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1

Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late-than early-successional stage biological soil crusts  

E-print Network

Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage-living soil nematode communities reflect their environment and have been used as biological indicators of soil condition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nematode communities are successionally more mature

Neher, Deborah A.

2

Complexity of early and middle successional stages in a rocky intertidal surfgrass community  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of simple models have been proposed to describe ecological succession (e.g., Connell and Slatyer 1977), but these models do not address some agents that may increase complexity. To determine the complexity of a natural sequence, four null hypotheses were tested: (1) seasonality of growth, recruitment, and mortality does not influence succession; (2) the interspecific interactions that produce successional

Teresa Turner

1983-01-01

3

Phyllostomid Bat Occurrence in Successional Stages of Neotropical Dry Forests  

PubMed Central

Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are highly endangered tropical ecosystems being replaced by a complex mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasturelands. In this context, it is urgent to understand how taxa playing critical ecosystem roles respond to habitat modification. Because Phyllostomid bats provide important ecosystem services (e.g. facilitate gene flow among plant populations and promote forest regeneration), in this study we aimed to identify potential patterns on their response to TDF transformation in sites representing four different successional stages (initial, early, intermediate and late) in three Neotropical regions: México, Venezuela and Brazil. We evaluated bat occurrence at the species, ensemble (abundance) and assemblage level (species richness and composition, guild composition). We also evaluated how bat occurrence was modulated by the marked seasonality of TDFs. In general, we found high seasonal and regional specificities in phyllostomid occurrence, driven by specificities at species and guild levels. For example, highest frugivore abundance occurred in the early stage of the moistest TDF, while highest nectarivore abundance occurred in the same stage of the driest TDF. The high regional specificity of phyllostomid responses could arise from: (1) the distinctive environmental conditions of each region, (2) the specific behavior and ecological requirements of the regional bat species, (3) the composition, structure and phenological patterns of plant assemblages in the different stages, and (4) the regional landscape composition and configuration. We conclude that, in tropical seasonal environments, it is imperative to perform long-term studies considering seasonal variations in environmental conditions and plant phenology, as well as the role of landscape attributes. This approach will allow us to identify potential patterns in bat responses to habitat modification, which constitute an invaluable tool for not only bat biodiversity conservation but also for the conservation of the key ecological processes they provide. PMID:24404175

Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel; Stoner, Kathryn Elizabeth; Nassar, Jafet M.; Espirito-Santo, Mario M.; Alvarez-Anorve, Mariana Yolotl; Aranguren, Carla I.; Henry, Mickael; Gonzalez-Carcacia, Jose A.; Dolabela Falcao, Luiz A.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo

2014-01-01

4

Phenotypic Plasticity of Early and Late Successional Forbs in Response to Shifts in Resources  

PubMed Central

We compared the phenotypic plasticity of two early successional forbs of nutrient-poor mobile dunes (Agriophyllum squarrosum and Corispermum macrocarpum) and two later successional forbs (weeds) of stabilized, higher nutrient dunes and cropland (Chenopodium acuminatum and Salsola collina) to variations in environmental factors. A controlled (including soil nutrients, water, and population density) greenhouse experiment was conducted in Horqin sandy land, China. Late successional species had high plasticity in growth response to nutrients and water or high performance in high soil nutrients and water, reflecting their higher nutrient habitat. In contrast, the early successional species have low plasticity, reflecting their adaptation to resource-poor early successional soil. Late successional species did not always have higher reproductive effort than early successional species. Plants did not have a uniform strategy of increasing reproductive effort with any environmental stressors. Reproductive effort increased with increasing water availability and decreasing nutrient levels, while density had no effect. Patterns of plasticity traits for late successional species exhibited a complex of Master-of-some and Jack-of-all-trades. Late successional species had higher performance or higher plasticity than early successional species. PMID:23185600

Huang, Yingxin; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Daowei; Zhang, Hongxiang; Zheng, Wei

2012-01-01

5

Importance of Early Successional Forest for Wildlife in Southern New England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many bird species that require early successional forest are declining in the Northeast U.S. because such habitat is relatively rare and when they inhabit the more common mature forests or suburban areas they are less successful. Early successional forest is maintained by regular disturbance (wind, fire, clear-cutting, and flooding) which has been happening less frequently during the past 50 years.

Amy Wynia

2007-01-01

6

Influence of biological soil crusts at different successional stages in the implantation of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence of biological soil crusts at different successional stages in the implantation of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid zones I. Miralles1, F. Gil-Sotres2, Y. Cantón-Castilla3, F. Domingo1, M.C. Leirós2, C. Trasar-Cepeda4 1 Experimental Estation of Arid Zones (CSIC), E-04230 La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, Spain. 2 Departamento Edafología y Química Agrícola, Grupo de Evaluación de la Calidad del Suelo, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. 3 University of Almería, Departamento de Edafología y Química Agrícola, E-04230-La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, Spain. 4 Departamento Bioquímica del Suelo, IIAG-CSIC, Apartado 122, E-15708 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Crusts (BSCs) are formed by a close association between soil particles and cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and microfungi in varying proportions. Their habitat is within or immediately on top of the uppermost millimetres of the soil and are the predominant surface cover in arid and semiarid zones. Among the diverse functions developed by BSCs in the ecosystem (hydrology, erosion, soil properties, etc.), one of the most important is its role in nutrient cycling. Within arid and semiarid environments, BSCs have been termed 'mantles of fertility' being considered hotspots of biogeochemical inputs, fixing C, N and P above- and below-ground. However, there are differences in N and C fixation rates between BSCs types. Early successional BSCs, dominated by cyanobacterial species, fix lower quantities of C and N than mature BSCs dominated by lichens. Although the positive effects of BSCs on biogeochemical soil cycles are widely accepted, no previous studies have evaluated the activities of the enzymes involved in C, N and P cycles of BSCs and how they are affected by the successional stage of the BSC. In this work, performed in the Tabernas desert (SE Spain), we studied the hydrolase enzymes involved in C (invertase, CM-cellulase, ?-glucosidase), N (urease, BAA-protease, casein-protease) and P (phosphomonoesterase) cycles in BSCs at different successional stages (cyanobacteria represents the first successional stage, lichen Diploschistes diacapsis in an intermediate state and lichen Lepraria crassissima, with the greatest successional state). Our results show that BSCs at lower successional stage enriched the surface geological substrate in hydrolase enzymes to a lesser extent than mature BSCs (Lepraria crassissima), which show the highest values in all enzymatic activities. In contrast, the specific enzyme activities (activity values expressed per unit of carbon) were higher in the BSCs at lower successional stage, decreasing in the direction: cyanobacteria > Diploschistes diacapsis-lichen > Lepraria crassissima-lichen. These results suggest a different role of BSCs depending on their successional stage with regard to the implantation of biogeochemical cycles during the surface substrate colonization. Our conclusions are highly relevant to improve the knowledge of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid areas. Keywords: Biological Soil Crusts, arid ecosystems, hydrolytic enzymes, biochemical activity

Gil-Sotres, F.; Miralles, I.; Canton-Castilla, Y.; Domingo, F.; Leiros, M. C.; Trasar-Cepeda, C.

2012-04-01

7

Variability of heterotrophic metabolism in small stream corridors of an early successional watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metabolic activity in stream corridors is regulated by a complex combination of factors that are difficult to disentangle in mature ecosystems. Chicken Creek in Germany, an experimentally created watershed in an early successional stage, offers the opportunity to assess the spatiotemporal variation in metabolic activity in a simplified system. We measured microbial respiration in soils and sediments along the hydrologic flow path from upland terrestrial to ephemeral to perennial sites of three stream corridors. Dry soils and sediments were rewetted before respiration measurements to mimic periods of activity during and after rainfall. Respiration rates and organic matter contents of soil and sediment were generally low. The presence of algae and accretion of vascular plant fragments in the perennial stream reaches increased respiration rates, pointing to the importance of particulate organic matter. Contrary to expectation, respiration rates of rewetted soil and sediment from dry stream channels were similar to rates measured with sediments collected in the perennial channel sections. This suggests that permanent water availability was not a main factor determining metabolic potential in the early successional Chicken Creek watershed. Carbon turnover in perennial channels was fourfold to eightfold higher than in ephemeral channels and terrestrial sites, as water was permanently available. However, this magnitude was insufficient for perennial channels to compensate for the large surface area of terrestrial soils: extrapolated to a year and the whole watershed, stream channels contributed only 5% to total carbon turnover, 95% being due to soils during and after rainfall events.

Gerull, Linda; Frossard, Aline; Gessner, Mark O.; Mutz, Michael

2011-06-01

8

Predicting forest successional stages using multitemporal Landsat imagery with forest inventory and analysis data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest succession is an important ecological process that has profound biophysical, biological and biogeochemical implications in terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, information on forest successional stages over an extensive forested landscape is crucial for us to understand ecosystem processes, such as carbon assimilation and energy interception. This study explored the potential of using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data to extract

W. Liu; C. Song; T. A. Schroeder; W. B. Cohen

2008-01-01

9

Assessing level of development and successional stages in biological soil crusts with biological indicators.  

PubMed

Biological soil crusts (BSCs) perform vital ecosystem services, but the difference in biological components or developmental level still affects the rate and type of these services. In order to differentiate crust successional stages in quantity and analyze the relationship between crust developmental level and successional stages, this work determined several biological indicators in a series of different developmental BSCs in the Shapotou region of China. The results showed that crust developmental level (level of development index) can be well indicated by crust biological indicators. Photosynthetic biomass was the most appropriate to differentiate crust successional stages, although both photosynthetic biomass and respiration intensity increased with the development and succession of BSCs. Based on of the different biological compositions, BSCs were quantificationally categorized into different successional stages including cyanobacterial crusts (lichen and moss coverages <20 %), lichen crusts (lichen coverage >20 % but moss coverage <20 %), semi-moss crusts (moss coverage >20 % but <75 %), and moss crusts (moss coverage >75 %). In addition, it was found that cyanobacterial and microalgal biomass first increased as cyanobacterial crusts formed, then decreased when lots of mosses emerged on the crust surface; however nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and heterotrophic microbes increased in the later developmental BSCs. The structural adjustment of biological components in the different developmental BSCs may reflect the requirement of crust survival and material transition. PMID:23389251

Lan, Shubin; Wu, Li; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

2013-08-01

10

Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional wildlife habitat in Southern New England.  

PubMed

Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional habitat is a high priority for wildlife conservation agencies in the northeastern USA, where most forest land is privately owned. Many studies have linked regional declines in wildlife populations to the loss of early successional habitat. The government provides financial incentives to create early successional habitat, but the number of family forest owners who actively manage their forests remains low. Several studies have analyzed participation of family forest owners in federal forestry programs, but no study to date has focused specifically on creation of wildlife habitat. The objective of our study was to analyze the experience of a group of wildlife-oriented family forest owners who were trained to create early successional habitat. This type of family forest owners represents a small portion of the total population of family forest owners, but we believe they can play an important role in creating wildlife habitat, so it is important to understand how outreach programs can best reach them. The respondents shared some characteristics but differed in terms of forest holdings, forestry experience and interest in earning forestry income. Despite their strong interest in wildlife, awareness about the importance of early successional habitat was low. Financial support from the federal government appeared to be important in motivating respondents to follow up after the training with activities on their own properties: 84% of respondents who had implemented activities received federal financial support and 47% would not have implemented the activities without financial assistance. In order to mobilize greater numbers of wildlife-oriented family forest owners to create early successional habitat we recommend focusing outreach efforts on increasing awareness about the importance of early successional habitat and the availability of technical and financial assistance. PMID:24587160

Buffum, Bill; Modisette, Christopher; McWilliams, Scott R

2014-01-01

11

Encouraging Family Forest Owners to Create Early Successional Wildlife Habitat in Southern New England  

PubMed Central

Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional habitat is a high priority for wildlife conservation agencies in the northeastern USA, where most forest land is privately owned. Many studies have linked regional declines in wildlife populations to the loss of early successional habitat. The government provides financial incentives to create early successional habitat, but the number of family forest owners who actively manage their forests remains low. Several studies have analyzed participation of family forest owners in federal forestry programs, but no study to date has focused specifically on creation of wildlife habitat. The objective of our study was to analyze the experience of a group of wildlife-oriented family forest owners who were trained to create early successional habitat. This type of family forest owners represents a small portion of the total population of family forest owners, but we believe they can play an important role in creating wildlife habitat, so it is important to understand how outreach programs can best reach them. The respondents shared some characteristics but differed in terms of forest holdings, forestry experience and interest in earning forestry income. Despite their strong interest in wildlife, awareness about the importance of early successional habitat was low. Financial support from the federal government appeared to be important in motivating respondents to follow up after the training with activities on their own properties: 84% of respondents who had implemented activities received federal financial support and 47% would not have implemented the activities without financial assistance. In order to mobilize greater numbers of wildlife-oriented family forest owners to create early successional habitat we recommend focusing outreach efforts on increasing awareness about the importance of early successional habitat and the availability of technical and financial assistance. PMID:24587160

Buffum, Bill; Modisette, Christopher; McWilliams, Scott R.

2014-01-01

12

Spatial analysis of early successional, temperate forest community structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global importance of sequestration of carbon by temperate forests makes characterizing the regrowth of these forests post-disturbance both ecologically and economically important. High intensity disturbances, such as logging, result in substantial alteration of community composition post-disturbance, creating the potential for alterations to the cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients in the ecosystem. Because logging pressure in New England continues to increase, understanding how forest ecosystems in this region respond to disturbance is crucial. This study aims to characterize interspecies interactions within New England forests by identifying synchronous and asynchronous colocation of species following a disturbance. To accomplish this, line-intercept surveys of vegetation were conducted in a clearcut forest stand located within the Harvard Forest LTER site. Survey data collected two (2010) and five (2013) years post-clearcut were analyzed using a one-dimensional Ripley's K. From 2010 to 2013, an increase in the number of interspecies relationships was observed, indicating the development of community structure. Additionally, the analysis found an increase in total vegetative cover from 2010 to 2013, and also found the majority of observed interspecies relationships to be asynchronous relationships. Together, these results imply an increase in resource competition that had the potential to drive the increase in community structure. Specifically, an increase in community structure led to the development of three distinct sub-communities: homogenous fern, tree seedling canopy over ground cover, and shrub dominated. This creates a patchy landscape in the early successional forest that allows for high species diversity (Shannon's H = 2.455). Based on the results of the Ripley's K analyses, species demonstrated definite patterns of synchronicity and asynchronicity based on both specific species interactions as well as functional group interactions. These analyses have important application for species conservation and for predicting the regeneration of tree seedlings, and provide unique information about the interspecies interactions of New England forest communities during one of the most rich and dynamic phases of succession, allowing for more informed decisions to be made regarding the regrowth of forests following a high-intensity disturbance.

Walker, R. H.; Williams, C. A.; MacLean, R. G.; Epstein, H. E.; Vanderhoof, M. K.

2013-12-01

13

Some autecological characteristics of early to late successional tree species in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The breadth of the continuum concept of strategy with respect to succession was tested on 21 tree and shrub species common in either unlogged or logged stands, respectively, in the Forest Reserve of Caparo, Venezuela, by examining morphological, physiological and population characteristics. Based on a preliminary abundance analysis, `early', `mid' and `late' successional species as well as `generalists' were distinguished. Early successional species, i.e. Ochroma lagopus, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Cecropia peltata were similar in many autecological aspects, e.g. monolayered leaf arrangement, orthotropic architectural models, no adaptive reiteration, clumped distribution, but differed in gap association and distribution along a drainage gradient. Mid-successional species established themselves both in large and small gaps (> 300 m[sup2 ]; 80-300 m[sup2 ]) and showed a clumped to regular distribution pattern in logged areas; they exhibited more diverse crown and leaf characteristics than early successional species. Late successional species established themselves only in small gaps and understorey, and showed a regular spatial pattern in undisturbed areas. All late successional species displayed architectural models with plagiotropic lateral axes and showed a multilayered leaf arrangement. Adaptive reiteration was a common feature of late successional species which could be further subdivided into large, medium-sized and small trees, indicating different light requirements at maturity. Generalists were common treelet and shrub species in both disturbed and undisturbed sites where they are also capable of completing their life cycle. The light compensation point (LCP) of an individual plant was strongly influenced by its crown illuminance. Large late successional species showed the widest range of LCP values, reflecting the increasing light availability with increasing height in mature forest. On the basis of many autecological characteristics, it was found (i) that there is in fact a continuum of species strategies with respect to succession even among early and mid-successional species and (ii) that the latter group of species showed the widest breadth of autecological traits, reflecting the heterogeneous environment in which they establish and mature.

Kammesheidt, Ludwig

2000-01-01

14

Spectral identification of successional stages following deforestation in the Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use and land cover features of a 3,000 sq. km. area west of Altamira, State of Para, Brazil, along the Transamazon Highway was assessed using three dates of Landsat TM data acquired for late July\\/early August 1985, 2988, and 1991. These data, supplemented by field observations and interviews with land users conducted in 1992, permitted classification of nine features,

Paul Mausel; You Wu; Yinghong Li; Emilio F. Moran; Eduardo S. Brondizio

1993-01-01

15

Altered soil organic carbon stability in eastern deciduous forest: interplay between forest successional Stage and invasive earthworm activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detritivore -mediated decomposition and incorporation of aboveground litter is an important processes in soil carbon cycle of forest ecosystems that can be a major control on the proportion of stable and unstable soil carbon pools. We investigated how earthworm activity interacts with litter type to alter the stability of soil organic carbon (SOC) in an eastern deciduous successional forest within at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC). Soil C and N content and chemistry (lignin and fatty acids) among particulate and mineral-bound fractions was shifted after 5 years of litter (wood and leaf) addition but with significant differences among the forest successional stages and with earthworm activity. Results from a 6 month laboratory incubation (25°C and 15°C) of bulk soil samples taken from the treatments and incubated at 25°C and 15°C demonstrate that litter addition type and earthworm activity interacted to control the proportion of labile and stable carbon. Specifically, the labile C pools in double wood and control treatments were highest in young successional forest with higher earthworm activity. However, in the double leaf treatment, the labile C pool was higher in old successional forests with less worm activity. In general, the stable C pool, released after one month, was higher in old successional forests for all three treatments. The difference of the stable pool between young and old successional forest was the largest with double wood treatment, followed by control treatment and the lowest with double leaf treatment. In summary, wood treatment shifted SOC pool to relatively more stable pool in old successional forests decreasing labile C pool but not the young sites. While double leaf treatment increased the labile pool in old forests but in young successional forests, SOC shifted to relatively more stable pool by decreasing the labile pool and increasing the stable pool. This result indicates that the type of aboveground litter input interact with earthworm activity will largely influence SOC stability and soil C cycling in deciduous forests at different successional stages.

Ma, Y.; Filley, T. R.; McCormick, M.; Szlavecz, K. A.

2012-12-01

16

Early-Stage Caregiving  

MedlinePLUS

... alz.org » Caregiver Center » Stages & Behaviors » Caring for Early-Stage Alzheimer's Text size: A A A Stages Early-Stage ... partner in this stage varies. A person with early-stage Alzheimer's may need cues and reminders to help with ...

17

Native warm-season grasses and early successional wildlife habitat: Past lessons and a new vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other non-native perennial cool-season grasses (such as orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), timothy (Phleum pratense), bromegrasses (Bromus spp.), and bluegrass (Poa annua)) provide poor wildlife habitat. Native warm-season grasses, especially big (Andropogon gerardii) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), have been promoted to replace non-native cool-season grasses and enhance early successional

Craig A. Harper; Christopher E. Moorman; Patrick D. Keyser

18

Bats and Gaps: The Role of Early Successional Patches in the Roosting and Foraging Ecology of Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Early successional habitats are important foraging and commuting sites for the 14 species of bats that inhabit the Central\\u000a Hardwood Region, especially larger open-adapted species such as hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), red bats (L. borealis), silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans), and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Forest gaps, small openings, and the edges between early successional patches and mature forest are

Susan C. Loeb; Joy M. O’Keefe

19

Facilitative and Inhibitory Effect of Litter on Seedling Emergence and Early Growth of Six Herbaceous Species in an Early Successional Old Field Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

In the current study, a field experiment was conducted to examine effects of litter on seedling emergence and early growth of four dominant weed species from the early successional stages of old field ecosystem and two perennial grassland species in late successional stages. Our results showed that increased litter cover decreased soil temperature and temperature variability over time and improved soil moisture status. Surface soil electrical conductivity increased as litter increased. The increased litter delayed seedling emergence time and rate. The emergence percentage of seedlings and establishment success rate firstly increased then decreased as litter cover increased. When litter biomass was below 600?g?m?2, litter increased seedlings emergence and establishment success in all species. With litter increasing, the basal diameter of seedling decreased, but seedling height increased. Increasing amounts of litter tended to increase seedling dry weight and stem leaf ratio. Different species responded differently to the increase of litter. Puccinellia tenuiflora and Chloris virgata will acquire more emergence benefits under high litter amount. It is predicted that Chloris virgata will dominate further in this natural succession old field ecosystem with litter accumulation. Artificial P. tenuiflora seeds addition may be required to accelerate old field succession toward matured grassland. PMID:25110722

Li, Qiang; Yu, Pujia; Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei; Zheng, Wei

2014-01-01

20

Projected Effects of CO2 Enrichment on Community Dynamics and Carbon Cycling in an Early-successional Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early-successional forests are strong carbon (C) sinks that play an important role in the global C cycle. Elevated CO2 may alter C cycling in regenerating forests both directly through ecophysiological mechanisms and indirectly through altered community dynamics, which may be particularly important in early successional forests with high community turnover. Thus, to discriminate impacts of CO2 enrichment on C cycles in regenerating forests it is necessary to characterize how the physiological and successional mechanisms that regulate the C cycle are altered by climate change. Because species are known to display differential growth stimulus under CO2 enrichment, and these species-specific effects are grouped by classic plant functional type, we hypothesize that successional trajectories will be altered in high CO2 forests, compared to forests regenerating under historic climatic conditions. To test this hypothesis, we use the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2), a height- and successional-structured terrestrial biosphere model to predict possible effects of elevated CO2 on forest succession. Using data from the Duke Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment and a nearby chronosequence of pine forests to parameterize and evaluate the model, we use ED2 to project how plant demography and competition will react to elevated CO2 over a 50-100 year time frame. We evaluate the sensitivity of model results to a variety of model configurations, and demonstrate that the outcomes are largely robust to structural uncertainty regarding assumptions about nitrogen limitation and water availability. The model predicts that elevated CO2 will alter C cycling directly through ecophysiological effect and indirectly through altered community dynamics, which in turn affect C cycling. For instance, late-successional hardwood species will receive more benefit on average from elevated CO2, than early-successional hardwoods. After 50 years of 550 ppm CO2, late-successional hardwoods experience a significant increase in maximum summer NPP, while early successional species experience decreases in summer NPP, due to increased resource competition with late-successional functional types. These results illustrate that differential responses to elevated CO2 across functional groups alter community dynamics and thereby ecosystem-level C cycling.

Miller, A. D.; Dietze, M.; DeLucia, E. H.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.

2013-12-01

21

Hyperspectral reflectance of leaves and flowers of an outbreak species discriminates season and successional stage of vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral reflectance can be used to assess large-scale performances of plants in the field based on plant nutrient balance as well as composition of defence compounds. However, plant chemical composition is known to vary with season - due to its phenology - and it may even depend on the succession stage of its habitat. Here we investigate (i) how spectral reflectance could be used to discriminate successional and phenological stages of Jacobaea vulgaris in both leaf and flower organs and (ii) if chemical content estimation by reflectance is flower or leaf dependent. We used J. vulgaris, which is a natural outbreak plant species on abandoned arable fields in north-western Europe and studied this species in a chronosequence representing successional development during time since abandonment. The chemical content and reflectance between 400 and 2500 nm wavelengths of flowers and leaves were measured throughout the season in fields of different successional ages. The data were analyzed with multivariate statistics for temporal discrimination and estimation of chemical contents in both leaf and flower organs. Two main effects were revealed by spectral reflectance measurements: (i) both flower and leaf spectra show successional and seasonal changes, but the pattern is complex and organ specific (ii) flower head pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are involved in plant defence against herbivores, can be detected through hyperspectral reflectance.We conclude that spectral reflectance of both leaves and flowers can provide information on plant performance during season and successional stages. As a result, remote sensing studies of plant performance in complex field situations will benefit from considering hyperspectral reflectance of different plant organs. This approach may enable more detailed studies on the link between spectral information and plant defence dynamics both aboveground and belowground.

Carvalho, Sabrina; Schlerf, Martin; van der Putten, Wim H.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

2013-10-01

22

Effects of vegetation, corridor width and regional land use on early successional birds on powerline corridors.  

PubMed

Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs) often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor) and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla) were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management. PMID:22363660

Askins, Robert A; Folsom-O'Keefe, Corrine M; Hardy, Margaret C

2012-01-01

23

Take me to your leader: does early successional nonhost vegetation spatially inhibit Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)?  

PubMed

The spatial influences of host and nonhost trees and shrubs on the colonization patterns of white pine weevil Pissodes strobi (Peck) were studied within a stand of planted interior hybrid spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x Picea engelmannii (Parry) ex Engelm.]. Planted spruce accounted for one third of all trees within the stand, whereas the remaining two thirds were comprised of early-successional nonhost vegetation, such as alder (Alnus spp.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), black cottonwood [Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa (T. Ng.) Brayshaw], lodgepole pine [Pinus contorta (Dougl.) ex Loud.], trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx), willow (Salix spp.), and Canadian buffaloberry [Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt.]. Unlike the spruce trees, nonhost vegetation in the stand was not uniformly distributed. Spatial point process models showed that Canadian buffaloberry, paper birch, black cottonwoood, and trembling aspen had negative associations with damage caused by the weevil, even though the density of the insects' hosts in these areas did not change. Moreover, knowing the locations of these nonhost trees provided as much, or more, inference about the locations of weevil-attacked trees as knowing the locations of suitable or preferred host trees (i.e., those larger in size). Nonhost volatiles, the alteration of soil composition, and overstory shade are discussed as potential explanatory factors for the patterns observed. New research avenues are suggested to determine whether nonhost vegetation in early successional stands might be an additional tool in the management of these insects in commercially important forests. PMID:19689899

Koopmans, Jordan M; De La Giroday, Honey-Marie C; Lindgren, B Staffan; Aukema, Brian H

2009-08-01

24

Effects of Vegetation, Corridor Width and Regional Land Use on Early Successional Birds on Powerline Corridors  

PubMed Central

Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs) often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor) and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla) were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management. PMID:22363660

Askins, Robert A.; Folsom-O'Keefe, Corrine M.; Hardy, Margaret C.

2012-01-01

25

Clonal structure of Elytrigia atherica along different successional stages of a salt marsh.  

PubMed

Elytrigia atherica is a tall clonal grass species typical of higher salt marshes, but is gradually invading to the lower marshes. At young successional stages of a salt marsh, E. atherica is found sparsely dispersed in small groups of ramets. These patches increase in size and ramet density over time, eventually forming extensive swards as succession proceeds. This study investigates the change in the clonal diversity of E. atherica stands during colonization as a result of its reproductive strategy. Clonal diversities of differently sized patches of E. atherica were investigated on two lower salt-marsh sites of different age, 25 years and 35 years, respectively. Microsatellite fingerprint patterns were used to determine genet identities and to estimate relatedness and genetic differentiation between the sites, between patches within sites and within patches. The majority of the patches on both sites contained more than one genet. On the older site, the clonal diversity was higher than on the younger site. However, the clonal diversity tended to decrease with increasing patch size. Low genetic differentiation was found between the two sites, indicating habitat differentiation, whereas differentiation between patches within sites was high. It is reasoned that different environmental conditions could have resulted in different clonal structures: On an older marsh, the increase of successful seedling recruitment, due to more suitable environmental conditions, leads to an increase in clonal diversity. Over time, with increasing ramet density, intraspecific competition is likely to increase, resulting in a decrease of clonal diversity. PMID:17305865

Scheepens, J F; Veeneklaas, R M; Van De Zande, L; Bakker, J P

2007-03-01

26

Endozoochorous dispersal, seedling emergence and fruiting success in disturbed and undisturbed successional stages of sheep-grazed inland sand ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the seedling emergence and fruiting success of plant species endozoochorously dispersed by sheep in a field experiment in a Koelerion glaucae area. We designed a factorial experiment (faeces\\/soil disturbance\\/successional stage\\/year) that mimics sheep-mediated microsites and analysed all occurring vascular plant species from September 2002–December 2004. The faeces samples were collected in the same ecosystem and additionally analysed

Carsten Eichberg; Christian Storm; Angelika Schwabe

2007-01-01

27

Successional changes in plant resistance and tolerance to herbivory.  

PubMed

Despite considerable research on plant defenses, we know very little about how temporal changes in the environment may influence resistance and tolerance levels, or the costs and benefits of these defense strategies for long-lived plant species. We hypothesized that, in successional habitats, predictable environmental changes should favor strong plasticity in defense phenotypes and that the costs, benefits, and levels of tolerance and resistance will change with environmental context. Using a widely distributed, old-field perennial, late goldenrod (Solidago altissima), we conducted a field experiment to test these predictions. We planted goldenrod genets exhibiting varying levels of resistance and tolerance into three early-successional and three late-successional fields (approximately three and 15 years in age, respectively) and experimentally measured resistance and tolerance levels and their associated costs and selection coefficients. We found a significant effect of successional stage but no effect of genotype or stage-genotype interaction on defense levels. Genets planted in early-successional fields appeared to be more resistant and less tolerant to herbivory than those same genets planted in late-successional fields. There were significant trade-offs between resistance and tolerance in early-successional fields but not in late-successional fields. Each late-successional field exhibited a significant cost or selection gradient for resistance, but there was no general pattern of resistance costs or selection gradients specific to a successional stage class. In contrast, there was evidence of stage-specific costs of tolerance; late-successional fields exhibited significant costs of tolerance whereas early-successional fields did not. There was no evidence of direct selection for or against tolerance in either stage. Our results suggest that defense phenotypes might change in qualitative ways during succession. High resistance in early stages may be attributed to associational effects of the early-successional community, reducing the probability of damage, and despite a cost of tolerance in late stages, tolerance may be beneficial in mitigating the effects of both herbivory and environmental stresses (i.e., low light availability) that limit fitness in these fields. This study provides experimental evidence that succession can strongly influence defense phenotypes and promote temporal variability in relative resistance and tolerance levels. PMID:22764492

Hakes, Alyssa S; Cronin, James T

2012-05-01

28

Early-stage returns?  

PubMed

Contrary to conventional thinking, there are compelling reasons for investors to consider early-stage life science ventures, especially in the context of a maturing biotech business 'ecosystem'. PMID:17093473

Booth, Bruce L

2006-11-01

29

Successful under-planting of red oak and black cherry in early-successional deciduous shelterwoods of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underplanting early-successional forest stands with red oak and black cherry was tested as a way of improving productivity on abandoned agricultural land of North American temperate deciduous forests. A partial release treatment was applied during the third growing season and compared to a control. The growth increment after six years is analyzed with respect to treatment and competition layers. Although

Alain Paquette; André Bouchard; Alain Cogliastro

2006-01-01

30

-Influence of late season fire on early successional vegetation of an Oklahoma prairie -135 Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 135-144, 2000  

E-print Network

- Influence of late season fire on early successional vegetation of an Oklahoma prairie - 135. The study of vegetation dynamics in tallgrass prai- rie in response to fire has focused on dormant season fire in late successional prairies. Our objective was to determine if late season fire of varying

Palmer, Michael W.

31

Relative importance of early-successional forests and shrubland habitats to mammals in the northeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the 60 native terrestrial mammal species that reside in the northeastern United States (US) utilize resources from several habitats on a seasonal basis. However, as many as 20 species demonstrate some preference for early-successional forests, shrublands, or old-field habitats. A few of these (e.g. lagomorphs) can be considered obligate users of these habitats, and the specialist carnivores

Todd K. Fuller; Stephen DeStefano

32

Relative importance of early-successional forests and shrubland habitats to mammals in the northeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the 60 native terrestrial mammal species that reside in the northeastern United States (US) utilize resources from several habitats on a seasonal basis. However, as many as 20 species demonstrate some preference for early-successional forests, shrublands, or old-field habitats. A few of these (e.g. lagomorphs) can be considered obligate users of these habitats, and the specialist carnivores

Todd K. Fuller; Stephen DeStefano

2003-01-01

33

Identifying terrestrial carbon sinks: Classification of successional stages in regenerating tropical forest from Landsat TM data  

SciTech Connect

Remote sensing has generally been used to study the role of tropical forest as a source of atmospheric carbon, primarily through land-use change, such as deforestation, and biomass burning. Regeneration of forest on previously cleared areas, however, is a significant carbon sink. The strength of this carbon sink is dependent on the age and composition of the regenerating forest. The ability to identify regenerating forest classes that may differ in terms of carbon sink strength was investigated with Landsat TM data of a test site near Manaus, Brazil. A number of forest age classes were defined from a time series of Landsat sensor data, and their separability in Landsat TM data was assessed by maximum likelihood classifications. A high level of class separability was observed with a weighted kappa coefficient of 0.8569 obtained for a classification of six forest regeneration classes. Of the classification errors observed most were found to be associated with the youngest forest age class. At the test site, however, two main successional pathways were followed and the differences between areas of forest of the same age but on different pathways was most apparent with the youngest forests. Splitting the regenerating forests by the successional pathway was found to increase classification accuracy, with a weighted kappa coefficient of 0.9315 observed for an 11 class classification. A range of tropical forest classes that vary in strength as a carbon sink could therefore be identified accurately from Landsat TM data.

Foody, G.M. [Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography; Palubinskas, G. [Inst. of Mathematics and Informatics, Vilnius (Lithuania). Dept. of Data Analysis] [Inst. of Mathematics and Informatics, Vilnius (Lithuania). Dept. of Data Analysis; Lucas, R.M.; Curran, P.J. [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography; Honzak, M. [Univ. of Wales Swansea (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Wales Swansea (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography

1996-03-01

34

Supplemental planting of early successional tree species during bottomland hardwood afforestation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reforestation of former bottom land hardwood forests that have been cleared for agriculture (i.e., afforestation) has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya spp.). These species are slow to develop vertical forest structure. However, vertical forest structure is key to colonization of afforested sites by forest birds. Although early-successional tree species often enhance vertical structure, few of these species invade afforested sites that are distant from seed sources. Furthermore, many land mangers are reluctant to establish and maintain stands of fast-growing plantation trees. Therefore, on 40 afforested bottomland sites, we supplemented heavy-seeded seedlings with 8 patches of fast-growing trees: 4 patches of 12 eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stem cuttings and 4 patches of 12 American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) seedlings. To enhance survival and growth, tree patches were subjected to 4 weed control treatments: (1) physical weed barriers, (2) chemical herbicide, (3) both physical and chemical weed control, or (4) no weed control. Overall, first-year survival of cottonwood and sycamore was 25 percent and 47 percent, respectively. Second-year survival of extant trees was 52 percent for cottonwood and 77 percent for sycamore. Physical weed barriers increased survival of cottonwoods to 30 percent versus 18 percent survival with no weed control. Similarly, sycamore survival was increased from 49 percent without weed control to 64 percent with physical weed barriers. Chemical weed control adversely impacted sycamore and reduced survival to 35 percent. Tree heights did not differ between species or among weed control treatments. Girdling of trees by deer often destroyed saplings. Thus, little increase in vertical structure was detected between growing seasons. Application of fertilizer and protection via tree shelters did not improve survival or vertical development of sycamore or cottonwood.

Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.

2002-01-01

35

Species-driven phases and increasing structure in early-successional plant communities.  

PubMed

Successional phases describe changes in ecological communities that proceed in steps rather than continuously. Despite their importance for the understanding of ecosystem development, there still exists no reliable definition of phases and no quantitative measure of phase transitions. In order to obtain these data, we investigated primary succession in an artificial catchment (6 ha) in eastern Germany over a period of 6 years. The data set consists of records of plant species and their cover values, and initial substrate properties, both from plots in a regular grid (20 m × 20 m) suitable for spatial data analysis. Community assembly was studied by analyses of species co-occurrence and nestedness. Additionally, we correlated lognormal and log series distributions of species abundance to each community. We here introduce a new general method for detection of successional phases based on the degree of transient spatial homogeneity in the study system. Spatially coherent vegetation patterns revealed nonoverlapping partitions within this sequence of primary succession and were characterized as two distinct ecological phases. Patterns of species co-occurrence were increasingly less random, and hence the importance of demographic stochasticity and neutral community assembly decreased during the study period. Our findings highlight the spatial dimension of successional phases and quantify the degree of change between these steps. They are an element for advancing a more reliable terminology of ecological successions. PMID:23234854

Zaplata, Markus K; Winter, Susanne; Fischer, Anton; Kollmann, Johannes; Ulrich, Werner

2013-01-01

36

Utilization of lightflecks by seedlings of five dominant tree species of different subtropical forest successional stages under low-light growth conditions.  

PubMed

We selected five typical tree species, including one early-successional species (ES) Pinus massoniana Lamb., two mid-successional species (MS) Schima superba Gardn. et Champ. and Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils. and two late-successional species (LS) Cryptocarya concinna Hance. and Acmena acuminatissima (BI.) Merr et Perry., which represent the plants at three successional periods in Dinghushan subtropical forest succession of southern China. Potted seedlings of the five species were grown under 12% of full sunlight for 36 months. The ES and MS showed the slowest and fastest responses to lightflecks, respectively, which correlated with the rate of stomatal opening. In contrast to P. massoniana and C. concinna, the other three species exhibited a high induction loss. Early-successional species showed the lowest specific leaf area and chlorophyll content, the highest photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) and respiratory carbon losses (R(d)). Compared with ES and MS, LS showed lower A(max) and R(d). The five tree species showed a similar chlorophyll a/b ratio after long-term low-light adaptations. On the other hand, LS had a relatively higher de-epoxidation state to protect themselves from excess light during lightflecks. Our results indicated that (i) slower responses to lightflecks could partially explain why ES species could not achieve seedling regeneration in low-light conditions; (ii) fast responses to lightflecks could partially explain why MS species could achieve seedling regeneration in low-light conditions; and (iii) smaller respiratory carbon losses might confer on the LS species a competitive advantage in low-light conditions. PMID:22569998

Zhang, Q; Chen, Y J; Song, L Y; Liu, N; Sun, L L; Peng, C L

2012-05-01

37

Remote sensing-based predictors improve distribution models of rare, early successional and broadleaf tree species in Utah  

PubMed Central

Compared to bioclimatic variables, remote sensing predictors are rarely used for predictive species modelling. When used, the predictors represent typically habitat classifications or filters rather than gradual spectral, surface or biophysical properties. Consequently, the full potential of remotely sensed predictors for modelling the spatial distribution of species remains unexplored. Here we analysed the partial contributions of remotely sensed and climatic predictor sets to explain and predict the distribution of 19 tree species in Utah. We also tested how these partial contributions were related to characteristics such as successional types or species traits. We developed two spatial predictor sets of remotely sensed and topo-climatic variables to explain the distribution of tree species. We used variation partitioning techniques applied to generalized linear models to explore the combined and partial predictive powers of the two predictor sets. Non-parametric tests were used to explore the relationships between the partial model contributions of both predictor sets and species characteristics. More than 60% of the variation explained by the models represented contributions by one of the two partial predictor sets alone, with topo-climatic variables outperforming the remotely sensed predictors. However, the partial models derived from only remotely sensed predictors still provided high model accuracies, indicating a significant correlation between climate and remote sensing variables. The overall accuracy of the models was high, but small sample sizes had a strong effect on cross-validated accuracies for rare species. Models of early successional and broadleaf species benefited significantly more from adding remotely sensed predictors than did late seral and needleleaf species. The core-satellite species types differed significantly with respect to overall model accuracies. Models of satellite and urban species, both with low prevalence, benefited more from use of remotely sensed predictors than did the more frequent core species. Synthesis and applications. If carefully prepared, remotely sensed variables are useful additional predictors for the spatial distribution of trees. Major improvements resulted for deciduous, early successional, satellite and rare species. The ability to improve model accuracy for species having markedly different life history strategies is a crucial step for assessing effects of global change. PMID:18642470

ZIMMERMANN, N E; EDWARDS, T C; MOISEN, G G; FRESCINO, T S; BLACKARD, J A

2007-01-01

38

Phytotoxicity of depleted uranium on three grasses characteristic of different successional stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a paucity of data on the chemical toxicity of uranium (U) to plants, a factorial experiment employing five U concentrations (0, 50, 500, 5000, 25,000 mg kg⁻¹) and three moisture regimes (low, medium, and high) was performed using three native grasses. Buchloe dactyloides (buffalograss; mid\\/late-seral), Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem; late-seral), and Aristida purpurea (purple threeawn; early\\/mid-seral) were

Michael C. Meyer; Terry McLendon

1997-01-01

39

Phytotoxicity of depleted uranium on three grasses characteristic of different successional stages  

SciTech Connect

In response to a paucity of data on the chemical toxicity of uranium (U) to plants, a factorial experiment employing five U concentrations (0, 50, 500, 5000, 25,000 mg kg{sup -1}) and three moisture regimes (low, medium, and high) was performed using three native grasses. Buchloe dactyloides (buffalograss; mid/late-seral), Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem; late-seral), and Aristida purpurea (purple threeawn; early/mid-seral) were grown in monocultures and as a mixture of two species under all combinations of U and moisture levels. This design allowed for the analysis of U effects, as well as possible interactions with moisture stress. Several measures of plant health and viability were made, including: percent emergence, plant survival, shoot biomass, and number and weight of inflorescences. Decreases in plant biomass, fecundity, and long-term survivability were observed only at the highest U level (25 000 mg kg{sup -1}). No significant differences (P < 0.05) between the U treatment levels were observed in terms of seedling emergence and survival. Drought stress also negatively impacted survival and biomass, but acted independently of U stress. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Meyer, M.C. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); McLendon, T. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

1997-05-01

40

Early stages of soldering reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment on the early stages of intermetallic compound layer growth during soldering and its theoretical analysis were conducted with the intent to study the controlling factors of the process. An experimental technique based on fast dipping and pulling of a copper coupon in liquid solder followed by optical microscopy allowed the authors to study the temporal behavior of the sample on a single micrograph. The technique should be of value for different areas of metallurgy because many experiments on crystallization may be described as the growth of a layer of intermediate phase. Comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical calculations allowed one to identify the kinetics of dissolution as the rate-controlling mechanism on the early stages and measure the kinetic coefficient of dissolution. A popular model of intermetallic compound layer structure coarsening is discussed.

