning activity. There was no evidence from the hatch date or stock-recruitment analysis that flow-dependent incubation losses, although large in experimental years, affected the abundance of the age-0 population. The data indicate that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of flow-dependent losses. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that the March 2008 high flow experiment (HFE) resulted in a large increase in early survival rates (fertilization to ~1-2 months from emergence) of age-0 trout due an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis indicated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over four-fold higher than expected given the number of viable redds that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about two months after the HFE. These cohorts, which were fertilized after the HFE, were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better quality habitat. Inter annual differences in growth of age-0 trout based on otolith microstructure support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm·day-1) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm·day-1), the highest recorded over six years, even though abundance was eight-fold greater in 2008. I speculate that high flows in 2008 increased interstitial spaces in the substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth during summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was over two-fold higher than expected, possibly indicating that the effect of the HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent.

Korman, Josh

2010-05-01

65

Embryonic developmental plasticity of the chick: increased CO(2) during early stages of incubation changes the developmental trajectories during prenatal and postnatal growth.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of non-ventilation of the incubator during the first 10 days of incubation on carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentrations in the incubator and its effects on the embryonic and post-hatch development of the chicken (Gallus gallus). Two different incubation conditions were created, one incubator was kept at standard conditions, with adequate ventilation (V) and a second incubator was non-ventilated (NV) during the first ten days of incubation, allowing the CO(2) to rise. After the first 10 days, both incubations were continued under standard conditions. The experiment was repeated twice with different ages of the breeders (45 and 60 wks) which resulted in different CO(2) levels at ED10 (1.5 and 1%). The CO(2) concentration in the V incubators remained below 0.1% in these first 10 days. The eggs of the NV incubation showed higher pCO(2) levels in the air cell from ED10 until ED14 compared to the eggs of the V group. The NV embryos had significantly higher absolute and relative (to egg weight) body weights from ED10 until ED18, pointing to an accelerated embryonic growth. At internal pipping, the NV chick embryos had higher plasma corticosterone and T(3) levels and higher pCO(2) in the air cell. Chicks incubated under NV conditions hatched 10 h earlier in the first and 15 h earlier in the second experiment and the spread of hatch was narrower. During the post-hatch period, the NV chickens had a higher body weight compared to the V chickens. From these results, it is clear that higher levels of CO(2) during the first ten days of incubation have persistent (epigenetic) effects during the incubation and early post-hatch period. PMID:16928458

De Smit, Lieve; Bruggeman, Veerle; Tona, Jacob K; Debonne, Marianne; Onagbesan, Okanlawon; Arckens, Lut; De Baerdemaeker, Josse; Decuypere, Eddy

2006-10-01

66

Early Stages of the Natriuretic Hormone Story  

PubMed Central

The paper reviews the early stages of the research on natriuretic hormone. The described experimental work was designed and accomplished in several internationally recognized laboratories where the author was invited to extend his projects. The cross-circulation experiments in animals with acutely increased extracellular fluid volume documented, that in the mechanism of natriuresis – besides a series of the physical natriuretic factors – there is still room for an active humoral natriuretic substance. This substance inhibited the sodium transporting enzyme, Na,K-ATPase, in the frog skin. Analogous inhibition of the renal Na,K-ATPase may be partly responsible for the increased sodium excretion. It was further shown that the extent of natriuresis is positively modulated by the concentration of sodium in the cerebrospinal fluid detected in the anterior-third ventricle region (AV3V) in the brain.

Lichardus, Branislav

2014-01-01

67

Modeling Earle-Stage Kinking during VLS Ge Nanowire Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catalyzed growth of Ge nanowires from gold nanoparticles via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism has been the subject of intense research worldwide, due to their potential applications in nanotechnology. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying kinking during Ge nanowire growth, especially at the early-stage, is helpful for better control of Ge nanowire growth for technological applications. We report an investigation of wire morphology before and during Ge nanowire kinking in early stage growth under typical nucleation conditions. The Ge nanowires grew either along the vertical [111] direction or kinked away onto inclined <111> axes early on during their growth. We found that most kinked Ge nanowire deposited under these conditions kinked at similar height, and had similar sidewall facet structure in the kinked region. High-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy investigations also showed that the typical kinking-structure was bounded by (111) and other relatively stable Ge surface facets. We construct 3D phase field model of the nanowire based on the transmission and scanning electron microscopy and compare the evolution of the droplet and nanowire with experimental observations.

Ryu, Seunghwa; Li, Yanying; Marshall, Ann F.; Cai, Wei; McIntyre, Paul C.

2012-02-01

68

Antiangiogenic Therapies in Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis, which is crucial for the growth and spread of cancer cells, has become an important target for antineoplastic therapies in a variety of malignant tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor promote formation of new blood vessels in tumors. Several drugs, most notably the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, have been developed to inhibit this process. Clinical trials utilizing bevacizumab and other antiangiogenic drugs in metastatic breast cancer have demonstrated enhanced response rates and prolonged progression-free survival, though no overall survival benefit has been seen. Trials are now under way exploring the use of antiangiogenic agents in patients with early stage breast cancer. We performed a comprehensive review of the published literature (English language), US National Institutes of Health clinical trials registry (ClinicalTrials.gov), and established cooperative groups that revealed approximately 75 clinical trials, completed or ongoing, utilizing antiangiogenic drugs in early-stage breast cancer. A number of phase II trials in the neoadjuvant setting have reported preliminary results suggesting response rates similar to those seen with traditional anthracycline-plus-taxane combination regimens. Most of these early trials have not yet met any survival endpoints. Studies are also ongoing in the adjuvant setting, and these have not yet been reported. The toxicities associated with these agents are similar to those that have been reported in the metastatic trials. Most of these side effects are grade 1 or 2 and are easily manageable; however, there remain a small percentage of patients who sustain life-threatening vascular events, bleeding, or wound-healing complications. This number is significantly higher in patients receiving antiangiogenic drugs when compared with controls. While we eagerly await completion and results of this impressive portfolio of studies in early breast cancer with antiangiogenic agents, there is an urgent need for a more rational patient/antiangiogenic therapy selection with greater insight into predictive factors for toxicities, therapy efficacy, and clinical benefit. PMID:20587404

Derleth, Christina; Mayer, Ingrid A.

2012-01-01

69

Response of peanuts to irrigation management at different crop growth stages  

E-print Network

for peanuts at. different crop growth stages for tne Spanish and the Florunner varieties. The yield of the two varieties was evaluated under seven different irrigation treatments including a "no stress" check treatment and a dryland treatment. Each... treatment had a different schedule of either irrigating or stressing the peanut plant during one or more of three crop growth stages . The three crop growth stages were: (1) pegging; (2) early maturation; and (3) late maturation. Rainfall during...

Dahmen, Pieter George

2012-06-07

70

Effect of biofloc technology (BFT) on the early postlarval stage of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis : growth performance, floc composition and salinity stress tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofloc rearing media provides a potential food source for shrimp reared in limited or zero water exchange systems. This culture\\u000a system is environmentally friendly as it is based on limited water use and minimal effluent is released into the surrounding\\u000a environment. In this study, we evaluated the survival, growth performance and salinity stress tolerance of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis postlarvae

Maurício Emerenciano; Eduardo L. C. Ballester; Ronaldo O. Cavalli; Wilson Wasielesky

71

Effect of Curcumin on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth and Expression of Major Genes Involved in the Early and Late Stages of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Background: The effect of curcumin as a natural safe compound with different biological activities was examined on fungal growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999. Methods: The fungus was cultured in presence of serial two-fold concentrations of curcumin (125–2000 ?g/ml) in yeast extract sucrose broth for 3 days at 28°C. Mycelia dry weight was determined as an index of fungal growth, while aflatoxin production was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The expression of ver-1, nor-1, pksA, omtA and aflR genes in aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway was evaluated by real time PCR. Results: Curcumin strongly inhibited aflatoxin B1 production in the range of 26.6 to 94.9% by serial two-fold concentrations from 125 to 2000 ?g/ml. Fungal growth was also inhibited by the compound in the range of 34.0 to 60.8%. Analysis of the expression of aflatoxin pathway genes by real time PCR showed that curcumin inhibited the expression of ver-1, nor-1, pksA, omtA and aflR genes at concentrations of 250 and 1000 ?g/ml. In concentration of 1000 ?g/ml, gene expression was reduced by 31.3%, 44.6%, 57.1% 110.9% and 286.7% accordingly. Reduction in the expression of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes was significant only for aflR. In ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay, curcumin showed strong antioxidant activity at all concentrations tested. Conclusion: Curcumin may be employed successfully as a good candidate in controlling of toxigenic fungal growth on food and feed and subsequent contamination with aflatoxins in practice. PMID:23113196

Jahanshiri, Z; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M; Allameh, A; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M

2012-01-01

72

The fertilizer effectiveness of calcined Christmas Island C-grade aluminium-iron phosphate rock and superphosphate during the early stages of plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glasshouse trial with wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gamenya) in which harvests were taken at intervals up to 24 days has shown that the effectivness of calcined Christmas Island C-grade aluminium-iron phosphate rock (C500) relative to superphosphate remained low. Relative growth rates did not change despite a decrease in the concentration of bicarbonate extractable phosphorus in soil fertilized with

B Palmer; RJ Gilkes

1983-01-01

73

SENSITIVITY OF RAINBOW TROUT EARLY LIFE STAGES TO NICKEL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Four acute tests (96-h) with juvenile fish and four early life stage tests with embryos and larvae were completed with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Ninety-six-hour flow-through LC50 values for juveniles ranged from 8.1 to 10.9 mg/l nickel. Two early life stage tests were star...

74

The Small Subunit 1 of the Arabidopsis Isopropylmalate Isomerase Is Required for Normal Growth and Development and the Early Stages of Glucosinolate Formation  

PubMed Central

In Arabidopsis thaliana the evolutionary and functional relationship between Leu biosynthesis and the Met chain elongation pathway, the first part of glucosinolate formation, is well documented. Nevertheless the exact functions of some pathway components are still unclear. Isopropylmalate isomerase (IPMI), an enzyme usually involved in Leu biosynthesis, is a heterodimer consisting of a large and a small subunit. While the large protein is encoded by a single gene (ISOPROPYLMALATE ISOMERASE LARGE SUBUNIT1), three genes encode small subunits (ISOPROPYLMALATE ISOMERASE SMALL SUBUNIT1 to 3). We have now analyzed small subunit 1 (ISOPROPYLMALATE ISOMERASE SMALL SUBUNIT1) employing artificial microRNA for a targeted knockdown of the encoding gene. Strong reduction of corresponding mRNA levels to less than 5% of wild-type levels resulted in a severe phenotype with stunted growth, narrow pale leaf blades with green vasculature and abnormal adaxial-abaxial patterning as well as anomalous flower morphology. Supplementation of the knockdown plants with leucine could only partially compensate for the morphological and developmental abnormalities. Detailed metabolite profiling of the knockdown plants revealed changes in the steady state levels of isopropylmalate and glucosinolates as well as their intermediates demonstrating a function of IPMI SSU1 in both leucine biosynthesis and the first cycle of Met chain elongation. Surprisingly the levels of free leucine slightly increased suggesting an imbalanced distribution of leucine within cells and/or within plant tissues. PMID:24608865

Imhof, Janet; Huber, Florian; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wiegreffe, Christoph; Lachler, Kurt; Binder, Stefan

2014-01-01

75

The small subunit 1 of the Arabidopsis isopropylmalate isomerase is required for normal growth and development and the early stages of glucosinolate formation.  

PubMed

In Arabidopsis thaliana the evolutionary and functional relationship between Leu biosynthesis and the Met chain elongation pathway, the first part of glucosinolate formation, is well documented. Nevertheless the exact functions of some pathway components are still unclear. Isopropylmalate isomerase (IPMI), an enzyme usually involved in Leu biosynthesis, is a heterodimer consisting of a large and a small subunit. While the large protein is encoded by a single gene (isopropylmalate isomerase large subunit1), three genes encode small subunits (isopropylmalate isomerase small subunit1 to 3). We have now analyzed small subunit 1 (isopropylmalate isomerase small subunit1) employing artificial microRNA for a targeted knockdown of the encoding gene. Strong reduction of corresponding mRNA levels to less than 5% of wild-type levels resulted in a severe phenotype with stunted growth, narrow pale leaf blades with green vasculature and abnormal adaxial-abaxial patterning as well as anomalous flower morphology. Supplementation of the knockdown plants with leucine could only partially compensate for the morphological and developmental abnormalities. Detailed metabolite profiling of the knockdown plants revealed changes in the steady state levels of isopropylmalate and glucosinolates as well as their intermediates demonstrating a function of IPMI SSU1 in both leucine biosynthesis and the first cycle of Met chain elongation. Surprisingly the levels of free leucine slightly increased suggesting an imbalanced distribution of leucine within cells and/or within plant tissues. PMID:24608865

Imhof, Janet; Huber, Florian; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wiegreffe, Christoph; Lächler, Kurt; Binder, Stefan

2014-01-01

76

The role of brachytherapy in early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To present the treatment results and assess the optimal radiation dose and the role of brachytherapy in early stage nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).Methods and Materials: One hundred eighty-three patients with Stage I and II (American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System, 1987) NPC completed the planned radiotherapy in our institution from 1979 to 1991. In 133 patients, radiotherapy was given

Joseph T. Chang; Lai-Chu See; Simon G. Tang; Steve P. Lee; Chun-Chieh Wang; Ji-Hong Hong

1996-01-01

77

Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease

F. P. H. Gazeau; J.-P. Gattuso; C. Dawber; A. E. Pronker; F. Peene; J. Peene; C. H. R. Heip; J. J. Middelburg

2010-01-01

78

Business Model Change in Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Firms Facing High Uncertainty BUSINESS MODEL CHANGE IN EARLY-STAGE ENTREPRENEURIAL  

E-print Network

model design and change is especially critical to new technology-based firms (Andries and Debackere of business model change in early-stage entrepreneurial firms facing technology, market, and managerialBusiness Model Change in Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Firms Facing High Uncertainty 1 BUSINESS MODEL

Mottram, Nigel

79

Narrowband UVB phototherapy for early-stage mycosis fungoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Narrowband UVB (NB-UVB) phototherapy has been shown to be effective for the treatment of various dermatoses. Objective: We evaluated the effect of NB-UVB in the treatment of early stage mycosis fungoides (MF). Methods: The response of 24 patients (12 stage IA, 12 stage IB) with patch stage MF to thrice weekly NB-UVB was assessed. Twelve patients had skin phototypes

Raechele Cochran Gathers; Lubomira Scherschun; Farah Malick; David P. Fivenson; Henry W. Lim

2002-01-01

80

Comparative performances of staging systems for early hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Several staging systems for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been proposed, but studies of their prognostic accuracy have yielded conflicting conclusions. Stratifying patients with early HCC is of particular interest because these patients may derive the greatest benefit from intervention, yet no studies have evaluated the comparative performances of staging systems in patients with early HCC. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data on 379 patients who underwent liver resection or liver transplantation for HCC at six major hepatobiliary centres in the USA and Europe. The staging systems evaluated were: the Okuda staging system, the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA) staging system, the Cancer of the Liver Italian Programme (CLIP) score, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, the Japanese Integrated Staging (JIS) score and the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) staging system, 6th edition. A recently proposed early HCC prognostic score was also evaluated. The discriminative abilities of the staging systems were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models and the bootstrap-corrected concordance index (c). Results: Overall survival of the cohort was 74% at 3 years and 52% at 5 years, with a median survival of 62 months. Most systems demonstrated poor discriminatory ability (P > 0.05 on Cox proportional hazards analysis, c? 0.5). However, the AJCC/UICC system clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c= 0.59), albeit only into two groups. The early HCC prognostic score also clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c= 0.60) and identified three distinct prognostic groups. Discussion: The early HCC prognostic score is superior to the AJCC/UICC staging system (6th edition) for predicting the survival of patients with early HCC after liver resection or liver transplantation. Other major HCC staging systems perform poorly in patients with early HCC. PMID:19768142

Nathan, Hari; Mentha, Gilles; Marques, Hugo P; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Majno, Pietro; Aldrighetti, Luca; Pulitano, Carlo; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Russolillo, Nadia; Philosophe, Benjamin; Barroso, Eduardo; Ferrero, Alessandro; Schulick, Richard D; Choti, Michael A; Pawlik, Timothy M

2009-01-01

81

Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention  

PubMed Central

Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. Conclusion This review summarizes currently available information on monitoring for short stature in children and conditions usually associated with short stature and summarizes the authors’ conclusions on the early recognition of growth disorders. PMID:23586744

Haymond, Morey; Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Czernichow, Paul; Biller, Beverly MK; Takano, Koji; Kiess, Wieland

2013-01-01

82

Economic evaluation of the 70-gene prognosis-signature (MammaPrint®) in hormone receptor-positive, lymph node-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative early stage breast cancer in Japan.  

PubMed

The 70-gene prognosis-signature is validated as a good predictor of recurrence for hormone receptor-positive (ER+), lymph node-negative (LN-), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative (HER2-) early stage breast cancer (ESBC) in Japanese patient population. Its high cost and potential in avoiding unnecessary adjuvant chemotherapy arouse interest in its economic impact. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of including the assay into Japan's social health insurance benefit package. An economic decision tree and Markov model under Japan's health system from the societal perspective is constructed with clinical evidence from the pool analysis of validation studies. One-way sensitivity analyses are also performed. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated as ¥3,873,922/quality adjusted life year (QALY) (US$43,044/QALY), which is not more than the suggested social willingness-to-pay for one QALY gain from an innovative medical intervention in Japan, ¥5,000,000/QALY (US$55,556/QALY). However, sensitivity analyses show the instability of this estimation. The introduction of the assay into Japanese practice of ER+, LN-, HER2- ESBC treatment by including it to Japan's social health insurance benefit package has a reasonable chance to be judged as cost-effective and may be justified as an efficient deployment of finite health care resources. PMID:22315134

Kondo, Masahide; Hoshi, Shu-Ling; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Toi, Masakazu

2012-06-01

83

U87MG glioma cells overexpressing IL-17 acclerate early-stage growth in vivo and cause a higher level of CD31 mRNA expression in tumor tissues  

PubMed Central

Immunological alterations have been reported to be involved in glioma, the most common malignant disease of the adult brain. Our recent study identified higher levels of IL-17 in glioma specimens. The present study investigated the role and possible mechanisms of IL-17 in glioma tumorigenesis. Human IL-17 cDNA was cloned and inserted into the eukaryotic pEGFP-N1 expression vector, which was used to transfect the glioma U87MG cell line, resulting in a high level of IL-17 expression in these cells. The cells were then transfected with IL-17 (pEGFP-N1-IL-17-U87MG) or mock (pEGFP-N1-U87MG) vector or left untransfected (U87MG) and subcutaneously inoculated into the right flank of nude mice. The results revealed that the pEGFP-N1-IL-17-U87MG cells grew more rapidly in the early stages (P<0.05, determined on day 32 post-inoculation compared with the other two groups). Quantitative (q)PCR detected higher mouse (m)CD31 mRNA levels in the IL-17-transfected group (P<0.01) compared with the mock-transfected and untransfected groups. IL-17 transfection altered the mRNA expression of a panel of molecules that are associated with immunity and inflammation in U87MG cells in vitro. An effect of the vector was identified, whereby the mock transfection strongly inhibited cell growth in vivo and dramatically altered the mRNA levels of multiple molecules in the cell culture in vitro compared with the untransfected cells. The present study confirmed that IL-17 overexpression may enhance glioma cell growth in vivo, which may be associated with accelerated angiogenesis. IL-17 overexpression may also alter the cellular mRNA expression of immune-related molecules. PMID:24137452

HU, JINHUI; YE, HONGXING; ZHANG, DENGHAI; LIU, WEIWEI; LI, MIN; MAO, YING; LU, YUAN

2013-01-01

84

Early life stages of resident nekton in intertidal marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in early life stages of species that are permanent residents of the estuarine nekton is poorly understood, especially\\u000a in systems with extensive areas of emergent vegetation (e.g., salt marshes and mangroves). Sampling small mobile nekton in\\u000a these shallow intertidal habitats presents a difficult methodological challenge. Simulated aquatic microhabitats (SAMs) were\\u000a used to collect the early life stages of resident

R. T. Kneib

1997-01-01

85

Growth of Motor Coordination in Early Robot Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an implementation of a model of very early sensory-motor development, guided by re- sults from developmental psychology. Behavioral acquisition and growth is demonstrated through constraint-lifting mechanisms initiated by global state variables. The results show how staged competence can be shaped by qualitative behav- ior changes produced by anatomical, computational and maturational constraints. 1 Introduction: developmental learning In this

Mark H. Lee; Qinggang Meng

2005-01-01

86

Reclassification of early stage pulmonary adenocarcinoma and its consequences  

PubMed Central

The classification of pulmonary adenocarcinoma has recently undergone several proposed changes. Among these, the most striking pertains to the discontinuation of the term “bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC)” and its replacement by the terms “adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)” or “minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA)” for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure bronchiolalveolar growth or predominant bronchioloalveolar growth and ?5 mm invasion, respectively, in resection specimens. The recommendation for these new concepts was based on discussion and review of the literature by a panel of experts from multiple disciplines. However, the results of a recent study investigating the topic of early stage adenocarcinoma (pT1N0M0) which was based on an actual series of cases, have raised questions as to the concept, validity and justification of such new terminology and have reinforced the need to evaluate actual cases that meet the newly proposed definitions and compare them in terms of patient outcome. This is even more important when proposing terminology that implies benign behavior and that could result in a false sense of security putting patients at risk for suboptimal treatment approaches. The controversies surrounding these issues are the subject of this work. PMID:25349709

Moran, Cesar A.

2014-01-01

87

Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat  

SciTech Connect

It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko (Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

1989-09-01

88

Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

89

Using spirituality to cope with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) robs persons living with the disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early-stage AD cope is a critical step in enhancing their adaptive abilities and ultimately improving their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early-stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnographic study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability of people with early-stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with AD. PMID:19282270

Beuscher, Linda; Grando, Victoria T

2009-08-01

90

Using Spirituality to Cope with Early Stage Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) robs persons living with this disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early stage AD cope is a critical step to enhance their adaptive abilities and ultimately improve their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnography study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability for people with early stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with Alzheimer’s. PMID:19282270

Grando, Victoria T.

2010-01-01

91

Radiofrequency Ablation for Early-Stage Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

This review examines studies of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and discusses the role of RFA in treatment of early-stage NSCLC. RFA is usually performed under local anesthesia with computed tomography guidance. RFA-associated mortality, while being rare, can result from pulmonary events. RFA causes pneumothorax in up to 63% of cases, although pneumothorax requiring chest drainage occurs in less than 15% of procedures. Other severe complications are rare. After RFA of stage I NSCLC, 31–42% of patients show local progression. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates after RFA of stage I NSCLC were 78% to 100%, 53% to 86%, 36% to 88%, and 25% to 61%, respectively. The median survival time ranged from 29 to 67 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year cancer-specific survival rates after RFA of stage I NSCLC were 89% to 100%, 92% to 93%, and 59% to 88%, respectively. RFA has a higher local failure rate than sublobar resection and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Therefore, RFA may currently be reserved for early-stage NSCLC patients who are unfit for sublobar resection or SBRT. Various technologies are being developed to improve clinical outcomes of RFA for early-stage NSCLC. PMID:24995270

Hiraki, Takao; Gobara, Hideo; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Matsui, Yusuke; Kanazawa, Susumu

2014-01-01

92

Toxicity of cadmium to early life stages of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at multiple water hardnesses.  

PubMed

Toxicity of cadmium to early life stages of brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined at multiple water hardnesses. Increasing water hardness decreased cadmium toxicity. Postswimup fry were much more sensitive than embryos and larvae. Chronic values from early life stage tests initiated with eyed embryos were 3.52, 6.36, and 13.6 microg Cd/L at water hardnesses of 30.6, 71.3, and 149 mg/L, respectively. In tests initiated with 30-d postswimup fry, chronic values were 1.02, 1.83, and 6.54 microg Cd/L at water hardnesses of 29.2, 67.6, and 151 mg/L, respectively. Higher chronic values from the early life stage tests compared to tests initiated with swimup fry likely are caused by acclimation during cadmium-tolerant embryo and larval stages. Growth was not affected by cadmium in the early life stage tests but was negatively affected in tests initiated with fry at water hardnesses of 29.2 and 67.6 mg/L. Concentrations of cadmium that reduced growth were higher than those that increased mortality. Median lethal concentrations for swimup fry after 96 h were 1.23, 3.90, and 10.1 microg Cd/L at water hardnesses of 29.2, 67.6, and 151 mg/L, respectively. Test results enable prediction of acute mortality of brown trout swimup fry based on cadmium concentration and water hardness. PMID:17702340

Brinkman, Stephen F; Hansen, Daria L

2007-08-01

93

DENIM: an informal tool for early stage web site design  

Microsoft Academic Search

DENIM is a system that helps web site designers in the early stages of design. DENIM supports sketching input; allows design at different refinement levels--site map, storyboard, and individual page; and unifies the levels through zooming. The design of DENIM was informed by a study of web site design practice, in which we observed that web site designers design sites

James Lin; Mark W. Newman; Jason I. Hong; James A. Landay

2001-01-01

94

Family Stories in the Early Stages of Parenthood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined storytelling about childhood experiences by parents during the early stages of parenthood (n=188). Storytelling was common, 96% talked about their childhood at least occasionally. Fathers told stories with stronger achievement themes and mothers told stories with stronger affiliation themes. Story theme varied by child's age. (JBJ)

Fiese, Barbara H.; And Others

1995-01-01

95

Early developmental patterning sets the stage for brain evolution  

E-print Network

Early developmental patterning sets the stage for brain evolution Hans A. Hofmann1 Section of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 T he evolution of brain structure and function has long fascinated biologists of the brain--or brain region--and body size across a wide range of vertebrates (1). Besides random drift, two

Hofmann, Hans A.

96

Refining Treatment for High-risk Early Stage Endometrial Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this clinical trial, women with high-risk early stage endometrial cancer will be randomly assigned following surgery to receive one of two types of adjuvant therapy: brachytherapy targeted to the vaginal cuff in combination with chemotherapy or standard pelvic external-beam radiotherapy.

97

Comparing Radiation Therapy Regimens for Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this phase III clinical trial, women with early-stage breast cancer will be randomly assigned to undergo a standard 5-week course of whole-breast irradiation (WBI) followed by a sequential boost course or 3 weeks of hypofractionated WBI with a concurrent boost.

98

Household Epidemics: Modelling Effects of Early Stage Vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Markovian susceptible - infectious - removed (SIR) epidemic model is considered in a com- munity partitioned into households. A vaccination strategy, which is implemented during the early stages of the disease following the detection of infected individuals is proposed. In this strategy, the detection occurs while an individual is infectious and other susceptible household members are vaccinated without further

Nyimvua Shaban; Mikael Andersson; Ake Svensson; Tom Britton

2009-01-01

99

Metformin to Treat Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, nondiabetic women or men younger than age 75 who have been diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer within the previous 12 months and who have undergone surgery to remove their tumor will be randomly assigned to take metformin or placebo pills twice a day for 5 years.

100

Changes in semantic memory in early stage Alzheimer's disease patients.  

PubMed

The types and number of exemplars of categories that are retrieved from semantic memory differentiate elderly normal controls and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Elderly normal controls generated more uncommon exemplars from closed semantic categories (fruits and vegetables) than did AD patients 2 1/2 years prior to the presumed onset of AD. AD patients, however, were just as productive as elderly normal controls in generating associations to open categories (letters). The findings suggest that one of the early cognitive symptoms of AD is changes in availability of uncommon exemplars of semantic networks. PMID:8225008

Weingartner, H J; Kawas, C; Rawlings, R; Shapiro, M

1993-10-01

101

Giftedness in Hispanic English Language Learners: Early Stages of Identification  

E-print Network

Giftedness in Hispanic English Language Learners: Early Stages of Identification Dr. J. Joy Esquierdo, University of Texas-Pan American esquierdo@utpa.edu Dr. Beverly Irby, Sam Houston State University irby@shsu.edu Dr. Rafael Lara... ? Vague definition of giftedness ? Testing instruments ineffective (Galbraith and Delisle, 1996) ? Underrepresentation of ELLs in GT programs (Lara-Alecio, Irby, & Walker, 1997) Significance of the Study ? Reduce the underrepresentation of Hispanic...

Esquierdo, Joy J.; Irby, Beverly; Lara-Alecio, Rafael

2010-10-22

102

The development of children's early numeracy through key stage 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a limited longitudinal study of young children's early numeracy development within three testing cycles, at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-of-age), located within the broader context of progress through to Key Stage 1 SAT results (at seven years). Assessment

Carol Aubrey; Ray Godfrey

2003-01-01

103

The Metamorphoses of Workflow Projects in their Early Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

   Empirical studies on workflow usually focus on systems which have already been introduced and on the problems which occur\\u000a with these systems if exceptional cases differ from the regular business processes. This study focuses on the problems that\\u000a occur in the early stages of projects intended to introduce workflow systems but which do not inevitably succeed. In most\\u000a cases the

Thomas Herrmann; Marcel Hoffmann

2005-01-01

104

The Development of Children's Early Numeracy through Key Stage 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a limited longitudinal study of young children's early numeracy development within three testing cycles, at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-of-age), located within the broader context of progress through to Key Stage 1 SAT…

Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray

2003-01-01

105

Stage-specific proteome signatures in early bovine embryo development.  

PubMed

Development of early embryonic stages before activation of the embryonic genome depends on sufficiently stored products of the maternal genome, adequate recruitment and degradation of mRNAs, as well as activation, deactivation, and relocation of proteins. By application of an isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based approach, the proteomes of bovine embryos at the zygote and 2-cell and 4-cell stage with MII oocytes as a reference were quantitatively analyzed. Of 1072 quantified proteins, 87 differed significantly in abundance between the four stages. The proteomes of 2-cell and 4-cell embryos differed most from the reference MII oocyte, and a considerable fraction of proteins continuously increased in abundance during the stages analyzed, despite a strongly attenuated rate of translation reported for this period. Bioinformatic analysis revealed particularly interesting proteins involved in the p53 pathway, lipid metabolism, and mitosis. Verification of iTRAQ results by targeted SRM (selected reaction monitoring) analysis revealed excellent agreement for all five proteins analyzed. By principal component analysis, SRM quantifications comprising a panel of only five proteins were shown to discriminate between all four developmental stages analyzed here. For future experiments, an expanded SRM protein panel will provide the potential to detect developmental disturbances with high sensitivity and enable first insights into the underlying molecular pathways. PMID:25102770

Deutsch, Daniela R; Fröhlich, Thomas; Otte, Kathrin A; Beck, Andrea; Habermann, Felix A; Wolf, Eckhard; Arnold, Georg J

2014-10-01

106

Photosynthetic response of sweet sorghum to drought and re-watering at different growth stages.  

PubMed

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 drought resistant species with a huge potential for bioenergy. Accentuated reductions in water availability for crop production and altered rainfall distribution patterns, however, will have direct impact on its physiological attributes, metabolic functions and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and re-watering on the photosynthetic efficiency of sweet sorghum. Durable or short transient drought stress periods were imposed at early and late growth stages and compared with well-watered plants. In spite of very similar drought levels at early and late growth stages (?soil ?=?-1.6 and -1.7 MPa), the decrements in maximum quantum yield (?Po ) and performance index (PI) were about twice at late than at early growth stages. All the PI components, that is, density of active reaction centers (RCs), excitation energy trapping and conversion of excitation energy into electron flow followed a similar decreasing pattern. Upon re-watering and regardless the duration and growth stage of the drought period, all the photosynthetic functions, and particularly those of photosystem II (PSII), fully recovered. Such effective self-regulating functional activity by PSII photochemistry likely contributes to both high drought resistance and photosynthetic recovery capacity of sweet sorghum. At vegetative growth stages, the down regulation of the photochemistry seems to be the main photoprotective/regulative mechanisms, while at late growth stages, the accumulation of compatible solutes likely has a more preponderant role. The observed sugar concentration increments likely contributed to prevent permanent photo-oxidative destruction of the PSII RCs of mature droughted sweet sorghum plants. PMID:23198740

Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea

2013-09-01

107

Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. Results A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Conclusion Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group. PMID:25142621

Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

2014-01-01

108

Early growth trajectories affect sexual responsiveness.  

PubMed

The trajectory of an animal's growth in early development has been shown to have long-term effects on a range of life-history traits. Although it is known that individual differences in behaviour may also be related to certain life-history traits, the linkage between early growth or development and individual variation in behaviour has received little attention. We used brief temperature manipulations, independent of food availability, to stimulate compensatory growth in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. Here, we examine how these manipulated growth trajectories affected the sexual responsiveness of the male fish at the time of sexual maturation, explore associations between reproductive behaviour and investment and lifespan and test whether the perceived time stress (until the onset of the breeding season) influenced such trade-offs. We found a negative impact of growth rate on sexual responsiveness: fish induced (by temperature manipulation) to grow slowest prior to the breeding season were consistently quickest to respond to the presence of a gravid female. This speed of sexual responsiveness was also positively correlated with the rate of development of sexual ornaments and time taken to build a nest. However, after controlling for effects of growth rate, those males that had the greatest sexual responsiveness to females had the shortest lifespan. Moreover, the time available to compensate in size before the onset of the breeding season (time stress) affected the magnitude of these effects. Our results demonstrate that developmental perturbations in early life can influence mating behaviour, with long-term effects on longevity. PMID:24403342

Lee, Who-Seung; Metcalfe, Neil B; Réale, Denis; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

2014-02-22

109

Model atmospheres for the early stages of novae in outburst  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the photospheres of classical novae during the early stages of their outbursts, continuum and line blanketed models are presented. The expanding envelopes are characterized by small density gradients that lead to very large geometrical extensions and large temperature differences between inner and outer parts. The spectra show large excesses in the IR and small Balmer jumps which may either be in absorption or emission. For the parameters considered most lines are in absorption if powerlaw density distributions and radiative equilibrium are assumed. The effects of modifications in the temperature structure (e.g., heating from shock fronts) and in the density stratifications as well as changes in the abundances are discussed.

