Sample records for early successional stage

  1. Succession influences wild bees in a temperate forest landscape: the value of early successional stages in naturally regenerated and planted forests.

    PubMed

    Taki, Hisatomo; Okochi, Isamu; Okabe, Kimiko; Inoue, Takenari; Goto, Hideaki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2013-01-01

    In many temperate terrestrial forest ecosystems, both natural human disturbances drive the reestablishment of forests. Succession in plant communities, in addition to reforestation following the creation of open sites through harvesting or natural disturbances, can affect forest faunal assemblages. Wild bees perform an important ecosystem function in human-altered and natural or seminatural ecosystems, as they are essential pollinators for both crops and wild flowering plants. To maintain high abundance and species richness for pollination services, it is important to conserve and create seminatural and natural land cover with optimal successional stages for wild bees. We examined the effects of forest succession on wild bees. In particular, we evaluated the importance of early successional stages for bees, which has been suspected but not previously demonstrated. A range of successional stages, between 1 and 178 years old, were examined in naturally regenerated and planted forests. In total 4465 wild bee individuals, representing 113 species, were captured. Results for total bees, solitary bees, and cleptoparasitic bees in both naturally regenerated and planted conifer forests indicated a higher abundance and species richness in the early successional stages. However, higher abundance and species richness of social bees in naturally regenerated forest were observed as the successional stages progressed, whereas the abundance of social bees in conifer planted forest showed a concave-shaped relationship when plotted. The results suggest that early successional stages of both naturally regenerated and conifer planted forest maintain a high abundance and species richness of solitary bees and their cleptoparasitic bees, although social bees respond differently in the early successional stages. This may imply that, in some cases, active forest stand management policies, such as the clear-cutting of planted forests for timber production, would create early successional habitats, leading to significant positive effects for bees in general. PMID:23457602

  2. Early Successional Microhabitats Allow the Persistence of Endangered Plants in Coastal Sand Dunes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  3. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the ?- and ?- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial ?-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial ?-diversity is not always linked to high plant ?-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial ?-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession. PMID:26184121

  4. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the ?- and ?- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial ?-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial ?-diversity is not always linked to high plant ?-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial ?-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession. PMID:26184121

  5. Plant hydraulics and photosynthesis of 34 woody species from different successional stages of subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shi-Dan; Song, Juan-Juan; Li, Rong-Hua; Ye, Qing

    2013-04-01

    It is important to understand the ecophysiological characters of plants when exploring mechanisms underlying species substitution in the process of plant succession. In the present study, we selected 34 woody species from different stages of secondary succession in subtropical forests of southern China, and measured their hydraulic conductivity, gas exchange rates, leaf nutrients and drought-tolerance traits such as xylem resistance to cavitation, turgor loss point and carbon isotope ratio. Principal component analysis revealed that early-, mid- and late-successional species were significantly separated along axis 1, which was strongly associated with hydraulic-photosynthetic coordination. In contrast to species distributed in late-successional forest, early-successional species had the highest hydraulic conductivity, net photosynthetic rates, photosynthetic nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies, but had the lowest photosynthetic water-use efficiency. However, changes of the measured drought-tolerance traits of the 34 species along the succession did not demonstrate a clear trend - no significant correlations between these traits and plant successional stages were found. Moreover, the trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and safety was not identified. Taken together, our results suggested that hydraulic efficiency and photosynthetic function, rather than drought tolerance, play an important role in species distributions along plant succession in subtropical forests. PMID:23057774

  6. Carbon and nitrogen fixation differ between successional stages of biological soil crusts in the Colorado Plateau and Chihuahuan Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Housman, D.C.; Powers, H.H.; Collins, A.D.; Belnap, J.

    2006-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens collectively) perform essential ecosystem services, including carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fixation. Climate and land-use change are converting later successional soil crusts to early successional soil crusts with lower C and N fixation rates. To quantify the effect of such conversions on C and N dynamics in desert ecosystems we seasonally measured diurnal fixation rates in different biological soil crusts. We classified plots on the Colorado Plateau (Canyonlands) and Chihuahuan Desert (Jornada) as early (Microcoleus) or later successional (Nostoc/Scytonema or Placidium/Collema) and measured photosynthesis (Pn), nitrogenase activity (NA), and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) on metabolically active (moist) soil crusts. Later successional crusts typically had greater Pn, averaging 1.2-1.3-fold higher daily C fixation in Canyonlands and 2.4-2.8-fold higher in the Jornada. Later successional crusts also had greater NA, averaging 1.3-7.5-fold higher daily N fixation in Canyonlands and 1.3-25.0-fold higher in the Jornada. Mean daily Fv/Fm was also greater in later successional Canyonlands crusts during winter, and Jornada crusts during all seasons except summer. Together these findings indicate conversion of soil crusts back to early successional stages results in large reductions of C and N inputs into these ecosystems.

  7. Phenotypic plasticity of early and late successional forbs in response to shifts in resources.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingxin; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Daowei; Zhang, Hongxiang; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    We compared the phenotypic plasticity of two early successional forbs of nutrient-poor mobile dunes (Agriophyllum squarrosum and Corispermum macrocarpum) and two later successional forbs (weeds) of stabilized, higher nutrient dunes and cropland (Chenopodium acuminatum and Salsola collina) to variations in environmental factors. A controlled (including soil nutrients, water, and population density) greenhouse experiment was conducted in Horqin sandy land, China. Late successional species had high plasticity in growth response to nutrients and water or high performance in high soil nutrients and water, reflecting their higher nutrient habitat. In contrast, the early successional species have low plasticity, reflecting their adaptation to resource-poor early successional soil. Late successional species did not always have higher reproductive effort than early successional species. Plants did not have a uniform strategy of increasing reproductive effort with any environmental stressors. Reproductive effort increased with increasing water availability and decreasing nutrient levels, while density had no effect. Patterns of plasticity traits for late successional species exhibited a complex of Master-of-some and Jack-of-all-trades. Late successional species had higher performance or higher plasticity than early successional species. PMID:23185600

  8. Importance of Early Successional Forest for Wildlife in Southern New England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Wynia

    2007-01-01

    Many bird species that require early successional forest are declining in the Northeast U.S. because such habitat is relatively rare and when they inhabit the more common mature forests or suburban areas they are less successful. Early successional forest is maintained by regular disturbance (wind, fire, clear-cutting, and flooding) which has been happening less frequently during the past 50 years.

  9. Determining successional stage of temperate coniferous forests with Landsat satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorella, Maria; Ripple, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Thematic Mapper (TM) digital imagery was used to map forest successional stages and to evaluate spectral differences between old-growth and mature forests in the central Cascade Range of Oregon. Relative sun incidence values were incorporated into the successional stage classification to compensate for topographic induced variation. Relative sun incidence improved the classification accuracy of young successional stages, but did not improve the classification accuracy of older, closed canopy forest classes or overall accuracy. TM bands 1, 2, and 4; the normalized difference vegetation index; and TM 4/3, 4/5, and 4/7 band ratio values for o|d-growth forests were found to be significantly lower than the values of mature forests. The Tasseled Cap features of brightness, greenness, and wetness also had significantly lower old-growth values as compared to mature forest values .

  10. Importance of an urban pine barrens for the conservation of early-successional shrubland birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil A. Gifford; Jamie M. Deppen; Jason T. Bried

    2010-01-01

    Shrubland birds have become one of the most conservation-reliant avian groups in the Northeastern United States. Their contemporary distribution is restricted to regenerating commercial forests, utility rights-of-way, and other types of managed early-successional habitat. This study explored whether a highly fragmented urban pine barrens can have conservation value for shrubland birds. Specifically, we estimated the amount of core early-successional habitat

  11. Abundance, distribution, trends, and ownership patterns of early-successional forests in the northeastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert T. Brooks

    2003-01-01

    Early-successional forests are ephemeral and distinct forest communities, maintained by disturbance and dominated by small-sized trees and shrubs. These structural and compositional conditions form a unique habitat that is preferred by many wildlife species. Various sources have indicated that there have been declines in early-successional forest area and in the populations of many wildlife species associated with these habitats across

  12. Bacterial community dynamics over successional stages of Australian biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilton, Angela; Woodhouse, Jason; Neilan, Brett

    2015-04-01

    A key aspect for successful ecological rehabilitation is understanding the naturally occurring ecosystem and landscape function which is to be restored. This allows for recovery indicators to be identified and criteria to be developed to assess progress and outcomes. In arid rangelands, environmental stresses result in characteristically heterogeneous landscapes where biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover large expanses of inter-plant areas. Here, BSCs perform crucial roles in nutrient cycling and re-distribution, affect hydrological patterns and stabilise the soil surface. They also serve as a large reservoir of microbial and avascular plant biodiversity. The recognition of these important roles has resulted in increased global arid rehabilitation efforts employing BSCs. Within Australia, research has focused on the macro components of BSCs including lichens and mosses, however, there have been insufficient studies examining the BSC bacterial communities and their dynamics over different successional stages. This project surveyed the bacterial community of crust-free soil and three successional stages of undisturbed BSCs from New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in order to provide reference standards of naturally occurring Australian BSCs. Visual assessments were conducted and BSCs were categorised as Early, Mid or Late stage depending on colour, thickness, topography and presence of lichens and mosses. The crust-free soil and different stages were sampled within three 50 m2 plots of the same edaphic conditions near the town of Cobar, NSW. High throughput sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform was performed targeting the V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Preliminary analysis has revealed a clear distinction between the crust-free and crusted soil while Canonical Analysis of Principal Co-ordinates (CAP) suggests the presence of two distinct BSC microbial communities despite three stages being sampled. Across all sample types, the dominant phyla were Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria. Further analysis will determine indicator species which may be used to track the recovery of Australian BSCs in disturbed lands as well as identify pioneer genera as candidate organisms for inoculum based rehabilitation trials. It is important for BSC research to continue in order to adequately direct rehabilitation efforts and for disturbed arid lands to return to self-sustaining ecosystems.

  13. Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.

    PubMed

    Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril. PMID:20231962

  14. Spatial analysis of early successional, temperate forest community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. H.; Williams, C. A.; MacLean, R. G.; Epstein, H. E.; Vanderhoof, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    The global importance of sequestration of carbon by temperate forests makes characterizing the regrowth of these forests post-disturbance both ecologically and economically important. High intensity disturbances, such as logging, result in substantial alteration of community composition post-disturbance, creating the potential for alterations to the cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients in the ecosystem. Because logging pressure in New England continues to increase, understanding how forest ecosystems in this region respond to disturbance is crucial. This study aims to characterize interspecies interactions within New England forests by identifying synchronous and asynchronous colocation of species following a disturbance. To accomplish this, line-intercept surveys of vegetation were conducted in a clearcut forest stand located within the Harvard Forest LTER site. Survey data collected two (2010) and five (2013) years post-clearcut were analyzed using a one-dimensional Ripley's K. From 2010 to 2013, an increase in the number of interspecies relationships was observed, indicating the development of community structure. Additionally, the analysis found an increase in total vegetative cover from 2010 to 2013, and also found the majority of observed interspecies relationships to be asynchronous relationships. Together, these results imply an increase in resource competition that had the potential to drive the increase in community structure. Specifically, an increase in community structure led to the development of three distinct sub-communities: homogenous fern, tree seedling canopy over ground cover, and shrub dominated. This creates a patchy landscape in the early successional forest that allows for high species diversity (Shannon's H = 2.455). Based on the results of the Ripley's K analyses, species demonstrated definite patterns of synchronicity and asynchronicity based on both specific species interactions as well as functional group interactions. These analyses have important application for species conservation and for predicting the regeneration of tree seedlings, and provide unique information about the interspecies interactions of New England forest communities during one of the most rich and dynamic phases of succession, allowing for more informed decisions to be made regarding the regrowth of forests following a high-intensity disturbance.

  15. Mapping Successional Stages in a Wet Tropical Forest Using Landsat ETM+ and Forest Inventory Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goncalves, Fabio G.; Yatskov, Mikhail; dos Santos, Joao Roberto; Treuhaft, Robert N.; Law, Beverly E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we test whether an existing classification technique based on the integration of Landsat ETM+ and forest inventory data enables detailed characterization of successional stages in a wet tropical forest site. The specific objectives were: (1) to map forest age classes across the La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica; and (2) to quantify uncertainties in the proposed approach in relation to field data and existing vegetation maps. Although significant relationships between vegetation height entropy (a surrogate for forest age) and ETM+ data were detected, the classification scheme tested in this study was not suitable for characterizing spatial variation in age at La Selva, as evidenced by the error matrix and the low Kappa coefficient (12.9%). Factors affecting the performance of the classification at this particular study site include the smooth transition in vegetation structure between intermediate and advanced successional stages, and the low sensitivity of NDVI to variations in vertical structure at high biomass levels.

  16. Forest Successional Stage Affects the Cortical Secondary Chemistry of Three Old Forest Lichens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Line Nybakken; Johan Asplund; Knut Asbjørn Solhaug; Yngvar Gauslaa

    2007-01-01

    Three epiphytic old forest lichens (Usnea longissima, Pseudocyphellaria crocata, and Lobaria pulmonaria) were transplanted along a natural shade–sun gradient comprising three successional stages in boreal spruce forests (dense\\u000a young forest, open old forest, and clear-cut) for one summer. After harvest, extractable secondary compounds were analyzed\\u000a by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the brown pigmentation in melanic species was quantified by reflectance

  17. Determining successional stage of temperate coniferous forests with Landsat satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorella, Maria; Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    Thematic Mapper (TM) digital imagery was used to map forest successional stages and to evaluate spectral differences between old-growth and mature forests in the central Cascade Range of Oregon. Relative sun incidence values were incorporated into the successional stage classification to compensate for topographic induced variation. Relative sun incidence improved the classification accuracy of young successional stages, but did not improve the classification accuracy of older, closed canopy forest classes or overall accuracy. TM bands 1, 2, and 4; the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); and TM 4/3, 4/5, and 4/7 band ratio values for old-growth forests were found to be significantly lower than the values of mature forests (P less than or equal to 0.010). Wetness and the TM 4/5 and 4/7 band ratios all had low correlations to relative sun incidence (r(exp 2) less than or equal to 0.16). The TM 4/5 band ratio was named the 'structural index' (SI) because of its ability to distinguish between mature and old-growth forests and its simplicity.

  18. Spectral identification of successional stages following deforestation in the Amazon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Mausel; You Wu; Yinghong Li; Emilio F. Moran; Eduardo S. Brondizio

    1993-01-01

    Land use and land cover features of a 3,000 sq. km. area west of Altamira, State of Para, Brazil, along the Transamazon Highway was assessed using three dates of Landsat TM data acquired for late July\\/early August 1985, 2988, and 1991. These data, supplemented by field observations and interviews with land users conducted in 1992, permitted classification of nine features,

  19. Bats and Gaps: The Role of Early Successional Patches in the Roosting and Foraging Ecology of Bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan C. Loeb; Joy M. O’Keefe

    \\u000a Early successional habitats are important foraging and commuting sites for the 14 species of bats that inhabit the Central\\u000a Hardwood Region, especially larger open-adapted species such as hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), red bats (L. borealis), silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans), and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Forest gaps, small openings, and the edges between early successional patches and mature forest are

  20. Proximity signal and shade avoidance differences between early and late successional trees.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, I R; Jarvis, P G; Smith, H

    2001-06-14

    Competitive interactions between plants determine the success of individuals and species. In developing forests, competition for light is the predominant factor. Shade tolerators acclimate photosynthetically to low light and are capable of long-term survival under the shade cast by others, whereas shade avoiders rapidly dominate gaps but are overtaken in due course by shade-tolerant, later successional species. Shade avoidance results from the phytochrome-mediated perception of far-red radiation (700-800 nm) scattered from the leaves of neighbours, provides early warning of shading, and induces developmental responses that, when successful, result in the overgrowth of those neighbours. Shade tolerators cast a deep shade, whereas less-tolerant species cast light shade, and saplings tend to have high survivorship in shade cast by conspecific adults, but high rates of mortality when shaded by more-tolerant species. Here we report a parallel relationship in which the shade-avoidance responses of three tree species are inversely proportional to proximity signals generated by those species. On this basis, early successional species generate small proximity signals but react strongly to them, whereas late successional species react weakly but generate strong signals. PMID:11459056

  1. EARLY-SUCCESSIONAL PLANTS REGULATE GRASSLAND PRODUCTIVITY AND SPECIES COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mass-ratio hypothesis holds that ecosystem processes depend in the short term on functional properties of dominant plant species and in the longer term on how resident species influence the recruitment of potential dominants. The latter of these effects may be especially important among early-s...

  2. Successional changes in plant resistance and tolerance to herbivory.

    PubMed

    Hakes, Alyssa S; Cronin, James T

    2012-05-01

    Despite considerable research on plant defenses, we know very little about how temporal changes in the environment may influence resistance and tolerance levels, or the costs and benefits of these defense strategies for long-lived plant species. We hypothesized that, in successional habitats, predictable environmental changes should favor strong plasticity in defense phenotypes and that the costs, benefits, and levels of tolerance and resistance will change with environmental context. Using a widely distributed, old-field perennial, late goldenrod (Solidago altissima), we conducted a field experiment to test these predictions. We planted goldenrod genets exhibiting varying levels of resistance and tolerance into three early-successional and three late-successional fields (approximately three and 15 years in age, respectively) and experimentally measured resistance and tolerance levels and their associated costs and selection coefficients. We found a significant effect of successional stage but no effect of genotype or stage-genotype interaction on defense levels. Genets planted in early-successional fields appeared to be more resistant and less tolerant to herbivory than those same genets planted in late-successional fields. There were significant trade-offs between resistance and tolerance in early-successional fields but not in late-successional fields. Each late-successional field exhibited a significant cost or selection gradient for resistance, but there was no general pattern of resistance costs or selection gradients specific to a successional stage class. In contrast, there was evidence of stage-specific costs of tolerance; late-successional fields exhibited significant costs of tolerance whereas early-successional fields did not. There was no evidence of direct selection for or against tolerance in either stage. Our results suggest that defense phenotypes might change in qualitative ways during succession. High resistance in early stages may be attributed to associational effects of the early-successional community, reducing the probability of damage, and despite a cost of tolerance in late stages, tolerance may be beneficial in mitigating the effects of both herbivory and environmental stresses (i.e., low light availability) that limit fitness in these fields. This study provides experimental evidence that succession can strongly influence defense phenotypes and promote temporal variability in relative resistance and tolerance levels. PMID:22764492

  3. Take me to your leader: does early successional nonhost vegetation spatially inhibit Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)?