Lord, R. A.; Umantsev, A.

2005-09-01

41

Early stages of soldering reactions  

SciTech Connect

An experiment on the early stages of intermetallic compound layer growth during soldering and its theoretical analysis were conducted with the intent to study the controlling factors of the process. An experimental technique based on fast dipping and pulling of a copper coupon in liquid solder followed by optical microscopy allowed the authors to study the temporal behavior of the sample on a single micrograph. The technique should be of value for different areas of metallurgy because many experiments on crystallization may be described as the growth of a layer of intermediate phase. Comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical calculations allowed one to identify the kinetics of dissolution as the rate-controlling mechanism on the early stages and measure the kinetic coefficient of dissolution. A popular model of intermetallic compound layer structure coarsening is discussed.

Lord, R.A.; Umantsev, A. [Department of Natural Sciences, Fayetteville State University, 1200 Murchison Road, Fayetteville, North Carolina, 28301 (United States)

2005-09-15

42

Early stage of nanocrystal growth  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

None

2012-01-01

43

The Effect of Local and Landscape-Level Characteristics on the Abundance of Forest Birds in Early-Successional Habitats during the Post-Fledging Season in Western Massachusetts  

PubMed Central

Many species of mature forest-nesting birds (“forest birds”) undergo a pronounced shift in habitat use during the post-fledging period and move from their forest nesting sites into areas of early-successional vegetation. Mortality is high during this period, thus understanding the resource requirements of post-fledging birds has implications for conservation. Efforts to identify predictors of abundance of forest birds in patches of early-successional habitats have so far been equivocal, yet these previous studies have primarily focused on contiguously forested landscapes and the potential for landscape-scale influences in more fragmented and modified landscapes is largely unknown. Landscape composition can have a strong influence on the abundance and productivity of forest birds during the nesting period, and could therefore affect the number of forest birds in the landscape available to colonize early-successional habitats during the post-fledging period. Therefore, the inclusion of landscape characteristics should increase the explanatory power of models of forest bird abundance in early-successional habitat patches during the post-fledging period. We examined forest bird abundance and body condition in relation to landscape and habitat characteristics of 15 early-successional sites during the post-fledging season in Massachusetts. The abundance of forest birds was influenced by within-patch habitat characteristics, however the explanatory power of these models was significantly increased by the inclusion of landscape fragmentation and the abundance of forest birds in adjacent forest during the nesting period for some species and age groups. Our findings show that including factors beyond the patch scale can explain additional variation in the abundance of forest birds in early-successional habitats during the post-fledging period. We conclude that landscape composition should be considered when siting early-successional habitat to maximize its benefit to forest birds during the post-fledging period, and should also be included in future investigations of post-fledging habitat use by forest birds. PMID:25170610

Labbe, Michelle A.; King, David I.

2014-01-01

44

Structural dynamics of riparian forests along a black cottonwood successional gradient  

E-print Network

successional stages; stand initiation, stem exclusion, early, mid, and late seral. Ordination, using non-metric matter # 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2005.06.014 #12;America, living 150 and Froggatt, 1984; Harmon et al., 1986; Gregory et al., 1991). As is true with many western river systems

45

Acer negundo invasion along a successional gradient: early direct facilitation by native pioneers and late indirect facilitation by conspecifics.  

PubMed

*Here, we analysed the role of direct and indirect plant interactions in the invasion process of Acer negundo along a natural successional gradient in the Middle Rhone floodplain (France). We addressed two questions: What are the responses of the invasive Acer seedlings to native communities' effects along the successional gradient? What are the effects of the invasive Acer adult trees on the native communities? *In the three communities (Salix, Acer and Fraxinus stands) we transplanted juveniles of the invasive and juveniles of the natives within the forest and in experimental gaps, and with and without the herb layer. We also quantified changes in understory functional composition, light, nitrogen and moisture among treatments. *Acer seedlings were directly facilitated for survival in the Salix and Acer communities and indirectly facilitated for growth by adult Acer through the reduction of the abundance of highly competitive herbaceous competitors. *We conclude that direct facilitation by the tree canopy of the native pioneer Salix is very likely the main biotic process that induced colonization of the invasive Acer in the floodplain and that indirect facilitation by adult conspecifics contributed to population establishment. PMID:20487316

Saccone, Patrick; Pagès, Jean-Philippe; Girel, Jacky; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Michalet, Richard

2010-08-01

46

Structural and functional changes in early successional stages of a semiarid ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

The objective of our research was to study structural and functional changes that occur within and between ecosystem compartments during secondary succession in disturbed semiarid environments. First year data clearly showed an increase in resource abundance after disturbance which produced not only alteration of the soil surface but a decrease in available organic matter. In addition, marked increases in NO3 and soil water potentials were evident at all depths in the disturbed sites as compared to the undisturbed community. Soil disturbance as well as manipulation of the microflora compartment by fumigation had a significant impact on microflora structure and function. The mycorrhizal population was also drastically reduced by disturbance and fumigation. The floristic composition of the primary producers on the disturbed site was highly correlated with the propagule supply, with composition of the seed bank being the main driving force. Competition studies between bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron inerme), western wheatgrass, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and winterfat (Ceratoides lanata) showed that these four species were able to coexist under a wide range of water availability conditions. The final phase of an experiment designed to determine the effects of retorted shale recarbonation on plant uptake of toxic trace elements was completed. These initial studies indicate that both plant community characteristics and the presence of a functioning belowground community will be important in secondary succession processes which occur in disturbed semiarid environments. 36 figs., 41 tabs.

Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W. (eds.)

1986-02-01

47

Detection of Early-Stage Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an almost universally lethal disease, in large part, due to our inability to detect early-stage disease. Monoclonal antibody PAM4 is reactive with a unique biomarker expressed by greater than 85% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. In this report, we examined the ability of a PAM4-based immunoassay to detect early-stage disease. Methods The PAM4-based immunoassay was used to quantitate antigen in the serum of healthy volunteers (N=19), patients with known pancreatic adenocarcinoma (N=68), and patients with a primary diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (N=29). Results Sensitivity for detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma was 82%, with a false-positive rate of 5% for healthy controls. Patients with advanced disease had significantly higher antigen levels than those with early-stage disease (P<0.01), with a diagnostic sensitivity of 91%, 86%, and 62% for stage 3/4 advanced disease, stage-2, and stage-1, respectively. We also evaluated chronic pancreatitis sera, finding 38% positive for antigen; however, this was discordant with immunohistochemical findings that suggest the PAM4-antigen is not produced by inflamed pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, several of the serum-positive pancreatitis patients, for whom tissue specimens were available for pathological interpretation, had evidence of neoplastic precursor lesions. Conclusions These results suggest the use of the PAM4-serum assay to detect early-stage pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and that positive levels of PAM4-antigen are not derived from inflamed pancreatic tissues, but rather may provide evidence of subclinical pancreatic neoplasia. Impact The ability to detect pancreatic adenocarcinoma at an early stage could provide for early therapeutic intervention with potentially improved patient outcomes. PMID:20810605

Gold, David V.; Goggins, Michael; Modrak, David E.; Newsome, Guy; Liu, Mengling; Shi, Chanjuan; Hruban, Ralph H.; Goldenberg, David M.

2010-01-01

48

Do natural disturbances or the forestry practices that follow them convert forests to early-successional communities?  

PubMed

Stand-replacing natural disturbances in mature forests are traditionally seen as events that cause forests to revert to early stages of succession and maintain species diversity. In some cases, however, such transitions could be an artifact of salvage logging and may increase biotic homogenization. We present initial (two-year) results of a study of the effects of tornado damage and the combined effects of tornado damage and salvage logging on environmental conditions and ground cover plant communities in mixed oak-pine forests in north central Mississippi. Plots were established in salvage-logged areas, adjacent to plots established before the storm in unlogged areas, spanning a gradient of storm damage intensity. Vegetation change directly attributable to tornado damage was driven primarily by a reduction in canopy cover but was not consistent with a transition to an early stage of succession. Although we observed post-storm increases of several disturbance indicators (ruderals), we also observed significant increases in the abundance of a few species indicative of upland forests. Increases in flowering were just as likely to occur in species indicative of forests as in species indicative of open woodlands. Few species declined as a result of the tornado, resulting in a net increase in species richness. Ruderals were very abundant in salvage-logged areas, which contained significantly higher amounts of bare ground and greater variance in soil penetrability than did damaged areas that were not logged. In contrast to unlogged areas severely damaged by the tornado, most upland forest indicators were not abundant in logged areas. Several of the forest and open-woodland indicators that showed increased flowering in damaged areas were absent or sparse in logged areas. Species richness was lower in salvage-logged areas than in adjacent damaged areas but similar to that in undamaged areas. These results suggest that salvage logging prevented positive responses of several forest and open-woodland species to tornado damage. Anthropogenic disturbances such as salvage logging appear to differ fundamentally from stand-level canopy-reducing disturbances in their effects on ground cover vegetation in the forests studied here and are perhaps more appropriately viewed as contributing to biotic homogenization than as events that maintain diversity. PMID:22611846

Brewer, J Stephen; Bertz, Christine A; Cannon, Jeffery B; Chesser, Jason D; Maynard, Erynn E

2012-03-01

49

Delirium in Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Delirium is a disorder of acute onset with fluctuating symptoms and is characterized by inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered levels of consciousness. The risk for delirium is greatest in individuals with dementia, and the incidence of both is increasing worldwide because of the aging of our population. Although several clinical trials have tested interventions for delirium prevention in individuals without dementia, little is known about the mechanisms for the prevention of delirium in early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The purpose of this article is to explore ways of preventing delirium and slowing the rate of cognitive decline in early-stage AD by enhancing cognitive reserve. An agenda for future research on interventions to prevent delirium in individuals with early-stage AD is also presented. PMID:19326827

Fick, Donna M.; Kolanowski, Ann; Beattie, Elizabeth; McCrow, Judith

2010-01-01

50

Seed dispersal by wind, birds, and bats between Philippine montane rainforest and successional vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the moist Neotropics, vertebrate frugivores have a much greater role in the dispersal of forest and successional woody plants than wind, and bats rather than birds play the dominant role in dispersing early successional species. I investigated whether these patterns also occurred in a Philippine montane rainforest and adjacent successional vegetation. I also asked whether seed mass was related

Nina R. Ingle

2003-01-01

51

Nitrogen effects on rhizosphere processes of range grasses from different successional seres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen and rhizosphere microorganism effects on nitrogen and carbon dynamics of Sitanion hystrix (early successional species), Stipa comata and Poa secundu which are (mid-successional species), and Agropyron spicatum (late successional species) were evaluated in a growth chamber study. Rhizosphere inocula resulted in increased nitrogen in both root and shoot tissue, and also of water-extractable carbon in the rhizosphere. Plant species,

B. A. Frederick; D. A. Klein

1994-01-01

52

Laparoscopic surgical staging of early ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Since its advent in the early 1990s, laparoscopic surgical staging for early ovarian cancer has been explored as an option with the potential to offer women equivalent cancer control and survival as provided by laparotomy but with the clear benefits of minimally invasive surgery. A limited but expanding body of literature suggests aggressive surgical staging can be performed with equivalent tissue assessment compared with laparotomy. Given the lack of randomized, controlled trials, the risks and benefits of such a procedure remain ambiguous. This review summarizes the current body of literature regarding the role of laparoscopy in upfront surgical staging of ovarian cancer. This review presents the history, rationale, and established benefits and risks of utilizing this approach in women who present with malignancy that appears confined to the ovary. Although retrospective data confirm the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of laparoscopic staging of early ovarian cancer, more prospective data will be required to confirm equivalent survival in a patient population that has the potential to be cured. PMID:22229064

Weber, Sarah; McCann, Christopher K; Boruta, David M; Schorge, John O; Growdon, Whitfield B

2011-01-01

53

Laparoscopic Surgical Staging of Early Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

Since its advent in the early 1990s, laparoscopic surgical staging for early ovarian cancer has been explored as an option with the potential to offer women equivalent cancer control and survival as provided by laparotomy but with the clear benefits of minimally invasive surgery. A limited but expanding body of literature suggests aggressive surgical staging can be performed with equivalent tissue assessment compared with laparotomy. Given the lack of randomized, controlled trials, the risks and benefits of such a procedure remain ambiguous. This review summarizes the current body of literature regarding the role of laparoscopy in upfront surgical staging of ovarian cancer. This review presents the history, rationale, and established benefits and risks of utilizing this approach in women who present with malignancy that appears confined to the ovary. Although retrospective data confirm the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of laparoscopic staging of early ovarian cancer, more prospective data will be required to confirm equivalent survival in a patient population that has the potential to be cured. PMID:22229064

Weber, Sarah; McCann, Christopher K; Boruta, David M; Schorge, John O; Growdon, Whitfield B

2011-01-01

54

Early Diagnosis and Staging of Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

The need for accurate methods of ascertaining the malignant potential of any given man’s prostate cancer has never been greater than it is today. The presenters at the session of the 13th International Prostate Cancer Update addressing early diagnosis and staging of disease discussed combined-modality staging of disease; color Doppler imaging for detection of cancer; pelvic lymphadenectomy as a diagnostic tool; and a new, artificial intelligence—based model to predict survival. A summary of these presentations is provided here. PMID:16985972

Brawer, Michael K; Bartsch, Georg; D'Amico, Anthony V; Donohue, Robert E; Siam, Oottamasathien; Tewari, Ashutosh

2003-01-01

55

Early-successional vegetation dynamics and microsite preferences following post-fire forest restoration in southwestern Oregon.  

E-print Network

??Reforestation-based restoration of severely burnt plantations is one of the primary management activities following wildfire on U.S. federal lands. Restoration effects on early-seral plant and… (more)

Kayes, Lori J.

2008-01-01

56

Effects of above-ground browsing by mammals on mycorrhizal infection in an early successional taiga ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an exclosure experiment in the willow stage of primary succession on the floodplain of the Tanana River, we tested\\u000a the hypothesis that browsing can reduce mycorrhizal infection. We measured the effects winter browsing by moose (Alcesalces) and snowshoe hare (Lepusamericanus) had on mycorrhizal infection and fine root biomass of willow (Salix spp.) and balsam poplar (Populusbalsamifera). We found that

Loni J. Rossow; John P. Bryant; Knut Kielland

1997-01-01

57

Radiometric correction of multi-temporal Landsat data for characterization of early successional forest patterns in western Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting and characterizing continuous changes in early forest succession using multi-temporal satellite imagery requires atmospheric correction procedures that are both operationally reliable, and that result in comparable units (e.g., surface reflectance). This paper presents a comparison of five atmospheric correction methods (2 relative, 3 absolute) used to correct a nearly continuous 20-year Landsat TM\\/ETM+ image data set (19-images) covering western

Todd A. Schroeder; Warren B. Cohen; Conghe Song; Morton J. Canty; Zhiqiang Yang

2006-01-01

58

Towards the identification of early stage osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Summary A variety of genetic and environmental factors contribute to the progressive develop of OA. It is necessary to identify people who are developing initial changes in cartilage and/or subchondral bone before onset of classical radiological features in order to detect early phase of OA. Recent quantitative MRI techniques can evaluate the structural, mechanical and biochemical characteristics of cartilage. T2 mapping is able to assess cartilage volume and defects measurement, delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI (dGEMRIC) and Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) can reveal Cartilage GAG content. Accurate and reliable serum, urine and synovial fluid biomarkers are also requested. Several biomarkers have been studied and proposed, but there are many critical issues to consider for inferring useful data from studies on biomarkers in early OA such as phase of disease, specific joint sites, systemic concentrations, circadian rhythm, their clearance from the joint, etc. Recently proteomics has produced great expectations to improve the early diagnosis of OA. These discoveries may open opportunities for the identification of early stage of OA leading to manage the symptoms and ultimately slow the progression of OA. PMID:25285138

Migliore, Alberto; Massafra, Umberto

2014-01-01

59

Open architecture framework for improved early stage submarine design  

E-print Network

Could transparency between current disparate methods improve efficiency in early stage submarine design? Does the lack of transparency between current design methods hinder the effectiveness of early stage submarine design? ...

Sewell, Eli A. (Eli Anthony)

2010-01-01

60

15.391 Early Stage Capital, Fall 2003  

E-print Network

15.391 examines the elements of raising early stage capital, focusing on start-up ventures and the early stages of company development. This course also prepares entrepreneurs to make the best use of outside advisors, and ...

Loessberg, Shari

61

Treatment Choices for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Treatment Choices for Men With Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Posted: 02/11/2011 Treatment Choices for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer About This Booklet ... NCI Publications Español About This Booklet As a man with early-stage prostate cancer , you will be ...

62

Early Stages of the Natriuretic Hormone Story  

PubMed Central

The paper reviews the early stages of the research on natriuretic hormone. The described experimental work was designed and accomplished in several internationally recognized laboratories where the author was invited to extend his projects. The cross-circulation experiments in animals with acutely increased extracellular fluid volume documented, that in the mechanism of natriuresis – besides a series of the physical natriuretic factors – there is still room for an active humoral natriuretic substance. This substance inhibited the sodium transporting enzyme, Na,K-ATPase, in the frog skin. Analogous inhibition of the renal Na,K-ATPase may be partly responsible for the increased sodium excretion. It was further shown that the extent of natriuresis is positively modulated by the concentration of sodium in the cerebrospinal fluid detected in the anterior-third ventricle region (AV3V) in the brain.

Lichardus, Branislav

2014-01-01

63

Successional dynamics in the seasonally forced diamond food web.  

PubMed

Plankton seasonal succession is a classic example of nonequilibrium community dynamics. Despite the fact that it has been well studied empirically, it lacks a general quantitative theory. Here we investigate a food web model that includes a resource, two phytoplankton, and a shared grazer-the diamond food web-in a seasonal environment. The model produces a number of successional trajectories that have been widely discussed in the context of the verbal Plankton Ecology Group model of succession, such as a spring bloom of a good competitor followed by a grazer-induced clear-water phase, setting the stage for the late-season dominance of a grazer-resistant species. It also predicts a novel, counterintuitive trajectory where the grazer-resistant species has both early- and late-season blooms. The model often generates regular annual cycles but sometimes produces multiyear cycles or chaos, even with identical forcing each year. Parameterizing the model, we show how the successional trajectory depends on nutrient supply and the length of the growing season, two key parameters that vary among water bodies. This model extends nonequilibrium theory to food webs and is a first step toward a quantitative theory of plankton seasonal succession. PMID:22673647

Klausmeier, Christopher A; Litchman, Elena

2012-07-01

64

Is the degree of clonality of forest herbs dependent on gap age? Using fingerprinting approaches to assess optimum successional stages for montane forest herbs.  

PubMed

Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability. Mean patch sizes of V. myrtillus, T. europaea, and C. villosa formed were 3.7 m(2), 27.9 m(2), and 40.6 m(2), respectively. Trientalis europaea and C. villosa patches consisted mostly of more than one genet. Largest clone sizes of T. europaea were encountered in gaps of intermediate successional age (15-60 years, averaged minimum estimation of clone sizes: 6.56 m(2)) whereas clone size of C. villosa was found to be independent from gap age and had a mean minimum clone size of 0.49 m(2). In both species, clone size was positively related to light availability. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between clone size and ramet density for T. europaea and C. villosa. Genetic variation was higher within populations of T. europaea and C. villosa than among populations. Trientalis europaea was the only species with a clear genetic isolation by distance, pointing at an equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift. In conclusion, we showed that forest canopy gap dynamics clearly affect the small-scale structure of populations of understorey plants. Species with high lateral growth rates, such as T. europaea offer the possibility to serve as "ecological clock" for dating ecological processes. PMID:22393501

Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

2011-11-01

65

Is the degree of clonality of forest herbs dependent on gap age? Using fingerprinting approaches to assess optimum successional stages for montane forest herbs  

PubMed Central

Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability. Mean patch sizes of V. myrtillus, T. europaea, and C. villosa formed were 3.7 m2, 27.9 m2, and 40.6 m2, respectively. Trientalis europaea and C. villosa patches consisted mostly of more than one genet. Largest clone sizes of T. europaea were encountered in gaps of intermediate successional age (15–60 years, averaged minimum estimation of clone sizes: 6.56 m2) whereas clone size of C. villosa was found to be independent from gap age and had a mean minimum clone size of 0.49 m2. In both species, clone size was positively related to light availability. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between clone size and ramet density for T. europaea and C. villosa. Genetic variation was higher within populations of T. europaea and C. villosa than among populations. Trientalis europaea was the only species with a clear genetic isolation by distance, pointing at an equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift. In conclusion, we showed that forest canopy gap dynamics clearly affect the small-scale structure of populations of understorey plants. Species with high lateral growth rates, such as T. europaea offer the possibility to serve as “ecological clock” for dating ecological processes. PMID:22393501

Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

2011-01-01

66

SENSITIVITY OF RAINBOW TROUT EARLY LIFE STAGES TO NICKEL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Four acute tests (96-h) with juvenile fish and four early life stage tests with embryos and larvae were completed with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Ninety-six-hour flow-through LC50 values for juveniles ranged from 8.1 to 10.9 mg/l nickel. Two early life stage tests were star...

67

Mechanisms of successional dynamics: Consumers and the rise and fall of species dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insight into potential mechanisms of succession following disturbance to an ecological community can be gained by considering processes that contribute to the rise (colonization, interactions with established species) and demise (differential mortality) of specific stages within the successional sequence. Most successional theories focus on the rise to dominance, assuming demise is the result of competition, but other factors can cause

J. Timothy Wootton

2002-01-01

68

The role of brachytherapy in early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To present the treatment results and assess the optimal radiation dose and the role of brachytherapy in early stage nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).Methods and Materials: One hundred eighty-three patients with Stage I and II (American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System, 1987) NPC completed the planned radiotherapy in our institution from 1979 to 1991. In 133 patients, radiotherapy was given

Joseph T. Chang; Lai-Chu See; Simon G. Tang; Steve P. Lee; Chun-Chieh Wang; Ji-Hong Hong

1996-01-01

69

Business Model Change in Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Firms Facing High Uncertainty BUSINESS MODEL CHANGE IN EARLY-STAGE ENTREPRENEURIAL  

E-print Network

model design and change is especially critical to new technology-based firms (Andries and Debackere of business model change in early-stage entrepreneurial firms facing technology, market, and managerialBusiness Model Change in Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Firms Facing High Uncertainty 1 BUSINESS MODEL

Mottram, Nigel

70

Narrowband UVB phototherapy for early-stage mycosis fungoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Narrowband UVB (NB-UVB) phototherapy has been shown to be effective for the treatment of various dermatoses. Objective: We evaluated the effect of NB-UVB in the treatment of early stage mycosis fungoides (MF). Methods: The response of 24 patients (12 stage IA, 12 stage IB) with patch stage MF to thrice weekly NB-UVB was assessed. Twelve patients had skin phototypes

Raechele Cochran Gathers; Lubomira Scherschun; Farah Malick; David P. Fivenson; Henry W. Lim

2002-01-01

71

Comparative performances of staging systems for early hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Several staging systems for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been proposed, but studies of their prognostic accuracy have yielded conflicting conclusions. Stratifying patients with early HCC is of particular interest because these patients may derive the greatest benefit from intervention, yet no studies have evaluated the comparative performances of staging systems in patients with early HCC. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data on 379 patients who underwent liver resection or liver transplantation for HCC at six major hepatobiliary centres in the USA and Europe. The staging systems evaluated were: the Okuda staging system, the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA) staging system, the Cancer of the Liver Italian Programme (CLIP) score, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, the Japanese Integrated Staging (JIS) score and the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) staging system, 6th edition. A recently proposed early HCC prognostic score was also evaluated. The discriminative abilities of the staging systems were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models and the bootstrap-corrected concordance index (c). Results: Overall survival of the cohort was 74% at 3 years and 52% at 5 years, with a median survival of 62 months. Most systems demonstrated poor discriminatory ability (P > 0.05 on Cox proportional hazards analysis, c? 0.5). However, the AJCC/UICC system clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c= 0.59), albeit only into two groups. The early HCC prognostic score also clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c= 0.60) and identified three distinct prognostic groups. Discussion: The early HCC prognostic score is superior to the AJCC/UICC staging system (6th edition) for predicting the survival of patients with early HCC after liver resection or liver transplantation. Other major HCC staging systems perform poorly in patients with early HCC. PMID:19768142

Nathan, Hari; Mentha, Gilles; Marques, Hugo P; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Majno, Pietro; Aldrighetti, Luca; Pulitano, Carlo; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Russolillo, Nadia; Philosophe, Benjamin; Barroso, Eduardo; Ferrero, Alessandro; Schulick, Richard D; Choti, Michael A; Pawlik, Timothy M

2009-01-01

72

Early life stages of resident nekton in intertidal marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in early life stages of species that are permanent residents of the estuarine nekton is poorly understood, especially\\u000a in systems with extensive areas of emergent vegetation (e.g., salt marshes and mangroves). Sampling small mobile nekton in\\u000a these shallow intertidal habitats presents a difficult methodological challenge. Simulated aquatic microhabitats (SAMs) were\\u000a used to collect the early life stages of resident

R. T. Kneib

1997-01-01

73

Successional events following simazine application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successional events of aquatic vegetation in a farm pond were studied, after application of simazine. After decay of the higher plants, phytoplankton did not dominate, instead herbicide-resistant seeds and subsurface structures of Potamogeton foliosus developed. Benthic algae covered and stabilized the bottom. Following stabilization, the water cleared and Chara vulgaris growth resumed wherever the substrate was firm.

Shirley A. Crawford

1981-01-01

74

Using spirituality to cope with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) robs persons living with the disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early-stage AD cope is a critical step in enhancing their adaptive abilities and ultimately improving their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early-stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnographic study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability of people with early-stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with AD. PMID:19282270

Beuscher, Linda; Grando, Victoria T

2009-08-01

75

Using Spirituality to Cope with Early Stage Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) robs persons living with this disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early stage AD cope is a critical step to enhance their adaptive abilities and ultimately improve their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnography study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability for people with early stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with Alzheimer’s. PMID:19282270

Grando, Victoria T.

2010-01-01

76

Radiofrequency Ablation for Early-Stage Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

This review examines studies of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and discusses the role of RFA in treatment of early-stage NSCLC. RFA is usually performed under local anesthesia with computed tomography guidance. RFA-associated mortality, while being rare, can result from pulmonary events. RFA causes pneumothorax in up to 63% of cases, although pneumothorax requiring chest drainage occurs in less than 15% of procedures. Other severe complications are rare. After RFA of stage I NSCLC, 31–42% of patients show local progression. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates after RFA of stage I NSCLC were 78% to 100%, 53% to 86%, 36% to 88%, and 25% to 61%, respectively. The median survival time ranged from 29 to 67 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year cancer-specific survival rates after RFA of stage I NSCLC were 89% to 100%, 92% to 93%, and 59% to 88%, respectively. RFA has a higher local failure rate than sublobar resection and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Therefore, RFA may currently be reserved for early-stage NSCLC patients who are unfit for sublobar resection or SBRT. Various technologies are being developed to improve clinical outcomes of RFA for early-stage NSCLC. PMID:24995270

Hiraki, Takao; Gobara, Hideo; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Matsui, Yusuke; Kanazawa, Susumu

2014-01-01

77

Effects of ENSO and Temporal Rainfall Variation on the Dynamics of Successional Communities in Old-Field Succession of a Tropical Dry Forest  

PubMed Central

The effects of temporal variation of rainfall on secondary succession of tropical dry ecosystems are poorly understood. We studied effects of inter-seasonal and inter-year rainfall variation on the dynamics of regenerative successional communities of a tropical dry forest in Mexico. We emphasized the effects caused by the severe El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) occurred in 2005. We established permanent plots in sites representing a chronosequence of Pasture (abandoned pastures, 0–1 years fallow age), Early (3–5), Intermediate (8–12), and Old-Growth Forest categories (n?=?3 per category). In total, 8210 shrubs and trees 10 to 100-cm height were identified, measured, and monitored over four years. Rates of plant recruitment, growth and mortality, and gain and loss of species were quantified per season (dry vs. rainy), year, and successional category, considering whole communities and separating seedlings from sprouts and shrubs from trees. Community rates changed with rainfall variation without almost any effect of successional stage. Mortality and species loss rates peaked during the ENSO year and the following year; however, after two rainy years mortality peaked in the rainy season. Such changes could result from the severe drought in the ENSO year, and of the outbreak of biotic agents during the following rainy years. Growth, recruitment and species gain rates were higher in the rainy season but they were significantly reduced after the ENSO year. Seedlings exhibited higher recruitment and mortality rate than sprouts, and shrubs showed higher recruitment than trees. ENSO strongly impacted both the dynamics and trajectory of succession, creating transient fluctuations in the abundance and species richness of the communities. Overall, there was a net decline in plant and species density in most successional stages along the years. Therefore, strong drought events have critical consequences for regeneration dynamics, delaying the successional process and modifying the resilience of these systems. PMID:24349179

Maza-Villalobos, Susana; Poorter, Lourens; Martinez-Ramos, Miguel

2013-01-01

78

DENIM: an informal tool for early stage web site design  

Microsoft Academic Search

DENIM is a system that helps web site designers in the early stages of design. DENIM supports sketching input; allows design at different refinement levels--site map, storyboard, and individual page; and unifies the levels through zooming. The design of DENIM was informed by a study of web site design practice, in which we observed that web site designers design sites

James Lin; Mark W. Newman; Jason I. Hong; James A. Landay

2001-01-01

79

Family Stories in the Early Stages of Parenthood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined storytelling about childhood experiences by parents during the early stages of parenthood (n=188). Storytelling was common, 96% talked about their childhood at least occasionally. Fathers told stories with stronger achievement themes and mothers told stories with stronger affiliation themes. Story theme varied by child's age. (JBJ)

Fiese, Barbara H.; And Others

1995-01-01

80

Early developmental patterning sets the stage for brain evolution  

E-print Network

Early developmental patterning sets the stage for brain evolution Hans A. Hofmann1 Section of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 T he evolution of brain structure and function has long fascinated biologists of the brain--or brain region--and body size across a wide range of vertebrates (1). Besides random drift, two

Hofmann, Hans A.

81

Refining Treatment for High-risk Early Stage Endometrial Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this clinical trial, women with high-risk early stage endometrial cancer will be randomly assigned following surgery to receive one of two types of adjuvant therapy: brachytherapy targeted to the vaginal cuff in combination with chemotherapy or standard pelvic external-beam radiotherapy.

82

Comparing Radiation Therapy Regimens for Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this phase III clinical trial, women with early-stage breast cancer will be randomly assigned to undergo a standard 5-week course of whole-breast irradiation (WBI) followed by a sequential boost course or 3 weeks of hypofractionated WBI with a concurrent boost.

83

Household Epidemics: Modelling Effects of Early Stage Vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Markovian susceptible - infectious - removed (SIR) epidemic model is considered in a com- munity partitioned into households. A vaccination strategy, which is implemented during the early stages of the disease following the detection of infected individuals is proposed. In this strategy, the detection occurs while an individual is infectious and other susceptible household members are vaccinated without further

Nyimvua Shaban; Mikael Andersson; Ake Svensson; Tom Britton

2009-01-01

84

DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages  

E-print Network

DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages by Huimin Liu David S. Dandy Department of Chemical and Bioresource Engineering Colorado State University The chemical vapor deposition Techniques 3.1 Hot-Filament CVD 3.2 Plasma Assisted CVD 3.3 Flame CVD 3.4 Summary of General Characteristics

Dandy, David

85

Metformin to Treat Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, nondiabetic women or men younger than age 75 who have been diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer within the previous 12 months and who have undergone surgery to remove their tumor will be randomly assigned to take metformin or placebo pills twice a day for 5 years.

86

Changes in semantic memory in early stage Alzheimer's disease patients.  

PubMed

The types and number of exemplars of categories that are retrieved from semantic memory differentiate elderly normal controls and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Elderly normal controls generated more uncommon exemplars from closed semantic categories (fruits and vegetables) than did AD patients 2 1/2 years prior to the presumed onset of AD. AD patients, however, were just as productive as elderly normal controls in generating associations to open categories (letters). The findings suggest that one of the early cognitive symptoms of AD is changes in availability of uncommon exemplars of semantic networks. PMID:8225008

Weingartner, H J; Kawas, C; Rawlings, R; Shapiro, M

1993-10-01

87

Giftedness in Hispanic English Language Learners: Early Stages of Identification  

E-print Network

Giftedness in Hispanic English Language Learners: Early Stages of Identification Dr. J. Joy Esquierdo, University of Texas-Pan American esquierdo@utpa.edu Dr. Beverly Irby, Sam Houston State University irby@shsu.edu Dr. Rafael Lara... ? Vague definition of giftedness ? Testing instruments ineffective (Galbraith and Delisle, 1996) ? Underrepresentation of ELLs in GT programs (Lara-Alecio, Irby, & Walker, 1997) Significance of the Study ? Reduce the underrepresentation of Hispanic...

Esquierdo, Joy J.; Irby, Beverly; Lara-Alecio, Rafael

2010-10-22

88

The development of children's early numeracy through key stage 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a limited longitudinal study of young children's early numeracy development within three testing cycles, at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-of-age), located within the broader context of progress through to Key Stage 1 SAT results (at seven years). Assessment

Carol Aubrey; Ray Godfrey

2003-01-01

89

The Metamorphoses of Workflow Projects in their Early Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

   Empirical studies on workflow usually focus on systems which have already been introduced and on the problems which occur\\u000a with these systems if exceptional cases differ from the regular business processes. This study focuses on the problems that\\u000a occur in the early stages of projects intended to introduce workflow systems but which do not inevitably succeed. In most\\u000a cases the

Thomas Herrmann; Marcel Hoffmann

2005-01-01

90

The Development of Children's Early Numeracy through Key Stage 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a limited longitudinal study of young children's early numeracy development within three testing cycles, at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-of-age), located within the broader context of progress through to Key Stage 1 SAT…

Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray

2003-01-01

91

Stage-specific proteome signatures in early bovine embryo development.  

PubMed

Development of early embryonic stages before activation of the embryonic genome depends on sufficiently stored products of the maternal genome, adequate recruitment and degradation of mRNAs, as well as activation, deactivation, and relocation of proteins. By application of an isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based approach, the proteomes of bovine embryos at the zygote and 2-cell and 4-cell stage with MII oocytes as a reference were quantitatively analyzed. Of 1072 quantified proteins, 87 differed significantly in abundance between the four stages. The proteomes of 2-cell and 4-cell embryos differed most from the reference MII oocyte, and a considerable fraction of proteins continuously increased in abundance during the stages analyzed, despite a strongly attenuated rate of translation reported for this period. Bioinformatic analysis revealed particularly interesting proteins involved in the p53 pathway, lipid metabolism, and mitosis. Verification of iTRAQ results by targeted SRM (selected reaction monitoring) analysis revealed excellent agreement for all five proteins analyzed. By principal component analysis, SRM quantifications comprising a panel of only five proteins were shown to discriminate between all four developmental stages analyzed here. For future experiments, an expanded SRM protein panel will provide the potential to detect developmental disturbances with high sensitivity and enable first insights into the underlying molecular pathways. PMID:25102770

Deutsch, Daniela R; Fröhlich, Thomas; Otte, Kathrin A; Beck, Andrea; Habermann, Felix A; Wolf, Eckhard; Arnold, Georg J

2014-10-01

92

Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processes in growth of short cracks and stage 1 of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl(-), with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl(-) or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage 1 behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK(sup m) where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

Jones, R. H.; Simonen, E. P.

93

Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks  

SciTech Connect

Processes in growth of short cracks and stage I of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl{sup {minus}}, with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl{sup {minus}} or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage I behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK{sup m} where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

1993-12-01

94

Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. Results A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Conclusion Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group. PMID:25142621

Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

2014-01-01

95

Characterization of early growth stages of Pb/Ge(001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early stages of thin Pb film growth on Ge(001) substrate, exhibiting quantum size effects (QSE), are characterized by means of Photoelectron Diffraction and Helium Atom Scattering. Pb is found to form a commensurate first monolayer, while an ordered layer-by-layer growth only sets in after deposition of 4 monolayers. In the intermediate coverage range no long range order of the overlayer is established and we find that uncorrelated islands of preferred four-layer thickness are formed. Continuous Pb film with long range order emerges through islands coalescence close to a coverage of 4 monolayers, upon which a more regular layer-by-layer growth mode sets in.

Bavdek, G.; Verdini, A.; Cossaro, A.; Morgante, A.; Floreano, L.; Cvetko, D.

2014-12-01

96

Model atmospheres for the early stages of novae in outburst  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the photospheres of classical novae during the early stages of their outbursts, continuum and line blanketed models are presented. The expanding envelopes are characterized by small density gradients that lead to very large geometrical extensions and large temperature differences between inner and outer parts. The spectra show large excesses in the IR and small Balmer jumps which may either be in absorption or emission. For the parameters considered most lines are in absorption if powerlaw density distributions and radiative equilibrium are assumed. The effects of modifications in the temperature structure (e.g., heating from shock fronts) and in the density stratifications as well as changes in the abundances are discussed.

Wehrse, R.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Shaviv, G.; Starrfield, Sumner G.

1990-01-01

97

In vivo research using early life stage models.  

PubMed

Scientists, for a variety of reasons, need to carry out in vivo research. Since experiments that require the use of adult animals pose various logistical, economical and ethical issues, the use of embryonic and larval forms of some organisms are potentially attractive alternatives. Early life stages are appealing because, in general, large numbers of individuals can be maintained in relatively simple housing, minimising costs, and their use involves fewer legal formalities. With this succinct review, we aim to provide an overview of different biological issues that have been successfully explored with the help of eggs, embryos and larvae from the frog, zebrafish and chicken. PMID:20668311

Seabra, Rita; Bhogal, Nirmala

2010-01-01

98

Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

Bruno, D. W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D. G.

2006-01-01

99

Systemic immune system alterations in early stages of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Immune activation and inflammation play significant roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test whether AD patients showed systemic manifestations of inflammation, blood from 41 patients with early stages of AD and 31 aged-match elderly controls were evaluated. Cellular markers for monocyte/macrophage (MO) activation and CD8 T lymphocyte were increased in early AD patients. Expression of monocyte CCR2, the receptor for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), was decreased; however, plasma MCP-1 levels were significantly increased and were related to the degree of MO activation in AD. These findings suggest that AD pathogenesis may be influenced by systemic immunologic dysfunction and provides potential immunologic targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23380586

Zhang, Rongzhen; Miller, Robert G; Madison, Catherine; Jin, Xia; Honrada, Ronald; Harris, Will; Katz, Jonathan; Forshew, Dallas A; McGrath, Michael S

2013-03-15

100

Antiangiogenic Therapies in Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis, which is crucial for the growth and spread of cancer cells, has become an important target for antineoplastic therapies in a variety of malignant tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor promote formation of new blood vessels in tumors. Several drugs, most notably the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, have been developed to inhibit this process. Clinical trials utilizing bevacizumab and other antiangiogenic drugs in metastatic breast cancer have demonstrated enhanced response rates and prolonged progression-free survival, though no overall survival benefit has been seen. Trials are now under way exploring the use of antiangiogenic agents in patients with early stage breast cancer. We performed a comprehensive review of the published literature (English language), US National Institutes of Health clinical trials registry (ClinicalTrials.gov), and established cooperative groups that revealed approximately 75 clinical trials, completed or ongoing, utilizing antiangiogenic drugs in early-stage breast cancer. A number of phase II trials in the neoadjuvant setting have reported preliminary results suggesting response rates similar to those seen with traditional anthracycline-plus-taxane combination regimens. Most of these early trials have not yet met any survival endpoints. Studies are also ongoing in the adjuvant setting, and these have not yet been reported. The toxicities associated with these agents are similar to those that have been reported in the metastatic trials. Most of these side effects are grade 1 or 2 and are easily manageable; however, there remain a small percentage of patients who sustain life-threatening vascular events, bleeding, or wound-healing complications. This number is significantly higher in patients receiving antiangiogenic drugs when compared with controls. While we eagerly await completion and results of this impressive portfolio of studies in early breast cancer with antiangiogenic agents, there is an urgent need for a more rational patient/antiangiogenic therapy selection with greater insight into predictive factors for toxicities, therapy efficacy, and clinical benefit. PMID:20587404

Derleth, Christina; Mayer, Ingrid A.