Wehrse, R.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Shaviv, G.; Starrfield, Sumner G.

1990-01-01

110

In vivo research using early life stage models.  

PubMed

Scientists, for a variety of reasons, need to carry out in vivo research. Since experiments that require the use of adult animals pose various logistical, economical and ethical issues, the use of embryonic and larval forms of some organisms are potentially attractive alternatives. Early life stages are appealing because, in general, large numbers of individuals can be maintained in relatively simple housing, minimising costs, and their use involves fewer legal formalities. With this succinct review, we aim to provide an overview of different biological issues that have been successfully explored with the help of eggs, embryos and larvae from the frog, zebrafish and chicken. PMID:20668311

Seabra, Rita; Bhogal, Nirmala

2010-01-01

111

Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

Bruno, D. W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D. G.

2006-01-01

112

Systemic immune system alterations in early stages of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Immune activation and inflammation play significant roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test whether AD patients showed systemic manifestations of inflammation, blood from 41 patients with early stages of AD and 31 aged-match elderly controls were evaluated. Cellular markers for monocyte/macrophage (MO) activation and CD8 T lymphocyte were increased in early AD patients. Expression of monocyte CCR2, the receptor for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), was decreased; however, plasma MCP-1 levels were significantly increased and were related to the degree of MO activation in AD. These findings suggest that AD pathogenesis may be influenced by systemic immunologic dysfunction and provides potential immunologic targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23380586

Zhang, Rongzhen; Miller, Robert G; Madison, Catherine; Jin, Xia; Honrada, Ronald; Harris, Will; Katz, Jonathan; Forshew, Dallas A; McGrath, Michael S

2013-03-15

113

Prognostic factors in early-stage ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify the main prognostic factors in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Data were extracted from 222 patients with initial stage (I–IIA) invasive epithelial ovarian cancer treated with primary surgery followed or not followed by adjuvant therapy, from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008, at the Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy; the median follow-up was 79 months (SD ± 35,945, range 20–250 months). The negative prognostic factors that were statistically significant (p<0.050) in univariate analysis were grade 2, 3, and X (clear cell in our study); stage IB, IC, IIA; positive peritoneal cytology, age equal to/greater than 54; dense adhesions; capsule rupture (pre-operative or intra-operative) and endometrioid histotype (only for disease-free survival (DFS)). Positive cytology was strongly associated with peritoneal relapses, while adhesions were associated with pelvic relapses. A positive prognosis was associated with the mucinous histotype. Conservative treatment had been carried out in 52% of patients under 40 years of age, and we detected only two relapses and three completions of surgery after a few weeks among 31 women in total. Our study indicated a possible execution in patients with patients with cancer stage IA G1–G2 (p=0.030) or IC G1 (p=0.050), provided well staged. Adjuvant chemotherapy improved the survival of cancers that were not IA G1. The positive prognostic role of taxanes must be emphasised, when used in combination with platino. PMID:23781280

Tognon, Germana; Carnazza, Mario; Ragnoli, Monica; Calza, Stefano; Ferrari, Federico; Gambino, Angela; Zizioli, Valentina; Notaro, Sara; Sostegni, Benedetta; Sartori, Enrico

2013-01-01

114

77 FR 74908 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...20 million in Regulatory Capital for Early Stage SBICs ``soft- circled.'' (This may include drop-down funds.) Track...CFR Sec. 107.305, with particular emphasis on managers' skills and experience in evaluating and investing in early stage...

2012-12-18

115

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

SciTech Connect

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Cada, G.F.

1991-01-01

116

Cryoablation of Early-Stage Primary Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, and lobectomy is the gold-standard treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, many patients are poor surgical candidates for various reasons. Recently, image-guided ablation is being used for lung tumors. Cryoablation has been applied for the treatment of cancer in various nonaerated organs; recently it has been adapted to the treatment of lung tumors. Since an ice ball can be detected by computed tomography (CT), cryoablation of lung tumors is performed under CT guidance. Its first clinical application was reported in 2005, and it has been reported to be feasible in a few studies. Minor complications occurred at a high frequency (up to 70.5%), but major complications were rare (up to 1%). The most common complication is pneumothorax, and most cases need no further intervention. Local efficacy depends on tumor size and presence of a thick vessel close to the tumor. Midterm survival after cryoablation is 77%–88% at 3 years in patients with early-stage NSCLC. Although surgery is the gold-standard treatment for such patients, the initial results of cryoablation are promising. In this paper, the current status of cryoablation for primary lung tumors is reviewed. PMID:24991559

Nakatsuka, Seishi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

2014-01-01

117

Kinetic study of model reactions in the gas phase at the early stage of coke formation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the most probable gas-phase reactions at the early stage of coke formation were elucidated by kinetic study on the model reactions adopted for formation of cyclic compounds and growth of ring. It was revealed that the formation and growth of ring proceeded mainly through cycloaddition of butadiene or allyl radicals to unsaturated hydrocarbons at relatively low temperatures ({approximately}600{degrees}C), i.e., through a Diels-Alder type reaction. On the other hand, such growth of ring as formation of biphenyl accompanying dehydrogenation from benzene can proceed only at the higher temperatures. It was also revealed that in the growth of the ring, cycloaddition of butadiene favors a cyclic olefin molecule that possesses a nonconjugated double bond and a nearly planar structure.

Nohara, D.; Sakai, T. (Dept. of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City Univ., Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467 (JP))

1992-01-01

118

Optimal treatment of early-stage ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Background There is no clear consensus regarding systemic treatment of early-stage ovarian cancer (OC). Clinical trials are challenging because of the relatively low incidence and good prognosis. Initial results of the International Collaborative Ovarian Neoplasm (ICON)1 trial demonstrated benefit in both overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) with adjuvant chemotherapy. We report results of 10-year follow-up to establish whether benefits are maintained longer term and discuss how this and other available evidence from randomised trials can be used to guide treatment options regarding the need for, and choice of, adjuvant chemotherapy regimen. Patients and methods ICON1 recruited women with OC following primary surgery in whom there was uncertainty as to whether adjuvant chemotherapy was indicated. Patients were randomly assigned to adjuvant or no adjuvant chemotherapy. Platinum-based chemotherapy was recommended and 87% received single-agent carboplatin. Analyses of long-term treatment benefits and interaction with risk groups were carried out. A high-risk group of women was defined with stage 1B/1C grade 2/3, any stage 1 grade 3 or clear-cell histology. Results With a median follow-up of 10 years, the estimated hazard ratio (HR) for RFS was 0.69 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51–0.94, P = 0.02] and OS 0.71 (95% CI 0.52–0.98, P = 0.04) in favour of chemotherapy. In absolute terms, there was a 10% (60%–70%) improvement in RFS and a 9% (64%–73%) improvement in OS; the benefit of chemotherapy might be greater in high-risk disease (18% improvement in OS). Uncertainty remains about the optimal chemotherapy regimen. The only randomised trial data available are from a subset of 120 stage 1 patients in ICON3 where the treatment difference, comparing carboplatin with carboplatin/paclitaxel was estimated with relatively wide CIs [progression-free survival HR = 0.71 (95% CI 0.39–1.32) and OS HR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.49–1.93)]. Conclusions Extended follow-up from ICON1 confirms that adjuvant chemotherapy should be offered to women with early-stage OC, particularly those with high-risk disease. Clinical trial numbers ISRCTN11916376 for ICON1 and ISRCTN57157825 for ICON3. PMID:24631948

Collinson, F.; Qian, W.; Fossati, R.; Lissoni, A.; Williams, C.; Parmar, M.; Ledermann, J.; Colombo, N.; Swart, A.

2014-01-01

119

Defective skeletogenesis and oversized otoliths in fish early stages in a changing ocean.  

PubMed

Early life stages of many marine organisms are being challenged by rising seawater temperature and CO? concentrations, but their physiological responses to these environmental changes still remain unclear. In the present study, we show that future predictions of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (?pH=0.5 units) may compromise the development of early life stages of a highly commercial teleost fish, Solea senegalensis. Exposure to future conditions caused a decline in hatching success and larval survival. Growth, metabolic rates and thermal tolerance increased with temperature but decreased under acidified conditions. Hypercapnia and warming amplified the incidence of deformities by 31.5% (including severe deformities such as lordosis, scoliosis and kyphosis), while promoting the occurrence of oversized otoliths (109.3% increase). Smaller larvae with greater skeletal deformities and larger otoliths may face major ecophysiological challenges, which might potentiate substantial declines in adult fish populations, putting in jeopardy the species' fitness under a changing ocean. PMID:24625652

Pimentel, Marta S; Faleiro, Filipa; Dionísio, Gisela; Repolho, Tiago; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Machado, Jorge; Rosa, Rui

2014-06-15

120

The Power of Personality in Discriminating Between Healthy Aging and Early-Stage  

E-print Network

) in the earliest possible stage of the disease. This early diagnosis is critical to families and clinicians. The diagnosis of early-stage DAT is difficult to make; it relies on the detection of subtle changes in cognitiveThe Power of Personality in Discriminating Between Healthy Aging and Early-Stage Alzheimer

121

Modelling the initial stage of porous alumina growth during anodization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificially on the surface of aluminum there may be build a thick layer of Al2O3, which has a porous structure. In this paper we present a model of growth of porous alumina in the initial stage of anodizing, identifying dependencies anodizing parameters on the rate of growth of the film and the distance between the pores and as a result of the created model equations were found for changes in the disturbance of alumina for the initial stage of anodizing aluminum oxide porous border aluminum-alumina and alumina-electrolyte, with the influence of surface diffusion of aluminum oxide.

Aryslanova, E. M.; Alfimov, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

2013-05-01

122

Identification and comparison of the 3 early stages of resynthesis for the lichen Cladonia rangiferina.  

PubMed

A lichen is an association between a biotrophic fungal partner and a green algal and (or) cyanobacterial partner, which may be considered a "controlled" parasitic interaction. While controlled parasitism implies benefit to both interacting partners, a parasitism that is not controlled implies that one partner benefits to the detriment of the other partner. The objective of this study was to compare morphological development of the interaction between Cladonia rangiferina with its compatible algal partner (Asterochloris glomerata/irregularis) and incompatible algae (Coccomyxa peltigerae and Chloroidium ellipsoideum) at 3 early resynthesis stages. The fungus was co-inoculated with each alga separately and the stages of development were compared using quantitative measures. The first 3 stages of development of the lichen thallus were identified in the compatible interaction as the "pre-contact" stage (1 day post co-inoculation (PCI)), "contact" stage (8 days PCI), and "growth together" stage (21 days PCI). Compatible interactions showed significantly shorter internode length, significantly more new lateral hyphal branches, significantly greater appressorial frequency, and no reduction in cell diameter of the algal cells, compared with incompatible interactions. At 21 days PCI, a parasitic interaction was observed between Cladonia rangiferina and Chloroidium ellipsoideum. These findings support the importance of recognition between compatible partners for successful lichenization. This study also revealed a strategy that may explain the success of this species in northern habitats. Identification of the resynthesis stages of Cladonia rangiferina is required before expression of the proteins involved in recognition and defense can be understood. PMID:24392925

Athukorala, Sarangi N P; Huebner, Erwin; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

2014-01-01

123

Growth and early onset inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

In pediatrics, growth is considered one of the most important markers of overall well-being. This study looked at growth in children diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease before they were 5 years old from a single center. The Children's Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center at Mount Sinai maintains a database of 1,150 children followed at the center. Ninety-three children were included in this study, 58% boys and 42% girls. The average age at diagnosis was 3.2 years. Sixty-two percent had ulcerative colitis and 38% had Crohn disease. Height was recorded at initial presentation and at the most recent visit to the center; from this, a height percentile and z score were calculated. A target adult height was calculated for each child on the basis of mid-parental height. This target height was compared to the actual height the children achieved or the percentile they were growing along. Ten percent of children in the study presented with growth failure. For children with early onset ulcerative colitis, 58% achieved or exceeded their projected height percentile. For children with early onset Crohn disease, 38% achieved or exceeded their projected height percentile. Fifty-nine percent of the entire group either maintained their presentation percentile or increased their height percentiles over time, with an increase in z score ranging from 0.093 to 4.137. PMID:18391796

Ceballos, Clare

2008-01-01

124

Cognitive training for early-stage Alzheimer's disease and dementia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to critically review and synthesize the literature on the effects of nonpharmacological cognitive training on dementia symptoms in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementia. Electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the keywords cognition, reality orientation, Alzheimer's disease, psychosocial factors, cognitive therapy, brain plasticity, enriched environments, and memory training. The findings support that cognitive training improves cognition, activities of daily living, and decision making. Interventions are more effective if they are structured and focus on specific known losses related to the AD pathological process and a person's residual ability, or are combined with cognitive-enhancing medications. Nursing implications are also discussed. PMID:19326826

Yu, Fang; Rose, Karen M; Burgener, Sandra C; Cunningham, Cindy; Buettner, Linda L; Beattie, Elizabeth; Bossen, Ann L; Buckwalter, Kathleen C; Fick, Donna M; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne; Kolanowski, Ann; Janet, K; Specht, Pringle; Richeson, Nancy E; Testad, Ingelin; McKenzie, Sharon E

2009-03-01

125

Evolutionary Sequence for the Early Stages of Massive Star Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews recent results in the field of massive star formation in connection with methanol masers. 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol masers are used as probes to investigate the early phases of massive star formation and appear as excellent tracers of the youngest massive-star forming regions. An evolutionay sequence for massive star formation is proposed in which methanol masers occur in cold dust condensations, hot molecular cores and hyper compact HII regions, i.e. at the earliest stages of the star-forming process. New millimetre continuum observations using SIMBA are also presented and support our evolutionay scenario for massive star formation. Finally, further work at millimetre wavelengths for continuum and spectral lines using the next generation of ground-based interferometer is discussed.

Minier, V.; Burton, M.; Hill, T.

2002-06-01

126

Controversies in the Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Despite the publication of numerous studies, including some multicentered randomized controlled trials, there continues to be vigorous debate regarding the optimal management of early stage endometrial cancer, including the extent of surgery and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Resolving these questions has become increasingly important in view of the increase of endometrial cancer, related to the aging population and the alarming incidence of obesity. Furthermore, there are more surgical challenges encountered when operating on elderly patients or on patients with increased BMI and the associated comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and pulmonary dysfunction. This paper will focus on the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, the value of lymphadenectomy including sentinel lymph node mapping, and some of the current controversies surrounding adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. PMID:22685466

Press, Joshua Z.; Gotlieb, Walter H.

2012-01-01

127

ORIGINAL PAPER Influence of invasive Spartina growth stages on associated  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Influence of invasive Spartina growth stages on associated macrofaunal communities January 2007 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract In coastal wetlands, invasive plants animal communities. However, the de- gree of influence of the engineer will vary significantly

Levin, Lisa

128

Managing threats to self: awareness in early stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Lack of awareness is described as a clinical feature of Alzheimer's disease that is observed in a significant proportion of those assigned this diagnosis. There is an extensive literature emphasising biological explanations in which unawareness is viewed essentially as a symptom, but possible psychosocial factors, together with the socially constructed nature of expressed awareness, are largely neglected. The onset of dementia may be viewed as a threat to self occasioning attempts to regain control through a range of psychological strategies, which are likely to affect the ways in which people communicate an account of their experience and hence the extent to which they may be considered 'aware'. In the present study, 12 participants with a medical diagnosis of early stage Alzheimer's disease, who were described in clinical records as ranging from 'very aware' to 'unaware' of their illness, were interviewed on two occasions. Partners were also interviewed separately on each occasion. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In response to their memory difficulties, participants were seen as engaging in the processes of acknowledging, reacting, explaining, experiencing the emotional impact, and adjusting. All participants acknowledged memory problems, indicating a basic awareness of changes in their memory functioning, but made varying judgements about the meaning and impact of these. The resulting spectrum of responses formed a continuum running from 'self-maintaining' to 'self-adjusting'. A self-maintaining stance related to attempts to normalise the situation and minimise the difficulties, thus maintaining continuity with prior sense of self, while a self-adjusting stance related to attempts to confront the difficulties and adapt one's sense of self accordingly. A preliminary model of the construction of awareness in early stage Alzheimer's is presented that acknowledges biological mechanisms but places the main emphasis on psychosocial factors and self-concept. PMID:12878102

Clare, Linda

2003-09-01

129

Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2014-01-01

130

Transverse emittance growth in staged laser-wakefield acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study on the emittance evolution of electron bunches, externally injected into laser-driven plasma waves using the three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code OSIRIS. Results show order-of-magnitude transverse emittance growth during the injection process, if the electron bunch is not matched to its intrinsic betatron motion inside the wakefield. This behavior is supported by analytic theory reproducing the simulation data to a percent level. The length over which the full emittance growth develops is found to be less than or comparable to the typical dimension of a single plasma module in current multistage designs. In addition, the analytic theory enables the quantitative prediction of emittance degradation in two consecutive accelerators coupled by free-drift sections, excluding this as a scheme for effective emittance-growth suppression, and thus suggests the necessity of beam-matching sections between acceleration stages with fundamental implications on the overall design of staged laser-wakefield accelerators.

Mehrling, T.; Grebenyuk, J.; Tsung, F. S.; Floettmann, K.; Osterhoff, J.

2012-11-01

131

Ontogenetic development in the morphology and behavior of loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) during early life stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) are a commercially important fish in China and an ideal aquaculture species. However, culturists experience high larval and juvenile mortality during mass production. To provide insight into ways to improve larviculture techniques, we describe the morphological characteristics and behavior of loach during the larval and early juvenile stages. Yolksac larvae ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 mm body length (BL) between days 0 to 4; preflexion larvae ranged from 3.6 to 5.5 mm BL between days 4 to 6; flexion larvae ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 mm BL between days 5 and 14; and postflexion larvae ranged from 7.1 to 15.7 mm BL between days 11 to 27; the minimum length and age of juveniles was 14.1 mm BL and 23 d, respectively. Loach are demersal from hatch through to the early juvenile stages. A suite of morphological characteristics (e.g., external gill filament and ventral mouth opening) and behavioral traits have developed to adapt to demersal living. We observed positive allometric growth in eye diameter, head length, head height, and pectoral fin length during the early larval stages, reflecting the priorities in the development of the organs essential for survival. Our results provide a basis for developing techniques to improve the survival of larval and juvenile loach during mass production.

Gao, Lei; Duan, Ming; Cheng, Fei; Xie, Songguang

2014-09-01

132

The initial stage of growth of crystalline nanowhiskers  

SciTech Connect

The initial stage of formation of semiconductor nanowhiskers by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism is studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that small-sized droplets either are overgrown or emerge together with the surface of the two-dimensional epitaxial layer. The geometric shape of the nanowhiskers at the initial stage of growth is calculated. Experimental data on the formation of GaAs nanowhiskers by molecular beam epitaxy on the GaAs(111)As substrates activated with Au are reported.

Sibirev, N. V., E-mail: NickSibirev@yandex.ru; Nazarenko, M. B.; Cirlin, G. E.; Samsonenko, Yu. B.; Dubrovskii, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Physics and Technology Center for Research and Education (Russian Federation)

2010-01-15

133

Effects of triphenyltin on fish early life stages.  

PubMed

Using a static-renewal procedure, effects of triphenyltin chloride (TPT) on hatching, survival, and morphology were assessed in early life stages of European minnows Phoxinus phoxinus. Embryonic-larval exposure at 16 and 21 degrees C, and larval exposure at 16 degrees C were compared. In the embryonic-larval exposure at 16 degrees C, hatching was delayed and hatching success decreased at 15.9 micrograms/L. Mortality increased at > or = 3.9 micrograms/L TPT, and complete mortality occurred after 7 and 9 days at 15.9 and 5.1 micrograms/L, respectively. Mortality was higher at 21 degrees C that at 16 degrees C. Triphenyltin was more toxic to fish in larval stages. The induced effects were dose related, mortality increased at 1.8 microgram/L after 3 days, and was total after 5 days at 10.6 micrograms/L. In all high TPT exposures, larvae developed skeletal malformations (bent tails), showed impaired swimming behavior or paralysis, and eyes became opaque. Marked histopathological alterations were found. Degenerative hydropic vacuolation of the cytoplasm were evident in skeletal muscles, skin, kidneys, corneal epithelium, lens, pigment layer of the retina and choroid, retina, and CNS including spinal cord. In severe cases, nuclear changes including pycnosis and karyorrhexis occurred. The observed toxicity of TPT was similar to that of tributyltin, but TPT acted more selectively on the lens and CNS, whereas other tissues were less affected. The study indicates that Phoxinus phoxinus larvae are negatively affected at peak TPT concentrations found in polluted environments. PMID:8060166

Fent, K; Meier, W

1994-08-01

134

76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...107 Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage SBICs; Public...Stage Small Business Investment Companies (Early Stage SBIC) rule...of small business investment companies (SBICs) that will focus on...specific questions you would like SBA to address during the...

2011-12-28

135

Cognitive stimulation for apathy in probable early-stage Alzheimer's.  

PubMed

We studied changes in apathy among 77 community-dwelling older persons with mild memory loss in a randomized clinical trial comparing two nonpharmacological interventions over four weeks. The study used a pre-post design with randomization by site to avoid contamination and diffusion of effect. Interventions were offered twice weekly after baseline evaluations were completed. The treatment group received classroom style mentally stimulating activities (MSAs) while the control group received a structured early-stage social support (SS) group. The results showed that the MSA group had significantly lower levels of apathy (P < .001) and significantly lower symptoms of depression (P < .001). While both groups improved on quality of life, the MSA group was significantly better (P = .02) than the SS group. Executive function was not significantly different for the two groups at four weeks, but general cognition improved for the MSA group and declined slightly for the SS group which produced a significant posttest difference (P < .001). Recruitment and retention of SS group members was difficult in this project, especially in senior center locations, while this was not the case for the MSA group. The examination of the data at this four-week time point shows promising results that the MSA intervention may provide a much needed method of reducing apathy and depressive symptoms, while motivating participation and increasing quality of life. PMID:21584241

Buettner, Linda L; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne; Atav, Serdar; Sink, Kaycee

2011-01-01

136

Cognitive Stimulation for Apathy in Probable Early-Stage Alzheimer's  

PubMed Central

We studied changes in apathy among 77 community-dwelling older persons with mild memory loss in a randomized clinical trial comparing two nonpharmacological interventions over four weeks. The study used a pre-post design with randomization by site to avoid contamination and diffusion of effect. Interventions were offered twice weekly after baseline evaluations were completed. The treatment group received classroom style mentally stimulating activities (MSAs) while the control group received a structured early-stage social support (SS) group. The results showed that the MSA group had significantly lower levels of apathy (P < .001) and significantly lower symptoms of depression (P < .001). While both groups improved on quality of life, the MSA group was significantly better (P = .02) than the SS group. Executive function was not significantly different for the two groups at four weeks, but general cognition improved for the MSA group and declined slightly for the SS group which produced a significant posttest difference (P < .001). Recruitment and retention of SS group members was difficult in this project, especially in senior center locations, while this was not the case for the MSA group. The examination of the data at this four-week time point shows promising results that the MSA intervention may provide a much needed method of reducing apathy and depressive symptoms, while motivating participation and increasing quality of life. PMID:21584241

Buettner, Linda L.; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne; Atav, Serdar; Sink, Kaycee

2011-01-01

137

Comparison of Favorable Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatments: A Single-Institution Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA\\/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained. Results: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL

Rajiv Samant; Ibraheem Alomary; Eyad Alsaeed; Badr Al-jasir; Isabelle Bence-Bruckler; Peter Cross; Paul Genest; Lothar Huebsch

2010-01-01

138

Formation of Jupiter's Core and Early Stages of Envelope Accretion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are performing calculations of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core starts as a seed body of a few hundred kilometers in radius and orbits within a swarm of planetesimals whose initial size distribution ranges from ~10 m to ~100 km. The planetesimals are immersed in a gaseous disk, representative of an early solar nebula. The evolution of the swarm of planetesimals accounts for collisions and gravitational stirring due to mutual interactions among bodies, and for migration and velocity damping due to interactions with the nebula gas. Collisions among planetesimals lead to growth and/or fragmentation, altering the size distribution of the swarm over time. Collisions of planetesimals with the seed body lead to its growth, resulting in the formation of a planetary core. Gas capture by the core leads to the accumulation of a tenuous atmosphere, which later becomes a massive envelope, increasing the size-dependent effective cross-section of the planet for planetesimals' accretion. Planetesimals that travel through the core's envelope release energy, affecting the thermal budget of the envelope, and deliver mass, affecting the opacity of the envelope. The calculation of dust opacity, which is especially important for envelope contraction, is performed self-consistently, accounting for coagulation and sedimentation of dust and small particles that are released in the envelope as passing planetesimals are ablated. We find that, in a disk of planetesimals with a surface density of about 10 g/cm2 at 5.2 AU, a one Earth mass core accumulates in less than 1e5 years, and that it takes over 1.5e6 years to accumulate a core of 3 Earth masses, when the core's geometrical cross-section is used for the accretion of planetesimals. Gas drag in the core's envelope increases the ability of the planet to accrete planetesimals. Smaller planetesimals are affected to a greater extent than are larger planetesimals. We find that the effective, envelope-enhanced cross-section leads to the growth of a core of 3 Earth masses in less than 1e5 years and of a core of 5 Earth masses in less than 2e5 years. By the time the total planet mass reaches about 6 Earth masses, the accretion rate of solids has dropped below ~1e-6 Earth masses per year. Support for this research from NASA Outer Planets Research Program is gratefully acknowledged.

D'Angelo, G.; Weidenschilling, S.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bodenheimer, P.; Hubickyj, O.

2012-12-01

139

Pesticides in urban streams and early life stages of Pacific coho salmon.  

PubMed

Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams and are believed to be primarily the result of homeowner use. Although concentrations in most cases are low (<1?µg/L), there is concern that pesticide inputs threaten efforts to restore and enhance salmon habitat. The authors exposed early life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of those pesticides most frequently reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Life stages were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail simulating those in urban streams in fall and winter when coho salmon eggs and sac fry are present. Nominal concentrations of eight herbicides, two insecticides, a fungicide, and a breakdown product were the maximum detected. Fertilization, hatching success, survival, deformities, and growth of fry were not significantly affected. A reduction in fertilization success (19-25%) was not reproducible even when gametes were exposed to 100 times the maximum concentrations detected. Based on the end points examined in the present study, the results suggest that direct exposure to the pesticides most frequently detected in urban streams in western Washington does not impair early life stages of coho salmon and is not a major factor governing the recovery of salmon populations. The extent to which pesticide exposure would affect smoltification, outmigration, and ocean survival needs to be determined. PMID:23297254

King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J

2013-04-01

140

Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia. PMID:25140503

Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

2014-09-01

141

Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}\\/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup

Jorge Herkovits; C. S. Perez-Coll; P. Cardellini; C. Pavanati

1997-01-01

142

Surveying The Serum Proteome For Biomarkers Of Early-Stage Pancreatic Cancer.  

E-print Network

??SURVEYING THE SERUM PROTEOME FOR BIOMARKERS OF EARLY STAGE PANCREATIC CANCERMICHAEL ROBERT LUDWIGMICROBIOLOGYABSTRACTPancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a uniformly fatal disease due to its refractory… (more)

Ludwig, Michael Robert

2013-01-01

143

Chronic effects of acetone on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) during early life-stage development  

SciTech Connect

A 28-day post-hatch early life-stage development toxicity test was conducted to determine the chronic effects of acetone on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). In this study, less than 24-hour old fathead minnow embryos were exposed to 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mL acetone/L and a negative control for a 4-day pre-hatch period and 28 days following hatch. During the pre-hatch period, no adverse effects on embryo survival or hatching success were observed in any of the treatment groups tested when compared to the negative control. From completion of matching to test termination, fathead minnows exposed to 4.0 mL acetone/L, experienced reduced survival, a statistically significant reduction in growth and impairment of critical behavioral functions when compared to the negative control group. Growth of fathead minnows exposed to 2.0 mL acetone/L also experienced a statistically significant effect upon growth when compared to the negative control, however, survival and behavior were not affected during the post-hatch period. Survival, growth, and behavior of fathead minnows exposed to 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 mL acetone/L from hatching to test termination was comparable to the control group. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows exposed to acetone during early life-stage development was 1.0 mL acetone/L, and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 2.0 mL acetone/L. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was calculated to be 1.4 mL acetone/L.

Mank, M.; Swigert, J. [Wildlife International Ltd., Easton, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

144

Effects of Constitutive ?-Catenin Activation on Vertebral Bone Growth and Remodeling at Different Postnatal Stages in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective The Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway is essential for controlling bone mass; however, little is known about the variable effects of the constitutive activation of ?-catenin (CA-?-catenin) on bone growth and remodeling at different postnatal stages. The goal of the present study was to observe the effects of CA-?-catenin on vertebral bone growth and remodeling in mice at different postnatal stages. In particular, special attention was paid to whether CA-?-catenin has detrimental effects on these processes. Methods Catnblox(ex 3) mice were crossed with mice expressing the TM-inducible Cre fusion protein, which could be activated at designated time points via injection of tamoxifen. ?-catenin was stabilized by tamoxifen injection 3 days, and 2, 4, 5, and 7 months after birth, and the effects lasted for one month. Radiographic imaging, micro-computed tomography, immunohistochemistry, and safranin O and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining were employed to observe the effects of CA-?-catenin on vertebral bone growth and remodeling. Results CA-?-catenin in both early (3 days after birth) and late stages (2, 4, 5, and 7 months after birth) increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, which together increased vertebral bone volume. However, when ?-catenin was stabilized in the early stage, vertebral linear growth was retarded, and the mice demonstrated shorter statures. In addition, the newly formed bone was mainly immature and located close to the growth plate. In contrast, when ?-catenin was stabilized in the late stage, vertebral linear growth was unaffected, and the newly formed bone was mainly mature and evenly distributed throughout the vertebral body. Conclusions CA-?-catenin in both early and late stages of growth can increase vertebral bone volume, but ?-catenin has differential effects on vertebral growth and remodeling when activated at different postnatal stages. PMID:24066100

Zhang, Bo; Liang, Huaping; Feng, Jianquan; Zong, Zhaowen

2013-01-01

145

Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements.

Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

2013-01-01

146

Communication: Stable carbon nanoarches in the initial stages of epitaxial growth of graphene on Cu(111)  

SciTech Connect

To fully exploit the device potential of graphene, reliable production of large-area, high-quality samples is required. Epitaxial growth on metal substrates have shown promise in this regard, but further improvement would be facilitated by a more complete understanding of the atomistic pro- cesses involved in the early growth stages. Using first-principles calculations within density func- tional theory, we have investigated the energetics and kinetics of graphene nucleation and growth on a Cu(111) surface. Our calculations have revealed an energetic preference for the formation of stable one-dimensional carbon nanoarches consisting of 3 13 atoms when compared to two- dimensional compact islands of equal sizes. We also estimate the critical cluster size that marks the transition from nanoarch dominance to island dominance in the growth sequence. Our findings may provide the structural link between nucleated carbon dimers and larger carbon nanodomes, and are expected to stimulate future experimental efforts. 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Van Wesep, Robert G [ORNL; Chen, Hua [ORNL; Zhu, Wenguang [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL

2011-01-01

147

Communication: Stable carbon nanoarches in the initial stages of epitaxial growth of graphene on Cu(111)  

SciTech Connect

To fully exploit the device potential of graphene, reliable production of large-area, high-quality samples is required. Epitaxial growth on metal substrates have shown promise in this regard, but further improvement would be facilitated by a more complete understanding of the atomistic processes involved in the early growth stages. Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we have investigated the energetics and kinetics of graphene nucleation and growth on a Cu(111) surface. Our calculations have revealed an energetic preference for the formation of stable one-dimensional carbon nanoarches consisting of 3 13 atoms when compared to twodimensional compact islands of equal sizes. We also estimate the critical cluster size that marks the transition from nanoarch dominance to island dominance in the growth sequence. Our findings may provide the structural link between nucleated carbon dimers and larger carbon nanodomes, and are expected to stimulate future experimental efforts.

Van Wesep, Robert G [ORNL; Chen, Hua [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhu, Wenguang [ORNL; Zhang, Zhwnyu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01

148

Infected texts: Plague and syphilis on the early modern stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of plague and syphilis on early modern playwrighting practices. I consider these diseases as traumatic events that shaped aspects of early modern culture, even as certain cultural frameworks of the period shaped the ways in which these traumas were perceived. I examine early modern medical treatises, pamphlet literature, published sermons and other religious literature, visual

Melissa Smith

2005-01-01

149

Exome Sequencing Identifies Early Gastric Carcinoma as an Early Stage of Advanced Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric carcinoma is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment leads to an excellent prognosis in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC), whereas the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains poor. It is unclear whether EGCs and AGCs are distinct entities or whether EGCs are the beginning stages of AGCs. We performed whole exome sequencing of four samples from patients with EGC and compared the results with those from AGCs. In both EGCs and AGCs, a total of 268 genes were commonly mutated and independent mutations were additionally found in EGCs (516 genes) and AGCs (3104 genes). A higher frequency of C>G transitions was observed in intestinal-type compared to diffuse-type carcinomas (P?=?0.010). The DYRK3, GPR116, MCM10, PCDH17, PCDHB1, RDH5 and UNC5C genes are recurrently mutated in EGCs and may be involved in early carcinogenesis. PMID:24376576

Do, In-Gu; Wang, Kai; Kang, So Young; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Kang, Won Ki; Jang, Jiryeon; Choi, Min-Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Seonwoo; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

2013-01-01

150

Evaluation of early life stage fall chinook salmon exposed to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source.  