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Jordan M; De La Giroday, Honey-Marie C; Lindgren, B Staffan; Aukema, Brian H

    2009-08-01

    The spatial influences of host and nonhost trees and shrubs on the colonization patterns of white pine weevil Pissodes strobi (Peck) were studied within a stand of planted interior hybrid spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x Picea engelmannii (Parry) ex Engelm.]. Planted spruce accounted for one third of all trees within the stand, whereas the remaining two thirds were comprised of early-successional nonhost vegetation, such as alder (Alnus spp.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), black cottonwood [Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa (T. Ng.) Brayshaw], lodgepole pine [Pinus contorta (Dougl.) ex Loud.], trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx), willow (Salix spp.), and Canadian buffaloberry [Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt.]. Unlike the spruce trees, nonhost vegetation in the stand was not uniformly distributed. Spatial point process models showed that Canadian buffaloberry, paper birch, black cottonwoood, and trembling aspen had negative associations with damage caused by the weevil, even though the density of the insects' hosts in these areas did not change. Moreover, knowing the locations of these nonhost trees provided as much, or more, inference about the locations of weevil-attacked trees as knowing the locations of suitable or preferred host trees (i.e., those larger in size). Nonhost volatiles, the alteration of soil composition, and overstory shade are discussed as potential explanatory factors for the patterns observed. New research avenues are suggested to determine whether nonhost vegetation in early successional stands might be an additional tool in the management of these insects in commercially important forests. PMID:19689899

  4. Effects of Vegetation, Corridor Width and Regional Land Use on Early Successional Birds on Powerline Corridors

    PubMed Central

    Askins, Robert A.; Folsom-O'Keefe, Corrine M.; Hardy, Margaret C.

    2012-01-01

    Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs) often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor) and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla) were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management. PMID:22363660

  5. Forest successional stage affects the cortical secondary chemistry of three old forest lichens.

    PubMed

    Nybakken, Line; Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2007-08-01

    Three epiphytic old forest lichens (Usnea longissima, Pseudocyphellaria crocata, and Lobaria pulmonaria) were transplanted along a natural shade-sun gradient comprising three successional stages in boreal spruce forests (dense young forest, open old forest, and clear-cut) for one summer. After harvest, extractable secondary compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the brown pigmentation in melanic species was quantified by reflectance measurements. Cortical compounds in all species increased from shady young forests to exposed clear-cuts. Usnic acid, the major cortical, secondary compound in U. longissima, showed consistently higher concentration in the clear-cut than in the two forested stands. Pseudocyphellaria crocata and L. pulmonaria, lacking extractable secondary compounds in the cortex, significantly increased their amounts of cortical melanins in well-lit stands. The medullary compounds showed more complex responses. Many were not influenced by environmental conditions during the transplantation, whereas the majority of those that responded showed the lowest concentration in clear-cut transplants. Only a few medullary compounds showed the highest concentration in the clear-cut, and at a low level of significance. The synthesis of UV-B-absorbing usnic acid and melanins seems to be part of an acclimation to increased light exposure. The medullary compounds in studied species barely function as solar screens despite their strong UV-B absorbance. PMID:17636451

  6. -Influence of late season fire on early successional vegetation of an Oklahoma prairie -135 Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 135-144, 2000

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Michael W.

    - Influence of late season fire on early successional vegetation of an Oklahoma prairie - 135. The study of vegetation dynamics in tallgrass prai- rie in response to fire has focused on dormant season fire in late successional prairies. Our objective was to determine if late season fire of varying

  7. Relative importance of early-successional forests and shrubland habitats to mammals in the northeastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. Fuller; Stephen DeStefano

    The majority of the 60 native terrestrial mammal species that reside in the northeastern United States (US) utilize resources from several habitats on a seasonal basis. However, as many as 20 species demonstrate some preference for early-successional forests, shrublands, or old-field habitats. A few of these (e.g. lagomorphs) can be considered obligate users of these habitats, and the specialist carnivores

  8. Disturbance-induced bird diversity in early successional habitats in the humid temperate region of northern Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reiko Kurosawa

    2009-01-01

    The positive role of moderate natural disturbance is less known for a mobile organism such as birds, compared to sessile organisms.\\u000a In the face of recent declines of grassland birds, it is necessary to identify the mechanism to maintain avian diversity in\\u000a early successional open habitats in different regions. In the humid temperate region, the predominant habitat type is woody

  9. USE OF GROUP-SELECTION AND SEED-TREE CUTS BY THREE EARLY-SUCCESSIONAL MIGRATORY SPECIES IN ARKANSAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LYNN E. ALTERMAN; JAMES C. BEDNARZ; RONALD E. THILL

    2005-01-01

    Silviculture in the Ouachita National Forest in Arkansas and Oklahoma has shifted in recent years from mostly even-aged management to a mix of even- and uneven-aged regeneration systems, including group-selection. Researchers have described presencelabsence of early-successional bird species in forest open- ings created by even- and uneven-aged silviculture, but few have examined nest success. We examined occu- pancy and nest

  10. Viscosity and dissipation - early stages

    E-print Network

    P. Bozek

    2009-01-15

    A very early start up time of the hydrodynamic evolution is needed in order to reproduce observations from relativistic heavy-ion collisions experiments. At such early times the systems is still not locally equilibrated. Another source of deviations from local equilibrium is the viscosity of the fluid. We study these effects at very early times to obtain a dynamical prescription for the transition from an early 2-dimensional expansion to a nearly equilibrated 3-dimensional expansion at latter stages. The role of viscosity at latter stages of the evolution is also illustrated.

  11. Remote sensing-based predictors improve distribution models of rare, early successional and broadleaf tree species in Utah

    PubMed Central

    ZIMMERMANN, N E; EDWARDS, T C; MOISEN, G G; FRESCINO, T S; BLACKARD, J A

    2007-01-01

    Compared to bioclimatic variables, remote sensing predictors are rarely used for predictive species modelling. When used, the predictors represent typically habitat classifications or filters rather than gradual spectral, surface or biophysical properties. Consequently, the full potential of remotely sensed predictors for modelling the spatial distribution of species remains unexplored. Here we analysed the partial contributions of remotely sensed and climatic predictor sets to explain and predict the distribution of 19 tree species in Utah. We also tested how these partial contributions were related to characteristics such as successional types or species traits. We developed two spatial predictor sets of remotely sensed and topo-climatic variables to explain the distribution of tree species. We used variation partitioning techniques applied to generalized linear models to explore the combined and partial predictive powers of the two predictor sets. Non-parametric tests were used to explore the relationships between the partial model contributions of both predictor sets and species characteristics. More than 60% of the variation explained by the models represented contributions by one of the two partial predictor sets alone, with topo-climatic variables outperforming the remotely sensed predictors. However, the partial models derived from only remotely sensed predictors still provided high model accuracies, indicating a significant correlation between climate and remote sensing variables. The overall accuracy of the models was high, but small sample sizes had a strong effect on cross-validated accuracies for rare species. Models of early successional and broadleaf species benefited significantly more from adding remotely sensed predictors than did late seral and needleleaf species. The core-satellite species types differed significantly with respect to overall model accuracies. Models of satellite and urban species, both with low prevalence, benefited more from use of remotely sensed predictors than did the more frequent core species. Synthesis and applications. If carefully prepared, remotely sensed variables are useful additional predictors for the spatial distribution of trees. Major improvements resulted for deciduous, early successional, satellite and rare species. The ability to improve model accuracy for species having markedly different life history strategies is a crucial step for assessing effects of global change. PMID:18642470

  12. Early stage of nanocrystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-01-01

    Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

  13. Characterizing Growth Patterns of Early-successional Forests Using Phenological Parameters Derived from Near-daily Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, K. M.; Cohen, W. B.; Gao, F.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing data has proven to be useful for monitoring regrowth trajectories of early-successional forest stands after disturbance. Traditionally, forest recovery has been monitored with annual images acquired during the peak of the growing season. Our research will expand upon these previous research efforts through the use of near-daily imagery to track regrowth trajectories in young stands (disturbed between 1985 and 1990) in the Blue River watershed in Oregon's western Cascade mountains. To monitor forest regrowth with high temporal frequency at the fine scales required of the fragmented and heterogeneous landscape of the study region, the STARFM fusion algorithm will be used to blend frequent, coarse-scale MODIS images (near-daily at 500m) with infrequent, fine-scale Landsat images (16-day interval at 30m) to produce near-daily, 30m resolution images. Our goal is to determine how the additional information provided by high frequency synthetic Landsat data can improve the monitoring of changes in vegetation type and forest structure during forest regrowth. The changes in the annual spectral signatures of forest stands, due to phenology, will provide a basis for which variability in vegetation type and structure will be analyzed. Furthermore, this research will also allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of using STARFM in the heterogeneous forests and complex topography of Oregon's western Cascades.

  14. The Effect of Local and Landscape-Level Characteristics on the Abundance of Forest Birds in Early-Successional Habitats during the Post-Fledging Season in Western Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Labbe, Michelle A.; King, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Many species of mature forest-nesting birds (“forest birds”) undergo a pronounced shift in habitat use during the post-fledging period and move from their forest nesting sites into areas of early-successional vegetation. Mortality is high during this period, thus understanding the resource requirements of post-fledging birds has implications for conservation. Efforts to identify predictors of abundance of forest birds in patches of early-successional habitats have so far been equivocal, yet these previous studies have primarily focused on contiguously forested landscapes and the potential for landscape-scale influences in more fragmented and modified landscapes is largely unknown. Landscape composition can have a strong influence on the abundance and productivity of forest birds during the nesting period, and could therefore affect the number of forest birds in the landscape available to colonize early-successional habitats during the post-fledging period. Therefore, the inclusion of landscape characteristics should increase the explanatory power of models of forest bird abundance in early-successional habitat patches during the post-fledging period. We examined forest bird abundance and body condition in relation to landscape and habitat characteristics of 15 early-successional sites during the post-fledging season in Massachusetts. The abundance of forest birds was influenced by within-patch habitat characteristics, however the explanatory power of these models was significantly increased by the inclusion of landscape fragmentation and the abundance of forest birds in adjacent forest during the nesting period for some species and age groups. Our findings show that including factors beyond the patch scale can explain additional variation in the abundance of forest birds in early-successional habitats during the post-fledging period. We conclude that landscape composition should be considered when siting early-successional habitat to maximize its benefit to forest birds during the post-fledging period, and should also be included in future investigations of post-fledging habitat use by forest birds. PMID:25170610

  15. Dislocation generation during early stage sintering.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, J. E.; Lenel, F. V.; Ansell, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of capillarity-induced stresses on dislocations during early stage sintering. A special version of Hirth's (1963) theoretical calculation procedures modified to describe dislocation nucleation on planes meeting the sintering body's neck surface obliquely is shown to predict plastic flow at stress levels know to exist between micron size metal particles in the early stages of sintering.

  16. Interactions with successional stage and nutrient status determines the life-form-specific effects of increased soil temperature on boreal forest floor vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Hedwall, Per-Ola; Skoglund, Jerry; Linder, Sune

    2015-01-01

    The boreal forest is one of the largest terrestrial biomes and plays a key role for the global carbon balance and climate. The forest floor vegetation has a strong influence on the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the forests and is sensitive to changes in temperature conditions and nutrient availability. Additionally, the effects of climate warming on forest floor vegetation have been suggested to be moderated by the tree layer. Data on the effects of soil warming on forest floor vegetation from the boreal forest are, however, very scarce. We studied the effects on the forest floor vegetation in a long-term (18 years) soil warming and fertilization experiment in a Norway spruce stand in northern Sweden. During the first 9 years, warming favored early successional species such as grasses and forbs at the expense of dwarf shrubs and bryophytes in unfertilized stands, while the effects were smaller after fertilization. Hence, warming led to significant changes in species composition and an increase in species richness in the open canopy nutrient limited forest. After another 9 years of warming and increasing tree canopy closure, most of the initial effects had ceased, indicating an interaction between forest succession and warming. The only remaining effect of warming was on the abundance of bryophytes, which contrary to the initial phase was strongly favored by warming. We propose that the suggested moderating effects of the tree layer are specific to plant life-form and conclude that the successional phase of the forest may have a considerable impact on the effects of climate change on forest floor vegetation and its feedback effects on the carbon and nitrogen cycles, and thus on the climate. PMID:25750720

  17. Acer negundo invasion along a successional gradient: early direct facilitation by native pioneers and late indirect facilitation by conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Patrick; Pagès, Jean-Philippe; Girel, Jacky; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Michalet, Richard

    2010-08-01

    *Here, we analysed the role of direct and indirect plant interactions in the invasion process of Acer negundo along a natural successional gradient in the Middle Rhone floodplain (France). We addressed two questions: What are the responses of the invasive Acer seedlings to native communities' effects along the successional gradient? What are the effects of the invasive Acer adult trees on the native communities? *In the three communities (Salix, Acer and Fraxinus stands) we transplanted juveniles of the invasive and juveniles of the natives within the forest and in experimental gaps, and with and without the herb layer. We also quantified changes in understory functional composition, light, nitrogen and moisture among treatments. *Acer seedlings were directly facilitated for survival in the Salix and Acer communities and indirectly facilitated for growth by adult Acer through the reduction of the abundance of highly competitive herbaceous competitors. *We conclude that direct facilitation by the tree canopy of the native pioneer Salix is very likely the main biotic process that induced colonization of the invasive Acer in the floodplain and that indirect facilitation by adult conspecifics contributed to population establishment. PMID:20487316

  18. Structural and functional changes in early successional stages of a semiarid ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W. (eds.)

    1986-02-01

    The objective of our research was to study structural and functional changes that occur within and between ecosystem compartments during secondary succession in disturbed semiarid environments. First year data clearly showed an increase in resource abundance after disturbance which produced not only alteration of the soil surface but a decrease in available organic matter. In addition, marked increases in NO3 and soil water potentials were evident at all depths in the disturbed sites as compared to the undisturbed community. Soil disturbance as well as manipulation of the microflora compartment by fumigation had a significant impact on microflora structure and function. The mycorrhizal population was also drastically reduced by disturbance and fumigation. The floristic composition of the primary producers on the disturbed site was highly correlated with the propagule supply, with composition of the seed bank being the main driving force. Competition studies between bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron inerme), western wheatgrass, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and winterfat (Ceratoides lanata) showed that these four species were able to coexist under a wide range of water availability conditions. The final phase of an experiment designed to determine the effects of retorted shale recarbonation on plant uptake of toxic trace elements was completed. These initial studies indicate that both plant community characteristics and the presence of a functioning belowground community will be important in secondary succession processes which occur in disturbed semiarid environments. 36 figs., 41 tabs.

  19. Ectomycorrhizas in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae, and Betula platyphylla var. japonica, an early-successional birch species, in cool-temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Neda, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae in the Northern Hemisphere and produces prized "matsutake" mushrooms. We questioned whether the symbiont could associate with a birch that is an early-successional species in boreal, cool-temperate, or subalpine forests. In the present study, we demonstrated that T. matsutake can form typical ectomycorrhizas with Betula platyphylla var. japonica; the associations included a Hartig net and a thin but distinct fungal sheath, as well as the rhizospheric mycelial aggregate "shiro" that is required for fruiting in nature. The in vitro shiro also emitted a characteristic aroma. This is the first report of an ectomycorrhizal formation between T. matsutake and a deciduous broad-leaved tree in the boreal or cool-temperate zones that T. matsutake naturally inhabits. PMID:25236465

  20. Treatment of early stage vocal cord carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, G.

    1989-03-01

    The cure rates for early stage vocal cord cancer are excellent with primary radiotherapy. Voice quality remains as good or becomes better than prior to treatment. For the local failures that do occur, surgical salvage will yield ultimate cure rates of about 95% for T1 and 90% for T2 tumors.

  1. Open architecture framework for improved early stage submarine design

    E-print Network

    Sewell, Eli A. (Eli Anthony)

    2010-01-01

    Could transparency between current disparate methods improve efficiency in early stage submarine design? Does the lack of transparency between current design methods hinder the effectiveness of early stage submarine design? ...

  2. Towards the identification of early stage osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Alberto; Massafra, Umberto

    2014-05-01

    A variety of genetic and environmental factors contribute to the progressive develop of OA. It is necessary to identify people who are developing initial changes in cartilage and/or subchondral bone before onset of classical radiological features in order to detect early phase of OA. Recent quantitative MRI techniques can evaluate the structural, mechanical and biochemical characteristics of cartilage. T2 mapping is able to assess cartilage volume and defects measurement, delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI (dGEMRIC) and Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) can reveal Cartilage GAG content. Accurate and reliable serum, urine and synovial fluid biomarkers are also requested. Several biomarkers have been studied and proposed, but there are many critical issues to consider for inferring useful data from studies on biomarkers in early OA such as phase of disease, specific joint sites, systemic concentrations, circadian rhythm, their clearance from the joint, etc. Recently proteomics has produced great expectations to improve the early diagnosis of OA. These discoveries may open opportunities for the identification of early stage of OA leading to manage the symptoms and ultimately slow the progression of OA. PMID:25285138

  3. Spatial and temporal variability in early successional patterns of an invertebrate assemblage at an offshore oil platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason B. Bram; Henry M. Page; Jenifer E. Dugan

    2005-01-01

    The effects of selected physical and biological factors on the early development of a subtidal invertebrate assemblage were examined at an offshore oil platform in the Santa Barbara Channel (California, USA). The effects of date, year, length, and depth of submersion were investigated by replacing sets of ceramic tiles with new tiles at frequencies of 2, 4, 6, 12, and

  4. Radiometric correction of multi-temporal Landsat data for characterization of early successional forest patterns in western Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd A. Schroeder; Warren B. Cohen; Conghe Song; Morton J. Canty; Zhiqiang Yang

    2006-01-01

    Detecting and characterizing continuous changes in early forest succession using multi-temporal satellite imagery requires atmospheric correction procedures that are both operationally reliable, and that result in comparable units (e.g., surface reflectance). This paper presents a comparison of five atmospheric correction methods (2 relative, 3 absolute) used to correct a nearly continuous 20-year Landsat TM\\/ETM+ image data set (19-images) covering western

  5. DESCRIPTION OF EARLY STAGE ZOEAE OF SPIRONTOCARIS MURDOCHI

    E-print Network

    . Stage I Zoea Mean total length of Stage I zoea (Fig. lA). 3.4 mm (range 3.2-3.6 mm; six specimens). EyesDESCRIPTION OF EARLY STAGE ZOEAE OF SPIRONTOCARIS MURDOCHI (DECAPODA, HIPPOLYTIDAE) REARED. murdochi through Stage III. The first three zoeal stages of S. murdochi are described, illustrated

  6. GENOMIC RESOURCES FOR STUDYING EARLY LIFE STAGE SALMONID HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic approaches are being used to study pathological and normal processes in early life stage salmonids. Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), a disease associated with low egg thiamine levels, causes early life stage mortality and low recruitment of Great Lakes salmonids including lake trout. We use...