2012-01-01

101

Prognostic factors in early-stage ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify the main prognostic factors in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Data were extracted from 222 patients with initial stage (I–IIA) invasive epithelial ovarian cancer treated with primary surgery followed or not followed by adjuvant therapy, from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008, at the Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy; the median follow-up was 79 months (SD ± 35,945, range 20–250 months). The negative prognostic factors that were statistically significant (p<0.050) in univariate analysis were grade 2, 3, and X (clear cell in our study); stage IB, IC, IIA; positive peritoneal cytology, age equal to/greater than 54; dense adhesions; capsule rupture (pre-operative or intra-operative) and endometrioid histotype (only for disease-free survival (DFS)). Positive cytology was strongly associated with peritoneal relapses, while adhesions were associated with pelvic relapses. A positive prognosis was associated with the mucinous histotype. Conservative treatment had been carried out in 52% of patients under 40 years of age, and we detected only two relapses and three completions of surgery after a few weeks among 31 women in total. Our study indicated a possible execution in patients with patients with cancer stage IA G1–G2 (p=0.030) or IC G1 (p=0.050), provided well staged. Adjuvant chemotherapy improved the survival of cancers that were not IA G1. The positive prognostic role of taxanes must be emphasised, when used in combination with platino. PMID:23781280

Tognon, Germana; Carnazza, Mario; Ragnoli, Monica; Calza, Stefano; Ferrari, Federico; Gambino, Angela; Zizioli, Valentina; Notaro, Sara; Sostegni, Benedetta; Sartori, Enrico

2013-01-01

102

On developing business architectures : a multi-framework evaluation of an early-stage enterprise  

E-print Network

Early-stage enterprises are characterized by leveraging limited resources during periods of accelerating industry growth and relatively high uncertainty. This thesis is an examination of an early-stage enterprise within ...

Montoya, Mario, 1978-

2010-01-01

103

77 FR 74908 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...20 million in Regulatory Capital for Early Stage SBICs ``soft- circled.'' (This may include drop-down funds.) Track...CFR Sec. 107.305, with particular emphasis on managers' skills and experience in evaluating and investing in early stage...

2012-12-18

104

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

SciTech Connect

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Cada, G.F.

1991-01-01

105

Cryoablation of Early-Stage Primary Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, and lobectomy is the gold-standard treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, many patients are poor surgical candidates for various reasons. Recently, image-guided ablation is being used for lung tumors. Cryoablation has been applied for the treatment of cancer in various nonaerated organs; recently it has been adapted to the treatment of lung tumors. Since an ice ball can be detected by computed tomography (CT), cryoablation of lung tumors is performed under CT guidance. Its first clinical application was reported in 2005, and it has been reported to be feasible in a few studies. Minor complications occurred at a high frequency (up to 70.5%), but major complications were rare (up to 1%). The most common complication is pneumothorax, and most cases need no further intervention. Local efficacy depends on tumor size and presence of a thick vessel close to the tumor. Midterm survival after cryoablation is 77%–88% at 3 years in patients with early-stage NSCLC. Although surgery is the gold-standard treatment for such patients, the initial results of cryoablation are promising. In this paper, the current status of cryoablation for primary lung tumors is reviewed. PMID:24991559

Nakatsuka, Seishi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

2014-01-01

106

Responses of Reactive Oxygen Scavenging Enzymes, Proline and Malondialdehyde to Water Deficits among Six Secondary Successional Seral Species in Loess Plateau  

PubMed Central

Drought can impact local vegetation dynamics in a long term. In order to predict the possible successional pathway of local community under drought, the responses of some drought resistance indices of six successional seral species in the semi-arid Loss Hilly Region of China were illustrated and compared on three levels of soil water deficits along three growing months (7, 8 and 9). The results showed that: 1) the six species had significant differences in SOD, POD activities and MDA content. The rank correlations between SOD, POD activities and the successional niche positions of the six species were positive, and the correlation between MDA content and the niche positions was negative; 2) activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and content of proline and MDA had significant differences among the three months; 3) there existed significant interactions of SOD, CAT, POD activities and MDA content between months and species. With an exception, no interaction of proline was found. Proline in leaves had a general decline in reproductive month; 4) SOD, CAT, POD activities and proline content had negative correlations with MDA content. Among which, the correlation between SOD activity and MDA content was significant. The results implied that, in arid or semiarid region, the species at later successional stage tend to have strong drought resistance than those at early stage. Anti-drought indices can partially interpret the pathway of community succession in the drought impacted area. SOD activity is more distinct and important on the scope of protecting membrane damage through the scavenging of ROS on exposure to drought. PMID:24914928

Du, Feng; Shi, Huijun; Zhang, Xingchang; Xu, Xuexuan

2014-01-01

107

Responses of reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes, proline and malondialdehyde to water deficits among six secondary successional seral species in Loess Plateau.  

PubMed

Drought can impact local vegetation dynamics in a long term. In order to predict the possible successional pathway of local community under drought, the responses of some drought resistance indices of six successional seral species in the semi-arid Loss Hilly Region of China were illustrated and compared on three levels of soil water deficits along three growing months (7, 8 and 9). The results showed that: 1) the six species had significant differences in SOD, POD activities and MDA content. The rank correlations between SOD, POD activities and the successional niche positions of the six species were positive, and the correlation between MDA content and the niche positions was negative; 2) activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and content of proline and MDA had significant differences among the three months; 3) there existed significant interactions of SOD, CAT, POD activities and MDA content between months and species. With an exception, no interaction of proline was found. Proline in leaves had a general decline in reproductive month; 4) SOD, CAT, POD activities and proline content had negative correlations with MDA content. Among which, the correlation between SOD activity and MDA content was significant. The results implied that, in arid or semiarid region, the species at later successional stage tend to have strong drought resistance than those at early stage. Anti-drought indices can partially interpret the pathway of community succession in the drought impacted area. SOD activity is more distinct and important on the scope of protecting membrane damage through the scavenging of ROS on exposure to drought. PMID:24914928

Du, Feng; Shi, Huijun; Zhang, Xingchang; Xu, Xuexuan

2014-01-01

108

Optimal treatment of early-stage ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Background There is no clear consensus regarding systemic treatment of early-stage ovarian cancer (OC). Clinical trials are challenging because of the relatively low incidence and good prognosis. Initial results of the International Collaborative Ovarian Neoplasm (ICON)1 trial demonstrated benefit in both overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) with adjuvant chemotherapy. We report results of 10-year follow-up to establish whether benefits are maintained longer term and discuss how this and other available evidence from randomised trials can be used to guide treatment options regarding the need for, and choice of, adjuvant chemotherapy regimen. Patients and methods ICON1 recruited women with OC following primary surgery in whom there was uncertainty as to whether adjuvant chemotherapy was indicated. Patients were randomly assigned to adjuvant or no adjuvant chemotherapy. Platinum-based chemotherapy was recommended and 87% received single-agent carboplatin. Analyses of long-term treatment benefits and interaction with risk groups were carried out. A high-risk group of women was defined with stage 1B/1C grade 2/3, any stage 1 grade 3 or clear-cell histology. Results With a median follow-up of 10 years, the estimated hazard ratio (HR) for RFS was 0.69 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51–0.94, P = 0.02] and OS 0.71 (95% CI 0.52–0.98, P = 0.04) in favour of chemotherapy. In absolute terms, there was a 10% (60%–70%) improvement in RFS and a 9% (64%–73%) improvement in OS; the benefit of chemotherapy might be greater in high-risk disease (18% improvement in OS). Uncertainty remains about the optimal chemotherapy regimen. The only randomised trial data available are from a subset of 120 stage 1 patients in ICON3 where the treatment difference, comparing carboplatin with carboplatin/paclitaxel was estimated with relatively wide CIs [progression-free survival HR = 0.71 (95% CI 0.39–1.32) and OS HR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.49–1.93)]. Conclusions Extended follow-up from ICON1 confirms that adjuvant chemotherapy should be offered to women with early-stage OC, particularly those with high-risk disease. Clinical trial numbers ISRCTN11916376 for ICON1 and ISRCTN57157825 for ICON3. PMID:24631948

Collinson, F.; Qian, W.; Fossati, R.; Lissoni, A.; Williams, C.; Parmar, M.; Ledermann, J.; Colombo, N.; Swart, A.

2014-01-01

109

The Power of Personality in Discriminating Between Healthy Aging and Early-Stage  

E-print Network

) in the earliest possible stage of the disease. This early diagnosis is critical to families and clinicians. The diagnosis of early-stage DAT is difficult to make; it relies on the detection of subtle changes in cognitiveThe Power of Personality in Discriminating Between Healthy Aging and Early-Stage Alzheimer

110

Suites of plant traits in species from different stages of a Mediterranean secondary succession.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to detect suites of traits related to whole plant and seed morphology, phenology and resource use--including water--in species differing in successional status. Twenty traits were measured on 55 species representative of 5 successional stages in Mediterranean southern France, including eight pertaining to phenology and five to water economy. Suites of traits that changed along succession in agreement with the acquisition/conservation trade-off were completed by continuous changes in phenology. Early successional species had leaves with a high specific leaf area that were produced and lost continuously through the growing season. Late-successional species were taller with long-lived, high delta(13)C leaves produced during short periods, most of them persisting during summer, and produced large seeds requiring a long ripening period. Replacement of species occurred with change in strategies of drought survival: early successional species escaped drought by dying before summer; later herbaceous species maintained favourable water status in relation to leaf shedding during summer; late successional trees with a large body allowing access to a large pool of resources, produced dense leaves that could tolerate desiccation. These changes occurred concomitantly with a shift in CSR strategies, using traits related to resource use, plant size and flowering phenology: ruderal herbs were replaced by more stress-tolerant herbs and shrubs throughout the succession, with competitive trees dominating the latest successional stage. These results suggest that the breadth of functional variability found in natura is not predicted by the CSR framework, and calls for a more integrated view of whole plant functioning. PMID:20653901

Navas, M-L; Roumet, C; Bellmann, A; Laurent, G; Garnier, E

2010-01-01

111

Benchmarking successional progress in a quantitative food web.  

PubMed

Central to ecology and ecosystem management, succession theory aims to mechanistically explain and predict the assembly and development of ecological communities. Yet processes at lower hierarchical levels, e.g. at the species and functional group level, are rarely mechanistically linked to the under-investigated system-level processes which drive changes in ecosystem properties and functioning and are comparable across ecosystems. As a model system for secondary succession, seasonal plankton succession during the growing season is readily observable and largely driven autogenically. We used a long-term dataset from large, deep Lake Constance comprising biomasses, auto- and heterotrophic production, food quality, functional diversity, and mass-balanced food webs of the energy and nutrient flows between functional guilds of plankton and partly fish. Extracting population- and system-level indices from this dataset, we tested current hypotheses about the directionality of successional progress which are rooted in ecosystem theory, the metabolic theory of ecology, quantitative food web theory, thermodynamics, and information theory. Our results indicate that successional progress in Lake Constance is quantifiable, passing through predictable stages. Mean body mass, functional diversity, predator-prey weight ratios, trophic positions, system residence times of carbon and nutrients, and the complexity of the energy flow patterns increased during succession. In contrast, both the mass-specific metabolic activity and the system export decreased, while the succession rate exhibited a bimodal pattern. The weighted connectance introduced here represents a suitable index for assessing the evenness and interconnectedness of energy flows during succession. Diverging from earlier predictions, ascendency and eco-exergy did not increase during succession. Linking aspects of functional diversity to metabolic theory and food web complexity, we reconcile previously disjoint bodies of ecological theory to form a complete picture of successional progress within a pelagic food web. This comprehensive synthesis may be used as a benchmark for quantifying successional progress in other ecosystems. PMID:24587353

Boit, Alice; Gaedke, Ursula

2014-01-01

112

Cognitive training for early-stage Alzheimer's disease and dementia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to critically review and synthesize the literature on the effects of nonpharmacological cognitive training on dementia symptoms in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementia. Electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the keywords cognition, reality orientation, Alzheimer's disease, psychosocial factors, cognitive therapy, brain plasticity, enriched environments, and memory training. The findings support that cognitive training improves cognition, activities of daily living, and decision making. Interventions are more effective if they are structured and focus on specific known losses related to the AD pathological process and a person's residual ability, or are combined with cognitive-enhancing medications. Nursing implications are also discussed. PMID:19326826

Yu, Fang; Rose, Karen M; Burgener, Sandra C; Cunningham, Cindy; Buettner, Linda L; Beattie, Elizabeth; Bossen, Ann L; Buckwalter, Kathleen C; Fick, Donna M; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne; Kolanowski, Ann; Janet, K; Specht, Pringle; Richeson, Nancy E; Testad, Ingelin; McKenzie, Sharon E

2009-03-01

113

Evolutionary Sequence for the Early Stages of Massive Star Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews recent results in the field of massive star formation in connection with methanol masers. 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol masers are used as probes to investigate the early phases of massive star formation and appear as excellent tracers of the youngest massive-star forming regions. An evolutionay sequence for massive star formation is proposed in which methanol masers occur in cold dust condensations, hot molecular cores and hyper compact HII regions, i.e. at the earliest stages of the star-forming process. New millimetre continuum observations using SIMBA are also presented and support our evolutionay scenario for massive star formation. Finally, further work at millimetre wavelengths for continuum and spectral lines using the next generation of ground-based interferometer is discussed.

Minier, V.; Burton, M.; Hill, T.

2002-06-01

114

Controversies in the Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Despite the publication of numerous studies, including some multicentered randomized controlled trials, there continues to be vigorous debate regarding the optimal management of early stage endometrial cancer, including the extent of surgery and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Resolving these questions has become increasingly important in view of the increase of endometrial cancer, related to the aging population and the alarming incidence of obesity. Furthermore, there are more surgical challenges encountered when operating on elderly patients or on patients with increased BMI and the associated comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and pulmonary dysfunction. This paper will focus on the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, the value of lymphadenectomy including sentinel lymph node mapping, and some of the current controversies surrounding adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. PMID:22685466

Press, Joshua Z.; Gotlieb, Walter H.

2012-01-01

115

Managing threats to self: awareness in early stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Lack of awareness is described as a clinical feature of Alzheimer's disease that is observed in a significant proportion of those assigned this diagnosis. There is an extensive literature emphasising biological explanations in which unawareness is viewed essentially as a symptom, but possible psychosocial factors, together with the socially constructed nature of expressed awareness, are largely neglected. The onset of dementia may be viewed as a threat to self occasioning attempts to regain control through a range of psychological strategies, which are likely to affect the ways in which people communicate an account of their experience and hence the extent to which they may be considered 'aware'. In the present study, 12 participants with a medical diagnosis of early stage Alzheimer's disease, who were described in clinical records as ranging from 'very aware' to 'unaware' of their illness, were interviewed on two occasions. Partners were also interviewed separately on each occasion. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In response to their memory difficulties, participants were seen as engaging in the processes of acknowledging, reacting, explaining, experiencing the emotional impact, and adjusting. All participants acknowledged memory problems, indicating a basic awareness of changes in their memory functioning, but made varying judgements about the meaning and impact of these. The resulting spectrum of responses formed a continuum running from 'self-maintaining' to 'self-adjusting'. A self-maintaining stance related to attempts to normalise the situation and minimise the difficulties, thus maintaining continuity with prior sense of self, while a self-adjusting stance related to attempts to confront the difficulties and adapt one's sense of self accordingly. A preliminary model of the construction of awareness in early stage Alzheimer's is presented that acknowledges biological mechanisms but places the main emphasis on psychosocial factors and self-concept. PMID:12878102

Clare, Linda

2003-09-01

116

Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2014-01-01

117

Nutrient fluxes in litterfall of a secondary successional alluvial rain forest in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

During forest succession, litterfall nutrient fluxes increase significantly. The higher inputs of organic matter and nutrients through litterfall affects positively soil fertility and the species composition, which are essential components in forest restoration and management programs. In the present study, the input of nutrients to the forest soil via litterfall components was estimated for two sites of different development stages, in an early successional alluvial rain forest in Brazil. Litterfall returned to the soil, in kg/ha, ca. 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu and 11.2 Al, in the site where trees were more abundant and had higher values of basal area. In the other area, where trees where less abundant and values of basal area were comparatively low, litterfall returned < 50% of those amounts to the forest soil, except for Al. The amount of Al that returned to the soil was similar in both areas due to the high contribution of Tibouchina pulchra (82% of Al returned). Comparatively, high proportion of three dominant native tree species (Myrsine coriacea, T. pulchra and Cecropia pachystachya) explained better litter nutrient use efficiency (mainly N and P) in the site with the least advanced successional stage. Although litterfall of these species show lower nutrient concentrations than the other tree species, their nutrient fluxes were high in both sites, indicating a certain independence from soil essential nutrients. Such feature of the native species is very advantageous and should be considered in forest restoration programs. PMID:22208099

Scheer, Maurício Bergamini; Gatti, Gustavo; Wisniewski, Celina

2011-12-01

118

Fire and Long-Term Carbon Accumulation in Boreal Peatlands are Controlled by Interactions Between Climate and Successional Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warming climate has the potential to dramatically alter carbon and fire dynamics in high-latitude systems. Boreal and subarctic peatlands cover 346 million hectares of land surface and store 455 Pg-C, suggesting that changes in these systems can have regional and global-scale impacts on carbon cycling. Soil carbon release is expected to increase with more frequent fires in a warmer world. The dynamics of peatland landscapes, however, will likely involve complex interactions among permafrost thaw, changes in hydrology, and successional development. Understanding landscape-level responses to warming therefore requires integrative approaches that simultaneously examine all of these processes. In this study, we examined long- term changes in plant succession, carbon accumulation, and fire in a landscape located in northern Manitoba, Canada. We recovered 17 replicate permafrost peat cores ranging in depth from 1-4.3 meters (mean = 2.2 m). Using 149 AMS 14C dates, we were able to develop detailed age chronologies for each core. We measured macrofossil abundance to reconstruct the wetland plant community, areal charcoal concentration (mm2cm-3) as a proxy for fire severity, and total carbon and nitrogen. Basal AMS 14C dates indicated that peat accumulation began almost synchronously around 8,000 cal.14C yr BP, with the exception of a few cores resulting from more recent paludification along the wetland margin. Fire severity increased across wetland successional stages, with later successional forested bogs showing greater severity (6.79-11.16 mm2cm-3) than early successional open water, fen, and poor fen communities (0.29-1.82 mm2cm-3). The exception was paludified lowland forests, which exhibited the greatest fire severity during peatland initiation and the death of the overstory (21.68 mm2cm- 3). More severe fires (> 5-10 mm2cm-3) caused peat carbon accumulation rates to decline by half (13.7-24.5 g-Cm-2yr-1) compared to unburned peat (48.9 g-Cm-2yr-1). These two results indicated that carbon accumulation decreases over the successional development of peatlands, partially in response to increasing fire severity. The mediation of fire and carbon accumulation by successional status means that relationships among climate, fire, and carbon accumulation may be indirect. Specifically, warmer climate during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (~ 6,000-4,000 cal.14C yr. BP) corresponded to a landscape-level shift from fens to forested bogs. The median date of fires occurred more recently than 4,000 cal.14C yr. BP, indicating that the proximate cause of increased fire severity and reduced C accumulation was a shift to drier, forested Sphagnum bogs that could sustain fire rather than the direct effect of warmer temperatures causing more severe fires. These results highlight the importance of interpreting carbon and fire dynamics within a broader context of landscape successional changes.

Camill, P.; Rafert, G.; Barry, A.; Williams, E.; Andreassi, C.; Limmer, J.; Solick, D.

2008-12-01

119

Effects of triphenyltin on fish early life stages.  

PubMed

Using a static-renewal procedure, effects of triphenyltin chloride (TPT) on hatching, survival, and morphology were assessed in early life stages of European minnows Phoxinus phoxinus. Embryonic-larval exposure at 16 and 21 degrees C, and larval exposure at 16 degrees C were compared. In the embryonic-larval exposure at 16 degrees C, hatching was delayed and hatching success decreased at 15.9 micrograms/L. Mortality increased at > or = 3.9 micrograms/L TPT, and complete mortality occurred after 7 and 9 days at 15.9 and 5.1 micrograms/L, respectively. Mortality was higher at 21 degrees C that at 16 degrees C. Triphenyltin was more toxic to fish in larval stages. The induced effects were dose related, mortality increased at 1.8 microgram/L after 3 days, and was total after 5 days at 10.6 micrograms/L. In all high TPT exposures, larvae developed skeletal malformations (bent tails), showed impaired swimming behavior or paralysis, and eyes became opaque. Marked histopathological alterations were found. Degenerative hydropic vacuolation of the cytoplasm were evident in skeletal muscles, skin, kidneys, corneal epithelium, lens, pigment layer of the retina and choroid, retina, and CNS including spinal cord. In severe cases, nuclear changes including pycnosis and karyorrhexis occurred. The observed toxicity of TPT was similar to that of tributyltin, but TPT acted more selectively on the lens and CNS, whereas other tissues were less affected. The study indicates that Phoxinus phoxinus larvae are negatively affected at peak TPT concentrations found in polluted environments. PMID:8060166

Fent, K; Meier, W

1994-08-01

120

76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...107 Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage SBICs; Public...Stage Small Business Investment Companies (Early Stage SBIC) rule...of small business investment companies (SBICs) that will focus on...specific questions you would like SBA to address during the...

2011-12-28

121

Use of regenerating clearcuts by late-successional bird species and their young during the post-fledging period  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1995 to 1999, we mist-netted birds in regenerating clearcuts within a primarily forested landscape of West Virginia and Virginia to determine the extent that both resident and migrant birds and their young use this type of early-successional habitat during the post-fledging period. Our primary objective was to document whether or not birds typically considered mature or late-successional forest breeders

Matthew R. Marshall; Jennifer A. DeCecco; Alan B. Williams; George A. Gale; Robert J. Cooper

2003-01-01

122

Cognitive stimulation for apathy in probable early-stage Alzheimer's.  

PubMed

We studied changes in apathy among 77 community-dwelling older persons with mild memory loss in a randomized clinical trial comparing two nonpharmacological interventions over four weeks. The study used a pre-post design with randomization by site to avoid contamination and diffusion of effect. Interventions were offered twice weekly after baseline evaluations were completed. The treatment group received classroom style mentally stimulating activities (MSAs) while the control group received a structured early-stage social support (SS) group. The results showed that the MSA group had significantly lower levels of apathy (P < .001) and significantly lower symptoms of depression (P < .001). While both groups improved on quality of life, the MSA group was significantly better (P = .02) than the SS group. Executive function was not significantly different for the two groups at four weeks, but general cognition improved for the MSA group and declined slightly for the SS group which produced a significant posttest difference (P < .001). Recruitment and retention of SS group members was difficult in this project, especially in senior center locations, while this was not the case for the MSA group. The examination of the data at this four-week time point shows promising results that the MSA intervention may provide a much needed method of reducing apathy and depressive symptoms, while motivating participation and increasing quality of life. PMID:21584241

Buettner, Linda L; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne; Atav, Serdar; Sink, Kaycee

2011-01-01

123

Cognitive Stimulation for Apathy in Probable Early-Stage Alzheimer's  

PubMed Central

We studied changes in apathy among 77 community-dwelling older persons with mild memory loss in a randomized clinical trial comparing two nonpharmacological interventions over four weeks. The study used a pre-post design with randomization by site to avoid contamination and diffusion of effect. Interventions were offered twice weekly after baseline evaluations were completed. The treatment group received classroom style mentally stimulating activities (MSAs) while the control group received a structured early-stage social support (SS) group. The results showed that the MSA group had significantly lower levels of apathy (P < .001) and significantly lower symptoms of depression (P < .001). While both groups improved on quality of life, the MSA group was significantly better (P = .02) than the SS group. Executive function was not significantly different for the two groups at four weeks, but general cognition improved for the MSA group and declined slightly for the SS group which produced a significant posttest difference (P < .001). Recruitment and retention of SS group members was difficult in this project, especially in senior center locations, while this was not the case for the MSA group. The examination of the data at this four-week time point shows promising results that the MSA intervention may provide a much needed method of reducing apathy and depressive symptoms, while motivating participation and increasing quality of life. PMID:21584241

Buettner, Linda L.; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne; Atav, Serdar; Sink, Kaycee

2011-01-01

124

Reclassification of early stage pulmonary adenocarcinoma and its consequences  

PubMed Central

The classification of pulmonary adenocarcinoma has recently undergone several proposed changes. Among these, the most striking pertains to the discontinuation of the term “bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC)” and its replacement by the terms “adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)” or “minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA)” for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure bronchiolalveolar growth or predominant bronchioloalveolar growth and ?5 mm invasion, respectively, in resection specimens. The recommendation for these new concepts was based on discussion and review of the literature by a panel of experts from multiple disciplines. However, the results of a recent study investigating the topic of early stage adenocarcinoma (pT1N0M0) which was based on an actual series of cases, have raised questions as to the concept, validity and justification of such new terminology and have reinforced the need to evaluate actual cases that meet the newly proposed definitions and compare them in terms of patient outcome. This is even more important when proposing terminology that implies benign behavior and that could result in a false sense of security putting patients at risk for suboptimal treatment approaches. The controversies surrounding these issues are the subject of this work. PMID:25349709

Moran, Cesar A.

2014-01-01

125

Rate of Belowground Carbon Allocation Differs with Successional Habit of Two Afromontane Trees  

PubMed Central

Background Anthropogenic disturbance of old-growth tropical forests increases the abundance of early successional tree species at the cost of late successional ones. Quantifying differences in terms of carbon allocation and the proportion of recently fixed carbon in soil CO2 efflux is crucial for addressing the carbon footprint of creeping degradation. Methodology We compared the carbon allocation pattern of the late successional gymnosperm Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) Mirb. and the early successional (gap filling) angiosperm Croton macrostachyus Hochst. es Del. in an Ethiopian Afromontane forest by whole tree 13CO2 pulse labeling. Over a one-year period we monitored the temporal resolution of the label in the foliage, the phloem sap, the arbuscular mycorrhiza, and in soil-derived CO2. Further, we quantified the overall losses of assimilated 13C with soil CO2 efflux. Principal Findings 13C in leaves of C. macrostachyus declined more rapidly with a larger size of a fast pool (64% vs. 50% of the assimilated carbon), having a shorter mean residence time (14 h vs. 55 h) as in leaves of P. falcatus. Phloem sap velocity was about 4 times higher for C. macrostachyus. Likewise, the label appeared earlier in the arbuscular mycorrhiza of C. macrostachyus and in the soil CO2 efflux as in case of P. falcatus (24 h vs. 72 h). Within one year soil CO2 efflux amounted to a loss of 32% of assimilated carbon for the gap filling tree and to 15% for the late successional one. Conclusions Our results showed clear differences in carbon allocation patterns between tree species, although we caution that this experiment was unreplicated. A shift in tree species composition of tropical montane forests (e.g., by degradation) accelerates carbon allocation belowground and increases respiratory carbon losses by the autotrophic community. If ongoing disturbance keeps early successional species in dominance, the larger allocation to fast cycling compartments may deplete soil organic carbon in the long run. PMID:23049813

Shibistova, Olga; Yohannes, Yonas; Boy, Jens; Richter, Andreas; Wild, Birgit; Watzka, Margarethe; Guggenberger, Georg

2012-01-01

126

Stand structure and successional trends in virgin boreal forest reserves in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire history and stand structure was examined in twelve virgin forest stands situated within forest reserves in northern Sweden. The selected stands represented fire refuges as well as different successional stages after fire. Six of the stands were dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), three were dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and three were dominated by

Per Linder; Björn Elfving; Olle Zackrisson

1997-01-01

127

Comparison of Favorable Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatments: A Single-Institution Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA\\/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained. Results: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL

Rajiv Samant; Ibraheem Alomary; Eyad Alsaeed; Badr Al-jasir; Isabelle Bence-Bruckler; Peter Cross; Paul Genest; Lothar Huebsch

2010-01-01

128

Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}\\/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup

Jorge Herkovits; C. S. Perez-Coll; P. Cardellini; C. Pavanati

1997-01-01

129

Surveying The Serum Proteome For Biomarkers Of Early-Stage Pancreatic Cancer.  

E-print Network

??SURVEYING THE SERUM PROTEOME FOR BIOMARKERS OF EARLY STAGE PANCREATIC CANCERMICHAEL ROBERT LUDWIGMICROBIOLOGYABSTRACTPancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a uniformly fatal disease due to its refractory… (more)

Ludwig, Michael Robert

2013-01-01

130

Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements.

Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

2013-01-01

131

Infected texts: Plague and syphilis on the early modern stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of plague and syphilis on early modern playwrighting practices. I consider these diseases as traumatic events that shaped aspects of early modern culture, even as certain cultural frameworks of the period shaped the ways in which these traumas were perceived. I examine early modern medical treatises, pamphlet literature, published sermons and other religious literature, visual

Melissa Smith

2005-01-01

132

Implications of early stages in the growth of stress corrosion cracking on component reliability  

SciTech Connect

Environment-induced crack growth generally progresses through several stages prior to component failure. Crack initiation, short crack growth, and stage 1 growth are early stages in crack development that are summarized in this paper. The implications of these stages on component reliability, derive from the extended time that the crack exists in the early stages because crack velocity is slow. The duration of the early stages provides a greater opportunity for corrective action if cracks can be detected. Several important factors about the value of understanding short crack behavior include: (1) life prediction requires a knowledge of the total life cycle of the crack including the early stages, (2) greater reliability is possible if the transition between short and long crack behavior is known component life after this transition is short and (3) remedial actions are more effective for short than long cracks.

Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

1995-04-01

133

Exome Sequencing Identifies Early Gastric Carcinoma as an Early Stage of Advanced Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric carcinoma is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment leads to an excellent prognosis in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC), whereas the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains poor. It is unclear whether EGCs and AGCs are distinct entities or whether EGCs are the beginning stages of AGCs. We performed whole exome sequencing of four samples from patients with EGC and compared the results with those from AGCs. In both EGCs and AGCs, a total of 268 genes were commonly mutated and independent mutations were additionally found in EGCs (516 genes) and AGCs (3104 genes). A higher frequency of C>G transitions was observed in intestinal-type compared to diffuse-type carcinomas (P?=?0.010). The DYRK3, GPR116, MCM10, PCDH17, PCDHB1, RDH5 and UNC5C genes are recurrently mutated in EGCs and may be involved in early carcinogenesis. PMID:24376576

Do, In-Gu; Wang, Kai; Kang, So Young; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Kang, Won Ki; Jang, Jiryeon; Choi, Min-Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Seonwoo; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

2013-01-01

134

Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surface ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.

Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S. [Inst. de Ciencias Ambientales y Salud, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Programa Seguridad Quimica; Cardellini, P.; Pavanati, C. [Univ. degli Studi di Padova Via Trieste (Italy). Dept. di Biologia

1997-02-01

135

Ameliorating Patient-Caregiver Stigma in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease using Robot co-Mediators  

E-print Network

Ameliorating Patient-Caregiver Stigma in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease using Robot co-Mediators Ronald C. Arkin Abstract. Facial masking in early stage Parkinson's disease leads to a well that are able to express affective state through kinesics and proxemics. 1 INTRODUCTION Parkinson's disease

136

TOXICITY OF TRIVALENT CHROMIUM TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF STEELHEAD TROUT  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute and early life stage toxicity tests were conducted with trivalent chromium and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). A 96-h LC50 of 4,400 micrograms/l chromium was obtained with two-month-old juvenile fish. Early life stage exposure from newly fertilized eggs to 30-d post-swim...

137

Prospective Memory and Apolipoprotein E in Healthy Aging and Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

to possible drug treatment and behavioral interventions. The clinical diagnosis of early stage DAT dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) at the earliest possible stage of the disease process. This early diagnosis of dementia, and therefore, estimates of cognitive change in healthy aging samples may

138

Time-Limited Support Groups for Individuals with Early Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of sensitive diagnostic procedures, Alzheimer's disease and other related dementias are being diagnosed in their earliest stages. Although early diagnosis provides opportunities for treatment, decision making, and planning, it also conveys some potentially negative consequences, including affective and interpersonal changes. Early-stage support groups for individuals with dementia and their caregivers have been developed to help individuals and

Rebecca G. Logsdon; Susan M. McCurry; Linda Teri

2007-01-01

139

INTRODUCTION The early juvenile stages of all species of sea turtles,  

E-print Network

growth model of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta: duration of pelagic stage Karen A juvenile stage of sea turtles is poorly studied. We present a growth model and estimates for durationINTRODUCTION The early juvenile stages of all species of sea turtles, except Natator depressus

Florida, University of

140

EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST WITH TIDEWATER SILVERSIDES (MENIDIA PENINSULAE) AND CHLORINE-PRODUCED OXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Early life-stage toxicity tests (continuous exposure from embryonic stage to approximately three weeks or more into the exogenous feeding stage) with North American marine fishes have been conducted almost exclusively with cyprinodontids. In this paper, the authors present method...

141

Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia  

PubMed Central

Background Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Results Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low seed set in R. pseudoacacia. PMID:24655746

2014-01-01

142

Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS. PMID:23126275

Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

2013-03-01

143

Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

Young, Tabitha L.

2013-01-01

144

Radiotherapy Alone for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx and Hypopharynx  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To describe and illustrate examples of early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Review of the NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines. Representative examples are included. Results: Early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer is defined by tumor extent based on physical and imaging examination. Conclusions: Radiotherapy alone is appropriate treatment for properly selected early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. The NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines can be an aid to the clinician in identifying favorable cancers that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone with preservation of organ function.

Foote, Robert L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States)], E-mail: foote.robert@mayo.edu

2007-10-01

145

ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

2011-01-01

146

Early Years Foundation Stage: How Much Does It Count?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report of the Williams committee (DCSF, 2008: 68) argues that the revised mathematics Framework (DfES, 2006) "should be reconsidered to achieve a more suitable, user-friendly form." It might also have added that there is not much help and support in it for early years teachers. A much more useful document is the "Practice guidance for…

Thompson, Ian

2008-01-01

147

Dietary intervention in older adults with early-stage Alzheimer dementia: early lessons learned.  

PubMed

In older adults, an adequate diet depends on their ability to procure and prepare food and eat independently or the availability of dietary assistance when needed. Inadequate food intake or increased nutritional requirements lead to poor nutritional status, which is considered a key determinant of morbidity, increased risk of infection, and mortality in elderly individuals. Weight loss among seniors also heralds increased morbidity and mortality. Dietary behaviour disorders affecting food consumption, nutrition status and maintenance of body weight are common in older adults, and have a substantial impact on nutritional status and quality of life among older adults with Alzheimer Dementia (AD). The Nutrition Intervention Study (NIS) is ongoing. It employs a quasi-experimental pre-post intervention design in physically-well, community-dwelling early stage AD patients aged 70 y or older. To date, 34 intervention group patients and 25 control group participants have been recruited with their primary caregivers (CG) from 6 hospital-based memory and geriatric clinics in Montreal. The NIS uses clinical dietetics principles to develop and offer tailored dietary strategies to patients and their CG. This paper reports on the application of dietary intervention strategies in two intervention group participants; one was deemed successful while the other was considered unsuccessful. The report documents challenges encountered in assessing and counselling this clientele, and seeks to explain the outcome of intervention in these patients. PMID:18615228

Shatenstein, B; Kergoat, M -J; Reid, I; Chicoine, M E

2008-01-01

148

Development of an early stage ship design tool for rapid modeling in Paramarine  

E-print Network

In early-stage ship design, it is helpful to perform preliminary design and analysis on many configurations to assist in developing and narrowing the trade space. This process is further complicated with the increasing ...

Thurkins, Eric J., Jr

2012-01-01

149

76 FR 76907 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...leverage in order of issue without making any distribution to its investors...important monitoring tool to guide decision-making with respect to Early Stage SBICs...right to prohibit the SBIC from making additional investments...

2011-12-09

150

Origins of carbon sustaining the growth of whitefish Coregonus lavaretus early larval stages in Lake Annecy  

E-print Network

alpinus (L.), perch Perca fluviatilis L. or brown trout Salmo trutta L. (SILA, 2007). Coregonus lavaretus of fish early larval stages in lakes. The whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.) constitutes a major fisheries

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

Shorter Course of Radiation Effective and Safe for Some Women with Early-stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Giving radiation therapy in fewer but larger doses may be an alternative to standard radiation therapy for some women with early-stage breast cancer, according to a study published in the February 11, 2010, New England Journal of Medicine.

152

NCI Begins Validation Study of New Test to Detect Early-Stage Liver Cancer  

Cancer.gov

A two-year study to validate a test to detect early-stage liver cancer has been initiated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, at six centers* across the United States.

153

Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography for the detection of early stage neoplastic pathologies  

E-print Network

Identification of changes associated with early stage disease remains a critical objective of clinical detection and treatment. Effective screening and detection is important for improving outcome because advanced disease, ...

Hsiung, Pei-Lin, 1975-

2005-01-01

154

The influence of immersion and presence in early stage engineering designing and building  

E-print Network

This paper explores the role of a designer's sense of engagement in early stage design. In the field of virtual reality, presence and immersion are standard measures of an individual's sense of engagement and involvement ...

Faas, Daniela

155

Lithospheric deformation during the early stages of continental collision: numerical experiments  

E-print Network

1 Lithospheric deformation during the early stages of continental collision: numerical experiments, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Short title: LITHOSPHERE DEFORMATION DURING COLLISION #12;2 Abstract. The nature of lithospheric deformation during continental plate collision still remains unresolved. While

Beaumont, Christopher

156

Early stage dementia group: An innovative model of support for individuals in the early stages of dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, supports and services for people diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease have focused on the caregivers. The increase in early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease has resulted in greater numbers of older adults that have some insight and awareness of their deficits and are capable of dealing with the ramifications of their illness. Yet there are few places to turn for support

Pamela M. Goldsilver; Marilyn R. B. Gruneir

2001-01-01

157

Verbal Fluency and Awareness of Functional Deficits in Early-Stage Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of activities of daily living is an important element in the diagnosis of dementia, with research suggesting a link between functional ability and cognition. We investigated the relationship between self- and informant ratings of instrumental activities of daily living (iADL) and verbal executive functioning in early-stage dementia. A total of 96 people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease or vascular or

Anthony Martyr; Linda Clare; Sharon M. Nelis; Ivana S. Marková; Ilona Roth; Robert T. Woods; Christopher J. Whitaker; Robin G. Morris

2012-01-01

158

Can some patients avoid adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the risk of relapse and mortality for women with early-stage breast cancer. However, many women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer experience the toxic effects associated with adjuvant chemotherapy without any meaningful benefit. There are a variety of clinicopathological factors—including hormone receptor expression, histology, and proliferation markers such as Ki-67—that can be used to try to identify patients

Fatima Cardoso; Philippe L. Bedard

2011-01-01

159

[Influence of early stage of chronic renal disease on risk of cardiac diseases and stroke].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death among people with kidney diseases. The early stage of chronic kidney disease, with mild decrease of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and small increase of creatinine concentration in serum and/or occurrence of microalbuminuria, is related to the increase of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Kidney insufficiency is also independently connected with the risk of stroke. Patients with early stage of kidney insufficiency should be qualified as those in a cardiovascular high risk group. PMID:16969907

Szkó?ka, Tomasz; My?liwiec, Michal

2006-01-01

160

Improved local control for early T-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma – a tale of two hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To study the efficacy of intracavitary brachytherapy (ICT) in early T-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).Methods and materials: All early T-stage (T1 and T2 nasal cavity tumour) NPC treated with a curative intent up to 1996 were analyzed (n=743), 163 from the Prince of Wales Hospital (PWH) and 25 from Tuen Mun Hospital (TMH) were given ICT after radical external radiotherapy

Peter Man Lung Teo; Sing Fai Leung; Jack Fowler; To Wai Leung; Yuk Tung; Sai Ki O; Wai Yee Lee; Benny Zee

2000-01-01

161

Involved-field radiotherapy alone for early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To describe the outcome of involved-field radiotherapy in patients with early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Methods and Materials: A written policy for the radical treatment of early-stage NSCLC with involved-field radiotherapy was adopted at our center in 1986. The sites of known disease were treated to a dose of 52.5 Gy in 20 daily fractions over 4 weeks without elective

Patrick C. F Cheung; William J Mackillop; Peter Dixon; Michael D Brundage; Youssef M Youssef; Sam Zhou

2000-01-01

162

Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

2011-01-01

163

Evolution of Network Biomarkers from Early to Late Stage Bladder Cancer Samples  

PubMed Central

We use a systems biology approach to construct protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) for early and late stage bladder cancer. By comparing the networks of these two stages, we find that both networks showed very significantly different mechanisms. To obtain the differential network structures between cancer and noncancer PPINs, we constructed cancer PPIN and noncancer PPIN network structures for the two bladder cancer stages using microarray data from cancer cells and their adjacent noncancer cells, respectively. With their carcinogenesis relevance values (CRVs), we identified 152 and 50 significant proteins and their PPI networks (network markers) for early and late stage bladder cancer by statistical assessment. To investigate the evolution of network biomarkers in the carcinogenesis process, primary pathway analysis showed that the significant pathways of early stage bladder cancer are related to ordinary cancer mechanisms, while the ribosome pathway and spliceosome pathway are most important for late stage bladder cancer. Their only intersection is the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathway in the whole stage of bladder cancer. The evolution of network biomarkers from early to late stage can reveal the carcinogenesis of bladder cancer. The findings in this study are new clues specific to this study and give us a direction for targeted cancer therapy, and it should be validated in vivo or in vitro in the future.

2014-01-01

164

Comparative toxicity of inorganic contaminants released by placer mining to early life stages of salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicities of four trace inorganics associated with placer mining were determined, individually and in environmentally relevant mixtures, to early life stages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Alaska and Montana, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from Alaska and Washington, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Montana. The descending rank order of toxicity to all species and life stages was

K. J. Buhl; S. J. Hamilton

1990-01-01

165

The serum glycome to discriminate between early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer and benign ovarian diseases.  