PubMed

We conducted a laboratory evaluation to assess the risk to early life stage (i.e., eyed egg to swim up) fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for exposure to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source. Local populations of fall Chinook salmon were exposed to Hanford Site source groundwater that was diluted with Columbia River water. Specific endpoints included survival, development rate, and growth. Tissue burdens of fish were also measured to estimate uptake and elimination rates of chromium. Survival, development, and growth of early life stage fall Chinook salmon were not adversely affected by extended exposures (i.e., 98 day) to hexavalent chromium ranging from 0.79 to 260 microg/l. Survival for all treatment levels and controls exceeded 98% at termination of the test. In addition, there were no differences among the mean lengths and weights of fish among all treatment groups. Whole-body concentrations of chromium in early life stage fall Chinook salmon had a typical dose-response pattern; i.e., those subjected to highest exposure concentrations and longest exposure intervals had higher tissue concentrations. Given the spatial extent of chromium concentrations at the Hanford Site, and the dynamics of the groundwater-river water interface, the current cleanup criterion of 10 microg/l chromium appear adequate to protect early life stage fall Chinook salmon. These findings, together with previous research indicate low risk to these populations. PMID:17294282

Patton, Gregory; Dauble, Dennis; McKinstry, Craig

2007-10-01

151

[Proteomics of rice leaf and grain at late growth stage under different nitrogen fertilization levels].  

PubMed

Taking super-rice Liangyoupeijiu as test material, and by the method of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), this paper studied the changes in the leaf and grain proteomics of the variety at its late growth stage under different levels of nitrogen fertilization (1/2 times of normal nitrogen level, 20 mg x L(-1); normal nitrogen level, 40 mg x L(-1); 2 times of normal nitrogen level, 80 mg x L(-1)), with the biological functions of 16 leaf proteins, 9 inferior grain proteins, and 4 superior grain proteins identified and analyzed. Nitrogen fertilization could affect and regulate the plant photosynthesis via affecting the activation of photosynthesis-related enzymes and of CO2, the light system unit, and the constitution of electron transfer chain at the late growth stage of the variety. It could also promote the expression of the enzymes related to the energy synthesis and growth in inferior grains. High nitrogen fertilization level was not beneficial to the synthesis of starch in superior grain, but sufficient nitrogen supply was still important for the substance accumulation and metabolism. Therefore, rational nitrogen fertilization could increase the photosynthesis rate of flag leaves, enhance the source function, delay the functional early ageing, and promote the grain-filling at late growth stage. PMID:21328945

Ning, Shu-ju; Zhao, Min; Xiang, Xiao-liang; Wei, Dao-zhi

2010-10-01

152

Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surface ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.

Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S. [Inst. de Ciencias Ambientales y Salud, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Programa Seguridad Quimica; Cardellini, P.; Pavanati, C. [Univ. degli Studi di Padova Via Trieste (Italy). Dept. di Biologia

1997-02-01

153

Ameliorating Patient-Caregiver Stigma in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease using Robot co-Mediators  

E-print Network

Ameliorating Patient-Caregiver Stigma in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease using Robot co-Mediators Ronald C. Arkin Abstract. Facial masking in early stage Parkinson's disease leads to a well that are able to express affective state through kinesics and proxemics. 1 INTRODUCTION Parkinson's disease

154

TOXICITY OF TRIVALENT CHROMIUM TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF STEELHEAD TROUT  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute and early life stage toxicity tests were conducted with trivalent chromium and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). A 96-h LC50 of 4,400 micrograms/l chromium was obtained with two-month-old juvenile fish. Early life stage exposure from newly fertilized eggs to 30-d post-swim...

155

Prospective Memory and Apolipoprotein E in Healthy Aging and Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

to possible drug treatment and behavioral interventions. The clinical diagnosis of early stage DAT dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) at the earliest possible stage of the disease process. This early diagnosis of dementia, and therefore, estimates of cognitive change in healthy aging samples may

156

Time-Limited Support Groups for Individuals with Early Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of sensitive diagnostic procedures, Alzheimer's disease and other related dementias are being diagnosed in their earliest stages. Although early diagnosis provides opportunities for treatment, decision making, and planning, it also conveys some potentially negative consequences, including affective and interpersonal changes. Early-stage support groups for individuals with dementia and their caregivers have been developed to help individuals and

Rebecca G. Logsdon; Susan M. McCurry; Linda Teri

2007-01-01

157

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 ?atm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 ?atm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which could lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

2011-12-01

158

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on the early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in the life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 ?atm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 ?atm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which consequently should lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival and could affect the ecosystem and fisheries. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

2011-07-01

159

Sequential water stress in cotton: yield response to stress in early and peak flowering stages  

E-print Network

to their photosynthetic and expansive growth processes. The model was used to simulate diurnal changes in leaf water potential, the turgor potential of a leaf, and the rates of transpiration, photosynthesis, and expansive growth under a range of soil and climatic... on climatic or other non-physiological parameters. Their models consider the physical difference that exists between crop growth stages and the varied effects that an equal stress will have in a given growth stage. Jensen believed that the effects of stress...

Prochaska, James Frank

2012-06-07

160

Tritium levels in Chinese cabbage and radish plants acutely exposed to HTO vapor at different growth stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simulate an acute exposure of Chinese cabbage and radish plants to airborne HTO, the potted plants were exposed to HTO vapor under semi-outdoor conditions for 1h at different times from the early to late growth stages. The plants were grown outdoors and the plant tritium was measured at the end of an exposure (h0) and at harvest. The leaf

Yong Ho Choi; Kwang Muk Lim; Won Yun Lee; Hyo Guk Park; Geun Sik Choi; Dong Kwon Keum; Hansoo Lee; Sang Bog Kim; Chang Woo Lee

2005-01-01

161

EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST WITH TIDEWATER SILVERSIDES (MENIDIA PENINSULAE) AND CHLORINE-PRODUCED OXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Early life-stage toxicity tests (continuous exposure from embryonic stage to approximately three weeks or more into the exogenous feeding stage) with North American marine fishes have been conducted almost exclusively with cyprinodontids. In this paper, the authors present method...

162

Effects of Mixture of Pharmaceuticals on Early Life Stages of Tench (Tinca tinca)  

PubMed Central

Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60??g·L?1 for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60??g·L?1). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2??g·L?1) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench. PMID:24772417

Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

163

Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia  

PubMed Central

Background Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Results Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low seed set in R. pseudoacacia. PMID:24655746

2014-01-01

164

Effects of hydrazine and other toxicants on early life stages of California brown algae  

SciTech Connect

Toxicity of hydrazine to early life stages of several species of California brown algae was demonstrated to occur at environmentally relevant concentrations. Effects of hydrazine on benthic organisms had not been previously studied. A reliable bioassay technique was developed using digital image analysis to measure vegetative growth inhibition of brown algal gametophytes. Hydrazine toxicity threshold of Macrocystis pyrifera gametophytes was almost constant in 10 96-hour experiments, ranging from 3-5 ppb. Differences in resistance to short-term hydrazine exposures were observed among three algal families of the order Laminariales. Hydrazine autoxidation rates varied by an order of magnitude in seawater sampled from different locations. Rates showed strong temperature dependence. Autoxidation at 10{degree}C and below was must slower and indicated a higher activation energy than autoxidation at 20{degree}C and above.

James, D.E.

1989-01-01

165

Early-Stage Primary School Children Attending a School in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) Have Better Reversal Learning and Lean Muscle Mass Growth Than Those Attending a Non-SFP School12  

PubMed Central

In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6–8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction <0.0001). The results indicate that the SFP in Malawi is associated with an improvement in reversal learning and catch-up growth in lean muscle mass in children in the SFP school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children. PMID:23803471

Nkhoma, Owen W. W.; Duffy, Maresa E.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Davidson, Philip W.; McSorley, Emeir M.; Strain, J. J.; O'Brien, Gerard M.

2013-01-01

166

Paired comparison of water, energy and carbon exchanges over two young maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.): effects of thinning and weeding in the early stage of tree growth.  

PubMed

The effects of management practices on energy, water and carbon exchanges were investigated in a young pine plantation in south-west France. In 2009-10, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2)O and heat fluxes were monitored using the eddy covariance and sap flow techniques in a control plot (C) with a developed gorse layer, and an adjacent plot that was mechanically weeded and thinned (W). Despite large differences in the total leaf area index and canopy structure, the annual net radiation absorbed was only 4% lower in plot W. We showed that higher albedo in this plot was offset by lower emitted long-wave radiation. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) from plot W was 15% lower, due to lower rainfall interception and transpiration by the tree canopy, partly counterbalanced by the larger evaporation from both soil and regrowing weedy vegetation. The drainage belowground from plot W was larger by 113 mm annually. The seasonal variability of ET was driven by the dynamics of the soil and weed layers, which was more severely affected by drought in plot C. Conversely, the temporal changes in pine transpiration and stem diameter growth were synchronous between sites despite higher soil water content in the weeded plot. At the annual scale, both plots were carbon sinks, but thinning and weeding reduced the carbon uptake by 73%: annual carbon uptake was 243 and 65 g C m(-2) on plots C and W, respectively. Summer drought dramatically impacted the net ecosystem exchange: plot C became a carbon source as the gross primary production (GPP) severely decreased. However, plot W remained a carbon sink during drought, as a result of decreases in both GPP and ecosystem respiration (R(E)). In winter, both plots were carbon sources, plots C and W emitting 67.5 and 32.4 g C m(-2), respectively. Overall, this study highlighted the significant contribution of the gorse layer to mass and energy exchange in young pine plantations. PMID:21724584

Moreaux, Virginie; Lamaud, Eric; Bosc, Alexandre; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Medlyn, Belinda E; Loustau, Denis

2011-09-01

167

Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS. PMID:23126275

Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

2013-03-01

168

Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

2014-01-01

169

Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L?1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250??g?L?1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15??g?L?1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50??g?L?1 died soon after hatching; at 25??g?L?1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5??g?L?1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

Richterova, Zuzana; Machova, Jana; Stara, Alzbeta; Tumova, Jitka; Velisek, Josef; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

170

Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

Young, Tabitha L.

2013-01-01

171

Genome-wide study of the adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the early stages of wine fermentation.  

PubMed

This work was designed to identify yeast cellular functions specifically affected by the stress factors predominating during the early stages of wine fermentation, and genes required for optimal growth under these conditions. The main experimental method was quantitative fitness analysis by means of competition experiments in continuous culture of whole genome barcoded yeast knockout collections. This methodology allowed the identification of haploinsufficient genes, and homozygous deletions resulting in growth impairment in synthetic must. However, genes identified as haploproficient, or homozygous deletions resulting in fitness advantage, were of little predictive power concerning optimal growth in this medium. The relevance of these functions for enological performance of yeast was assessed in batch cultures with single strains. Previous studies addressing yeast adaptation to winemaking conditions by quantitative fitness analysis were not specifically focused on the proliferative stages. In some instances our results highlight the importance of genes not previously linked to winemaking. In other cases they are complementary to those reported in previous studies concerning, for example, the relevance of some genes involved in vacuolar, peroxisomal, or ribosomal functions. Our results indicate that adaptation to the quickly changing growth conditions during grape must fermentation require the function of different gene sets in different moments of the process. Transport processes and glucose signaling seem to be negatively affected by the stress factors encountered by yeast in synthetic must. Vacuolar activity is important for continued growth during the transition to stationary phase. Finally, reduced biogenesis of peroxisomes also seems to be advantageous. However, in contrast to what was described for later stages, reduced protein synthesis is not advantageous for the early (proliferative) stages of the fermentation process. Finally, we found adenine and lysine to be in short supply for yeast growth in some natural grape musts. PMID:24040173

Novo, Maite; Mangado, Ana; Quirós, Manuel; Morales, Pilar; Salvadó, Zoel; Gonzalez, Ramon

2013-01-01

172

Radiotherapy Alone for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx and Hypopharynx  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To describe and illustrate examples of early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Review of the NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines. Representative examples are included. Results: Early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer is defined by tumor extent based on physical and imaging examination. Conclusions: Radiotherapy alone is appropriate treatment for properly selected early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. The NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines can be an aid to the clinician in identifying favorable cancers that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone with preservation of organ function.

Foote, Robert L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States)], E-mail: foote.robert@mayo.edu

2007-10-01

173

ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

2011-01-01

174

Early Years Foundation Stage: How Much Does It Count?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report of the Williams committee (DCSF, 2008: 68) argues that the revised mathematics Framework (DfES, 2006) "should be reconsidered to achieve a more suitable, user-friendly form." It might also have added that there is not much help and support in it for early years teachers. A much more useful document is the "Practice guidance for…

Thompson, Ian

2008-01-01

175

Cephalometric evaluation of ocular protrusion at stages of growth.  

PubMed

The sagittal relationships between the orbital globe and the ocular orbit have great importance in aesthetic and functional evaluations. These relationships are useful in diagnosis and treatment of some malformations in which the orbital volume is reduced such as craniostenosis. The aim of the present study was the cephalometric evaluation of the ocular protrusion at different growth stages. Ninety-two patients with negative history of craniosynostosis, severe myopia, and skeletal class I were selected for the present study. Lateral teleradiography x-ray was performed for all the patients, and 5 groups were carried out based on the dentition phase. Cephalometric analyses were performed on the lateral teleradiography x-ray. Mean values of ocular protrusion (B-Or post) for females and males were found and digitized for the 5 groups tested. All other sagittal and vertical measurements were successfully computed by the trained operator. B-Or post showed values between -14.93 mm and -16.90 mm among the groups. The cephalometric analysis proposed in the present study allowed to successfully evaluate sagittal and vertical relationship of the orbital globe and the orbital cavity in growing patients. Moreover, the B-Or post maintained its value during growth in the present study. PMID:24777028

Caprioglio, Alberto; Panzi, Silvia; Fastuca, Rosamaria; Mortellaro, Carmen; Lucchina, Alberta Greco; Mangano, Francesco; Meazzini, Maria Costanza

2014-05-01

176

Dietary intervention in older adults with early-stage Alzheimer dementia: early lessons learned.  

PubMed

In older adults, an adequate diet depends on their ability to procure and prepare food and eat independently or the availability of dietary assistance when needed. Inadequate food intake or increased nutritional requirements lead to poor nutritional status, which is considered a key determinant of morbidity, increased risk of infection, and mortality in elderly individuals. Weight loss among seniors also heralds increased morbidity and mortality. Dietary behaviour disorders affecting food consumption, nutrition status and maintenance of body weight are common in older adults, and have a substantial impact on nutritional status and quality of life among older adults with Alzheimer Dementia (AD). The Nutrition Intervention Study (NIS) is ongoing. It employs a quasi-experimental pre-post intervention design in physically-well, community-dwelling early stage AD patients aged 70 y or older. To date, 34 intervention group patients and 25 control group participants have been recruited with their primary caregivers (CG) from 6 hospital-based memory and geriatric clinics in Montreal. The NIS uses clinical dietetics principles to develop and offer tailored dietary strategies to patients and their CG. This paper reports on the application of dietary intervention strategies in two intervention group participants; one was deemed successful while the other was considered unsuccessful. The report documents challenges encountered in assessing and counselling this clientele, and seeks to explain the outcome of intervention in these patients. PMID:18615228

Shatenstein, B; Kergoat, M -J; Reid, I; Chicoine, M E

2008-01-01

177

Early-stage technology ventures in India : opportunities and issues  

E-print Network

High-technology Entrepreneurship has been a key driver of innovation and economic growth in the US. Aided by factors such as the success in IT and IT-enabled services industries and a booming economy, India has seen a sharp ...

Chennapragada, Aparna

2008-01-01

178

Development of an early stage ship design tool for rapid modeling in Paramarine  

E-print Network

In early-stage ship design, it is helpful to perform preliminary design and analysis on many configurations to assist in developing and narrowing the trade space. This process is further complicated with the increasing ...

Thurkins, Eric J., Jr

2012-01-01

179

76 FR 76907 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...leverage in order of issue without making any distribution to its investors...important monitoring tool to guide decision-making with respect to Early Stage SBICs...right to prohibit the SBIC from making additional investments...

2011-12-09

180

Shorter Course of Radiation Effective and Safe for Some Women with Early-stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Giving radiation therapy in fewer but larger doses may be an alternative to standard radiation therapy for some women with early-stage breast cancer, according to a study published in the February 11, 2010, New England Journal of Medicine.

181

NCI Begins Validation Study of New Test to Detect Early-Stage Liver Cancer  

Cancer.gov

A two-year study to validate a test to detect early-stage liver cancer has been initiated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, at six centers* across the United States.

182

Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography for the detection of early stage neoplastic pathologies  

E-print Network

Identification of changes associated with early stage disease remains a critical objective of clinical detection and treatment. Effective screening and detection is important for improving outcome because advanced disease, ...

Hsiung, Pei-Lin, 1975-

2005-01-01

183

The influence of immersion and presence in early stage engineering designing and building  

E-print Network

This paper explores the role of a designer's sense of engagement in early stage design. In the field of virtual reality, presence and immersion are standard measures of an individual's sense of engagement and involvement ...

Faas, Daniela

184

Lithospheric deformation during the early stages of continental collision: numerical experiments  

E-print Network

1 Lithospheric deformation during the early stages of continental collision: numerical experiments, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Short title: LITHOSPHERE DEFORMATION DURING COLLISION #12;2 Abstract. The nature of lithospheric deformation during continental plate collision still remains unresolved. While

Beaumont, Christopher

185

Early stage dementia group: An innovative model of support for individuals in the early stages of dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, supports and services for people diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease have focused on the caregivers. The increase in early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease has resulted in greater numbers of older adults that have some insight and awareness of their deficits and are capable of dealing with the ramifications of their illness. Yet there are few places to turn for support

Pamela M. Goldsilver; Marilyn R. B. Gruneir

2001-01-01

186

Verbal Fluency and Awareness of Functional Deficits in Early-Stage Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of activities of daily living is an important element in the diagnosis of dementia, with research suggesting a link between functional ability and cognition. We investigated the relationship between self- and informant ratings of instrumental activities of daily living (iADL) and verbal executive functioning in early-stage dementia. A total of 96 people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease or vascular or

Anthony Martyr; Linda Clare; Sharon M. Nelis; Ivana S. Marková; Ilona Roth; Robert T. Woods; Christopher J. Whitaker; Robin G. Morris

2012-01-01

187

Can some patients avoid adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the risk of relapse and mortality for women with early-stage breast cancer. However, many women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer experience the toxic effects associated with adjuvant chemotherapy without any meaningful benefit. There are a variety of clinicopathological factors—including hormone receptor expression, histology, and proliferation markers such as Ki-67—that can be used to try to identify patients

Fatima Cardoso; Philippe L. Bedard

2011-01-01

188

[Influence of early stage of chronic renal disease on risk of cardiac diseases and stroke].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death among people with kidney diseases. The early stage of chronic kidney disease, with mild decrease of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and small increase of creatinine concentration in serum and/or occurrence of microalbuminuria, is related to the increase of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Kidney insufficiency is also independently connected with the risk of stroke. Patients with early stage of kidney insufficiency should be qualified as those in a cardiovascular high risk group. PMID:16969907

Szkó?ka, Tomasz; My?liwiec, Michal

2006-01-01

189

Improved local control for early T-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma – a tale of two hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To study the efficacy of intracavitary brachytherapy (ICT) in early T-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).Methods and materials: All early T-stage (T1 and T2 nasal cavity tumour) NPC treated with a curative intent up to 1996 were analyzed (n=743), 163 from the Prince of Wales Hospital (PWH) and 25 from Tuen Mun Hospital (TMH) were given ICT after radical external radiotherapy

Peter Man Lung Teo; Sing Fai Leung; Jack Fowler; To Wai Leung; Yuk Tung; Sai Ki O; Wai Yee Lee; Benny Zee

2000-01-01

190

Involved-field radiotherapy alone for early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To describe the outcome of involved-field radiotherapy in patients with early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Methods and Materials: A written policy for the radical treatment of early-stage NSCLC with involved-field radiotherapy was adopted at our center in 1986. The sites of known disease were treated to a dose of 52.5 Gy in 20 daily fractions over 4 weeks without elective

Patrick C. F Cheung; William J Mackillop; Peter Dixon; Michael D Brundage; Youssef M Youssef; Sam Zhou

2000-01-01

191

Evaluation for Early Life Stage Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium from a Contaminated Groundwater Source  

SciTech Connect

We conducted a laboratory evaluation to assess the risk to early life stage (i.e., eyed egg to swim up) fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for exposure to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source. Local populations of fall Chinook salmon were exposed to Hanford Site source groundwater that was diluted with Columbia River water. Specific endpoints included survival, development rate, and growth. Tissue burdens of fish were also measured to estimate uptake and elimination rates of chromium. Survival, development, and growth of early life stage fall Chinook salmon were not adversely affected by extended exposures (i.e., 98 day) to hexavalent chromium ranging from 0.79 to 260 ?g/L. Survival for all treatment levels and controls exceeded 98% at termination of the test. In addition, there were no differences among the mean lengths and weights of fish among all treatment groups. Whole-body concentrations of chromium in early life stage fall Chinook salmon had a typical dose-response pattern; i.e., those subjected to highest exposure concentrations and longest exposure intervals had higher tissue concentrations. Given the spatial extent of chromium concentrations at the Hanford Site, and the dynamics of the groundwater - river water interface, the current cleanup criterion of 10 µg/L chromium appear adequate to protect fall Chinook salmon populations.

Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; McKinstry, Craig A.

2007-09-01

192

Vetiver oil production correlates with early root growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain insight into essential oil metabolism we analyzed the oil produced in Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) roots during early growth. Planting of Vetiver in the Campania region of southern Italy was performed in the spring using Vetiver culms with short roots and approximately 20cm leaves. During the first two years of growth Vetiver essential oil was hydrodistilled from

Domenica R. Massardo; Felice Senatore; Pietro Alifano; Luigi Del Giudice; Paola Pontieri

2006-01-01

193

Effects of silver nanocolloids on early life stages of the scleractinian coral Acropora japonica.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of silver nanocolloids (SNCs) on the early life stages of the reef-building coral Acropora japonica were investigated. The tolerance of this species to SNC contamination was estimated by exposing gametes, larvae, and primary polyps to a range of SNC concentrations (0, 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 ?g l(-1)). Pure SNCs were immediately ionized to Ag(+) in seawater and concentrations of ?50 ?g l(-1) SNC had a significant detrimental effect on fertilization, larval metamorphosis, and primary polyp growth. Exposure to 50 ?g l(-1) SNC did not significantly affect larval survival; however, the larvae were deformed and lost their ability to metamorphose. At the highest concentration (500 ?g l(-1) SNC), all gametes, larvae, and primary polyps died. These experiments provide the first data on the effects of silver-nanomaterial-contaminated seawater on cnidarians, and suggest that silver nanomaterials can influence the early development of corals through anthropogenic wastewater inputs. PMID:25047545

Suwa, Ryota; Kataoka, Chisato; Kashiwada, Shosaku

2014-08-01

194

Growth During the Larval and Juvenile Stages of the Northern Anchovy, Engraulis mordax, in the California  

E-print Network

Growth During the Larval and Juvenile Stages of the Northern Anchovy, Engraulis mordax survival. The ex- tent to which growth rates of late larvae and juveniles vary is unknown. The growth rate is entirely determined by juvenile growth, because these fish show no growth after 18 months (Parrish et al

195

Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

2011-01-01

196

Evolution of Network Biomarkers from Early to Late Stage Bladder Cancer Samples  

PubMed Central

We use a systems biology approach to construct protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) for early and late stage bladder cancer. By comparing the networks of these two stages, we find that both networks showed very significantly different mechanisms. To obtain the differential network structures between cancer and noncancer PPINs, we constructed cancer PPIN and noncancer PPIN network structures for the two bladder cancer stages using microarray data from cancer cells and their adjacent noncancer cells, respectively. With their carcinogenesis relevance values (CRVs), we identified 152 and 50 significant proteins and their PPI networks (network markers) for early and late stage bladder cancer by statistical assessment. To investigate the evolution of network biomarkers in the carcinogenesis process, primary pathway analysis showed that the significant pathways of early stage bladder cancer are related to ordinary cancer mechanisms, while the ribosome pathway and spliceosome pathway are most important for late stage bladder cancer. Their only intersection is the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathway in the whole stage of bladder cancer. The evolution of network biomarkers from early to late stage can reveal the carcinogenesis of bladder cancer. The findings in this study are new clues specific to this study and give us a direction for targeted cancer therapy, and it should be validated in vivo or in vitro in the future.

2014-01-01

197

Comparative toxicity of inorganic contaminants released by placer mining to early life stages of salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicities of four trace inorganics associated with placer mining were determined, individually and in environmentally relevant mixtures, to early life stages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Alaska and Montana, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from Alaska and Washington, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Montana. The descending rank order of toxicity to all species and life stages was

K. J. Buhl; S. J. Hamilton

1990-01-01

198

The serum glycome to discriminate between early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer and benign ovarian diseases.  

PubMed

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths in women because the diagnosis occurs mostly when the disease is in its late-stage. Current diagnostic methods of EOC show only a moderate sensitivity, especially at an early-stage of the disease; hence, novel biomarkers are needed to improve the diagnosis. We recently reported that serum glycome modifications observed in late-stage EOC patients by MALDI-TOF-MS could be combined as a glycan score named GLYCOV that was calculated from the relative areas of the 11 N-glycan structures that were significantly modulated. Here, we evaluated the ability of GLYCOV to recognize early-stage EOC in a cohort of 73 individuals comprised of 20 early-stage primary serous EOC, 20 benign ovarian diseases (BOD), and 33 age-matched healthy controls. GLYCOV was able to recognize stage I EOC whereas CA125 values were statistically significant only for stage II EOC patients. In addition, GLYCOV was more sensitive and specific compared to CA125 in distinguishing early-stage EOC from BOD patients, which is of high relevance to clinicians as it is difficult for them to diagnose malignancy prior to operation. PMID:25183900

Biskup, Karina; Braicu, Elena Iona; Sehouli, Jalid; Tauber, Rudolf; Blanchard, Véronique

2014-01-01

199

Improving website accessibility for people with early-stage dementia: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, conducted collaboratively with five men who have a diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), is the first stage of a formative research project aimed at developing a new website for people with dementia. Recommendations derived from a literature review of the implications of dementia-related cognitive changes for website design were combined with general web accessibility guidelines to provide

Ed Freeman; Linda Clare; Nada Savitch; Lindsay Royan; Rachael Litherland; Margot Lindsay

2005-01-01

200

Early Stage Biomineralization in the Periostracum of the 'Living Fossil' Bivalve Neotrigonia  

PubMed Central

A detailed investigation of the shell formation of the palaeoheterodont ‘living fossil’ Neotrigonia concentrated on the timing and manufacture of the calcified ‘bosses’ which stud the outside of all trigonioid bivalves (extant and fossil) has been conducted. Electron microscopy and optical microscopy revealed that Neotrigonia spp. have a spiral-shaped periostracal groove. The periostracum itself is secreted by the basal cell, as a thin dark pellicle, becoming progressively transformed into a thin dark layer by additions of secretions from the internal outer mantle fold. Later, intense secretion of the internal surface of the outer mantle fold forms a translucent layer, which becomes transformed by tanning into a dark layer. The initiation of calcified bosses occurred at a very early stage of periostracum formation, deep within the periostracal groove immediately below the initialmost dark layer. At this stage, they consist of a series of polycyclically twinned crystals. The bosses grow as the periostracum traverse through the periostracal groove, in coordination with the thickening of the dark periostracal layer and until, upon reaching the mantle edge, they impinge upon each other and become transformed into large prisms separated by dark periostracal walls. In conclusion, the initial bosses and the external part of the prismatic layer are fully intraperiostracal. With later growth, the prisms transform into fibrous aggregates, although the details of the process are unknown. This reinforces the relationships with other groups that have the ability to form intraperiostracal calcifications, for example the unionoids with which the trigonioids form the clade Paleoheterodonta. The presence of similar structures in anomalodesmatans and other euheterodonts raises the question of whether this indicates a relationship or represents a convergence. The identification of very early calcification within an organic sheet has interesting implications for our understanding of how shells may have evolved. PMID:24587202

Checa, Antonio G.; Salas, Carmen; Harper, Elizabeth M.; Bueno-Perez, Juan de Dios

2014-01-01

201

Early stage biomineralization in the periostracum of the 'living fossil' bivalve Neotrigonia.  

PubMed

A detailed investigation of the shell formation of the palaeoheterodont 'living fossil' Neotrigonia concentrated on the timing and manufacture of the calcified 'bosses' which stud the outside of all trigonioid bivalves (extant and fossil) has been conducted. Electron microscopy and optical microscopy revealed that Neotrigonia spp. have a spiral-shaped periostracal groove. The periostracum itself is secreted by the basal cell, as a thin dark pellicle, becoming progressively transformed into a thin dark layer by additions of secretions from the internal outer mantle fold. Later, intense secretion of the internal surface of the outer mantle fold forms a translucent layer, which becomes transformed by tanning into a dark layer. The initiation of calcified bosses occurred at a very early stage of periostracum formation, deep within the periostracal groove immediately below the initialmost dark layer. At this stage, they consist of a series of polycyclically twinned crystals. The bosses grow as the periostracum traverse through the periostracal groove, in coordination with the thickening of the dark periostracal layer and until, upon reaching the mantle edge, they impinge upon each other and become transformed into large prisms separated by dark periostracal walls. In conclusion, the initial bosses and the external part of the prismatic layer are fully intraperiostracal. With later growth, the prisms transform into fibrous aggregates, although the details of the process are unknown. This reinforces the relationships with other groups that have the ability to form intraperiostracal calcifications, for example the unionoids with which the trigonioids form the clade Paleoheterodonta. The presence of similar structures in anomalodesmatans and other euheterodonts raises the question of whether this indicates a relationship or represents a convergence. The identification of very early calcification within an organic sheet has interesting implications for our understanding of how shells may have evolved. PMID:24587202

Checa, Antonio G; Salas, Carmen; Harper, Elizabeth M; Bueno-Pérez, Juan de Dios

2014-01-01

202

Lethal and sublethal toxicity of didecyldimethylammonium chloride in early life stages of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to describe the acute lethality and latent toxicity of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) on early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Fish responses to 0, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 microg/L concentrations of DDAC were determined using a 96-h standard static renewal method for acute toxicity testing, with three replicates per concentration. Twenty fish per replicate were tested for 3, 11, and 42-d-old larvae, and 7 fish per replicate were tested for 78-d-old juveniles. Following exposure, survival and growth were evaluated in exposed fish raised in clean water for 2 weeks. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values for DDAC were 10.0 to 50.0, 58.5, and 99.7 microg/L for 3, 11, and 42-d-old larvae and 100 to 250 microg/L for 78-d-old juveniles. Significant decreases in larval growth and survival were noted at all tested concentrations and in all sturgeon age groups. Results of this study reveal age- and concentration-dependent responses to DDAC. Among the age groups tested, the 3-d-old larvae were the most sensitive group. Results also revealed that 96-h lethality testing alone is not adequate for determining the toxicity of DDAC to white sturgeon. PMID:12959544

Teh, Swee Joo; Wong, Cecilia; Furtula, Vesna; Teh, Foo-Ching

2003-09-01

203

On the theoretical description of the early oxidation stages of copper by cw CO2 laser irradiation  

E-print Network

L-737 On the theoretical description of the early oxidation stages of copper by cw CO2 laser- pretations in analysing the new experimental data obtained in the study of the early stages of the cw CO2 of the oxide layer induced during the early stages ofthe oxidation ofcopper monocrystalline targets by cw C02

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Src Kinase: A Novel Target of Early-Stage ER-Negative Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the last 50 years, the number of cancer related deaths has decreased by only 2%. To achieve reduced breast cancer mortality, it is critical to develop early detection and intervention of breast cancer development at early stages of cancer initiation....