  7. Successional dynamics in the seasonally forced diamond food web.

    PubMed

    Klausmeier, Christopher A; Litchman, Elena

    2012-07-01

    Plankton seasonal succession is a classic example of nonequilibrium community dynamics. Despite the fact that it has been well studied empirically, it lacks a general quantitative theory. Here we investigate a food web model that includes a resource, two phytoplankton, and a shared grazer-the diamond food web-in a seasonal environment. The model produces a number of successional trajectories that have been widely discussed in the context of the verbal Plankton Ecology Group model of succession, such as a spring bloom of a good competitor followed by a grazer-induced clear-water phase, setting the stage for the late-season dominance of a grazer-resistant species. It also predicts a novel, counterintuitive trajectory where the grazer-resistant species has both early- and late-season blooms. The model often generates regular annual cycles but sometimes produces multiyear cycles or chaos, even with identical forcing each year. Parameterizing the model, we show how the successional trajectory depends on nutrient supply and the length of the growing season, two key parameters that vary among water bodies. This model extends nonequilibrium theory to food webs and is a first step toward a quantitative theory of plankton seasonal succession. PMID:22673647

  8. Metanx and Early Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haitao; Tang, Jie; Lee, Chieh Allen; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. l-Methylfolate, pyridoxal 5?-phosphate, and methylcobalamin, individually have been reported to have beneficial effects on diabetes-induced defects. The possibility that combining these therapeutic approaches might have additional benefit led us to investigate the effect of Metanx against development of early stages of diabetic retinopathy in a mouse model. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin, and some were given Metanx (a combination food product) mixed in the food at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight. Mice were killed at 2 months and 10 months of study for assessment of retinal function, retinal vascular histopathology, accumulation of albumin in neural retina, and biochemical and physiological abnormalities in retina. Results. Two months of diabetes significantly increased leukostasis within retinal vessels and superoxide generation by the retina. Diabetes also significantly increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and phosphorylation of I?B. Daily consumption of Metanx significantly inhibited all of these abnormalities. Ten months of diabetes significantly increased the degeneration of retinal capillaries and impaired visual function (spatial frequency threshold (SFT) and a parameter of contrast sensitivity) compared to nondiabetic controls. Daily consumption of Metanx for 10 months inhibited impairment of SFT but had no significant beneficial effect on capillary degeneration, pericyte loss, or the estimate of contrast sensitivity. Conclusions. Metanx inhibited a diabetes-induced defect in retinal spatial frequency threshold and inhibited measures of oxidative stress and inflammation. It had no significant effect on contrast sensitivity or retinal capillary degeneration. Nutritional management with Metanx may help inhibit diabetes-induced defects in visual function. PMID:25574044

  9. SENSITIVITY OF RAINBOW TROUT EARLY LIFE STAGES TO NICKEL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four acute tests (96-h) with juvenile fish and four early life stage tests with embryos and larvae were completed with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Ninety-six-hour flow-through LC50 values for juveniles ranged from 8.1 to 10.9 mg/l nickel. Two early life stage tests were star...

  10. Is the degree of clonality of forest herbs dependent on gap age? Using fingerprinting approaches to assess optimum successional stages for montane forest herbs

    PubMed Central

    Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability. Mean patch sizes of V. myrtillus, T. europaea, and C. villosa formed were 3.7 m2, 27.9 m2, and 40.6 m2, respectively. Trientalis europaea and C. villosa patches consisted mostly of more than one genet. Largest clone sizes of T. europaea were encountered in gaps of intermediate successional age (15–60 years, averaged minimum estimation of clone sizes: 6.56 m2) whereas clone size of C. villosa was found to be independent from gap age and had a mean minimum clone size of 0.49 m2. In both species, clone size was positively related to light availability. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between clone size and ramet density for T. europaea and C. villosa. Genetic variation was higher within populations of T. europaea and C. villosa than among populations. Trientalis europaea was the only species with a clear genetic isolation by distance, pointing at an equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift. In conclusion, we showed that forest canopy gap dynamics clearly affect the small-scale structure of populations of understorey plants. Species with high lateral growth rates, such as T. europaea offer the possibility to serve as “ecological clock” for dating ecological processes. PMID:22393501

  11. Early stage FPGA interconnect leakage power estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shilpa Bhoj; Dinesh Bhatia

    2008-01-01

    Increasing transistor densities, rising popularity in mobile applications and migration towards eco-friendly computing systems have made power dissipation a key FPGA design issue. To meet stringent budgets, system architects need accurate estimates of power distribution at various design stages. In this work, we make several key contributions to FPGA leakage power estimation. First, we develop an accurate and efficient model

  12. Giftedness in Hispanic English Language Learners: Early Stages of Identification 

    E-print Network

    Esquierdo, Joy J.; Irby, Beverly; Lara-Alecio, Rafael

    2010-10-22

    Giftedness in Hispanic English Language Learners: Early Stages of Identification Dr. J. Joy Esquierdo, University of Texas-Pan American esquierdo@utpa.edu Dr. Beverly Irby, Sam Houston State University irby@shsu.edu Dr. Rafael Lara...

  13. 8. Early stage of power house construction at Dam No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Early stage of power house construction at Dam No. 4, showing two stiff leg derricks used to excavate limestone for power house building. Photo c. 1907. Credit PEM. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  14. Early-Stage Dementia Diagnosis and Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor G. Valcour; Patricia L. Blanchette

    2012-01-01

    Dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease and other factors is taking a tremendous toll on elders and their families. According to the author however, if the disease is diagnosed and treated early, many patients can avoid or delay secondary medical and social complications.

  15. Assessing community assembly along a successional gradient in the North Adriatic Karst with functional and phylogenetic distances.

    PubMed

    Batalha, Marco Antonio; Pipenbaher, Nataša; Bakan, Branko; Kaligari?, Mitja; Škornik, Sonja

    2015-08-01

    Recently, two approaches to account for ecological differences in community composition have been developed: one based on trait differences (functional diversity) and another based on evolutionary history (phylogenetic diversity). Combining them allows an integrated view of processes structuring communities. The North Adriatic Karst is covered by species-rich grasslands, but land abandonment has resulted in replacement by woodlands. This creates a successional gradient along which environmental conditions may change, and different community assembly rules may apply. We sampled 56 plant communities in the Karst and used functional-phylogenetic distances to assess assembly along a successional gradient, from grasslands to shrublands and woodlands. We found 146 species, for which we measured functional traits and built a phylogenetic tree. The three successional stages were floristically different, with grasslands having species that are typical of harsher soil conditions and woodlands with species preferring milder soil conditions. All communities had higher functional than phylogenetic distances, implying that closely related species tended to be phenotypically dissimilar. When more importance was given to functional distances, most grasslands and some shrublands were underdispersed; when more importance was given to phylogenetic distances, only one grassland was underdispersed and one woodland was overdispersed. Combining functional and phylogenetic distances provided us with better estimates of ecological differences in a successional gradient, where environmental filters seem to be the dominant force in early stages and competitive exclusion becomes more important in later stages. Taking into account that sucessional stages are assembled by different rules is essential to predicting their behaviour under future environmental scenarios. PMID:25800875

  16. 13 CFR 107.1180 - Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1180 Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs. (a) Distribution requirement. If you are an Early Stage SBIC with outstanding...2) of this section. (4) From the result in...

  17. 13 CFR 107.1180 - Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1180 Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs. (a) Distribution requirement. If you are an Early Stage SBIC with outstanding...2) of this section. (4) From the result in...

  18. 13 CFR 107.1845 - Determination of Capital Impairment Percentage for Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Impairment Percentage for Early Stage SBICs. This section applies to Early Stage SBICs only. Except as modified...107.1840 apply to an Early Stage SBIC. (a) To determine...and (2) of this section. (4) SBA may reconsider its...

  19. Discovering colorons at the early stage LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Dicus, Duane A. [Center for Particles and Fields and Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Kao, Chung; Sayre, Joshua [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy and Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Nandi, S. [Department of Physics and Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Prospects are investigated for the discovery of massive hypergluons using data from the early runs of the Large Hadron Collider. A center of mass energy of 7 TeV and an integrated luminosity of 1 fb{sup -1} or 5 fb{sup -1} are assumed. A phenomenological Lagrangian is adopted to evaluate the cross section of a pair of colored vector bosons (colorons, {rho}-tilde) decaying into four colored scalar resonances (hyperpions, {pi}-tilde), which then decay into eight gluons. The dominant eight-jet background from the production of 8g, 7g1q, 6g2q, and 5g3q is included. We find an abundance of signal events and that realistic cuts reduce the background enough to establish a 5{sigma} signal for the coloron mass of up to 733 GeV with 1 fb{sup -1} or 833 GeV with 5 fb{sup -1}.

  20. Discovering Colorons at the Early Stage LHC

    E-print Network

    Duane A. Dicus; Chung Kao; S. Nandi; Joshua Sayre

    2010-12-28

    We investigate the prospects for the discovery of massive hyper-gluons using data from the early runs of the CERN Large Hadron Collider with $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV and assuming an integrated luminosity of 1 fb$^{-1}$. A phenomenological Lagrangian is adopted to evaluate the cross section of a pair of colored vector bosons (coloron, $\\tilde{\\rho}$) decaying into four colored scalar resonances (hyper-pion, $\\tilde{\\pi}$), which then decay into eight gluons. We include the dominant physics background from the production of $8g$, $7g1q$, $6g2q$, and $5g3q$. We find an abundance of signal events and that realistic cuts reduce the background enough to establish a $5\\sigma$ signal for $m_{\\tilde{\\pi}} \\alt 220$ GeV or $m_{\\tilde{\\rho}} \\alt 733$ GeV.

  1. Impacts of a native root-rotting pathogen on successional development of old-growth Douglas fir forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny C. Holah; Mark V. Wilson; Everett M. Hansen

    1997-01-01

    Because Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir), an early seral dominant in western Oregon forests, is particularly susceptible to the pathogenic root rot\\u000a caused by the fungus Phellinus weirii, it was hypothesized that successional development in affected forests would be accelerated. The basal area of late successional\\u000a tree species and common shrubs were compared inside and outside Phellinus weirii“infection centers”. Future successional

  2. Definitive radiotherapy for early-stage hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kaname; Kubota, Akira; Furukawa, Madoka; Kitani, Yousuke; Nakayama, Yuko; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Mizoguchi, Nobutaka; Shiomi, Miho

    2015-08-01

    The present study analyzed the outcomes of patients with early-stage hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC) treated with radical radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 33 patients with early-stage HPSCC who underwent RT or CCRT between January 1999 and December 2011. Of the 33 patients who were treated, 12 had Stage I and 21 had Stage II disease. Patients with Stage I were typically treated with RT, while patients with Stage II were treated with CCRT (concurrent chemotherapy: 5FU, cisplatin or TS-1). The median follow-up period was 81 months, ranging from 15 to 155 months. The 5-year overall survival rates, cause specific survival rates, locoregional control rates, and progression-free survival rates were 58, 75, 56, and 49 %, respectively. Of the 33 patients, 51 % experienced second primary malignancies. Esophageal carcinoma occurred in several cases, and was diagnosed either during screening after treatment for the second primary malignancy or simultaneously with the second primary malignancy. Advanced-stage second malignancies significantly influenced the survival of the patients and the control rate for HPSCC. Treatment emphasizing the quality of life after treatment is needed, if a poor prognosis is expected because of advanced-stage second primary malignancy. PMID:24939176

  3. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Goyal; Robert E. Mansel

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the current standard of care for nodal staging in early-stage breast cancer patients\\u000a who are clinically nodenegative. Data from three randomised controlled trials conclusively demonstrates that SLNB is associated\\u000a with less arm morbidity and better quality of life than axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Large observational studies\\u000a have shown that SLNB is associated with

  4. Sympathetic skin response asymmetry in early stage idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Fusina; S Conte; L Bertolasi; E Fincati; E Nardelli; L. G Bongiovanni

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral plantar sympathetic skin response (SSR) was studied in 25 patients with early stage idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), characterized by monolateral motor involvement (Hoehn and Yahr, stage <2) and without clinical evidence of autonomic dysfunctions. Thirteen (mean age: 68.69±7.70, range 55–76) had extrapyramidal clinical signs only at the left body side, 12 (mean age 66.60±7.43, range 51–73) at the

  5. Early morphea simulating patch-stage mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Masakazu; Basko-Plluska, Juliana L; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna; Shea, Christopher R

    2015-05-01

    Morphea is a rare fibrosing condition of the skin and underlying tissues characterized histopathologically by thickened collagen bundles throughout the dermis, loss of adnexal structures, and "fat trapping." In the early stages of morphea, the absence of the fully developed characteristic findings may cause diagnostic confusion for the practicing pathologist. The authors report an unusual case of early morphea misdiagnosed as patch-stage poikilodermatous mycosis fungoides (MF) based on the initial clinical, histopathologic, and molecular findings. However, as time elapsed, well-developed lesions revealed clinical and histopathologic features diagnostic of morphea. The authors report this case to illustrate that lesions of early morphea may simulate MF. Given the similarities in clinicopathologic presentation, dermatologists and dermatopathologists should be cautious not to inadvertently misinterpret early morphea as MF. PMID:25768945

  6. A successional study of Willows (Salix spp.) on sandbar islands in the Mississippi River using GIS 

    E-print Network

    Roth, Genevieve Ann

    1996-01-01

    Willows (Salix nigra Marsh. and Salix interior Row.) are short-lived, early successional species which require moist, sandy soil to germinate and can withstand long periods of innundation. Sandbar islands in the Mississippi River possess...

  7. Attentional Modulation of Early-Stage Visual Processing in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    van der Stelt, Odin; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Belger, Aysenil

    2007-01-01

    This study shows that paying attention to the color of a visual stimulus is manifested by an early endogenous scalp-positive event-related brain potential (ERP) component, referred to as “selection positivity”, that occurs within the first 100 ms after stimulus onset in healthy observers. In contrast, recently ill and chronically ill schizophrenia patients as well as patients at high risk for schizophrenia all failed to show this early ERP component while attending to color. These results suggest that a relatively early stage of visual-selective processing in posterior extrastriate cortex is disrupted in schizophrenia. PMID:17087921

  8. INTRODUCTION Although the early stages of commitment to the cardiac

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Mike

    INTRODUCTION Although the early stages of commitment to the cardiac phenotype have been extensively transgenic animals harboring the human alkaline phosphatase (HAP) gene driven by the proximal 840 bp of the ventricles. Key words: Mouse embryo, Heart, Sinus venosa, Atrium, Ventricle, Retinoic acid SUMMARY A retinoic

  9. DENIM: an informal tool for early stage web site design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Lin; Mark W. Newman; Jason I. Hong; James A. Landay

    2001-01-01

    DENIM is a system that helps web site designers in the early stages of design. DENIM supports sketching input; allows design at different refinement levels--site map, storyboard, and individual page; and unifies the levels through zooming. The design of DENIM was informed by a study of web site design practice, in which we observed that web site designers design sites

  10. Social security arrangements and early-stage entrepreneurial activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André van Stel; Peter Brouwer; Sander Wennekers; Jolanda Hessels

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study defines a number of propositions regarding the relation between social security arrangements and the rate of early-stage entrepreneurial activity at the country level. We state that in investigating this relation it may be relevant to distinguish between social security contributions paid by employers and employees, and to look at micro-based indicators (replacement rates) for the benefits an

  11. Detecting Internet Worms at Early Stage Shigang Chen Sanjay Ranka

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shigang

    1 Detecting Internet Worms at Early Stage Shigang Chen Sanjay Ranka Department of Computer of Internet economy. Arising as a leading threat, worms repetitively caused enormous damage to the Internet community during the past years. A new security service that monitors the ongoing worm activities

  12. Modeling routing demand for early-stage FPGA architecture development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Mark Fang; Jonathan Rose

    2008-01-01

    Architecture development for FPGAs has typically been a very empirical discipline, requiring the synthesis of benchmark circuits into candidate architectures. This is difficult to do in the early stages of architecture development, however, because there is no complete architecture to synthesize circuits into. The effort required to create prototype tools for nascent architectures is far too great for every new

  13. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.I. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark). Dept. of Ecotoxicology; Kristensen, P. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. for Cleaner Technology

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

  14. Seeding from early stage gallbladder carcinoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, L; Artese, L; Innocenti, P

    2001-01-01

    In the last years laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the "gold standard therapy" in the treatment of symptomatic cholelitiasis, but it is necessary to keep into account some problems and risks that can arise from laparoscopic technique. One of these risks is represented surely by the disregarding of a gallbladder carcinoma. The authors report a case of peritoneal seeding of an unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The first histologic diagnosis was chronic ulcerous cholecystitis with adenomiosis but 2 months later the metastasis developed at the umbilical port site, at another port site and to the right lobe of the liver. Another histological sampling of the gallbladder specimen was performed and this time a little intra mucous gallbladder adenocarcinoma was found (T1 stage). While the most part of literature data concern advanced stage of the disease at the time of operation (T2, T3) only few reports regard early stage neoplasm. Therefore this risk is present not only in advanced stages of gallbladder carcinoma but even in cases of early stage cancers. After a laparoscopic cholecystectomy all specimen should be opened and inspected. If there is a gallbladder wall irregularity and if there was a bile spillage it is advisable to perform a preoperative histologic examination. PMID:12061225

  15. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu; Long, Jiang; Li, Hai; Chen, Shuhong; Liu, Qiqi; Zhang, Bei; He, Xiaomin; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongyi; Li, Yimei; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Chenzhen; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Minli; Li, Qing; Cao, Bangwei; Bai, Zhigang; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Zhongtao; Zhu, Shengtao; Zheng, Jiasheng; Ou, Xiaojuan; Ma, Hong; Jia, Jidong; You, Hong; Wang, Shengqi; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is prevalent worldwide and early diagnosis of HCC is critical for effective treatment and optimal prognosis. Methods Serum was screened first by immunoproteomic analysis for HCC-related tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Selected TAAs were clinically evaluated retrospectively in patients with HCC, liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and healthy controls. Levels of autoantibody to the selected TAAs were measured by protein microarrays containing protein antigens of the candidate TAAs. Analyses were done by using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to calculate diagnostic accuracy. Findings Twenty-two candidate TAAs were assessed by protein microarray analysis in 914 participants with serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP) available. Twelve candidate TAAs were statistically different in signal intensity between HCC and controls. Among them, CENPF, HSP60 and IMP-2 showed AUC (area under the curve) values of 0.826, 0.764 and 0.796 respectively for early HCC. The highest prevalence of autoantibody positivity was observed in HCC cases with BCLC tumor stage A, well-differentiated histology and Child-Pugh grade C. Specifically, 73.6% or 79.3% cases of early HCC with negative AFP were positive for autoantibody to CENPF or HSP60. Interpretation Tumor-associated autoimmune reactions may be triggered by early stage HCCs. Measurement of serum autoantibody to TAAs may be complementary to AFP measurements and improve diagnosis of early HCC. PMID:26137588

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Heather L; Hudis, Clifford A

    2007-04-01

    Systemic chemotherapy is an integral component of the adjuvant treatment strategy for women who have early-stage breast cancer and accounts for significant improvements in breast cancer-specific mortality. Decisions regarding adjuvant therapy are increasingly complex with the advent of new therapeutic strategies, a growing body of literature on the molecular biology and natural history of breast cancer, and advances in therapeutic techniques and early detection. Ultimately, the risk-benefit calculus will continue to evolve in response to these advances and one hopes that clinicians will soon be able to tailor treatment recommendations to the biology of an individual cancer and the needs of the affected individual. PMID:17512445

  17. Maternal warming affects early life stages of an invasive thistle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Gallagher, R S; Shea, K

    2012-03-01

    Maternal environment can influence plant offspring performance. Understanding maternal environmental effects will help to bridge a key gap in the knowledge of plant life cycles, and provide important insights for species' responses under climate change. Here we show that maternal warming significantly affected the early life stages of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans. Seeds produced by plants grown in warmed conditions had higher germination percentages and shorter mean germination times than those produced by plants under ambient conditions; this difference was most evident at suboptimal germination temperatures. Subsequent seedling emergence was also faster with maternal warming, with no cost to seedling emergence percentage and seedling growth. Our results suggest that maternal warming may accelerate the life cycle of this species via enhanced early life-history stages. These maternal effects on offspring performance, together with the positive responses of the maternal generation, may exacerbate invasions of this species under climate change. PMID:22404764

  18. The Development of Children's Early Numeracy through Key Stage 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a limited longitudinal study of young children's early numeracy development within three testing cycles, at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-of-age), located within the broader context of progress through to Key Stage 1 SAT…

  19. Nonlinear effects on the early stage of phase ordering kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Copetti, M.I.M. [LANA, Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97119-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Krein, G.; Marques de Carvalho, R.S. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona, 145, 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Machado, J.M. [Instituto de Biociencias, Letras e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Cristovao Colombo, 2265, 15054, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2004-12-02

    Nonlinear effects on the early stage of phase ordering of a non conserved order parameter are studied using Adomian's decomposition method for the Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this method, the solution is systematically calculated in the form of a polynomial expansion for the order parameter. The method is very accurate for short times, which allows to incorporate the short-time dynamics of the nonlinear terms in a analytical and controllable way.