PubMed

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths in women because the diagnosis occurs mostly when the disease is in its late-stage. Current diagnostic methods of EOC show only a moderate sensitivity, especially at an early-stage of the disease; hence, novel biomarkers are needed to improve the diagnosis. We recently reported that serum glycome modifications observed in late-stage EOC patients by MALDI-TOF-MS could be combined as a glycan score named GLYCOV that was calculated from the relative areas of the 11 N-glycan structures that were significantly modulated. Here, we evaluated the ability of GLYCOV to recognize early-stage EOC in a cohort of 73 individuals comprised of 20 early-stage primary serous EOC, 20 benign ovarian diseases (BOD), and 33 age-matched healthy controls. GLYCOV was able to recognize stage I EOC whereas CA125 values were statistically significant only for stage II EOC patients. In addition, GLYCOV was more sensitive and specific compared to CA125 in distinguishing early-stage EOC from BOD patients, which is of high relevance to clinicians as it is difficult for them to diagnose malignancy prior to operation. PMID:25183900

Biskup, Karina; Braicu, Elena Iona; Sehouli, Jalid; Tauber, Rudolf; Blanchard, Véronique

2014-01-01

166

Improving website accessibility for people with early-stage dementia: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, conducted collaboratively with five men who have a diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), is the first stage of a formative research project aimed at developing a new website for people with dementia. Recommendations derived from a literature review of the implications of dementia-related cognitive changes for website design were combined with general web accessibility guidelines to provide

Ed Freeman; Linda Clare; Nada Savitch; Lindsay Royan; Rachael Litherland; Margot Lindsay

2005-01-01

167

Gas exchange, leaf structure and nitrogen in contrasting successional tree species growing in open and understory sites during a drought.  

PubMed

Seasonal ecophysiology, leaf structure and nitrogen were measured in saplings of early (Populus grandidentata Michx. and Prunus serotina J.F. Ehrh.), middle (Fraxinus americana L. and Carya tomentosa Nutt.) and late (Acer rubrum L. and Cornus florida L.) successional tree species during severe drought on adjacent open and understory sites in central Pennsylvania, USA. Area-based net photosynthesis (A) and leaf conductance to water vapor diffusion (g(wv)) varied by site and species and were highest in open growing plants and early successional species at both the open and understory sites. In response to the period of maximum drought, both sunfleck and sun leaves of the early successional species exhibited smaller decreases in A than leaves of the other species. Shaded understory leaves of all species were more susceptible to drought than sun leaves and had negative midday A values during the middle and later growing season. Shaded understory leaves also displayed a reduced photosynthetic light response during the peak drought period. Sun leaves were thicker and had a greater mass per area (LMA) and nitrogen (N) content than shaded leaves, and early and middle successional species had higher N contents and concentrations than late successional species. In both sunfleck and sun leaves, seasonal A was positively related to predawn leaf Psi, g(wv), LMA and N, and was negatively related to vapor pressure deficit, midday leaf Psi and internal CO(2). Although a significant amount of plasticity occurred in all species for most gas exchange and leaf structural parameters, middle successional species exhibited the largest degree of phenotypic plasticity between open and understory plants. PMID:14965944

Abrams, M D; Mostoller, S A

1995-06-01

168

On the theoretical description of the early oxidation stages of copper by cw CO2 laser irradiation  

E-print Network

L-737 On the theoretical description of the early oxidation stages of copper by cw CO2 laser- pretations in analysing the new experimental data obtained in the study of the early stages of the cw CO2 of the oxide layer induced during the early stages ofthe oxidation ofcopper monocrystalline targets by cw C02

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Src Kinase: A Novel Target of Early-Stage ER-Negative Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the last 50 years, the number of cancer related deaths has decreased by only 2%. To achieve reduced breast cancer mortality, it is critical to develop early detection and intervention of breast cancer development at early stages of cancer initiation....

S. Jain

2012-01-01

170

Embryo-uterine interactions during early stages of pregnancy in domestic mammals  

E-print Network

Embryo-uterine interactions during early stages of pregnancy in domestic mammals M. GUILLOMOT during early pregnancy in domestic mammals ; the second part gives results of in vitro biochemical studies on embryo-uterine interactions in the ewe. We have developed an in vitro technique of the co-culture

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

171

Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

Burns, Kellie

2006-01-01

172

Dyadic Intervention for Family Caregivers and Care Receivers in Early-Stage Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The Early Diagnosis Dyadic Intervention (EDDI) program provides a structured, time-limited protocol of one-on-one and dyadic counseling for family caregivers and care receivers who are in the early stages of dementia. The goals and procedures of EDDI are based on previous research suggesting that dyads would benefit from an intervention…

Whitlatch, Carol J.; Judge, Katherine; Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia

2006-01-01

173

Multiple Adaptive Mechanisms to Chronic Liver Disease Revealed at Early Stages of Liver Carcinogenesis  

E-print Network

Multiple Adaptive Mechanisms to Chronic Liver Disease Revealed at Early Stages of Liver-knockout (Mdr2-KO) mice. These mice lack the liver-specific P-glycoprotein responsible by hepatocellular carcinoma development after the age of 1 year. Liver tissue samples of Mdr2-KO mice in the early

Domany, Eytan

174

Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

2010-01-01

175

The ?-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the ?-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the ?1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the ?3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the ?1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

176

Prediction of invasion from the early stage of an epidemic  

PubMed Central

Predictability of undesired events is a question of great interest in many scientific disciplines including seismology, economy and epidemiology. Here, we focus on the predictability of invasion of a broad class of epidemics caused by diseases that lead to permanent immunity of infected hosts after recovery or death. We approach the problem from the perspective of the science of complexity by proposing and testing several strategies for the estimation of important characteristics of epidemics, such as the probability of invasion. Our results suggest that parsimonious approximate methodologies may lead to the most reliable and robust predictions. The proposed methodologies are first applied to analysis of experimentally observed epidemics: invasion of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in replicated host microcosms. We then consider numerical experiments of the susceptible–infected–removed model to investigate the performance of the proposed methods in further detail. The suggested framework can be used as a valuable tool for quick assessment of epidemic threat at the stage when epidemics only start developing. Moreover, our work amplifies the significance of the small-scale and finite-time microcosm realizations of epidemics revealing their predictive power. PMID:22513723

Perez-Reche, Francisco J.; Neri, Franco M.; Taraskin, Sergei N.; Gilligan, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

177

Expression of ? 2 -macroglobulin, neutrophil elastase, and interleukin-1? differs in early-stage and late-stage atherosclerotic lesions in the arteries of the circle of Willis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of atherosclerotic (AS) lesions can be distinguished histologically and represent different stages of AS plaque development. Late-stage lesions more frequently develop complications such as plaque rupture and thrombosis with vessel occlusion than early AS lesions. To clarify whether protective, destructive, and inflammatory proteins are differentially expressed in early-stage and late-stage AS plaques we examined the proteinase inhibitor ?2-macroglobulin

Sergey Larionov; Oliver Dedeck; Gerd Birkenmeier; Dietmar Rudolf Thal

2007-01-01

178

Cortical gyrification and sulcal spans in early stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an insidious onset of progressive cerebral atrophy and cognitive decline. Previous research suggests that cortical folding and sulcal width are associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals, and the aim of the present study was to investigate these morphological measures in patients with AD. The sample contained 161 participants, comprising 80 normal controls, 57 patients with very mild AD, and 24 patients with mild AD. From 3D T1-weighted brain scans, automated methods were used to calculate an index of global cortex gyrification and the width of five individual sulci: superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure. We found that global cortex gyrification decreased with increasing severity of AD, and that the width of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus was greater in patients with mild AD than in controls. We also found that cognitive functioning, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, decreased as global cortex gyrification decreased. MMSE scores also decreased in association with a widening of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus. The results suggest that abnormalities of global cortex gyrification and regional sulcal span are characteristic of patients with even very mild AD, and could thus facilitate the early diagnosis of this condition. PMID:22363554

Liu, Tao; Lipnicki, Darren M; Zhu, Wanlin; Tao, Dacheng; Zhang, Chengqi; Cui, Yue; Jin, Jesse S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wen, Wei

2012-01-01

179

Cortical Gyrification and Sulcal Spans in Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an insidious onset of progressive cerebral atrophy and cognitive decline. Previous research suggests that cortical folding and sulcal width are associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals, and the aim of the present study was to investigate these morphological measures in patients with AD. The sample contained 161 participants, comprising 80 normal controls, 57 patients with very mild AD, and 24 patients with mild AD. From 3D T1-weighted brain scans, automated methods were used to calculate an index of global cortex gyrification and the width of five individual sulci: superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure. We found that global cortex gyrification decreased with increasing severity of AD, and that the width of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus was greater in patients with mild AD than in controls. We also found that cognitive functioning, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, decreased as global cortex gyrification decreased. MMSE scores also decreased in association with a widening of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus. The results suggest that abnormalities of global cortex gyrification and regional sulcal span are characteristic of patients with even very mild AD, and could thus facilitate the early diagnosis of this condition. PMID:22363554

Liu, Tao; Lipnicki, Darren M.; Zhu, Wanlin; Tao, Dacheng; Zhang, Chengqi; Cui, Yue; Jin, Jesse S.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Wen, Wei

2012-01-01

180

Early and Late Stage Metals and Sulfides in Diogenites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diogenites are typically highly brecciated orthopyroxenites that contain 84-100 vol.% orthopyroxene. Common accessory minerals include olivine, chromite, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase, silica, troilite and Fe-Ni metal. Metal and sulfides are minor phases in diogenites with an average abundance of < 1 vol.% and 0-2 vol.% respectively. However their presence is important, as they could provide information on T-fO2-fS2 conditions and the evolution of the diogenite parent magma during crystallization and/or later metamorphism. We have examined the occurrence of Fe-Ni metal and sulfides in thin sections of several diogenites including, Johnstown, Manegaon, Roda, Shalka, Bilanga, and Tatahouine using optical microscopy and the electron microprobe. Here, we describe three features of metals and sulfides that are common in most of these diogenites. These are: i) The widespread occurrence of pentlandite associated with copper and copper sulfide minerals; ii) Textural evidence that at least some of the metal and sulfide occurring interstitially between, and as inclusions within, orthopyroxene formed from an early immiscible sulfide-oxide liquid; iii) That this sulfide- oxide liquid subsequently fractionated into assemblages containing either Fe-Ni metal, troilite, and chromite or pentlandite, troilite, and copper-bearing sulfide.

Sideras, L. C.; Domanik, K. J.; Lauretta, D. S.

2004-01-01

181

Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia. PMID:25140503

Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

2014-09-01

182

Hydraulic compensation in northern Rocky Mountain conifers: does successional position and life history matter?  

PubMed

As trees grow tall and the resistance of the hydraulic pathway increases, water supply to foliage may decrease forcing stomata to close and CO2 uptake to decline. Several structural (e.g. biomass allocation) and physiological adjustments, however, may partially or fully compensate for such hydraulic constraints and prevent limitations on CO2 uptake and growth. The degree to which trees compensate for hydraulic constraints as they grow tall may depend on the costs and benefits associated with hydraulic compensation according to their ecology and life history. Because later successional Rocky Mountain conifers are more shade tolerant, optimization of CO2 uptake as trees grow tall and shade increases may confer greater benefits than in earlier successional species. If so, higher compensation for hydraulic constraints is expected in later successional species relative to co-occurring earlier successional species. I have examined height-related changes of crown stomatal conductance on a leaf area basis (G(LA)) and leaf to sapwood ratios (A(L):A(S)) for five conifer species in the northern Rocky Mountains. Species were arranged in pairs, each pair consisting of an early and late successional species. For high elevations I used, respectively, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa); for mid-elevations, western larch (Larix occidentalis) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii); for lower elevations, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir. A(L):A(S) either decreased (subalpine fir, ponderosa pine), remained constant (Douglas-fir, western larch) or increased (whitebark pine) with tree height. As hypothesized, earlier successional species (ponderosa pine, whitebark pine and western larch) exhibited significantly stronger decreases of G(LA) with tree height relative to their later successional pairs (Douglas-fir and subalpine fir), which fully compensated for height-related hydraulic constraints on G(LA). A life history approach that takes into account the optimization of size- and species-specific ecological functions may also help researchers better understand biomass allocation and hydraulic function in trees. PMID:16639568

Sala, Anna

2006-08-01

183

Diversity with Successional Status in the Pinyon-Juniper\\/Mountain Mahogany\\/ Bluebunch Wheatgrass Community Type Near Dutch John, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha and beta diversity and vegetative cover for Colorado pinyon (Pinus edulis Engeltn.) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little) understories of northerly exposures are compared at varying successional stages before and after disturbance. Plant diversity and species richness are highest in seral communities of alder-leaf mountain mahogany and bluebunch wheatgrass where pinyon and juniper canopy cover does not exceed

Allen Huber; Sherel Goodrich; Kim Anderson

184

Formation of Jupiter's Core and Early Stages of Envelope Accretion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are performing calculations of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core starts as a seed body of a few hundred kilometers in radius and orbits within a swarm of planetesimals whose initial size distribution ranges from ~10 m to ~100 km. The planetesimals are immersed in a gaseous disk, representative of an early solar nebula. The evolution of the swarm of planetesimals accounts for collisions and gravitational stirring due to mutual interactions among bodies, and for migration and velocity damping due to interactions with the nebula gas. Collisions among planetesimals lead to growth and/or fragmentation, altering the size distribution of the swarm over time. Collisions of planetesimals with the seed body lead to its growth, resulting in the formation of a planetary core. Gas capture by the core leads to the accumulation of a tenuous atmosphere, which later becomes a massive envelope, increasing the size-dependent effective cross-section of the planet for planetesimals' accretion. Planetesimals that travel through the core's envelope release energy, affecting the thermal budget of the envelope, and deliver mass, affecting the opacity of the envelope. The calculation of dust opacity, which is especially important for envelope contraction, is performed self-consistently, accounting for coagulation and sedimentation of dust and small particles that are released in the envelope as passing planetesimals are ablated. We find that, in a disk of planetesimals with a surface density of about 10 g/cm2 at 5.2 AU, a one Earth mass core accumulates in less than 1e5 years, and that it takes over 1.5e6 years to accumulate a core of 3 Earth masses, when the core's geometrical cross-section is used for the accretion of planetesimals. Gas drag in the core's envelope increases the ability of the planet to accrete planetesimals. Smaller planetesimals are affected to a greater extent than are larger planetesimals. We find that the effective, envelope-enhanced cross-section leads to the growth of a core of 3 Earth masses in less than 1e5 years and of a core of 5 Earth masses in less than 2e5 years. By the time the total planet mass reaches about 6 Earth masses, the accretion rate of solids has dropped below ~1e-6 Earth masses per year. Support for this research from NASA Outer Planets Research Program is gratefully acknowledged.

D'Angelo, G.; Weidenschilling, S.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bodenheimer, P.; Hubickyj, O.

2012-12-01

185

Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion-deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case-control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4-5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7-5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

186

Combined Modality Therapy for Early Stage Operable and Locally Advanced Potentially Resectable Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Surgical resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains the primary treatment for early stage disease, that is,\\u000a stage I and II disease. Yet, the vast majority of patients with lung cancer present with either distant metastatic disease\\u000a (stage IV) or locally advanced NSCLC (stage IIIA and IIIB). Today, despite modest gains in outcome in patients with early\\u000a stage disease,

Joseph I. Clark; Kathy S. Albain

187

Review of exemplar programs for adults with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

In response to the need to develop evidence-based best practices interventions and services for individuals in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the authors conducted an interdisciplinary literature review of exemplar programs, defined as those including multimodal or unimodal interventions; shown to be appropriate for individuals in the early stages of AD; demonstrating promise to support, maintain, and improve independent functioning; and shown to have positive effects for a variety of outcomes, including quality of life. This article examines evidence from five kinds of programs: (a) multimodal interventions, (b) programs developed by the Southwest Florida Interdisciplinary Center for Positive Aging, (c) sleep enhancement interventions, (d) managed care programs, and (e) technology-based interventions. Evidence from the review suggests that a number of programs can support functioning and improve quality of life for adults living with the early stages of memory loss. The article concludes with recommendations to advance a national research agenda in this area. PMID:20078003

Burgener, Sandra C; Buettner, Linda; Buckwalter, Kathleen C; Beattie, Elizabeth; Bossen, Ann L; Fick, Donna; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne; Kolanowski, Ann; Richeson, Nancy E; Rose, Karen M; Schreiner, Andrea; Pringle Specht, Janet K; Smith, Marianne; Testad, Ingelin; Yu, Fang; Gabrielson, Marcena; McKenzie, Sharon

2008-10-01

188

Delirium in early-stage alzheimer's disease: enhancing cognitive reserve as a possible preventive measure.  

PubMed

Delirium is a disorder of acute onset with fluctuating symptoms and is character ized by inattention, disorganized thinking and altered levels of consciousness. The risk for delirium is greatest in individual with dementia, and the incidence of both is increasing worldwide because of the aging of our population. Although s clinical trials have tested interventions f delirium prevention in individuals without dementia, little is known about the m anisms for the prevention of delirium i early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Th purpose of this article is to explore ways o preventing delirium and slowing the ra of cognitive decline in early-stage AD enhancing cognitive reserve. An agenda for future research on interventions to prevent delirium in individuals with early-stage AD is also presented. PMID:19326827

Fick, Donna M; Kolanowski, Ann; Beattie, Elizabeth; McCrow, Judith

2009-03-01

189

Pathologic correlates of nondemented aging, mild cognitive impairment, and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The results of studies from the Washington University Alzheimer Disease (AD) Research Center and those from other centers and investigators regarding the neuropathologic correlates of normal aging and early-stage AD are reviewed. We conclude that widespread amyloid plaques in the neocortex best distinguishes very early stage AD, including "MCI" stage, and preclinical stages, from healthy brain aging. Other AD lesions, including increased formation of neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal degeneration appear to result from the amyloid-initiated pathologic process, although they may have a more immediate effect on expression and severity of dementia. These data provide strong support for anti-amyloid intervention as a preventive therapy for AD. It is now critical to develop methods to detect preclinical AD during life. PMID:11816784

Morris, J C; Price, J L

2001-10-01

190

A profile of identity in early-stage dementia and a comparison with healthy older people.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine whether people in the early stages of dementia experience their sense of identity differently to healthy older people and to examine whether different aspects of identity are related to each other in each group. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study; 50 people with early-stage dementia and 50 age-matched people without dementia completed measures pertaining to different aspects of identity. Measures of mood and self-esteem were also included so that any differences could be taken into account in the analysis. There were very few differences in identity between the groups. After differences in levels of anxiety were accounted for, there were no differences in scores on most measures of identity. However, people in the early stages of dementia scored significantly lower on one subtotal for one measure of identity, whereas healthy older adults reported significantly more identity-related distress than people in the early stages of dementia. For both groups, there were no associations between different aspects of identity. People in the early stages of dementia do not differ much from healthy older adults in terms of their identity. Since healthy older people experience more distress relating to identity, they may be more likely to benefit from some sort of intervention than people in the early stages of dementia. It might be useful to consider identity as consisting of multiple components in future studies, rather than assuming that one aspect of identity represents the overall experience of identity. PMID:23171274

Caddell, Lisa S; Clare, Linda

2013-01-01

191

Expression analysis of the chicken homologue of CITED2 during early stages of embryonic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the Cited family are nuclear transactivators which bind to the coactivators p300 and CBP. While Cited1 also binds to the TGF? signal transducer Smad4, this has not been shown for Cited2. We isolated a chicken homologue of Cited2 from a HH stage 3–6 cDNA library and examined its expression pattern during early stages of embryonic development by whole-mount

Thomas Schlange; Birgit Andrée; Hans-Henning Arnold; Thomas Brand

2000-01-01

192

Toxicity of cadmium to early life stages of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at multiple water hardnesses.  

PubMed

Toxicity of cadmium to early life stages of brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined at multiple water hardnesses. Increasing water hardness decreased cadmium toxicity. Postswimup fry were much more sensitive than embryos and larvae. Chronic values from early life stage tests initiated with eyed embryos were 3.52, 6.36, and 13.6 microg Cd/L at water hardnesses of 30.6, 71.3, and 149 mg/L, respectively. In tests initiated with 30-d postswimup fry, chronic values were 1.02, 1.83, and 6.54 microg Cd/L at water hardnesses of 29.2, 67.6, and 151 mg/L, respectively. Higher chronic values from the early life stage tests compared to tests initiated with swimup fry likely are caused by acclimation during cadmium-tolerant embryo and larval stages. Growth was not affected by cadmium in the early life stage tests but was negatively affected in tests initiated with fry at water hardnesses of 29.2 and 67.6 mg/L. Concentrations of cadmium that reduced growth were higher than those that increased mortality. Median lethal concentrations for swimup fry after 96 h were 1.23, 3.90, and 10.1 microg Cd/L at water hardnesses of 29.2, 67.6, and 151 mg/L, respectively. Test results enable prediction of acute mortality of brown trout swimup fry based on cadmium concentration and water hardness. PMID:17702340

Brinkman, Stephen F; Hansen, Daria L

2007-08-01

193

Outcomes in Patients With Early-Stage Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the outcome in patients with early-stage hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between February 1988 and February 2007, 77 patients with Stage I or Stage II HPC underwent definitive RT in the Division of Radiation Oncology at the National Cancer Center Hospital. Eleven of the patients received local irradiation, and the other 66 patients received elective bilateral neck irradiation and booster irradiation to the primary lesion. The median follow-up period for all the patients was 33 months from the start of RT, ranging from 3 to 229 months. Results: The rates of overall survival, HPC-specific survival, HPC recurrence-free survival, and local control with laryngeal voice preservation for the 77 patients at 5 years were 47%, 74%, 57%, and 70%, respectively. The survival rates were not affected by the patient characteristics or treatment factors, but the RT field was significantly correlated with local control in a multivariate analysis. Seven of the patients had Grade 3 or greater complications, but these complications occurred after salvage surgery in 6 of the patients. Of the 77 patients, 83% had synchronous or metachronous malignancies, but these malignancies did not influence the survival of the patients if the malignancies were detected at an early stage. Conclusion: RT is an appropriate treatment method for early-stage HPC. However, because synchronous or metachronous malignancies occur at a relatively high frequency, careful follow-up and the early detection of such malignancies are critical.

Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi, E-mail: ysmrmrad@tmd.ac.j [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology, Head and Neck Reconstruction Division, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu; Ito, Yoshinori [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, Masao [Division of Head and Neck Surgery, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sumi, Minako; Itami, Jun [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

2010-07-15

194

Surgical Management of Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Resection or Transplantation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis is controversial. The purpose\\u000a of the current study was to compare the outcome of patients with well-compensated cirrhosis and early stage hepatocellular\\u000a carcinoma treated with initial hepatic resection versus transplantation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between 1985 and 2008, 245 patients underwent hepatic resection, and 134 patients underwent liver transplantation for early\\u000a stage hepatocellular

Emily C. Bellavance; Kimberly M. Lumpkins; Gilles Mentha; Hugo P. Marques; Lorenzo Capussotti; Carlo Pulitano; Pietro Majno; Paulo Mira; Laura Rubbia-Brandt; Alessandro Ferrero; Luca Aldrighetti; Steven Cunningham; Nadia Russolillo; Benjamin Philosophe; Eduardo Barroso; Timothy M. Pawlik

2008-01-01

195

Grain sorghum response to different flooding periods at the early boot stage  

E-print Network

GRAIN SORGHUM RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT FLOODING PERIODS AT THE EARLY BOOT STAGE A Thesis by OSCAR ZOLEZZI DEL RIO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A)M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1976 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering GRAIN SORGHUM RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT FLOODING PERIODS AT THE EARLY BOOT STAGE A Thesis by OSCAR 2OLE22I DEL RIO Approved as to style and content by: airman o ommzttee Hea o Departme t e er...

Zolezzi del Rio, Oscar

2012-06-07

196

Confidence interval estimation of the difference between two sensitivities to the early disease stage.  

PubMed

Although most of the statistical methods for diagnostic studies focus on disease processes with binary disease status, many diseases can be naturally classified into three ordinal diagnostic categories, that is normal, early stage, and fully diseased. For such diseases, the volume under the ROC surface (VUS) is the most commonly used index of diagnostic accuracy. Because the early disease stage is most likely the optimal time window for therapeutic intervention, the sensitivity to the early diseased stage has been suggested as another diagnostic measure. For the purpose of comparing the diagnostic abilities on early disease detection between two markers, it is of interest to estimate the confidence interval of the difference between sensitivities to the early diseased stage. In this paper, we present both parametric and non-parametric methods for this purpose. An extensive simulation study is carried out for a variety of settings for the purpose of evaluating and comparing the performance of the proposed methods. A real example of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is analyzed using the proposed approaches. PMID:24265123

Dong, Tuochuan; Kang, Le; Hutson, Alan; Xiong, Chengjie; Tian, Lili

2014-03-01

197

Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat  

SciTech Connect

It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko (Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

1989-09-01

198

Management of early stage cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck.  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive skin cancer of neuroendocrine origin. As a result, few large studies have been published, and we know of even fewer on disease of the head and neck alone. The most appropriate way to manage patients with early local disease and no sign of metastases neck is controversial. We reviewed management of early cutaneous MCC of the head and neck in 8 hospitals in the United Kingdom over 12 years between 1999 and 2011 (the largest head and neck series in Europe to date), and identified 39 patients (19 men and 20 women) with early disease according to a well recognised classification. A total of 24 patients had stage Ia disease, 11 had stage Ib disease, and 4 were unclassified. Five of those with stage Ia disease developed regional metastases and 7 with stage Ib disease developed regional recurrence. The 2-year overall survival for stage Ia and Ib disease was 62% and 27%, respectively. Our study shows that prognosis is poor after conservative surgical management of stage I disease. Management of the neck is still controversial, and a meta-analysis of all the published data is needed to establish best practice statistically. PMID:25174318

St J Blythe, John N; Macpherson, David; Reuther, William J; Ethunandan, Madan; Ilankovan, Velupillai; Sharma, Sanjay; Anand, Rajiv A; Mellor, Timothy K; Kerawala, Cyrus; Brennan, Peter A

2014-11-01

199

Prevalence and characteristics of pain in early and late stages of ALS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare pain frequency in early and late stages of ALS and to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status. Sixty-four patients in different stages of ALS were asked to complete the Neuropathic Pain Scale and to draw the localization of their pain on a body cartoon. The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) values were obtained from the medical record. A ?(2) correlation was used to compare the proportion of patients with pain in different stages of ALS. Correlation coefficient was used to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status (ALSFRS-R). Pain was reported by about half the patients. Using FVC values, patients were subdivided into early, intermediate and late stage of the disease. There was a negative correlation between pain intensity and functional status. There was no statistically significant difference in the presence of pain among patients in the different stages of ALS. In conclusion, our study showed that pain is common in ALS patients. Although pain intensity did correlate negatively with functional status, as expected, we were surprised to find that pain was also present in the early stages of the disease. PMID:23286754

Rivera, Itza; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Casey, Pat; Heller, Scott; Allen, Jeffrey; Siddique, Teepu; Sufit, Robert

2013-09-01

200

A large herbivore triggers alternative successional trajectories in the boreal forest.  

PubMed

Alternative successional trajectories (AST) may result in multiple climax states within an ecosystem when disturbances affect colonization history. In the boreal forest, ungulates have been proposed to drive AST because, under herbivore pressure, preferred species may go extinct and apparent competition may benefit browsing-resistant species. Over a 15-year period following logging, we tested whether deer herbivory altered plant species composition and whether the competitive advantage of resistant species was maintained following herbivore removal. We compared exclosures built immediately after logging with delayed exclosures built eight years later on Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada. Although the palatable tree Betula papyrifera (paper birch) and some palatable herbs recovered in delayed exclosures, we observed legacies in both tree and herb cover. Woody regeneration in delayed exclosures was dominated by Picea glauca (white spruce), and Poaceae (grasses) were abundant in the field layer. Given that only early-successional species recovered, whereas late-successional broadleaf species and Abies balsamea (balsam fir) remained rare, succession may follow an AST after a limited browsing period during early succession. PMID:24597230

Hidding, Bert; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D

2013-12-01

201

[Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].  

PubMed

Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA. PMID:23829961

Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

2013-12-01

202

Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.  

PubMed

Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 ?g/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 ?g/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 ?g/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection. PMID:23124699

Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

2013-01-01

203

Awareness in early-stage Alzheimer's disease: relationship to outcome of cognitive rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Awareness of difficulties may have an important impact on functioning and response to intervention in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical reports and retrospective studies suggest an association, but this has not previously been tested in a prospective study. Using a new measure of awareness, the Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARS), which was designed to take account of methodological limitations identified in a review of previous studies, the present study explored the relationship between awareness of difficulties and outcome of a cognitive rehabilitation (CR) intervention in 12 participants with a diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimer's disease. The relationship between awareness and mood, behaviour and executive function was also assessed. The results provide the first demonstration in a prospective study that higher levels of awareness are related to better CR outcomes. Awareness was associated with depression and reported behaviour problems, but not with performance on tests of executive function. These results suggest that variations in level of awareness in early-stage AD are influenced by psychological factors, and that explanatory models need to take these factors into account. Awareness of difficulties may serve as a useful predictor of the likely effectiveness of CR, andthis may assist clinicians in selecting appropriate interventions for individuals with early-stage AD. PMID:15202541

Clare, Linda; Wilson, Barbara A; Carter, Gina; Roth, Ilona; Hodges, John R

2004-04-01

204

Melting point depression of Al clusters generated during the early stages of film growth: Nanocalorimetry measurements  

E-print Network

Melting point depression of Al clusters generated during the early stages of film growth in microelectronics: i melt- ing point depression as related to the Al reflow process,7�10 ii coalescence during been learned about the size-dependent melting point depression in recent times. Studies in model

Allen, Leslie H.

205

MD Anderson researchers compare treatments, survival benefits for early-stage lung cancer  

Cancer.gov

Removal of the entire lobe of lung may offer patients with early-stage lung cancer better overall survival when compared with a partial resection, and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) may offer the same survival benefit as a lobectomy for some patients, according to a study from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.Click here to read the full press release.

206

Biogeochemical changes at early stage after the closure of radioactive waste geological repository in South Korea  

E-print Network

Organic waste a b s t r a c t Permanent disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastesBiogeochemical changes at early stage after the closure of radioactive waste geological repository e Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), 111, Daedeok-daero 989 beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305

Ohta, Shigemi

207

Platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration in hypertension associated with early stage kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Chronic hypertension accompanying early stage kidney disease is characterized by increased vascular resistance, but the underlying processes responsible for the enhanced vascular tone are unclear. We studied free calcium levels in blood platelets with the fluorescent dye quin-2. Platelets have many features in common with vascular smooth muscle cells. The cytosolic calcium concentration in platelets was elevated in 27

H. Schiffl; Medizinische Klinik

1989-01-01

208

Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

2014-01-01

209

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

210

Laparoscopic Assessment of the Sentinel Lymph Node in Early Stage Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to describe a minimally invasive technique enabling us to identify the sentinel lymph node in patients affected by early stage cervical cancer and to report the preliminary data.Method. Patent Blue Violet was injected around the tumor. Laparoscopy was undertaken and the blue-dyed lymph nodes (BDLN) were sought. The evidenced BDLN were removed, and

D. Dargent; X. Martin; P. Mathevet

2000-01-01

211

Predation on Early Life Stages of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality of early life stages can limit recruitment of fishes, and understanding the impacts of various sources of mortality has long been a goal of fisheries management. The impacts of predation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify sources of predation that affect lake sturgeon eggs, larvae, and

David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

2010-01-01

212

Creating Socionas: Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the ability to translate this understanding into products and services that are pleasurable and easy to use

C. E. Postma

2012-01-01

213

Treatment of Early-Stage Pressure Ulcers by Using Autologous Adipose Tissue Grafts  

PubMed Central

Assessing pressure ulcers (PUs) in early stages allows patients to receive safer treatment. Up to now, in addition to clinical evaluation, ultrasonography seems to be the most suitable technique to achieve this goal. Several treatments are applied to prevent ulcer progression but none of them is totally effective. Furthermore, the in-depth knowledge of fat regenerative properties has led to a wide use of it. With this study the authors aim at introducing a new approach to cure and prevent the worsening of early-stage PUs by using fat grafts. The authors selected 42 patients who showed clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of early-stage PUs. Values of skin thickness, fascial integrity, and subcutaneous vascularity were recorded both on the PU area and the healthy trochanteric one, used as control region. Fat grafting was performed on all patients. At three months, abnormal ultrasonographic findings, such as reduction of cutaneous and subcutaneous thickness, discontinuous fascia, and decrease in subcutaneous vascularity, all were modified with respect to almost all the corresponding parameters of the control region. Results highlight that the use of fat grafts proved to be an effective treatment for early-stage PUs, especially in the care of neurological and chronic bedridden patients. PMID:24818019

Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Pallara, Tiziano; Cagli, Barbara; Schena, Emiliano; Giurazza, Francesco; Faiella, Elio; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Persichetti, Paolo

2014-01-01

214

Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) Study: A cohort of early stage breast cancer survivors (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) Study, a cohort of 2321 early stage breast cancer survivors, was established in 2000 to examine how modifiable behavioral risk factors affect quality of life and long-term survival. Women were recruited primarily from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry (KPNCAL) and the Utah cancer registry (UCR), United States. Baseline data were collected, on

Bette Caan; Barbara Sternfeld; Erica Gunderson; Ashley Coates; Charles Quesenberry; Martha L. Slattery

2005-01-01

215

Early-Stage Evaluation of Ubiquitous Computing Applications Principle Investigator: Jennifer Mankoff Sponsoring Corporations: Intel,  

E-print Network

. This means that those techniques may not be applicable, or may require modifications in order to be effective of single user, productivity oriented tasks that underlie most of the commonly used evaluation techniques. (2) Evaluation techniques for early-stage design, such as Heuristic Evaluation, and paper

Mankoff, Jennifer

216

Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease

F. P. H. Gazeau; J.-P. Gattuso; C. Dawber; A. E. Pronker; F. Peene; J. Peene; C. H. R. Heip; J. J. Middelburg

2010-01-01

217

Diesel engine smoke reduction by controlling early thermal cracking process and activation later stage combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, extensive soot reduction was attempted with two parallel approaches: blending of oxygenated fuel and generation of strong turbulence during the combustion process. In the early stage of usual diesel combustion, the droplets in the spray are thermally cracked to low boiling point components as C2 to C5 due to the shortage of oxygen, and these components result

T. Murayama; T. Chikahisa; Y. Fujiwara

1998-01-01

218

The association between bullying and early stages of suicidal ideation in late adolescents in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bullying in schools has been associated with suicidal ideation but the confounding effect of psychiatric morbidity has not always been taken into account. Our main aim was to test the association between bullying behavior and early stages of suicidal ideation in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is independent of the presence of psychiatric morbidity,

Petros Skapinakis; Stefanos Bellos; Tatiana Gkatsa; Konstantina Magklara; Glyn Lewis; Ricardo Araya; Stelios Stylianidis; Venetsanos Mavreas

2011-01-01

219

Implementation of the TMS in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

47 PD patients were investigated with the single-pulse TMS to find out changes in motor evoked potential and motor conduction related to the stage of minimal motor symptoms and its further deterioration in groups with the different clinical types of the disease. The investigation revealed a markedly longer MEP duration along with the increased number of phases, than in controls, which were bilateral and advanced despite the minimal unilateral motor symptoms. There was also increased MEP amplitude in facilitation, with a higher degree of asymmetry, compared to controls. Patients with predominant rigid clinical forms had the further MEP duration and amplitude increase proportionally to bradikinesia and rigidity in the early stages of the disease. Patients with tremor predominant forms had no further changes in the MEP duration and amplitude, but had their motor CCT decreased in the early stages. Patients with the akinetic form were characterized by the asymmetric increase in the MEP Amplitude in relaxation and motor CCT shortening. Thus, TMS allows us to diagnose early the possible central motor changes secondary to Parkinson's disease, reveals the difference in compensational capacity according to the clinical type of the disease and helps in monitoring of the severity of motor changes in early stages. PMID:16218197

Guekht, A; Selikhova, M; Serkin, G; Gusev, E

2005-01-01

220

The Utility of Stroop Task Switching as a Marker for Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

The Utility of Stroop Task Switching as a Marker for Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Keith A have suggested attentional control tasks such as the Stroop task and the task-switching paradigm may study combined these tasks to create a Stroop switching task. Performance was compared across young

221

Task-Set Switching Deficits in Early-Stage Huntington's Disease: Implications for Basal Ganglia Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive functions are likely mediated by interconnected circuits including frontal lobe and basal ganglia structures. We assessed the executive function of task switching in patients with early-stage Huntington' s disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease affecting the basal ganglia. In two experiments, the HD patients had greater difficulty when switching than when repeating a task than matched controls, and this was

Adam R. Aron; Laura Watkins; Barbara J. Sahakian; Stephen Monsell; Roger A. Barker; Trevor W. Robbins

2003-01-01

222

Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Our current knowledge of the neurobiology of romantic love remains scanty. In view of the complexity of a sentiment like love, it would not be surprising that a diversity of biochemical mechanisms could be involved in the mood changes of the initial stage of a romance. In the present study, we have examined whether the early romantic phase of

Enzo Emanuele; Pierluigi Politi; Marika Bianchi; Piercarlo Minoretti; Marco Bertona; Diego Geroldi

2006-01-01

223

Reducing Treatment Intensity Doesn't Compromise Results in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Reducing the dose of chemotherapy and radiotherapy did not compromise treatment efficacy in patients  with early-stage, low-risk Hodgkin lymphoma but led to fewer side effects, according to a study published August 12, 2010, in the New England Journal of Medicine.

224

News Notes: Two Proteins May Be Key to Screening for Early-Stage Liver Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified an improved method of screening high-risk patients for one of the most common types of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), particularly if the patient has a history of hepatitis. By changing the threshold of one commonly used screening test and adding a second, complementary test, researchers were able to accurately identify more early stage HCC cases.

225

Adding Radiation to Chemotherapy May Improve Outcomes in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not known.

226

Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a phase III clinical trial.

227

AN EARLY STAGE IN THE PLANT RECOLONIZATION OF A NUCLEAR TARGET AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetational analyses were conducted three years postdetonation in a ; nuclear target area in a Grayia spinosa-Lycium andersonii community in Yucca ; Fiat, Nevada. Annual plants dominated the early stage of recolonization and were ; quantitatively more abundant in the disturbed areas than in an adjacent ; undisturbed shrub community. Ment zelia albicaulis and Chaenactis steviodes ; occurred in both

W. H. Rickard; L. M. Shields

1963-01-01

228

The experience of providing care in the early stages of dementia: An interpretative phenomenological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Despite a wealth of research on factors affecting the well-being of caregivers for people with dementia, relatively little attention has been given to the issues facing caregivers in the early stages of dementia, and few attempts have been made to explore the subjective experience of caregivers using qualitative methods. This study explores the subjective, psychological experience of spouses or

Catherine Quinn; Linda Clare; Alison Pearce; Michael van Dijkhuizen

2008-01-01

229

Memory Club: A Group Intervention for People with Early-Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Diagnosis of dementia in its early stages presents a window of opportunity for examining the immediate and long-term consequences of the illness at a point when the individual with memory loss can still participate in decision making. Design and Methods: Memory Club is a l0-session group program designed to provide information about…

Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia E.; Watson, Jennifer; Rice-Oeschger, Laura; Kakos, Bernadette

2004-01-01

230

Evaluating an Educational Intervention With Relatives of Persons in the Early Stages of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to describe the results of an educational intervention for family caregivers of persons in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. A total of 58 family caregivers participated in this intervention, which consisted of five weekly educational sessions about the disease and various aspects of caregiving. Measures of knowledge about Alzheimer's disease, reactions to patients'impairments,

Daniel R. Kuhn; C. F. M. de Leon

2001-01-01

231

Memory Club: A Group Intervention for People With Early-Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Diagnosis of dementia in its early stages presents a window of opportunity for examining the immediate and long-term consequences of the illness at a point when the individual with memory loss can still participate in decision making. Design and Methods: Memory Club is a 10-session group pro- gram designed to provide information about memory loss and resources for coping

Steven H. Zarit; Elia E. Femia; Jennifer Watson; Laura Rice-Oeschger; Bernadette Kakos

232

Neurochemical Diversity of Dystrophic Neurites in the Early and Late Stages of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the neurochemical and morphological diversity of abnormal neurites associated with ?-amyloid plaque formation in the early and late stages of Alzheimer's disease. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease was characterised by the presence of abnormal neurites containing either neurofilament or chromogranin A immunoreactivity. All clustered dystrophic neurites in these cases were associated with ?-amyloid plaques. Neurofilament immunoreactive dystrophic neurites in preclinical

Tracey C. Dickson; Carolyn E. King; Graeme H. McCormack; James C. Vickers

1999-01-01

233

Fungal and algal gene expression in early developmental stages of lichen-symbiosis  

E-print Network

Fungal and algal gene expression in early developmental stages of lichen-symbiosis Suzanne Joneson1 of the central questions in cellular communication. The symbiosis between the filamen- tous fungus Cladonia grayi the development of the lichen symbiosis. The results of this study highlight future avenues of investigation

Lutzoni, François M.