S. Jain

2012-01-01

205

Embryo-uterine interactions during early stages of pregnancy in domestic mammals  

E-print Network

Embryo-uterine interactions during early stages of pregnancy in domestic mammals M. GUILLOMOT during early pregnancy in domestic mammals ; the second part gives results of in vitro biochemical studies on embryo-uterine interactions in the ewe. We have developed an in vitro technique of the co-culture

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early

Burns, Kellie

2006-01-01

207

Dyadic Intervention for Family Caregivers and Care Receivers in Early-Stage Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The Early Diagnosis Dyadic Intervention (EDDI) program provides a structured, time-limited protocol of one-on-one and dyadic counseling for family caregivers and care receivers who are in the early stages of dementia. The goals and procedures of EDDI are based on previous research suggesting that dyads would benefit from an intervention…

Whitlatch, Carol J.; Judge, Katherine; Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia

2006-01-01

208

Multiple Adaptive Mechanisms to Chronic Liver Disease Revealed at Early Stages of Liver Carcinogenesis  

E-print Network

Multiple Adaptive Mechanisms to Chronic Liver Disease Revealed at Early Stages of Liver-knockout (Mdr2-KO) mice. These mice lack the liver-specific P-glycoprotein responsible by hepatocellular carcinoma development after the age of 1 year. Liver tissue samples of Mdr2-KO mice in the early

Domany, Eytan

209

Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

2010-01-01

210

Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Embryo resorption is a major problem in human medicine, agricultural animal production and in conservation breeding programs. Underlying mechanisms have been investigated in the well characterised mouse model. However, post mortem studies are limited by the rapid disintegration of embryonic structures. A method to reliably identify embryo resorption in alive animals has not been established yet. In our study we aim to detect embryos undergoing resorption in vivo at the earliest possible stage by ultra-high frequency ultrasound. Methods In a longitudinal study, we monitored 30 pregnancies of wild type C57BI/6 mice using ultra-high frequency ultrasound (30-70 MHz), so called ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). We compared the sonoembryology of mouse conceptuses under spontaneous resorption and neighbouring healthy conceptuses and correlated the live ultrasound data with the respective histology. Results The process of embryo resorption comprised of four stages: first, the conceptus exhibited growth retardation, second, bradycardia and pericardial edema were observed, third, further development ceased and the embryo died, and finally embryo remnants were resorbed by maternal immune cells. In early gestation (day 7 and 8), growth retardation was characterized by a small embryonic cavity. The embryo and its membranes were ill defined or did not develop at all. The echodensity of the embryonic fluid increased and within one to two days, the embryo and its cavity disappeared and was transformed into echodense tissue surrounded by fluid filled caverns. In corresponding histologic preparations, fibrinoid material interspersed with maternal granulocytes and lacunae filled with maternal blood were observed. In later stages (day 9–11) resorption prone embryos were one day behind in their development compared to their normal siblings. The space between Reichert’s membrane and inner yolk sac membrane was enlarged The growth retarded embryos exhibited bradycardia and ultimately cessation of heart beat. Corresponding histology showed apoptotic cells in the embryo while the placenta was still intact. In the subsequent resorption process first the embryo and then its membranes disappeared. Conclusions Our results provide a temporal time course of embryo resorption. With this method, animals exhibiting embryo resorption can be targeted, enabling the investigation of underlying mechanisms before the onset of total embryo disintegration. PMID:24886361

2014-01-01

211

EARLY GROWTH PATTERNS IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM  

PubMed Central

Background Case-control studies have found increased head growth during the first year of life in children with autism spectrum disorder. Length and weight have not been as extensively studied, and there are few studies of population-based samples. Methods The study was conducted in a sample of 106,082 children from the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The children were born in 1999-2009; by the end of follow-up on 31 December 2012, the age range was 3.6 through 13.1 years (mean 7.4 years). Measures were obtained prospectively until age 12 months for head circumference and 36 months for length and weight. We compared growth trajectories in autism spectrum disorder cases and non-cases using Reed first-order models. Results Subjects included 376 children (310 boys and 66 girls) with specialist-confirmed autism spectrum disorder. In boys with autism spectrum disorder, mean head growth was similar to that of other boys, but variability was greater, and 8.7% had macrocephaly (head circumference>97th cohort percentile) by 12 months of age. Autism spectrum disorder boys also had slightly increased body growth, with mean length 1.1 cm above and mean weight 300 g above the cohort mean for boys at age 12 months. Throughout the first year, the head circumference of girls with autism spectrum disorder was reduced – by 0.3 cm at birth and 0.5 cm at 12 months. Their mean length was similar to that of other girls, but their mean weight was 150-350 g below at all ages from birth to three years. The reductions in mean head circumference and weight in girls with autism spectrum disorder appear to be driven by those with intellectual disability, genetic disorders and epilepsy. Discussion Growth trajectories in children with autism spectrum disorder diverge from those of other children and the differences are sex-specific. Previous findings of increased mean head growth were not replicated. PMID:23867813

Suren, Pal; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Hirtz, Deborah; Lie, Kari Kveim; Lipkin, W. Ian; Magnus, Per; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schj?lberg, Synnve; Susser, Ezra; ?yen, Anne-Siri; Li, Leah; Hornig, Mady

2013-01-01

212

Heterogeneous Directional Mobility in the Early Stages of Polymer Crystallization  

SciTech Connect

Recently we demonstrated via large large-scale molecular dynamics simulations a 'coexistence period' in polymer melt ordering before crystallization, where nucleation and growth mechanisms coexist with a phase phase-separation mechanism. Here we present an extension of this work, where we analyze the directional displacements as a measure of the mobility of monomers as they order during crystallization over more than 100 ns of simulation time. It is found that the polymer melt, after quenching, rapidly separates into many ordered hexagonal domains separated by amorphous regions, where surprisingly, the magnitude of the monomer's displacement in the ordered state, parallel to the domain axial direction, is similar to its magnitude in the melt. T. The monomer he displacements in the domain's lateral direction are found to decrease during the time of the simulation. The ordered hexagonal domains do not align into uniform lamellar structures during the timescales of our simulations.

Lacevic, N; Fried, L E; Gee, R H

2008-11-01

213

The ?-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the ?-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the ?1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the ?3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the ?1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

214

Prediction of invasion from the early stage of an epidemic  

PubMed Central

Predictability of undesired events is a question of great interest in many scientific disciplines including seismology, economy and epidemiology. Here, we focus on the predictability of invasion of a broad class of epidemics caused by diseases that lead to permanent immunity of infected hosts after recovery or death. We approach the problem from the perspective of the science of complexity by proposing and testing several strategies for the estimation of important characteristics of epidemics, such as the probability of invasion. Our results suggest that parsimonious approximate methodologies may lead to the most reliable and robust predictions. The proposed methodologies are first applied to analysis of experimentally observed epidemics: invasion of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in replicated host microcosms. We then consider numerical experiments of the susceptible–infected–removed model to investigate the performance of the proposed methods in further detail. The suggested framework can be used as a valuable tool for quick assessment of epidemic threat at the stage when epidemics only start developing. Moreover, our work amplifies the significance of the small-scale and finite-time microcosm realizations of epidemics revealing their predictive power. PMID:22513723

Perez-Reche, Francisco J.; Neri, Franco M.; Taraskin, Sergei N.; Gilligan, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

215

Expression of ? 2 -macroglobulin, neutrophil elastase, and interleukin-1? differs in early-stage and late-stage atherosclerotic lesions in the arteries of the circle of Willis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of atherosclerotic (AS) lesions can be distinguished histologically and represent different stages of AS plaque development. Late-stage lesions more frequently develop complications such as plaque rupture and thrombosis with vessel occlusion than early AS lesions. To clarify whether protective, destructive, and inflammatory proteins are differentially expressed in early-stage and late-stage AS plaques we examined the proteinase inhibitor ?2-macroglobulin

Sergey Larionov; Oliver Dedeck; Gerd Birkenmeier; Dietmar Rudolf Thal

2007-01-01

216

Effects of Phosphate Binder Therapy on Vascular Stiffness in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and contributed to by the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The CKD-MBD begins in early CKD and its vascular manifestations begin with vascular stiffness proceeding to increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and vascular calcification (VC). Phosphorus is associated with this progression and is considered a CVD risk factor in CKD. We hypothesized that modifying phosphorus balance with lanthanum carbonate (LaCO3) in early CKD would not produce hypophosphatemia and may affect vascular manifestations of the CKD-MBD. Methods We randomized 38 subjects with normophosphatemic stage 3 CKD to a fixed dose of LaCO3 or matching placebo without adjusting dietary phosphorus in a 12-month randomized, double-blind, pilot and feasibility study. The primary outcome was the change in serum phosphorus. Secondary outcomes were changes in measures of phosphate homeostasis and vascular stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), cIMT and VC over 12 months. Results There were no statistically significant differences between LaCO3 and placebo with respect to the change in serum phosphorus, urinary phosphorus, tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, PWV, cIMT, or VC. Biomarkers of the early CKD-MBD such as plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and sclerostin were increased 2–3-fold at baseline but were not affected by LaCO3. Conclusion 12 months of LaCO3 had no effect on serum phosphorus and did not alter phosphate homeostasis, PWV, cIMT, VC, or biomarkers of the CKD-MBD. PMID:23941761

Seifert, Michael E.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Rothstein, Marcos; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Bierhals, Andrew J.; Cheng, Steven C.; Ross, Will; Windus, David; Davila-Roman, Victor G.; Hruska, Keith A.

2013-01-01

217

Cortical gyrification and sulcal spans in early stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an insidious onset of progressive cerebral atrophy and cognitive decline. Previous research suggests that cortical folding and sulcal width are associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals, and the aim of the present study was to investigate these morphological measures in patients with AD. The sample contained 161 participants, comprising 80 normal controls, 57 patients with very mild AD, and 24 patients with mild AD. From 3D T1-weighted brain scans, automated methods were used to calculate an index of global cortex gyrification and the width of five individual sulci: superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure. We found that global cortex gyrification decreased with increasing severity of AD, and that the width of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus was greater in patients with mild AD than in controls. We also found that cognitive functioning, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, decreased as global cortex gyrification decreased. MMSE scores also decreased in association with a widening of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus. The results suggest that abnormalities of global cortex gyrification and regional sulcal span are characteristic of patients with even very mild AD, and could thus facilitate the early diagnosis of this condition. PMID:22363554

Liu, Tao; Lipnicki, Darren M; Zhu, Wanlin; Tao, Dacheng; Zhang, Chengqi; Cui, Yue; Jin, Jesse S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wen, Wei

2012-01-01

218

Cortical Gyrification and Sulcal Spans in Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an insidious onset of progressive cerebral atrophy and cognitive decline. Previous research suggests that cortical folding and sulcal width are associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals, and the aim of the present study was to investigate these morphological measures in patients with AD. The sample contained 161 participants, comprising 80 normal controls, 57 patients with very mild AD, and 24 patients with mild AD. From 3D T1-weighted brain scans, automated methods were used to calculate an index of global cortex gyrification and the width of five individual sulci: superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure. We found that global cortex gyrification decreased with increasing severity of AD, and that the width of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus was greater in patients with mild AD than in controls. We also found that cognitive functioning, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, decreased as global cortex gyrification decreased. MMSE scores also decreased in association with a widening of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus. The results suggest that abnormalities of global cortex gyrification and regional sulcal span are characteristic of patients with even very mild AD, and could thus facilitate the early diagnosis of this condition. PMID:22363554

Liu, Tao; Lipnicki, Darren M.; Zhu, Wanlin; Tao, Dacheng; Zhang, Chengqi; Cui, Yue; Jin, Jesse S.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Wen, Wei

2012-01-01

219

Early and Late Stage Metals and Sulfides in Diogenites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diogenites are typically highly brecciated orthopyroxenites that contain 84-100 vol.% orthopyroxene. Common accessory minerals include olivine, chromite, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase, silica, troilite and Fe-Ni metal. Metal and sulfides are minor phases in diogenites with an average abundance of < 1 vol.% and 0-2 vol.% respectively. However their presence is important, as they could provide information on T-fO2-fS2 conditions and the evolution of the diogenite parent magma during crystallization and/or later metamorphism. We have examined the occurrence of Fe-Ni metal and sulfides in thin sections of several diogenites including, Johnstown, Manegaon, Roda, Shalka, Bilanga, and Tatahouine using optical microscopy and the electron microprobe. Here, we describe three features of metals and sulfides that are common in most of these diogenites. These are: i) The widespread occurrence of pentlandite associated with copper and copper sulfide minerals; ii) Textural evidence that at least some of the metal and sulfide occurring interstitially between, and as inclusions within, orthopyroxene formed from an early immiscible sulfide-oxide liquid; iii) That this sulfide- oxide liquid subsequently fractionated into assemblages containing either Fe-Ni metal, troilite, and chromite or pentlandite, troilite, and copper-bearing sulfide.

Sideras, L. C.; Domanik, K. J.; Lauretta, D. S.

2004-01-01

220

New insights into the early stages of silica-controlled barium carbonate crystallisation.  

PubMed

Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures resembling those typically displayed by biogenic minerals. These so-called biomorphs were shown to be composed of uniform elongated carbonate nanoparticles that are arranged according to a specific order over mesoscopic scales. In the present study, we have investigated the circumstances leading to the continuous formation and stabilisation of such well-defined nanometric building units in these inorganic systems. For this purpose, in situ potentiometric titration measurements were carried out in order to monitor and quantify the influence of silica on both the nucleation and early growth stages of barium carbonate crystallisation in alkaline media at constant pH. Complementarily, the nature and composition of particles occurring at different times in samples under various conditions were characterised ex situ by means of high-resolution electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The collected data clearly evidence that added silica affects carbonate crystallisation from the very beginning (i.e. already prior to, during, and shortly after nucleation), eventually arresting growth on the nanoscale by cementation of BaCO3 particles within a siliceous matrix. Our findings thus shed light on the fundamental processes driving bottom-up self-organisation in silica-carbonate materials and, for the first time, provide direct experimental proof that silicate species are responsible for the miniaturisation of carbonate crystals during growth of biomorphs, hence confirming previously discussed theoretical models for their formation mechanism. PMID:25362999

Eiblmeier, Josef; Schürmann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz; Gebauer, Denis; Kunz, Werner; Kellermeier, Matthias

2014-12-21

221

The effect of early growth dynamics on determining particle formation rates of a nucleating burst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied growth and coagulation in the early stages of a nucleating particle population using a numerical model that solves the for particle concentration on the highest possible size resolution. We found that commonly used methods for deriving particle formation rates from nanoparticle concentration measurements may not result in correct estimates for the formation rate. This influences reliability of the observed vapour concentration dependency of the nucleation rate, which is often used to draw conclusions of the nucleation mechanism.

Dal Maso, Miikka; Korhonen, H.; Lehtinen, Kari; Vehkamäki, H.

2013-05-01

222

Pheasant sexual ornaments reflect nutritional conditions during early growth.  

PubMed

Differences in growth conditions during early life have been suggested to cause long-lasting effects on morphology and quality of adult birds. We experimentally investigated the effect of early growth conditions on the expression of sexual ornaments later in life in male ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). We also investigated the effects on immune function, as it could be a functional link between early nutrition and ornament expression. We manipulated the dietary protein intake during the first eight weeks post hatching. Males receiving fodder with 27% protein during the first three weeks of life grew larger and more colourful wattles when sexually mature than males receiving a low-protein diet (20.5% protein). Spur length was unaffected by diet treatment. Manipulation of food protein levels during weeks 4-8 after hatching had no effect on the development of ornaments. The different protein treatments had no long-term effect on either humoral or cell-mediated immune responses. There was, however, a positive relationship between spur length and cell-mediated immune responsiveness. Our study shows that expression of a sexual ornament in adult pheasants reflects nutritional conditions early in life. Because the expression of secondary sexual ornaments is affected by conditions during early growth, by selecting more ornamented males, females would choose mates that are superior at handling early nutritional stress. If the susceptibility to early nutritional stress also has a hereditary basis, females may benefit by obtaining 'good genes'. PMID:11788032

Ohlsson, Thomas; Smith, Henrik G; Råberg, Lars; Hasselquist, Dennis

2002-01-01

223

Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion-deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case-control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4-5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7-5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

224

A mechanical model of early salt dome growth  

E-print Network

A MECHANICAL MODEL OF EARLY SALT DOME GROWTH A Thesis by FRANK ALBERT IRWIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988... Major Subject: Geology A MECHANICAL MODEL OF EARLY SALT DOME GROWTH A Thesis by FRANK ALBERT IRWIN Approved as to style and content by: aymond C. Fletcher (Chair of Committee) John H. Spang (Member) Wi tamR. B ant (Mem ) John H. Sp g (Head...

Irwin, Frank Albert

2012-06-07

225

Fox Chase researchers discover novel role of the NEDD9 gene in early stages of breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

A protein called NEDD9—which regulates cell migration, division and survival—has been linked to tumor invasion and metastasis in a variety of cancers. Researchers at Fox Chase Cancer Center have now shown that NEDD9 plays a surprising role in the early stages of breast tumor development by controlling the growth of progenitor cells that give rise to tumors. The findings, published in the journal Oncogene on January 14, 2013, could lead to personalized treatment strategies for women with breast cancer based on the levels of NEDD9 in their tumors.

226

Combined Modality Therapy for Early Stage Operable and Locally Advanced Potentially Resectable Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Surgical resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains the primary treatment for early stage disease, that is,\\u000a stage I and II disease. Yet, the vast majority of patients with lung cancer present with either distant metastatic disease\\u000a (stage IV) or locally advanced NSCLC (stage IIIA and IIIB). Today, despite modest gains in outcome in patients with early\\u000a stage disease,

Joseph I. Clark; Kathy S. Albain

227

Review of exemplar programs for adults with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

In response to the need to develop evidence-based best practices interventions and services for individuals in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the authors conducted an interdisciplinary literature review of exemplar programs, defined as those including multimodal or unimodal interventions; shown to be appropriate for individuals in the early stages of AD; demonstrating promise to support, maintain, and improve independent functioning; and shown to have positive effects for a variety of outcomes, including quality of life. This article examines evidence from five kinds of programs: (a) multimodal interventions, (b) programs developed by the Southwest Florida Interdisciplinary Center for Positive Aging, (c) sleep enhancement interventions, (d) managed care programs, and (e) technology-based interventions. Evidence from the review suggests that a number of programs can support functioning and improve quality of life for adults living with the early stages of memory loss. The article concludes with recommendations to advance a national research agenda in this area. PMID:20078003

Burgener, Sandra C; Buettner, Linda; Buckwalter, Kathleen C; Beattie, Elizabeth; Bossen, Ann L; Fick, Donna; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne; Kolanowski, Ann; Richeson, Nancy E; Rose, Karen M; Schreiner, Andrea; Pringle Specht, Janet K; Smith, Marianne; Testad, Ingelin; Yu, Fang; Gabrielson, Marcena; McKenzie, Sharon

2008-10-01

228

Delirium in early-stage alzheimer's disease: enhancing cognitive reserve as a possible preventive measure.  

PubMed

Delirium is a disorder of acute onset with fluctuating symptoms and is character ized by inattention, disorganized thinking and altered levels of consciousness. The risk for delirium is greatest in individual with dementia, and the incidence of both is increasing worldwide because of the aging of our population. Although s clinical trials have tested interventions f delirium prevention in individuals without dementia, little is known about the m anisms for the prevention of delirium i early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Th purpose of this article is to explore ways o preventing delirium and slowing the ra of cognitive decline in early-stage AD enhancing cognitive reserve. An agenda for future research on interventions to prevent delirium in individuals with early-stage AD is also presented. PMID:19326827

Fick, Donna M; Kolanowski, Ann; Beattie, Elizabeth; McCrow, Judith

2009-03-01

229

Pathologic correlates of nondemented aging, mild cognitive impairment, and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The results of studies from the Washington University Alzheimer Disease (AD) Research Center and those from other centers and investigators regarding the neuropathologic correlates of normal aging and early-stage AD are reviewed. We conclude that widespread amyloid plaques in the neocortex best distinguishes very early stage AD, including "MCI" stage, and preclinical stages, from healthy brain aging. Other AD lesions, including increased formation of neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal degeneration appear to result from the amyloid-initiated pathologic process, although they may have a more immediate effect on expression and severity of dementia. These data provide strong support for anti-amyloid intervention as a preventive therapy for AD. It is now critical to develop methods to detect preclinical AD during life. PMID:11816784

Morris, J C; Price, J L

2001-10-01

230

Changes in transcription and metabolism during the early stage of replicative cellular senescence in budding yeast.  

PubMed

Age-related damage accumulates and a variety of biological activities and functions deteriorate in senescent cells. However, little is known about when cellular aging behaviors begin and what cellular aging processes change. Previous research demonstrated age-related mRNA changes in budding yeast by the 18th to 20th generation, which is the average replicative lifespan of yeast (i.e. about half of the population is dead by this time point). Here, we performed transcriptional and metabolic profiling for yeast at early stages of senescence (4th, 7th, and 11th generation), that is, for populations in which most cells are still alive. Transcriptional profiles showed up- and down-regulation for ?20% of the genes profiled after the first four generations, few further changes by the 7th generation, and an additional 12% of the genes were up- and down-regulated after 11 generations. Pathway analysis revealed that these 11th generation cells had accumulated transcripts coding for enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, the TCA cycle, and amino acid degradation and showed decreased levels of mRNAs coding for enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthetic pathways. These observations were consistent with the metabolomic profiles of aging cells: an accumulation of pyruvic acid and TCA cycle intermediates and depletion of most amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids. Stationary phase-induced genes were highly expressed after 11 generations even though the growth medium contained adequate levels of nutrients, indicating deterioration of the nutrient sensing and/or signaling pathways by the 11th generation. These changes are presumably early indications of replicative senescence. PMID:25294875

Kamei, Yuka; Tamada, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Yasumune; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Mukai, Yukio

2014-11-14

231

Limitations of waterborne exposure of fish early life stages to BDE-47.  

PubMed

2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is acknowledged as the most abundant congener of all polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Despite its limited residence in the water column, most ecotoxicological research using fish early life stages (ELS) has focused on its waterborne bioavailability. These studies have been supported either by chemical analysis in solutions or in tissues after ? 168 h exposures to relatively high waterborne concentrations with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent carrier (? 0.5%). Using noninvasive physiological and anatomical features in medaka ELS, we investigated the viability of waterborne BDE-47 exposures (100-10,000 ?g/L; 1% DMSO) and evaluated the developmental effects in relation to the actual BDE-47 present in water. Embryos were exposed for 10 days under semi-static (24-h renewal) conditions and waterborne BDE-47 concentrations (i.e., dissolved) were quantitated daily and their accumulation in eleutheroembryonic tissues was analyzed 4 days after exposures finished. BDE-47 in solution rapidly decreased after each renewal by >50% in 24h. This was confirmed by discernible precipitation occurring at ? 5,000 ?g/L on the bottom of the container and attached to the chorionic filaments of eggshell. The fast dissipation from water may explain why, besides the subtle, yet significant effects on post-hatching growth (short length at ?5000?g/L), no other significant deleterious developmental effects were observed despite the fact that BDE-47 accumulated in tissues in response to BDE-47 treatment. Waterborne BDE-47 exposure was unachievable under traditional semi-static exposure conditions, but was achievable in repeated pulse exposures lasting a few hours whenever the medium was renewed. Hence, this research encourages the use of alternate - more realistic - exposure routes (e.g., particulate matter or sediments) when evaluating early developmental toxicity of BDE-47 or any other PBDE sharing similar properties. PMID:24508762

González-Doncel, Miguel; Torija, Carlos Fernández; Beltrán, Eulalia María; García-Mauriño, José Enrique; Sastre, Salvador; Carbonell, Gregoria

2014-03-01

232

Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid  

PubMed Central

Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties to increase their thermal tolerance windows. PMID:22701620

Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trubenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mario

2012-01-01

233

A profile of identity in early-stage dementia and a comparison with healthy older people.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine whether people in the early stages of dementia experience their sense of identity differently to healthy older people and to examine whether different aspects of identity are related to each other in each group. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study; 50 people with early-stage dementia and 50 age-matched people without dementia completed measures pertaining to different aspects of identity. Measures of mood and self-esteem were also included so that any differences could be taken into account in the analysis. There were very few differences in identity between the groups. After differences in levels of anxiety were accounted for, there were no differences in scores on most measures of identity. However, people in the early stages of dementia scored significantly lower on one subtotal for one measure of identity, whereas healthy older adults reported significantly more identity-related distress than people in the early stages of dementia. For both groups, there were no associations between different aspects of identity. People in the early stages of dementia do not differ much from healthy older adults in terms of their identity. Since healthy older people experience more distress relating to identity, they may be more likely to benefit from some sort of intervention than people in the early stages of dementia. It might be useful to consider identity as consisting of multiple components in future studies, rather than assuming that one aspect of identity represents the overall experience of identity. PMID:23171274

Caddell, Lisa S; Clare, Linda

2013-01-01

234

Expression analysis of the chicken homologue of CITED2 during early stages of embryonic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the Cited family are nuclear transactivators which bind to the coactivators p300 and CBP. While Cited1 also binds to the TGF? signal transducer Smad4, this has not been shown for Cited2. We isolated a chicken homologue of Cited2 from a HH stage 3–6 cDNA library and examined its expression pattern during early stages of embryonic development by whole-mount

Thomas Schlange; Birgit Andrée; Hans-Henning Arnold; Thomas Brand

2000-01-01

235

Outcomes in Patients With Early-Stage Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the outcome in patients with early-stage hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between February 1988 and February 2007, 77 patients with Stage I or Stage II HPC underwent definitive RT in the Division of Radiation Oncology at the National Cancer Center Hospital. Eleven of the patients received local irradiation, and the other 66 patients received elective bilateral neck irradiation and booster irradiation to the primary lesion. The median follow-up period for all the patients was 33 months from the start of RT, ranging from 3 to 229 months. Results: The rates of overall survival, HPC-specific survival, HPC recurrence-free survival, and local control with laryngeal voice preservation for the 77 patients at 5 years were 47%, 74%, 57%, and 70%, respectively. The survival rates were not affected by the patient characteristics or treatment factors, but the RT field was significantly correlated with local control in a multivariate analysis. Seven of the patients had Grade 3 or greater complications, but these complications occurred after salvage surgery in 6 of the patients. Of the 77 patients, 83% had synchronous or metachronous malignancies, but these malignancies did not influence the survival of the patients if the malignancies were detected at an early stage. Conclusion: RT is an appropriate treatment method for early-stage HPC. However, because synchronous or metachronous malignancies occur at a relatively high frequency, careful follow-up and the early detection of such malignancies are critical.

Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi, E-mail: ysmrmrad@tmd.ac.j [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology, Head and Neck Reconstruction Division, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu; Ito, Yoshinori [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, Masao [Division of Head and Neck Surgery, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sumi, Minako; Itami, Jun [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

2010-07-15

236

Surgical Management of Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Resection or Transplantation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis is controversial. The purpose\\u000a of the current study was to compare the outcome of patients with well-compensated cirrhosis and early stage hepatocellular\\u000a carcinoma treated with initial hepatic resection versus transplantation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between 1985 and 2008, 245 patients underwent hepatic resection, and 134 patients underwent liver transplantation for early\\u000a stage hepatocellular

Emily C. Bellavance; Kimberly M. Lumpkins; Gilles Mentha; Hugo P. Marques; Lorenzo Capussotti; Carlo Pulitano; Pietro Majno; Paulo Mira; Laura Rubbia-Brandt; Alessandro Ferrero; Luca Aldrighetti; Steven Cunningham; Nadia Russolillo; Benjamin Philosophe; Eduardo Barroso; Timothy M. Pawlik

2008-01-01

237

Grain sorghum response to different flooding periods at the early boot stage  

E-print Network

GRAIN SORGHUM RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT FLOODING PERIODS AT THE EARLY BOOT STAGE A Thesis by OSCAR ZOLEZZI DEL RIO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A)M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1976 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering GRAIN SORGHUM RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT FLOODING PERIODS AT THE EARLY BOOT STAGE A Thesis by OSCAR 2OLE22I DEL RIO Approved as to style and content by: airman o ommzttee Hea o Departme t e er...

Zolezzi del Rio, Oscar

2012-06-07

238

Confidence interval estimation of the difference between two sensitivities to the early disease stage.  

PubMed

Although most of the statistical methods for diagnostic studies focus on disease processes with binary disease status, many diseases can be naturally classified into three ordinal diagnostic categories, that is normal, early stage, and fully diseased. For such diseases, the volume under the ROC surface (VUS) is the most commonly used index of diagnostic accuracy. Because the early disease stage is most likely the optimal time window for therapeutic intervention, the sensitivity to the early diseased stage has been suggested as another diagnostic measure. For the purpose of comparing the diagnostic abilities on early disease detection between two markers, it is of interest to estimate the confidence interval of the difference between sensitivities to the early diseased stage. In this paper, we present both parametric and non-parametric methods for this purpose. An extensive simulation study is carried out for a variety of settings for the purpose of evaluating and comparing the performance of the proposed methods. A real example of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is analyzed using the proposed approaches. PMID:24265123

Dong, Tuochuan; Kang, Le; Hutson, Alan; Xiong, Chengjie; Tian, Lili

2014-03-01

239

Management of early stage cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck.  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive skin cancer of neuroendocrine origin. As a result, few large studies have been published, and we know of even fewer on disease of the head and neck alone. The most appropriate way to manage patients with early local disease and no sign of metastases neck is controversial. We reviewed management of early cutaneous MCC of the head and neck in 8 hospitals in the United Kingdom over 12 years between 1999 and 2011 (the largest head and neck series in Europe to date), and identified 39 patients (19 men and 20 women) with early disease according to a well recognised classification. A total of 24 patients had stage Ia disease, 11 had stage Ib disease, and 4 were unclassified. Five of those with stage Ia disease developed regional metastases and 7 with stage Ib disease developed regional recurrence. The 2-year overall survival for stage Ia and Ib disease was 62% and 27%, respectively. Our study shows that prognosis is poor after conservative surgical management of stage I disease. Management of the neck is still controversial, and a meta-analysis of all the published data is needed to establish best practice statistically. PMID:25174318

St J Blythe, John N; Macpherson, David; Reuther, William J; Ethunandan, Madan; Ilankovan, Velupillai; Sharma, Sanjay; Anand, Rajiv A; Mellor, Timothy K; Kerawala, Cyrus; Brennan, Peter A

2014-11-01

240

Prevalence and characteristics of pain in early and late stages of ALS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare pain frequency in early and late stages of ALS and to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status. Sixty-four patients in different stages of ALS were asked to complete the Neuropathic Pain Scale and to draw the localization of their pain on a body cartoon. The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) values were obtained from the medical record. A ?(2) correlation was used to compare the proportion of patients with pain in different stages of ALS. Correlation coefficient was used to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status (ALSFRS-R). Pain was reported by about half the patients. Using FVC values, patients were subdivided into early, intermediate and late stage of the disease. There was a negative correlation between pain intensity and functional status. There was no statistically significant difference in the presence of pain among patients in the different stages of ALS. In conclusion, our study showed that pain is common in ALS patients. Although pain intensity did correlate negatively with functional status, as expected, we were surprised to find that pain was also present in the early stages of the disease. PMID:23286754

Rivera, Itza; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Casey, Pat; Heller, Scott; Allen, Jeffrey; Siddique, Teepu; Sufit, Robert

2013-09-01

241

The roles of finance at different growth stages of startups  

E-print Network

The purpose of this qualitative case study is to develop a framework that summarizes the finance-related problems faced by entrepreneurs at different development stages of their startups, as well as the possible solutions ...

Fu, Yue, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

242

Frost Tolerance of Ten Seedling Legume Species at Four Growth Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

and makes replanting necessary. Experiments were conducted in the growth chamber to determine freezing tolerance of 10 legume species 2.5, and 3C at the cotyledon, unifoliolate, and first at four growth stages and to determine the freezing temperature that trifoliolate leaf stages. Prefreezing growth temperatures kills 50% of seedlings (LT50) for each species under temperatures in the greenhouse were 15\\/9,

D. W. Meyer; M. Badaruddin

2001-01-01

243

[Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].  

PubMed

Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA. PMID:23829961

Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

2013-12-01

244

Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.  

PubMed

Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 ?g/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 ?g/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 ?g/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection. PMID:23124699

Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

2013-01-01

245

Self-Consistent Simulation of the Brownian Stage of Dust Growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is a widely accepted view that in proto-planetary accretion disks the collision and following sticking of dust particles embedded in the gas eventually leads to the formation of planetesimals (coagulation). For the smallest dust grains, Brownian motion is assumed to be the dominant source of their relative velocities leading to collisions between these dust grains. As the dust grains grow they eventually couple to the turbulent motion of the gas which then drives the coagulation much more efficiently. Many numerical coagulation simulations have been carried out to calculate the fractal dimension of the aggregates, which determines the duration of the ineffective Brownian stage of growth. Predominantly on-lattice and off-lattice methods were used. However, both methods require simplification of the astrophysical conditions. The aggregates found by those methods had a fractal dimension of approximately 2 which is equivalent to a constant, mass-independent friction time. If this value were valid for the conditions in an accretion disk, this would mean that the coagulation process would finally 'freeze out' and the growth of a planetesimal would be impossible within the lifetime of an accretion disk. In order to investigate whether this fractal dimension is model independent, we simulate self-consistently the Brownian stage of the coagulation by an N-particle code. This method has the advantage that no further assumptions about homogeneity of the dust have to be made. In our model, the dust grains are considered as aggregates built up of spheres. The equation of motion of the dust grains is based on the probability density for the diffusive transport within the gas atmosphere. Because of the very low number density of the dust grains, only 2-body-collisions have to be considered. As the Brownian stage of growth is very inefficient, the system is to be simulated over long periods of time. In order to find close particle pairs of the system which are most likely to undergo a collision, we use a particle-in-cell (PIC) method for the early stages of the simulation where the system is still very homogeneous and a tree method later when the particles are more clustered.

Kempf, S.; Pfalzner, S.; Henning, Th.

1996-01-01

246

Awareness in early-stage Alzheimer's disease: relationship to outcome of cognitive rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Awareness of difficulties may have an important impact on functioning and response to intervention in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical reports and retrospective studies suggest an association, but this has not previously been tested in a prospective study. Using a new measure of awareness, the Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARS), which was designed to take account of methodological limitations identified in a review of previous studies, the present study explored the relationship between awareness of difficulties and outcome of a cognitive rehabilitation (CR) intervention in 12 participants with a diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimer's disease. The relationship between awareness and mood, behaviour and executive function was also assessed. The results provide the first demonstration in a prospective study that higher levels of awareness are related to better CR outcomes. Awareness was associated with depression and reported behaviour problems, but not with performance on tests of executive function. These results suggest that variations in level of awareness in early-stage AD are influenced by psychological factors, and that explanatory models need to take these factors into account. Awareness of difficulties may serve as a useful predictor of the likely effectiveness of CR, andthis may assist clinicians in selecting appropriate interventions for individuals with early-stage AD. PMID:15202541

Clare, Linda; Wilson, Barbara A; Carter, Gina; Roth, Ilona; Hodges, John R

2004-04-01

247

MD Anderson researchers compare treatments, survival benefits for early-stage lung cancer  

Cancer.gov

Removal of the entire lobe of lung may offer patients with early-stage lung cancer better overall survival when compared with a partial resection, and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) may offer the same survival benefit as a lobectomy for some patients, according to a study from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.Click here to read the full press release.