  20. Biomarkers of early stage osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and musculoskeletal health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Usman; Anwar, Attia; Savage, Richard S.; Costa, Matthew L.; Mackay, Nicola; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Watts, Richard A.; Winyard, Paul G.; Tarr, Joanna; Haigh, Richard C.; Thornalley, Paul J.; Rabbani, Naila

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no biochemical test for detection of early-stage osteoarthritis (eOA). Tests for early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies require refinement to improve clinical utility. We developed robust mass spectrometric methods to quantify citrullinated protein (CP) and free hydroxyproline in body fluids. We detected CP in the plasma of healthy subjects and surprisingly found that CP was increased in both patients with eOA and eRA whereas anti–CCP antibodies were predominantly present in eRA. A 4-class diagnostic algorithm combining plasma/serum CP, anti-CCP antibody and hydroxyproline applied to a cohort gave specific and sensitive detection and discrimination of eOA, eRA, other non-RA inflammatory joint diseases and good skeletal health. This provides a first-in-class plasma/serum-based biochemical assay for diagnosis and type discrimination of early-stage arthritis to facilitate improved treatment and patient outcomes, exploiting citrullinated protein and related differential autoimmunity. PMID:25788417

  1. Growth Stages 2: Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    These lesson plans from Science NetLinks form a two-part series designed to introduce students (grades 3-5) to human growth and development from infancy through puberty. Each lesson contains detailed background information, discussion questions, and other resources that help students learn about the "key physical stages or milestones, which are research and science-supported indicators that help to track the progress of a child's physical development at different stages of life." Using these lesson plans in the classroom could prove a popular choice, as "research shows that children are fascinated by films and stories about early stages of human development and they are particularly intrigued by comparisons of themselves now and earlier." Each lesson plans comes with a comprehensive teaching guide.

  2. [NSCLC of early stage. The place of surgery].

    PubMed

    Riquet, M; Scotte, F

    2008-10-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of early stage (stage I and II) form a wide variety of numerous heterogeneous tumors in respect to the T, the N and the histology. However, they share the common characteristic of being resectable, so providing the best chances of cure in patients amenable to surgery. A wide range of resections is available and the tendency at the present time is to favour resections permitting to avoid performing pneumonectomy, an operation whose postoperative mortality may be considerable, particularly on the right side. The place of surgery is of paramount importance in view of cure on condition that the resection is complete, that is without any tumor left behind, and includes a radical mediastinal lymphadenectomy. The place of surgery is also often diagnostic as well as therapeutic, and surgery provides the best histologic classification, the most accurate staging, and thus the best adapted adjuvant therapy and global management. PMID:18971828

  3. Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1993-12-01

    Processes in growth of short cracks and stage I of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl{sup {minus}}, with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl{sup {minus}} or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage I behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK{sup m} where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

  4. Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. Results A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Conclusion Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group. PMID:25142621

  5. Involvement of 15-lipoxygenase in early stages of atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase which is expressed in atherosclerotic lesions is implicated in the oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins during atherogenesis. To obtain experimental in vivo evidence for this hypothesis, we analyzed the structure of oxygenated lipids isolated from the aorta of rabbits fed with a cholesterol-rich diet for different time periods and compared the pattern of oxygenation products with that isolated from low density lipoproteins treated in vitro with the pure rabbit 15-lipoxygenase and with oxygenated lipids isolated from advanced human atherosclerotic lesions. In early atherosclerotic lesions (12-wk cholesterol feeding), specific lipoxygenase products were detected whose structure was similar to those isolated from lipoxygenase-treated low density lipoproteins. The appearance of these products did coincide with the lipid deposition in the vessel wall. In later stages of atherogenesis (26-wk cholesterol feeding) the degree of oxidative modification of the tissue lipids did increase but the share of specific lipoxygenase products was significantly lower, suggesting an increasing overlay of the specific lipoxygenase products by nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation. In advanced human atherosclerotic lesions, large amounts of oxygenation products were detected whose structure suggests a nonenzymatic origin. These data suggest that the arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase is of pathophysiological importance during the early stages of atherogenesis. In later stages of plaque development nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation becomes more relevant. PMID:8195716

  6. On developing business architectures : a multi-framework evaluation of an early-stage enterprise

    E-print Network

    Montoya, Mario, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Early-stage enterprises are characterized by leveraging limited resources during periods of accelerating industry growth and relatively high uncertainty. This thesis is an examination of an early-stage enterprise within ...

  7. Point pressure sensitivity in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Gandhi, Shifa S; Osman, Allen; Hurtig, Howard I; Pawasarat, Ian; Beals, Evan; Chung, Inna; Dubroff, Jacob; Newberg, Andrew; Ying, Gui-Shang; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2015-01-01

    A number of sensory changes occur in the earliest stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), some of which precede the expression of the classic motor phenotype by years (e.g., olfactory dysfunction). Whether point pressure sensitivity (PPS), a cutaneous measure of light touch mediated by myelinated A? fibers, is altered in early PD is not clear. Prior studies on this point are contradictory and are based on non-forced-choice threshold tests that confound the sensitivity measure with the response criterion. While ?-synuclein pathology, a defining feature of PD, is present in the skin of PD patients, it is restricted to unmyelinated nerve fibers, suggesting PPS may be spared in this disease. We determined PPS thresholds using a state-of-the-art forced-choice staircase threshold test paradigm in 29 early stage PD patients and 29 matched controls at 11 body sites: the center of the forehead and the left and right forearms, index fingers, palms, medial soles of the feet, and plantar halluces. The patients were tested, in counterbalanced sessions, both on and off dopamine-related medications (DRMs). PPS was not influenced by PD and did not correlate with DRM l-DOPA equivalents, scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, side of the major motor disturbances, or SPECT imaging of the striatal dopamine transporter, as measured by technetium-99m TRODAT. However, PPS thresholds were lower on the left than on the right side of the body (p=0.008) and on the upper extremities relative to the toes and feet (ps<0.0001). Positive correlations were evident among the thresholds obtained across all body sectors, even though disparate regions of the body differed in terms of absolute sensitivity. This study indicates that PPS is not influenced in early stage PD regardless of whether patients are on or off DRMs. PMID:25447476

  8. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  9. Inflammation in the early stages of neurodegenerative pathology

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Preeti J.; Herman, Alexander M.; Moussa, Charbel E-H

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is secondary to protein accumulation in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Emerging evidence indicate sustained inflammatory responses, involving microglia and astrocytes in animal models of neurodegeneration. It is unknown whether inflammation is beneficial or detrimental to disease progression and how inflammatory responses are induced within the CNS. Persistence of an inflammatory stimulus or failure to resolve sustained inflammation can result in pathology, thus, mechanisms that counteract inflammation are indispensable. Here we review studies on inflammation mediated by innate and adaptive immunity in the early stages of neurodegeneration and highlight important areas for future investigation. PMID:21820744

  10. Sentinel Node Biopsy for Early-Stage Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Donald L.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Thompson, John F.; Elashoff, Robert; Essner, Richard; Glass, Edwin C.; Mozzillo, Nicola; Nieweg, Omgo E.; Roses, Daniel F.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Karakousis, Constantine P.; Reintgen, Douglas S.; Coventry, Brendon J.; Wang, He-jing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate, in an international multicenter phase III trial, the accuracy, use, and morbidity of intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy (LM/SNB) for staging the regional nodal basin of patients with early-stage melanoma. Summary Background Data: Since our introduction of LM/SNB in 1990, this technique has been widely adopted and has become part of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Eleven years ago, the authors began the international Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (MSLT-I) to compare 2 treatment approaches: wide excision (WE) plus LM/SNB with immediate complete lymphadenectomy (CLND) for sentinel node (SN) metastases, and WE plus postoperative observation with CLND delayed until the subsequent development of clinically evident nodal metastases. Methods: After each center achieved 85% accuracy of SN identification during a 30-case learning phase, patients with primary cutaneous melanoma (?1 mm with Clark level ?III, or any thickness with Clark level ?IV) were randomly assigned in a 4:6 ratio to WE plus observation (WEO) with delayed CLND for nodal recurrence, or to WE plus LM/SNB with immediate CLND for SN metastasis. The accuracy of LM/SNB was determined by comparing the rates of SN identification and the incidence of SN metastases in the LM/SNB group versus the subsequent development of nodal metastases in the regional nodal basin of those patients with tumor-negative SNs. Early morbidity of LM/SNB was evaluated by comparing complication rates between the 2 treatment groups. Trial accrual was completed on March 31, 2002, after enrollment of 2001 patients. Results: Initial SN identification rate was 95.3% overall: 99.3% for the groin, 95.3% for the axilla, and 84.5% for the neck basins. The rate of false-negative LM/SNB during the trial phase, as measured by nodal recurrence in a tumor-negative dissected SN basin, decreased with increasing case volume at each center: 10.3% for the first 25 cases versus 5.2% after 25 cases. There were no operative mortalities. The low (10.1%) complication rate after LM/SNB increased to 37.2% with the addition of CLND; CLND also increased the severity of complications. Conclusions: LM/SNB is a safe, low-morbidity procedure for staging the regional nodal basin in early melanoma. Even after a 30-case learning phase and 25 additional LM/SNB cases, the accuracy of LM/SNB continues to increase with a center's experience. LM/SNB should become standard care for staging the regional lymph nodes of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma. PMID:16135917

  11. 13 CFR 107.1182 - Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based on Capital Impairment Percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based...An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1182 Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based...party, acceptable to SBA, to prepare valuations of some or all of your Loans and...

  12. 13 CFR 107.1182 - Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based on Capital Impairment Percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based...An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1182 Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based...party, acceptable to SBA, to prepare valuations of some or all of your Loans and...

  13. 76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...making equity investments in early stage small businesses. This initiative...content of the proposed Early Stage SBIC rule, SBA will host several...to SBA no later than January 4, 2012. If there is time at...participants. Since the Early Stage SBIC rule is in the...

  14. Growth, biomass distribution and CO 2 exchange of northern hardwood seedlings in high and low light: relationships with successional status and shade tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Walters; E. L. Kruger; P. B. Reich

    1993-01-01

    The physiology, morphology and growth of first-year Betula papyrifera Marsh., Betula alleghaniensis Britton, Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch, Acer saccharum Marsh., and Quercus rubra L. seedlings, which differ widely in reported successional affinity and shade tolerance, were compared in a controlled high-resource environment. Relative to late-successional, shade-tolerant Acer and Ostrya species, early-successional, shade-intolerant Betula species had high relative growth rates

  15. Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy for early stage cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Daniela D; Medeiros, Lídia RF; Edelweiss, Maria I; Pohlmann, Paula R; Stein, Airton T

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3. Most women with early cervical cancer (stages I to IIA) are cured with surgery or radiotherapy, or both. We performed this review originally because it was unclear whether cisplatin-based chemotherapy after surgery, radiotherapy or both, in women with early stage disease with risk factors for recurrence, was associated with additional survival benefits or risks. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of platinum-based chemotherapy after radical hysterectomy, radiotherapy, or both in the treatment of early stage cervical cancer. Search methods For the original 2009 review, we searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS and CancerLit, the National Research Register and Clinical Trials register, with no language restriction. We handsearched abstracts of scientific meetings and other relevant publications. We extended the database searches to November 2011 for this update. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy (after radical surgery, radiotherapy or both) with no adjuvant chemotherapy, in women with early stage cervical cancer (stage IA2-IIA) with at least one risk factor for recurrence. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted data independently. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, with death and disease progression as outcomes. Main results For this updated version, we identified three additional ongoing trials but no new studies for inclusion. Three trials including 368 evaluable women with early cervical cancer were included in the meta-analyses. The median follow-up period in these trials ranged from 29 to 42 months. All women had undergone surgery first. Two trials compared chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy to radiotherapy alone; and one trial compared chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy to radiotherapy alone. It was not possible to perform subgroup analyses by stage or tumour size. Compared with adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy significantly reduced the risk of death (two trials, 297 women; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36 to 0.87) and disease progression (two trials, 297 women; HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.74), with no heterogeneity between trials (I2 = 0% for both meta-analyses). Acute grade 4 toxicity occurred significantly more frequently in the chemotherapy plus radiotherapy group than in the radiotherapy group (risk ratio (RR) 5.66, 95% CI 2.14 to 14.98). We considered this evidence to be of a moderate quality due to small numbers and limited follow-up in the included studies. In addition, it was not possible to separate data for bulky early stage disease. In the one small trial that compared adjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy with adjuvant radiotherapy alone there was no significant difference in disease recurrence between the groups (HR = 1.34; 95% CI 0.24 to 7.66) and OS was not reported. We considered this evidence to be of a low quality. No trials compared adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy with no adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for early cervical cancer with risk factors for recurrence. Authors’ conclusions The addition of platinum-based chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy (chemoradiation) may improve survival in women with early stage cervical cancer (IA2-IIA) and risk factors for recurrence. Adjuvant chemoradiation is associated with an increased risk of severe acute toxicity, although it is not clear whether this toxicity is significant in the long-term due to a lack of long-term data. This evidence is limited by the small numbers and poor methodological quality of included studies. We await the results of three ongoing trials, that are likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this evidence. PMID:22

  16. Experimental Study of the Early Stages of Dendritic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Andrew

    2000-03-01

    Recent theoretical and computational advances(Nikolas Provatas, Nigel Goldenfeld, and Jonathan Dantzig, Phys Rev. Lett.), 80, 3308 (1998); Alain Karma and Wouter-Jan Rappel, Phys. Rev. E, 60, 3614 (1999). have allowed more careful study of the early stages of dendritic crystal growth that go beyond steady state approximations and include time-dependent growth and sidebranching in a realistic way. Recent experiments(J.C. LaCombe, M.B. Koss, and M.E. Glicksman, Phys. Rev. Lett.), 83, 2997 (1999) also suggest a re-examination of the steady-state approach may be in order. I will describe experiments designed to study the very early stages of dendritic crystal growth. Starting with an initially spherical seed, we slowly lower the temperature and record the development of the initial dendrite tips, the initial development of sidebranches, and the approach towards steady state. Further details are available online at http://www.lafayette.edu/ doughera/talks/aps2000/.

  17. Contribution of defect on early stage of LIPSS formation.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hisashi; Yada, Shuhei; Obara, Go; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2014-07-28

    We investigated an early stage of laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) formation to elucidate the contribution of defects on the formation. 4H-SiC crystals were irradiated by multiple pulses of femtosecond laser with different laser spot sizes. We observed the decrease in formation thresholds of high-spatial-frequency LIPSS (HSFL) and low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL) with the increased irradiated laser spot size. For smaller laser spot size, HSFL was only formed at the periphery of LSFL formation area, whereas for larger spot size, HSFL was randomly distributed within the laser spot. Our results are coincident with the hypothesis that the existence of defects in crystal contributes to the early stage on the formation of LIPSS, in which the electron excitation via one or two photon absorption in a defect site cause local nanoablation at a laser fluence under the intrinsic ablation threshold, followed by the formation of a nanovoid, which act as a scatterer, and interference of scattered wave and laser pulses lead to HSFL formation. PMID:25089418

  18. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Gene expression profiling for early-stage NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Frunze; Daw, Hamed; Haddad, Abdo; Spiro, Timothy; Sood, Ruchi

    2015-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both developed and developing countries with unacceptably high mortality even for early-stage cancers. Present guidelines do not recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma and prompts a search for a prognostic marker that would separate stage I patients into 2 groups, those who would benefit and those who would not benefit from adjuvant treatment. Studies during the last decade showed that the gene expression profiling can be the biomarker being sought. Many gene expression profiling have been found and reported from the analysis of surgical specimens of resected lung cancers during the last decade, and many of them had been shown to have an excellent predictive accuracy. These profiles used in the studies had not only different gene combinations but also different number of genes and methods of identification. Researchers have used microarray assays, RT-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and more recently microRNA-based techniques to achieve this goal. Unfortunately, most of the profiles were not sufficiently validated and/or were not used in prospective phase III studies. This review focuses on major studies in the field, future prospects, as well as the lessons learned so far. It is shown that the gene expression profiles have a good chance of being implemented in future everyday practice. PMID:23608827

  20. Responses of Reactive Oxygen Scavenging Enzymes, Proline and Malondialdehyde to Water Deficits among Six Secondary Successional Seral Species in Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Du, Feng; Shi, Huijun; Zhang, Xingchang; Xu, Xuexuan

    2014-01-01

    Drought can impact local vegetation dynamics in a long term. In order to predict the possible successional pathway of local community under drought, the responses of some drought resistance indices of six successional seral species in the semi-arid Loss Hilly Region of China were illustrated and compared on three levels of soil water deficits along three growing months (7, 8 and 9). The results showed that: 1) the six species had significant differences in SOD, POD activities and MDA content. The rank correlations between SOD, POD activities and the successional niche positions of the six species were positive, and the correlation between MDA content and the niche positions was negative; 2) activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and content of proline and MDA had significant differences among the three months; 3) there existed significant interactions of SOD, CAT, POD activities and MDA content between months and species. With an exception, no interaction of proline was found. Proline in leaves had a general decline in reproductive month; 4) SOD, CAT, POD activities and proline content had negative correlations with MDA content. Among which, the correlation between SOD activity and MDA content was significant. The results implied that, in arid or semiarid region, the species at later successional stage tend to have strong drought resistance than those at early stage. Anti-drought indices can partially interpret the pathway of community succession in the drought impacted area. SOD activity is more distinct and important on the scope of protecting membrane damage through the scavenging of ROS on exposure to drought. PMID:24914928

  1. Generic Difference Between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Litvak, Maxim L.; Anfimov, Dimitrij S.; Sanin, Anton B.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Preece, Robert D.; Meegan, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  2. General Differences between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Anfimov, D. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Briggs, M. S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Preece, R. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  3. Model atmospheres for novae during the early stages