234

"It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

Roberts-Holmes, Guy

2012-01-01

235

The Effects of Problem-Focused Group Counseling for Early-Stage Gynecologic Cancer Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effect of a 5-week group counseling treatment to an information-only control condition for 37 women with early-stage gynecologic cancer. Women completed various measures related to mood, adjustment, and coping one week before treatment, at the last session, and at one month follow up. Differences are reported. (JBJ)

Wenzel, Lari B.; And Others

1995-01-01

236

Genetics of the early stages of invasion of the Lessepsian rabbitfish Siganus luridus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the initial stages of dispersal and settlement are of great interest in understanding the dynamics of biological invasions and in designing management responses. A newly settled population of the Lessepsian rabbitfish migrant Siganus luridus, that arrived in Linosa Island (Sicily Strait) in 2000, offered a unique opportunity to examine the genetic variability of the early phase of invasion

Ernesto Azzurro; Daniel Golani; Giuseppe Bucciarelli; Giacomo Bernardi

2006-01-01

237

Patients with Old Age or Proximal Tumors Benefit from Metabolic Syndrome in Early Stage Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. Methods Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. Results Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P?=?0.036). Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P?=?0.009 in multivariate analysis) or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P?=?0.047 in multivariate analysis). No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P?=?0.052 in univariate analysis). Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors. PMID:24599168

Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian-xin; Yu, Hong-mei; Liang, Wei-ping; Jin, Ying; Ren, Chao; He, Ming-ming; Chen, Wei-wei; Luo, Hui-yan; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Li, Yu-hong; Xu, Rui-hua

2014-01-01

238

Early-stage practicalities of implementing computer aided education: Experience from India  

E-print Network

organization that researchers in ICT in education may look at for hypotheses generation. 1. Introduction AfterEarly-stage practicalities of implementing computer aided education: Experience from India Joyojeet preliminary findings, and is reflected throughout. India runs the third-largest educational system

Sanders, Seth

239

The Chromosomal Control of Leaf Characteristics of Early-Stage Plants in Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid expansion of leaves of early-stage plants in wheat produced by chromosomal control of characteristics related to rapid expansion of the first six leaves of wheat were investigated using a set of single chromosome substitution lines under two different temperature regimes (TRs). Results from this study indicated that several chromosomes could be responsible for each of the four characteristics studied

Cun-dong LI; Zhi-ying BAI; G Ye; M Miyagi; S Chapman; SM Reader; Chun-ji LIU

2011-01-01

240

Grain growth during the early stage of sintering of nanosized WC–Co powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid grain growth during the early stage of sintering has been found in many nano material systems including cemented tungsten carbide WC–Co. To date, however, there have been few reported studies in the literature that deal directly with the kinetics or the mechanisms of this part of grain growth. In this work, the grain growth of nanosized WC during the

Xu Wang; Zhigang Zak Fang; Hong Yong Sohn

2008-01-01

241

Towards a Conceptualization of the Early Career Stage of Principalship: Current Research, Idiosyncrasies and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review aims at providing a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of the early career stage of principalship by documenting the experiences and tasks of new principals (NPs) in the first three years in the post, and their personal and organizational determinants. The synthesis is based on empirical research…

Oplatka, Izhar

2012-01-01

242

Early Stages of Hydrothermal Alteration in Anomalous Primitive CCs NWA 5958 and Paris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite its 3.0 petrographic type, alteration features are observed in NWA 5958 by SEM observations. Magnetometry suggests the presence of Fe-phyllosilicates, as in the Paris CM. These two CCs allow us to study early stages of hydrothermal alteration.

Elmaleh, A.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R. H.; Göpel, C.; Fieni, C.; Pont, S.; Humayun, M.

2012-09-01

243

Chemical and Bacteriological Changes in Grass Silage during the Early Stages of Fermentation I. Chemical Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The results showed that aeration of the forages influenced the bacterial flora and the chemical quality of the silages examined. The majority of the organisms isolated from the silages during the early stages of fermentation were cocci and Gram-negative rods. A few diphtheroids, aerobic bacilli, and pseudomonads were found, but occurred too infrequently to be of importance. Lactobacilli were

C. W. Langston; Cecelia Bouma; C. H. Gordon; W. C. Jacobson; C. G. Melin; L. A. Moore; J. E. McCalmont

1962-01-01

244

Test Design Optimization in CAT Early Stage with the Nominal Response Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) refers to the phase of the trait estimation during the administration of only a few items. This phase can be characterized by bias and instability of estimation. In this study, an item selection criterion is introduced in an attempt to lessen this instability: the D-optimality criterion. A…

Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E.

2007-01-01

245

Acoustic emission technique used for detecting early stages of precipitation during aging of Inconel 625  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging behavior of Inconel 625 has been studied at 540 °C. The Ni2(Cr,Mo) phase, found in this material only after a long service life, has been detected along with the ?? phase after a short aging. Acoustic emission technique has been found sensitive enough to detect early stages of precipitation.

J. Mittra; J. S. Dubey; S. Banerjee

2003-01-01

246

EFFECTS OF FENVALERATE ON THE EARLY LIFE-STAGES OF TOPSMELT (ATHERINOPS AFFINIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through acute and early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific Coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. he 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 ug/L. n the 30-d ELS test was laboratory-sp...

247

EFFECTS OF FENVALERATE ON THE EARLY LIFE STAGES OF TOPSMELT (ATHERINOPS AFFINIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through acute and early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific Coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. he 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 ug?l. n the 30-d ELS test with laboratory-s...

248

Body Weight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

E-print Network

Body Weight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Brown Bag Explore the effect of post-treatment changes in body weight status on 2-year risk of PSA failure Specific cancer-specific mortality Other · Body weight since age 25 & 40 years Other · D'Amico 5-yr PSA

Illinois at Chicago, University of

249

Computer-generated physical modelling in the early stages of the design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates some of the opportunities arising from the introduction of computer-generated physical modelling11This notation of what may be commonly referred to as Rapid Prototyping was found by the author, for the first time in William J. Mitchell, ‘Change, Time and Speed’, Thresholds no. 16, Dept. of Architecture, MIT, 1998. in the early stages of the architectural design process.

Alvise Simondetti

2002-01-01

250

Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

251

Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

2013-01-01

252

Minilaparotomy in Early Stage Endometrial Cancer: An Alternative to Standard and Laparoscopic Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Our objective was to determine whether minilaparotomy could be a safe and feasible approach for the surgical treatment of early endometrial cancer patients and whether it could be considered a valid alternative to the laparoscopic treatment.Methods. A pilot study of 50 consecutive patients with FIGO stage I–IV endometrial cancer undergoing surgery at our Department was performed between May and

Anna Fagotti; Gabriella Ferrandina; Romina Longo; Salvatore Mancuso; Giovanni Scambia

2002-01-01

253

The power of personality in discriminating between healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

This study examined differences in personality in the earliest stages of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) relative to healthy aging, and the power of personality in discriminating healthy aging from early-stage DAT. Four groups of participants (middle-aged controls, older controls, persons with very mild DAT, and persons with mild DAT) and their families were administered Costa and McCrae's NEO Five-Factor Inventory. On the basis of both self-report and informant report, there was an increase in neuroticism and a decrease in conscientiousness in persons with very mild DAT relative to healthy individuals without it, and in persons with mild DAT relative to those with very mild DAT. Moreover, informant reports of neuroticism and conscientiousness capture substantial unique variance in discriminating healthy aging and very mild DAT, above and beyond standard neuropsychological tests. Discussion focuses on the importance of personality traits as a noncognitive indicator of early-stage DAT. PMID:18079420

Duchek, Janet M; Balota, David A; Storandt, Martha; Larsen, Randy

2007-11-01

254

Examination of phosphorylated tau protein as a PHF-precursor at early stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Hyperphosphorylated tau protein which can be isolated on the basis of insolubility in 1% sarkosyl (A68-tau fraction) is thought to represent a precursor pool for PHF assembly, associated histologically with neuritic pathology, which feeds into a more resistant tangle-associated PHF pool via cross-linking and proteolysis. We examined these predictions at the earliest detectable stages of neurofibrillary pathology. We report that there is no evidence that neuritic pathology represents an early pathologic stage, no evidence of an association between neuritic pathology and phosphorylated tau, no evidence of selective accumulation of phosphorylated tau at early stages of pathology, and no evidence for a precursor/product relationship between phosphorylated tau and PHFs during progression of pathology. We conclude that altered phosphorylation is a secondary process affecting 5% of PHFs and does not explain PHF assembly in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:7566351

Lai, R Y; Gertz, H N; Wischik, D J; Xuereb, J H; Mukaetova-Ladinska, E B; Harrington, C R; Edwards, P C; Mena, R; Paykel, E S; Brayne, C

1995-01-01

255

Analysis of Turbulent flow in early stages of atherosclerosis of coronary artery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the early stages of atherosclerotic heart disease, fatty material accumulates in the coronary artery resulting in development of streaks of plaque and creating high levels of turbulence, and with significantly modified flow parameters. Diagnostic measures performed during this early stage may not show any evidence of coronary artery disease, because the lumen of the coronary artery has not decreased in caliber. These streaks do not obstruct the flow of blood but alter the flow characteristics, even at this preclinical stage. This talk presents the preliminary results for the analysis of turbulent flow characteristics for a range of atherosclerotic plaque configurations in the left main coronary artery. For this purpose a CAD/medical imaging based direct-simulation (DNS) tool has been developed. The Navier-stokes equations are solved in the vertical vorticity-velocity formulation. The plaque is introduced using immersed body technique. The geometric acquisition of the artery geometry and plaque morphology is obtained using CAD based commercial software.

Bhaganagar, Kiran

2005-11-01

256

Exploration of novel predictive markers in rat plasma of the early stages of chronic renal failure.  

PubMed

To identify blood markers for early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), blood samples were collected from rats with adenine-induced CKD over 28 days. Plasma samples were subjected to metabolomic profiling by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by multivariate analyses. In addition to already-identified uremic toxins, we found that plasma concentrations of N6-succinyl adenosine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine 20:4, and glycocholic acid were altered, and that these changes during early CKD were more sensitive markers than creatinine concentration, a universal indicator of renal dysfunction. Moreover, the increase in plasma indoxyl sulfate concentration occurred earlier than increases in phenyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate. These novel metabolites may serve as biomarkers in identifying early stage CKD. PMID:24232639

Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Yuriko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Kouichi; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kohno, Masahiro

2014-02-01

257

Litterfall production along successional and altitudinal gradients of subtropical monsoon evergreen broadleaved forests in Guangdong, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of litterfall production is important for understanding nutrient cycling, forest growth, successional pathways, and interactions with environmental variables in forest ecosystems. Litterfall was intensively studied during the period of 1982-2001 in two subtropical monsoon vegetation gradients in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, Guangdong Province, China. The two gradients include: (1) a successional gradient composed of pine forest (PF), mixed pine and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (BF), and (2) an altitudinal gradient composed of Baiyunci ravine rain forest (BRF), Qingyunci ravine rain forest (QRF), BF and mountainous evergreen broadleaved forest (MMF). Mean annual litterfall production was 356, 861 and 849 g m-2 for PF, MF and BF of the successional gradient, and 1016, 1061, 849 and 489 g m-2 for BRF, QRF, BF and MMF of the altitudinal gradient, respectively. As expected, mean annual litterfall of the pioneer forest PF was the lowest, but rapidly increased over the observation period while those in other forests were relatively stable, confirming that forest litterfall production is closely related to successional stages and growth patterns. Leaf proportions of total litterfall in PF, MF, BF, BRF, QRF and MMF were 76.4%, 68.4%, 56.8%, 55.7%, 57.6% and 69.2%, respectively, which were consistent with the results from studies in other evergreen broadleaved forests. Our analysis on litterfall monthly distributions indicated that litterfall production was much higher during the period of April to September compared to other months for all studied forest types. Although there were significant impacts of some climate variables (maximum and effective temperatures) on litterfall production in some of the studied forests, the mechanisms of how climate factors (temperature and rainfall) interactively affect litterfall await further study. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Zhou, G.; Guan, L.; Wei, X.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, Q.; Yan, J.; Wen, D.; Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Huang, Z.; Kong, G.; Mo, J.; Yu, Q.

2007-01-01

258

Selecting optimal eggs and embryonic developmental stages of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for early life-stage toxicity tests.  

PubMed

Aquaculture research has indicated that fish embryo hatching success and larval survival can sometimes be predicted by embryo characteristics, such as blastomere cleavage patterns. An analogous strategy of individual assessment of spawned eggs could also be used to improve the quality of toxicity tests using early life-stages of fish where control-group survival determines experimental validity. Here we explored whether a simple method of assessing fathead minnow eggs and embryos for abnormalities could predict hatch success, and larval size at hatch, as indicators of embryo larval quality. Embryos were classified according to both their developmental stage and the presence of any abnormalities: uneven blastomere cleavage, atypical embryo size or shape, and the presence of inclusions in the yolk. Clutch size and fertilization rate did not predict embryo larval quality. Fewer abnormalities in embryos with ?32 cells correlated with longer larvae at hatch. Normal embryos were more likely to hatch successfully than abnormal embryos of the same clutch, but because abnormality rates were generally low, much of the variation in hatch success could not be attributed to visible embryo malformations. Blastomere symmetry may be a useful selection criterion in embryos <3 h postfertilization. Where toxicant exposures early in embryonic development are not required or possible, hatch success could be increased by using older embryos that have survived gastrulation. Purposeful selection of embryos with at least two blastomeres, blastomere symmetry, and few inclusions can improve control survival and improve the quality of any generated (sub)lethality data. In our laboratory, application of the egg-selection criteria significantly improved control group hatch success increasing it from a mean of 84.4 to 94.2%. PMID:24346244

Marentette, Julie R; Chiorean, Sorina; Lavalle, Christine; Sullivan, Cheryl; Parrott, Joanne L

2014-02-01

259

[Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].  

PubMed

A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI. PMID:23329298

Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

2013-01-01

260

The Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine in Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Model  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted to elucidate neuroprotective effect of carnosine in early stage of stroke. Methods Early stage of rodent stroke model and neuroblastoma chemical hypoxia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and antimycin A. Neuroprotective effect of carnosine was investigated with 100, 250, and 500 mg of carnosine treatment. And antioxidant expression was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in brain and blood. Results Intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg carnosine induced significant decrease of infarct volume and expansion of penumbra (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant increase than in saline group in blood and brain (p<0.05). In the analysis of chemical hypoxia, carnosine induced increase of neuronal cell viability and decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Conclusion Carnosine has neuroprotective property which was related to antioxidant capacity in early stage of stroke. And, the oxidative stress should be considered one of major factor in early ischemic stroke. PMID:24851146

Park, Hui-Seung; Han, Kyung-Hoon; Shin, Jeoung-A; Park, Joo-Hyun; Song, Kwan-Young

2014-01-01

261

Neuropsychological profile in patients with early stage of Parkinson's disease in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Given the importance of early detection and intervention for disease management, determining the vulnerable neuropsychological function in patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) is a priority. Here, we describe the neuropsychological pattern in early-stage PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and dementia (PDD) in Taiwanese population. The neuropsychological performance of 94 patients with PD was compared with that of 84 healthy controls (HCs) and available normative data, using a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment including tests of executive, memory, psychomotor speed, attention, visuospatial, and language functions. Our results showed that PD patients performed significantly worse on executive function (i.e., category of card sorting) and psychomotor speed (i.e., processing speed index). Up to 46.8% were classified as PD-MCI and the majority of those having single-domain impairment (68.2%); 9.6% met the consensus diagnostic criteria for PDD. Accordingly, we suggest that early-stage PD patients have cognitive dysfunction predominately in the anterior brain. Further follow-up study to determine how many percent of PD-MCI develop PDD is important. The effect of neurocognitive rehabilitation on executive function is also valuable in the subsequence study. PMID:22749792

Yu, Rwei-Ling; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Tai, Chun-Hwei; Lin, Chin-Hsien; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Hua, Mau-Sun

2012-12-01

262

OLD FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING CESSATION OF CHRONIC DISTURBANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

In grasslands dominated by warm-season grasses, community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of a chronic disturbance (heavy grazing by cattle) in...

263

Identification and comparison of the 3 early stages of resynthesis for the lichen Cladonia rangiferina.  

PubMed

A lichen is an association between a biotrophic fungal partner and a green algal and (or) cyanobacterial partner, which may be considered a "controlled" parasitic interaction. While controlled parasitism implies benefit to both interacting partners, a parasitism that is not controlled implies that one partner benefits to the detriment of the other partner. The objective of this study was to compare morphological development of the interaction between Cladonia rangiferina with its compatible algal partner (Asterochloris glomerata/irregularis) and incompatible algae (Coccomyxa peltigerae and Chloroidium ellipsoideum) at 3 early resynthesis stages. The fungus was co-inoculated with each alga separately and the stages of development were compared using quantitative measures. The first 3 stages of development of the lichen thallus were identified in the compatible interaction as the "pre-contact" stage (1 day post co-inoculation (PCI)), "contact" stage (8 days PCI), and "growth together" stage (21 days PCI). Compatible interactions showed significantly shorter internode length, significantly more new lateral hyphal branches, significantly greater appressorial frequency, and no reduction in cell diameter of the algal cells, compared with incompatible interactions. At 21 days PCI, a parasitic interaction was observed between Cladonia rangiferina and Chloroidium ellipsoideum. These findings support the importance of recognition between compatible partners for successful lichenization. This study also revealed a strategy that may explain the success of this species in northern habitats. Identification of the resynthesis stages of Cladonia rangiferina is required before expression of the proteins involved in recognition and defense can be understood. PMID:24392925

Athukorala, Sarangi N P; Huebner, Erwin; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

2014-01-01

264

Avian Community Structure Along a Mountain Big Sagebrush Successional Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared vegetative structure and bird communities among 4 successional states in central Oregon representing a continuum from 1) postburn grassland, 2) mountain big sagebrush-Idaho fescue (Artemisia tridentata-Festuca idahoensis) shrub-steppe, 3) sagebrush-steppe-juniper (Juniperus occidentalis), to 4) old-growth western juniper. Species richness, evenness, and diversity of bird communities were highest in old-growth and mid-successional juniper (22.9 species\\/transect and 23.6 species\\/transect, respectively)

DANIEL P. REINKENSMEYER; RICHARD F. MILLER; ROBERT G. ANTHONY; VERN E. MARR

2007-01-01

265

The Utility of Stroop Task Switching as a Marker for Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Past studies have suggested attentional control tasks such as the Stroop task and the task switching paradigm may be sensitive to the early detection of Dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). The current study combined these tasks to create a Stroop switching task. Performance was compared across young adults, older adults, and individuals diagnosed with “Very Mild” dementia. Results indicated that this task strongly discriminated healthy aging from early stage DAT. In a logistic regression analysis, incongruent error rates from the Stroop Switch discriminated healthy aging from DAT better than any of the other 18 cognitive tasks given in a psychometric battery. PMID:20853964

Hutchison, Keith A.; Balota, David A.; Duchek, Janet M.

2009-01-01

266

[Combined medical treatment and psychotherapy in early-stage Alzheimer's over a period of 30 months].  

PubMed

The present case delineates the results of a 30-month combined pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment in a mildly to moderately depressed patient with early Alzheimer's dementia. At onset and during following visits, clinical examination and standardized test procedures for measuring cognitive and emotional changes were completed. Treatment results reveal a consistent benefit to cognitive levels and emotional distress over time. The present example of a mildly demented, depressed Alzheimer's patient shows a therapeutic outcome which is markedly superior to usual expectations in Alzheimer's treatment and encourages combination of therapeutic strategies in early stages of the disease. PMID:16523356

Haupt, M; Wielink, W

2006-07-01

267

Radiation treatment after surgery improves survival for elderly women with early-stage breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Elderly women with early-stage breast cancer live longer with radiation therapy and surgery compared with surgery alone, researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine have found. The researchers, who collected data on almost 30,000 women, ages 70 to 84, with early, highly treatable breast cancer enrolled in a nationwide cancer registry, are reporting their findings at the 54th annual meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO). The University of Maryland is home to the Greenebaum Cancer Center.

268

[Preliminary results of conservative combination radiotherapy and chemotherapy in early stages of Hodgkin's disease].  

PubMed

20 patients in early stages (I-IIB) Hodgkin's disease were treated with smaller than commonly used doses of cytostatics and radiation. Men were given EBVD-CVPP-EBVD (epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, DTIC, cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, procarbazine, prednisone) and women: CVPP-EBVD-CVPP. Radiotherapy was limited to involved and adjacent fields. In all patients complete remission was achieved lasting now 9 to 107 months (mean 55 months). Two patients relapsed. No undesirable early side effects were observed. Further observations will show if such therapeutic option in non-advanced Hodgkin's disease is sufficient. PMID:9091857

Gabry?, K; Urbaniak-Kujda, D; Dubowik, R

1996-11-01

269

Consumer research in the early stages of new product development : issues and applications in the food domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

New products that deliver added consumer value contribute significantly to the success of companies. In the numerous studies of new product performance over the years, consensus has developed that understanding consumer needs is of paramount strategic value, especially in the early stages of the product development process. During these early stages, the product has not yet been specified and the

Ellen van Kleef

2006-01-01

270

Identifying aspects at an early stage helps to achieve separation of crosscutting concerns in the initial system  

E-print Network

Abstract Identifying aspects at an early stage helps to achieve separation of crosscutting concerns) is a technique that has been showing encouraging results in improving separation of concerns, and achieving [1- 4]. Identifying aspects at an early stage helps to achieve separation of concerns in the initial

271

TOXICITY OF 3,4-DICHLOROANILINE TO FATHEAD MINNOWS, 'PIMEPHALES PROMELAS', IN ACUTE AND EARLY LIFE-STAGE EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 3,4-dichloroaniline in three acute exposures and two early life-stage exposures. Mean LC50's were 10.8, 9.37, and 7.58 mg/l at 24, 48, and 96 hr, respectively. In the first early life-stage test, control fish were smaller than...

272

Hereditary polycystic kidney disease (adult form): A microdissection study of two cases at an early stage of the disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary polycystic kidney disease (adult form): A microdissection study of two cases at an early stage of the disease. Kidney fragments from two cases of hereditary polycystic kidney disease (adult form) at an early stage were examined by microdissection. Localized cystic dilatations were found in proximal and distal tubules, loops of Henle, and collecting tubules. Entirely normal nephrons and collecting

Luc Baert

1978-01-01

273

Emotional enhancement of perceptual priming is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Perceptual priming for emotionally-negative and neutral scenes was tested in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy younger, middle-aged and older adults. In the study phase, participants rated the scenes for their arousal properties. In the test phase, studied and novel scenes were initially presented subliminally, and the exposure duration was gradually increased until a valence categorization was made. The difference in exposure duration required to categorize novel versus studied items was the dependent measure of priming. Aversive content increased the magnitude of priming, an effect that was preserved in healthy aging and AD. Results from an immediate recognition memory test showed that the priming effects could not be attributable to enhanced explicit memory for the aversive scenes. These findings implicate a dissociation between the modulatory effect of emotion across implicit and explicit forms of memory in aging and early-stage AD. PMID:16154458

LaBar, Kevin S; Torpey, Dana C; Cook, Craig A; Johnson, Stephanie R; Warren, Lauren H; Burke, James R; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

2005-01-01

274

Memory impairment and awareness of memory deficits in early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Recognition memory of auditory verbal learning tests and awareness of memory deficits were examined in 24 individuals with early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) using a performance prediction-postdiction paradigm. Individuals with AD displayed impaired recognition memory, and recognition performance correlated positively with regional cerebral blood flow at rest in bilateral prefrontal areas and the left medial temporal area. In addition, underawareness of memory deficits was also marked even at this early stage. Individuals with AD retrospectively overestimated memory performance after actual performance, but appeared to benefit from feedback, and displayed intact online awareness of memory dysfunction, leading to normal prediction of the second session. However, individuals with AD failed to retrospectively incorporate incidents of memory failure into generalized self-belief systems. Brain/ behavior correlational analyses suggest that the prefrontal cortex and posterior dorsomedial regions including the precuneus may be involved in self-awareness. PMID:16703956

Mimura, Masaru; Yano, Madoka

2006-01-01

275

The formation of early stage adipocere in submerged remains: a preliminary experimental study.  

PubMed

In some circumstances, the presence of adipocere may retard decomposition and complicate postmortem interval estimation. This article explores the correlation between Accumulated Degree Days (ADD) and early stage formation of adipocere. Sixty wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) carcasses were used in this experiment; a control group (N = 30) deposited directly on the ground surface and an experimental group (N = 30) completely submersed in water in individual buckets. Data (water and inner body temperature, pH, and total body score) were collected every 100 ADD. Results indicated that early stage adipocere is correlated to ADD and that its formation on submersed remains is more likely to occur after 630 ADD. Skin sloughing promoted the formation of adipocere. No adipocere was formed on any of the control group rabbits. This study also highlights the fact that multiple factors influence adipocere formation and it is suggested that further research needs to be conducted into this area. PMID:22150268

Widya, Marcella; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

2012-03-01

276

Turning visual shapes into sounds: early stages of reading acquisition revealed in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex.  

PubMed

The exact role of the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) during the initial stages of reading acquisition is a hotly debated issue, especially regarding the comparative effect of learning on early stimulus-dependent vs. later task-dependent processes. We show that this controversy can be solved with high-temporal resolution intracerebral EEG recordings of the VOTC. We measured High-Frequency Activity (50-150 Hz) as a proxy of population-level spiking activity while participants learned Japanese Katakana symbols, and found that learning primarily affects top-down/task-dependent neural processing, after a few minutes only. In contrast, adaptation of early bottom-up/stimulus-dependent processing takes several days to adapt and provides the basis for fluent reading. Such evidence that two consecutive stages of neural processing, stimulus- and task-dependent are differentially affected by learning, can reconcile seemingly opposite hypotheses on the role of the VOTC during reading acquisition. PMID:24370818

Perrone-Bertolotti, M; Vidal, J R; de Palma, L; Hamamé, C M; Ossandon, T; Kahane, P; Minotti, L; Bertrand, O; Lachaux, J-P

2014-04-15

277

Modern Risk Assessment for Individualizing Treatment Concepts in Early-stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Validated prognostic and predictive factors currently play an important role in treatment planning for patients with early-stage breast cancer. The role of personalized medicine has led to the search for markers that can be applied to individual patients to optimize treatment regimens. In addition to traditional clinicopathologic measures, scores and gene tests have been developed to independently predict risk of patients in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. The discovery of these markers provides the opportunity to identify patients at such low risk of recurrence that toxic therapy side effects are not justified. Selection and management of patients with early-stage, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who are appropriately treated with endocrine therapy alone after receiving locoregional therapy but do not necessarily require adjuvant chemotherapy is currently problematic. This article reviews the current state-of-theart biomarker assessment methods and discusses the potential role for the prediction of chemotherapy benefit focusing on endocrine sensitive disease. PMID:24920978

Farr, Alex; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Heiduschka, Annika; Singer, Christian F; Harbeck, Nadia

2013-01-01

278

Computational simulation of the early stage of bone healing under different configurations of locking compression plates.  

PubMed

Flexible fixation or the so-called 'biological fixation' has been shown to encourage the formation of fracture callus, leading to better healing outcomes. However, the nature of the relationship between the degree of mechanical stability provided by a flexible fixation and the optimal healing outcomes has not been fully understood. In this study, we have developed a validated quantitative model to predict how cells in fracture callus might respond to change in their mechanical microenvironment due to different configurations of locking compression plate (LCP) in clinical practice, particularly in the early stage of healing. The model predicts that increasing flexibility of the LCP by changing the bone-plate distance (BPD) or the plate working length (WL) could enhance interfragmentary strain in the presence of a relatively large gap size (>3 mm). Furthermore, conventional LCP normally results in asymmetric tissue development during early stage of callus formation, and the increase of BPD or WL is insufficient to alleviate this problem. PMID:24261957

Miramini, Saeed; Zhang, Lihai; Richardson, Martin; Pirpiris, Marinis; Mendis, Priyan; Oloyede, Kunle; Edwards, Glenn

2015-06-01

279

Defective skeletogenesis and oversized otoliths in fish early stages in a changing ocean.  

PubMed

Early life stages of many marine organisms are being challenged by rising seawater temperature and CO? concentrations, but their physiological responses to these environmental changes still remain unclear. In the present study, we show that future predictions of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (?pH=0.5 units) may compromise the development of early life stages of a highly commercial teleost fish, Solea senegalensis. Exposure to future conditions caused a decline in hatching success and larval survival. Growth, metabolic rates and thermal tolerance increased with temperature but decreased under acidified conditions. Hypercapnia and warming amplified the incidence of deformities by 31.5% (including severe deformities such as lordosis, scoliosis and kyphosis), while promoting the occurrence of oversized otoliths (109.3% increase). Smaller larvae with greater skeletal deformities and larger otoliths may face major ecophysiological challenges, which might potentiate substantial declines in adult fish populations, putting in jeopardy the species' fitness under a changing ocean. PMID:24625652

Pimentel, Marta S; Faleiro, Filipa; Dionísio, Gisela; Repolho, Tiago; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Machado, Jorge; Rosa, Rui

2014-06-15

280

Evidence supporting nutritional interventions for persons in early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD).  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to grade research evidence supporting nutritional interventions for persons with early stage dementias and to report the recommendations of a consensus panel. Thirty four studies were reviewed in the areas of dietary restriction, antioxidants, and Mediterranean diet with strong support from epidemiological studies found in all three areas. The body of evidence to support nutritional interventions in the prevention and treatment of AD is growing and has potential as a treatment modality following translational studies. PMID:18165840

Burgener, S C; Buettner, L; Coen Buckwalter, K; Beattie, E; Bossen, A L; Fick, D M; Fitzsimmons, S; Kolanowski, A; Richeson, N E; Rose, K; Schreiner, A; Pringle Specht, J K; Testad, I; Yu, F; McKenzie, S

2008-01-01

281

Early stages of secondary succession on abandoned cropland in north-east Borneo Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on community structure and floristic change in the early stages of the tropical old-field succession in an intensive shifting cultivation area, Sabah, north-east Borneo Island, was conducted in March and September 1997. Dense therophytic communities were established soon after abandonment, and rapidly changed: namely, from Galinsoga parviflora (in approximately 1–2 months) to Crassocephalum crepidioides (in approximately 3–5 months)

Toshiyuki Ohtsuka

1999-01-01

282

Review panel consensus and post-decision commercial performance: a study of early stage technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the ability of review panels to predict commercial success when evaluating early-stage technologies from small\\u000a business. Specifically we examined whether a screening process resulted in greater consensus among grant panel members, to\\u000a what extent certain panel members “stuck” to their evaluations, and whether information sharing and panel consensus resulted\\u000a in better predictions of commercial success. In general, we

Craig S. Galbraith; Alex F. DeNoble; Sanford B. Ehrlich; Jessica Mesmer-Magnus

2010-01-01

283

Precipitation processes during the early stages of ageing in Al?Cu?Mg alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and microbeam electron diffraction have been used to study the early stages of precipitation in an Al?1.1Cu?1.7Mg (at%) alloy. This alloy exhibits a large and rapid hardening reaction upon ageing for as short as 60 s at temperatures higher than 130°C. Results from APFIM suggest that the formation of Cu?Mg

S. P. Ringer; K. Hono; I. J. Polmear; T. Sakurai

1996-01-01

284

Low Vitamin K Intakes in Community-Dwelling Elders at an Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing body of evidence points to a role for vitamin K in brain physiology through its participation in sphingolipid metabolism and biological activation of the vitamin K–dependent protein Gas6. One hypothesis is that vitamin K may also play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. A recent study found that patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease consumed less vitamin

Nancy Presse; Bryna Shatenstein; Marie-Jeanne Kergoat; Guylaine Ferland

2008-01-01

285

Detecting physiological and pesticide-induced apoptosis in early developmental stages of invasive bivalves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, embryos and early larval stages of two invasive bivalves, the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), were assayed for physiological apoptosis and stress-induced apoptosis post-exposure to a molluscicide, Bayluscide®. Physiological apoptosis was measured at 4-h intervals and Bayluscide® exposures were 4 h and 24 h beginning at both 30 min post-fertilization and at 24 h post-fertilization. Apoptosis was

Karen Perry; John Lynn

2009-01-01

286

Stockpiled tall fescue and livestock performance in an early stage midwest silvopasture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using stockpiled forage can substantially reduce livestock feed costs over the winter. However, little is known about utilizing\\u000a stockpiled forage in an early-stage silvopasture system. This study was conducted to determine if silvopasture production\\u000a practices utilizing stockpiled forage influence stocker steer performance. The treatments were: (1) stockpiled forage in a\\u000a non-forested pasture (OPEN) and (2) stockpiled forage in a silvopasture

R. L. KallenbachE; E. B. Venable; M. S. Kerley; N. J. Bailey

2010-01-01

287

Limited-Field Radiation Therapy in the Management of Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several phase III trials have demonstrated equivalent long-term survival between breast conserving surgery plus radiation therapy and mastectomy in patients with early-stage breast cancer but have not provided infor- mation on the optimal volume of breast tissue requiring post-lumpectomy radiation therapy. Therefore, we exam- ined the 5-year results of a single institution's experience with radiation therapy limited to the

Frank A. Vicini; Larry Kestin; Peter Chen; Pamela Benitez; Neal S. Goldstein; Alvaro Martinez

2003-01-01

288

Impairment in early stages of visual information processing in nonpsychotic schizotypic individuals  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977 Major Subject: Psychology IMPAIRMENT IN EARLY STAGES OF VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING IN NONPSYCHOTIC SCHIZOTYPIC INDIVIDUALS A Thesis by ROBERT JON STERONKO Approved as to sty1e and content by...- order. The MMPI 2-7-8 code type (elevated Depression, Psychasthenia and Schizophrenia scales) was used to iden- tify these subjects. This group was compared on a back- ward visual masking task with two control groups: one whose profiles were...

Steronko, Robert Jon

2012-06-07

289

Elevated free IGF2 levels in localized, early-stage breast cancer in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Epidemiological studies imply an association between circulating IGF1 and breast cancer, whereas the role of IGF2, which also acts on the IGF1 receptor, is less settled. This study investigates the association between IGF2 and breast cancer in patients with localized disease. Design: The participants were women with well-characterized, early stage, localized breast cancer (nZ43) and matched healthy women (nZ38),

Ulrick Espelund; Søren Cold; Jan Frystyk; H. Orskov; Allan Flyvbjerg

2008-01-01

290

Less invasive treatment associated with improved survival in early stage breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Patients with early stage breast cancer who were treated with lumpectomy plus radiation may have a better chance of survival compared with those who underwent mastectomy, according to a study from Duke Medicine and the Duke Cancer Institute. The study, which appears online Jan. 28, 2013, in the journal CANCER, raises new questions as to the comparative effectiveness of breast-conserving therapies such as lumpectomy, where only the tumor and surrounding tissue is surgically removed.

291

Tributyltin-induced effects on early life stages of minnows Phoxinus phoxinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity and histopathological effects of tributyltin chloride (TBT) were studied in early life stages of minnows Phoxinus phoxinus. Eggs and yolk sac fry (newly hatched larvae) were exposed in a static-renewal procedure to aqueous TBT concentrations ranging from 0.82 to 19.51 µg\\/L for 3 to 10 days at 16°C and 21°C, respectively. Aqueous TBT concentrations were determined by capillary GC-FPD

Karl Fent; Willy Meier

1992-01-01

292

Intra and interspecific competition among invasive and native species during early stages of plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant competition is a primary ecological process limiting grassland restoration success. Appropriate restoration techniques\\u000a require an understanding of the degree to which intra and interspecific competition control invasive and native plant growth.\\u000a The objective of this study was to determine how the intensity of intra and interspecific competition changes during early\\u000a stages of plant growth. Two invasive (Bromus\\u000a tectorum and

Seema ManglaRoger; Roger L. Sheley; Jeremy J. James; Steven R. Radosevich

2011-01-01

293

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a new treatment modality for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer, and has been developed in the United States, the European Union, and Japan. We started a feasibility study of this therapy in July 1998, using a stereotactic body frame. The eligibility criteria for primary lung cancer were: 1) solitary tumor less than 4 cm (T1-3N0M); 2)

M. Hiraoka; Y. Matsuo; Y. Nagata

2007-01-01

294

Promoting quality and evidence-based care in early-stage breast cancer follow-up.  

PubMed

Evidence-based guidelines for long-term follow-up of early-stage breast cancer patients developed by oncology societies in the United States and Europe recommend that breast cancer survivors undergo regular evaluation with history and physical examination, as well as annual mammography. Routine blood tests, circulating tumor markers, and/or surveillance imaging studies beyond mammography are not recommended in the absence of concerning symptoms or physical examination findings because of lack of supportive clinical evidence. Despite these guidelines, studies have shown that 20% to 40% of oncologists assess serum tumor markers as part of routine monitoring of early-stage breast cancer patients. As part of efforts to both address the financial challenges confronting the health-care system and optimize patient outcomes, the American Society of Clinical Oncology's Cost of Care Task Force identified adherence to breast cancer surveillance guidelines as an opportunity to improve care and reduce cost. However, these recommendations are based on trials done in an era of outdated technology and limited therapeutic options. It is possible that recent improvements in diagnostics and treatments could make earlier detection of recurrent disease important for improving both survival and quality of life outcomes. Research is necessary to further inform optimal breast cancer follow-up strategies, which could impact these recommendations. At this time, outside of well-conducted clinical trials, there is no role for ordering routine serial blood or imaging tests in monitoring for recurrence in early-stage breast cancer patients. PMID:24627271

Henry, N Lynn; Henry, Lynn N; Hayes, Daniel F; Ramsey, Scott D; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Barlow, William E; Gralow, Julie R

2014-04-01

295

Predictors of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to identify mild cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) prior to extensive neurodegeneration and to evaluate the extent to which dopamine depletion and other disease-related predictors can explain cognitive profiles. Methods Neuropsychological performances of 40 nondemented early-stage PD patients and 42 healthy controls were compared across on or off dopaminergic medications. Stepwise regression evaluated cognitive predictors of early-stage PD and disease-related predictors of PD cognition (levodopa dose, disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score, sleep, quality of life, and mood) across on and off states. Results Neuropsychological performance was lower in PD patients across cognitive domains with significant memory, naming, visuomotor, and complex attention/executive deficits, but with intact visuospatial, simple attention, and phonemic fluency functions. However, medication effects were absent except for simple attention. Regression analyses revealed age, working memory, and memory recall to be the best cognitive predictors of PD, while age, quality of life, disease duration, and anxiety predicted PD cognition in the off state. Conclusion Nondemented early-stage PD patients presented with extensive mild cognitive deficits including prominent memory impairment. The profile was inconsistent with expected isolated frontostriatal dysfunction previously attributed to dopamine depletion and this highlights the need to further characterize extranigral sources of mild cognitive impairment in PD. PMID:23741229

Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Jones, Katherine; Cabanban, Romeo; Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E.

2013-01-01

296

Numerical and functional defects of blood dendritic cells in early- and late-stage breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The generation of antitumour immunity depends on the nature of dendritic cell (DC)–tumour interactions. These have been studied mostly by using in vitro-derived DC which may not reflect the natural biology of DC in vivo. In breast cancer, only one report has compared blood DC at different stages and no longitudinal evaluation has been performed. Here we conducted three cross-sectional and one one-year longitudinal assessments of blood DC in patients with early (stage I/II, n=137) and advanced (stage IV, n=36) disease compared to healthy controls (n=66). Patients with advanced disease exhibit markedly reduced blood DC counts at diagnosis. Patients with early disease show minimally reduced counts at diagnosis but a prolonged period (1 year) of marked DC suppression after tumour resection. While differing in frequency, DC from both patients with early and advanced disease exhibit reduced expression of CD86 and HLA-DR and decreased immunostimulatory capacities. Finally, by comparing a range of clinically available maturation stimuli, we demonstrate that conditioning with soluble CD40L induces the highest level of maturation and improved T-cell priming. We conclude that although circulating DC are compromised by loco-regional and systemic breast cancer, they respond vigorously to ex vivo conditioning, thus enhancing their immunostimulatory capacity and potential for immunotherapy. PMID:17923873

Pinzon-Charry, A; Ho, C S K; Maxwell, T; McGuckin, M A; Schmidt, C; Furnival, C; Pyke, C M; Lopez, J A

2007-01-01

297

Early oligomerization stages for the non-amyloid component of ?-synuclein amyloid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, much effort has focused on the early stages of aggregation and the formation of amyloid oligomers. Aggregation processes for these proteins are complex and their non-equilibrium nature makes any experimental study very difficult. Under these conditions, simulations provide a useful alternative for understanding the dynamics of the early stages of oligomerization. Here, we focus on the non-A? amyloid component (NAC) of the monomer, dimer, and trimer of ?-synuclein, an important 35-residue sequence involved in the aggregation and fibrillation of this protein associated with Parkinson's disease. Using Hamiltonian and temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations combined with the coarse grained Optimized Potential for Efficient peptide structure Prediction potential, we identify the role of the various regions and the secondary structures for the onset of oligomerization. For this sequence, we clearly observe the passage from ?-helix to ?-sheet, a characteristic transition of amyloid proteins. More precisely, we find that the NAC monomer is highly structured with two ?-helical regions, between residues 2-13 and 19-25. As the dimer and trimer form, ?-sheet structures between residues 2-14 and 26-34 appear and rapidly structure the system. The resulting conformations are much more structured than similar dimers and trimers of ?-amyloid and amylin proteins and yet display a strong polymorphism at these early stages of aggregation. In addition to its inherent experimental interest, comparison with other sequences shows that NAC could be a very useful numerical model for understanding the onset of aggregation.