248

Biogeochemical changes at early stage after the closure of radioactive waste geological repository in South Korea  

E-print Network

Organic waste a b s t r a c t Permanent disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastesBiogeochemical changes at early stage after the closure of radioactive waste geological repository e Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), 111, Daedeok-daero 989 beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305

Ohta, Shigemi

249

Platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration in hypertension associated with early stage kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Chronic hypertension accompanying early stage kidney disease is characterized by increased vascular resistance, but the underlying processes responsible for the enhanced vascular tone are unclear. We studied free calcium levels in blood platelets with the fluorescent dye quin-2. Platelets have many features in common with vascular smooth muscle cells. The cytosolic calcium concentration in platelets was elevated in 27

H. Schiffl; Medizinische Klinik

1989-01-01

250

Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

2014-01-01

251

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

252

Laparoscopic Assessment of the Sentinel Lymph Node in Early Stage Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to describe a minimally invasive technique enabling us to identify the sentinel lymph node in patients affected by early stage cervical cancer and to report the preliminary data.Method. Patent Blue Violet was injected around the tumor. Laparoscopy was undertaken and the blue-dyed lymph nodes (BDLN) were sought. The evidenced BDLN were removed, and

D. Dargent; X. Martin; P. Mathevet

2000-01-01

253

Predation on Early Life Stages of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality of early life stages can limit recruitment of fishes, and understanding the impacts of various sources of mortality has long been a goal of fisheries management. The impacts of predation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify sources of predation that affect lake sturgeon eggs, larvae, and

David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

2010-01-01

254

Creating Socionas: Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the ability to translate this understanding into products and services that are pleasurable and easy to use

C. E. Postma

2012-01-01

255

Treatment of Early-Stage Pressure Ulcers by Using Autologous Adipose Tissue Grafts  

PubMed Central

Assessing pressure ulcers (PUs) in early stages allows patients to receive safer treatment. Up to now, in addition to clinical evaluation, ultrasonography seems to be the most suitable technique to achieve this goal. Several treatments are applied to prevent ulcer progression but none of them is totally effective. Furthermore, the in-depth knowledge of fat regenerative properties has led to a wide use of it. With this study the authors aim at introducing a new approach to cure and prevent the worsening of early-stage PUs by using fat grafts. The authors selected 42 patients who showed clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of early-stage PUs. Values of skin thickness, fascial integrity, and subcutaneous vascularity were recorded both on the PU area and the healthy trochanteric one, used as control region. Fat grafting was performed on all patients. At three months, abnormal ultrasonographic findings, such as reduction of cutaneous and subcutaneous thickness, discontinuous fascia, and decrease in subcutaneous vascularity, all were modified with respect to almost all the corresponding parameters of the control region. Results highlight that the use of fat grafts proved to be an effective treatment for early-stage PUs, especially in the care of neurological and chronic bedridden patients. PMID:24818019

Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Pallara, Tiziano; Cagli, Barbara; Schena, Emiliano; Giurazza, Francesco; Faiella, Elio; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Persichetti, Paolo

2014-01-01

256

Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) Study: A cohort of early stage breast cancer survivors (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) Study, a cohort of 2321 early stage breast cancer survivors, was established in 2000 to examine how modifiable behavioral risk factors affect quality of life and long-term survival. Women were recruited primarily from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry (KPNCAL) and the Utah cancer registry (UCR), United States. Baseline data were collected, on

Bette Caan; Barbara Sternfeld; Erica Gunderson; Ashley Coates; Charles Quesenberry; Martha L. Slattery

2005-01-01

257

Early-Stage Evaluation of Ubiquitous Computing Applications Principle Investigator: Jennifer Mankoff Sponsoring Corporations: Intel,  

E-print Network

. This means that those techniques may not be applicable, or may require modifications in order to be effective of single user, productivity oriented tasks that underlie most of the commonly used evaluation techniques. (2) Evaluation techniques for early-stage design, such as Heuristic Evaluation, and paper

Mankoff, Jennifer

258

Diesel engine smoke reduction by controlling early thermal cracking process and activation later stage combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, extensive soot reduction was attempted with two parallel approaches: blending of oxygenated fuel and generation of strong turbulence during the combustion process. In the early stage of usual diesel combustion, the droplets in the spray are thermally cracked to low boiling point components as C2 to C5 due to the shortage of oxygen, and these components result

T. Murayama; T. Chikahisa; Y. Fujiwara

1998-01-01

259

The association between bullying and early stages of suicidal ideation in late adolescents in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bullying in schools has been associated with suicidal ideation but the confounding effect of psychiatric morbidity has not always been taken into account. Our main aim was to test the association between bullying behavior and early stages of suicidal ideation in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is independent of the presence of psychiatric morbidity,

Petros Skapinakis; Stefanos Bellos; Tatiana Gkatsa; Konstantina Magklara; Glyn Lewis; Ricardo Araya; Stelios Stylianidis; Venetsanos Mavreas

2011-01-01

260

Implementation of the TMS in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

47 PD patients were investigated with the single-pulse TMS to find out changes in motor evoked potential and motor conduction related to the stage of minimal motor symptoms and its further deterioration in groups with the different clinical types of the disease. The investigation revealed a markedly longer MEP duration along with the increased number of phases, than in controls, which were bilateral and advanced despite the minimal unilateral motor symptoms. There was also increased MEP amplitude in facilitation, with a higher degree of asymmetry, compared to controls. Patients with predominant rigid clinical forms had the further MEP duration and amplitude increase proportionally to bradikinesia and rigidity in the early stages of the disease. Patients with tremor predominant forms had no further changes in the MEP duration and amplitude, but had their motor CCT decreased in the early stages. Patients with the akinetic form were characterized by the asymmetric increase in the MEP Amplitude in relaxation and motor CCT shortening. Thus, TMS allows us to diagnose early the possible central motor changes secondary to Parkinson's disease, reveals the difference in compensational capacity according to the clinical type of the disease and helps in monitoring of the severity of motor changes in early stages. PMID:16218197

Guekht, A; Selikhova, M; Serkin, G; Gusev, E

2005-01-01

261

The Utility of Stroop Task Switching as a Marker for Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

The Utility of Stroop Task Switching as a Marker for Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Keith A have suggested attentional control tasks such as the Stroop task and the task-switching paradigm may study combined these tasks to create a Stroop switching task. Performance was compared across young

262

Task-Set Switching Deficits in Early-Stage Huntington's Disease: Implications for Basal Ganglia Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive functions are likely mediated by interconnected circuits including frontal lobe and basal ganglia structures. We assessed the executive function of task switching in patients with early-stage Huntington' s disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease affecting the basal ganglia. In two experiments, the HD patients had greater difficulty when switching than when repeating a task than matched controls, and this was

Adam R. Aron; Laura Watkins; Barbara J. Sahakian; Stephen Monsell; Roger A. Barker; Trevor W. Robbins

2003-01-01

263

Reducing Treatment Intensity Doesn't Compromise Results in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Reducing the dose of chemotherapy and radiotherapy did not compromise treatment efficacy in patients  with early-stage, low-risk Hodgkin lymphoma but led to fewer side effects, according to a study published August 12, 2010, in the New England Journal of Medicine.

264

News Notes: Two Proteins May Be Key to Screening for Early-Stage Liver Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified an improved method of screening high-risk patients for one of the most common types of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), particularly if the patient has a history of hepatitis. By changing the threshold of one commonly used screening test and adding a second, complementary test, researchers were able to accurately identify more early stage HCC cases.

265

Adding Radiation to Chemotherapy May Improve Outcomes in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not known.

266

Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a phase III clinical trial.

267

AN EARLY STAGE IN THE PLANT RECOLONIZATION OF A NUCLEAR TARGET AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetational analyses were conducted three years postdetonation in a ; nuclear target area in a Grayia spinosa-Lycium andersonii community in Yucca ; Fiat, Nevada. Annual plants dominated the early stage of recolonization and were ; quantitatively more abundant in the disturbed areas than in an adjacent ; undisturbed shrub community. Ment zelia albicaulis and Chaenactis steviodes ; occurred in both

W. H. Rickard; L. M. Shields

1963-01-01

268

The experience of providing care in the early stages of dementia: An interpretative phenomenological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Despite a wealth of research on factors affecting the well-being of caregivers for people with dementia, relatively little attention has been given to the issues facing caregivers in the early stages of dementia, and few attempts have been made to explore the subjective experience of caregivers using qualitative methods. This study explores the subjective, psychological experience of spouses or

Catherine Quinn; Linda Clare; Alison Pearce; Michael van Dijkhuizen

2008-01-01

269

Memory Club: A Group Intervention for People with Early-Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Diagnosis of dementia in its early stages presents a window of opportunity for examining the immediate and long-term consequences of the illness at a point when the individual with memory loss can still participate in decision making. Design and Methods: Memory Club is a l0-session group program designed to provide information about…

Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia E.; Watson, Jennifer; Rice-Oeschger, Laura; Kakos, Bernadette

2004-01-01

270

Evaluating an Educational Intervention With Relatives of Persons in the Early Stages of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to describe the results of an educational intervention for family caregivers of persons in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. A total of 58 family caregivers participated in this intervention, which consisted of five weekly educational sessions about the disease and various aspects of caregiving. Measures of knowledge about Alzheimer's disease, reactions to patients'impairments,

Daniel R. Kuhn; C. F. M. de Leon

2001-01-01

271

Memory Club: A Group Intervention for People With Early-Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Diagnosis of dementia in its early stages presents a window of opportunity for examining the immediate and long-term consequences of the illness at a point when the individual with memory loss can still participate in decision making. Design and Methods: Memory Club is a 10-session group pro- gram designed to provide information about memory loss and resources for coping

Steven H. Zarit; Elia E. Femia; Jennifer Watson; Laura Rice-Oeschger; Bernadette Kakos

272

Neurochemical Diversity of Dystrophic Neurites in the Early and Late Stages of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the neurochemical and morphological diversity of abnormal neurites associated with ?-amyloid plaque formation in the early and late stages of Alzheimer's disease. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease was characterised by the presence of abnormal neurites containing either neurofilament or chromogranin A immunoreactivity. All clustered dystrophic neurites in these cases were associated with ?-amyloid plaques. Neurofilament immunoreactive dystrophic neurites in preclinical

Tracey C. Dickson; Carolyn E. King; Graeme H. McCormack; James C. Vickers

1999-01-01

273

Fungal and algal gene expression in early developmental stages of lichen-symbiosis  

E-print Network

Fungal and algal gene expression in early developmental stages of lichen-symbiosis Suzanne Joneson1 of the central questions in cellular communication. The symbiosis between the filamen- tous fungus Cladonia grayi the development of the lichen symbiosis. The results of this study highlight future avenues of investigation

Lutzoni, François M.

274

"It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

Roberts-Holmes, Guy

2012-01-01

275

The Effects of Problem-Focused Group Counseling for Early-Stage Gynecologic Cancer Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effect of a 5-week group counseling treatment to an information-only control condition for 37 women with early-stage gynecologic cancer. Women completed various measures related to mood, adjustment, and coping one week before treatment, at the last session, and at one month follow up. Differences are reported. (JBJ)

Wenzel, Lari B.; And Others

1995-01-01

276

Genetics of the early stages of invasion of the Lessepsian rabbitfish Siganus luridus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the initial stages of dispersal and settlement are of great interest in understanding the dynamics of biological invasions and in designing management responses. A newly settled population of the Lessepsian rabbitfish migrant Siganus luridus, that arrived in Linosa Island (Sicily Strait) in 2000, offered a unique opportunity to examine the genetic variability of the early phase of invasion

Ernesto Azzurro; Daniel Golani; Giuseppe Bucciarelli; Giacomo Bernardi

2006-01-01

277

Patients with Old Age or Proximal Tumors Benefit from Metabolic Syndrome in Early Stage Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. Methods Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. Results Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P?=?0.036). Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P?=?0.009 in multivariate analysis) or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P?=?0.047 in multivariate analysis). No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P?=?0.052 in univariate analysis). Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors. PMID:24599168

Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian-xin; Yu, Hong-mei; Liang, Wei-ping; Jin, Ying; Ren, Chao; He, Ming-ming; Chen, Wei-wei; Luo, Hui-yan; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Li, Yu-hong; Xu, Rui-hua

2014-01-01

278

Early-stage practicalities of implementing computer aided education: Experience from India  

E-print Network

organization that researchers in ICT in education may look at for hypotheses generation. 1. Introduction AfterEarly-stage practicalities of implementing computer aided education: Experience from India Joyojeet preliminary findings, and is reflected throughout. India runs the third-largest educational system

Sanders, Seth

279

The Chromosomal Control of Leaf Characteristics of Early-Stage Plants in Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid expansion of leaves of early-stage plants in wheat produced by chromosomal control of characteristics related to rapid expansion of the first six leaves of wheat were investigated using a set of single chromosome substitution lines under two different temperature regimes (TRs). Results from this study indicated that several chromosomes could be responsible for each of the four characteristics studied

Cun-dong LI; Zhi-ying BAI; G Ye; M Miyagi; S Chapman; SM Reader; Chun-ji LIU

2011-01-01

280

Towards a Conceptualization of the Early Career Stage of Principalship: Current Research, Idiosyncrasies and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review aims at providing a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of the early career stage of principalship by documenting the experiences and tasks of new principals (NPs) in the first three years in the post, and their personal and organizational determinants. The synthesis is based on empirical research…

Oplatka, Izhar

2012-01-01

281

Early Stages of Hydrothermal Alteration in Anomalous Primitive CCs NWA 5958 and Paris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite its 3.0 petrographic type, alteration features are observed in NWA 5958 by SEM observations. Magnetometry suggests the presence of Fe-phyllosilicates, as in the Paris CM. These two CCs allow us to study early stages of hydrothermal alteration.

Elmaleh, A.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R. H.; Göpel, C.; Fieni, C.; Pont, S.; Humayun, M.

2012-09-01

282

Chemical and Bacteriological Changes in Grass Silage during the Early Stages of Fermentation I. Chemical Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The results showed that aeration of the forages influenced the bacterial flora and the chemical quality of the silages examined. The majority of the organisms isolated from the silages during the early stages of fermentation were cocci and Gram-negative rods. A few diphtheroids, aerobic bacilli, and pseudomonads were found, but occurred too infrequently to be of importance. Lactobacilli were

C. W. Langston; Cecelia Bouma; C. H. Gordon; W. C. Jacobson; C. G. Melin; L. A. Moore; J. E. McCalmont

1962-01-01

283

Test Design Optimization in CAT Early Stage with the Nominal Response Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) refers to the phase of the trait estimation during the administration of only a few items. This phase can be characterized by bias and instability of estimation. In this study, an item selection criterion is introduced in an attempt to lessen this instability: the D-optimality criterion. A…

Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E.

2007-01-01

284

Acoustic emission technique used for detecting early stages of precipitation during aging of Inconel 625  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging behavior of Inconel 625 has been studied at 540 °C. The Ni2(Cr,Mo) phase, found in this material only after a long service life, has been detected along with the ?? phase after a short aging. Acoustic emission technique has been found sensitive enough to detect early stages of precipitation.

J. Mittra; J. S. Dubey; S. Banerjee

2003-01-01

285

EFFECTS OF FENVALERATE ON THE EARLY LIFE-STAGES OF TOPSMELT (ATHERINOPS AFFINIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through acute and early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific Coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. he 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 ug/L. n the 30-d ELS test was laboratory-sp...

286

EFFECTS OF FENVALERATE ON THE EARLY LIFE STAGES OF TOPSMELT (ATHERINOPS AFFINIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through acute and early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific Coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. he 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 ug?l. n the 30-d ELS test with laboratory-s...

287

Body Weight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

E-print Network

Body Weight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Brown Bag Explore the effect of post-treatment changes in body weight status on 2-year risk of PSA failure Specific cancer-specific mortality Other · Body weight since age 25 & 40 years Other · D'Amico 5-yr PSA

Illinois at Chicago, University of

288

Computer-generated physical modelling in the early stages of the design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates some of the opportunities arising from the introduction of computer-generated physical modelling11This notation of what may be commonly referred to as Rapid Prototyping was found by the author, for the first time in William J. Mitchell, ‘Change, Time and Speed’, Thresholds no. 16, Dept. of Architecture, MIT, 1998. in the early stages of the architectural design process.

Alvise Simondetti

2002-01-01

289

Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

2013-01-01

290

Minilaparotomy in Early Stage Endometrial Cancer: An Alternative to Standard and Laparoscopic Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Our objective was to determine whether minilaparotomy could be a safe and feasible approach for the surgical treatment of early endometrial cancer patients and whether it could be considered a valid alternative to the laparoscopic treatment.Methods. A pilot study of 50 consecutive patients with FIGO stage I–IV endometrial cancer undergoing surgery at our Department was performed between May and

Anna Fagotti; Gabriella Ferrandina; Romina Longo; Salvatore Mancuso; Giovanni Scambia

2002-01-01

291

Direct observation of the transition from a 2D layer to 3D islands at the initial stage of InGaAs growth on GaAs by AFM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the transition from two-dimensional (2D) growth to three-dimensional (3D) growth at the initial stage of In0.8Ga0.2As growth with the Stranski-Krastanov mode on GaAs by metal organic chemical vapor phase epitaxy. The surface morphology was observed by atomic force microscopy. In the early stage of the growth, the formation of 2D islands and that of holes were alternately

M. Kitamura; M. Nishioka; R. Schur; Y. Arakawa

1997-01-01

292

Initial stages of FeO growth on Ru(0001).  

PubMed

We study how FeO wüstite films on Ru(0001) grow by oxygen-assisted molecular beam epitaxy at elevated temperatures (800–900 K). The nucleation and growth of FeO islands are observed in real time by low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM). When the growth is performed in an oxygen pressure of 10(?6) Torr, the islands are of bilayer thickness (Fe–O–Fe–O). In contrast, under a pressure of 10(?8) Torr, the islands are a single FeO layer thick. We propose that the film thickness is controlled by the concentration of oxygen adsorbed on the Ru. More specifically, when monolayer growth increases the adsorbed oxygen concentration above a limiting value, its growth is suppressed. Increasing the temperature at a fixed oxygen pressure decreases the density of FeO islands. However, the nucleation density is not a monotonic function of oxygen pressure. PMID:24200910

Palacio, I; Monti, M; Marco, J F; McCarty, K F; de la Figuera, J

2013-12-01

293

Ocean Acidification Effects on the Early Life-Stages of Commercially Important Flatfish of the Northeast USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limited available evidence about effects on finfish of high CO2 levels and acidification of our oceans suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. A carefully planned, experimental framework was developed to cast an extensive yet strategic inferential net. Three key elements of our approach are the use of 1) multiple marine finfish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat of early life-stages; 2) a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures), and 3) a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. The response variable set reflects fish condition, fitness, and likelihood of recruitment, and includes measures of viability, physiology, histopathology, growth, development, and behavior expressed during fish early life-stages (i.e., gametes, embryos, and larvae). Early life-stages were chosen due to the anticipation of their vulnerability to acid-base challenges in their environment. To date, factorial experiments have been implemented on summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Initial results reveal survival of summer flounder embryos is compromised by pH < 7.7 (CO2 > 790 ppm). These results were similar across offspring groups (i.e., embryos from different parents). Winter flounder are larger at hatching when exposed to high CO2 levels in the coolest environment implemented in our experiments (range 4 to 10 ?C). Further responses of advanced larvae of both flounder species are currently being assessed for evidence of other whole body, component organ, and biochemical impairment. This study will aid researchers and resource managers in identifying species types, life-stages, and biotic responses that are most sensitive to the expected future levels of CO2 and water temperature in our oceans.

Chambers, R. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Candelmo, A. C.; Poach, M.; Wieczorek, D.; Phelan, B.; Caldarone, E.; Cooper, K. R.

2012-12-01

294

The power of personality in discriminating between healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

This study examined differences in personality in the earliest stages of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) relative to healthy aging, and the power of personality in discriminating healthy aging from early-stage DAT. Four groups of participants (middle-aged controls, older controls, persons with very mild DAT, and persons with mild DAT) and their families were administered Costa and McCrae's NEO Five-Factor Inventory. On the basis of both self-report and informant report, there was an increase in neuroticism and a decrease in conscientiousness in persons with very mild DAT relative to healthy individuals without it, and in persons with mild DAT relative to those with very mild DAT. Moreover, informant reports of neuroticism and conscientiousness capture substantial unique variance in discriminating healthy aging and very mild DAT, above and beyond standard neuropsychological tests. Discussion focuses on the importance of personality traits as a noncognitive indicator of early-stage DAT. PMID:18079420

Duchek, Janet M; Balota, David A; Storandt, Martha; Larsen, Randy

2007-11-01

295

Examination of phosphorylated tau protein as a PHF-precursor at early stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Hyperphosphorylated tau protein which can be isolated on the basis of insolubility in 1% sarkosyl (A68-tau fraction) is thought to represent a precursor pool for PHF assembly, associated histologically with neuritic pathology, which feeds into a more resistant tangle-associated PHF pool via cross-linking and proteolysis. We examined these predictions at the earliest detectable stages of neurofibrillary pathology. We report that there is no evidence that neuritic pathology represents an early pathologic stage, no evidence of an association between neuritic pathology and phosphorylated tau, no evidence of selective accumulation of phosphorylated tau at early stages of pathology, and no evidence for a precursor/product relationship between phosphorylated tau and PHFs during progression of pathology. We conclude that altered phosphorylation is a secondary process affecting 5% of PHFs and does not explain PHF assembly in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:7566351

Lai, R Y; Gertz, H N; Wischik, D J; Xuereb, J H; Mukaetova-Ladinska, E B; Harrington, C R; Edwards, P C; Mena, R; Paykel, E S; Brayne, C

1995-01-01

296

Analysis of Turbulent flow in early stages of atherosclerosis of coronary artery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the early stages of atherosclerotic heart disease, fatty material accumulates in the coronary artery resulting in development of streaks of plaque and creating high levels of turbulence, and with significantly modified flow parameters. Diagnostic measures performed during this early stage may not show any evidence of coronary artery disease, because the lumen of the coronary artery has not decreased in caliber. These streaks do not obstruct the flow of blood but alter the flow characteristics, even at this preclinical stage. This talk presents the preliminary results for the analysis of turbulent flow characteristics for a range of atherosclerotic plaque configurations in the left main coronary artery. For this purpose a CAD/medical imaging based direct-simulation (DNS) tool has been developed. The Navier-stokes equations are solved in the vertical vorticity-velocity formulation. The plaque is introduced using immersed body technique. The geometric acquisition of the artery geometry and plaque morphology is obtained using CAD based commercial software.

Bhaganagar, Kiran

2005-11-01

297

Cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral toxicity of carbofuran on Oreochromis niloticus early life stages.  

PubMed

Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 9 days post-hatch were exposed in semi-static experiments to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which is applied in agricultural systems in Brazil. Although the molecular mechanism of carbofuran toxicity is well known, a detailed understanding of the ecological mechanisms through which carbofuran effects can propagate towards higher levels of biological organization in fish is incomplete. Mortality rates were quantified for larvae exposed for 96 h to 8.3, 40.6, 69.9, 140, 297 and 397 ?g/L carbofuran, and the LC(50) 96 h was 214.7 ?g/L. In addition, the biochemical biomarker cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral biomarkers related to vision, swimming, prey capture and predator avoidance were quantified in individual larvae, as well as their growth in weight. The behavioral parameters were quantified by analysis of digitally recorded videos of individual larvae within appropriate experimental setups. The activity of the enzyme cholinesterase decreased after exposure to carbofuran with a lowest observed effects concentration (LOEC) of 69.9 ?g/L. Visual acuity deficits were detected after carbofuran exposure with a LOEC of 40.6 ?g/L. Swimming speed decreased with carbofuran exposure, with a LOEC of 397.6 ?g/L. The number of attacks to prey (Daphnia magna nauplii) decreased in larvae exposed to carbofuran, with a LOEC of 397.6 ?g/L. Growth in weight was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner, and all carbofuran groups exhibited a statistically significant decrease in growth when compared to controls (p<0.05). The number of predator attacks necessary to capture larvae decreased after exposure to carbofuran, and the LOEC was 69.9 ?g/L. These results show that exposure of sensitive early life stages of tilapia O. niloticus to sublethal concentrations of carbofuran can affect fundamental aspects of fish larval ecology that are relevant to recruitment of fish populations, and that can be better understood by the application of behavioral biomarkers. PMID:21794226

Pessoa, P C; Luchmann, K H; Ribeiro, A B; Veras, M M; Correa, J R M B; Nogueira, A J; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

2011-10-01

298

Covariability in early growth and year-class strength of Barents Sea cod, haddock, and herring: the environmental link  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the hypothesis that survival of a cohort is directly related to growth rates during the pre-recruit period for marine fish. This hypothesis is widely accepted, but supporting field evidence has been elusive. Here the connection between size and year-class strength at the early stages is examined for the commercially important Barents Sea stocks of cod (Gadus morhua), haddock

G. Ottersen; H. Loeng

2000-01-01

299

Exploration of novel predictive markers in rat plasma of the early stages of chronic renal failure.  

PubMed

To identify blood markers for early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), blood samples were collected from rats with adenine-induced CKD over 28 days. Plasma samples were subjected to metabolomic profiling by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by multivariate analyses. In addition to already-identified uremic toxins, we found that plasma concentrations of N6-succinyl adenosine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine 20:4, and glycocholic acid were altered, and that these changes during early CKD were more sensitive markers than creatinine concentration, a universal indicator of renal dysfunction. Moreover, the increase in plasma indoxyl sulfate concentration occurred earlier than increases in phenyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate. These novel metabolites may serve as biomarkers in identifying early stage CKD. PMID:24232639

Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Yuriko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Kouichi; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kohno, Masahiro

2014-02-01

300

Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth  

PubMed Central

The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability. PMID:18988282

Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

2011-01-01

301

Microscopic and early stage ovarian cancers in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers: building a model for early BRCA-associated tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is the cornerstone of ovarian cancer prevention in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Occult fallopian tube and ovarian cancers have been reported in a small percentage of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers undergoing RRSO. Here, we review our single institution experience with RRSO in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers to characterize cases of microscopic cancers in these patients. At the time of RRSO, 7.9% of BRCA1 mutation carriers were diagnosed with microscopic fallopian tube or ovarian cancers and zero cases were diagnosed in BRCA2 mutation carriers. The majority of the microscopic cancers include cases that were confined to the fallopian tubes, although there were also cases involving ovaries only or peritoneal washings only. This suggests that the site of origin may be in the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum for BRCA-associated serous cancers. However, an analysis of early stage (stage I and II) ovarian and fallopian tube cancers diagnosed in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers confirms that the ovary is a preferred site for tumor growth with 11 of 14 early stage cancers having a dominant ovarian mass. Overall, these data suggest that cancer initiation may occur in the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum, but tumor growth and progression is favored in the ovary. We present an updated model for BRCA1/2-associated ovarian and fallopian tube carcinogenesis, which may aid in identifying improved prevention strategies for high-risk women that delay or decline RRSO. PMID:21278312

Yates, Melinda S.; Meyer, Larissa A.; Deavers, Michael T.; Daniels, Molly S.; Keeler, Elizabeth R.; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.; Lu, Karen H.

2011-01-01

302

Knowledge-based compact disease models identify new molecular players contributing to early-stage Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Background High-throughput profiling of human tissues typically yield as results the gene lists comprised of a mix of relevant molecular entities with multiple false positives that obstruct the translation of such results into mechanistic hypotheses. From general probabilistic considerations, gene lists distilled for the mechanistically relevant components can be far more useful for subsequent experimental design or data interpretation. Results The input candidate gene lists were processed into different tiers of evidence consistency established by enrichment analysis across subsets of the same experiments and across different experiments and platforms. The cut-offs were established empirically through ontological and semantic enrichment; resultant shortened gene list was re-expanded by Ingenuity Pathway Assistant tool. The resulting sub-networks provided the basis for generating mechanistic hypotheses that were partially validated by literature search. This approach differs from previous consistency-based studies in that the cut-off on the Receiver Operating Characteristic of the true-false separation process is optimized by flexible selection of the consistency building procedure. The gene list distilled by this analytic technique and its network representation were termed Compact Disease Model (CDM). Here we present the CDM signature for the study of early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. The integrated analysis of this gene signature allowed us to identify the protein traffic vesicles as prominent players in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s. Considering the distances and complexity of protein trafficking in neurons, it is plausible that spontaneous protein misfolding along with a shortage of growth stimulation result in neurodegeneration. Several potentially overlapping scenarios of early-stage Alzheimer pathogenesis have been discussed, with an emphasis on the protective effects of AT-1 mediated antihypertensive response on cytoskeleton remodeling, along with neuronal activation of oncogenes, luteinizing hormone signaling and insulin-related growth regulation, forming a pleiotropic model of its early stages. Alignment with emerging literature confirmed many predictions derived from early-stage Alzheimer’s disease’ CDM. Conclusions A flexible approach for high-throughput data analysis, the Compact Disease Model generation, allows extraction of meaningful, mechanism-centered gene sets compatible with instant translation of the results into testable hypotheses. PMID:24196233

2013-01-01

303

Catch-up growth occurs after diarrhea in early childhood.  

PubMed

Diarrhea and linear growth faltering continue to burden low-income countries and are among the most important contributors to poor health during early childhood. Diarrhea is thought to adversely affect linear growth, but catch-up growth can occur if no additional insults are experienced. We sought to characterize catch-up growth in relation to diarrhea burden in a multisite dataset of 1007 children. Using longitudinal anthropometry and diarrheal surveillance data from 7 cohort studies in 4 countries, we examined the relation between diarrhea prevalence and growth in 3- to 6-mo periods using linear mixed-effect models. Growth during each period was calculated as a function of age using linear splines. We incorporated the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea in both current and previous periods into the model. Diarrhea during the current period was associated with slower linear and ponderal growth. Faster (catch-up) growth in length was observed in children with no diarrhea in age groups immediately after an age group in which diarrhea was experienced [age group >6-12 mo: 0.03 mm/mo for each percentage diarrhea prevalence in the previous period (95% CI: 0.007, 0.06) relative to 11.3 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >12-18 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.02, 0.06) relative to 8.9 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >18-24 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.003, 0.09) relative to 7.9 mm/mo mean growth rate]. The associations were stronger in boys than in girls when separate models were run. Similar results were observed when weight was the outcome variable. When diarrheal episodes are followed by diarrhea-free periods in the first 2 y of life, catch-up growth is observed that may allow children to regain their original trajectories. The finding of a greater effect of diarrhea on linear growth in boys than in girls was unexpected and requires additional study. Diarrhea burdens are high throughout the first 2 y of life in these study sites, therefore reducing the likelihood of catch-up growth. Extending diarrhea-free periods may increase the likelihood of catch-up growth and decrease the prevalence of stunting. PMID:24699805

Richard, Stephanie A; Black, Robert E; Gilman, Robert H; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Lanata, Claudio F; Mølbak, Kåre; Rasmussen, Zeba A; Sack, R Bradley; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Checkley, William

2014-06-01

304

Modification of flower architecture during early stages in the evolution of self-fertilization  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The evolution of selfing from outcrossing is characterized by a series of morphological changes to flowers culminating in the selfing syndrome. However, which morphological traits initiate increased self-pollination and which are accumulated after self-fertilization establishes is poorly understood. Because the expression of floral traits may depend on the conditions experienced by an individual during flower development, investigation of changes in mating system should also account for environmental and developmental factors. Here, early stages in the evolution of self-pollination are investigated by comparing floral traits among Brazilian populations of Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae), an annual aquatic that displays variation in selfing rates associated with the breakdown of tristyly to semi-homostyly. Methods Thirty-one Brazilian populations under uniform glasshouse conditions were compared to investigate genetic and environmental influences on flower size and stigma–anther separation (herkogamy), two traits that commonly vary in association with transitions to selfing. Within-plant variation in herkogamy was also examined and plants grown under contrasting environmental conditions were compared to examine to what extent this trait exhibits phenotypic plasticity. Key Results In E. paniculata a reduction in herkogamy is the principal modification initiating the evolution of selfing. Significantly, reduced herkogamy was restricted to the mid-styled morph and occurred independently of flower size. Significant genetic variation for herkogamy was detected among populations and families, including genotypes exhibiting developmental instability of stamen position with bimodal distributions of herkogamy values. Cloned genets exposed to contrasting growth conditions demonstrated environmental control of herkogamy and genotypic differences in plasticity of this trait. Conclusions The ability to modify herkogamy independently of other floral traits, genetic variation in the environmental sensitivity of herkogamy, and the production of modified and unmodified flowers within some individuals, reveal the potential for dynamic control of the mating system in a species that commonly confronts heterogeneous aquatic environments. PMID:19202135

Vallejo-Marin, Mario; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

2009-01-01

305

Serum copper and ceruloplasmin activity at the early growing stage in foals.  

PubMed Central

Serum concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P), as well as antigenic ceruloplasmin (Cp) and oxidase activity as a functional index for copper metabolism, were measured in 10 foals (5 males and 5 females) and their dams. Samples were harvested from the foals within 1 wk after birth and monthly from 1 to 17 mo of age. Samples were collected from their dams in the perinatal period (monthly from 2 mo before delivery to 5 mo postpartum). Serum oxidase activity, antigenic Cp and Cu in foals were extremely low at 1 wk. Serum Cp had the lowest value of 17.0 +/- 8.0 (mean +/- SD) mg/dL within the 1st wk, then increased rapidly up to 43.7 +/- 5.8 mg/dL at 1 mo, and maintained this level until the 17th mo. Serum Zn in foals had the highest value of 73.2 +/- 13.1 micrograms/dL within 1 wk, then decreased to 38.3 +/- 5.9 micrograms/dL by 17 mo. Serum Mn, Ca and P in mares were almost stable and within established reference ranges for our laboratory in the perinatal period, and these values in foals were also in the normal range. Even on appropriate feeding, serum Cu, Cp and oxidase activity were quite low a few weeks after birth, while a higher proportion of Cp-binding copper was found in the foals. This might be caused by the limited synthesis of ceruloplasmin in this period. These data suggest that newborn foals are in a critical situation of marginal copper status in the early stage of growth. PMID:9553711

Okumura, M; Asano, M; Tagami, M; Tsukiyama, K; Fujinaga, T

1998-01-01

306

Selecting optimal eggs and embryonic developmental stages of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for early life-stage toxicity tests.  