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrse, R.; Hauschildt, P.H. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Astrophysik); Shaviv, G. (Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Physics); Starrfield, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    Continuum and line blanketing models for the photospheres of novae in the early stages of their outbursts are presented. The expanding envelopes are characterized by a very slow increase of density with decreasing radius which leads to very large geometrical extensions and large temperature differences between the inner and outer parts. The spectra show a large IR excess and a small Balmer jump which may be either in absorption or in emission. For the parameters considered (T{sub eff} = 10{sup 4}, 1.5 {times} 10{sup 4}, 2 {times} 10{sup 4}K, R = 10{sup 11} cm, solar composition), most lines are in absorption. The effects of both modifications in the temperature structure (e.g. by heating from shock fronts) and changes in the abundances of the heavy elements on the emergent spectra are briefly discussed. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Zebrafish spata2 is expressed at early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Moro, Enrico; Maran, Claudio; Slongo, M Liliana; Argenton, Francesco; Toppo, Stefano; Onisto, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    Spata2 (spermatogenesis-associated protein 2) was originally described as a novel gene involved in the spermatogenic process. In this study, we cloned a potential zebrafish spata2 orthologue. The consensus open reading frame (1650 bp) encodes a polypeptide of 550 amino acids which shares 37% identity with the human SPATA2. Bioinformatic analysis reveals a small pattern PW [KR] KE [YF][RK] which seems to be of particular interest in the light of its strong conservation between SPATA2 and the recently discovered TAMO protein of D. melanogaster. RT-PCR analysis in adult zebrafish tissues revealed that spata2 mRNA has a broad distribution. Whole-mount in situ hybridization demonstrated that spata2 transcripts are maternally derived and becomes strongly localized in the central nervous system at early developmental stages. From 5 dpf, spata2 expression becomes detectable in the gut and pronephric duct epithelium, suggesting a wide tissue function during vertebrate development. PMID:17486545

  5. Flame acceleration in the early stages of burning in tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Fru, Gordon; Petchenko, Arkady [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Akkerman, V'yacheslav [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE) of Russian Academy of Sciences, B. Tulskaya 52, 115191 Moscow (Russian Federation); Eriksson, Lars-Erik [Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    Acceleration of premixed laminar flames in the early stages of burning in long tubes is considered. The acceleration mechanism was suggested earlier by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105 (1996) 225]. Acceleration happens due to the initial ignition geometry at the tube axis when a flame develops to a finger-shaped front, with surface area growing exponentially in time. Flame surface area grows quite fast but only for a short time. The analytical theory of flame acceleration is developed, which determines the growth rate, the total acceleration time, and the maximal increase of the flame surface area. Direct numerical simulations of the process are performed for the complete set of combustion equations. The simulations results and the theory are in good agreement with the previous experiments. The numerical simulations also demonstrate flame deceleration, which follows acceleration, and the so-called ''tulip flames''. (author)

  6. Modeling TGF-? in Early Stages of Cancer Tissue Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ascolani, Gianluca; Liò, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Recent works have highlighted a double role for the Transforming Growth Factor (-): it inhibits cancer in healthy cells and potentiates tumor progression during late stage of tumorigenicity, respectively; therefore it has been termed the “Jekyll and Hyde” of cancer or, alternatively, an “excellent servant but a bad master”. It remains unclear how this molecule could have the two opposite behaviours. In this work, we propose a - multi scale mathematical model at molecular, cellular and tissue scales. The multi scalar behaviours of the - are described by three coupled models built up together which can approximatively be related to distinct microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic scales, respectively. We first model the dynamics of - at the single-cell level by taking into account the intracellular and extracellular balance and the autocrine and paracrine behaviour of -. Then we use the average estimates of the - from the first model to understand its dynamics in a model of duct breast tissue. Although the cellular model and the tissue model describe phenomena at different time scales, their cumulative dynamics explain the changes in the role of - in the progression from healthy to pre-tumoral to cancer. We estimate various parameters by using available gene expression datasets. Despite the fact that our model does not describe an explicit tissue geometry, it provides quantitative inference on the stage and progression of breast cancer tissue invasion that could be compared with epidemiological data in literature. Finally in the last model, we investigated the invasion of breast cancer cells in the bone niches and the subsequent disregulation of bone remodeling processes. The bone model provides an effective description of the bone dynamics in healthy and early stages cancer conditions and offers an evolutionary ecological perspective of the dynamics of the competition between cancer and healthy cells. PMID:24586338

  7. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

  8. Alpha Oscillations and Early Stages of Visual Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Klimesch, Wolfgang; Fellinger, Robert; Freunberger, Roman

    2011-01-01

    For a long time alpha oscillations have been functionally linked to the processing of visual information. Here we propose an new theory about the functional meaning of alpha. The central idea is that synchronized alpha reflects a basic processing mode that controls access to information stored in a complex long-term memory system, which we term knowledge system in order to emphasize that it comprises not only declarative memories but any kind of knowledge comprising also procedural information. Based on this theoretical background, we assume that during early stages of perception, alpha “directs the flow of information” to those neural structures which represent information that is relevant for encoding. The physiological function of alpha is interpreted in terms of inhibition. We assume that alpha enables access to stored information by inhibiting task-irrelevant neuronal structures and by timing cortical activity in task relevant neuronal structures. We discuss a variety findings showing that evoked alpha and phase locking reflect successful encoding of global stimulus features in an early post-stimulus interval of about 0–150?ms. PMID:21687470

  9. Benchmarking successional progress in a quantitative food web.

    PubMed

    Boit, Alice; Gaedke, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Central to ecology and ecosystem management, succession theory aims to mechanistically explain and predict the assembly and development of ecological communities. Yet processes at lower hierarchical levels, e.g. at the species and functional group level, are rarely mechanistically linked to the under-investigated system-level processes which drive changes in ecosystem properties and functioning and are comparable across ecosystems. As a model system for secondary succession, seasonal plankton succession during the growing season is readily observable and largely driven autogenically. We used a long-term dataset from large, deep Lake Constance comprising biomasses, auto- and heterotrophic production, food quality, functional diversity, and mass-balanced food webs of the energy and nutrient flows between functional guilds of plankton and partly fish. Extracting population- and system-level indices from this dataset, we tested current hypotheses about the directionality of successional progress which are rooted in ecosystem theory, the metabolic theory of ecology, quantitative food web theory, thermodynamics, and information theory. Our results indicate that successional progress in Lake Constance is quantifiable, passing through predictable stages. Mean body mass, functional diversity, predator-prey weight ratios, trophic positions, system residence times of carbon and nutrients, and the complexity of the energy flow patterns increased during succession. In contrast, both the mass-specific metabolic activity and the system export decreased, while the succession rate exhibited a bimodal pattern. The weighted connectance introduced here represents a suitable index for assessing the evenness and interconnectedness of energy flows during succession. Diverging from earlier predictions, ascendency and eco-exergy did not increase during succession. Linking aspects of functional diversity to metabolic theory and food web complexity, we reconcile previously disjoint bodies of ecological theory to form a complete picture of successional progress within a pelagic food web. This comprehensive synthesis may be used as a benchmark for quantifying successional progress in other ecosystems. PMID:24587353

  10. Early Life Stage Mortality Rates of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

    2010-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the early life history of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens is critical for rehabilitation of this species. Recruitment of lake sturgeon is known to be variable, but the extent of that variation and mortality rates experienced by early life stages are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify early life stage mortality and explore the

  11. Decision Making about Surgery for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Clara N; Chang, Yuchiao; Adimorah, Nesochi; Belkora, Jeff; Moy, Beverly; Partridge, Ann; Ollila, David W.; Sepucha, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background Practice variation in breast cancer surgery has raised concerns about the quality of treatment decisions. We sought to evaluate the quality of decisions about surgery for early stage breast cancer by measuring patient knowledge, concordance between goals and treatments, and involvement in decisions. Study Design A mailed survey of Stage I/II breast cancer survivors was conducted at four sites. The Decision Quality Instrument measured knowledge, goals, and involvement in decisions. A multivariable logistic regression model of treatment was developed. The model-predicted probability of mastectomy was compared to treatment received for each patient. Concordance was defined as having mastectomy and predicted probability >=0.5 or partial mastectomy and predicted probability <0.5. Frequency of discussion about partial mastectomy was compared to discussion about mastectomy using chi-squared tests. Results 440 patients participated (59% response rate). Mean overall knowledge was 52.7%. 45.9% knew that local recurrence risk is higher after breast conservation. 55.7% knew that survival is equivalent for the two options. Most participants (89.0%) had treatment concordant with their goals. Participants preferring mastectomy had lower concordance (80.5%) than those preferring partial mastectomy (92.6%, p=0.001). Participants reported more frequent discussion of partial mastectomy and its advantages than of mastectomy. 48.6% reported being asked their preference. Conclusions Breast cancer survivors had major knowledge deficits, and those preferring mastectomy were less likely to have treatment concordant with goals. Patients perceived that discussions focused on partial mastectomy, and many were not asked their preference. Improvements in the quality of decisions about breast cancer surgery are needed. PMID:22056355

  12. ARIPIPRAZOLE VERSUS HALOPERIDOL TREATMENT IN EARLY-STAGE SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Girgis, Ragy R.; Merrill, David B.; Vorel, Stanislav R.; Kim, Edward; Portland, Kimberly; You, Min; Pikalov, Andrei; Whitehead, Richard; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a secondary analysis of a completed study of the differential efficacy and side effects of aripiprazole versus haloperidol in early-stage schizophrenia (ESS), a subpopulation of patients which does not include first episode or chronic patients. A subpopulation of 360 individuals with ESS were identified from a randomized, multi-center, double-blind study of 1294 individuals with schizophrenia at different stages of illness who were randomized to treatment with aripiprazole (ESS=237) or haloperidol (ESS=123) for one year. The primary outcome measure was response rate based on a 50% reduction of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores. Secondary outcomes included several efficacy and safety measures, as well as treatment discontinuation. More individuals in the aripiprazole group (48%) than in the haloperidol group (28%; p<0.01) completed the study. Response rates were greater in the aripiprazole group (38% [N=91]) than in the haloperidol group (22% [N=27]; p<0.01). Aripiprazole was associated with fewer extrapyramidal side effects. ESS subjects in the haloperidol group were more likely than those in the aripiprazole group to discontinue the study drug due to an adverse event other than worsening illness (29% and 11%, respectively; p<0.01), and efficacy differences were reduced by interventions to mitigate side effects (decreasing antipsychotic dose with or without adding antiparkinsonian medication). Aripiprazole has a favorable efficacy/safety profile in ESS and appeared to be superior to haloperidol on a number of efficacy and safety outcomes. However, excessive dosing of the antipsychotic medications, in particular haloperidol, may have played an important role in accounting for the differences between aripiprazole and haloperidol in this study. PMID:20937506

  13. Counterbalancing effects of maternal mercury exposure during different stages of early ontogeny in American toads

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, William A.

    Counterbalancing effects of maternal mercury exposure during different stages of early ontogeny. The negative effect in the embryonic stage and positive effect in the larval stage counterbalanced one another exposure. Our findings demonstrate that maternal effects on survival manifesting at different stages

  14. Isolation and transplantation of sturgeon early-stage germ cells.

    PubMed

    Pšeni?ka, Martin; Saito, Taiju; Linhartová, Zuzana; Gazo, Ievgeniia

    2015-04-01

    We report, for the first time, a series of baseline techniques comprising isolation and transplantation of female and male early-stage germ cells in sturgeon to generate a germline chimera as a potential tool for surrogate reproduction and gene banking. Cells were dissociated from testis, characterized by mostly spermatogonia, and from ovary, exclusively comprising oogonia and previtellogenic oocytes, of Acipenser baerii, using 0.3% trypsin (2 hours, 23 °C) dissolved in PBS, isotonic with blood plasma. The dissociated germ cells were sorted by Percoll gradient centrifugation followed by immunolabeling with germ cell-specific vasa antibody DDX4, while 10% to 30% Percoll solution contained 79.4% and 70.8% labeled testicular and ovarian cells. Sorted germ cells were transplanted into a cavity close to a presumptive genital ridge of newly hatched heterospecific Acipenser ruthenus larvae with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled endogenous primordial germ cells. The transplanted germ cells were randomly distributed in the body cavity through 30-day posttransplantation (dpt). Subsequently, the cells were organized into genital ridges 50 dpt and proliferated 90 dpt. The number of both transplanted and endogenous germ cells significantly increased from 18.1, 22.2, and 29.1 (30 dpt) to 108.5, 90.8, and 118.5 (90 dpt) in ovarian, testicular, and endogenous germ cells, respectively (P < 0.05). The efficiency of transplantation was 60% (counted 90 dpt). PMID:25559841

  15. Use of regenerating clearcuts by late-successional bird species and their young during the post-fledging period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew R. Marshall; Jennifer A. DeCecco; Alan B. Williams; George A. Gale; Robert J. Cooper

    2003-01-01

    From 1995 to 1999, we mist-netted birds in regenerating clearcuts within a primarily forested landscape of West Virginia and Virginia to determine the extent that both resident and migrant birds and their young use this type of early-successional habitat during the post-fledging period. Our primary objective was to document whether or not birds typically considered mature or late-successional forest breeders

  16. Implications of early stages in the growth of stress corrosion cracking on component reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1995-04-01

    Environment-induced crack growth generally progresses through several stages prior to component failure. Crack initiation, short crack growth, and stage 1 growth are early stages in crack development that are summarized in this paper. The implications of these stages on component reliability, derive from the extended time that the crack exists in the early stages because crack velocity is slow. The duration of the early stages provides a greater opportunity for corrective action if cracks can be detected. Several important factors about the value of understanding short crack behavior include: (1) life prediction requires a knowledge of the total life cycle of the crack including the early stages, (2) greater reliability is possible if the transition between short and long crack behavior is known component life after this transition is short and (3) remedial actions are more effective for short than long cracks.

  17. Neuromuscular deterioration in the early stage of sepsis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cankayali, Ilkin; Dogan, Yusuf Hakan; Solak, Ilhami; Demirag, Kubilay; Eris, Oguz; Demirgoren, Serdar; Moral, Ali Resat

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) is a clinical condition frequently seen in patients being treated in critical care units in the final stage of sepsis. The etiopathology of CIP is still unclear, and the onset time of appearance of the electrophysiological findings has not been elucidated. The very little research that has been carried out on this topic is limited to clinical electrophysiological and histopathological studies. In this study, electrophysiological alterations in the early stage of experimentally induced sepsis were investigated in septic rats. Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study in an animal basic science laboratory with 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 200 to 250 g. All of the rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the sepsis group (n = 20), cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was performed to induce experimental sepsis. In the sham-operated group (n = 10), laparotomy without CLP was performed. Before and 24 hours after CLP and laparotomy, the right sciatic nerve was stimulated from the sciatic notch and compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were recorded from the gastrocnemius muscle. Recordings of latency, amplitude, and duration of the CMAP were evaluated. Results CMAP durations before and 24 hours after surgery were 0.45 ± 0.05 ms and 0.48 ± 0.05 ms, respectively, in the sham-operated group and 0.46 ± 0.05 ms and 0.55 ± 0.01 ms, respectively, in the sepsis group. Latency measurements in the sham-operated group were 0.078 ± 0.010 ms and 0.080 ± 0.015 ms, respectively, whereas measurements were found to be prolonged in the sepsis group: 0.094 ± 0.015 ms and 0.149 ± 0.054 ms before and 24 hours after surgery, respectively (p < 0.05). CMAP amplitudes in the sham-operated group before and 24 hours after surgery were 8.41 ± 0.79 mV and 8.28 ± 1.92 mV, respectively, whereas in the sepsis group the amplitude measurements decreased to 7.60 ± 1.75 mV and 4.87 ± 3.44 mV, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion The results of the study indicate that electrophysiological alterations appear in the first 24 hours after experimental sepsis and are characterized by an increase in latency and a decrease in CMAP amplitude. The results also suggest that electrophysiological findings seen in patients with CIP might appear before clinical signs of CIP. PMID:17204135

  18. STAGING EARLY EMBRYOS FROM POULTRY: THE WHY'S AND HOW'S

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The staging of embryos involves the classification of their normal development from the first cleavage divisions through hatching. Individual stages are based on discrete yet often quite subtle developmental changes in embryo morphology. The collective sequence of stages describing embryo developmen...

  19. Stage at diagnosis and early mortality from cancer in England

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, S; Johnson, S; Greenberg, D; Peake, M; Rous, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stage at diagnosis is a key predictor of overall cancer outcome. For the first time, stage completeness is high enough for robust analysis for the whole of England. Methods: We analysed data from the National Cancer Registration Service's (NCRS) Cancer Analysis System on persons diagnosed with breast, colorectal, lung, prostate or ovarian cancers in England in 2012. One-year relative survival (followed-up to the end of 2013) was calculated along with adjusted excess rate ratios, for mortality within 1 year. Results: One-year relative survival decreased with increasing stage at diagnosis. For breast, prostate and colorectal cancers survival showed a major reduction for stage 4 cancers, whereas for lung and ovarian cancers there were substantial decreases in relative survival for each level of increase in stage. Excess rate ratios for mortality within 1 year of diagnosis showed that stage and age were the most important cofactors, but they also identified the statistically significant effects of sex, income deprivation and geographic area of residence. Conclusions: Further reductions in mortality may be most effectively achieved by diagnosing all cancers before they progress to stage 4, but for lung and ovarian cancers there is also a need for a stage shift to earlier stages together with efforts to improve stage-specific survival at all stages. PMID:25734389

  20. Stainless steel pitting and early-stage stress corrosion cracking under ultra-low elastic load

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Stainless steel pitting and early-stage stress corrosion cracking under ultra-low elastic load at the early stages of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under ultra-low elastic load were studied. Pits. At the ultra-low elastic stress levels it is essential for the stress corrosion cracks to emanate from the pits

  1. Evolutionary Patterns of Gene Families Generated in the Early Stage of Vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xun

    Evolutionary Patterns of Gene Families Generated in the Early Stage of Vertebrates Yufeng Wang, Xun- brate gene families that were generated in the early stage of vertebrates and/or shortly before occurred before the divergence be- tween vertebrate and Drosophila, indicating a possible misleading

  2. The Toxicity of Diquat, Endothall, and Fluridone to the Early Life Stages of Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Paul; Howard A. Simonin; John Symula; Robert W. Bauer

    1994-01-01

    While most aquatic herbicides have undergone some toxicity testing for effects on non-target aquatic organisms, little of this testing has been conducted on early life stages of gamefish found in lakes undergoing treatment. Commercial formulations of diquat, endothall, and fluridone were selected for acute toxicity testing using very early life stages of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and

  3. TOXICITY OF TRIVALENT CHROMIUM TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF STEELHEAD TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and early life stage toxicity tests were conducted with trivalent chromium and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). A 96-h LC50 of 4,400 micrograms/l chromium was obtained with two-month-old juvenile fish. Early life stage exposure from newly fertilized eggs to 30-d post-swim...