Eugene, Cindie; Laghaei, Rozita; Mousseau, Normand

2014-10-01

298

Ontogenetic development in the morphology and behavior of loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) during early life stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) are a commercially important fish in China and an ideal aquaculture species. However, culturists experience high larval and juvenile mortality during mass production. To provide insight into ways to improve larviculture techniques, we describe the morphological characteristics and behavior of loach during the larval and early juvenile stages. Yolksac larvae ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 mm body length (BL) between days 0 to 4; preflexion larvae ranged from 3.6 to 5.5 mm BL between days 4 to 6; flexion larvae ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 mm BL between days 5 and 14; and postflexion larvae ranged from 7.1 to 15.7 mm BL between days 11 to 27; the minimum length and age of juveniles was 14.1 mm BL and 23 d, respectively. Loach are demersal from hatch through to the early juvenile stages. A suite of morphological characteristics (e.g., external gill filament and ventral mouth opening) and behavioral traits have developed to adapt to demersal living. We observed positive allometric growth in eye diameter, head length, head height, and pectoral fin length during the early larval stages, reflecting the priorities in the development of the organs essential for survival. Our results provide a basis for developing techniques to improve the survival of larval and juvenile loach during mass production.

Gao, Lei; Duan, Ming; Cheng, Fei; Xie, Songguang

2014-09-01

299

Increased level of serum prostaglandin-2 in early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prostaglandin-2 (PGE-2), one of the products of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced catalysis, may play a critical role in the carcinogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We investigated the efficacy of using serum PGE-2 concentration as a biomarker for this cancer type. Material and methods Prostaglandin-2 levels were analyzed in the serum of 65 ESCC patients and in 47 healthy individuals. The concentrations of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were measured in tumor tissues and normal tissues obtained from 31 surgically treated ESCC patients. Results Serum PGE-2 concentration was significantly higher in ESCC patients than in control patients (p = 0.004), especially in the early stages (I + II) of cancer (p < 0.0001). We observed significant inverse relationships between serum PGE-2 levels and: tumor stage, primary tumor progression, lymph and distant metastasis. The COX-2 concentration was significantly elevated in tumors as compared to normal tissues (p = 0.008). A significant correlation between serum PGE-2 and tumor COX-2 was observed (rho = 0.46, p = 0.009). However, ROC analysis showed that serum PGE-2 may be a weak prognostic factor for ESCC. Conclusions Our results suggest that an elevated concentration of serum PGE-2 in the early stages of cancer may possibly be associated with tumor initiation and cancer development in ESCC. The exact role of these findings in early detection of this highly lethal cancer requires further research.

Markocka-Maczka, Krystyna; Nienartowicz, Miroslaw; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Grabowski, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

300

Identification of an early-stage gene of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC.  

PubMed

Chlamydiae are parasitic bacteria characterized by a temporally regulated developmental cycle. In the early stage of the cycle, metabolically inert elementary bodies reorganize to dividing reticulate bodies, a process about which little is known. The purpose of this investigation was to identify and clone chlamydial genes that are expressed preferentially during the early stage of the developmental cycle of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC. Several potential early genes were cloned with highly radioactive, host-free-generated RNA probes to screen a genomic library. One clone appeared to encode a gene that was particularly well expressed at 1 h postinfection. In further characterization, we found that it encodes two complete open reading frames and one partial open reading frame of 370 codons. The partial open reading frame, designated gltX, is very similar to bacterial glutamyl-tRNA synthetases and was demonstrated to be transcribed in vivo at 24 h postinfection by primer extension analysis. A lysine-rich open reading frame (LRO) of 117 codons was found upstream and divergent from gltX. The LRO lacks homology to known proteins, and we were unable to demonstrate that it is transcribed in vivo. The third open reading frame, of 182 codons, was found to be convergent with and partially overlap the LRO. It was confirmed to be preferentially expressed within the first 1.5 h of infection by Northern (RNA) blot analysis and was designated the early upstream open reading frame (EUO). Like the LRO, the EUO is not homologous to known proteins. A major potential transcription start site of the EUO was identified by primer extension analysis. However, the sequence upstream of the site does not closely resemble the consensus recognition sequences of bacterial sigma factors even though it is AT rich. The EUO is the first chlamydial gene specific to the early stage to be cloned and sequenced. PMID:8491714

Wichlan, D G; Hatch, T P

1993-05-01

301

Identification of an early-stage gene of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiae are parasitic bacteria characterized by a temporally regulated developmental cycle. In the early stage of the cycle, metabolically inert elementary bodies reorganize to dividing reticulate bodies, a process about which little is known. The purpose of this investigation was to identify and clone chlamydial genes that are expressed preferentially during the early stage of the developmental cycle of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC. Several potential early genes were cloned with highly radioactive, host-free-generated RNA probes to screen a genomic library. One clone appeared to encode a gene that was particularly well expressed at 1 h postinfection. In further characterization, we found that it encodes two complete open reading frames and one partial open reading frame of 370 codons. The partial open reading frame, designated gltX, is very similar to bacterial glutamyl-tRNA synthetases and was demonstrated to be transcribed in vivo at 24 h postinfection by primer extension analysis. A lysine-rich open reading frame (LRO) of 117 codons was found upstream and divergent from gltX. The LRO lacks homology to known proteins, and we were unable to demonstrate that it is transcribed in vivo. The third open reading frame, of 182 codons, was found to be convergent with and partially overlap the LRO. It was confirmed to be preferentially expressed within the first 1.5 h of infection by Northern (RNA) blot analysis and was designated the early upstream open reading frame (EUO). Like the LRO, the EUO is not homologous to known proteins. A major potential transcription start site of the EUO was identified by primer extension analysis. However, the sequence upstream of the site does not closely resemble the consensus recognition sequences of bacterial sigma factors even though it is AT rich. The EUO is the first chlamydial gene specific to the early stage to be cloned and sequenced. Images PMID:8491714

Wichlan, D G; Hatch, T P

1993-01-01

302

Less Radical Surgery for Patient With Early-Stage Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Surgery in cervical cancer should be used with intention of cure. Radical abdominal trachelectomy is a feasible operation for selected patients with stage I?-1? cervical cancer which fertility can be preserved. Case Report A 30-years-old woman with squamous cell cervical cancer stage (1 A II) diagnosed at September 2011 expressed a wish for fertility-sparing treatment. Radical abdominal hysterectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy were performed which showed no evidence of lymphatic metastasis. Subsequently, at last follow-up (5 months post-surgery), good oncologic outcomes were found after this procedure. This was the first case of fertility-sparing radical trachelectomy procedures performed at our institution. Conclusions Trachelectomy represents a valuable conservative surgical approach for early stage invasive cervical cancer. PMID:24396586

Yousefi, Zohreh; Kazemianfar, Zahra; Kadghodayan, Sima; Hasanzade, Malieheh; Kalantari, Mahmoudreza; Mottaghi, Mansoureh

2013-01-01

303

Material properties of North Atlantic cod eggs and early-stage larvae and their influence on acoustic scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chu, D., Wiebe, P. H., Copley, N. J., Lawson, G. L., and Puvanendran, V. 2003. Material properties of North Atlantic cod eggs and early-stage larvae and their influence on acoustic scattering. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60: 508-515. To study the acoustic signatures of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at different biological stages from eggs to early-stage larvae (<37 days

Dezhang Chu; Peter H. Wiebe; Nancy J. Copley; Gareth L. Lawson; Velmurugu Puvanendran

2003-01-01

304

Abnormalities of plantar pressure distribution in early, intermediate, and late stages of diabetic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Inconsistent findings with regard to plantar pressure while walking in the diabetic population may be due to the heterogeneity of the studied groups resulting from the classification/grouping criteria adopted. The clinical diagnosis and classification of diabetes have inherent uncertainties that compromise the definition of its onset and the differentiation of its severity stages. A fuzzy system could improve the precision of the diagnosis and classification of diabetic neuropathy because it takes those uncertainties into account and combines different assessment methods. Here, we investigated how plantar pressure abnormalities evolve throughout different severity stages of diabetic polyneuropathy (absent, n=38; mild, n=20; moderate, n=47; severe, n=24). Pressure distribution was analysed over five areas while patients walked barefoot. Patients with mild neuropathy displayed an increase in pressure-time integral at the forefoot and a lower peak pressure at the heel. The peak and pressure-time integral under the forefoot and heel were aggravated in later stages of the disease (moderate and severe) compared with early stages of the disease (absent and mild). In the severe group, lower pressures at the lateral forefoot and hallux were observed, which could be related to symptoms that develop with the aggravation of neuropathy: atrophy of the intrinsic foot muscles, reduction of distal muscle activity, and joint stiffness. Although there were clear alterations over the forefoot and in a number of plantar areas with higher pressures within each severity stage, they did not follow the aggravation evolution of neuropathy classified by the fuzzy model. Based on these results, therapeutic interventions should begin in the early stages of this disease to prevent further consequences of the disease. PMID:25086801

Sacco, Isabel C N; Hamamoto, Adriana N; Tonicelli, Lucas M G; Watari, Ricky; Ortega, Neli R S; Sartor, Cristina D

2014-09-01

305

Blood cells cholinesterase activity in early stage Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.  

PubMed

Blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities have been studied as markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their usefulness as a disease marker is controversial. To determine cholinesterase (ChE) activity during AD progression and whether ChE changes associate to other dementias, ChE activity was measured in lymphocytes, erythrocytes and platelets. Subjects underwent extensive medical and neuropsychological examination. Both early-AD and AD patients had lower AChE activity in lymphocytes compared to control subjects (p < 0.0001). In contrast, erythrocyte AChE activity was higher in patients with vascular dementia (p = 0.004). Low ChE activity in lymphocytes was the best discriminator for AD. Because it was already low at very early stages of AD, ChE could be helpful as an early biomarker of differential diagnosis for the follow-up of patients during their early stages of cognitive impairment before a clinical dementia is established. PMID:15677868

von Bernhardi, Rommy; Alarcón, Rodrigo; Mezzano, Diego; Fuentes, Patricio; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

2005-01-01

306

Can Evidence-Based Prevention Programs be Sustained in Community Practice Settings? The Early Risers’ Advanced-Stage Effectiveness Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated institutional sustainability of the Early Risers “Skills for Success” conduct problems prevention program.\\u000a In a previous early-stage effectiveness trial Early Risers had been successfully implemented by a nonprofit community agency\\u000a with guidance, supervision, technical assistance and fiscal support\\/oversight provided by program developers. The current\\u000a advanced-stage effectiveness trial applied a randomized, control group design to determine whether this

Gerald J. August; Michael L. Bloomquist; Susanne S. Lee; George M. Realmuto; Joel M. Hektner

2006-01-01

307

Circulating Micro-RNAs as Potential Blood-Based Markers for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules with relevance as regulators of gene expression thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. MiRNAs offer great potential as biomarkers for cancer detection due to their remarkable stability in blood and their characteristic expression in many different diseases. We investigated whether microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood could discriminate between early stage breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Methods We performed microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood of 48 early stage breast cancer patients at diagnosis along with 57 healthy individuals as controls. This was followed by a real-time semi-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) validation in a separate cohort of 24 early stage breast cancer patients from a breast cancer screening unit and 24 age matched controls using two differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-202, miR-718). Results Using the significance level of p<0.05, we found that 59 miRNAs were differentially expressed in whole blood of early stage breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. 13 significantly up-regulated miRNAs and 46 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in our microarray panel of 1100 miRNAs and miRNA star sequences could be detected. A set of 240 miRNAs that was evaluated by radial basis function kernel support vector machines and 10-fold cross validation yielded a specificity of 78.8%, and a sensitivity of 92.5%, as well as an accuracy of 85.6%. Two miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort. The relative fold changes of the RT-qPCR validation were in line with the microarray data for both miRNAs, and statistically significant differences in miRNA-expression were found for miR-202. Conclusions MiRNA profiling in whole blood has potential as a novel method for early stage breast cancer detection, but there are still challenges that need to be addressed to establish these new biomarkers in clinical use. PMID:22242178

Schulz-Wendtland, Rudiger; Strissel, Pamela L.; Kahmann, Laura; Loehberg, Christian R.; Lux, Michael P.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Alexander; Bayer, Christian M.; Bani, Mayada R.; Richter, Swetlana; Adamietz, Boris R.; Wenkel, Evelyn; Rauh, Claudia; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.

2012-01-01

308

Applying a field spectroscopy technique for assessing successional trends of biological soil crusts in a semi-arid environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the successional stages of biological soil crusts (BSCs) by using in-situ spectroscopic techniques during 6 years of recovery following scraping-sterilization and scraping-crumbling disturbances on north- and south-facing slopes and in plots with and without overland water runoff barriers. Two spectral indices, the Brightness Index (BI) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), were used as indicators for evaluating

E. Zaady; A. Karnieli; M. Shachak

2007-01-01

309

Treatment Outcomes After Radiotherapy Alone for Patients With Early-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the treatment outcomes of patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy (RT) alone and discuss the effects of different T and N stages on the prognosis. Methods and Materials: The clinical data from 362 early-stage (T1-T2N0-N1M0, 1992 Fuzhou, China staging system) nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who had undergone RT alone between January 1999 and December 2001 and were hospitalized in the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University were collected and reviewed. Results: The median follow-up was 70 months. The 5-year overall survival rate for the whole group was 85%. The 5-year overall survival rate of those with T1N0, T2N0, and T1N1 was 96.6%, 91.3%, and 85.8%, respectively, with no statistically significant difference detected among the three groups (p > .05). However, the 5-year overall survival rate of 73.1% for those with Stage T2N1 was significantly different from that of the former three groups. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival and 5-year regional recurrence-free survival rates among the four groups was not significantly different (p < .05). The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rate of those with Stage T1N0, T2N0, and T1N1 was 94.9%, 97.5%, and 95.6%, respectively, without any significant differences (p > .05); however, the 81.2% rate for those with Stage T2N1 was significantly different (p < .05). Conclusion: RT alone for Stage T1N0, T2N0, and T1N1 yielded satisfactory results. The outcome for those with T2N1 was obviously poorer than that for the other three groups. The main reason for treatment failure in this group was distant metastasis. Patients who have a high risk of distant metastasis in the T2N1 group may need combined treatment instead of RT alone.

Xiao Weiwei; Han Fei [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lu Taixiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: ice_vivi@126.com; Chen, C.-Y.; Huang Ying; Zhao Chong [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

2009-07-15

310

Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2014-09-01

311

Efficient and rapid isolation of early-stage embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.  

PubMed

In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays. PMID:23770918

Raissig, Michael T; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

2013-01-01

312

Measurement of the human esophageal cancer in an early stage with Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The esophageal cancer has a tendency to transfer to another part of the body and the surgical operation itself sometimes gives high risk in vital function because many delicate organs exist near the esophagus. So the esophageal cancer is a disease with a high mortality. So, in order to lead a higher survival rate five years after the cancer's treatment, the investigation of the diagnosis methods or techniques of the cancer in an early stage and support the therapy are required. In this study, we performed the ex vivo experiments to obtain the Raman spectra from normal and early-stage tumor (stage-0) human esophageal sample by using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are collected by the homemade Raman spectrometer with the wavelength of 785 nm and Raman probe with 600-um-diameter. The principal component analysis (PCA) is performed after collection of spectra to recognize which materials changed in normal part and cancerous pert. After that, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is performed to predict the tissue type. The result of PCA indicates that the tumor tissue is associated with a decrease in tryptophan concentration. Furthermore, we can predict the tissue type with 80% accuracy by LDA which model is made by tryptophan bands.

Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ishigaki, Mika; Taketani, Akinori; Andriana, Bibin B.; Ishihara, Ryu; Sato, Hidetoshi

2014-02-01

313

Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study  

PubMed Central

The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929

Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrion, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

2012-01-01

314

How do early stages of information processing influence social skills in patients with schizophrenia?  

PubMed

Persons with schizophrenia show deficits across a broad range of cognitive domains, and their social skill deficits are thought, to some extent, to be caused by cognitive dysfunction. In this study, we attempted to replicate the correlation between the early stages of information processing and non-verbal skills. Subjects for the study included 22 men and six women who met DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. All subjects were attending a rehabilitation program at the day-treatment centers of their hospitals. Social skills were assessed using a structured role-play test. The Degraded-Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Span of Apprehension Test (SPAN) were used. Non-verbal skills were significantly correlated with CPT-False Alarm Rate (the rate of commission errors of all trials) in multiple regression analysis, but the receiving-processing skills did not have any relation to CPT or SPAN score. Non-verbal skills may be related to early information-processing deficiency, especially the response-inhibiting system. Receiving and processing skills may be related to later stages of information processing, or may reflect not only 'molecular' stages of information processing (less complex and less integration task in a continuum of complexity of cognitive processes) but also other factors such as social learning. PMID:10093871

Ikebuchi, E; Nakagome, K; Takahashi, N

1999-02-15

315

TEM investigations of the early stages of TiAl oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The early stages of TiAl oxidation at 900{degrees}C and 1000{degrees}C in air have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The investigations revealed that at the beginning of oxidation, i.e., after 4 min, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grow in a preferential orientation on the {gamma}-TiAl substrate. After 4 h of oxidation an oxide scale structure can already be found similar to that known from long-term oxidation. In addition, besides {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the formation of second aluminum oxide phase and of titanium nitrides is observed. The processes at the metal-oxide interface of oxidation in the early stages, consisting of a repeated cycle of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dissolution, outward migration of Al through the scale, and reprecipitation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the outer scale, are described by a model. The four stages observed in the kinetics of TiAl oxidation are explained on the basis of the results obtained and the structure of the oxide scale.

Lang, C.; Schuetze, M. [Karl-Winnacker-Institut der DECHEMA, Frankfurt Main (Germany)

1996-10-01

316

Genome-scale transcriptomic insights into early-stage fruit development in woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca.  

PubMed

Fragaria vesca, a diploid woodland strawberry with a small and sequenced genome, is an excellent model for studying fruit development. The strawberry fruit is unique in that the edible flesh is actually enlarged receptacle tissue. The true fruit are the numerous dry achenes dotting the receptacle's surface. Auxin produced from the achene is essential for the receptacle fruit set, a paradigm for studying crosstalk between hormone signaling and development. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying strawberry fruit set, next-generation sequencing was employed to profile early-stage fruit development with five fruit tissue types and five developmental stages from floral anthesis to enlarged fruits. This two-dimensional data set provides a systems-level view of molecular events with precise spatial and temporal resolution. The data suggest that the endosperm and seed coat may play a more prominent role than the embryo in auxin and gibberellin biosynthesis for fruit set. A model is proposed to illustrate how hormonal signals produced in the endosperm and seed coat coordinate seed, ovary wall, and receptacle fruit development. The comprehensive fruit transcriptome data set provides a wealth of genomic resources for the strawberry and Rosaceae communities as well as unprecedented molecular insight into fruit set and early stage fruit development. PMID:23898027

Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Shahan, Rachel; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

2013-06-01

317

Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin.  

PubMed

Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered. PMID:24962806

Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S; Di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A; Bianconi, Antonio

2014-01-01

318

Early-stage comparative sustainability assessment of new bio-based processes.  

PubMed

Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analyze eight new bio-based process alternatives developed within the CatchBio research consortium in the Netherlands. This assessment relies on a multi-criteria approach, integrating the performance of chemical conversions based on five indicators into an index value. These indicators encompass economics, environmental impact, hazards and risks thereby incorporating elements of green chemistry principles, and techno-economic and life cycle assessments. The analyzed bio-based options target the production of fuels and chemicals through chemical catalysis. For each bio-based process, two R&D stages (current laboratory and expected future) are assessed against a comparable conventional process. The multi-criteria assessment in combination with the uncertainty and scenario analysis shows that the chemical production processes using biomass as feedstock can provide potential sustainability benefits over conventional alternatives. However, further development is necessary to realize the potential benefits from biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes for fuel production. This early stage assessment is intended as an input for R&D decision making to support optimal allocation and utilization of resources to further develop promising bio-based processes. PMID:24078179

Patel, Akshay D; Meesters, Koen; den Uil, Herman; de Jong, Ed; Worrell, Ernst; Patel, Martin K

2013-09-01

319

Dissection and Downstream Analysis of Zebra Finch Embryos at Early Stages of Development  

PubMed Central

The zebra finch (Taeniopygiaguttata) has become an increasingly important model organism in many areas of research including toxicology1,2, behavior3, and memory and learning4,5,6. As the only songbird with a sequenced genome, the zebra finch has great potential for use in developmental studies; however, the early stages of zebra finch development have not been well studied. Lack of research in zebra finch development can be attributed to the difficulty of dissecting the small egg and embryo. The following dissection method minimizes embryonic tissue damage, which allows for investigation of morphology and gene expression at all stages of embryonic development. This permits both bright field and fluorescence quality imaging of embryos, use in molecular procedures such as in situ hybridization (ISH), cell proliferation assays, and RNA extraction for quantitative assays such as quantitative real-time PCR (qtRT-PCR). This technique allows investigators to study early stages of development that were previously difficult to access. PMID:24999108

Murray, Jessica R.; Stanciauskas, Monika E.; Aralere, Tejas S.; Saha, Margaret S.

2014-01-01

320

Pesticides in urban streams and early life stages of Pacific coho salmon.  

PubMed

Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams and are believed to be primarily the result of homeowner use. Although concentrations in most cases are low (<1?µg/L), there is concern that pesticide inputs threaten efforts to restore and enhance salmon habitat. The authors exposed early life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of those pesticides most frequently reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Life stages were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail simulating those in urban streams in fall and winter when coho salmon eggs and sac fry are present. Nominal concentrations of eight herbicides, two insecticides, a fungicide, and a breakdown product were the maximum detected. Fertilization, hatching success, survival, deformities, and growth of fry were not significantly affected. A reduction in fertilization success (19-25%) was not reproducible even when gametes were exposed to 100 times the maximum concentrations detected. Based on the end points examined in the present study, the results suggest that direct exposure to the pesticides most frequently detected in urban streams in western Washington does not impair early life stages of coho salmon and is not a major factor governing the recovery of salmon populations. The extent to which pesticide exposure would affect smoltification, outmigration, and ocean survival needs to be determined. PMID:23297254

King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J

2013-04-01

321

Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered.

Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S.; di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Bianconi, Antonio

2014-06-01

322

Large spinose microfossils in Ediacaran rocks as resting stages of early animals  

PubMed Central

Large (>100 ?m), profusely ornamented microfossils comprise a distinctive paleontological component of sedimentary rocks deposited during the Ediacaran Period (635–542 million years ago). Smaller spinose fossils in Paleozoic rocks have commonly been interpreted as algal cysts or phycomata, but the Ediacaran populations differ from modern algal analogs in size, shape, ultrastructure, and internal contents. In contrast, cysts formed during the diapause egg-resting stages of many metazoans share features of size, ornamentation, and internal contents with large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs). Moreover, transmission electron microscopic observations of animal-resting cysts reveal a 3-layer wall ultrastructure comparable to that of LOEM taxa. Interpretation of these distinctive Ediacaran microfossils as resting stages in early metazoan life cycles offers additional perspectives on their functional morphology and stratigraphic distribution. Based on comparisons with modern marine invertebrates, the recalcitrant life stage represented by LOEMs is interpreted as an evolutionary response to prolonged episodes of bottom water anoxia in Ediacaran shelf and platform environments. As predicted by this hypothesis, the later Ediacaran disappearance of LOEM taxa coincides with geochemical evidence for a marked decline in the extent of oxygen-depleted waters impinging on continental shelves and platforms. Thus, the form, diversity, and stratigraphic range of LOEMs illuminate life cycle evolution in early animals as influenced by the evolving redox state of the oceans. PMID:19366668

Cohen, Phoebe A.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Kodner, Robin B.

2009-01-01

323

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Only Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Background: We report the results of a single-institution, phase II trial of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using a single dose of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) in patients with low-risk early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 226 patients with low-risk, early stage breast cancer were treated with local excision and axillary management (sentinel node biopsy with or without axillary node dissection). After the surgeon temporarily reapproximated the excision cavity, a dose of 21 Gy using IOERT was delivered to the tumor bed, with a margin of 2 cm laterally. Results: With a mean follow-up of 46 months (range, 28-63 months), only 1 case of local recurrence was reported. The observed toxicity was considered acceptable. Conclusions: APBI using a single dose of IOERT can be delivered safely in women with early, low-risk breast cancer in carefully selected patients. A longer follow-up is needed to ascertain its efficacy compared to that of the current standard treatment of whole-breast irradiation.

Maluta, Sergio [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Dall'Oglio, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.dalloglio@ospedaleuniverona.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Marciai, Nadia; Gabbani, Milena [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Franchini, Zeno [Department of Surgery 1, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Surgery 1, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Pietrarota, Paolo [Department of Surgery 2, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Surgery 2, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Meliado, Gabriele; Guariglia, Stefania; Cavedon, Carlo [Department of Health Physics, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Health Physics, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)

2012-10-01

324

Miniprobe Endoscopic Ultrasonography Has Limitations in Determining the T Stage in Early Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Mini-probe endoscopic ultrasonography (mEUS) is a useful diagnostic tool for accurate assessment of tumor invasion. The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of mEUS in patients with early colorectal cancer (ECC). Methods Ninety lesions of ECC underwent mEUS for pre-treatment staging. We divided the lesions into either the mucosal group or the submucosal group according to the mEUS findings. The histological results of the specimens were compared with the mEUS findings. Results The overall accuracy for assessing the depth of tumor invasion (T stage) was 84.4% (76/90). The accuracy of mEUS was significantly lower for submucosal lesions compared to mucosal lesions (p=0.003) and it was lower for large tumors (?2 cm) (p=0.034). The odds ratios of large tumors and submucosal tumors affecting the accuracy of T staging were 3.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 11.39) and 6.25 (95% CI, 1.85 to 25.14), respectively. When submucosal tumors were combined with large size, the odds ratio was 14.67 (95% CI, 1.46 to 146.96). Conclusions The overall accuracy of T stage determination with mEUS was considerably high in patients with ECC; however, the accuracy decreased when tumor size was >2 cm or the tumor had invaded the submucosal layer. PMID:23560151

Tsung, Pei Chuan; Park, Jong Hyeok; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Won Wo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, Jin Nam; Kang, Yun Kyung; Moon, Jeong Seop

2013-01-01

325

A Massive Star Forming Region in a Very Early Stage of Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a study of two luminous IRAS sources thought to be young massive star forming regions and which have no previously detected radio continuum emission: IRAS 15596-5301 and IRAS 16272-4837. Our study incorporates sensitive ATCA radio continuum data, SEST 1.2-mm continuum (using the new SIMBA bolometer) and line data, as well as data taken from the MSX database. The results show that both sources are associated with dense molecular cores which appear to host recently formed massive stars. We argue that IRAS 16272 is in a very early stage of evolution, prior to the formation of an ultra compact HII region and that IRAS 15596 is in a more advanced stage and hosts a cluster of B-type stars.

Brooks, K. J.; Garay, G.; Mardones, D.; Norris, R. P.; Burton, M. G.

326

Early calcium dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease: setting the stage for synaptic dysfunction.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no known cure or clear understanding of the mechanisms involved in the disease process. Amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal loss, though characteristic of AD, are late stage markers whose impact on the most devastating aspect of AD, namely memory loss and cognitive deficits, are still unclear. Recent studies demonstrate that structural and functional breakdown of synapses may be the underlying factor in AD-linked cognitive decline. One common element that presents with several features of AD is disrupted neuronal calcium signaling. Increased intracellular calcium levels are functionally linked to presenilin mutations, ApoE4 expression, amyloid plaques, tau tangles and synaptic dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the role of AD-linked calcium signaling alterations in neurons and how this may be linked to synaptic dysfunctions at both early and late stages of the disease. PMID:21786198

Chakroborty, Shreaya; Stutzmann, Grace E

2011-08-01

327

Reactive molecular dynamic simulations of early stage of wet oxidation of Si (001) surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the initial stage of oxidation of Si (001) surface by water (H2O) molecules using reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at 300 K and 1200 K without any external constraint on the water molecules. Previously, reported water reaction behaviors on silicon surface by ab initio calculations or experimental observations were reproduced by the present MD simulation. The present simulation further revealed that the hydrogen atom in H2O is more attractive than oxygen atom in O2 to bond with Si, such that it accelerates the dissociation process of H2O. It was also observed that the oxidation reaction was enhanced with increased number of the supplied water molecules. It was suggested that the repulsion between water molecules and their fragments facilitates the dissociation of both water molecules and hydroxyl decomposition on the Si surface. Therefore, the wet oxidation behavior appeared to have more temperature dependence even in the early stage of oxidation.

Pamungkas, Mauludi Ariesto; Kim, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol

2013-08-01

328

Large scale surface migration of P. aeruginosa at early stages of biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a commonly-studied bacterium which can form biofilms, surface-bound aggregates which display increased resistance to various forms of stress, including a greatly enhanced antibiotic resistance. In the early stages of biofilm formation, free-swimming planktonic cells attach to the surface and form microcolonies, expressing a variety of adhesins and transitioning from reversible to irreversible attachment. By using particle tracking algorithms, we can in principle examine the full motility and division history of all cells in a microcolony. Here, we study the effects of the pel polysaccharides in microcolony formation by investigating how pel impacts the initial stages of biofilm formation by the P. aeruginosa PA14 strain. Specifically, we quantify the phenotypic effects of pel on initial attachment, microcolony formation, and biofilm morphology.

Gibiansky, Maxsim; Utada, Andy; Zhao, Kun; Xian, Wujing; Wong, Gerard

2013-03-01

329

Early-stage precipitation in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (7050)  

SciTech Connect

GP zone and metastable {eta}{sup '} formation during the early-stage precipitation of a 7050 Al alloy aged at 121 deg. C has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy, together with 3-dimensional atom probe analysis (of the chemistry and morphology) of individual precipitates. Small Mg-rich clusters (GPI zones) are found in the alloy after short ageing times at 121 deg. C, together with larger GPI zones (Zn/Mg=1.0). Zn-rich {eta}{sup '} platelets are seen to form mainly between 30 and 240 min ageing, coexisting with larger GPI zones. A significant fraction of <1 1 0> elongated clusters have also been observed over this period of ageing. The dominant mechanism for {eta}{sup '} formation at this stage is shown to be by transformation of small GPI zones, via these elongated clusters and not by nucleation on larger zones.

Sha Gang; Cerezo, Alfred

2004-09-06

330

Memory impairment and awareness of memory deficits in early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

In addition to their memory impairment, individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often suffer from deficits in self-awareness. Awareness of memory deficits or metamemory is a multifaceted function, comprising on-line self-monitoring, generalized self-beliefs of memory efficacy, and generalized knowledge about memory functions. Awareness of memory problems in early-stage AD is a matter of clinical importance from a humanistic point of view, because higher levels of awareness may be associated with better future outcomes. Current methods of measuring awareness tend to fall into two categories, i.e., to introduce a questionnaire assessing patient/caregiver discrepancies; or to ask a patient to prospectively predict or retrospectively postdict their own memory performances. Characteristics of each measure as well as relationship between the two measures were discussed. For the performance prediction/postdiction paradigm, we used recognition memory of auditory verbal learning tests and awareness of memory deficits were examined in 24 individuals with early-stage AD. In addition to their significantly impaired recognition memory, individuals with AD displayed underawareness of memory deficits even at this early stage. They retrospectively overestimated memory performance after actual performance, but appeared to benefit from feedback and displayed intact on-line awareness of memory dysfunction, leading to normal prediction of the second session. However, individuals with AD again failed to retrospectively incorporate incidents of memory failure into generalized self-belief systems. Brain/behavior correlational analyses suggest that the prefrontal cortex and posterior dorsomedial regions including the precuneus may be involved in self-awareness. PMID:18577842

Mimura, Masaru

2008-06-01

331

The Physical Performance Test Predicts Aerobic Capacity Sufficient for Independence in Early-Stage Alzheimer's  

PubMed Central

Background Early identification of physical impairment related to AD is increasingly identified as an important aspect of diagnosis and care. Clinically accessible tools for evaluating physical capacity and impairment in AD have been developed but require further characterization for their effective use. Purpose To assess the utility of the Physical Performance Test (PPT) for identifying functionally-limiting aerobic capacity in older adults with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and without dementia. Methods Secondary analysis of a dataset of community dwelling older adults, 70 without dementia and 60 with early-stage AD. Participants were administered the PPT and performed a graded maximal exercise test. The clinical utility of two versions of the PPT was described by determining sensitivity and specificity to functionally-limiting aerobic capacity. Results The 9-item PPT is predictive of diminished aerobic capacity in older adults with AD. A score of 28 or less indicates likelihood of functionally-limiting aerobic capacity that would limit independent function with 67% sensitivity and 67% specificity. The 4-item mini-PPT demonstrates improved capability for identifying impaired functional aerobic capacity with 85% sensitivity and 62% specificity. The PPT was not useful for identifying impaired functional aerobic capacity in older adults without dementia. Conclusions The PPT, which incorporate basic and instrumental activities of daily living as test items, and the mini-PPT which focuses on basic activities of daily living and simple physical functions, are both clinically useful tool for the evaluation for individuals in the earliest stages of AD and both provide important information about functional performance. The mini-PPT additionally inform the clinician as to whether or not individual with early-stage AD is likely to have insufficient aerobic capacity to perform instrumental daily functions. PMID:22020383

Vidoni, Eric D.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Lee, Charesa; Hamilton, Jenna; Burns, Jeffrey M.

2011-01-01

332

Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy for high-risk, early stage endometrial cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report outcomes following adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) with or without chemotherapy for high-intermediate risk (HIR) and high-risk, early stage endometrial cancer as defined in Gynecologic Oncology Group trial 0249. Material and methods From May 2000 to January 2014, 68 women with HIR and high-risk endometrial cancer underwent surgical staging followed by VBT. Median VBT dose was 21 Gy delivered in three fractions prescribed to 0.5 cm depth. Paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and carboplatin area under the curve 6 was administered every 21 days in sequence with VBT. Actuarial survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Patient demographics included a median age of 66 years (range: 36-91) and stages IA (49%), IB (38%), and II (13%), respectively. Thirty-one (46%) patients had HIR disease with endometrioid histology, and 33 (48%) patients had serous or clear cell histology. Thirty-seven (54%) patients received a median 3 cycles (range: 3-6) of chemotherapy in addition to VBT, and 65 patients (96%) completed all prescribed therapy. During a median follow up of 33.1 months (range: 4.0-161.7), four patients have recurred, including one vaginal recurrence. The 3-year estimates of vaginal, pelvic, and distant recurrences were 1.9%, 2.4%, and 9.1%, respectively. The 3-year rates of disease-free and overall survival were 87.7% and 93.9%, respectively. Conclusions Early outcomes with adjuvant VBT with or without chemotherapy demonstrate high rates of vaginal and pelvic control for women with HIR disease. Early vaginal and pelvic relapses in high-risk patients suggest that pelvic external beam radiotherapy is warranted in this subgroup, but additional data from large phase III trials is warranted. PMID:25337127

Eastwick, Gary; Anne, Pramila Rani; Rosenblum, Norman G.; Schilder, Russell J.; Chalian, Raffi; Zibelli, Allison M.; Kim, Christine H.; Den, Robert

2014-01-01

333

Dietary Patterns and Breast Cancer Recurrence and Survival Among Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the association of dietary patterns with cancer recurrence and mortality of early-stage breast cancer survivors. Patients and Methods Patients included 1,901 Life After Cancer Epidemiology Study participants diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer between 1997 and 2000 and recruited primarily from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry. Diet was assessed at cohort entry using a food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were identified: prudent (high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and poultry) and Western (high intakes of red and processed meats and refined grains). Two hundred sixty-eight breast cancer recurrences and 226 all-cause deaths (128 attributable to breast cancer) were ascertained. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results Increasing adherence to a prudent dietary pattern was associated with a statistically significant decreasing risk of overall death (P trend = .02; HR for highest quartile = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.90) and death from non–breast cancer causes (P trend = .003; HR for highest quartile = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.73). In contrast, increasing consumption of a Western dietary pattern was related to an increasing risk of overall death (P trend = .05) and death from non–breast cancer causes (P = .02). Neither dietary pattern was associated with risk of breast cancer recurrence or death from breast cancer. These observations were generally not modified by physical activity, being overweight, or smoking. Conclusion Women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer might improve overall prognosis and survival by adopting more healthful dietary patterns. PMID:19114692

Kwan, Marilyn L.; Weltzien, Erin; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Castillo, Adrienne; Slattery, Martha L.; Caan, Bette J.

2009-01-01

334

Depressive Symptoms are Increased in the Early Perimenopausal Stage in Ethnically Diverse HIV+ and HIV- Women  

PubMed Central

Objective The risk of clinically significant depressive symptoms increases during the perimenopause. With highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), more HIV-infected women survive to transition through the menopause. In a cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated the association of menopausal stage and vasomotor symptoms with depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse, cohort of women with a high prevalence of HIV. Methods Participants included 835 HIV-infected women and 335 HIV-uninfected controls from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS; 63% African-American). The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale was used to screen for elevated depressive symptoms. Menopausal stages were defined according to standard definitions. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of elevated depressive symptoms. Results Compared to premenopausal women, early perimenopausal (OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.17–2.60), but not late perimenopausal or postmenopausal women were more likely to show elevated depressive symptoms in adjusted analyses. The odds were similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Persistent vasomotor symptoms also predicted elevated depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and uninfected women (OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.02–2.06). In HIV-infected women, menopausal stage interacted with antiretroviral use (p=0.02); the likelihood of elevated depressive symptoms in early perimenopause compared with premenopause was especially high in HAART-untreated women (OR 3.87, 95%CI 1.57–9.55). Conclusions In HIV+ and HIV? women, the odds of elevated depressive symptoms were significantly higher during the early perimenopause. Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with nonadherence to HAART, underscoring the importance of screening and treating depressive symptoms in HIV+ women who have experienced a change in the regularity of their menstrual cycles. PMID:22872013

Maki, Pauline M.; Rubin, Leah H.; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Young, Mary; Schwartz, Rebecca M.; Anastos, Kathryn; Cook, Judith A.

2012-01-01

335

Cognitive and Social Processes Predicting Partner Psychological Adaptation to Early Stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction The diagnosis and subsequent treatment for early stage breast cancer is stressful for partners. Little is known about the role of cognitive and social processes predicting the longitudinal course of partners’ psychosocial adaptation. This study evaluated the role of cognitive and social processing in partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer, evaluating both main and moderator effect models. Moderating effects for meaning-making, acceptance, and positive reappraisal on the predictive association of searching for meaning, emotional processing, and emotional expression on partner psychological distress were examined. Materials and Methods Partners of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were evaluated shortly after the ill partner’s diagnosis (n= 253), nine (n = 167), and 18 months (n = 149) later. Partners completed measures of emotional expression, emotional processing, acceptance, meaning-making, and general and cancer-specific distress at all time points. Results Lower satisfaction with partner support predicted greater global distress, and greater use of positive reappraisal was associated with greater distress. The predicted moderator effects for found meaning on the associations between the search for meaning and cancer-specific distress were found and similar moderating effects for positive reappraisal on the associations between emotional expression and global distress and for acceptance on the association between emotional processing and cancer-specific distress were found. Conclusions Results indicate several cognitive-social processes directly predict partner distress. However, moderator effect models in which the effects of partners’ processing depends upon whether these efforts result changes in perceptions of the cancer experience may add to the understanding of partners’ adaptation to cancer. PMID:18435865

Manne, Sharon; Ostroff, Jamie; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Winkel, Gary

2009-01-01

336

Letrozole : in postmenopausal hormone-responsive early-stage breast cancer.  

PubMed

Letrozole is a highly selective, nonsteroidal, third-generation aromatase inhibitor approved for first-line and extended adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive, early-stage breast cancer. Binding of letrozole to the haeme component of the cytochrome P450 subunit of aromatase inhibits estrogen biosynthesis throughout the body. As first-line adjuvant therapy in approximate, equals 8000 postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive, early-stage breast cancer, once-daily letrozole 2.5mg significantly prolonged disease-free survival (DFS; primary endpoint) and reduced the risk of relapse at distant sites relative to once-daily tamoxifen 20mg in the ongoing Breast International Group 1-98, double-blind, multinational trial. The median duration of follow-up for this primary core analysis was 25.8 months. Extended adjuvant therapy with once-daily letrozole 2.5mg significantly prolonged DFS relative to placebo treatment at a median follow-up of 30 months (primary endpoint) in the MA-17 trial in approximate, equals 5000 postmenopausal women who were disease free after 4.5-6 years of tamoxifen therapy for hormone-responsive, early-stage breast cancer. Letrozole treatment for up to 5 years was generally well tolerated in this clinical setting. As first-line treatment, relative to tamoxifen, letrozole was associated with a significantly lower incidence of venous thromboembolitic events, vaginal bleeding, hot flushes and night sweating, whereas the incidence of cardiac failure, bone fractures and arthralgia was higher in letrozole recipients. PMID:16526826

Scott, Lesley J; Keam, Susan J

2006-01-01

337

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 ?atm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 ?atm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which could lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

2011-12-01

338

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on the early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in the life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 ?atm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 ?atm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which consequently should lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival and could affect the ecosystem and fisheries. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

2011-07-01

339

Biopsy Findings After Breast Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the patterns and factors predictive of positive ipsilateral breast biopsy after conservation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of Stage I-II breast cancer patients initially treated with lumpectomy and radiotherapy between 1977 and 1996, who later underwent post-treatment ipsilateral breast biopsies. Results: A total of 223 biopsies were performed in 193 treated breasts: 171 single and 22 multiple biopsies. Of the 223 biopsies, 56% were positive and 44% were negative for recurrence. The positive biopsy rate (PBR) was 59% for the first and 32% for subsequent biopsies. The median time to the first post-treatment biopsy was 49 months. Of the patients with negative initial biopsy findings, 11% later developed local recurrence. The PBR was 40% among patients with physical examination findings only, 65% with mammographic abnormalities only, and 79% with both findings (p = 0.001). Analysis of the procedure type revealed a PBR of 86% for core and 58% for excisional biopsies compared with 28% for aspiration cytology alone (p = 0.025). The PBR varied inversely with age at the original diagnosis: 49% if {>=}51 years, 57% if 36-50 years, and 83% if {<=}35 years (p = 0.05). The PBR correlated directly with the interval after radiotherapy: 49% if {<=}60 months, 59% if 60.1-120 months, 77% if 120.1-180 months, and 100% if >180 months after completing postlumpectomy radiotherapy (p = 0.01). The PBR was not linked with recurrence location, initial pathologic T or N stage, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or final pathologic margins (all p {>=} 0.15). Conclusion: After definitive radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, a greater PBR was associated with the presence of both mammographic and clinical abnormalities, excisional or core biopsies, younger age at the initial diagnosis, and longer intervals after radiotherapy completion.

Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: vapiwala@xrt.upenn.edu; Starzyk, Jill; Harris, Eleanor E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tchou, Julia C.; Boraas, Marcia C.; Czerniecki, Brian J.; Rosato, Ernest F. [Department of Surgery, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Orel, Susan G. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Solin, Lawrence J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2007-10-01

340

'Making the best you can of it': living with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Drawing upon data from a qualitative study of persons who are in the early stage of the condition, this paper examines the meaning of Alzheimer's disease. It contrasts the meaning of the disease as portrayed in popular culture with its meaning as interpreted by persons living with it. Findings show that persons with the illness do not necessarily accept the negative cultural meaning of the disease, nor the helpless 'victim' role in which they are generally cast. With a determination to 'make the best of it', strategies such as humour, normalisation, present-time orientation, and life review are employed to create a meaningful life. PMID:18298633

Macrae, Hazel

2008-04-01

341

Quantitative classification of primary progressive aphasia at early and mild impairment stages.  

PubMed

The characteristics of early and mild disease in primary progressive aphasia are poorly understood. This report is based on 25 patients with aphasia quotients >85%, 13 of whom were within 2 years of symptom onset. Word-finding and spelling deficits were the most frequent initial signs. Diagnostic imaging was frequently negative and initial consultations seldom reached a correct diagnosis. Functionality was preserved, so that the patients fit current criteria for single-domain mild cognitive impairment. One goal was to determine whether recently published classification guidelines could be implemented at these early and mild disease stages. The quantitative testing of the recommended core and ancillary criteria led to the classification of ?80% of the sample into agrammatic, logopenic and semantic variants. Biological validity of the resultant classification at these mild impairment stages was demonstrated by clinically concordant cortical atrophy patterns. A two-dimensional template based on orthogonal mapping of word comprehension and grammaticality provided comparable accuracy and led to a flexible road map that can guide the classification process quantitatively or qualitatively. Longitudinal evaluations of initially unclassifiable patients showed that the semantic variant can be preceded by a prodromal stage of focal left anterior temporal atrophy during which prominent anomia exists without word comprehension or object recognition impairments. Patterns of quantitative tests justified the distinction of grammar from speech abnormalities and the desirability of using the 'agrammatic' designation exclusively for loss of grammaticality, regardless of fluency or speech status. Two patients with simultaneous impairments of grammatical sentence production and word comprehension displayed focal atrophy of the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior temporal lobe. These patients represent a fourth variant of 'mixed' primary progressive aphasia. Quantitative criteria were least effective in the distinction of the agrammatic from the logopenic variant and left considerable latitude to clinical judgement. The widely followed recommendation to wait for 2 years of relatively isolated and progressive language impairment before making a definitive diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia has promoted diagnostic specificity, but has also diverted attention away from early and mild disease. This study shows that this recommendation is unnecessarily restrictive and that quantitative guidelines can be implemented for the valid root diagnosis and subtyping of mildly impaired patients within 2 years of symptom onset. An emphasis on early diagnosis will promote a better characterization of the disease stages where therapeutic interventions are the most likely to succeed. PMID:22525158

Mesulam, M-Marsel; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra

2012-05-01

342

Clean Energy Finance: Challenges and Opportunities of Early-Stage Energy Investing (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Characterized by a changing landscape and new opportunities, today's increasingly complex energy decision space will need innovative financing and investment models to appropriately assess risk and profitability. This report provides an overview of the current state of clean energy finance across the entire spectrum but with a focus on early stage investing, and it includes insights from investors across all investment classes. Further, this report aims to provide a roadmap with the mechanisms, limitations, and considerations involved in making successful investments by identifying risks, challenges, and opportunities in the clean energy sector.

Heap, D.; Pless, J.; Aieta, N.

2013-12-01

343

Some physiological effects of cadmium on the early life stages of the estuarine teleost Fundulus similis  

E-print Network

";ill;i~erat of the req. tire. ';;e )i, for tlute d-~ree of PASTER OF SCIENCE December l971 SOME PHYS IOLOG ICAL EFF ECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE ESTUARINE TELEOST FUNDULUS S IMILIS. A Thesis MAYNE LEROY MCCULLOCH Approved as to styl e... the larvae just prior to exposure to avoid losses due to starvation. Solutions were changed every 24 hours and at that time dead anima', s were removed and recorded. Criteria for death in eo bryos was cessa!ion of heartbeat; for larvae, lack of op...

McCulloch, Wayne LeRoy

2012-06-07

344

Pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common causes of dementia in the world. Patients with AD frequently complain of vision disturbances that do not manifest as changes in routine ophthalmological examination findings. The main causes of these disturbances are neuropathological changes in the visual cortex, although abnormalities in the retina and optic nerve cannot be excluded. Pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) tests are commonly used in ophthalmology to estimate bioelectrical function of the retina and optic nerve. The aim of this study was to determine whether retinal and optic nerve function, measured by PERG and PVEP tests, is changed in individuals in the early stages of AD with normal routine ophthalmological examination results. Standard PERG and PVEP tests were performed in 30 eyes of 30 patients with the early stages of AD. The results were compared to 30 eyes of 30 normal healthy controls. PERG and PVEP tests were recorded in accordance with the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) standards. Additionally, neural conduction was measured using retinocortical time (RCT)--the difference between P100-wave latency in PVEP and P50-wave implicit time in PERG. In PERG test, PVEP test, and RCT, statistically significant changes were detected. In PERG examination, increased implicit time of P50-wave (P < 0.03) and amplitudes reductions in P50- and N95-waves (P < 0.0001) were observed. In PVEP examination, increased latency of P100-wave (P < 0.0001) was found. A significant increase in RCT (P < 0.0001) was observed. The most prevalent features were amplitude reduction in N95-wave and increased latency of P100-wave which were seen in 56.7% (17/30) of the AD eyes. In patients with the early stages of AD and normal routine ophthalmological examination results, dysfunction of the retinal ganglion cells as well as of the optic nerve is present, as detected by PERG and PVEP tests. These dysfunctions, at least partially, explain the cause of visual disturbances observed in patients with the early stages of AD. PMID:20549299

Krasodomska, Kamila; Lubi?ski, Wojciech; Potemkowski, Andrzej; Honczarenko, Krystyna

2010-10-01

345

The management of early-stage and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: a review.  

PubMed

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined as lacking expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2, comprises approximately 15% of incident breast cancers and is over-represented among those with metastatic disease. There are several biologically distinct subtypes within TNBC. Although the incidence of BRCA mutations across all subsets of breast cancer is low, BRCA mutations are more common among those with TNBC and may have therapeutic implications. The general principles guiding the use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy do not differ dramatically between early-stage TNBC and non-TNBC. PMID:23915742

Anders, Carey K; Zagar, Timothy M; Carey, Lisa A

2013-08-01

346

The utility of Stroop task switching as a marker for early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Past studies have suggested attentional control tasks such as the Stroop task and the task-switching paradigm may be sensitive for the early detection of dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). The authors of the current study combined these tasks to create a Stroop switching task. Performance was compared across young adults, older adults, and individuals diagnosed with very mild dementia. Results indicated that this task strongly discriminated individuals with healthy aging from those with early-stage DAT. In a logistic regression analysis, incongruent error rates from the Stroop switching task discriminated healthy aging from DAT better than any of the other 18 cognitive tasks given in a psychometric battery. PMID:20853964

Hutchison, Keith A; Balota, David A; Duchek, Janet M; Ducheck, Janet M

2010-09-01

347

Investigating the Early Stages of Person Perception: The Asymmetry of Social Categorization by Sex vs. Age  

PubMed Central

Early perceptual operations are central components of the dynamics of social categorization. The wealth of information provided by facial cues presents challenges to our understanding of these early stages of person perception. The current study aimed to uncover the dynamics of processing multiply categorizable faces, notably as a function of their gender and age. Using a modified four-choice version of a mouse-tracking paradigm (which assesses the relative dominance of two categorical dimensions), the relative influence that sex and age have on each other during categorization of infant, younger adult, and older adult faces was investigated. Results of these experiments demonstrate that when sex and age dimensions are simultaneously categorized, only for infant faces does age influence sex categorization. In contrast, the sex of both young and older adults was shown to influence age categorization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed in light of previous person perception research. PMID:24465423

Cloutier, Jasmin; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Ambady, Nalini

2014-01-01

348

Gas turbine based cogeneration facilities: Key issues to be addressed at an early design stage  

SciTech Connect

The basic design of a cogeneration facility implies much more than looking for a gas turbine generating set that matches the steam host heat demand, and making an economical evaluation of the project. Tractebel Energy Engineering (TEE) has designed, built and commissioned since the early nineties 350 MW of cogeneration facilities, mainly producing electricity and steam with natural gas fired gas turbines, which is the present most common option for industrial combined heat and power production. A standardized cogeneration design does not exist. Each facility has to be carefully adapted to the steam host's particular situation, and important technical issues have to be addressed at an early stage of plant design. Unexpected problems, expensive modifications, delays during execution of the project and possible long term operational limitations or drawbacks may result if these questions are left unanswered. This paper comments the most frequent questions on design values, required flexibility of the HRSG, reliability and backup, control system, connection to the grid

Vandesteene, J.L.; De Backer, J.

1998-07-01

349

Adventitial fibroblasts are activated in the early stages of atherosclerosis in the apolipoprotein E knockout mouse  

SciTech Connect

The role of the adventitia in vascular function and vascular lesion formation has been largely ignored. This study observed the activation of the adventitia and specifically the fibroblasts in the development of atherosclerosis in the apoE(-/-) mouse. The results showed a gradual increase in expression of collagen types I and III after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of hyperlipidic diet. The earliest expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) protein and mRNA was detected in the adventitial fibroblast before the formation of intimal lesions. Proliferation, too, was first found in the adventitial fibroblasts. We hypothesize that the adventitial fibroblast is activated in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Adventitial inflammation may be an early event in the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

Xu Fang [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Ji Jian [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Li Li [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Chen Rong [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Hu Weicheng [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China)]. E-mail: huweicheng@sdu.edu.cn

2007-01-19

350

Evidence of Altered Corticomotor System Connectivity in Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose There is increasing evidence for subtle motor dysfunction early in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), including common motor behaviors that were once considered unaffected early in the disease process. Our objective was to assess if functional neural networks underlying motor behavior are altered by AD. Methods We investigated AD-related differences in regional brain activation during motor performance. Nine older adults with early-stage AD and 10 without dementia underwent fMRI while performing a visually-directed simple motor task (hand squeeze). Results Despite some similarity in brain activation during motor performance, we found that individuals without dementia exhibited greater activation in accessory motor regions supplementary motor area and cerebellum compared to those with AD. We also assessed disease-related differences in regions where activity was functionally integrated with primary motor cortex. Using a psycho-physiological interaction analysis, we found that those with AD displayed increased co-activation with primary motor cortex of bilateral motor and visual regions. Discussion and Conclusions These AD-related changes in regional co-activation during motor execution in may represent inefficiency in the motor network as a consequence of the disease process. Alternatively, they may represent compensatory activation. These findings provide further evidence that in early-stages of AD, neuromotor function is altered in AD even during simple motor behaviors. The results may have implications for performance of more complex tasks, and may be associated with the well-characterized decline in dual task performance in those with AD. PMID:22333920

Vidoni, Eric D.; Thomas, George P.; Honea, Robyn A.; Loskutova, Natalia; Burns, Jeffrey M.

2012-01-01

351

Impact of [{sup 18}F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Staging and Management of Early-Stage Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Accurate staging is critical to select patients with early-stage (I-II) follicular lymphoma (ESFL) suitable for involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) and to define the radiotherapy portal. We evaluated the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET on staging, treatment, and outcome for patients with ESFL on conventional staging. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with untreated ESFL (World Health Organization Grade I-IIIa, or 'low grade') following a minimum of physical examination, computerized tomography, and bone marrow examination (conventional assessment) and who had staging PET from June 1997 to June 2006 were studied retrospectively. Stage allocation was based on routine imaging reports. Disease sites, stage, and management plan were recorded based on conventional assessment or conventional assessment plus PET. Results: FDG avidity was demonstrated in 97% of patients in whom disease was evident on conventional assessment after biopsy. PET findings suggested a change of stage or management in 19 patients: 13 (31%) who were upstaged to Stage III-IV, altering ideal management from IFRT to systemic therapy, and 6 (14%) who had the involved field enlarged, including 4 upstaged from Stage I to II. Of these 19 cases, PET findings were considered true positive in 8 patients, indeterminate in 10, and false positive in only 1 patient. Conclusions: Our data confirm that ESFL is usually FDG-avid. In routine practice, PET has the potential to upstage and thereby alter management in a high proportion of patients with apparent ESFL.

Wirth, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)], E-mail: andrew.wirth@petermac.org; Foo, Marcus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Seymour, John F. [Department of Hematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); MacManus, Michael P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Department of Metabolic Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

2008-05-01

352

Feeding ecology in the early life stages of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (L.).  

E-print Network

??Evaluating factors affecting survivorship during early life stages of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (L.), is essential to understand mechanisms of the population outbreaks. The… (more)

Okaji, Ken

1996-01-01

353

Impact of the CE mark approval on exit opportunities and validation for early stage medical device companies  

E-print Network

The aim of this thesis was to look at the impact of acquiring the CE marking approval on the outcome of early stage medical device companies, specifically its impact on strategic acquisition opportunities and on valuation. ...

Kothari, Ashish (Ashish Shrikant)

2011-01-01

354

Mayo and NCI researchers find that trastuzumab continues to show life for HER2-positve early stage breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

After following breast cancer patients for an average of eight-plus years, researchers say that adding trastuzumab (Herceptin) to chemotherapy significantly improved the overall and disease-free survival of women with early stage HER2-positive breast cancer.

355

To what extent is social media exposure correlated with financial performance for early stage digital consumer-facing startups?  

E-print Network

It is very hard to identify and evaluate very early stage investment opportunities in disruptive digital consumer-facing startups as they usually don't have any meaningful revenue data yet. However, these growing startups ...

Genre, Solene

2014-01-01

356

Locoregional and distant failure following image-guided stereotactic body radiation for early-stage primary lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo report our institutional experience using image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage lung cancer, including an analysis into factors associated with nodal and distant failures (NF, DF).

Sameer K. Nath; Ajay P. Sandhu; Daniel Kim; Anjali Bharne; Polly D. Nobiensky; Joshua D. Lawson; Mark Fuster; Lyudmila Bazhenova; William Y. Song; Arno J. Mundt

2011-01-01

357

Early stages of facial nerve regeneration through silicone chambers in the rabbit.  

PubMed

The early stages of rabbit peripheral facial nerve regeneration [N = 16], over a 10-mm transectional gap, were analyzed at 1, 3, and 5 weeks of buccal nerve entubation in silicone chambers prefilled with saline. Normal nerve pooled data were obtained in nine nerves. Chronologic morphologic and morphometic light and electron microscopic computer-captured data reveal that the regeneration process can be subdivided into four stages: 1. The establishment of an acellular intergap matrix; 2. the ingrowth of mesodermally derived cells (macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, etc.) to form an intergap scaffolding; 3. the ingrowth of ectodermally derived cells (neurons, Schwann's cells, etc.) to reconstitute the transected peripheral nerve; and 4. neural maturation by progressive axonal enlargement, myelination, and compartmentalization. The first two stages occur during the first week, the third stage during the third week, and the fourth stage from the fifth week onwards of neural entubation. Morphometic analyses indicate that total neuroregenerates increase in number from 303 +/- 286 to 2693 +/- 1334 (+/- values are standard deviations) and myelination of axons increases from 12% to 48% during the third to fifth week of entubation. The thickness of the myelin (g-ratio) increases from 0.89 +/- .01 to 0.74 +/- .06 (SD) during the same period of time. At the end of the fifth week of entubation, the midchambers contain, on the average, 1279 +/- 980 myelinated axons (30% of normal counts) and 483 (+/- 11.2%) axons cross the chambers to innervate the distal transected neural stump (12.5%). Specific target-organ (quadratus labii superioris muscle) activity can be recaptured with a smaller number (12.5%) of regenerating myelinated axons from the buccal division of the facial nerve during the fifth week of entubation. PMID:1921640

Spector, J G; Lee, P; Derby, A; Roufa, D G

1991-10-01

358

A review of "Conscience on Stage: The Comedia as Casuistry in Early Modern Spain" by Hillaire Kallendorf  

E-print Network

, social and cultural historians? (20). Hilaire Kallendorf. Conscience on Stage: The Comedia as Casuistry in Early Modern Spain. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007. x + 299 pp. $65. Review by elizabeth r. wright, university of georgia. Spain..., social and cultural historians? (20). Hilaire Kallendorf. Conscience on Stage: The Comedia as Casuistry in Early Modern Spain. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007. x + 299 pp. $65. Review by elizabeth r. wright, university of georgia. Spain...

Wright, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

359

MD Anderson study finds majority of older, early-stage breast cancer patients benefit from radiation after lumpectomy  

Cancer.gov

For the majority of older, early-stage breast cancer patients, radiation therapy following breast conserving surgery may help prevent the need for a later mastectomy, according to research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The findings, published in the journal Cancer, are contrary to current national treatment guidelines, which recommend that older women with early stage, estrogen-positive disease be treated with lumpectomy followed by estrogen blocker therapy alone -- and forgo radiation therapy post-surgery.

360

Emotional curiosity: modulation of visuospatial attention by arousal is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that Alzheimer’s disease, even in its early stages, decreases novelty-seeking behaviors (curiosity) and impairs the shifting of spatial attention to extrapersonal targets. In this study, early-stage probable Alzheimer’s disease patients (PRAD) and young and aging controls were shown pairs of visual scenes, some of which contained emotionally-arousing material, while eye movements were recorded under free viewing

Kevin S. LaBar; M.-Marsel Mesulam; Darren R. Gitelman; Sandra Weintraub

2000-01-01

361

Quantitative proteomics reveals the role of protein phosphorylation in rice embryos during early stages of germination.  

PubMed

Seed germination begins with water uptake and ends with radicle emergence. A gel-free phosphoproteomic technique was used to investigate the role of protein phosphorylation events in the early stages of rice seed germination. Both seed weight and ATP content increased gradually during the first 24 h following imbibition. Proteomic analysis indicated that carbohydrate metabolism- and protein synthesis/degradation-related proteins were predominantly increased and displayed temporal patterns of expression. Analyses of cluster and protein-protein interactions indicated that the regulation of sucrose synthases and alpha-amylases was the central event controlling germination. Phosphoproteomic analysis identified several proteins involved in protein modification and transcriptional regulation that exhibited significantly temporal changes in phosphorylation levels during germination. Cluster analysis indicated that 12 protein modification-related proteins had a peak abundance of phosphoproteins at 12 h after imbibition. These results suggest that the first 12 h following imbibition is a potentially important signal transduction phase for the initiation of rice seed germination. Three core components involved in brassinosteroid signal transduction displayed significant increases in phosphoprotein abundance during the early stages of germination. Brassinolide treatment increased the rice seed germination rate but not the rate of embryonic axis elongation. These findings suggest that brassinosteroid signal transduction likely triggers seed germination. PMID:24460219

Han, Chao; Yang, Pingfang; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

2014-03-01

362

Dominant occipital (alpha) rhythm frequency in early stage Alzheimer's disease and depression.  

PubMed

The sinusoidal 8-13 Hz wave form that dominates in the occipital EEG record during relaxed wakefulness is known as alpha rhythm or dominant occipital rhythm. The frequency of this rhythm is known to decrease with normal aging with organic brain diseases. Here we report dominant occipital frequency (DOF) data for 41 early stage AD patients, 50 age-, sex- and health-matched control subjects and 22 subjects with major depressive disorder. DOF was assessed blindly for each subject from 10 or more samples during relaxed wakefulness in an all-night polysomnogram. Mean DOF was significantly lower in the AD (mean +/- S.D. was 8.24 +/- 1.04) than control group (9.48 +/- 0.57; F = 56, P less than 0.001). Mean DOF was also significantly lower in the depressed than control group (9.20 +/- 0.50 vs. 9.48, F = 5.0, P less than 0.05). In discriminant analyses, DOF achieved an overall correct classification rate of 77% for AD vs. control subjects, and 72% for AD vs. depressed subjects. These results indicate that DOF may be useful in identifying early stages of AD in healthy, drug-free populations. PMID:2479521

Prinz, P N; Vitiello, M V

1989-11-01

363

Brain event-related potentials: diagnosing early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

A pattern of components from brain event-related potentials (ERPs) (cognitive non-invasive electrical brain measures) performed well in separating early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects from normal-aging control subjects and shows promise for developing a clinical diagnostic for probable AD. A Number-Letter task elicited brain activity related to cognitive processes. In response to the task stimuli, brain activity was recorded as ERPs, whose components were measured by principal components analysis (PCA). The ERP component scores to relevant and irrelevant stimuli were used in discriminant analyses to develop functions that successfully classified individuals as belonging to an early-stage Alzheimer's disease group or a like-aged Control group, with probabilities of an individual belonging to each group. Applying the discriminant function to the developmental half of the data showed 92% of the subjects were correctly classified into either the AD group or the Control group with a sensitivity of 1.00. The two crossvalidation results were good with sensitivities of 0.83 and classification accuracies of 0.75-0.79. P3 and CNV components, as well as other, earlier ERP components, e.g. C145 and the memory "Storage" component, were useful in the discriminant functions. PMID:16430992

Chapman, Robert M; Nowlis, Geoffrey H; McCrary, John W; Chapman, John A; Sandoval, Tiffany C; Guillily, Maria D; Gardner, Margaret N; Reilly, Lindsey A

2007-02-01

364

Transcriptional signatures mediated by acetylation overlap with early-stage Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which environmental influences lead to the development of complex neurode-generative diseases are largely unknown. It is known, however, that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate alterations in transcription due to environmental influences. In order to identify genes susceptible to regulation in the adult cortex by one type of epigenetic mechanism, histone, and protein acetylation, we treated mice with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA). After 1 week of treatment with TSA, RNA was extracted from the brain cortices of mice and gene expression differences were analyzed by microarray profiling. The altered genes were then compared with genes differentially expressed in microarray studies of disease by database and literature searches. Genes regulated by TSA were found to significantly overlap with differentially expressed genes in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain. Several TSA-regulated genes involved in chromatin remodeling and epigenetic reprogramming including histone cluster 1, H4 h (Hist1H4 h), methionine adenosyltransferase II, alpha (Mat2a), and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine reductase (Mtrr) overlapped with genes altered in early-stage AD in gray matter. We also show that the expression of hemoglobin, which has been shown to be altered in neurons in the AD brain, is regulated by TSA treatment. This analysis suggests involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in neurons in early stages of AD. PMID:22811216

Vadnal, J.; Houston, S.; Bhatta, S.; Freeman, E.

2013-01-01

365

Experiences in early stage Alzheimer's disease: understanding the paradox of acceptance and denial.  

PubMed

A wealth of information about the biomedical aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent dementia among people over age 65, stands in counterpoint to the lack of systematic inquiry around the lived experiences of people with AD. Thirteen (four women, nine men) people, recently diagnosed with early stage AD, participated in this 6-month longitudinal study. This paper reports on AD participant's interviews which focussed on their experiences of AD symptoms, relationships with family and friends, and thoughts about the future. The transcribed interviews, analysed using methodological hermeneutics, revealed a constitutive theme of agency versus objectification and explained the paradox of why people with AD use both acceptance and denial when speaking about their experiences. Participants simultaneously acknowledged and resisted aspects of their disease in order to maintain agency in the face of cognitive losses. Acknowledgement was expressed through the themes involving acceptance of the disease and its symptoms, expression of feelings about the disease, and strategies to cope with the symptoms. Resistance was expressed in themes involving denial, minimization, normalization, and reminiscence about achievements and experiences of competence. Longitudinal analyses of the narratives indicated themes held across time. This research contributes to understanding how people live with early stage AD. Living with AD should not be described as either denial or acceptance, but rather as a paradox of understanding that includes both acknowledgement and resistance. PMID:16024402

MacQuarrie, Colleen R

2005-09-01

366

Transcriptional signatures mediated by acetylation overlap with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The mechanisms by which environmental influences lead to the development of complex neurodegenerative diseases are largely unknown. It is known, however, that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate alterations in transcription due to environmental influences. In order to identify genes susceptible to regulation in the adult cortex by one type of epigenetic mechanism, histone, and protein acetylation, we treated mice with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA). After 1 week of treatment with TSA, RNA was extracted from the brain cortices of mice and gene expression differences were analyzed by microarray profiling. The altered genes were then compared with genes differentially expressed in microarray studies of disease by database and literature searches. Genes regulated by TSA were found to significantly overlap with differentially expressed genes in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Several TSA-regulated genes involved in chromatin remodeling and epigenetic reprogramming including histone cluster 1, H4 h (Hist1H4 h), methionine adenosyltransferase II, alpha (Mat2a), and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine reductase (Mtrr) overlapped with genes altered in early-stage AD in gray matter. We also show that the expression of hemoglobin, which has been shown to be altered in neurons in the AD brain, is regulated by TSA treatment. This analysis suggests involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in neurons in early stages of AD. PMID:22811216

Vadnal, J; Houston, S; Bhatta, S; Freeman, E; McDonough, J

2012-09-01

367

Feasibility and efficacy of intensive cognitive training in early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Cognitive training may be beneficial for individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the effects are modest with little evidence of carryover. Prior studies included limited hours and low intensity of training. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and efficacy of many hours of intensive cognitive training with adults in the early stages of AD. Twenty-one adults with very mild or mild AD participated in cognitive training for 10 days over 2 weeks with 4 to 5 hours of training each day. Participants significantly improved in practiced computer-based tasks including those involving working memory, sustained attention, and switching attention. Outcome measures that improved included the Mini-Mental State Examination, letter fluency, and 3 of 5 Trail-Making Tests. Gains in outcome measures were maintained at 2- and 4-month follow-up. Adults in early-stage AD can participate in intensive cognitive training and make modest gains in both practiced and unpracticed cognitive tasks. PMID:24667905

Kanaan, Saddam F; McDowd, Joan M; Colgrove, Yvonne; Burns, Jeffery M; Gajewski, Byron; Pohl, Patricia S

2014-03-01

368

Brain Event-Related Potentials: Diagnosing Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

A pattern of components from brain Event-Related Potentials (ERP) (cognitive non-invasive electrical brain measures) performed well in separating early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD) subjects from normal-aging control subjects and shows promise for developing a clinical diagnostic for Probable AD. A Number-Letter task elicited brain activity related to cognitive processes. In response to the task stimuli, brain activity was recorded as ERPs, whose components were measured by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The ERP component scores to relevant and irrelevant stimuli were used in Discriminant Analyses to develop functions that successfully classified individuals as belonging to an early-stage Alzheimer’s disease group or a like-aged Control group, with probabilities of an individual belonging to each group. Applying the discriminant function to the developmental half of the data showed 92% of the subjects were correctly classified into either the AD group or the Control group with a sensitivity of 1.00. The two crossvalidation results were good with sensitivities of 0.83 and classification accuracies of 0.75–0.79. P3 and CNV components, as well as other, earlier ERP components, e.g. C145 and the memory “Storage” component, were useful in the discriminant functions. PMID:16430992

Chapman, Robert M.; Nowlis, Geoffrey H.; McCrary, John W.; Chapman, John A.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Guillily, Maria D.; Gardner, Margaret N.; Reilly, Lindsey A.

2009-01-01

369

Prenatal sonography in hydranencephaly: findings during the early stages of disease.  

PubMed

The purpose of this report is to describe the prenatal sonographic findings in fetuses with hydranencephaly diagnosed during the early stages of disease. Four cases with characteristics of hydranencephaly were retrospectively identified from 2 Latin American fetal medicine referral centers. Information on maternal demographics, sonographic findings, antenatal courses, and pregnancy outcomes was retrieved from the ultrasound reports and medical records. Cases were diagnosed between 21 and 23 weeks' gestation. The sonographic findings were similar in all cases and included absent cerebral hemispheres, which were replaced by homogeneous echogenic material filling the supratentorial space, and preservation of the thalami, brain stem, and cerebellum. The head circumference measurement was within the normal range, but the transverse cerebellar diameter was below the fifth percentile in 3 of the 4 cases. A follow-up scan in 1 of these cases demonstrated the classic anechoic fluid-filled appearance of hydranencephaly 2 weeks after diagnosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis was available in 2 cases, by postmortem examination in 1 and by fetal magnetic resonance imaging in the other. No further investigations were performed in the 2 women who opted for termination of pregnancy. In conclusion, during the early stages of disease, hydranencephaly is characterized by the presence of a large intracranial saclike structure containing homogeneous echogenic material, representing blood and necrotic debris secondary to massive liquefaction of the developing cerebral hemispheres. PMID:22535728

Sepulveda, Waldo; Cortes-Yepes, Hernan; Wong, Amy E; Dezerega, Victor; Corral, Edgardo; Malinger, Gustavo

2012-05-01

370

ASYMMETRY AND POLYMORPHISM OF HYBRID MALE STERILITY DURING THE EARLY STAGES OF SPECIATION IN HOUSE MICE  

PubMed Central

House mice offer a powerful system for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypes that isolate species in the early stages of speciation. We used a series of reciprocal crosses between wild-derived strains of Mus musculus and M. domesticus to examine F1 hybrid male sterility, one of the primary phenotypes thought to isolate these species. We report four main results. First, we found significantly smaller testes and fewer sperm in hybrid male progeny of most crosses. Second, in some crosses hybrid male sterility was asymmetric and depended on the species origin of the X chromosome. These observations confirm and extend previous findings, underscoring the central role that the M. musculus X chromosome plays in reproductive isolation. Third, comparisons among reciprocal crosses revealed polymorphism at one or more hybrid incompatibilities within M. musculus. Fourth, the spermatogenic phenotype of this polymorphic interaction appears distinct from previously described hybrid incompatibilities between these species. These data build on previous studies of speciation in house mice and show that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility is fairly complex, even at this early stage of divergence. PMID:18005156

Good, Jeffrey M.; Handel, Mary Ann; Nachman, Michael W.

2010-01-01

371

Toxic concentrations in fish early life stages peak at a critical moment.  

PubMed

During the development of an embryo into a juvenile, the physiology and behavior of a fish change greatly, affecting exposure to and uptake of environmental pollutants. Based on experimental data with sole (Solea solea), an existing bioaccumulation model was adapted and validated to calculate the development of concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the tissue of developing fish. Simulation revealed that toxic tissue concentrations of pollutants with log octanol-water partition ratio (K(OW)) > 5 peak at the moment when the larvae become free-feeding, when the lipid reserves are depleted. This may explain the delayed effects observed in fish early-life-stage experiments with exposed eggs. In the field, eggs can be exposed through maternal transfer to adult pollutant tissue concentrations, which will increase in the larva to peak tissue concentrations, exceeding those of the adult fish. The results demonstrate the risk of underestimating the effects of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants with log K(OW) > 5 in short-term, early-life-stage fish tests and underscore the importance of maternal transfer as an exposure route in the field situation. PMID:22505329

Foekema, E M; Fischer, A; Lopez Parron, M; Kwadijk, C; de Vries, P; Murk, A J

2012-06-01

372

Carbon Ion Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Carbon ion therapy is a type of radiotherapies that can deliver high-dose radiation to a tumor while minimizing the dose delivered to the organs at risk; this profile differs from that of photon radiotherapy. Moreover, carbon ions are classified as high-linear energy transfer radiation and are expected to be effective for even photon-resistant tumors. Recently, high-precision radiotherapy modalities such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), proton therapy, and carbon ion therapy have been used for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer, and the results are promising, as, for carbon ion therapy, local control and overall survival rates at 5 years are 80–90% and 40–50%, respectively. Carbon ion therapy may be theoretically superior to SBRT and proton therapy, but the literature that is currently available does not show a statistically significant difference among these treatments. Carbon ion therapy demonstrates a better dose distribution than both SBRT and proton therapy in most cases of early-stage lung cancer. Therefore, carbon ion therapy may be safer for treating patients with adverse conditions such as large tumors, central tumors, and poor pulmonary function. Furthermore, carbon ion therapy may also be suitable for dose escalation and hypofractionation. PMID:25295269

Demizu, Yusuke; Fujii, Osamu; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Fuwa, Nobukazu

2014-01-01

373

Radiation therapy alone in early stage non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Among the patients with early stage (I/II) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there are those who, due to medical comorbidities, advanced age, or refusal, never undergo surgery. For them, exclusive radiation therapy (RT) has been the treatment of choice, achieving median survival times of 30 months and 5-year survival of up to 42%. Doses of > or =65 Gy with standard fractionation (or its radiobiological equivalent when altered fractionation is used) are necessary for long-lasting local control of the disease, with smaller tumors having a more favorable prognosis. The issue of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) remains controversial, since failure patterns identified local failure as the predominant pattern. None of the potential pretreatment patient- and tumor-related prognostic factors has been shown to clearly influence survival. Toxicity is generally mild to moderate, although high doses (e.g., 80 Gy) may carry a risk for an excessive rate of side effects. Conformal treatment and consideration of comorbidities such as altered lung function may be essential, since simultaneous supportive treatment of acute sequelae (mainly acute esophagitis) is necessary. RT is an effective treatment modality in technically operable, but medically inoperable patients with early stage NSCLC and offers a long-lasting cure. PMID:14508859

Zimmermann, Frank B; Bamberg, Michael; Molls, Michael; Jeremic, Branislav

2003-01-01

374

Toxicity Assessment of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Early Life Stages  

PubMed Central

Iron oxide nanoparticles have been explored recently for their beneficial applications in many biomedical areas, in environmental remediation, and in various industrial applications. However, potential risks have also been identified with the release of nanoparticles into the environment. To study the ecological effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms, we used early life stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) to examine such effects on embryonic development in this species. The results showed that ?10 mg/L of iron oxide nanoparticles instigated developmental toxicity in these embryos, causing mortality, hatching delay, and malformation. Moreover, an early life stage test using zebrafish embryos/larvae is also discussed and recommended in this study as an effective protocol for assessing the potential toxicity of nanoparticles. This study is one of the first on developmental toxicity in fish caused by iron oxide nanoparticles in aquatic environments. The results will contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and support the sustainable development of nanotechnology. PMID:23029464

Zhu, Xiaoshan; Tian, Shengyan; Cai, Zhonghua

2012-01-01

375

Gene Expression Profiling during Early Acute Febrile Stage of Dengue Infection Can Predict the Disease Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background We report the detailed development of biomarkers to predict the clinical outcome under dengue infection. Transcriptional signatures from purified peripheral blood mononuclear cells were derived from whole-genome gene-expression microarray data, validated by quantitative PCR and tested in independent samples. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was performed on patients of a well-characterized dengue cohort from Recife, Brazil. The samples analyzed were collected prospectively from acute febrile dengue patients who evolved with different degrees of disease severity: classic dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) samples were compared with similar samples from other non-dengue febrile illnesses. The DHF samples were collected 2–3 days before the presentation of the plasma leakage symptoms. Differentially-expressed genes were selected by univariate statistical tests as well as multivariate classification techniques. The results showed that at early stages of dengue infection, the genes involved in effector mechanisms of innate immune response presented a weaker activation on patients who later developed hemorrhagic fever, whereas the genes involved in apoptosis were expressed in higher levels. Conclusions/Significance Some of the gene expression signatures displayed estimated accuracy rates of more than 95%, indicating that expression profiling with these signatures may provide a useful means of DHF prognosis at early stages of infection. PMID:19936257

Calzavara-Silva, Carlos E.; Gomes, Ana L. V.; Brito, Carlos A. A.; Cordeiro, Marli T.; Silva, Ana M.; Magalhaes, Cecilia; Andrade, Raoni; Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Marques, Ernesto T. A.

2009-01-01

376

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in cognitively intact subjects at an early stage of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

We investigated in vivo brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) distribution in cognitively intact subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) at an early stage of the disease. Fourteen patients and 13 healthy subjects were imaged with single photon emission computed tomography and the radiotracer 5-[(123)I]iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine ([(123)I]5IA). Patients were selected according to several criteria, including short duration of motor signs (<7?years) and normal scores at an extensive neuropsychological evaluation. In PD patients, nAChR density was significantly higher in the putamen, the insular cortex and the supplementary motor area and lower in the caudate nucleus, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the middle temporal gyrus. Disease duration positively correlated with nAChR density in the putamen ipsilateral (??=?0.56, p?early stage of disease. PMID:25177294

Isaias, Ioannis Ugo; Spiegel, Jörg; Brumberg, Joachim; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Marotta, Giorgio; Oishi, Naoya; Higuchi, Takahiro; Küsters, Sebastian; Schiller, Markus; Dillmann, Ulrich; van Dyck, Christopher H; Buck, Andreas; Herrmann, Ken; Schloegl, Susanne; Volkmann, Jens; Lassmann, Michael; Fassbender, Klaus; Lorenz, Reinhard; Samnick, Samuel

2014-01-01

377

Social network effects of nonlifesaving early-stage breast cancer detection on mammography rates.  

PubMed

Objectives. We estimated the effect of anecdotes of early-stage, screen-detected cancer for which screening was not lifesaving on the demand for mammography. Methods. We constructed an agent-based model of mammography decisions, in which 10?000 agents that represent women aged 40 to 100 years were linked together on a social network, which was parameterized with a survey of 716 women conducted through the RAND American Life Panel. Our model represents a population in equilibrium, with demographics reflecting the current US population based on the most recent available census data. Results. The aggregate effect of women learning about 1 category of cancers-those that would be detected but would not be lethal in the absence of screening-was a 13.8 percentage point increase in annual screening rates. Conclusions. Anecdotes of detection of early-stage cancers relayed through social networks may substantially increase demand for a screening test even when the detection through screening was nonlifesaving. PMID:25322304

Nowak, Sarah A; Parker, Andrew M

2014-12-01

378

Phenotypic and fitness consequences of maternal nest-site choice across multiple early life stages.  

PubMed

Identifying the relative contributions of genetic, maternal, and environmental factors to phenotypic variation is critical for evaluating the evolutionary potential of fitness-related traits. We employed a novel two-step cross-fostering experiment to quantify the relative contributions of clutch (i.e., maternal identity) and maternally chosen nest sites to phenotypic variation during three early life stages (incubation, hibernation, dispersal) of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). By translocating eggs between nests in the field, we demonstrated that both clutch and nest site contribute to phenotypic variation at hatching. Because hatchling C. picta hibernate inside nests, we performed a second cross-foster to decouple the effects of the incubation nest with that of the hibernation nest. Incubation nest explained little variation in phenotypes at spring emergence, but winter nest site was important. We found no evidence that mothers select nest sites specific to reaction norms of their own offspring, suggesting that females may select nest sites with microhabitats that broadly meet similar requirements across the population. After hibernation, we released hatchlings to assess performance and phenotypic selection during dispersal. Hibernation nest site influenced physiological performance during dispersal, and we detected nonlinear selection on hatchling carapace length. Our experiment demonstrates that nest-site choice has substantial effects on phenotypic variation and fitness across multiple early life stages. PMID:23691653

Mitchell, Timothy S; Warner, Daniel A; Janzen, Fredric J

2013-02-01

379

Properties of large scale plasma flow during the early stage of the plasmaspheric refilling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to better characterize the macroscopic properties of the interhemisphere plasma flow by solving a more complete set of hydrodynamic equations than that solved previously. Specifically, the ion continuity, momentum and energy equations were solved for the plasma flow along the closed magnetic field lines. During the initial stage of the supersonic outflow in the equatorial region, the ions cool substantially. Using the hydrodynamic model for the large-scale plasma flow, the dynamics of shocks was examined which form in the geomagnetic flux tubes during the early stages of refilling. These shocks are more like those forming in neutral gases than the electrostatic shocks driven by microinstabilities involving ion-ion interaction. Therefore, the shocks seen in the hydrodynamic model are termed as hydrodynamic shocks. Such shocks are generally unsteady and therefore the usual shock jump conditions given by Rankine-Hugoniot relations are not strictly applicable to them. The density, flow velocity and temperature structures associated with the shocks are examined for both asymmetrical and symmetrical flows. In the asymmetrical flow the outflow from one of two conjugate ionospheres is dominant. On the other hand, in the symmetrical case outflows from the two ionospheric sources are identical. Both cases are treated by a two-stream model. In the late type of flow, the early-time refilling shows a relaxation type of oscillation, which is driven by the large-scale interactions between the two identical streams. After this early stage, the resulting temperature structure shows some interesting features. In the equatorial region the streams are isothermal, but in the off-equatorial regions the streams have quite different temperatures, and also densities and flow velocities. The dense and slow stream is found to be warmer than the low-density fast stream. In the late stage of refilling, the temperature is found to steadily increase from the conjugate ionospheres towards the equator; the equatorial temperature is found to be as high as about 8000 K compared to the ionospheric temperature of 3600 K.