PubMed

Aquaculture research has indicated that fish embryo hatching success and larval survival can sometimes be predicted by embryo characteristics, such as blastomere cleavage patterns. An analogous strategy of individual assessment of spawned eggs could also be used to improve the quality of toxicity tests using early life-stages of fish where control-group survival determines experimental validity. Here we explored whether a simple method of assessing fathead minnow eggs and embryos for abnormalities could predict hatch success, and larval size at hatch, as indicators of embryo larval quality. Embryos were classified according to both their developmental stage and the presence of any abnormalities: uneven blastomere cleavage, atypical embryo size or shape, and the presence of inclusions in the yolk. Clutch size and fertilization rate did not predict embryo larval quality. Fewer abnormalities in embryos with ?32 cells correlated with longer larvae at hatch. Normal embryos were more likely to hatch successfully than abnormal embryos of the same clutch, but because abnormality rates were generally low, much of the variation in hatch success could not be attributed to visible embryo malformations. Blastomere symmetry may be a useful selection criterion in embryos <3 h postfertilization. Where toxicant exposures early in embryonic development are not required or possible, hatch success could be increased by using older embryos that have survived gastrulation. Purposeful selection of embryos with at least two blastomeres, blastomere symmetry, and few inclusions can improve control survival and improve the quality of any generated (sub)lethality data. In our laboratory, application of the egg-selection criteria significantly improved control group hatch success increasing it from a mean of 84.4 to 94.2%. PMID:24346244

Marentette, Julie R; Chiorean, Sorina; Lavalle, Christine; Sullivan, Cheryl; Parrott, Joanne L

2014-02-01

307

Modeling Early Writing Growth With Curriculum-Based Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine growth in early writing skills as assessed by curriculum-based measurements. The writing performance of 85 first-grade students was monitored across 12 weekly administrations of picture-word and sentence-copy measures using multiple scoring procedures. Data analysis was conducted using a model-building procedure in which random effect and quadratic effect parameters were systematically added to

David C. Parker; Kristen L. McMaster; Amanuel Medhanie; Benjamin Silberglitt

2011-01-01

308

[Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].  

PubMed

A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI. PMID:23329298

Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

2013-01-01

309

The Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine in Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Model  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted to elucidate neuroprotective effect of carnosine in early stage of stroke. Methods Early stage of rodent stroke model and neuroblastoma chemical hypoxia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and antimycin A. Neuroprotective effect of carnosine was investigated with 100, 250, and 500 mg of carnosine treatment. And antioxidant expression was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in brain and blood. Results Intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg carnosine induced significant decrease of infarct volume and expansion of penumbra (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant increase than in saline group in blood and brain (p<0.05). In the analysis of chemical hypoxia, carnosine induced increase of neuronal cell viability and decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Conclusion Carnosine has neuroprotective property which was related to antioxidant capacity in early stage of stroke. And, the oxidative stress should be considered one of major factor in early ischemic stroke. PMID:24851146

Park, Hui-Seung; Han, Kyung-Hoon; Shin, Jeoung-A; Park, Joo-Hyun; Song, Kwan-Young

2014-01-01

310

Neuropsychological profile in patients with early stage of Parkinson's disease in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Given the importance of early detection and intervention for disease management, determining the vulnerable neuropsychological function in patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) is a priority. Here, we describe the neuropsychological pattern in early-stage PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and dementia (PDD) in Taiwanese population. The neuropsychological performance of 94 patients with PD was compared with that of 84 healthy controls (HCs) and available normative data, using a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment including tests of executive, memory, psychomotor speed, attention, visuospatial, and language functions. Our results showed that PD patients performed significantly worse on executive function (i.e., category of card sorting) and psychomotor speed (i.e., processing speed index). Up to 46.8% were classified as PD-MCI and the majority of those having single-domain impairment (68.2%); 9.6% met the consensus diagnostic criteria for PDD. Accordingly, we suggest that early-stage PD patients have cognitive dysfunction predominately in the anterior brain. Further follow-up study to determine how many percent of PD-MCI develop PDD is important. The effect of neurocognitive rehabilitation on executive function is also valuable in the subsequence study. PMID:22749792

Yu, Rwei-Ling; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Tai, Chun-Hwei; Lin, Chin-Hsien; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Hua, Mau-Sun

2012-12-01

311

Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

2010-07-01

312

Copper Susceptibility of Three Growth Stages of the Green Alga 'Haematococcus'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three growth stages of the green alga, Haematococcus, were examined to determine their survival and recovery following a 12-hour exposure to copper. Copper uptake of flagellate cells, palmelloid cells, and akinetes was measured by atomic absorption spectr...

N. L. Pearlmutter, M. A. Buchheim

1983-01-01

313

Whole-Plant Growth Stage Ontology for Angiosperms and Its Application in Plant Biology1[OA  

PubMed Central

Plant growth stages are identified as distinct morphological landmarks in a continuous developmental process. The terms describing these developmental stages record the morphological appearance of the plant at a specific point in its life cycle. The widely differing morphology of plant species consequently gave rise to heterogeneous vocabularies describing growth and development. Each species or family specific community developed distinct terminologies for describing whole-plant growth stages. This semantic heterogeneity made it impossible to use growth stage description contained within plant biology databases to make meaningful computational comparisons. The Plant Ontology Consortium (http://www.plantontology.org) was founded to develop standard ontologies describing plant anatomical as well as growth and developmental stages that can be used for annotation of gene expression patterns and phenotypes of all flowering plants. In this article, we describe the development of a generic whole-plant growth stage ontology that describes the spatiotemporal stages of plant growth as a set of landmark events that progress from germination to senescence. This ontology represents a synthesis and integration of terms and concepts from a variety of species-specific vocabularies previously used for describing phenotypes and genomic information. It provides a common platform for annotating gene function and gene expression in relation to the developmental trajectory of a plant described at the organismal level. As proof of concept the Plant Ontology Consortium used the plant ontology growth stage ontology to annotate genes and phenotypes in plants with initial emphasis on those represented in The Arabidopsis Information Resource, Gramene database, and MaizeGDB. PMID:16905665

Pujar, Anuradha; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Ilic, Katica; Vincent, Leszek; Avraham, Shulamit; Stevens, Peter; Zapata, Felipe; Reiser, Leonore; Rhee, Seung Y.; Sachs, Martin M.; Schaeffer, Mary; Stein, Lincoln; Ware, Doreen; McCouch, Susan

2006-01-01

314

Transcriptome Analysis of Early Surface-Associated Growth of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilm formation starts with single cells attaching to a surface, however, little is known about the initial attachment steps and the adaptation to the surface-associated life style. Here, we describe a hydrodynamic system that allows easy harvest of cells at very early biofilm stages. Using the metal ion-reducing gammaproteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a model organism, we analyzed the transcriptional changes occurring during surface-associated growth between 15 and 60 minutes after attachment. 230 genes were significantly upregulated and 333 were downregulated by a factor of ?2. Main functional categories of the corresponding gene products comprise metabolism, uptake and transport, regulation, and hypothetical proteins. Among the genes highly upregulated those implicated in iron uptake are highly overrepresented, strongly indicating that S. oneidensis MR-1 has a high demand for iron during surface attachment and initial biofilm stages. Subsequent microscopic analysis of biofilm formation under hydrodynamic conditions revealed that addition of Fe(II) significantly stimulated biofilm formation of S. oneidensis MR-1 while planktonic growth was not affected. Our approach to harvest cells for transcriptional analysis of early biofilm stages is expected to be easily adapted to other bacterial species. PMID:22860070

Godeke, Julia; Binnenkade, Lucas; Thormann, Kai M.

2012-01-01

315

The mobilization of defence mechanisms in the early stages of pea seed germination against Ascochyta pisi.  

PubMed

Ascochyta pisi is a necrotrophic pathogenic fungus, which mainly survives between seasons through infected seeds. Defence responses of pea embryo axes to A. pisi were investigated in the heterotrophic phase of seed germination and during the transition from the heterotrophic to the autotrophic phase. Germinated pea seeds, both non-inoculated and inoculated with A. pisi, were cultured in perlite for 96 h. Polarographic studies performed on intact embryo axes of germinating pea seeds infected with A. pisi showed a high respiratory intensity in time from 48 to 96 h after inoculation. Forty-eight-hour embryo axes of germinating pea seeds exhibited the highest respiration rate, which in infected axes was maintained at the following time points after inoculation. Moreover, at 72 and 96 h after inoculation, respiratory intensity was by 64% and 73% higher than in the control. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis revealed a higher concentration of semiquinone free radicals with g values of g (||) = 2.0031 ± 0.0004 and g (?) = 2.0048 ± 0.0004 in infected axes than in the control. Generation of superoxide anion radical was also higher in infected axes than in the control but stronger at 72 and 96 h after inoculation. Starting from 72 h after infection, the level of Mn(2+) ions in infected axes decreased in relation to the control. At the same time, the highest activity of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) was observed in 72-h infected axes. In turn, the activity of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) up to 72 h after infection was lower than in the control. In 48-h infected embryo axes, a very high level of pterocarpan pisatin was observed. Infection of germinating pea seeds with A. pisi restricted mainly the growth of the epicotyl, but did not inhibit the increase in length and fresh weight of root embryo axes versus cultivation time. These results indicate that in pea during the stages of seed germination and early seedling growth, protective mechanisms are induced in embryo axes against A. pisi. PMID:22274650

Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Marczak, Lukasz; Stobiecki, Maciej; Bednarski, Waldemar

2013-02-01

316

Disproportionate early fetal growth predicts postnatal thymic size in humans.  

PubMed

Prenatal events can affect neonatal thymus size and adult immune function. The causal insults are unknown, although fetal nutrient restriction is suspected. We used ultrasound at three time points during pregnancy (14, 19 and 30 weeks) to measure the growth of six fetal dimensions in rural Bangladeshi women participating in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab study. Postnatal ultrasound was used to calculate thymic index (TI) at birth, 2, 6 and 12 m. Of the 3267 women recruited, 2861 participated by providing data at least at one fetal biometry and one TI time point. Patterns of fetal growth were summarized using principal components calculated from fetal dimension z-scores. Random effects regression, controlling for infant size and season of measurement were used to relate these patterns to TI. We found that smaller leg length relative to head circumference, characteristic of head-sparing growth restriction, was predictive of lower TI. This association was significant at all time points but strongest in earlier pregnancy. Each standard deviation increase in leg-head proportion was associated with an increase in TI of ?5%. We conclude that growth patterns typical of poor fetal nutrition are associated with poor thymic development. The greater strength of this association in the first trimester is consistent with a period of vulnerability during the early ontogeny of the thymus and suggests that preventative intervention would need to be given in early pregnancy. PMID:25054841

Fulford, A J C; Moore, S E; Arifeen, S E; Persson, L Å; Neufeld, L M; Wagatsuma, Y; Prentice, A M

2013-06-01

317

A study on technology acquisition and diffusion in “Satellite Platform” clusters at the growth stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of technology acquisition and diffusion of different types of industry clusters at different stages vary widely, and “Satellite Platform” clusters at the growth stage become the focus of attention with the development of local embeddedness of outside large companies. Based on the case study of auto parts cluster in Liujiang County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, this article argues

Long Kaiyuan; Bi Liangliang

2010-01-01

318

The Utility of Stroop Task Switching as a Marker for Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Past studies have suggested attentional control tasks such as the Stroop task and the task switching paradigm may be sensitive to the early detection of Dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). The current study combined these tasks to create a Stroop switching task. Performance was compared across young adults, older adults, and individuals diagnosed with “Very Mild” dementia. Results indicated that this task strongly discriminated healthy aging from early stage DAT. In a logistic regression analysis, incongruent error rates from the Stroop Switch discriminated healthy aging from DAT better than any of the other 18 cognitive tasks given in a psychometric battery. PMID:20853964

Hutchison, Keith A.; Balota, David A.; Duchek, Janet M.

2009-01-01

319

[Combined medical treatment and psychotherapy in early-stage Alzheimer's over a period of 30 months].  

PubMed

The present case delineates the results of a 30-month combined pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment in a mildly to moderately depressed patient with early Alzheimer's dementia. At onset and during following visits, clinical examination and standardized test procedures for measuring cognitive and emotional changes were completed. Treatment results reveal a consistent benefit to cognitive levels and emotional distress over time. The present example of a mildly demented, depressed Alzheimer's patient shows a therapeutic outcome which is markedly superior to usual expectations in Alzheimer's treatment and encourages combination of therapeutic strategies in early stages of the disease. PMID:16523356

Haupt, M; Wielink, W

2006-07-01

320

Radiation treatment after surgery improves survival for elderly women with early-stage breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Elderly women with early-stage breast cancer live longer with radiation therapy and surgery compared with surgery alone, researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine have found. The researchers, who collected data on almost 30,000 women, ages 70 to 84, with early, highly treatable breast cancer enrolled in a nationwide cancer registry, are reporting their findings at the 54th annual meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO). The University of Maryland is home to the Greenebaum Cancer Center.

321

[Preliminary results of conservative combination radiotherapy and chemotherapy in early stages of Hodgkin's disease].  

PubMed

20 patients in early stages (I-IIB) Hodgkin's disease were treated with smaller than commonly used doses of cytostatics and radiation. Men were given EBVD-CVPP-EBVD (epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, DTIC, cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, procarbazine, prednisone) and women: CVPP-EBVD-CVPP. Radiotherapy was limited to involved and adjacent fields. In all patients complete remission was achieved lasting now 9 to 107 months (mean 55 months). Two patients relapsed. No undesirable early side effects were observed. Further observations will show if such therapeutic option in non-advanced Hodgkin's disease is sufficient. PMID:9091857

Gabry?, K; Urbaniak-Kujda, D; Dubowik, R

1996-11-01

322

Effect of PREDICT on chemotherapy/trastuzumab recommendations in HER2-positive patients with early-stage breast cancer  

PubMed Central

PREDICT is an online prognostication tool for early-stage breast cancer, which incorporates human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status and stratifies absolute treatment benefits for hormone therapy, chemotherapy and trastuzumab. The present study compared historical multidisciplinary team (MDT) decisions regarding adjuvant treatment with PREDICT estimates, to determine whether certain patients are being over- or undertreated, particularly when stratified by age and oestrogen-receptor (ER) status. HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer cases over a five-year period at the Cambridge Breast Unit (Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients receiving neo-adjuvant therapy were excluded. Adjuvant chemotherapy/trastuzumab recommendations based on PREDICT (<3%, no benefit; 3–5%, discuss treatment; and >5%, recommend treatment) were compared with actual MDT decisions. In total, 109 eligible patients were identified. The average age at diagnosis was 59.6 years, with 21 patients older than 70 years (19%). Four patients were predicted to gain an absolute benefit of >5% from chemotherapy/ trastuzumab, but were not offered treatment (all >70 years). Amongst the 19 patients aged >70 years predicted to benefit >3%, six were not offered treatment (32%). In the patients aged <69 years, there was evidence of overtreatment with adjuvant chemotherapy/trastuzumab in 8 out of 12 cases with <3% benefit using PREDICT. For all 20 patients with ER-negative tumours, the MDT and PREDICT decisions correlated, whilst for ER-positive cases, more than half (8 out of 14) were offered treatment despite a <3% predicted benefit. PREDICT can aid decision-making in HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer by identifying older patients at risk of undertreatment with chemotherapy/trastuzumab, and by reducing the overtreatment of patients with little predicted benefit, particularly in ER-positive disease. PMID:25364461

DOWN, SUE K.; LUCAS, OLIVIA; BENSON, JOHN R.; WISHART, GORDON C.

2014-01-01

323

Impact of Early Growth on Postprandial Responses in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Background Low birth weight and slow growth during infancy are associated with increased rates of chronic diseases in adulthood. Associations with risk factors such as fasting glucose and lipids concentrations are weaker than expected based on associations with disease. This could be explained by differences in postprandial responses, which, however, have been little studied. Our aim was to examine the impact of growth during infancy on postprandial responses to a fast-food meal (FF-meal) and a meal, which followed the macro-nutrient composition of the dietary guidelines (REC-meal). Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 24 overweight 65–75 year-old subjects, 12 with slow growth during infancy (SGI-group) and 12 with normal early growth. All the subjects were born at term. The study meals were isocaloric and both meals were consumed once. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured in fasting state and over a 4-h period after both meals. Subjects who grew slowly during infancy were also smaller at birth. Fasting glucose, insulin or lipid concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups. The TG responses were higher for the SGI-group both during the FF-meal (P?=?0.047) and the REC-meal (P?=?0.058). The insulin responses were significantly higher for the SGI-group after the FF-meal (P?=?0.036). Glucose and FFA responses did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions Small birth size and slow early growth predict postprandial TG and insulin responses. Elevated responses might be one explanation why subjects who were small at birth and experiencing slow growth in infancy are at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in later life. PMID:21904606

Perala, Mia-Maria; Valsta, Liisa M.; Kajantie, Eero; Leiviska, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G.

2011-01-01

324

Consumer research in the early stages of new product development : issues and applications in the food domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

New products that deliver added consumer value contribute significantly to the success of companies. In the numerous studies of new product performance over the years, consensus has developed that understanding consumer needs is of paramount strategic value, especially in the early stages of the product development process. During these early stages, the product has not yet been specified and the

Ellen van Kleef

2006-01-01

325

Identifying aspects at an early stage helps to achieve separation of crosscutting concerns in the initial system  

E-print Network

Abstract Identifying aspects at an early stage helps to achieve separation of crosscutting concerns) is a technique that has been showing encouraging results in improving separation of concerns, and achieving [1- 4]. Identifying aspects at an early stage helps to achieve separation of concerns in the initial

326

TOXICITY OF 3,4-DICHLOROANILINE TO FATHEAD MINNOWS, 'PIMEPHALES PROMELAS', IN ACUTE AND EARLY LIFE-STAGE EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 3,4-dichloroaniline in three acute exposures and two early life-stage exposures. Mean LC50's were 10.8, 9.37, and 7.58 mg/l at 24, 48, and 96 hr, respectively. In the first early life-stage test, control fish were smaller than...

327

Hereditary polycystic kidney disease (adult form): A microdissection study of two cases at an early stage of the disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary polycystic kidney disease (adult form): A microdissection study of two cases at an early stage of the disease. Kidney fragments from two cases of hereditary polycystic kidney disease (adult form) at an early stage were examined by microdissection. Localized cystic dilatations were found in proximal and distal tubules, loops of Henle, and collecting tubules. Entirely normal nephrons and collecting

Luc Baert

1978-01-01

328

Emotional enhancement of perceptual priming is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Perceptual priming for emotionally-negative and neutral scenes was tested in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy younger, middle-aged and older adults. In the study phase, participants rated the scenes for their arousal properties. In the test phase, studied and novel scenes were initially presented subliminally, and the exposure duration was gradually increased until a valence categorization was made. The difference in exposure duration required to categorize novel versus studied items was the dependent measure of priming. Aversive content increased the magnitude of priming, an effect that was preserved in healthy aging and AD. Results from an immediate recognition memory test showed that the priming effects could not be attributable to enhanced explicit memory for the aversive scenes. These findings implicate a dissociation between the modulatory effect of emotion across implicit and explicit forms of memory in aging and early-stage AD. PMID:16154458

LaBar, Kevin S; Torpey, Dana C; Cook, Craig A; Johnson, Stephanie R; Warren, Lauren H; Burke, James R; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

2005-01-01

329

Memory impairment and awareness of memory deficits in early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Recognition memory of auditory verbal learning tests and awareness of memory deficits were examined in 24 individuals with early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) using a performance prediction-postdiction paradigm. Individuals with AD displayed impaired recognition memory, and recognition performance correlated positively with regional cerebral blood flow at rest in bilateral prefrontal areas and the left medial temporal area. In addition, underawareness of memory deficits was also marked even at this early stage. Individuals with AD retrospectively overestimated memory performance after actual performance, but appeared to benefit from feedback, and displayed intact online awareness of memory dysfunction, leading to normal prediction of the second session. However, individuals with AD failed to retrospectively incorporate incidents of memory failure into generalized self-belief systems. Brain/ behavior correlational analyses suggest that the prefrontal cortex and posterior dorsomedial regions including the precuneus may be involved in self-awareness. PMID:16703956

Mimura, Masaru; Yano, Madoka

2006-01-01

330

The formation of early stage adipocere in submerged remains: a preliminary experimental study.  

PubMed

In some circumstances, the presence of adipocere may retard decomposition and complicate postmortem interval estimation. This article explores the correlation between Accumulated Degree Days (ADD) and early stage formation of adipocere. Sixty wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) carcasses were used in this experiment; a control group (N = 30) deposited directly on the ground surface and an experimental group (N = 30) completely submersed in water in individual buckets. Data (water and inner body temperature, pH, and total body score) were collected every 100 ADD. Results indicated that early stage adipocere is correlated to ADD and that its formation on submersed remains is more likely to occur after 630 ADD. Skin sloughing promoted the formation of adipocere. No adipocere was formed on any of the control group rabbits. This study also highlights the fact that multiple factors influence adipocere formation and it is suggested that further research needs to be conducted into this area. PMID:22150268

Widya, Marcella; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

2012-03-01

331

Turning visual shapes into sounds: early stages of reading acquisition revealed in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex.  

PubMed

The exact role of the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) during the initial stages of reading acquisition is a hotly debated issue, especially regarding the comparative effect of learning on early stimulus-dependent vs. later task-dependent processes. We show that this controversy can be solved with high-temporal resolution intracerebral EEG recordings of the VOTC. We measured High-Frequency Activity (50-150 Hz) as a proxy of population-level spiking activity while participants learned Japanese Katakana symbols, and found that learning primarily affects top-down/task-dependent neural processing, after a few minutes only. In contrast, adaptation of early bottom-up/stimulus-dependent processing takes several days to adapt and provides the basis for fluent reading. Such evidence that two consecutive stages of neural processing, stimulus- and task-dependent are differentially affected by learning, can reconcile seemingly opposite hypotheses on the role of the VOTC during reading acquisition. PMID:24370818

Perrone-Bertolotti, M; Vidal, J R; de Palma, L; Hamamé, C M; Ossandon, T; Kahane, P; Minotti, L; Bertrand, O; Lachaux, J-P

2014-04-15

332

Modern Risk Assessment for Individualizing Treatment Concepts in Early-stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Validated prognostic and predictive factors currently play an important role in treatment planning for patients with early-stage breast cancer. The role of personalized medicine has led to the search for markers that can be applied to individual patients to optimize treatment regimens. In addition to traditional clinicopathologic measures, scores and gene tests have been developed to independently predict risk of patients in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. The discovery of these markers provides the opportunity to identify patients at such low risk of recurrence that toxic therapy side effects are not justified. Selection and management of patients with early-stage, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who are appropriately treated with endocrine therapy alone after receiving locoregional therapy but do not necessarily require adjuvant chemotherapy is currently problematic. This article reviews the current state-of-theart biomarker assessment methods and discusses the potential role for the prediction of chemotherapy benefit focusing on endocrine sensitive disease. PMID:24920978

Farr, Alex; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Heiduschka, Annika; Singer, Christian F; Harbeck, Nadia

2013-01-01

333

Computational simulation of the early stage of bone healing under different configurations of locking compression plates.  

PubMed

Flexible fixation or the so-called 'biological fixation' has been shown to encourage the formation of fracture callus, leading to better healing outcomes. However, the nature of the relationship between the degree of mechanical stability provided by a flexible fixation and the optimal healing outcomes has not been fully understood. In this study, we have developed a validated quantitative model to predict how cells in fracture callus might respond to change in their mechanical microenvironment due to different configurations of locking compression plate (LCP) in clinical practice, particularly in the early stage of healing. The model predicts that increasing flexibility of the LCP by changing the bone-plate distance (BPD) or the plate working length (WL) could enhance interfragmentary strain in the presence of a relatively large gap size (>3 mm). Furthermore, conventional LCP normally results in asymmetric tissue development during early stage of callus formation, and the increase of BPD or WL is insufficient to alleviate this problem. PMID:24261957

Miramini, Saeed; Zhang, Lihai; Richardson, Martin; Pirpiris, Marinis; Mendis, Priyan; Oloyede, Kunle; Edwards, Glenn

2015-06-01

334

Evidence supporting nutritional interventions for persons in early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD).  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to grade research evidence supporting nutritional interventions for persons with early stage dementias and to report the recommendations of a consensus panel. Thirty four studies were reviewed in the areas of dietary restriction, antioxidants, and Mediterranean diet with strong support from epidemiological studies found in all three areas. The body of evidence to support nutritional interventions in the prevention and treatment of AD is growing and has potential as a treatment modality following translational studies. PMID:18165840

Burgener, S C; Buettner, L; Coen Buckwalter, K; Beattie, E; Bossen, A L; Fick, D M; Fitzsimmons, S; Kolanowski, A; Richeson, N E; Rose, K; Schreiner, A; Pringle Specht, J K; Testad, I; Yu, F; McKenzie, S

2008-01-01

335

Early stages of secondary succession on abandoned cropland in north-east Borneo Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on community structure and floristic change in the early stages of the tropical old-field succession in an intensive shifting cultivation area, Sabah, north-east Borneo Island, was conducted in March and September 1997. Dense therophytic communities were established soon after abandonment, and rapidly changed: namely, from Galinsoga parviflora (in approximately 1–2 months) to Crassocephalum crepidioides (in approximately 3–5 months)

Toshiyuki Ohtsuka

1999-01-01

336

Review panel consensus and post-decision commercial performance: a study of early stage technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the ability of review panels to predict commercial success when evaluating early-stage technologies from small\\u000a business. Specifically we examined whether a screening process resulted in greater consensus among grant panel members, to\\u000a what extent certain panel members “stuck” to their evaluations, and whether information sharing and panel consensus resulted\\u000a in better predictions of commercial success. In general, we

Craig S. Galbraith; Alex F. DeNoble; Sanford B. Ehrlich; Jessica Mesmer-Magnus

2010-01-01

337

Precipitation processes during the early stages of ageing in Al?Cu?Mg alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and microbeam electron diffraction have been used to study the early stages of precipitation in an Al?1.1Cu?1.7Mg (at%) alloy. This alloy exhibits a large and rapid hardening reaction upon ageing for as short as 60 s at temperatures higher than 130°C. Results from APFIM suggest that the formation of Cu?Mg

S. P. Ringer; K. Hono; I. J. Polmear; T. Sakurai

1996-01-01

338

Low Vitamin K Intakes in Community-Dwelling Elders at an Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing body of evidence points to a role for vitamin K in brain physiology through its participation in sphingolipid metabolism and biological activation of the vitamin K–dependent protein Gas6. One hypothesis is that vitamin K may also play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. A recent study found that patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease consumed less vitamin

Nancy Presse; Bryna Shatenstein; Marie-Jeanne Kergoat; Guylaine Ferland

2008-01-01

339

Detecting physiological and pesticide-induced apoptosis in early developmental stages of invasive bivalves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, embryos and early larval stages of two invasive bivalves, the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), were assayed for physiological apoptosis and stress-induced apoptosis post-exposure to a molluscicide, Bayluscide®. Physiological apoptosis was measured at 4-h intervals and Bayluscide® exposures were 4 h and 24 h beginning at both 30 min post-fertilization and at 24 h post-fertilization. Apoptosis was

Karen Perry; John Lynn

2009-01-01

340

Stockpiled tall fescue and livestock performance in an early stage midwest silvopasture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using stockpiled forage can substantially reduce livestock feed costs over the winter. However, little is known about utilizing\\u000a stockpiled forage in an early-stage silvopasture system. This study was conducted to determine if silvopasture production\\u000a practices utilizing stockpiled forage influence stocker steer performance. The treatments were: (1) stockpiled forage in a\\u000a non-forested pasture (OPEN) and (2) stockpiled forage in a silvopasture

R. L. KallenbachE; E. B. Venable; M. S. Kerley; N. J. Bailey

2010-01-01

341

Limited-Field Radiation Therapy in the Management of Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several phase III trials have demonstrated equivalent long-term survival between breast conserving surgery plus radiation therapy and mastectomy in patients with early-stage breast cancer but have not provided infor- mation on the optimal volume of breast tissue requiring post-lumpectomy radiation therapy. Therefore, we exam- ined the 5-year results of a single institution's experience with radiation therapy limited to the

Frank A. Vicini; Larry Kestin; Peter Chen; Pamela Benitez; Neal S. Goldstein; Alvaro Martinez

2003-01-01

342

Impairment in early stages of visual information processing in nonpsychotic schizotypic individuals  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977 Major Subject: Psychology IMPAIRMENT IN EARLY STAGES OF VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING IN NONPSYCHOTIC SCHIZOTYPIC INDIVIDUALS A Thesis by ROBERT JON STERONKO Approved as to sty1e and content by...- order. The MMPI 2-7-8 code type (elevated Depression, Psychasthenia and Schizophrenia scales) was used to iden- tify these subjects. This group was compared on a back- ward visual masking task with two control groups: one whose profiles were...

Steronko, Robert Jon

2012-06-07

343

Elevated free IGF2 levels in localized, early-stage breast cancer in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Epidemiological studies imply an association between circulating IGF1 and breast cancer, whereas the role of IGF2, which also acts on the IGF1 receptor, is less settled. This study investigates the association between IGF2 and breast cancer in patients with localized disease. Design: The participants were women with well-characterized, early stage, localized breast cancer (nZ43) and matched healthy women (nZ38),

Ulrick Espelund; Søren Cold; Jan Frystyk; H. Orskov; Allan Flyvbjerg

2008-01-01

344

Less invasive treatment associated with improved survival in early stage breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Patients with early stage breast cancer who were treated with lumpectomy plus radiation may have a better chance of survival compared with those who underwent mastectomy, according to a study from Duke Medicine and the Duke Cancer Institute. The study, which appears online Jan. 28, 2013, in the journal CANCER, raises new questions as to the comparative effectiveness of breast-conserving therapies such as lumpectomy, where only the tumor and surrounding tissue is surgically removed.

345

Tributyltin-induced effects on early life stages of minnows Phoxinus phoxinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity and histopathological effects of tributyltin chloride (TBT) were studied in early life stages of minnows Phoxinus phoxinus. Eggs and yolk sac fry (newly hatched larvae) were exposed in a static-renewal procedure to aqueous TBT concentrations ranging from 0.82 to 19.51 µg\\/L for 3 to 10 days at 16°C and 21°C, respectively. Aqueous TBT concentrations were determined by capillary GC-FPD

Karl Fent; Willy Meier

1992-01-01

346

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a new treatment modality for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer, and has been developed in the United States, the European Union, and Japan. We started a feasibility study of this therapy in July 1998, using a stereotactic body frame. The eligibility criteria for primary lung cancer were: 1) solitary tumor less than 4 cm (T1-3N0M); 2)

M. Hiraoka; Y. Matsuo; Y. Nagata

2007-01-01

347

Growth and reproduction of Digitalis purpurea in different stages of succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth reproduction and regeneration were investigated in populations of Digitalis purpurea present in different stages of secondary forest succession. Interference between D. purpurea and an experimental vegetation emerging from natural seed banks on a natural soil was studied during two successive growth seasons under natural radiation and temperature conditions.

J. Baalen; E. G. M. Prins

1983-01-01

348

Investigating Stage-Sequential Growth Mixture Models with Multiphase Longitudinal Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates three types of stage-sequential growth mixture models in the structural equation modeling framework for the analysis of multiple-phase longitudinal data. These models can be important tools for situations in which a single-phase growth mixture model produces distorted results and can allow researchers to better understand…

Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Jee-Seon

2012-01-01

349

Promoting quality and evidence-based care in early-stage breast cancer follow-up.  

PubMed

Evidence-based guidelines for long-term follow-up of early-stage breast cancer patients developed by oncology societies in the United States and Europe recommend that breast cancer survivors undergo regular evaluation with history and physical examination, as well as annual mammography. Routine blood tests, circulating tumor markers, and/or surveillance imaging studies beyond mammography are not recommended in the absence of concerning symptoms or physical examination findings because of lack of supportive clinical evidence. Despite these guidelines, studies have shown that 20% to 40% of oncologists assess serum tumor markers as part of routine monitoring of early-stage breast cancer patients. As part of efforts to both address the financial challenges confronting the health-care system and optimize patient outcomes, the American Society of Clinical Oncology's Cost of Care Task Force identified adherence to breast cancer surveillance guidelines as an opportunity to improve care and reduce cost. However, these recommendations are based on trials done in an era of outdated technology and limited therapeutic options. It is possible that recent improvements in diagnostics and treatments could make earlier detection of recurrent disease important for improving both survival and quality of life outcomes. Research is necessary to further inform optimal breast cancer follow-up strategies, which could impact these recommendations. At this time, outside of well-conducted clinical trials, there is no role for ordering routine serial blood or imaging tests in monitoring for recurrence in early-stage breast cancer patients. PMID:24627271

Henry, N Lynn; Henry, Lynn N; Hayes, Daniel F; Ramsey, Scott D; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Barlow, William E; Gralow, Julie R

2014-04-01

350

Predictors of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to identify mild cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) prior to extensive neurodegeneration and to evaluate the extent to which dopamine depletion and other disease-related predictors can explain cognitive profiles. Methods Neuropsychological performances of 40 nondemented early-stage PD patients and 42 healthy controls were compared across on or off dopaminergic medications. Stepwise regression evaluated cognitive predictors of early-stage PD and disease-related predictors of PD cognition (levodopa dose, disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score, sleep, quality of life, and mood) across on and off states. Results Neuropsychological performance was lower in PD patients across cognitive domains with significant memory, naming, visuomotor, and complex attention/executive deficits, but with intact visuospatial, simple attention, and phonemic fluency functions. However, medication effects were absent except for simple attention. Regression analyses revealed age, working memory, and memory recall to be the best cognitive predictors of PD, while age, quality of life, disease duration, and anxiety predicted PD cognition in the off state. Conclusion Nondemented early-stage PD patients presented with extensive mild cognitive deficits including prominent memory impairment. The profile was inconsistent with expected isolated frontostriatal dysfunction previously attributed to dopamine depletion and this highlights the need to further characterize extranigral sources of mild cognitive impairment in PD. PMID:23741229

Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Jones, Katherine; Cabanban, Romeo; Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E.