  4. Reliability of InGaAs focal plane array imaging of wheat germination at early stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hicran Koç; Virgil W. Smail; David L. Wetzel

    2008-01-01

    To assist our Kansas breeding program, we have developed nondestructive methods to test new lines of wheat for resistance to premature germination. The high sensitivity of subsurface imaging, compared with visual detection, ?-amylase determination, or viscosity testing, permits germination detection at early stages. This report is concerned with detection reliability via chemical imaging of intact wheat kernels at early stages

  5. Theoretical Studies of the Early Stage Coagulation Kinetics for a Charged Colloidal Dispersion

    E-print Network

    Articles Theoretical Studies of the Early Stage Coagulation Kinetics for a Charged Colloidal the early stage coagulation kinetics for a charged colloidal dispersion which is here modeled of coagulation process was driven by the addition of an indifferent electrolyte and assumed to proceed in two

  6. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  7. Investigation of condensed and early stage gas phase hypergolic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Jacob Daniel

    Traditional hypergolic propellant combinations, such as those used on the space shuttle orbital maneuvering system first flown in 1981, feature hydrazine based fuels and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) based oxidizers. Despite the long history of hypergolic propellant implementation, the processes that govern hypergolic ignition are not well understood. In order to achieve ignition, condensed phase fuel and oxidizer must undergo simultaneous physical mixing and chemical reaction. This process generates heat, intermediate condensed phase species, and gas phase species, which then may continue to react and generate more heat until ignition is achieved. The process is not well understood because condensed and gas phase reactions occur rapidly, typically in less than 200 ?s, on much faster timescales than traditional diagnostic methods can observe. A detailed understanding of even the gas phase chemistry is lacking, but is critical for model development. Initial research has provided confidence that a study of condensed phase hypergolic reactions is useful and possible. Results obtained using an impinging jet apparatus have shown a critical residence time of 0.3 ms is required for the reaction between monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and red fuming nitric acid (RFNA, ~85% HNO3 + 15% N2O4) to achieve conditions favorable for ignition. This critical residence time spans the time required for liquid phase reactions to occur at the fuel/oxidizer interface and can give some insight into the reaction rates for this propellant combination. Experiments performed in a forced mixing constant volume reactor have demonstrated that the chamber pressurization rate for MMH/RFNA can be significantly reduced by diluting the MMH with deionized water. This result indicates that propellant dilution can slow the chemical reaction rates to occur over observable time scales. The research described in this document consists of two efforts that contribute knowledge to the propulsion community regarding the hypergolic liquid propellant combination of MMH and RFNA or pure nitric acid. The first and most important effort focuses on furthering the understanding of condensed phase reactions between MMH and nitric acid. To accomplish this goal diluted MMH and nitric acid were studied in a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. By tracking the generation or destruction of specific chemical species in the reacting fluid we can measure the reaction progress as a function of reactant concentration and temperature. This work provides the propulsion community with a quantitative global condensed phase reaction rate equation for MMH/nitric acid. The second effort focuses on improving understanding the recently proposed gas phase hypergolic reaction mechanisms using a streak camera based ultraviolet and visible spectrometer. The time resolution on the streak camera system allows for detailed investigation of the pre-ignition and early stage gas phase species present during the reaction between MMH and RFNA.

  8. Active compressive intraoceanic deformation: early stages of ophiolites emplacement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Delescluse, Matthias; Montési, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Oceanic lithosphere is strong and continental lithosphere is weak. As a result, there is relatively little deformation in the oceanic domain away from plate boundaries. However, the interior of oceanic lithosphere does deform when highly stressed. We review here places where intraoceanic compression is at work. In the more than 30 years since the first observations of active compressive intraplate deformation in the Central Indian Ocean through seismic profiling (Eittreim et al., 1972), compressive deformation has been identified in a variety of other oceanic tectonic settings: as a result of small differential motion between large plates (between North America and South America in the Central Atlantic; between Eurasia and Nubia offshore Gibraltar; between Macquarie and Australia plates in the Southern Ocean), within back-arcs (northwest Celebes Sea, Okushiri Ridge in the Japan Sea, on the eastern border of the Caroline plate), and ahead of subduction (Zenisu Ridge off Nankai Trough). Deformation appears to be more diffuse when larger plates are involved, and more localized for younger plates, perhaps in relation with the increasing rigidity of oceanic plates with age. The best example of diffuse deformation studied so far remains the Central Indian Ocean. Numerous marine data have been collected in this area, including shallow and deep seismic, heat flow measurements, multibeam bathymetry. The present-day deformation field has been modeled using GPS and earthquakes as far field and near field constraints respectively. Reactivation of the oceanic fabric (including for portions of the Indo-Australian plate which are now in subduction as evidenced by the September 2009 Padang earthquake), selective fault abandonment (Delescluse et al., 2008) and serpentinization (Delescluse and Chamot-Rooke, 2008) are some of the important processes that shape the present-day pattern of deformation. These rare intraplate deformation areas constitute excellent natural laboratories to investigate the very early stages of formation of faulted oceanic bodies that may further be incorporated into mountain belts as ophiolites. They allow to discuss rates and duration of deformation, diffuse vs localized deformation, re-activation vs neo-formed faults, serpentinization and thermal regime, spacing of minor and major thrust faults. Delescluse, M., L. G. J. Montesi, and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Fault reactivation and selective abandonment in the oceanic lithosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 35. Delescluse, M., and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Serpentinization pulse in the actively deforming Central Indian Basin. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 276, p. 140-151. Eittreim, S. L., and J. Ewing (1972), Mid-Plate Tectonics in the Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 77(32), 6413-6421.

  9. Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Results Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low seed set in R. pseudoacacia. PMID:24655746

  10. Setting the Stage for Lifetime Physical Activity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Holly; Lounsbery, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale and suggestions for emphasizing health-related physical education in preschool settings. In order to accomplish this, it will examine what is currently known about early childhood physical activity, as well as the existing professional preparation and accreditation standards for early childhood…

  11. Efficient embryonic culture method for the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata, and its early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Atsushi; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2014-10-01

    The morphogenesis of snake embryos is an elusive yet fascinating research target for developmental biologists. However, few data exist on development of early snake embryo due to limited availability of pregnant snakes, and the need to harvest early stage embryos directly from pregnant snakes before oviposition without knowing the date of fertilization. We established an ex vivo culture method for early snake embryos using the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata. This method, which we named "sausage-style (SS) culture", allows us to harvest snake embryos at specific stages for each experiment. Using this SS culture system, we calculated somite formation rate at early stages before oviposition. The average somite formation rate between 6/7 and 12/13 somite stages was 145.9 min, between 60/70 and 80/91 somite stages 42.4 min, and between 113-115 and 126/127 somite stages 71 min. Thus, somite formation rate that we observed during early snake embryogenesis was changed over time. We also describe a developmental staging series for E. quadrivirgata. This is the first report of a developmental series of early snake embryogenesis prior to oviposition by full-color images with high-resolution. We propose that the SS culture system is an easy method for treating early snake embryos ex vivo. PMID:25315231

  12. Radiotherapy Alone for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx and Hypopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, Robert L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States)], E-mail: foote.robert@mayo.edu

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To describe and illustrate examples of early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Review of the NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines. Representative examples are included. Results: Early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer is defined by tumor extent based on physical and imaging examination. Conclusions: Radiotherapy alone is appropriate treatment for properly selected early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. The NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines can be an aid to the clinician in identifying favorable cancers that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone with preservation of organ function.

  13. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF HIERARCHICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hierarchical methods are often used in the conceptual stages of process design to synthesize and evaluate process alternatives. In this work, the methods of hierarchical process design will be focused on environmental aspects. In particular, the design methods will be coupled to ...

  14. Surface reactions during the early stages of weathering of albite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Wollast; Lei Chou

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the nature and distribution of surface species occurring during the initial stage of weathering of albite. Instead of the classical acidbase titration experiments used extensively in previous work, the surface of freshly ground mineral was titrated by adding increasing amounts of solid to pure water. The aqueous phase

  15. Improvements to building energy usage modeling during early design stages and retrofits

    E-print Network

    Mandelbaum, Andrew (Andrew Joseph)

    2014-01-01

    A variety of improvements to the MIT Design Advisor, a whole-building energy usage modeling tool intended for use during early design stages, are investigated. These include changes to the thermal mass temperature distribution ...

  16. RESPONSES OF EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF THE STRIPED BASS, 'MORONE SAXATILIS' TO CHLORINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of total residual chlorination (TRC) to early life stages of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, was determined using percent embryo hatchability, incipient LC50 bioassays, histopathology, and avoidance responses. Beginning 8 to 9 hours after fertilization, developin...

  17. Redescription of Paraliparis holomelas Gilbert, 1896 (Teleostei: Liparidae), with a description of early life history stages

    E-print Network

    of early life history stages Morgan S. Busby* and Rachael L. Cartwright National Oceanic and Atmospheric and Conservation Engineering Division, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Building 4, Seattle, WA 98115, USA (e-mail: Morgan.Busby

  18. Early Years Foundation Stage: How Much Does It Count?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The final report of the Williams committee (DCSF, 2008: 68) argues that the revised mathematics Framework (DfES, 2006) "should be reconsidered to achieve a more suitable, user-friendly form." It might also have added that there is not much help and support in it for early years teachers. A much more useful document is the "Practice guidance for…

  19. Staging of the early embryonic brain in the baboon ( Papio cynocephalus ) and rhesus monkey ( Macaca mulatta )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Davignon; Robert M. Parker; Andrew G. Hendrickx

    1980-01-01

    Early morphogenesis of the brain and its derivatives was studied in sixty-nine baboon and rhesus monkey embryos representing developmental stages 8–16, and compared with the staged human embryo. The baboon and rhesus monkey embryos develop in a similar temporal sequence when compared with human embryos with the following exceptions: 1) The respective developmental events for otic disc, adenohypophyseal pouch, and

  20. Comparative toxicity of inorganic contaminants released by placer mining to early life stages of salmonids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Buhl; S. J. Hamilton

    1990-01-01

    The acute toxicities of four trace inorganics associated with placer mining were determined, individually and in environmentally relevant mixtures, to early life stages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Alaska and Montana, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from Alaska and Washington, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Montana. The descending rank order of toxicity to all species and life stages was

  1. Identification and Validation of Novel Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Staging Early Alzheimer's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Perrin; Rebecca Craig-Schapiro; James P. Malone; Aarti R. Shah; Petra Gilmore; Alan E. Davis; Catherine M. Roe; Elaine R. Peskind; Ge Li; Douglas R. Galasko; Christopher M. Clark; Joseph F. Quinn; Jeffrey A. Kaye; John C. Morris; David M. Holtzman; R. Reid Townsend; Anne M. Fagan; Mark P. Mattson

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundIdeally, disease modifying therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD) will be applied during the ‘preclinical’ stage (pathology present with cognition intact) before severe neuronal damage occurs, or upon recognizing very mild cognitive impairment. Developing and judiciously administering such therapies will require biomarker panels to identify early AD pathology, classify disease stage, monitor pathological progression, and predict cognitive decline. To discover such

  2. TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE GREEN SUNFISH (LEPOMIS CYANELLUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity of ammonia to early life stages of green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus was studied. One chronic and four acute exposure studies were conducted. During the chronic study green sunfish were exposed to a series of ammonia concentrations from the blastula stage through 40 days p...

  3. Estimated soil respiration rates decreased with long-term soil microclimate changes in successional forests in southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuhui; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhang, Qianmei

    2011-12-01

    The response of soil respiration to short-term environmental factors changes has been well studied, whereas the influences of long-term soil microclimate changes on soil respiration are still highly unclear, especially in tropical ecosystems. We hypothesized that soil carbon accumulation in southern China, especially in mature forest during recent years, partly resulted from reducing soil respiration rates. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the temporal trends and variations of air temperature, soil temperature and soil water content (hereafter referred to as SWC), and then estimated soil respiration rates in the 1980s and 2000s with soil temperature and SWC by regression model in three subtropical forests which are at early-, mid-, and advanced-successional stages, respectively, in Dinghushan Nature Reserve (hereafter referred to as DNR) in southern China. The annual mean ambient air temperature increased by 1.03 ± 0.15°C in the last 50 years (1954-2007) in DNR. Rainfall amount in the corresponding period did not change significantly, but rainfall pattern changed remarkably in the last three decades (1978-2007). Soil temperature is correlated with ambient air temperature. The average SWC was 36.8 ± 8.4%, 34.7 ± 8.1% and 29.6 ± 8.1% in the 1980s, and then dropped sharply to 23.6 ± 2.9%, 20.5 ± 4.2% and 17.6 ± 3.9% in the 2000s, for the advanced, mid- and early-successional forests, respectively. Concurrent changes of soil temperature and SWC may have a negative effect on soil respiration rates for all three forests, implicated that soil respiration may have a negative feedback to regional climate change and carbon could be sequestered in subtropical forests in southern China. PMID:21983997

  4. Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

  5. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early

  6. Phenotypic Features of Peripheral Blood Leucocytes During Early Stages of Human Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sathler-Avelar; E. M. Lemos; D. D. Reis; N. Medrano-Mercado; T. C. Araujo-Jorge; P. R. Z. Antas; R. Correa-Oliveira; A. Teixeira-Carvalho; S. M. Eloi-Santos; D. Favato; O. A. Martins-Filho

    2003-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to evaluate human immunologic status during early stages of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in children. We identified major immunological features corresponding to three proposed phases of disease: early acute (EA) phase, late acute (LA) phase and recent chronic (RC) phase. EA phase was accompanied by expansion of conventional B

  7. Three Biomarkers Identified from Serum Proteomic Analysis for the Detection of Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Zhang; Robert C. Bast; Yinhua Yu; Jinong Li; Lori J. Sokoll; Alex J. Rai; Jason M. Rosenzweig; Bonnie Cameron; Young Y. Wang; Xiao-Ying Meng; Andrew Berchuck; Carolien van Haaften-Day; Neville F. Hacker; Henk W. A. de Bruijn; Ian J. Jacobs; Eric T. Fung; Daniel W. Chan

    2004-01-01

    Early detection remains the most promising approach to improve long-term survival of patients with ovarian cancer. In a five-center case- control study, serum proteomic expressions were analyzed on 153 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 42 with other ovarian cancers, 166 with benign pelvic masses, and 142 healthy women. Data from patients with early stage ovarian cancer and healthy women

  8. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  9. Formal Verification Toolkit for Requirements and Early Design Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, Julia M.; Miller, Sheena Judson

    2011-01-01

    Efficient flight software development from natural language requirements needs an effective way to test designs earlier in the software design cycle. A method to automatically derive logical safety constraints and the design state space from natural language requirements is described. The constraints can then be checked using a logical consistency checker and also be used in a symbolic model checker to verify the early design of the system. This method was used to verify a hybrid control design for the suit ports on NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Exploration Vehicle against safety requirements.

  10. Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

    2012-11-01

    According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. PMID:23036413

  11. Genomic changes at the early stage of somatic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Xu, C H; Wang, M Q; Zhi, D Y; Xia, G M

    2014-01-01

    A broad spectrum of genetic and epigenetic changes is induced by wide hybridization and subsequent polyploidization, but the timing of these events remains obscure because early hybrid cells are very difficult to harvest and analyze. Here, we used both cytological and genetic marker approaches to analyze the constitution of very young somatic hybrid cells between japonica rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp japonica) and indica rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp indica) and between japonica rice and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Chromatin elimination, simple sequence repeats, and retrotransposon profile deletions were already apparent within six days of the fusion event. The evidence we have presented suggests that genomic changes induced by genomic shock occur soon after the formation of hybrid cells. PMID:24668681

  12. Cost analysis of adjuvant management strategies in early stage (stage I) testicular seminoma

    PubMed Central

    Cox, John A; Gajjar, Shefali R; Lanni, Thomas B; Swanson, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Background Acceptable post-orchiectomy adjuvant therapy strategies for stage I seminoma patients include surveillance, para-aortic radiation therapy (RT), dog-leg RT, and a single cycle of carboplatin. The required follow-up recommendations were amended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) in 2012. Given a cause-specific survival of nearly 100%, a closer analysis of the reimbursement for each treatment strategy is warranted. Methods NCCN guidelines were used to design treatment plans for each acceptable adjuvant treatment strategy. Follow-up charges were generated for 10 years based on 2012 (version 1.2012; unchanged in current version 1.2013) and 2011 NCCN (version 2.2011) surveillance recommendations. The 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates were used to calculate each treatment strategy and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios to compare the treatment options. Results Under the current NCCN follow-up recommendations, the total reimbursements generated over 10 years of surveillance, para-aortic RT, dog-leg RT, and carboplatin were $10,643, $11,678, $9,662, and $10,405, respectively. This is compared with the reimbursements as per the 2011 NCCN recommendations: $20,986, $11,517, $9,394, and $20,365 respectively. Factoring the rates of relapse into a salvage model, observation was found to be more costly and less effective ($–1,831, $?7,318, $–7,010) in the adjuvant management of stage I seminoma patients Conclusion Based on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, para-aortic RT, dog-leg RT, and carboplatin are cost-effective options for the treatment of stage I seminoma when compared with observation; however, surveillance could potentially spare as many as 80%–85% of men diagnosed with stage I seminoma from additional therapy after radical inguinal orchiectomy. Such cost and reimbursement analyses are becoming increasingly relevant, but are not meant to usurp sound clinical judgment. Further studies are required to validate these findings. PMID:25610815

  13. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  14. Gas exchange, leaf structure and nitrogen in contrasting successional tree species growing in open and understory sites during a drought.

    PubMed

    Abrams, M D; Mostoller, S A

    1995-06-01

    Seasonal ecophysiology, leaf structure and nitrogen were measured in saplings of early (Populus grandidentata Michx. and Prunus serotina J.F. Ehrh.), middle (Fraxinus americana L. and Carya tomentosa Nutt.) and late (Acer rubrum L. and Cornus florida L.) successional tree species during severe drought on adjacent open and understory sites in central Pennsylvania, USA. Area-based net photosynthesis (A) and leaf conductance to water vapor diffusion (g(wv)) varied by site and species and were highest in open growing plants and early successional species at both the open and understory sites. In response to the period of maximum drought, both sunfleck and sun leaves of the early successional species exhibited smaller decreases in A than leaves of the other species. Shaded understory leaves of all species were more susceptible to drought than sun leaves and had negative midday A values during the middle and later growing season. Shaded understory leaves also displayed a reduced photosynthetic light response during the peak drought period. Sun leaves were thicker and had a greater mass per area (LMA) and nitrogen (N) content than shaded leaves, and early and middle successional species had higher N contents and concentrations than late successional species. In both sunfleck and sun leaves, seasonal A was positively related to predawn leaf Psi, g(wv), LMA and N, and was negatively related to vapor pressure deficit, midday leaf Psi and internal CO(2). Although a significant amount of plasticity occurred in all species for most gas exchange and leaf structural parameters, middle successional species exhibited the largest degree of phenotypic plasticity between open and understory plants. PMID:14965944

  15. Chemical structural changes in the early stages of coalification

    SciTech Connect

    Given, P.H.; Ryan, M.J.; Spackman, W.; Stout, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Brandon lignite in Vermont (20-30 M. years old) consists mostly of gelified coal but contains also much material to be described as woody material or coalified logs. Faces on lumps of woody material have been polished and examined with a hand lens. Various zones could be distinguished: thus one zone (IV) contained well preserved vessel cells, while another associated zone (III) did not. There was a darker zone (II) with no cells visible, and a dark rim (I) around the margin (oxidation.). Fourier Transform infrared spectra of the corresponding zones III and IV from two different specimens of woody material were almost identical with each other; zone II was quite similar in showing a large number of sharp, well-defined, bands quite closely resembling those in the spectrum of dicotyledon lignin. The authors conclude that (i) chemical differences in zones of woody material are considerably smaller than visible differences in degree of preservation of wood indicate, (ii) there are processes in the earliest stages of coalification that usually, but not invariably, destroy both cellular anatomy and lignin structure, (iii) the effect of these processes begins to be evident in the outer zones of coalified logs and is fully seen in the gelified matrix. Woody material from the Morwell lignite, Victoria, Australia gave spectra having some lignin character, but much less marked that in those of the Brandon samples.