Singh, Nagendra; Craven, P.; Torr, D. G.; Richards, P. G.

1990-01-01

380

Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: jwong@lroc.harvard.edu; Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Keshaviah, Aparna [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Winer, Eric P. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-11-01

381

Differential gene expression profile in bovine blastocysts resulting from hyperglycemia exposure during early cleavage stages.  

PubMed

To understand the compromised survival of embryos derived from assisted reproductive techniques, transcriptome survey of early embryonic development has shown the impact of in vitro culture environment on gene expression in bovine or other living species. However, how the differentially expressed genes translate into developmentally compromised embryos is unresolved. We therefore aimed to characterize transcriptomic markers expressed by bovine blastocysts cultured in conditions that are known to impair embryo development. As increasing glucose concentrations has been shown to be stressful for early cleavage stages of mammalian embryos and to decrease subsequent blastocyst survival, in vitro-matured/fertilized bovine zygotes were cultured in control (0.2 mM) or high-glucose (5 mM) conditions until the 8- to 16-cell stage, and then transferred to control media until they reached the blastocyst stage. The concentration of 5 mM glucose was chosen as a stress treatment because there was a significant effect on blastocyst rate without the treatment's being lethal as with 10 mM. Microarray analysis revealed gene expression differences unrelated to embryo sex or hatching. Overrepresented processes among differentially expressed genes in treated blastocysts were extracellular matrix signalling, calcium signaling, and energy metabolism. On a pathophysiological level, higher glucose treatment impacts pathways associated with diabetes and tumorigenesis through genes controlling the Warburg effect, i.e., emphasis on use of anaerobic glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation. These results allowed us to conclude that disruption of in vitro preattachment development is concomitant with gene expression modifications involved in metabolic control. PMID:22075474

Cagnone, Gaël L M; Dufort, Isabelle; Vigneault, Christian; Sirard, Marc-André

2012-02-01

382

A Candida albicans early stage biofilm detachment event in rich medium  

PubMed Central

Background Dispersal from Candida albicans biofilms that colonize catheters is implicated as a primary factor in the link between contaminated catheters and life threatening blood stream infections (BSI). Appropriate in vitro C. albicans biofilm models are needed to probe factors that induce detachment events. Results Using a flow through system to culture C. albicans biofilms we characterized a detachment process which culminates in dissociation of an entire early stage biofilm from a silicone elastomer surface. We analyzed the transcriptome response at time points that bracketed an abrupt transition in which a strong adhesive association with the surface is weakened in the initial stages of the process, and also compared batch and biofilm cultures at relevant time points. K means analysis of the time course array data revealed categories of genes with similar patterns of expression that were associated with adhesion, biofilm formation and glycoprotein biosynthesis. Compared to batch cultures the biofilm showed a pattern of expression of metabolic genes that was similar to the C. albicans response to hypoxia. However, the loss of strong adhesion was not obviously influenced by either the availability of oxygen in the medium or at the silicone elastomer surface. The detachment phenotype of mutant strains in which selected genes were either deleted or overexpressed was characterized. The microarray data indicated that changes associated with the detachment process were complex and, consistent with this assessment, we were unable to demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of any single gene was essential for loss of the strong adhesive association. Conclusion The massive dispersal of the early stage biofilm from a biomaterial surface that we observed is not orchestrated at the level of transcriptional regulation in an obvious manner, or is only regulated at this level by a small subpopulation of cells that mediate adhesion to the surface. PMID:19187560

2009-01-01

383

Early-Stage Young Breast Cancer Patients: Impact of Local Treatment on Survival  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In young women, breast-conserving therapy (BCT), i.e., lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy, has been associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. Still, there is insufficient evidence that BCT impairs survival. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of BCT with mastectomy on overall survival (OS) in young women with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: From two Dutch regional population-based cancer registries (covering 6.2 million inhabitants) 1,453 women <40 years with pathologically T1N0-1M0 breast cancer were selected. Cox regression survival analysis was used to study the effect of local treatment (BCT vs. mastectomy) stratified for nodal stage on survival and corrected for tumor size, age, period of diagnosis, and use of adjuvant systemic therapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 10-year OS was 83% after BCT and 78% after mastectomy, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.72). In N0-patients, 10-year OS was 84% after BCT and 81% after mastectomy and local treatment was not associated with differences in OS (HR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89-1.58; p = 0.25). Within the N1-patient group, OS was better after BCT compared with mastectomy, 79% vs. 71% at 10 years (HR 1.91; 95% CI, 1.28-2.84; p = 0.001) and in patients treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy (HR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.66; p = 0.001). Conclusions: In this large population-based cohort of early-stage young breast cancer patients, 10-year OS was not impaired after BCT compared with mastectomy. Patients with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes had better prognosis after BCT than after mastectomy.

Bantema-Joppe, Enja J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Munck, Linda de [Comprehensive Cancer Center North East, Groningen/Enschede (Netherlands); Visser, Otto [Comprehensive Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Willemse, Pax H.B. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Siesling, Sabine [Comprehensive Cancer Center North East, Groningen/Enschede (Netherlands); Department of Health Technology and Services Research, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Maduro, John H., E-mail: j.h.maduro@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2011-11-15

384

Contrast-Enhanced Sonography Depicts Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer at Early Stages in a Preclinical Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Objective Our goal was to examine the feasibility of using laying hens, a preclinical model of human spontaneous ovarian cancer, in determining the kinetics of an ultrasound contrast agent indicative of ovarian tumor-associated neoangiogenesis in early-stage ovarian cancer. Methods Three-year-old White Leghorn laying hens with decreased ovarian function were scanned before and after intravenous injection of a human serum albumin–perflutren contrast agent at a dose of 5 µL/kg body weight. Gray scale morphologic characteristics, Doppler indices, the arrival time, peak intensity, and wash-out of the contrast agent were recorded and archived on still images and video clips. Hens were euthanized thereafter; sonographic predictions were compared at gross examination; and ovarian tissues were collected. Archived clips were analyzed to determine contrast parameters and Doppler intensities of vessels. A time-intensity curve per hen was drawn, and the area under the curve was derived. Tumor types and the density of ovarian microvessels were determined by histologic examination and immunohistochemistry and compared to sonographic predictions. Results The contrast agent significantly (P < .05) enhanced the visualization of microvessels, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Contrast parameters, including the time of wash-out and area under the curve, were significantly different (P < .05) between ovaries of normal hens and hens with ovarian cancer and correctly detected cancer at earlier stages than the time of peak intensity. Conclusions The laying hen may be a useful animal model for determining ovarian tumor-associated vascular kinetics diagnostic of early-stage ovarian cancer using a contrast agent. This model may also be useful for testing the efficacy of different contrast agents in a preclinical setting. PMID:21357555

Barua, Animesh; Bitterman, Pincas; Bahr, Janice M.; Basu, Sanjib; Sheiner, Eyal; Bradaric, Michael J.; Hales, Dale B.; Luborsky, Judith L.; Abramowicz, Jacques S.

2011-01-01

385

Effect of chronic copper and pentachlorophenol exposure to early life stages of Xenopus laevis  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the effects of low-level copper and pentachlorophenol exposure on various early life stages of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis was performed using stage-specific and long-term continuous exposures. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted such that separate subsets of embryos and larvae from the same clutch were exposed to two toxicants, copper and pentachlorophenol, from 0 d to 4 d (standard Frog Embryo Teratagenesis Assay Xenopus [FETAX]), 4 d to 8 d, 8 d to 12 d, and 12 d to 16 d. Results from two separate concentration-response experiments indicated that sensitivity to either toxicant increased in each successive time period. Continuous exposure studies conducted for 60 to 75 days indicated that copper, but not pentachlorophenol induced reduction deficiency malformations of the hind limb at concentrations as low as 0.05 mg/L. Pentachlorophenol concentrations as low as 0.5/{micro}g/L inhibited tail resorption. However, copper did not adversely affect the process of tail resorption. These results indicated that studies evaluating longer-term developmental processes are important in ecological hazard evaluation.

Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L. [Stover Group, Stillwater, OK (United States)

1995-12-31

386

Starving (or Fattening) the Golden Goose?: Generic Entry and the Incentives for Early-Stage Pharmaceutical Innovation  

E-print Network

-Stage Pharmaceutical Innovation Lee Branstetter Carnegie Mellon University & NBER Chirantan Chatterjee Indian Institute and the Incentives for Early-Stage Pharmaceutical Innovation ABSTRACT Over the last decade, generic penetration in the US pharmaceutical market has increased substantially, providing significant consumer surplus gains

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

387

The effects of inversion and eye displacements of familiar and unknown faces on early and late-stage ERPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe objective of this study is to examine whether configural alterations of faces affect early or late processing stages as a function of their familiarity and their level of representation in memory. We then sought to verify whether the structural encoding stage is susceptible to top-down influences.

Stéphanie Caharel; Nicole Fiori; Christian Bernard; Robert Lalonde; Mohamed Rebaï

2006-01-01

388

Hemostasis during the early stages of trauma: comparison with disseminated intravascular coagulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction We tested two hypotheses that disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and acute coagulopathy of trauma-shock (ACOTS) in the early phase of trauma are similar disease entities and that the DIC score on admission can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with coagulopathy of trauma. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 562 trauma patients, including 338 patients whose data were obtained immediately after admission to the emergency department. We collected serial data for the platelet counts, global markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and antithrombin levels. DIC was diagnosed according to the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) DIC scoring system, and ACOTS was defined as a prothrombin-time ratio of >1.2. Results The higher levels of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer and greater FDP/D-dimer ratios in the DIC patients suggested DIC with the fibrinolytic phenotype. The DIC patients with the fibrinolytic phenotype exhibited persistently lower platelet counts and fibrinogen levels, increased prothrombin time ratios, higher FDP and D-dimer levels, and lower antithrombin levels compared with the non-DIC patients on arrival to the emergency department and during the early stage of trauma. Almost all ACOTS patients met the criteria for a diagnosis of DIC; therefore, the same changes were observed in the platelet counts, global markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and antithrombin levels as noted in the DIC patients. The JAAM DIC score obtained immediately after arrival to the emergency department was an independent predictor of massive transfusion and death due to trauma and correlated with the amount of blood transfused. Conclusions Patients who develop DIC with the fibrinolytic phenotype during the early stage of trauma exhibit consumption coagulopathy associated with increased fibrin(ogen)olysis and lower levels of antithrombin. The same is true in patients with ACOTS. The JAAM DIC score can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with coagulopathy of trauma. PMID:24708802

2014-01-01

389

The role of norepinephrine and insulin resistance in an early stage of hypertension.  

PubMed

The interrelationship between activity of sympathetic nervous system and metabolic risk factors in youth with hypertension (HT) has been poorly studied. The aim of our present study was to assess the interrelationship between metabolic risk factors, such as insulin resistance, concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and catecholamines in an early stage of HT onset. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 17 young males with early-diagnosed nontreated HT grade 1 and 16 gender-, age-, and BMI-matched normotensive controls. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, PAI-1, and plasma renin activity (PRA) were determined in venous plasma. Insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) proposed by Cederholm, Matsuda, and Gutt were calculated. HT had higher baseline levels of norepinephrine, insulin (P= 0.02), and PAI-1 (P= 0.04). ISIs were lower in HT subjects (P < 0.001). Baseline concentrations of epinephrine were negatively associated with HDL cholesterol (r=-0.415, P= 0.02), ISI Matsuda (r=-0.361, P= 0.04), ISI Cederholm (r=-0.354, P= 0.04), and ISI Gutt (r=-0.429, P= 0.01), and positively with PRA (r= 0.609, P < 0.0001). Positive association was found between baseline concentrations of norepinephrine and PAI-1 (r= 0.418, P= 0.02). The sympathetic overactivity, which occurs in the early stage of HT may contribute to reduced insulin sensitivity even in young patients and intensify the undesirable development of metabolic cardiovascular risk factors and progress of the disease. PMID:19120146

Penesova, Adela; Radikova, Zofia; Cizmarova, Eva; Kvetnanský, Richard; Blazicek, Pavel; Vlcek, Miroslav; Koska, Juraj; Vigas, Milan

2008-12-01

390

Effects of Phosphorus and Nitrogen on Nodulation are Seen Already at the Stage of Early Cortical Cell Divisions in Alnus incana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims The present work aimed to study early stages of nodulation in a chronological sequence and to study phosphorus and nitrogen effects on early stages of nodulation in Alnus incana infected by Frankia .A method was developed to quantify early nodulation stages in intact root systems in the root hair-infected actinorhizal plant A. incana. Plant tissue responses were

FRANCESCO GENTILI; LUIS G. WALL; KERSTIN HUSS-DANELL

2006-01-01

391

Retention mechanisms of white perch (Morone americana) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) early-life stages in an  

E-print Network

Retention mechanisms of white perch (Morone americana) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) early and retention mecha- nisms of white perch (Morone americana) and striped bass (M. saxatilis) early-life stages- gested that retention of larval fish could result from tracking prey. Comparing fixed-station and mapping

North, Elizabeth W.

392

Amygdalohippocampal MR volume measurements in the early stages of Alzheimer disease  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the accuracy of hippocampal and amygdala volume measurements in diagnosing patients in the early stages of Alzheimer disease. Measurements of the hippocampal formation, amygdala, amygdalohippocampal complex (the two measurements summed), caudate nucleus, and ventricles, normalized for total intracranial volume, were obtained on coronal sections (1.5 T, 400/13 [repetition time/echo time], 5 mm) of 13 patients in the mild (minimental status {ge} 21) and five patients in the moderate stages of Alzheimer disease (10 < minimental status < 21), and eight age-matched control subjects. For patients with a minimental status score of 21 or greater, atrophy was significant for the amygdala and hippocampal formation (-36% and -25% for amygdala/total intracranial volume and hippocampal formation/total intracranial volume, respectively), but not for the caudate nucleus. No significant ventricular enlargement was found. For patients with a minimental status score less than 21, atrophy was more severe in all structures studied (amygdala/total intracranial volume -40%; hippocampal formation/total intracranial volume, -45%; caudate nucleus/total intracranial volume, -21%), and ventricles were enlarged (63%). No overlap was found between Alzheimer disease and control values for the amygdalohippocampal volume, even in the mild stages of the disease. In Alzheimer disease patients, hippocampal formation volumes correlated with the minimental status. Hippocampal and amygdala atrophy is marked and significant in the mild stages of Alzheimer disease. Volumetric measurements of the amygdala and the amygdalohippocampal complex appear more accurate than those of the hippocampal formation alone in distinguishing patients with Alzheimer disease. 46 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Lehericy, S.; Baulac, M.; Chiras, J.; Pierot, L.; Martin, N.; Pillon, B.; Deweer, B.; Dubois, B.; Marsault, C. [Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)

1994-05-01

393

OLD-FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING INTENSIVE HERBIVORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of severe disturbance, which was heavy grazing by cattle, in an old-field grassland subject to invasi...

394

COMMUNITY ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL RESEARCH Testing successional hypotheses of stability, heterogeneity,  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL RESEARCH Testing successional hypotheses of stability, heterogeneity / Accepted: 22 February 2012 Ã? Springer-Verlag 2012 Abstract Succession is a foundation concept in ecology, the progressive change in species composition in a community through time, is a foundation concept in ecology

Miller, Thomas E.

395

Environmental testing assessment using ecological variables in a successional framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many techniques are available for the detection of trend when the trend is of a simple form. However, for ecological data, the processes of interest often involve succession, in which case trend analysis becomes more difficult. This paper presents a dynamic framework for trend analysis when the system under study is also undergoing successional changes. The null model for change

C. Loehle; E. P. Smith

1989-01-01

396

Soil amino acid composition across a boreal forest successional sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil amino acids are important sources of organic nitrogen for plant nutrition, yet few studies have examined which amino acids are most prevalent in the soil. In this study, we examined the composition, concentration, and seasonal patterns of soil amino acids across a primary successional sequence encompassing a natural gradient of plant productivity and soil physicochemical characteristics. Soil was collected

Nancy R. Werdin-Pfisterer; Knut Kielland; Richard D. Boone

2009-01-01

397

Feedback Dynamics Analysis of Secondary Successional Transients in Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical dynamic model of the mutual causalities that generate secondary successional behavior in ecological systems is developed using zero- and first-order nonlinear difference equations. The model is based on Odum's tabular model of ecological succession, and has been simulation-tested for the case of secondary succession in a grassland ecosystem. It shows how energy, abiotic and biotic matter, and community

Luis T. Gutierrez; Willard R. Fey

1975-01-01

398

Susceptibility to myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury at early stage of type 1 diabetes in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Large body of evidences accumulated in clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that hearts of diabetic subjects are more sensitive to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), which results in a higher rate of mortality at post-operation than that of non-diabetes. However, experimental results are equivocal and point to either increased or decreased susceptibility of the diabetic hearts to IRI, especially at the early stage of the disease. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the duration/severity of the indexed ischemia is a major determinant of the vulnerability to myocardial IRI at early stage of diabetes. Methods Four weeks streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic (D) and non-diabetic (C) Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive 30 or 45 min of left anterior descending artery ligation followed by 2 or 3 hours of reperfusion, respectively. Cardiac function was recorded by using Pressure-Volume (PV) conduction system. Myocardial infarct size was determined with triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Plasma Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, myocardial nitric oxide(NO) content and nitrotyrosine formation, 15-F2t-Isoprostane and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured with colorimetric assays. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining. Myocardial TNF?, Caspase-3, STAT3, Akt, and GSK-3? were determined by Western blotting. Results Prolongation of ischemia but not reperfusion from 30 min to 45 min significantly increased infarct size in D compared to C rats (P?early stage of the disease are more sensitive to IRI, and this increased severity of post-ischemic myocardial injury depends more on the duration of ischemia than that of reperfusion. PMID:24041262

2013-01-01

399

Inhibition of master transcription factors in pluripotent cells induces early stage differentiation  

PubMed Central

The potential for pluripotent cells to differentiate into diverse specialized cell types has given much hope to the field of regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, the low efficiency of cell commitment has been a major bottleneck in this field. Here we provide a strategy to enhance the efficiency of early differentiation of pluripotent cells. We hypothesized that the initial phase of differentiation can be enhanced if the transcriptional activity of master regulators of stemness is suppressed, blocking the formation of functional transcriptomes. However, an obstacle is the lack of an efficient strategy to block protein–protein interactions. In this work, we take advantage of the biochemical property of seventeen kilodalton protein (Skp), a bacterial molecular chaperone that binds directly to sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2). The small angle X-ray scattering analyses provided a low resolution model of the complex and suggested that the transactivation domain of Sox2 is probably wrapped in a cleft on Skp trimer. Upon the transduction of Skp into pluripotent cells, the transcriptional activity of Sox2 was inhibited and the expression of Sox2 and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 was reduced, which resulted in the expression of early differentiation markers and appearance of early neuronal and cardiac progenitors. These results suggest that the initial stage of differentiation can be accelerated by inhibiting master transcription factors of stemness. This strategy can possibly be applied to increase the efficiency of stem cell differentiation into various cell types and also provides a clue to understanding the mechanism of early differentiation. PMID:24434556

De, Debojyoti; Jeong, Myong-Ho; Leem, Young-Eun; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Wemmer, David E.; Kang, Jong-Sun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Kim, Sung-Hou

2014-01-01

400

Efficacy of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Early Stage of Esophageal Carcinoma;  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Esophageal Neoplasm; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T2; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T3; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Regional Lymph Nodes (N) N0; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Distal Metastasis (M) M0

2012-12-28

401

Disruption of Smad-dependent signaling for growth of GST-P-positive lesions from the early stage in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the involvement of signaling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} during the hepatocarcinogenesis, the immunohistochemical distribution of related molecules was analyzed in relation with liver cell lesions expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) during liver tumor promotion by fenbendazole, phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, or thioacetamide, using rats. Our study focused on early-stage promotion (6 weeks after starting promotion) and late-stage promotion (57 weeks after starting promotion). With regard to Smad-dependent signaling, cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated Smad (phospho-Smad)-2/3 - identified as Smad3 by later immunoblot analysis - increased in the subpopulation of GST-P{sup +} foci, while Smad4, a nuclear transporter of Smad2/3, decreased during early-stage promotion. By late-stage promotion, GST-P{sup +} lesions lacking phospho-Smad2/3 had increased in accordance with lesion development from foci to carcinomas, while Smad4 largely disappeared in most proliferative lesions. With regard to Smad-independent mitogen-activated protein kinases, GST-P{sup +} foci that co-expressed phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase increased during early-stage promotion; however, p38-downstream phospho-activating transcriptional factor (ATF)-2, ATF3, and phospho-c-Myc, were inversely downregulated without relation to promotion. By late-stage promotion, proliferative lesions downregulated phospho-ATF2 and phospho-c-Myc along with lesion development, as with downregulation of phospho-p38 in all lesions. These results suggest that from the early stages, carcinogenic processes were facilitated by disruption of tumor suppressor functions of Smad-dependent signaling, while Smad-independent activation of p38 was an early-stage phenomenon. GST-P{sup -} foci induced by promotion with agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} did not change Smad expression, suggesting an aberration in the Smad-dependent signaling prerequisites for induction of GST-P{sup +} proliferative lesions.

Ichimura, Ryohei, E-mail: red0828@hotmail.co.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Mizukami, Sayaka, E-mail: non_sugar_life@hotmail.co.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takahashi, Miwa, E-mail: mtakahashi@nihs.go.j [Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Taniai, Eriko, E-mail: taniaie@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Kemmochi, Sayaka, E-mail: msayaka@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Mitsumori, Kunitoshi, E-mail: mitsumor@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

2010-08-01

402

The utility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing to detect and track early-stage ischemic heart disease.  

PubMed

Evidence demonstrating the potential value of noninvasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to accurately detect exercise-induced myocardial ischemia is emerging. This case-based concept report describes CPET abnormalities in an asymptomatic at-risk man with suspected early-stage ischemic heart disease. When CPET was repeated 1 year after baseline assessment, his cardiovascular function had worsened, and an anti-atherosclerotic regimen was initiated. When the patient was retested after 3.3 years, the diminished left ventricular function had reversed with pharmacotherapy directed at decreasing cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Thus, in addition to identifying appropriate patients in need of escalating therapy for atherosclerosis, CPET was useful in monitoring progression and reversal of abnormalities of the coronary circulation in a safe and cost-effective manner without the use of radiation. Serial CPET parameters may be useful to track changes marking the progression and/or regression of the underlying global ischemic burden. PMID:20884826

Chaudhry, Sundeep; Arena, Ross A; Hansen, James E; Lewis, Gregory D; Myers, Jonathan N; Sperling, Laurence S; Labudde, Brian D; Wasserman, Karlman

2010-10-01

403

[Extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer and oligometastases].  

PubMed

Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a new radiation technique that combines improvements in radiotherapy planning, intensity modulation and image guidance. The use of SBRT enables radiotherapy to be delivered instead of in six weeks in only a few days and with ablative total dose. Prospective phase II studies in patients with inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer demonstrate that the use of SBRT results in local control rates of 85-95% with acceptable toxicity. SBRT is also increasingly used for treatment of metastases in the lung, liver, retroperitoneum and in bones. Because SBRT enables a locally curative dose to be delivered in a time efficient manner this technique also opens up new perspectives for the treatment of patients with oligometastases. PMID:24129299

Riesterer, Oliver

2013-10-16

404

Emission of spherical cesium-bearing particles from an early stage of the Fukushima nuclear accident  

PubMed Central

The Fukushima nuclear accident released radioactive materials into the environment over the entire Northern Hemisphere in March 2011, and the Japanese government is spending large amounts of money to clean up the contaminated residential areas and agricultural fields. However, we still do not know the exact physical and chemical properties of the radioactive materials. This study directly observed spherical Cs-bearing particles emitted during a relatively early stage (March 14–15) of the accident. In contrast to the Cs-bearing radioactive materials that are currently assumed, these particles are larger, contain Fe, Zn, and Cs, and are water insoluble. Our simulation indicates that the spherical Cs-bearing particles mainly fell onto the ground by dry deposition. The finding of the spherical Cs particles will be a key to understand the processes of the accident and to accurately evaluate the health impacts and the residence time in the environment. PMID:23989894

Adachi, Kouji; Kajino, Mizuo; Zaizen, Yuji; Igarashi, Yasuhito

2013-01-01

405

Measuring Physical Activity in Older Adults with and without Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

We compared subjective reports of physical activity with objective measures of physical fitness including cardiorespiratory capacity, body composition, and physical performance in 146 older adults with and without early stage Alzheimer’s disease (ESAD). Respondents reported primarily unstructured and low-intensity activities, including walking and housework. Individuals with ESAD participated in fewer and lower intensity physical activities than those without ESAD. In those without ESAD, housework was related to lower body mass index, leisure walking was related to faster speed on a timed walking test, and participation in sports was related to higher peak oxygen intake. In individuals with ESAD, reported physical activities did not predict any of the physical fitness, body composition, or physical performance measures. We conclude that measures of physical activity require expansion of unstructured and low intensity activities to improve sensitivity in sedentary populations, especially in older adults with ESAD. PMID:24062599

Watts, Amber S.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Loskutova, Natalia; Johnson, David K.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

406

Detection of the early stage of recombinational DNA repair by silicon nanowire transistors.  

PubMed

A silicon nanowire-based biosensor has been designed and applied for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of the early stage of recombinational DNA repair by RecA protein. Silicon nanowires transistors were fabricated by atomic force microscopy nanolithography and integrated into a microfluidic environment. The sensor operates by measuring the changes in the resistance of the nanowire as the biomolecular reactions proceed. We show that the nanoelectronic sensor can detect and differentiate several steps in the binding of RecA to a single-stranded DNA filament taking place on the nanowire-aqueous interface. We report relative changes in the resistance of 3.5% which are related to the interaction of 250 RecA·single-stranded DNA complexes. Spectroscopy data confirm the presence of the protein-DNA complexes on the functionalized silicon surfaces. PMID:22364265

Chiesa, Marco; Cardenas, Paula P; Otón, Francisco; Martinez, Javier; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Garcia, Fernando; Alonso, Juan C; Rovira, Concepció; Garcia, Ricardo

2012-03-14

407

PHARMAC and Herceptin for early-stage breast cancer in New Zealand: Herceptin or deception?  

PubMed

Pressure to fund Herceptin (trastuzumab) for use in early-stage breast cancer is a welcome development for those patients who may benefit. However such a decision would have major implications since the health gains made by trastuzumab come at a very high cost (when compared to health gains achieved by other drugs currently funded on PHARMAC's schedule). The budget for trastuzumab (estimated to be NZ30m dollars/annum but this is currently being negotiated) will be funded from district health board (DHB) budgets, which will impact other patients unless DHB budgets are appropriately increased. In comparative terms, this proposed expenditure is almost the same as what is currently being spent on all other oncology agents together, and is similar to the total cost of hospital services in New Zealand regions such as Wairarapa and Marlborough. PMID:16751832

Rosevear, Martin

2006-01-01

408

Flash of photons from the early stage of heavy-ion collisions  

E-print Network

The dynamics of partonic cascades may be an important aspect for particle production in relativistic collisions of nuclei at CERN SPS and BNL RHIC energies. Within the Parton-Cascade Model, we estimate the production of single photons from such cascades due to scattering of quarks and gluons q g -> q gamma, quark-antiquark annihilation q qbar -> g gamma, or gamma gamma, and from electromagnetic brems-strahlung of quarks q -> q gamma. We find that the latter QED branching process plays the dominant role for photon production, similarly as the QCD branchings q -> q g and g -> g g play a crucial role for parton multiplication. We conclude therefore that photons accompanying the parton cascade evolution during the early stage of heavy-ion collisions shed light on the formation of a partonic plasma.

Dinesh K. Srivastava; Klaus Geiger

1998-02-11

409

Kinetic study of model reactions in the gas phase at the early stage of coke formation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the most probable gas-phase reactions at the early stage of coke formation were elucidated by kinetic study on the model reactions adopted for formation of cyclic compounds and growth of ring. It was revealed that the formation and growth of ring proceeded mainly through cycloaddition of butadiene or allyl radicals to unsaturated hydrocarbons at relatively low temperatures ({approximately}600{degrees}C), i.e., through a Diels-Alder type reaction. On the other hand, such growth of ring as formation of biphenyl accompanying dehydrogenation from benzene can proceed only at the higher temperatures. It was also revealed that in the growth of the ring, cycloaddition of butadiene favors a cyclic olefin molecule that possesses a nonconjugated double bond and a nearly planar structure.

Nohara, D.; Sakai, T. (Dept. of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City Univ., Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467 (JP))

1992-01-01

410

Late-Stage Fluvial Erosion in a Changing Climate on Early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decline of heavy bombardment in the solar system coincided with incision of many branching fluvial valleys in the martian highlands. However, these valley networks are underdeveloped relative to typical terrestrial networks, suggesting that valley incision was geologically brief or slow on Mars. Most previous studies have attributed the end of martian fluvial erosion to a monotonic decline of the atmosphere and climate around the Noachian/Hesperian transition. Identification of fluvial valleys on some younger surfaces, including Hesperian volcanoes, and the occurrence of morphologically pristine and degraded reaches in the same valley networks challenged the simplicity of this model. More recently, fluvial valleys and deposits have been recognized on a variety of Hesperian surfaces, including the plateau around Valles Marineris, certain impact craters, and the crustal dichotomy boundary scarp. The extent to which this late-stage erosion represents localized event floods or more widely distributed precipitation and runoff remains to be determined. To evaluate whether Hesperian resurfacing processes were concurrent with (and may have caused) late-stage fluvial erosion, we are identifying any geologically rare or long-lived events that occurred between significant resurfacing events and fluvial erosion of those surfaces. In a variety of locations, we have identified small primary craters that formed between local resurfacing and fluvial dissection of those surfaces, suggesting a gap in time between resurfacing and dissection. These small, otherwise fresh craters have rims or ejecta that were incised by late-stage flows. In other cases, thick stratified deposits accumulated on Hesperian surfaces, and those deposits were later dissected by running water. We also found that highland intercrater plains generally have Early to mid-Hesperian crater populations at diameters less than about 4 km. All smaller primary and secondary craters from the Noachian Period were eradicated. These observations suggest the following geomorphic history. 1) Crater degradation and intercrater resurfacing extended into the Early Hesperian Epoch, but perhaps at a declining rate relative to the Noachian Period. 2) Most of the relict valleys formed as crater degradation declined and intercrater geomorphic surfaces began to stabilize, late in the Noachian or early in the Hesperian Period. 3) Impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, and wind continued to modify the martian surface during the Hesperian Period. Older valley networks experienced some wall retreat and infilling, forming the classic flat-floored morphology. 4) In one or more intervals during the Late Hesperian or Early Amazonian Epochs, many older valleys reactivated, and some new ones formed on Hesperian surfaces. Late-stage erosion was most effective on steep, high-relief slopes, including Late Noachian and Hesperian crater walls, as well as tectonic scarps. In ongoing work, identifying clear stratigraphic relationships between older valleys, interposed geologic features, and younger valleys is key to determining the number and relative ages of erosional events in the martian highlands.

Irwin, R. P.; Matsubara, Y.

2013-12-01

411

Neutrons and particularities of nucleogenesis at early stage of the Universe evolution  

E-print Network

At the early stage of the Universe evolution, when photons and neutrinos are no longer able to prevent nucleosynthesis, the key role is given to neutron component of matter. Neutron component creates a certain variety of the lightest chemical elements and disappears leaving a sufficient portion of Helium isotopes and some tiny portions of Li and Be isotopes. Free neutrons disappear in energetic flame of these reactions not using even a quarter of their own lifetime. Further the Universe matter has been evolving smoothly without free neutrons. The following physical principle is taken as a basis: interactions of the most fast component in speed are considered as main and taken into account first. Substance component that meets this requirement provides a thermodynamic equilibrium in the system. It is obvious that fast component of the substance is the neutrons. Other components cause slow change as compared with actions of the main one. Thermodynamic description of nucleus matter is carried out in the same way...

Takibayev, N

2004-01-01

412

How does coarse gravel augmentation affect early-stage Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha embryonic survivorship?  

PubMed

Early-stage Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha embryos were incubated in artificial redds that mimicked hyporheic conditions in gravel-augmented habitat to assess survivorship. Two complementary experiments were conducted where units varied along gradients of (1) increasing interstitial flow velocity (0·05-2·50?cm?s?¹) in a uniformly coarse (particles ?22?mm) sediment mixture and (2) increasing sediment porosity with interstitial flow velocity held constant. Embryonic survivorship increased moderately along a gradient of interstitial flow velocity, while survivorship among units with varying sediment porosities was consistent. No evidence for flow-induced agitation and mortality was observed. Results suggest that high interstitial flow velocities may confer a moderate advantage for incubating salmonid embryos when conditions that typically reduce embryonic mortality (i.e. low concentrations of fine particles) are ideal. PMID:23639149

Utz, R M; Mesick, C F; Cardinale, B J; Dunne, T

2013-05-01

413

Early stages of nanosecond pulsed-laser growth of silicon pillars in vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stages of pulsed-laser growth of silicon microcolumns were studied by performing a series of ablation experiments with increasing the number of KrF laser shots from 1 to 50. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that after just one laser shot, the original flat surface was clearly modified by the formation of disordered cavities (pores) that form disordered labyrinths by coalescence and creation of small dome-like features within it. Initially, as the number of laser shots increases, new microcolumns grow slowly, and then, after a number of about 20 shots is reached, growth rapidly speeds up. Finally, our data suggest that growth occurs through a combination of pulsed-laser melting of the columns and walls and redeposition there of the intense flux of Si-rich vapour produced by ablation from especially grooves or pits.

Belaroussi, Y.; Kerdja, T.; Yaddadene, C.; Djemaa, A.; Keffous, A.; Gabouze, N.

2011-12-01

414

The Utility of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing to Detect and Track Early-Stage Ischemic Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Evidence demonstrating the potential value of noninvasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to accurately detect exercise-induced myocardial ischemia is emerging. This case-based concept report describes CPET abnormalities in an asymptomatic at-risk man with suspected early-stage ischemic heart disease. When CPET was repeated 1 year after baseline assessment, his cardiovascular function had worsened, and an anti-atherosclerotic regimen was initiated. When the patient was retested after 3.3 years, the diminished left ventricular function had reversed with pharmacotherapy directed at decreasing cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Thus, in addition to identifying appropriate patients in need of escalating therapy for atherosclerosis, CPET was useful in monitoring progression and reversal of abnormalities of the coronary circulation in a safe and cost-effective manner without the use of radiation. Serial CPET parameters may be useful to track changes marking the progression and/or regression of the underlying global ischemic burden. PMID:20884826

Chaudhry, Sundeep; Arena, Ross A.; Hansen, James E.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Myers, Jonathan N.; Sperling, Laurence S.; LaBudde, Brian D.; Wasserman, Karlman

2010-01-01

415

Effects of hydrazine and other toxicants on early life stages of California brown algae  

SciTech Connect

Toxicity of hydrazine to early life stages of several species of California brown algae was demonstrated to occur at environmentally relevant concentrations. Effects of hydrazine on benthic organisms had not been previously studied. A reliable bioassay technique was developed using digital image analysis to measure vegetative growth inhibition of brown algal gametophytes. Hydrazine toxicity threshold of Macrocystis pyrifera gametophytes was almost constant in 10 96-hour experiments, ranging from 3-5 ppb. Differences in resistance to short-term hydrazine exposures were observed among three algal families of the order Laminariales. Hydrazine autoxidation rates varied by an order of magnitude in seawater sampled from different locations. Rates showed strong temperature dependence. Autoxidation at 10{degree}C and below was must slower and indicated a higher activation energy than autoxidation at 20{degree}C and above.

James, D.E.

1989-01-01

416

Anisotropic fluid dynamics in the early stage of relativistic heavy-ion collisions  

E-print Network

A formalism for anisotropic fluid dynamics is proposed. It is designed to describe boost-invariant systems with anisotropic pressure. Such systems are expected to be produced at the early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, when the timescales are too short to achieve equal thermalization of transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. The approach is based on the energy-momentum and entropy conservation laws, and may be regarded as a minimal extension of the boost-invariant standard relativistic hydrodynamics of the perfect fluid. We show how the formalism may be used to describe the isotropization of the system (the transition from the initial state with no longitudinal pressure to the final state with equal longitudinal and transverse pressure).

Wojciech Florkowski

2008-06-13

417

Verbal Play as an Interactional Discourse Resource in Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Verbal play, the creative and playful use of language to make puns, rhyme words, and tease, is a pervasive and enjoyable component of social communication and serves important interpersonal functions. The current study examines the use of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with Alzheimer's disease as part of a broader program of research on language-and-memory-in-use. AIMS: To document the frequency of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their familiar communication partners. To characterize the interactional forms, resources, and functions of playful episodes. METHODS: Using quantitative group comparisons and detailed discourse analysis, we analyzed verbal play in the interactional discourse of five participants with very mild AD and five healthy (demographically matched) comparison participants. Each participant interacted with a familiar partner while completing a collaborative referencing task, and with a researcher between task trials. RESULTS: A total of 1,098 verbal play episodes were coded. Despite being in the early stages of AD, all the AD participants used verbal play. There were no significant group differences in the frequency of verbal play episodes or in the interactional forms, resources, or functions of those playful episodes between AD and healthy comparison pair sessions. CONCLUSIONS: The successful use of verbal play in the interactions of individuals with very mild AD and their partners highlights an area of preserved social communication. These findings represent an important step, both clinically and for research, in documenting the rich ways that individuals with early stage AD orchestrate interactionally meaningful communication with their partners through the use of interactional discourse resources like verbal play. This work also offers a promising clinical tool for tracking and targeting verbal play across disease progression. PMID:23129879

Shune, Samantha; Duff, Melissa C

2012-01-01

418

Verbal Play as an Interactional Discourse Resource in Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Verbal play, the creative and playful use of language to make puns, rhyme words, and tease, is a pervasive and enjoyable component of social communication and serves important interpersonal functions. The current study examines the use of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease as part of a broader program of research on language-and-memory-in-use. Aims To document the frequency of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with very mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their familiar communication partners. To characterize the interactional forms, resources, and functions of playful episodes. Methods Using quantitative group comparisons and detailed discourse analysis, we analyzed verbal play in the interactional discourse of five participants with very mild AD and five healthy (demographically matched) comparison participants. Each participant interacted with a familiar partner while completing a collaborative referencing task, and with a researcher between task trials. Results A total of 1,098 verbal play episodes were coded. Despite being in the early stages of AD, all the AD participants used verbal play. There were no significant group differences in the frequency of verbal play episodes or in the interactional forms, resources, or functions of those playful episodes between AD and healthy comparison pair sessions. Conclusions The successful use of verbal play in the interactions of individuals with very mild AD and their partners highlights an area of preserved social communication. These findings represent an important step, both clinically and for research, in documenting the rich ways that individuals with early stage AD orchestrate interactionally meaningful communication with their partners through the use of interactional discourse resources like verbal play. This work also offers a promising clinical tool for tracking and targeting verbal play across disease progression. PMID:23129879

Shune, Samantha; Duff, Melissa C.

2012-01-01

419

Similarity Ratio Analysis for Early Stage Fault Detection with Optical Emission Spectrometer in Plasma Etching Process  

PubMed Central

A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA) method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD) in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES) data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR) statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A), takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes. PMID:24755865

Yang, Jie; McArdle, Conor; Daniels, Stephen

2014-01-01

420

Low vitamin K intakes in community-dwelling elders at an early stage of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

An increasing body of evidence points to a role for vitamin K in brain physiology through its participation in sphingolipid metabolism and biological activation of the vitamin K-dependent protein Gas6. One hypothesis is that vitamin K may also play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. A recent study found that patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease consumed less vitamin K than did cognitively intact control subjects. To learn more about the dietary intakes and food sources of vitamin K in these patients, a detailed analysis was conducted. Dietary vitamin K intakes were assessed from 5 nonconsecutive days of food records collected from 31 community-dwelling patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and in 31 age- and sex-matched cognitively intact control subjects. Mean vitamin K intake on a person-day basis was 63+/-90 microg/day in patients and 139+/-233 microg/day in control subjects. Vitamin K intakes were significantly less in participants with Alzheimer's disease (P<0.0001), even after adjusting for energy intakes (P=0.0003). Vegetables, fats, and fruits contributed more than 70% of total vitamin K intake in both groups. The main source of vitamin K was green vegetables, which contributed 33% and 49% to total intakes in patients and control subjects, respectively. This lower consumption of green vegetables in participants with Alzheimer's disease explained their lower vitamin K intakes overall. Despite their limitations, results are in line with the most recent research in both vitamin K and Alzheimer's disease and suggest a need to consider vitamin K in future investigations on the role of diet in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19027415

Presse, Nancy; Shatenstein, Bryna; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Ferland, Guylaine

2008-12-01