2013-01-01

351

Numerical and functional defects of blood dendritic cells in early- and late-stage breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The generation of antitumour immunity depends on the nature of dendritic cell (DC)–tumour interactions. These have been studied mostly by using in vitro-derived DC which may not reflect the natural biology of DC in vivo. In breast cancer, only one report has compared blood DC at different stages and no longitudinal evaluation has been performed. Here we conducted three cross-sectional and one one-year longitudinal assessments of blood DC in patients with early (stage I/II, n=137) and advanced (stage IV, n=36) disease compared to healthy controls (n=66). Patients with advanced disease exhibit markedly reduced blood DC counts at diagnosis. Patients with early disease show minimally reduced counts at diagnosis but a prolonged period (1 year) of marked DC suppression after tumour resection. While differing in frequency, DC from both patients with early and advanced disease exhibit reduced expression of CD86 and HLA-DR and decreased immunostimulatory capacities. Finally, by comparing a range of clinically available maturation stimuli, we demonstrate that conditioning with soluble CD40L induces the highest level of maturation and improved T-cell priming. We conclude that although circulating DC are compromised by loco-regional and systemic breast cancer, they respond vigorously to ex vivo conditioning, thus enhancing their immunostimulatory capacity and potential for immunotherapy. PMID:17923873

Pinzon-Charry, A; Ho, C S K; Maxwell, T; McGuckin, M A; Schmidt, C; Furnival, C; Pyke, C M; Lopez, J A

2007-01-01

352

Early oligomerization stages for the non-amyloid component of ?-synuclein amyloid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, much effort has focused on the early stages of aggregation and the formation of amyloid oligomers. Aggregation processes for these proteins are complex and their non-equilibrium nature makes any experimental study very difficult. Under these conditions, simulations provide a useful alternative for understanding the dynamics of the early stages of oligomerization. Here, we focus on the non-A? amyloid component (NAC) of the monomer, dimer, and trimer of ?-synuclein, an important 35-residue sequence involved in the aggregation and fibrillation of this protein associated with Parkinson's disease. Using Hamiltonian and temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations combined with the coarse grained Optimized Potential for Efficient peptide structure Prediction potential, we identify the role of the various regions and the secondary structures for the onset of oligomerization. For this sequence, we clearly observe the passage from ?-helix to ?-sheet, a characteristic transition of amyloid proteins. More precisely, we find that the NAC monomer is highly structured with two ?-helical regions, between residues 2-13 and 19-25. As the dimer and trimer form, ?-sheet structures between residues 2-14 and 26-34 appear and rapidly structure the system. The resulting conformations are much more structured than similar dimers and trimers of ?-amyloid and amylin proteins and yet display a strong polymorphism at these early stages of aggregation. In addition to its inherent experimental interest, comparison with other sequences shows that NAC could be a very useful numerical model for understanding the onset of aggregation.

Eugene, Cindie; Laghaei, Rozita; Mousseau, Normand

2014-10-01

353

Increased level of serum prostaglandin-2 in early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prostaglandin-2 (PGE-2), one of the products of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced catalysis, may play a critical role in the carcinogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We investigated the efficacy of using serum PGE-2 concentration as a biomarker for this cancer type. Material and methods Prostaglandin-2 levels were analyzed in the serum of 65 ESCC patients and in 47 healthy individuals. The concentrations of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were measured in tumor tissues and normal tissues obtained from 31 surgically treated ESCC patients. Results Serum PGE-2 concentration was significantly higher in ESCC patients than in control patients (p = 0.004), especially in the early stages (I + II) of cancer (p < 0.0001). We observed significant inverse relationships between serum PGE-2 levels and: tumor stage, primary tumor progression, lymph and distant metastasis. The COX-2 concentration was significantly elevated in tumors as compared to normal tissues (p = 0.008). A significant correlation between serum PGE-2 and tumor COX-2 was observed (rho = 0.46, p = 0.009). However, ROC analysis showed that serum PGE-2 may be a weak prognostic factor for ESCC. Conclusions Our results suggest that an elevated concentration of serum PGE-2 in the early stages of cancer may possibly be associated with tumor initiation and cancer development in ESCC. The exact role of these findings in early detection of this highly lethal cancer requires further research.

Markocka-Maczka, Krystyna; Nienartowicz, Miroslaw; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Grabowski, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

354

Identification of an early-stage gene of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC.  

PubMed

Chlamydiae are parasitic bacteria characterized by a temporally regulated developmental cycle. In the early stage of the cycle, metabolically inert elementary bodies reorganize to dividing reticulate bodies, a process about which little is known. The purpose of this investigation was to identify and clone chlamydial genes that are expressed preferentially during the early stage of the developmental cycle of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC. Several potential early genes were cloned with highly radioactive, host-free-generated RNA probes to screen a genomic library. One clone appeared to encode a gene that was particularly well expressed at 1 h postinfection. In further characterization, we found that it encodes two complete open reading frames and one partial open reading frame of 370 codons. The partial open reading frame, designated gltX, is very similar to bacterial glutamyl-tRNA synthetases and was demonstrated to be transcribed in vivo at 24 h postinfection by primer extension analysis. A lysine-rich open reading frame (LRO) of 117 codons was found upstream and divergent from gltX. The LRO lacks homology to known proteins, and we were unable to demonstrate that it is transcribed in vivo. The third open reading frame, of 182 codons, was found to be convergent with and partially overlap the LRO. It was confirmed to be preferentially expressed within the first 1.5 h of infection by Northern (RNA) blot analysis and was designated the early upstream open reading frame (EUO). Like the LRO, the EUO is not homologous to known proteins. A major potential transcription start site of the EUO was identified by primer extension analysis. However, the sequence upstream of the site does not closely resemble the consensus recognition sequences of bacterial sigma factors even though it is AT rich. The EUO is the first chlamydial gene specific to the early stage to be cloned and sequenced. PMID:8491714

Wichlan, D G; Hatch, T P

1993-05-01

355

Identification of an early-stage gene of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiae are parasitic bacteria characterized by a temporally regulated developmental cycle. In the early stage of the cycle, metabolically inert elementary bodies reorganize to dividing reticulate bodies, a process about which little is known. The purpose of this investigation was to identify and clone chlamydial genes that are expressed preferentially during the early stage of the developmental cycle of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC. Several potential early genes were cloned with highly radioactive, host-free-generated RNA probes to screen a genomic library. One clone appeared to encode a gene that was particularly well expressed at 1 h postinfection. In further characterization, we found that it encodes two complete open reading frames and one partial open reading frame of 370 codons. The partial open reading frame, designated gltX, is very similar to bacterial glutamyl-tRNA synthetases and was demonstrated to be transcribed in vivo at 24 h postinfection by primer extension analysis. A lysine-rich open reading frame (LRO) of 117 codons was found upstream and divergent from gltX. The LRO lacks homology to known proteins, and we were unable to demonstrate that it is transcribed in vivo. The third open reading frame, of 182 codons, was found to be convergent with and partially overlap the LRO. It was confirmed to be preferentially expressed within the first 1.5 h of infection by Northern (RNA) blot analysis and was designated the early upstream open reading frame (EUO). Like the LRO, the EUO is not homologous to known proteins. A major potential transcription start site of the EUO was identified by primer extension analysis. However, the sequence upstream of the site does not closely resemble the consensus recognition sequences of bacterial sigma factors even though it is AT rich. The EUO is the first chlamydial gene specific to the early stage to be cloned and sequenced. Images PMID:8491714

Wichlan, D G; Hatch, T P

1993-01-01

356

Less Radical Surgery for Patient With Early-Stage Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Surgery in cervical cancer should be used with intention of cure. Radical abdominal trachelectomy is a feasible operation for selected patients with stage I?-1? cervical cancer which fertility can be preserved. Case Report A 30-years-old woman with squamous cell cervical cancer stage (1 A II) diagnosed at September 2011 expressed a wish for fertility-sparing treatment. Radical abdominal hysterectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy were performed which showed no evidence of lymphatic metastasis. Subsequently, at last follow-up (5 months post-surgery), good oncologic outcomes were found after this procedure. This was the first case of fertility-sparing radical trachelectomy procedures performed at our institution. Conclusions Trachelectomy represents a valuable conservative surgical approach for early stage invasive cervical cancer. PMID:24396586

Yousefi, Zohreh; Kazemianfar, Zahra; Kadghodayan, Sima; Hasanzade, Malieheh; Kalantari, Mahmoudreza; Mottaghi, Mansoureh

2013-01-01

357

Identification and Characterization of a Conserved, Stage-Specific Gene Product of Plasmodium falciparum Recognized by Parasite Growth Inhibitory Antibodies  

PubMed Central

We have identified a novel conserved protein of Plasmodium falciparum, designated D13, that is stage-specifically expressed in asexual blood stages of the parasite. The predicted open reading frame (ORF) D13 contains 863 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 99.7 kDa and displays a repeat region composed of pentapeptide motives. Northern blot analysis with lysates of synchronized blood stage parasites showed that D13 is highly expressed at the mRNA level during schizogony. The first N?-terminal 138 amino acids of D13 were expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was used to generate anti-D13 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Using total lysates of blood stage parasites and Western blot analysis, these MAbs stained one single band of ?100 kDa, corresponding to the predicted molecular mass of ORF D13. Western blot analysis demonstrated further that D13 is expressed during schizogony, declines rapidly in early ring stages and is undetectable in trophozoites. D13 protein is localized in individual merozoites in a distinct area, as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. After subcellular fractionation, D13 was confined to the pelleted fraction of the parasite lysate and its extraction by alkaline carbonate buffer treatment indicated that D13 is not a membrane-integral protein. Inclusion of certain anti-D13 MAbs into in vitro cultures of blood stage parasites resulted in considerable reduction in parasite growth. The N?-terminal domain encompassing 158 amino acids is 94 and 95%, respectively, identical at the amino acid level between Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium yoelii, and P. falciparum. In summary, we describe a novel stage-specifically expressed, highly conserved gene product of P. falciparum that is recognized by parasite growth inhibitory antibodies. PMID:12654839

Daubenberger, Claudia A.; Diaz, Diana; Curcic, Marija; Mueller, Markus S.; Spielmann, Tobias; Certa, Ulrich; Lipp, Joachim; Pluschke, Gerd

2003-01-01

358

Material properties of North Atlantic cod eggs and early-stage larvae and their influence on acoustic scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chu, D., Wiebe, P. H., Copley, N. J., Lawson, G. L., and Puvanendran, V. 2003. Material properties of North Atlantic cod eggs and early-stage larvae and their influence on acoustic scattering. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60: 508-515. To study the acoustic signatures of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at different biological stages from eggs to early-stage larvae (<37 days

Dezhang Chu; Peter H. Wiebe; Nancy J. Copley; Gareth L. Lawson; Velmurugu Puvanendran

2003-01-01

359

Abnormalities of plantar pressure distribution in early, intermediate, and late stages of diabetic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Inconsistent findings with regard to plantar pressure while walking in the diabetic population may be due to the heterogeneity of the studied groups resulting from the classification/grouping criteria adopted. The clinical diagnosis and classification of diabetes have inherent uncertainties that compromise the definition of its onset and the differentiation of its severity stages. A fuzzy system could improve the precision of the diagnosis and classification of diabetic neuropathy because it takes those uncertainties into account and combines different assessment methods. Here, we investigated how plantar pressure abnormalities evolve throughout different severity stages of diabetic polyneuropathy (absent, n=38; mild, n=20; moderate, n=47; severe, n=24). Pressure distribution was analysed over five areas while patients walked barefoot. Patients with mild neuropathy displayed an increase in pressure-time integral at the forefoot and a lower peak pressure at the heel. The peak and pressure-time integral under the forefoot and heel were aggravated in later stages of the disease (moderate and severe) compared with early stages of the disease (absent and mild). In the severe group, lower pressures at the lateral forefoot and hallux were observed, which could be related to symptoms that develop with the aggravation of neuropathy: atrophy of the intrinsic foot muscles, reduction of distal muscle activity, and joint stiffness. Although there were clear alterations over the forefoot and in a number of plantar areas with higher pressures within each severity stage, they did not follow the aggravation evolution of neuropathy classified by the fuzzy model. Based on these results, therapeutic interventions should begin in the early stages of this disease to prevent further consequences of the disease. PMID:25086801

Sacco, Isabel C N; Hamamoto, Adriana N; Tonicelli, Lucas M G; Watari, Ricky; Ortega, Neli R S; Sartor, Cristina D

2014-09-01

360

Blood cells cholinesterase activity in early stage Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.  

PubMed

Blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities have been studied as markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their usefulness as a disease marker is controversial. To determine cholinesterase (ChE) activity during AD progression and whether ChE changes associate to other dementias, ChE activity was measured in lymphocytes, erythrocytes and platelets. Subjects underwent extensive medical and neuropsychological examination. Both early-AD and AD patients had lower AChE activity in lymphocytes compared to control subjects (p < 0.0001). In contrast, erythrocyte AChE activity was higher in patients with vascular dementia (p = 0.004). Low ChE activity in lymphocytes was the best discriminator for AD. Because it was already low at very early stages of AD, ChE could be helpful as an early biomarker of differential diagnosis for the follow-up of patients during their early stages of cognitive impairment before a clinical dementia is established. PMID:15677868

von Bernhardi, Rommy; Alarcón, Rodrigo; Mezzano, Diego; Fuentes, Patricio; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

2005-01-01

361

Can Evidence-Based Prevention Programs be Sustained in Community Practice Settings? The Early Risers’ Advanced-Stage Effectiveness Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated institutional sustainability of the Early Risers “Skills for Success” conduct problems prevention program.\\u000a In a previous early-stage effectiveness trial Early Risers had been successfully implemented by a nonprofit community agency\\u000a with guidance, supervision, technical assistance and fiscal support\\/oversight provided by program developers. The current\\u000a advanced-stage effectiveness trial applied a randomized, control group design to determine whether this

Gerald J. August; Michael L. Bloomquist; Susanne S. Lee; George M. Realmuto; Joel M. Hektner

2006-01-01

362

Circulating Micro-RNAs as Potential Blood-Based Markers for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules with relevance as regulators of gene expression thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. MiRNAs offer great potential as biomarkers for cancer detection due to their remarkable stability in blood and their characteristic expression in many different diseases. We investigated whether microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood could discriminate between early stage breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Methods We performed microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood of 48 early stage breast cancer patients at diagnosis along with 57 healthy individuals as controls. This was followed by a real-time semi-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) validation in a separate cohort of 24 early stage breast cancer patients from a breast cancer screening unit and 24 age matched controls using two differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-202, miR-718). Results Using the significance level of p<0.05, we found that 59 miRNAs were differentially expressed in whole blood of early stage breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. 13 significantly up-regulated miRNAs and 46 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in our microarray panel of 1100 miRNAs and miRNA star sequences could be detected. A set of 240 miRNAs that was evaluated by radial basis function kernel support vector machines and 10-fold cross validation yielded a specificity of 78.8%, and a sensitivity of 92.5%, as well as an accuracy of 85.6%. Two miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort. The relative fold changes of the RT-qPCR validation were in line with the microarray data for both miRNAs, and statistically significant differences in miRNA-expression were found for miR-202. Conclusions MiRNA profiling in whole blood has potential as a novel method for early stage breast cancer detection, but there are still challenges that need to be addressed to establish these new biomarkers in clinical use. PMID:22242178

Schulz-Wendtland, Rudiger; Strissel, Pamela L.; Kahmann, Laura; Loehberg, Christian R.; Lux, Michael P.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Alexander; Bayer, Christian M.; Bani, Mayada R.; Richter, Swetlana; Adamietz, Boris R.; Wenkel, Evelyn; Rauh, Claudia; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.

2012-01-01

363

Development and trunk segmentation of early instars of a ptychopariid trilobite from Cambrian Stage 5 of China  

PubMed Central

Many three-dimensionally preserved exoskeletons found from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5) Gaotai Formation in Guizhou, southern China, have been assigned to the ptychopariid trilobite Gunnia sp. They represent mainly a series of early instars, exhibiting some delicate structures and morphological variation associated with their trunk segmentation and early development. Morphometric and statistical analyses indicate that the transverse joint appears to occur with the full growth of the third axial ring of the protopygidium, which increases in size much more rapidly than its corresponding protocephalon with growth. The ‘one by one' sequential release of thoracic segments from a transitory pygidium does not progress exactly in accordance with the development of the pygidial axis, whose axial rings increase at a relatively faster rate, and an ‘immature ring' always appears initially at the rear end of the axis. These new data set up a testable model for revealing trilobite segmentation and provide fresh insights into the development, evolution and taphonomic surroundings associated with the Cambrian trilobites. PMID:25382488

Shen, Cen; Clarkson, Euan N. K.; Yang, Jie; Lan, Tian; Hou, Jin-bo; Zhang, Xi-guang

2014-01-01

364

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Defines Critical Prognostic Genes of Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis who will benefit from adjuvant therapy. Patients and Methods Whole gene expression profiles were obtained at 19 time points over a 48-hour time course from human primary lung epithelial cells that were stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the presence or absence of a clinically used EGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-specific inhibitor, gefitinib. The data were subjected to a mathematical simulation using the State Space Model (SSM). “Gefitinib-sensitive” genes, the expressional dynamics of which were altered by addition of gefitinib, were identified. A risk scoring model was constructed to classify high- or low-risk patients based on expression signatures of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes in lung cancer using a training data set of 253 lung adenocarcinomas of North American cohort. The predictive ability of the risk scoring model was examined in independent cohorts of surgical specimens of lung cancer. Results The risk scoring model enabled the identification of high-risk stage IA and IB cases in another North American cohort for overall survival (OS) with a hazard ratio (HR) of 7.16 (P?=?0.029) and 3.26 (P?=?0.0072), respectively. It also enabled the identification of high-risk stage I cases without bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC) histology in a Japanese cohort for OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) with HRs of 8.79 (P?=?0.001) and 3.72 (P?=?0.0049), respectively. Conclusion The set of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes includes many genes known to be involved in biological aspects of cancer phenotypes, but not known to be involved in EGF signaling. The present result strongly re-emphasizes that EGF signaling status in cancer cells underlies an aggressive phenotype of cancer cells, which is useful for the selection of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis. Trial Registration The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) GSE31210 PMID:23028479

Nagasaki, Masao; Shimamura, Teppei; Imoto, Seiya; Saito, Ayumu; Ueno, Kazuko; Hatanaka, Yousuke; Yoshida, Ryo; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Masaharu; Beer, David G.; Yokota, Jun; Miyano, Satoru; Gotoh, Noriko

2012-01-01

365

The influence of spatio-temporal egg production variability on the modelled survival of the early life history stages of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the eastern North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartsch, J. 2005. The influence of spatio-temporal egg production variability on the modelled survival of the early life history stages of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the eastern North Atlantic. e ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62: 1049e1060. An individual-based model (IBM) that simulates the transport, growth, and mortality of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) eggs and larvae, is used to determine the

Joachim Bartsch

2005-01-01

366

Treatment Outcomes After Radiotherapy Alone for Patients With Early-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the treatment outcomes of patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy (RT) alone and discuss the effects of different T and N stages on the prognosis. Methods and Materials: The clinical data from 362 early-stage (T1-T2N0-N1M0, 1992 Fuzhou, China staging system) nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who had undergone RT alone between January 1999 and December 2001 and were hospitalized in the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University were collected and reviewed. Results: The median follow-up was 70 months. The 5-year overall survival rate for the whole group was 85%. The 5-year overall survival rate of those with T1N0, T2N0, and T1N1 was 96.6%, 91.3%, and 85.8%, respectively, with no statistically significant difference detected among the three groups (p > .05). However, the 5-year overall survival rate of 73.1% for those with Stage T2N1 was significantly different from that of the former three groups. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival and 5-year regional recurrence-free survival rates among the four groups was not significantly different (p < .05). The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rate of those with Stage T1N0, T2N0, and T1N1 was 94.9%, 97.5%, and 95.6%, respectively, without any significant differences (p > .05); however, the 81.2% rate for those with Stage T2N1 was significantly different (p < .05). Conclusion: RT alone for Stage T1N0, T2N0, and T1N1 yielded satisfactory results. The outcome for those with T2N1 was obviously poorer than that for the other three groups. The main reason for treatment failure in this group was distant metastasis. Patients who have a high risk of distant metastasis in the T2N1 group may need combined treatment instead of RT alone.

Xiao Weiwei; Han Fei [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lu Taixiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: ice_vivi@126.com; Chen, C.-Y.; Huang Ying; Zhao Chong [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

2009-07-15

367

Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2014-09-01

368

Efficient and rapid isolation of early-stage embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.  

PubMed

In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays. PMID:23770918

Raissig, Michael T; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

2013-01-01

369

Measurement of the human esophageal cancer in an early stage with Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The esophageal cancer has a tendency to transfer to another part of the body and the surgical operation itself sometimes gives high risk in vital function because many delicate organs exist near the esophagus. So the esophageal cancer is a disease with a high mortality. So, in order to lead a higher survival rate five years after the cancer's treatment, the investigation of the diagnosis methods or techniques of the cancer in an early stage and support the therapy are required. In this study, we performed the ex vivo experiments to obtain the Raman spectra from normal and early-stage tumor (stage-0) human esophageal sample by using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are collected by the homemade Raman spectrometer with the wavelength of 785 nm and Raman probe with 600-um-diameter. The principal component analysis (PCA) is performed after collection of spectra to recognize which materials changed in normal part and cancerous pert. After that, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is performed to predict the tissue type. The result of PCA indicates that the tumor tissue is associated with a decrease in tryptophan concentration. Furthermore, we can predict the tissue type with 80% accuracy by LDA which model is made by tryptophan bands.

Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ishigaki, Mika; Taketani, Akinori; Andriana, Bibin B.; Ishihara, Ryu; Sato, Hidetoshi

2014-02-01

370

Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study  

PubMed Central

The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929

Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrion, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

2012-01-01

371

How do early stages of information processing influence social skills in patients with schizophrenia?  

PubMed

Persons with schizophrenia show deficits across a broad range of cognitive domains, and their social skill deficits are thought, to some extent, to be caused by cognitive dysfunction. In this study, we attempted to replicate the correlation between the early stages of information processing and non-verbal skills. Subjects for the study included 22 men and six women who met DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. All subjects were attending a rehabilitation program at the day-treatment centers of their hospitals. Social skills were assessed using a structured role-play test. The Degraded-Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Span of Apprehension Test (SPAN) were used. Non-verbal skills were significantly correlated with CPT-False Alarm Rate (the rate of commission errors of all trials) in multiple regression analysis, but the receiving-processing skills did not have any relation to CPT or SPAN score. Non-verbal skills may be related to early information-processing deficiency, especially the response-inhibiting system. Receiving and processing skills may be related to later stages of information processing, or may reflect not only 'molecular' stages of information processing (less complex and less integration task in a continuum of complexity of cognitive processes) but also other factors such as social learning. PMID:10093871

Ikebuchi, E; Nakagome, K; Takahashi, N

1999-02-15

372

TEM investigations of the early stages of TiAl oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The early stages of TiAl oxidation at 900{degrees}C and 1000{degrees}C in air have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The investigations revealed that at the beginning of oxidation, i.e., after 4 min, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grow in a preferential orientation on the {gamma}-TiAl substrate. After 4 h of oxidation an oxide scale structure can already be found similar to that known from long-term oxidation. In addition, besides {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the formation of second aluminum oxide phase and of titanium nitrides is observed. The processes at the metal-oxide interface of oxidation in the early stages, consisting of a repeated cycle of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dissolution, outward migration of Al through the scale, and reprecipitation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the outer scale, are described by a model. The four stages observed in the kinetics of TiAl oxidation are explained on the basis of the results obtained and the structure of the oxide scale.

Lang, C.; Schuetze, M. [Karl-Winnacker-Institut der DECHEMA, Frankfurt Main (Germany)

1996-10-01

373

Genome-scale transcriptomic insights into early-stage fruit development in woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca.  

PubMed

Fragaria vesca, a diploid woodland strawberry with a small and sequenced genome, is an excellent model for studying fruit development. The strawberry fruit is unique in that the edible flesh is actually enlarged receptacle tissue. The true fruit are the numerous dry achenes dotting the receptacle's surface. Auxin produced from the achene is essential for the receptacle fruit set, a paradigm for studying crosstalk between hormone signaling and development. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying strawberry fruit set, next-generation sequencing was employed to profile early-stage fruit development with five fruit tissue types and five developmental stages from floral anthesis to enlarged fruits. This two-dimensional data set provides a systems-level view of molecular events with precise spatial and temporal resolution. The data suggest that the endosperm and seed coat may play a more prominent role than the embryo in auxin and gibberellin biosynthesis for fruit set. A model is proposed to illustrate how hormonal signals produced in the endosperm and seed coat coordinate seed, ovary wall, and receptacle fruit development. The comprehensive fruit transcriptome data set provides a wealth of genomic resources for the strawberry and Rosaceae communities as well as unprecedented molecular insight into fruit set and early stage fruit development. PMID:23898027

Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Shahan, Rachel; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

2013-06-01

374

Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin.  

PubMed

Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered. PMID:24962806

Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S; Di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A; Bianconi, Antonio

2014-01-01

375

Early-stage comparative sustainability assessment of new bio-based processes.  

PubMed

Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analyze eight new bio-based process alternatives developed within the CatchBio research consortium in the Netherlands. This assessment relies on a multi-criteria approach, integrating the performance of chemical conversions based on five indicators into an index value. These indicators encompass economics, environmental impact, hazards and risks thereby incorporating elements of green chemistry principles, and techno-economic and life cycle assessments. The analyzed bio-based options target the production of fuels and chemicals through chemical catalysis. For each bio-based process, two R&D stages (current laboratory and expected future) are assessed against a comparable conventional process. The multi-criteria assessment in combination with the uncertainty and scenario analysis shows that the chemical production processes using biomass as feedstock can provide potential sustainability benefits over conventional alternatives. However, further development is necessary to realize the potential benefits from biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes for fuel production. This early stage assessment is intended as an input for R&D decision making to support optimal allocation and utilization of resources to further develop promising bio-based processes. PMID:24078179

Patel, Akshay D; Meesters, Koen; den Uil, Herman; de Jong, Ed; Worrell, Ernst; Patel, Martin K

2013-09-01

376

Dissection and Downstream Analysis of Zebra Finch Embryos at Early Stages of Development  

PubMed Central

The zebra finch (Taeniopygiaguttata) has become an increasingly important model organism in many areas of research including toxicology1,2, behavior3, and memory and learning4,5,6. As the only songbird with a sequenced genome, the zebra finch has great potential for use in developmental studies; however, the early stages of zebra finch development have not been well studied. Lack of research in zebra finch development can be attributed to the difficulty of dissecting the small egg and embryo. The following dissection method minimizes embryonic tissue damage, which allows for investigation of morphology and gene expression at all stages of embryonic development. This permits both bright field and fluorescence quality imaging of embryos, use in molecular procedures such as in situ hybridization (ISH), cell proliferation assays, and RNA extraction for quantitative assays such as quantitative real-time PCR (qtRT-PCR). This technique allows investigators to study early stages of development that were previously difficult to access. PMID:24999108

Murray, Jessica R.; Stanciauskas, Monika E.; Aralere, Tejas S.; Saha, Margaret S.

2014-01-01

377

Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered.

Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S.; di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Bianconi, Antonio

2014-06-01

378

Large spinose microfossils in Ediacaran rocks as resting stages of early animals  

PubMed Central

Large (>100 ?m), profusely ornamented microfossils comprise a distinctive paleontological component of sedimentary rocks deposited during the Ediacaran Period (635–542 million years ago). Smaller spinose fossils in Paleozoic rocks have commonly been interpreted as algal cysts or phycomata, but the Ediacaran populations differ from modern algal analogs in size, shape, ultrastructure, and internal contents. In contrast, cysts formed during the diapause egg-resting stages of many metazoans share features of size, ornamentation, and internal contents with large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs). Moreover, transmission electron microscopic observations of animal-resting cysts reveal a 3-layer wall ultrastructure comparable to that of LOEM taxa. Interpretation of these distinctive Ediacaran microfossils as resting stages in early metazoan life cycles offers additional perspectives on their functional morphology and stratigraphic distribution. Based on comparisons with modern marine invertebrates, the recalcitrant life stage represented by LOEMs is interpreted as an evolutionary response to prolonged episodes of bottom water anoxia in Ediacaran shelf and platform environments. As predicted by this hypothesis, the later Ediacaran disappearance of LOEM taxa coincides with geochemical evidence for a marked decline in the extent of oxygen-depleted waters impinging on continental shelves and platforms. Thus, the form, diversity, and stratigraphic range of LOEMs illuminate life cycle evolution in early animals as influenced by the evolving redox state of the oceans. PMID:19366668

Cohen, Phoebe A.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Kodner, Robin B.

2009-01-01

379

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Only Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Background: We report the results of a single-institution, phase II trial of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using a single dose of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) in patients with low-risk early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 226 patients with low-risk, early stage breast cancer were treated with local excision and axillary management (sentinel node biopsy with or without axillary node dissection). After the surgeon temporarily reapproximated the excision cavity, a dose of 21 Gy using IOERT was delivered to the tumor bed, with a margin of 2 cm laterally. Results: With a mean follow-up of 46 months (range, 28-63 months), only 1 case of local recurrence was reported. The observed toxicity was considered acceptable. Conclusions: APBI using a single dose of IOERT can be delivered safely in women with early, low-risk breast cancer in carefully selected patients. A longer follow-up is needed to ascertain its efficacy compared to that of the current standard treatment of whole-breast irradiation.

Maluta, Sergio [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Dall'Oglio, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.dalloglio@ospedaleuniverona.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Marciai, Nadia; Gabbani, Milena [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Franchini, Zeno [Department of Surgery 1, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Surgery 1, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Pietrarota, Paolo [Department of Surgery 2, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Surgery 2, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Meliado, Gabriele; Guariglia, Stefania; Cavedon, Carlo [Department of Health Physics, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Health Physics, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)

2012-10-01

380

Decelerated Early Growth in Infants of Overweight and Obese Mothers  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and early infant growth and body composition. Study design Prospective cohort study performed at a University hospital/surrounding community. Ninety-seven non-diabetic mothers with singleton, term, healthy infants completed study visits at 2 weeks and 3 months of age. Pre-pregnancy, 59 mothers were normal weight, 18 were overweight, and 20 were obese. Infant anthropometrics and body composition via air-displacement plethysmography were measured. Infant feeding information and maternal pre-pregnancy weight were self-reported. Additional data were obtained via self-report and the medical record. Main outcome measures: change in weight, length, fat free mass, and fat mass from 2 weeks to 3 months of age. Analysis was by multivariate linear regression. Results At 2 weeks, anthropometrics and body composition did not differ across maternal BMI groups. At 3 months infants of overweight or obese mothers had gained less weight (p=0.02), grew less in length (p=0.01), and gained less fat mass (p=0.01). Adjustment for breastfeeding status and regression to the mean via conditional change variables did not alter the results. The results were not altered after adjusting for maternal glucose values from a 50 g glucose challenge and for maternal smoking in a subset including 80% of the women. Conclusions Maternal overweight/obesity is associated with early deceleration in linear growth and adipose tissue accrual; replication of these findings is needed. PMID:22819273

Ode, Katie Larson; Gray, Heather; Ramel, Sara; Georgieff, Michael; Demerath, Ellen W.

2012-01-01

381

Assessing early growth and adiposity: report from an EarlyNutrition Academy workshop.  

PubMed

This report provides a summary of a workshop organised by the European Commission-funded EarlyNutrition Project and the EarlyNutrition Academy. Accurate and reliable methods to assess body composition are needed in research on prenatal and early post-natal influences of nutrition on later health because common surrogate measures of maternal and offspring adiposity (body fat content), such as body mass index (BMI), have relatively poor predictive power for the risk of later disease. The key goals of the workshop were to discuss approaches to assess growth and body composition from pregnancy to adolescence, to summarise conclusions and to prepare a framework for research in the EarlyNutrition Project. The participants concluded that there is a pressing need to harmonise the methodologies for assessing body composition, recognising that each has advantages and limitations. Essential core measurements across studies assessing early growth and body composition were identified, including weight, length, BMI, waist and mid-upper arm circumference, subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses, and bioelectrical impedance analysis. In research settings with access to more sophisticated technologies, additional methods could include dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, ultrasound assessment of regional body fat, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and deuterium dilution. These provide richer data to answer research questions in greater depth but also increase costs. Where overall whole-body composition is the primary outcome measure, ADP or tracer dilution should be used whenever possible. Where regional distribution of body fat is of greater interest, an imaging technique such as MRI is preferred. PMID:23969405

Ward, Leigh C; Poston, Lucilla; Godfrey, Keith M; Koletzko, Berthold

2013-01-01

382

TEM lattice imaging of the nanostructure of early-growth sputter-deposited MoS2 solid lubricant films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the nanostructure of sputter-deposited MoS2 films; these films represent the early stages of growth under deposition conditions that produce a zone 2 columnar morphology. Analysis reveals that the early growth film morphology consists of anisotropic (plate-like) islands in which the (100) basal planes are generally perpendicular to the substrate (forming 'edge islands') or parallel to the substrate (forming 'basal islands') The edge islands evolve into the zone 2 morphology, shadowing and inhibiting the continued growth of the basal islands. Basal plane (002) lattice image curvature and kinking were observed in the edge islands. The edge islands can bend, kink, or twist, apparently because of variations in local growth conditions. The ability of the MoS2 crystal lattice to bend supports the idea that localized deviation can occur during sliding wear.

Hilton, M. R.; Fleischauer, P. D.

1990-02-01

383

Theoretical and Experimental Reevaluation of Stable Isotope Kinetics During Microbial Growth Stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior studies of stable isotope fractionation caused by microbial processes have presented data suggesting that fractionation factors change during microbial growth stages. This presents a major problem when attempting to quantify various biochemical processes with stable isotopes, for example, the extent of biodegradation following a chemical perturbation. In these situations, both the stage of microbial growth as well as the associated fractionation factor must be known to accurately determine the fraction of the sample that has biochemically reacted. Reanalysis of prior methanogenic experimental data as well as recent experiments in both the Gulf of Mexico and the laboratory suggest that isotopic fractionation factors can in fact be described as constant throughout all stages of microbial growth. This finding enables the use of this relatively fundamental measurement to produce quantitative results.