  16. Effects of nicotine on a rat model of early stage osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qiangrong; Li, Dong; Wei, Bo; Guo, Yang; Yan, Junwei; Mao, Fengyong; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of nicotine on articular cartilage degeneration and inflammation in a rat model of early stage osteoarthritis (OA), using T2 mapping. In this study, a rat model of early stage OA was established by immobilizing the left knee joints of adult male rats for two weeks. Subsequently, rats were fed with nicotine for two and four weeks. Changes in the articular cartilage from the medial femoral condylar region of the knee were evaluated by gross observation and histological grading with the contents of cartilage matrix detected. T2 values of the articular cartilage were estimated through high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (7.0T). Levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were assessed by ELISA. The expression of TNF-? and the cholinergic receptor, ?7nAChR, in the synovial tissue was measured by RT-PCR. Nicotine treatment ameliorated cartilage destruction, promoted matrix production, reduced the serum level of TNF-? and the expression of TNF-? in the synovial tissue, and increased the expression of ?7nAChR in the synovial tissue in the rat model of early stage OA. In conclusion, nicotine prevented cartilage damage and had an anti-inflammatory effect in a rat model of early stage OA. Thus nicotine may have potential as a therapeutic strategy for early stage OA.

  17. Cortical gyrification and sulcal spans in early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Lipnicki, Darren M; Zhu, Wanlin; Tao, Dacheng; Zhang, Chengqi; Cui, Yue; Jin, Jesse S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an insidious onset of progressive cerebral atrophy and cognitive decline. Previous research suggests that cortical folding and sulcal width are associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals, and the aim of the present study was to investigate these morphological measures in patients with AD. The sample contained 161 participants, comprising 80 normal controls, 57 patients with very mild AD, and 24 patients with mild AD. From 3D T1-weighted brain scans, automated methods were used to calculate an index of global cortex gyrification and the width of five individual sulci: superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure. We found that global cortex gyrification decreased with increasing severity of AD, and that the width of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus was greater in patients with mild AD than in controls. We also found that cognitive functioning, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, decreased as global cortex gyrification decreased. MMSE scores also decreased in association with a widening of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus. The results suggest that abnormalities of global cortex gyrification and regional sulcal span are characteristic of patients with even very mild AD, and could thus facilitate the early diagnosis of this condition. PMID:22363554

  18. Early and Late Stage Metals and Sulfides in Diogenites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sideras, L. C.; Domanik, K. J.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Diogenites are typically highly brecciated orthopyroxenites that contain 84-100 vol.% orthopyroxene. Common accessory minerals include olivine, chromite, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase, silica, troilite and Fe-Ni metal. Metal and sulfides are minor phases in diogenites with an average abundance of < 1 vol.% and 0-2 vol.% respectively. However their presence is important, as they could provide information on T-fO2-fS2 conditions and the evolution of the diogenite parent magma during crystallization and/or later metamorphism. We have examined the occurrence of Fe-Ni metal and sulfides in thin sections of several diogenites including, Johnstown, Manegaon, Roda, Shalka, Bilanga, and Tatahouine using optical microscopy and the electron microprobe. Here, we describe three features of metals and sulfides that are common in most of these diogenites. These are: i) The widespread occurrence of pentlandite associated with copper and copper sulfide minerals; ii) Textural evidence that at least some of the metal and sulfide occurring interstitially between, and as inclusions within, orthopyroxene formed from an early immiscible sulfide-oxide liquid; iii) That this sulfide- oxide liquid subsequently fractionated into assemblages containing either Fe-Ni metal, troilite, and chromite or pentlandite, troilite, and copper-bearing sulfide.

  19. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia. PMID:25140503

  20. Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion–deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case–control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5–4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4–5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7–5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

  1. Biology of early life stages in cephalopod molluscs.

    PubMed

    von Boletzky, S

    2003-01-01

    Recent literature on embryonic and post-embryonic development, biology and behavioural ecology of juvenile cephalopods is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on biological processes. Life-history patterns and phylogenetic systematics, which are important for a proper understanding of the evolutionary history of the cephalopods, are only briefly touched upon. Egg sizes in cephalopods range from less than 1 mm to about 30 mm in diameter, so the hatchlings emerging from the largest eggs are bigger than the adults of pygmy squid, the smallest known cephalopods. Developmental durations from spawning to hatching range from a few days (for very small eggs developing at high temperatures) to one or possibly several years (for very large eggs developing at low temperatures). Such important differences notwithstanding, the morphogenetic processes are very similar in all cephalopod embryos, the major variant being the size of the so-called outer yolk sac, which may be rudimentary in extremely small embryos. Several questions concerning the timing of hatching in relation to the developmental stage attained, especially in terms of yok absorption, need clarification. These questions concern the elimination of the transient closure of the mouth, the final differentiation of digestive gland cells, and the removal of the tranquilliser effect of the perivitelline fluid necessary for the onset of the hatching behaviour. Cephalopod hatchlings are active predators. They refine their behavioural repertoires by learning from individual experience in dealing with prey and would-be predators. There is no truly larval phase, and the ecologically defined term paralarva should be used with caution. Given the considerable resource potential of cephalopods, investigations into dispersal and recruitment are of particular interest to fishery biology, but they are also important for ecological biogeography. The related studies of feeding and growth involve field sampling and tentative age determination of caught specimens, in combination with laboratory studies to test food quality, measure feeding rates, and validation of periodicities in accretional growth structures (e.g. "daily rings" in statoliths). PMID:12846042

  2. SUCCESSIONAL TRENDS OF SIX MATURE SHORTLEAF PINE FORESTS IN MISSOURI Michael C. Stambaugh and Rose-Marie Muzika1

    E-print Network

    Stambaugh, Michael C

    59 SUCCESSIONAL TRENDS OF SIX MATURE SHORTLEAF PINE FORESTS IN MISSOURI Michael C. Stambaugh and Rose-Marie Muzika1 ABSTRACT.--Many of Missouri's mature oak-shortleaf pine (Quercus-Pinus echinata) forests are in a mid-transition stage characterized by partial pine overstory, limited pine recruitment

  3. Diversity with Successional Status in the Pinyon-Juniper\\/Mountain Mahogany\\/ Bluebunch Wheatgrass Community Type Near Dutch John, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen Huber; Sherel Goodrich; Kim Anderson

    Alpha and beta diversity and vegetative cover for Colorado pinyon (Pinus edulis Engeltn.) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little) understories of northerly exposures are compared at varying successional stages before and after disturbance. Plant diversity and species richness are highest in seral communities of alder-leaf mountain mahogany and bluebunch wheatgrass where pinyon and juniper canopy cover does not exceed

  4. Formation of Jupiter's Core and Early Stages of Envelope Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Weidenschilling, S.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bodenheimer, P.; Hubickyj, O.

    2012-12-01

    We are performing calculations of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core starts as a seed body of a few hundred kilometers in radius and orbits within a swarm of planetesimals whose initial size distribution ranges from ~10 m to ~100 km. The planetesimals are immersed in a gaseous disk, representative of an early solar nebula. The evolution of the swarm of planetesimals accounts for collisions and gravitational stirring due to mutual interactions among bodies, and for migration and velocity damping due to interactions with the nebula gas. Collisions among planetesimals lead to growth and/or fragmentation, altering the size distribution of the swarm over time. Collisions of planetesimals with the seed body lead to its growth, resulting in the formation of a planetary core. Gas capture by the core leads to the accumulation of a tenuous atmosphere, which later becomes a massive envelope, increasing the size-dependent effective cross-section of the planet for planetesimals' accretion. Planetesimals that travel through the core's envelope release energy, affecting the thermal budget of the envelope, and deliver mass, affecting the opacity of the envelope. The calculation of dust opacity, which is especially important for envelope contraction, is performed self-consistently, accounting for coagulation and sedimentation of dust and small particles that are released in the envelope as passing planetesimals are ablated. We find that, in a disk of planetesimals with a surface density of about 10 g/cm2 at 5.2 AU, a one Earth mass core accumulates in less than 1e5 years, and that it takes over 1.5e6 years to accumulate a core of 3 Earth masses, when the core's geometrical cross-section is used for the accretion of planetesimals. Gas drag in the core's envelope increases the ability of the planet to accrete planetesimals. Smaller planetesimals are affected to a greater extent than are larger planetesimals. We find that the effective, envelope-enhanced cross-section leads to the growth of a core of 3 Earth masses in less than 1e5 years and of a core of 5 Earth masses in less than 2e5 years. By the time the total planet mass reaches about 6 Earth masses, the accretion rate of solids has dropped below ~1e-6 Earth masses per year. Support for this research from NASA Outer Planets Research Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Seismic anisotropy and texture development during early stages of subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Leo, Jeanette; Walker, Andrew; Li, Zhong-Hai; Wookey, James; Ribe, Neil; Kendall, J.-Michael; Tommasi, Andréa

    2014-05-01

    Shear wave splitting measurements are frequently used to infer upper mantle flow trajectory, based on the fact that, under strain, olivine develops lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) textures in the convecting mantle. However, such inferences ought to be made carefully, since the relationship between splitting fast polarisation and olivine LPO depends on several factors, one of them being the deformation history of the volume of mantle in question. This is especially the case in regions such as subduction zones, where complex and time-dependent mantle flow occurs. Here, we present an integrated model to simulate strain-history-dependent LPO development and measure the resulting shear wave splitting in a subduction setting. We do this for a subduction model that approximates the geometry of the double-sided Molucca Sea subduction system in eastern Indonesia. We test a single-sided and a double-sided subduction case, and compare the results to shear wave splitting observations of this region. Since the subduction zone is fairly young, early textures from the slab's descent from the near-surface to the bottom of the mantle transition zone - which we simulate in our models - have not yet been overprinted by subsequent continuous flow. It further allows us to test the significance of the double-sided geometry, i.e., the need for a rear barrier to achieve trench-parallel sub-slab mantle flow. We simulate olivine LPO evolution in polycrystalline aggregates as they move and deform along pathlines extracted from a 3-D mantle flow model. Interactions between crystals are described using the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) approach. Unlike previous studies, we consider the entire subduction history from subduction initiation onwards. After calculating elastic properties associated with LPO textures, we estimate the resulting splitting parameters (fast direction ?, delay time ?t) for synthetic SKS phases. Our models demonstrate that complex, backazimuth-dependent behaviour in ? appears in even apparently simple models of subduction zone mantle flow. We also show that although a rear barrier amplifies trench-parallel sub-slab anisotropy due to mantle flow, it is not essential for producing trench-parallel fast directions. In a simple model of one-sided subduction and deformation dominated by the motion of dislocations belonging to the (010)[100] slip system, trench-parallel fast directions result from a combination of simple shear and deformation by axial compression in the sub-slab mantle.

  6. Delirium in early-stage alzheimer's disease: enhancing cognitive reserve as a possible preventive measure.

    PubMed

    Fick, Donna M; Kolanowski, Ann; Beattie, Elizabeth; McCrow, Judith

    2009-03-01

    Delirium is a disorder of acute onset with fluctuating symptoms and is character ized by inattention, disorganized thinking and altered levels of consciousness. The risk for delirium is greatest in individual with dementia, and the incidence of both is increasing worldwide because of the aging of our population. Although s clinical trials have tested interventions f delirium prevention in individuals without dementia, little is known about the m anisms for the prevention of delirium i early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Th purpose of this article is to explore ways o preventing delirium and slowing the ra of cognitive decline in early-stage AD enhancing cognitive reserve. An agenda for future research on interventions to prevent delirium in individuals with early-stage AD is also presented. PMID:19326827

  7. Unique MRI findings for differentiation of an early stage of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takanori; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Yabuki, Hidehiko; Ito, Akira

    2015-01-01

    CT scan and ultrasonography images revealed two small uniformly low-density and hypoechoic lesions in the liver, respectively, 7 years after curative resection of rectal cancer, in a 74-year-old man. The area of the liver including the two lesions was segmentally resected. Two lesions were histopathologically confirmed as early but active stage alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis. This case is very unique and rare, since early stage hepatic AE cases have only accidentally been confirmed from cases in which malignant hepatic tumours were suspected, and because two independent AE lesions were detected. Abdominal MRI showed two isointense tumour lesions with small areas of high-signal intensity in their centres on T2-weighted images. MRI findings appear to reflect the macroscopic view and microscopic findings of early stage AE with active cyst in the centre of each hepatic lesion well. PMID:25697300

  8. Hydraulic compensation in northern Rocky Mountain conifers: does successional position and life history matter?

    PubMed

    Sala, Anna

    2006-08-01

    As trees grow tall and the resistance of the hydraulic pathway increases, water supply to foliage may decrease forcing stomata to close and CO2 uptake to decline. Several structural (e.g. biomass allocation) and physiological adjustments, however, may partially or fully compensate for such hydraulic constraints and prevent limitations on CO2 uptake and growth. The degree to which trees compensate for hydraulic constraints as they grow tall may depend on the costs and benefits associated with hydraulic compensation according to their ecology and life history. Because later successional Rocky Mountain conifers are more shade tolerant, optimization of CO2 uptake as trees grow tall and shade increases may confer greater benefits than in earlier successional species. If so, higher compensation for hydraulic constraints is expected in later successional species relative to co-occurring earlier successional species. I have examined height-related changes of crown stomatal conductance on a leaf area basis (G(LA)) and leaf to sapwood ratios (A(L):A(S)) for five conifer species in the northern Rocky Mountains. Species were arranged in pairs, each pair consisting of an early and late successional species. For high elevations I used, respectively, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa); for mid-elevations, western larch (Larix occidentalis) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii); for lower elevations, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir. A(L):A(S) either decreased (subalpine fir, ponderosa pine), remained constant (Douglas-fir, western larch) or increased (whitebark pine) with tree height. As hypothesized, earlier successional species (ponderosa pine, whitebark pine and western larch) exhibited significantly stronger decreases of G(LA) with tree height relative to their later successional pairs (Douglas-fir and subalpine fir), which fully compensated for height-related hydraulic constraints on G(LA). A life history approach that takes into account the optimization of size- and species-specific ecological functions may also help researchers better understand biomass allocation and hydraulic function in trees. PMID:16639568

  9. Nurses' experiences using a nursing information system: early stage of technology implementation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Adoption of information technology in nursing practice has become a trend in healthcare. The impact of this technology on users has been widely studied, but little attention has been given to its influence at the beginning stage of implementation. Knowing the barriers to adopting technology could shorten this transition stage and minimize its negative influences. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' experiences in the early stage of implementing a nursing information system. Focus groups were used to collect data at a medical center in Taiwan. The results showed that nurses had problems with the system's content design, had insufficient training, were concerned about data security, were stressed by added work, and experienced poor interdisciplinary cooperation. To smooth this beginning stage, the author recommends involving nurses early in the system design, providing sufficient training in keyboard entry skills, redesigning workflow, and improving interdisciplinary communication. PMID:17827993

  10. A Prospective Evaluation of Positron Emission Tomography Scanning, Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy, and Standard Axillary Dissection for Axillary Staging in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Lovrics; Vicky Chen; Geoff Coates; Sylvie D. Cornacchi; Charlie H. Goldsmith; Calvin Law; Mark N. Levine; Ken Sanders; Ved R. Tandan

    2004-01-01

    Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive imaging modality that can detect malignant lymph nodes. This study determined the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of PET scanning compared with standard axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in staging the axilla in women with early stage breast cancer.Methods: Women with clinical stage I

  11. Initial Medical Attention on Patients with Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xing; Gorlov, Ivan P.; Ying, Jun; Merriman, Kelly W.; Kimmel, Marek; Lu, Charles; Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C.; Gorlova, Olga Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Detection of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is commonly believed to be incidental. Understanding the reasons that caused initial detection of these patients is important for early diagnosis. However, these reasons are not well studied. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients diagnosed with stage I or II NSCLC between 2000 and 2009 at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. Information on suggestive LC-symptoms or other reasons that caused detection were extracted from patients' medical records. We applied univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate the association of suggestive LC-symptoms with tumor size and patient survival. Results Of the 1396 early stage LC patients, 733 (52.5%) presented with suggestive LC-symptoms as chief complaint. 347 (24.9%) and 287 (20.6%) were diagnosed because of regular check-ups and evaluations for other diseases, respectively. The proportion of suggestive LC-symptom-caused detection had a linear relationship with the tumor size (correlation 0.96; with p<.0001). After age, gender, race, smoking status, therapy, and stage adjustment, the symptom-caused detection showed no significant difference in overall and LC-specific survival when compared with the other (non-symptom-caused) detection. Conclusion Symptoms suggestive of LC are the number one reason that led to detection in early NSCLC. They were also associated with tumor size at diagnosis, suggesting early stage LC patients are developing symptoms. Presence of symptoms in early stages did not compromise survival. A symptom-based alerting system or guidelines may be worth of further study to benefit NSCLC high risk individuals. PMID:22412901

  12. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baris Karakullukcu; Kim van Oudenaarde; Marcel P. Copper; W. M. C. Klop; Robert van Veen; Maarten Wildeman; I. Bing Tan

    2011-01-01

    The indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason\\u000a is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage\\u000a oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis-T2) to identify the success rates for each subgroup according to T stage, primary\\u000a or non-primary treatment

  13. Statistical dictionaries for hypothetical in silico model of the early-stage intermediate in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Fabian, Piotr; St?por, Katarzyna; Roterman, Irena

    2015-07-01

    The polypeptide chain folding process appears to be a multi-stage phenomenon. The scientific community has recently devoted much attention to early stages of this process, with numerous attempts at simulating them-either experimentally or in silico. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the predicted and observed results of folding simulations. The proposed technique, based on statistical dictionaries, yields a global accuracy of 57 %-a marked improvement over older approaches (with an accuracy of approximately 46 %). PMID:25808133

  14. Toward less-invasive management of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Amy

    2015-05-01

    Patients with early-stage breast cancer today are benefitting from a growing trend toward less-invasive disease staging and management. This is occurring as a result of molecular profiling to refine treatment, surgical approaches that improve cosmesis, radiotherapy approaches that are more convenient and less likely to produce toxicity, and the discontinuation of routine axillary dissection. Less-aggressive treatments yield better quality of life, which is very important in a malignancy with excellent long-term outcomes. PMID:25995419

  15. Outcomes in Patients With Early-Stage Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi, E-mail: ysmrmrad@tmd.ac.j [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology, Head and Neck Reconstruction Division, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu; Ito, Yoshinori [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, Masao [Division of Head and Neck Surgery, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sumi, Minako; Itami, Jun [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome in patients with early-stage hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between February 1988 and February 2007, 77 patients with Stage I or Stage II HPC underwent definitive RT in the Division of Radiation Oncology at the National Cancer Center Hospital. Eleven of the patients received local irradiation, and the other 66 patients received elective bilateral neck irradiation and booster irradiation to the primary lesion. The median follow-up period for all the patients was 33 months from the start of RT, ranging from 3 to 229 months. Results: The rates of overall survival, HPC-specific survival, HPC recurrence-free survival, and local control with laryngeal voice preservation for the 77 patients at 5 years were 47%, 74%, 57%, and 70%, respectively. The survival rates were not affected by the patient characteristics or treatment factors, but the RT field was significantly correlated with local control in a multivariate analysis. Seven of the patients had Grade 3 or greater complications, but these complications occurred after salvage surgery in 6 of the patients. Of the 77 patients, 83% had synchronous or metachronous malignancies, but these malignancies did not influence the survival of the patients if the malignancies were detected at an early stage. Conclusion: RT is an appropriate treatment method for early-stage HPC. However, because synchronous or metachronous malignancies occur at a relatively high frequency, careful follow-up and the early detection of such malignancies are critical.