Chan, E. W.; Kessler, J. D.

2013-12-01

384

Miniprobe Endoscopic Ultrasonography Has Limitations in Determining the T Stage in Early Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Mini-probe endoscopic ultrasonography (mEUS) is a useful diagnostic tool for accurate assessment of tumor invasion. The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of mEUS in patients with early colorectal cancer (ECC). Methods Ninety lesions of ECC underwent mEUS for pre-treatment staging. We divided the lesions into either the mucosal group or the submucosal group according to the mEUS findings. The histological results of the specimens were compared with the mEUS findings. Results The overall accuracy for assessing the depth of tumor invasion (T stage) was 84.4% (76/90). The accuracy of mEUS was significantly lower for submucosal lesions compared to mucosal lesions (p=0.003) and it was lower for large tumors (?2 cm) (p=0.034). The odds ratios of large tumors and submucosal tumors affecting the accuracy of T staging were 3.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 11.39) and 6.25 (95% CI, 1.85 to 25.14), respectively. When submucosal tumors were combined with large size, the odds ratio was 14.67 (95% CI, 1.46 to 146.96). Conclusions The overall accuracy of T stage determination with mEUS was considerably high in patients with ECC; however, the accuracy decreased when tumor size was >2 cm or the tumor had invaded the submucosal layer. PMID:23560151

Tsung, Pei Chuan; Park, Jong Hyeok; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Won Wo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, Jin Nam; Kang, Yun Kyung; Moon, Jeong Seop

2013-01-01

385

A Massive Star Forming Region in a Very Early Stage of Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a study of two luminous IRAS sources thought to be young massive star forming regions and which have no previously detected radio continuum emission: IRAS 15596-5301 and IRAS 16272-4837. Our study incorporates sensitive ATCA radio continuum data, SEST 1.2-mm continuum (using the new SIMBA bolometer) and line data, as well as data taken from the MSX database. The results show that both sources are associated with dense molecular cores which appear to host recently formed massive stars. We argue that IRAS 16272 is in a very early stage of evolution, prior to the formation of an ultra compact HII region and that IRAS 15596 is in a more advanced stage and hosts a cluster of B-type stars.

Brooks, K. J.; Garay, G.; Mardones, D.; Norris, R. P.; Burton, M. G.

386

Early calcium dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease: setting the stage for synaptic dysfunction.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no known cure or clear understanding of the mechanisms involved in the disease process. Amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal loss, though characteristic of AD, are late stage markers whose impact on the most devastating aspect of AD, namely memory loss and cognitive deficits, are still unclear. Recent studies demonstrate that structural and functional breakdown of synapses may be the underlying factor in AD-linked cognitive decline. One common element that presents with several features of AD is disrupted neuronal calcium signaling. Increased intracellular calcium levels are functionally linked to presenilin mutations, ApoE4 expression, amyloid plaques, tau tangles and synaptic dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the role of AD-linked calcium signaling alterations in neurons and how this may be linked to synaptic dysfunctions at both early and late stages of the disease. PMID:21786198

Chakroborty, Shreaya; Stutzmann, Grace E

2011-08-01

387

Reactive molecular dynamic simulations of early stage of wet oxidation of Si (001) surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the initial stage of oxidation of Si (001) surface by water (H2O) molecules using reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at 300 K and 1200 K without any external constraint on the water molecules. Previously, reported water reaction behaviors on silicon surface by ab initio calculations or experimental observations were reproduced by the present MD simulation. The present simulation further revealed that the hydrogen atom in H2O is more attractive than oxygen atom in O2 to bond with Si, such that it accelerates the dissociation process of H2O. It was also observed that the oxidation reaction was enhanced with increased number of the supplied water molecules. It was suggested that the repulsion between water molecules and their fragments facilitates the dissociation of both water molecules and hydroxyl decomposition on the Si surface. Therefore, the wet oxidation behavior appeared to have more temperature dependence even in the early stage of oxidation.

Pamungkas, Mauludi Ariesto; Kim, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol

2013-08-01

388

Large scale surface migration of P. aeruginosa at early stages of biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a commonly-studied bacterium which can form biofilms, surface-bound aggregates which display increased resistance to various forms of stress, including a greatly enhanced antibiotic resistance. In the early stages of biofilm formation, free-swimming planktonic cells attach to the surface and form microcolonies, expressing a variety of adhesins and transitioning from reversible to irreversible attachment. By using particle tracking algorithms, we can in principle examine the full motility and division history of all cells in a microcolony. Here, we study the effects of the pel polysaccharides in microcolony formation by investigating how pel impacts the initial stages of biofilm formation by the P. aeruginosa PA14 strain. Specifically, we quantify the phenotypic effects of pel on initial attachment, microcolony formation, and biofilm morphology.

Gibiansky, Maxsim; Utada, Andy; Zhao, Kun; Xian, Wujing; Wong, Gerard

2013-03-01

389

Early-stage precipitation in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (7050)  

SciTech Connect

GP zone and metastable {eta}{sup '} formation during the early-stage precipitation of a 7050 Al alloy aged at 121 deg. C has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy, together with 3-dimensional atom probe analysis (of the chemistry and morphology) of individual precipitates. Small Mg-rich clusters (GPI zones) are found in the alloy after short ageing times at 121 deg. C, together with larger GPI zones (Zn/Mg=1.0). Zn-rich {eta}{sup '} platelets are seen to form mainly between 30 and 240 min ageing, coexisting with larger GPI zones. A significant fraction of <1 1 0> elongated clusters have also been observed over this period of ageing. The dominant mechanism for {eta}{sup '} formation at this stage is shown to be by transformation of small GPI zones, via these elongated clusters and not by nucleation on larger zones.

Sha Gang; Cerezo, Alfred

2004-09-06

390

Memory impairment and awareness of memory deficits in early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

In addition to their memory impairment, individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often suffer from deficits in self-awareness. Awareness of memory deficits or metamemory is a multifaceted function, comprising on-line self-monitoring, generalized self-beliefs of memory efficacy, and generalized knowledge about memory functions. Awareness of memory problems in early-stage AD is a matter of clinical importance from a humanistic point of view, because higher levels of awareness may be associated with better future outcomes. Current methods of measuring awareness tend to fall into two categories, i.e., to introduce a questionnaire assessing patient/caregiver discrepancies; or to ask a patient to prospectively predict or retrospectively postdict their own memory performances. Characteristics of each measure as well as relationship between the two measures were discussed. For the performance prediction/postdiction paradigm, we used recognition memory of auditory verbal learning tests and awareness of memory deficits were examined in 24 individuals with early-stage AD. In addition to their significantly impaired recognition memory, individuals with AD displayed underawareness of memory deficits even at this early stage. They retrospectively overestimated memory performance after actual performance, but appeared to benefit from feedback and displayed intact on-line awareness of memory dysfunction, leading to normal prediction of the second session. However, individuals with AD again failed to retrospectively incorporate incidents of memory failure into generalized self-belief systems. Brain/behavior correlational analyses suggest that the prefrontal cortex and posterior dorsomedial regions including the precuneus may be involved in self-awareness. PMID:18577842

Mimura, Masaru

2008-06-01

391

The Physical Performance Test Predicts Aerobic Capacity Sufficient for Independence in Early-Stage Alzheimer's  

PubMed Central

Background Early identification of physical impairment related to AD is increasingly identified as an important aspect of diagnosis and care. Clinically accessible tools for evaluating physical capacity and impairment in AD have been developed but require further characterization for their effective use. Purpose To assess the utility of the Physical Performance Test (PPT) for identifying functionally-limiting aerobic capacity in older adults with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and without dementia. Methods Secondary analysis of a dataset of community dwelling older adults, 70 without dementia and 60 with early-stage AD. Participants were administered the PPT and performed a graded maximal exercise test. The clinical utility of two versions of the PPT was described by determining sensitivity and specificity to functionally-limiting aerobic capacity. Results The 9-item PPT is predictive of diminished aerobic capacity in older adults with AD. A score of 28 or less indicates likelihood of functionally-limiting aerobic capacity that would limit independent function with 67% sensitivity and 67% specificity. The 4-item mini-PPT demonstrates improved capability for identifying impaired functional aerobic capacity with 85% sensitivity and 62% specificity. The PPT was not useful for identifying impaired functional aerobic capacity in older adults without dementia. Conclusions The PPT, which incorporate basic and instrumental activities of daily living as test items, and the mini-PPT which focuses on basic activities of daily living and simple physical functions, are both clinically useful tool for the evaluation for individuals in the earliest stages of AD and both provide important information about functional performance. The mini-PPT additionally inform the clinician as to whether or not individual with early-stage AD is likely to have insufficient aerobic capacity to perform instrumental daily functions. PMID:22020383

Vidoni, Eric D.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Lee, Charesa; Hamilton, Jenna; Burns, Jeffrey M.

2011-01-01

392

Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy for high-risk, early stage endometrial cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report outcomes following adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) with or without chemotherapy for high-intermediate risk (HIR) and high-risk, early stage endometrial cancer as defined in Gynecologic Oncology Group trial 0249. Material and methods From May 2000 to January 2014, 68 women with HIR and high-risk endometrial cancer underwent surgical staging followed by VBT. Median VBT dose was 21 Gy delivered in three fractions prescribed to 0.5 cm depth. Paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and carboplatin area under the curve 6 was administered every 21 days in sequence with VBT. Actuarial survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Patient demographics included a median age of 66 years (range: 36-91) and stages IA (49%), IB (38%), and II (13%), respectively. Thirty-one (46%) patients had HIR disease with endometrioid histology, and 33 (48%) patients had serous or clear cell histology. Thirty-seven (54%) patients received a median 3 cycles (range: 3-6) of chemotherapy in addition to VBT, and 65 patients (96%) completed all prescribed therapy. During a median follow up of 33.1 months (range: 4.0-161.7), four patients have recurred, including one vaginal recurrence. The 3-year estimates of vaginal, pelvic, and distant recurrences were 1.9%, 2.4%, and 9.1%, respectively. The 3-year rates of disease-free and overall survival were 87.7% and 93.9%, respectively. Conclusions Early outcomes with adjuvant VBT with or without chemotherapy demonstrate high rates of vaginal and pelvic control for women with HIR disease. Early vaginal and pelvic relapses in high-risk patients suggest that pelvic external beam radiotherapy is warranted in this subgroup, but additional data from large phase III trials is warranted. PMID:25337127

Eastwick, Gary; Anne, Pramila Rani; Rosenblum, Norman G.; Schilder, Russell J.; Chalian, Raffi; Zibelli, Allison M.; Kim, Christine H.; Den, Robert

2014-01-01

393

Dietary Patterns and Breast Cancer Recurrence and Survival Among Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the association of dietary patterns with cancer recurrence and mortality of early-stage breast cancer survivors. Patients and Methods Patients included 1,901 Life After Cancer Epidemiology Study participants diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer between 1997 and 2000 and recruited primarily from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry. Diet was assessed at cohort entry using a food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were identified: prudent (high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and poultry) and Western (high intakes of red and processed meats and refined grains). Two hundred sixty-eight breast cancer recurrences and 226 all-cause deaths (128 attributable to breast cancer) were ascertained. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results Increasing adherence to a prudent dietary pattern was associated with a statistically significant decreasing risk of overall death (P trend = .02; HR for highest quartile = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.90) and death from non–breast cancer causes (P trend = .003; HR for highest quartile = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.73). In contrast, increasing consumption of a Western dietary pattern was related to an increasing risk of overall death (P trend = .05) and death from non–breast cancer causes (P = .02). Neither dietary pattern was associated with risk of breast cancer recurrence or death from breast cancer. These observations were generally not modified by physical activity, being overweight, or smoking. Conclusion Women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer might improve overall prognosis and survival by adopting more healthful dietary patterns. PMID:19114692

Kwan, Marilyn L.; Weltzien, Erin; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Castillo, Adrienne; Slattery, Martha L.; Caan, Bette J.

2009-01-01

394

Depressive Symptoms are Increased in the Early Perimenopausal Stage in Ethnically Diverse HIV+ and HIV- Women  

PubMed Central

Objective The risk of clinically significant depressive symptoms increases during the perimenopause. With highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), more HIV-infected women survive to transition through the menopause. In a cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated the association of menopausal stage and vasomotor symptoms with depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse, cohort of women with a high prevalence of HIV. Methods Participants included 835 HIV-infected women and 335 HIV-uninfected controls from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS; 63% African-American). The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale was used to screen for elevated depressive symptoms. Menopausal stages were defined according to standard definitions. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of elevated depressive symptoms. Results Compared to premenopausal women, early perimenopausal (OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.17–2.60), but not late perimenopausal or postmenopausal women were more likely to show elevated depressive symptoms in adjusted analyses. The odds were similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Persistent vasomotor symptoms also predicted elevated depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and uninfected women (OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.02–2.06). In HIV-infected women, menopausal stage interacted with antiretroviral use (p=0.02); the likelihood of elevated depressive symptoms in early perimenopause compared with premenopause was especially high in HAART-untreated women (OR 3.87, 95%CI 1.57–9.55). Conclusions In HIV+ and HIV? women, the odds of elevated depressive symptoms were significantly higher during the early perimenopause. Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with nonadherence to HAART, underscoring the importance of screening and treating depressive symptoms in HIV+ women who have experienced a change in the regularity of their menstrual cycles. PMID:22872013

Maki, Pauline M.; Rubin, Leah H.; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Young, Mary; Schwartz, Rebecca M.; Anastos, Kathryn; Cook, Judith A.

2012-01-01

395

Cognitive and Social Processes Predicting Partner Psychological Adaptation to Early Stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction The diagnosis and subsequent treatment for early stage breast cancer is stressful for partners. Little is known about the role of cognitive and social processes predicting the longitudinal course of partners’ psychosocial adaptation. This study evaluated the role of cognitive and social processing in partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer, evaluating both main and moderator effect models. Moderating effects for meaning-making, acceptance, and positive reappraisal on the predictive association of searching for meaning, emotional processing, and emotional expression on partner psychological distress were examined. Materials and Methods Partners of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were evaluated shortly after the ill partner’s diagnosis (n= 253), nine (n = 167), and 18 months (n = 149) later. Partners completed measures of emotional expression, emotional processing, acceptance, meaning-making, and general and cancer-specific distress at all time points. Results Lower satisfaction with partner support predicted greater global distress, and greater use of positive reappraisal was associated with greater distress. The predicted moderator effects for found meaning on the associations between the search for meaning and cancer-specific distress were found and similar moderating effects for positive reappraisal on the associations between emotional expression and global distress and for acceptance on the association between emotional processing and cancer-specific distress were found. Conclusions Results indicate several cognitive-social processes directly predict partner distress. However, moderator effect models in which the effects of partners’ processing depends upon whether these efforts result changes in perceptions of the cancer experience may add to the understanding of partners’ adaptation to cancer. PMID:18435865

Manne, Sharon; Ostroff, Jamie; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Winkel, Gary

2009-01-01

396

Letrozole : in postmenopausal hormone-responsive early-stage breast cancer.  

PubMed

Letrozole is a highly selective, nonsteroidal, third-generation aromatase inhibitor approved for first-line and extended adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive, early-stage breast cancer. Binding of letrozole to the haeme component of the cytochrome P450 subunit of aromatase inhibits estrogen biosynthesis throughout the body. As first-line adjuvant therapy in approximate, equals 8000 postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive, early-stage breast cancer, once-daily letrozole 2.5mg significantly prolonged disease-free survival (DFS; primary endpoint) and reduced the risk of relapse at distant sites relative to once-daily tamoxifen 20mg in the ongoing Breast International Group 1-98, double-blind, multinational trial. The median duration of follow-up for this primary core analysis was 25.8 months. Extended adjuvant therapy with once-daily letrozole 2.5mg significantly prolonged DFS relative to placebo treatment at a median follow-up of 30 months (primary endpoint) in the MA-17 trial in approximate, equals 5000 postmenopausal women who were disease free after 4.5-6 years of tamoxifen therapy for hormone-responsive, early-stage breast cancer. Letrozole treatment for up to 5 years was generally well tolerated in this clinical setting. As first-line treatment, relative to tamoxifen, letrozole was associated with a significantly lower incidence of venous thromboembolitic events, vaginal bleeding, hot flushes and night sweating, whereas the incidence of cardiac failure, bone fractures and arthralgia was higher in letrozole recipients. PMID:16526826

Scott, Lesley J; Keam, Susan J

2006-01-01

397

Biopsy Findings After Breast Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the patterns and factors predictive of positive ipsilateral breast biopsy after conservation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of Stage I-II breast cancer patients initially treated with lumpectomy and radiotherapy between 1977 and 1996, who later underwent post-treatment ipsilateral breast biopsies. Results: A total of 223 biopsies were performed in 193 treated breasts: 171 single and 22 multiple biopsies. Of the 223 biopsies, 56% were positive and 44% were negative for recurrence. The positive biopsy rate (PBR) was 59% for the first and 32% for subsequent biopsies. The median time to the first post-treatment biopsy was 49 months. Of the patients with negative initial biopsy findings, 11% later developed local recurrence. The PBR was 40% among patients with physical examination findings only, 65% with mammographic abnormalities only, and 79% with both findings (p = 0.001). Analysis of the procedure type revealed a PBR of 86% for core and 58% for excisional biopsies compared with 28% for aspiration cytology alone (p = 0.025). The PBR varied inversely with age at the original diagnosis: 49% if {>=}51 years, 57% if 36-50 years, and 83% if {<=}35 years (p = 0.05). The PBR correlated directly with the interval after radiotherapy: 49% if {<=}60 months, 59% if 60.1-120 months, 77% if 120.1-180 months, and 100% if >180 months after completing postlumpectomy radiotherapy (p = 0.01). The PBR was not linked with recurrence location, initial pathologic T or N stage, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or final pathologic margins (all p {>=} 0.15). Conclusion: After definitive radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, a greater PBR was associated with the presence of both mammographic and clinical abnormalities, excisional or core biopsies, younger age at the initial diagnosis, and longer intervals after radiotherapy completion.

Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: vapiwala@xrt.upenn.edu; Starzyk, Jill; Harris, Eleanor E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tchou, Julia C.; Boraas, Marcia C.; Czerniecki, Brian J.; Rosato, Ernest F. [Department of Surgery, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Orel, Susan G. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Solin, Lawrence J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2007-10-01

398

'Making the best you can of it': living with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Drawing upon data from a qualitative study of persons who are in the early stage of the condition, this paper examines the meaning of Alzheimer's disease. It contrasts the meaning of the disease as portrayed in popular culture with its meaning as interpreted by persons living with it. Findings show that persons with the illness do not necessarily accept the negative cultural meaning of the disease, nor the helpless 'victim' role in which they are generally cast. With a determination to 'make the best of it', strategies such as humour, normalisation, present-time orientation, and life review are employed to create a meaningful life. PMID:18298633

Macrae, Hazel

2008-04-01

399

Quantitative classification of primary progressive aphasia at early and mild impairment stages.  

PubMed

The characteristics of early and mild disease in primary progressive aphasia are poorly understood. This report is based on 25 patients with aphasia quotients >85%, 13 of whom were within 2 years of symptom onset. Word-finding and spelling deficits were the most frequent initial signs. Diagnostic imaging was frequently negative and initial consultations seldom reached a correct diagnosis. Functionality was preserved, so that the patients fit current criteria for single-domain mild cognitive impairment. One goal was to determine whether recently published classification guidelines could be implemented at these early and mild disease stages. The quantitative testing of the recommended core and ancillary criteria led to the classification of ?80% of the sample into agrammatic, logopenic and semantic variants. Biological validity of the resultant classification at these mild impairment stages was demonstrated by clinically concordant cortical atrophy patterns. A two-dimensional template based on orthogonal mapping of word comprehension and grammaticality provided comparable accuracy and led to a flexible road map that can guide the classification process quantitatively or qualitatively. Longitudinal evaluations of initially unclassifiable patients showed that the semantic variant can be preceded by a prodromal stage of focal left anterior temporal atrophy during which prominent anomia exists without word comprehension or object recognition impairments. Patterns of quantitative tests justified the distinction of grammar from speech abnormalities and the desirability of using the 'agrammatic' designation exclusively for loss of grammaticality, regardless of fluency or speech status. Two patients with simultaneous impairments of grammatical sentence production and word comprehension displayed focal atrophy of the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior temporal lobe. These patients represent a fourth variant of 'mixed' primary progressive aphasia. Quantitative criteria were least effective in the distinction of the agrammatic from the logopenic variant and left considerable latitude to clinical judgement. The widely followed recommendation to wait for 2 years of relatively isolated and progressive language impairment before making a definitive diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia has promoted diagnostic specificity, but has also diverted attention away from early and mild disease. This study shows that this recommendation is unnecessarily restrictive and that quantitative guidelines can be implemented for the valid root diagnosis and subtyping of mildly impaired patients within 2 years of symptom onset. An emphasis on early diagnosis will promote a better characterization of the disease stages where therapeutic interventions are the most likely to succeed. PMID:22525158

Mesulam, M-Marsel; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra

2012-05-01

400

Clean Energy Finance: Challenges and Opportunities of Early-Stage Energy Investing (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Characterized by a changing landscape and new opportunities, today's increasingly complex energy decision space will need innovative financing and investment models to appropriately assess risk and profitability. This report provides an overview of the current state of clean energy finance across the entire spectrum but with a focus on early stage investing, and it includes insights from investors across all investment classes. Further, this report aims to provide a roadmap with the mechanisms, limitations, and considerations involved in making successful investments by identifying risks, challenges, and opportunities in the clean energy sector.

Heap, D.; Pless, J.; Aieta, N.

2013-12-01

401

Some physiological effects of cadmium on the early life stages of the estuarine teleost Fundulus similis  

E-print Network

";ill;i~erat of the req. tire. ';;e )i, for tlute d-~ree of PASTER OF SCIENCE December l971 SOME PHYS IOLOG ICAL EFF ECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE ESTUARINE TELEOST FUNDULUS S IMILIS. A Thesis MAYNE LEROY MCCULLOCH Approved as to styl e... the larvae just prior to exposure to avoid losses due to starvation. Solutions were changed every 24 hours and at that time dead anima', s were removed and recorded. Criteria for death in eo bryos was cessa!ion of heartbeat; for larvae, lack of op...

McCulloch, Wayne LeRoy

2012-06-07

402

Pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common causes of dementia in the world. Patients with AD frequently complain of vision disturbances that do not manifest as changes in routine ophthalmological examination findings. The main causes of these disturbances are neuropathological changes in the visual cortex, although abnormalities in the retina and optic nerve cannot be excluded. Pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) tests are commonly used in ophthalmology to estimate bioelectrical function of the retina and optic nerve. The aim of this study was to determine whether retinal and optic nerve function, measured by PERG and PVEP tests, is changed in individuals in the early stages of AD with normal routine ophthalmological examination results. Standard PERG and PVEP tests were performed in 30 eyes of 30 patients with the early stages of AD. The results were compared to 30 eyes of 30 normal healthy controls. PERG and PVEP tests were recorded in accordance with the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) standards. Additionally, neural conduction was measured using retinocortical time (RCT)--the difference between P100-wave latency in PVEP and P50-wave implicit time in PERG. In PERG test, PVEP test, and RCT, statistically significant changes were detected. In PERG examination, increased implicit time of P50-wave (P < 0.03) and amplitudes reductions in P50- and N95-waves (P < 0.0001) were observed. In PVEP examination, increased latency of P100-wave (P < 0.0001) was found. A significant increase in RCT (P < 0.0001) was observed. The most prevalent features were amplitude reduction in N95-wave and increased latency of P100-wave which were seen in 56.7% (17/30) of the AD eyes. In patients with the early stages of AD and normal routine ophthalmological examination results, dysfunction of the retinal ganglion cells as well as of the optic nerve is present, as detected by PERG and PVEP tests. These dysfunctions, at least partially, explain the cause of visual disturbances observed in patients with the early stages of AD. PMID:20549299

Krasodomska, Kamila; Lubi?ski, Wojciech; Potemkowski, Andrzej; Honczarenko, Krystyna

2010-10-01

403

The management of early-stage and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: a review.  

PubMed

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined as lacking expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2, comprises approximately 15% of incident breast cancers and is over-represented among those with metastatic disease. There are several biologically distinct subtypes within TNBC. Although the incidence of BRCA mutations across all subsets of breast cancer is low, BRCA mutations are more common among those with TNBC and may have therapeutic implications. The general principles guiding the use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy do not differ dramatically between early-stage TNBC and non-TNBC. PMID:23915742

Anders, Carey K; Zagar, Timothy M; Carey, Lisa A

2013-08-01

404

The utility of Stroop task switching as a marker for early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Past studies have suggested attentional control tasks such as the Stroop task and the task-switching paradigm may be sensitive for the early detection of dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). The authors of the current study combined these tasks to create a Stroop switching task. Performance was compared across young adults, older adults, and individuals diagnosed with very mild dementia. Results indicated that this task strongly discriminated individuals with healthy aging from those with early-stage DAT. In a logistic regression analysis, incongruent error rates from the Stroop switching task discriminated healthy aging from DAT better than any of the other 18 cognitive tasks given in a psychometric battery. PMID:20853964

Hutchison, Keith A; Balota, David A; Duchek, Janet M; Ducheck, Janet M

2010-09-01

405

Investigating the Early Stages of Person Perception: The Asymmetry of Social Categorization by Sex vs. Age  

PubMed Central

Early perceptual operations are central components of the dynamics of social categorization. The wealth of information provided by facial cues presents challenges to our understanding of these early stages of person perception. The current study aimed to uncover the dynamics of processing multiply categorizable faces, notably as a function of their gender and age. Using a modified four-choice version of a mouse-tracking paradigm (which assesses the relative dominance of two categorical dimensions), the relative influence that sex and age have on each other during categorization of infant, younger adult, and older adult faces was investigated. Results of these experiments demonstrate that when sex and age dimensions are simultaneously categorized, only for infant faces does age influence sex categorization. In contrast, the sex of both young and older adults was shown to influence age categorization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed in light of previous person perception research. PMID:24465423

Cloutier, Jasmin; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Ambady, Nalini

2014-01-01

406

Gas turbine based cogeneration facilities: Key issues to be addressed at an early design stage  

SciTech Connect

The basic design of a cogeneration facility implies much more than looking for a gas turbine generating set that matches the steam host heat demand, and making an economical evaluation of the project. Tractebel Energy Engineering (TEE) has designed, built and commissioned since the early nineties 350 MW of cogeneration facilities, mainly producing electricity and steam with natural gas fired gas turbines, which is the present most common option for industrial combined heat and power production. A standardized cogeneration design does not exist. Each facility has to be carefully adapted to the steam host's particular situation, and important technical issues have to be addressed at an early stage of plant design. Unexpected problems, expensive modifications, delays during execution of the project and possible long term operational limitations or drawbacks may result if these questions are left unanswered. This paper comments the most frequent questions on design values, required flexibility of the HRSG, reliability and backup, control system, connection to the grid

Vandesteene, J.L.; De Backer, J.

1998-07-01

407

Adventitial fibroblasts are activated in the early stages of atherosclerosis in the apolipoprotein E knockout mouse  

SciTech Connect

The role of the adventitia in vascular function and vascular lesion formation has been largely ignored. This study observed the activation of the adventitia and specifically the fibroblasts in the development of atherosclerosis in the apoE(-/-) mouse. The results showed a gradual increase in expression of collagen types I and III after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of hyperlipidic diet. The earliest expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) protein and mRNA was detected in the adventitial fibroblast before the formation of intimal lesions. Proliferation, too, was first found in the adventitial fibroblasts. We hypothesize that the adventitial fibroblast is activated in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Adventitial inflammation may be an early event in the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

Xu Fang [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Ji Jian [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Li Li [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Chen Rong [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Hu Weicheng [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China)]. E-mail: huweicheng@sdu.edu.cn

2007-01-19

408

The effects of salinity on the growth and survival of the postlarval stages of Gambusia affinis  

E-print Network

of MASTER OP SCIBNCB january l963 Ma Jor Subject: Biological Oceanography THE EFFECTS OF SALINIIY ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF THE POSI'LARVAL STAGES OF GAMBUSIA AFFINIS A Thesis Glenn Erwln Omundson h aved as to style and content by: Irman of Com... on the growth of the poetlarval stages of Gambusia affinis, This was accomplished by controlling all environmental factors other than salinity, l. e. , temperature, food, light, pH and fish per unit volume of water. CHAPTER II MATERIALS AND METHODS...

Omundson, Glenn Erwin

2012-06-07

409

Evidence of Altered Corticomotor System Connectivity in Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose There is increasing evidence for subtle motor dysfunction early in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), including common motor behaviors that were once considered unaffected early in the disease process. Our objective was to assess if functional neural networks underlying motor behavior are altered by AD. Methods We investigated AD-related differences in regional brain activation during motor performance. Nine older adults with early-stage AD and 10 without dementia underwent fMRI while performing a visually-directed simple motor task (hand squeeze). Results Despite some similarity in brain activation during motor performance, we found that individuals without dementia exhibited greater activation in accessory motor regions supplementary motor area and cerebellum compared to those with AD. We also assessed disease-related differences in regions where activity was functionally integrated with primary motor cortex. Using a psycho-physiological interaction analysis, we found that those with AD displayed increased co-activation with primary motor cortex of bilateral motor and visual regions. Discussion and Conclusions These AD-related changes in regional co-activation during motor execution in may represent inefficiency in the motor network as a consequence of the disease process. Alternatively, they may represent compensatory activation. These findings provide further evidence that in early-stages of AD, neuromotor function is altered in AD even during simple motor behaviors. The results may have implications for performance of more complex tasks, and may be associated with the well-characterized decline in dual task performance in those with AD. PMID:22333920

Vidoni, Eric D.; Thomas, George P.; Honea, Robyn A.; Loskutova, Natalia; Burns, Jeffrey M.

2012-01-01

410

The effects of DELLAs on growth change with developmental stage and brassinosteroid levels.  

PubMed

There are two stages in photomorphogenesis. First, seedlings detect light and open their cotyledons. Second, seedlings optimize their light environment by controlled elongation of the seedling stem or hypocotyl. In this study, we used time-lapse imaging to investigate the relationship between the brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) hormones across both stages of photomorphogenesis. During the transition between one stage and the other, growth promotion by BRs and GAs switched from an additive to a synergistic relationship. Molecular genetic analysis revealed unexpected roles for known participants in the GA pathway during this period. Members of the DELLA family could either repress or enhance BR growth responses, depending on developmental stage. At the transition point for seedling growth dynamics, the BR and GA pathways had opposite effects on DELLA protein levels. In contrast to GA-induced DELLA degradation, BR treatments increased the levels of REPRESSOR of ga1-3 (RGA) and mimicked the molecular effects of stabilizing DELLAs. In addition, DELLAs showed complex regulation of genes involved in BR biosynthesis, implicating them in BR homeostasis. Growth promotion by GA alone depended on the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family of master growth regulators. The effects of BR, including the synergistic effects with GA, were largely independent of PIFs. These results point to a multi-level, dynamic relationship between the BR and GA pathways. PMID:23834248

Stewart Lilley, Jodi L; Gan, Yinbo; Graham, Ian A; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

2013-10-01

411

Impact of [{sup 18}F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Staging and Management of Early-Stage Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Accurate staging is critical to select patients with early-stage (I-II) follicular lymphoma (ESFL) suitable for involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) and to define the radiotherapy portal. We evaluated the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET on staging, treatment, and outcome for patients with ESFL on conventional staging. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with untreated ESFL (World Health Organization Grade I-IIIa, or 'low grade') following a minimum of physical examination, computerized tomography, and bone marrow examination (conventional assessment) and who had staging PET from June 1997 to June 2006 were studied retrospectively. Stage allocation was based on routine imaging reports. Disease sites, stage, and management plan were recorded based on conventional assessment or conventional assessment plus PET. Results: FDG avidity was demonstrated in 97% of patients in whom disease was evident on conventional assessment after biopsy. PET findings suggested a change of stage or management in 19 patients: 13 (31%) who were upstaged to Stage III-IV, altering ideal management from IFRT to systemic therapy, and 6 (14%) who had the involved field enlarged, including 4 upstaged from Stage I to II. Of these 19 cases, PET findings were considered true positive in 8 patients, indeterminate in 10, and false positive in only 1 patient. Conclusions: Our data confirm that ESFL is usually FDG-avid. In routine practice, PET has the potential to upstage and thereby alter management in a high proportion of patients with apparent ESFL.

Wirth, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)], E-mail: andrew.wirth@petermac.org; Foo, Marcus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Seymour, John F. [Department of Hematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); MacManus, Michael P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Department of Metabolic Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

2008-05-01

412

Feeding ecology in the early life stages of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (L.).  

E-print Network

??Evaluating factors affecting survivorship during early life stages of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (L.), is essential to understand mechanisms of the population outbreaks. The… (more)

Okaji, Ken

1996-01-01

413

Impact of the CE mark approval on exit opportunities and validation for early stage medical device companies  

E-print Network

The aim of this thesis was to look at the impact of acquiring the CE marking approval on the outcome of early stage medical device companies, specifically its impact on strategic acquisition opportunities and on valuation. ...

Kothari, Ashish (Ashish Shrikant)

2011-01-01

414

Mayo and NCI researchers find that trastuzumab continues to show life for HER2-positve early stage breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

After following breast cancer patients for an average of eight-plus years, researchers say that adding trastuzumab (Herceptin) to chemotherapy significantly improved the overall and disease-free survival of women with early stage HER2-positive breast cancer.

415

To what extent is social media exposure correlated with financial performance for early stage digital consumer-facing startups?  

E-print Network

It is very hard to identify and evaluate very early stage investment opportunities in disruptive digital consumer-facing startups as they usually don't have any meaningful revenue data yet. However, these growing startups ...

Genre, Solene

2014-01-01

416