  16. The association between height and prostate cancer grade in the Early Stage Prostate Cancer Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wildon R. Farwell; Christopher Lourenco; Erika Holmberg; Robert B. Hall; Leonard D’Avolio; Elizabeth V. Lawler; J. Michael Gaziano

    Objective  We examined the relationship between height and prostate cancer grade.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The Early Stage Prostate Cancer Cohort Study is an observational cohort of 1,037 men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer,\\u000a T0–3NxM0. High-grade prostate cancer was defined as a biopsy Gleason score ? 7 (4 + 3). Logistic regression models were created to\\u000a calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the cross-sectional relationship

  17. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko (Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

    1989-09-01

    It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

  18. The experience of cancer during early and advanced stages: the views of patients and their mates.

    PubMed

    Gotay, C C

    1984-01-01

    Problems, coping mechanisms and problem resolution were assessed in 112 individuals: patients with early stage cervical cancer or pre-cancer (N = 42) and their mates (N = 19), and patients with advanced stage breast or gynecological cancer (N = 31) and their mates (N = 20). The most common source of concern for all groups was the disease itself; the men were also more likely than the patients to be disturbed by the possibility of the women dying. Taking firm action was the most frequently-mentioned coping strategy; information-seeking was also common among the early stage groups, and religious faith often cited by the advanced stage respondents. Analysis of a particular problem--fear of cancer--showed different coping strategies to be predominant; mates, in contrast to patients, were likely to take direct action and advanced stage groups more likely to discuss their fear of cancer with others. Problem resolution did not vary from group to group. Overall, the similarities among reactions of early and advanced stage patients and mates were more striking than differences, indicating the profound impact of cancer over the course of the disease on patient and family alike. PMID:6719154

  19. Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research.

    PubMed

    Mentz, Robert J; Becker, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the development of a personalized research trajectory, which optimizes the potential for career success. PMID:23860882

  20. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  1. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

    2014-07-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 ?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 ?-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. PMID:24713117

  2. [Effectiveness of combined application of ursosan and anxiolytic 2-mercaptobenzimidazole in early stage of cholelithiasis].

    PubMed

    Vakhrushev, Ia M; Khokhlacheva, N A

    2010-01-01

    We spent the complex investigation of therapeutic efectiveness of ursosan and afobasol in 125 patients with gallstone disease on early stage (before stones). After the course of treatment we revealed positive changes of clinical symptoms and improvement of biochemical bile compound. Besides we found the positive changes in hormone levels correlated with decreasing of bile lithogenity. PMID:20623958

  3. A review of "Staging Slander and Gender in Early Modern England" by Ina Habermann 

    E-print Network

    Nancy M. Bunker

    2004-01-01

    , fruitfully I am sure, with this book for a long time. Ina Habermann. Staging Slander and Gender in Early Modern England. Hants: Ashgate, 2003. 202 pp. $79.95. Review by NANCY M. BUNKER, MACON STATE COLLEGE. Breaking new ground in the critical debate...

  4. Computational Specification of Building Requirements in theEarly Stages of Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omer Akin; Zeyno Aygen; Michael Cumming; Magd Donia; Rana Sen; Ye Zhang

    1998-01-01

    We have been exploring computational techniques to help building designers to specify design requirements during the early stages of design. In the past, little has been accomplished in this area either in terms of innovative computational technologies or the improvement of design performance. The prospect of improving design productivity and creating a seamless process between requirements specification and formal design

  5. Brief Communications Stress Potentiates Early and Attenuates Late Stages of Visual

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    that stress and anxiety shift the balance of attention away from a task-directed mode, governed by prefrontal that stress and anxiety shift the balance of attention away from a task-directed mode, governed by prefrontalBrief Communications Stress Potentiates Early and Attenuates Late Stages of Visual Processing

  6. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  7. Predation on Early Life Stages of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

    2010-01-01

    Mortality of early life stages can limit recruitment of fishes, and understanding the impacts of various sources of mortality has long been a goal of fisheries management. The impacts of predation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify sources of predation that affect lake sturgeon eggs, larvae, and

  8. Melting point depression of Al clusters generated during the early stages of film growth: Nanocalorimetry measurements

    E-print Network

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Melting point depression of Al clusters generated during the early stages of film growth in microelectronics: i melt- ing point depression as related to the Al reflow process,7­10 ii coalescence during been learned about the size-dependent melting point depression in recent times. Studies in model

  9. A Linear Chain Markov Model for Detection and Localization of Cells in Early Stage Embryo Development

    E-print Network

    Gould, Stephen

    A Linear Chain Markov Model for Detection and Localization of Cells in Early Stage Embryo to find individual cell candidates within the em- bryo. These cell candidates are combined into embryo hy applications such as predicting blas- tocyst and can be used for assessing embryos in in vitro fertilization

  10. Introduction At early stages of development, the embryo needs to establish

    E-print Network

    Stern, Claudio

    3381 Introduction At early stages of development, the embryo needs to establish bilateral symmetry al., 1989; Harland and Gerhart, 1997; Zernicka-Goetz, 2002). By contrast, amniote embryos do not appear irreversibly to fix their polarity until much later, when gastrulation begins and the embryo may

  11. TOXICITY OF ACENAPHTHENE AND ISOPHORONE TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF FATHEAD MINNOWS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow-through 96-hr and early-life stage toxicity tests were conducted with acenaphthene and isophorone, using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test animals. The 96-hr LC50's were 608 micro/L for acenaphthene and 145 and 255 micro/L for isophorone, depending on fish age. N...

  12. The Early Stages of Native Enamel Dissolution Studied with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Finke; Klaus D. Jandt; David M. Parker

    2000-01-01

    Food-induced demineralization (erosion) is one of the key factors in surface structural changes of tooth enamel, with soft drinks being a significant etiological agent. The objective of this study was to measure early stages of enamel loss with high accuracy on native enamel surfaces combined with qualitative observations of changes in the surface morphology using the atomic force microscope (AFM).

  13. Comparison of turnover in the olfactory organ of early juvenile stage and adult Caribbean spiny lobsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles D. Derby; Holly S. Cate; Pascal Steullet; Paul J. H. Harrison

    2003-01-01

    Proliferation and turnover of neurons occurs in the olfactory systems of many animals. In this study, we examined developmental changes in turnover in the olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus by examining two life-history stages—early juveniles and young adults. Turnover was compared using external morphology of the olfactory organ before and after molting to determine addition and

  14. Modeling the Early Stages of Thin Film Formation by Energetic Atom Deposition

    E-print Network

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    on a surface with energies far in excess of the thermal energy of an average lattice atom. The simultaneousModeling the Early Stages of Thin Film Formation by Energetic Atom Deposition C.A. STONE and N of discrete kinetic rate equations to a Fokker-Planck (FP)-type continuum. Unique features of the atomic

  15. REQUEST FOR INFORMATION -NASA OFFICE OF THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST EARLY STAGE

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    Flight Plans Committee, October 22, 2009, http://legislative.nasa.gov/396093main_HSF_Cmte_FinalReport Program, 2008, http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12471 . · Report of the President's CommissionREQUEST FOR INFORMATION - NASA OFFICE OF THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST EARLY STAGE INNOVATION DIVISION

  16. REQUEST FOR INFORMATION -NASA OFFICE OF THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST EARLY STAGE

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    22, 2009, http://legislative.nasa.gov/396093main_HSF_Cmte_FinalReport.pdf . · A Constrained Space://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12471 . · Report of the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space ExplorationREQUEST FOR INFORMATION - NASA OFFICE OF THE CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST EARLY STAGE INNOVATION DIVISION

  17. DENIM: An Informal Sketch-based Tool for Early Stage Web Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Lin; Mark W. Newman; Jason I. Hong; James A. Landay

    DENIM is a system that helps web site designers in the early stages of design. DENIM supports sketching input and gestures for operations like pan, cut, copy, and paste; allows design at different refinement levels—site map, storyboard, and individual page; and unifies the levels through zoom- ing. DENIM uses very little sketch recognition, and when recognition is used, the sketched

  18. Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a phase III clinical trial.

  19. Production of stilbenoids and phenolic acids by the peanut plant at early stages of growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea) is known to produce stilbene phytoalexins as a defensive response to exogenous stimuli. This research demonstrates the ability of different organs of the peanut plant at early stages of growth under axenic conditions to produce a stilbenoid, resveratrol, as well a...

  20. Tree crown detection in high resolution optical images during the early growth stages of Eucalyptus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Tree crown detection in high resolution optical images during the early growth stages of Eucalyptus resolution images aims to determine the tree positions and crown sizes. In this paper, we use a mathematical-date) has been tested for the first time, which estimates individual tree crown variation during these dates

  1. Some Remarks on Modeling of the Early Stage of Cloud Formation in a Simulation Chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel N. Saad; Josef Podzimek; John C. Carstens

    1976-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed to describe the early stage of cloud formation in a relatively small simulation chamber. The results for adiabatic expansion show a tendency for the cloud droplet spectrum to narrow, similar to the results obtained by other authors. The influence of updraft fluctuations is not as important as the fluctuation of temperature which depends upon

  2. Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura: Bufonidae)

    E-print Network

    Lailvaux, Simon

    Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura a laboratory trial with Incilius nebulifer (synonym: Bufo nebulifer) to determine at what level salinity negatively affects hatching and metamorphosis, and how exposure to salinity during development affects

  3. The Early Stages of Financial Innovation and Money Demand in France and Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL P. DOOLEY; Franco Spinelli

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed account of the early stages of the process of financial innovation in France and Italy and its consequences on the demand for traditional monetary aggregates. For the two countries, the need to finance large budget deficits emerges as the most important factor that started that process. Nevertheless, its consequences on money demand were different. In

  4. Propagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design

    E-print Network

    Yang, Maria

    Propagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design. This work is conducted in the context of an amorphous photovoltaic (PV) panel, using data gathered from the National Solar Radiation Database, as well as realistic data collected from an experimental hardware setup

  5. Adding Radiation to Chemotherapy May Improve Outcomes in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not known.

  6. EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX

    E-print Network

    EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX D. W. RICE, JR.,l F. L. HARRISON,l AND A. JEARLD, JR.2 ABSTRACT The sensitivity to copper of embryonic and larval total copper concentrations and the percent copper in labile forms were determined. From the cumulative

  7. Early stage evolution of growth faults: 3D seismic insights from the Levant Basin, Eastern Mediterranean

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Early stage evolution of growth faults: 3D seismic insights from the Levant Basin, Eastern March 2008 Keywords: Growth fault Blind propagation Throw distribution Fault nucleation Segmentation a b s t r a c t The geometry and kinematic evolution of small growth faults were analysed from a high

  8. The Chromosomal Control of Leaf Characteristics of Early-Stage Plants in Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cun-dong LI; Zhi-ying BAI; G Ye; M Miyagi; S Chapman; SM Reader; Chun-ji LIU

    2011-01-01

    Rapid expansion of leaves of early-stage plants in wheat produced by chromosomal control of characteristics related to rapid expansion of the first six leaves of wheat were investigated using a set of single chromosome substitution lines under two different temperature regimes (TRs). Results from this study indicated that several chromosomes could be responsible for each of the four characteristics studied

  9. Alternatives to Mechanical Drills for the Early Stages of Language Practice in Foreign Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aski, Janice M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that mechanical drills do not facilitate the development of explicit or implicit knowledge. This study identifies the inadequate aspects of mechanical drills and offers alternative activities for the early stages of language practice, whose formats and features comply with recent research in the…

  10. Invasion by Ligustrum lucidum(Oleaceae) in NW Argentina: early stage characteristics in different habitat types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roxana Aragón; Martha Groom

    2003-01-01

    Currently biological invasions are considered one of the world's most serious conservation problems. Ligustrum lucidum is the most abundant exotic tree in secondary forest patches of montane forests of NW Argentina. We studied the determinants of success of the early stages of its life cycle in distinct habitat types, with the hope of identifying vulnerabilities that could be exploited to

  11. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  12. Early stage of critical clusters growth in phenomenological and molecular dynamics simulation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romuald Puzyrewski; Jaroslaw Rybicki; Micha? Bia?oskórski

    2006-01-01

    The growth of critical clusters is discussed in the paper according to the classical and molecular dynamics (MD) approaches. A new formula for molecule numbers in critical clusters has been derived within the framework of the classical approach. A set of equations controlling the early stage of growth in a neighborhood of a critical size is presented. As far as

  13. Prospective Memory and Apolipoprotein E in Healthy Aging and Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease

    E-print Network

    Prospective Memory and Apolipoprotein E in Healthy Aging and Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease Janet The present study examined whether prospective memory performance discriminates healthy aging from very mild subjects, and subjects with very mild DAT) engaged in an event-based prospective memory task wherein

  14. Analysis of the variability of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) growth during the early stages.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Agronomy Analysis of the variability of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) growth during the early stages (Received 15 January 1992; accepted 4 May 1992) Summary — The variability of sugar beet seedling size of sugar beet through seedling size distribution, as well as through emergence rate and duration. Beta

  15. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

  16. Fiber Optic Micro-endoscopy for Detection of Bacteria in Early Stages of Infection

    E-print Network

    Mufti, Nooman Sadat

    2012-02-14

    site located in the lungs of an animal model, thereby enabling detection of fluorescent bacteria during the early stages of infection. In this thesis, I present a contact probe fiber bundle fluorescence micro-endoscope with a range of LED based...

  17. AdS/CFT for the early stages of heavy ion collisions

    E-print Network

    Romuald A. Janik

    2014-09-26

    I give a brief introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence targeted at heavy-ion physicists. I also review some insights to our understanding of the early stages of heavy-ion collisions coming from selected studies made using methods of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  18. Acoustic emission technique used for detecting early stages of precipitation during aging of Inconel 625

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Mittra; J. S. Dubey; S. Banerjee

    2003-01-01

    Aging behavior of Inconel 625 has been studied at 540 °C. The Ni2(Cr,Mo) phase, found in this material only after a long service life, has been detected along with the ?? phase after a short aging. Acoustic emission technique has been found sensitive enough to detect early stages of precipitation.

  19. Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaap de Leeuw; Nick van der Beek; W. Dieter Neugebauer; Peter Bjerring; H. A. Martino Neumann

    2009-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including actinic keratosis (AK) is in- creasing all over the world. The detection and diagnosis of NMSC is not optimal in clinical practice. Complementary methods for detection and accurate demarcation of NMSC at an early stage are needed in order to limit the damage caused by tumours. Objective: The purpose of the

  20. Multiple successional pathways of boreal forest stands in central Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony R. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Predicting forest composition change through time is a key challenge in forest management. While multiple successional pathways are theorized for boreal forests, empirical evidence is lacking, largely because succession has been inferred from chronosequence and dendrochronological methods. We tested the hypotheses that stands of compositionally similar overstory may follow multiple successional pathways depending on time since last stand-replacing fire (TSF),

  1. Analysis of Turbulent flow in early stages of atherosclerosis of coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaganagar, Kiran

    2005-11-01

    During the early stages of atherosclerotic heart disease, fatty material accumulates in the coronary artery resulting in development of streaks of plaque and creating high levels of turbulence, and with significantly modified flow parameters. Diagnostic measures performed during this early stage may not show any evidence of coronary artery disease, because the lumen of the coronary artery has not decreased in caliber. These streaks do not obstruct the flow of blood but alter the flow characteristics, even at this preclinical stage. This talk presents the preliminary results for the analysis of turbulent flow characteristics for a range of atherosclerotic plaque configurations in the left main coronary artery. For this purpose a CAD/medical imaging based direct-simulation (DNS) tool has been developed. The Navier-stokes equations are solved in the vertical vorticity-velocity formulation. The plaque is introduced using immersed body technique. The geometric acquisition of the artery geometry and plaque morphology is obtained using CAD based commercial software.

  2. Dissection and downstream analysis of zebra finch embryos at early stages of development.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jessica R; Stanciauskas, Monika E; Aralere, Tejas S; Saha, Margaret S

    2014-01-01

    The zebra finch (Taeniopygiaguttata) has become an increasingly important model organism in many areas of research including toxicology, behavior, and memory and learning. As the only songbird with a sequenced genome, the zebra finch has great potential for use in developmental studies; however, the early stages of zebra finch development have not been well studied. Lack of research in zebra finch development can be attributed to the difficulty of dissecting the small egg and embryo. The following dissection method minimizes embryonic tissue damage, which allows for investigation of morphology and gene expression at all stages of embryonic development. This permits both bright field and fluorescence quality imaging of embryos, use in molecular procedures such as in situ hybridization (ISH), cell proliferation assays, and RNA extraction for quantitative assays such as quantitative real-time PCR (qtRT-PCR). This technique allows investigators to study early stages of development that were previously difficult to access. PMID:24999108

  3. Fate mapping of gallbladder progenitors in posteroventral foregut endoderm of mouse early somite-stage embryos.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Mami; Igarashi, Hitomi; Ozawa, Aisa; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kanai, Yoshiakira

    2015-06-01

    In early embryogenesis, the posteroventral foregut endoderm gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the liver, ventral pancreas and gallbladder during early somitogenesis. Despite the detailed fate maps of the liver and pancreatic progenitors in the mouse foregut endoderm, the exact location of the gallbladder progenitors remains unclear. In this study, we performed a DiI fate-mapping analysis using whole-embryo cultures of mouse early somite-stage embryos. Here, we show that the majority of gallbladder progenitors in 9-11-somite-stage embryos are located in the lateral-most domain of the foregut endoderm at the first intersomite junction level along the anteroposterior axis. This definition of their location highlights a novel entry point to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of initial specification of the gallbladder. PMID:25648459

  4. Exploration of novel predictive markers in rat plasma of the early stages of chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Yuriko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Kouichi; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-02-01

    To identify blood markers for early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), blood samples were collected from rats with adenine-induced CKD over 28 days. Plasma samples were subjected to metabolomic profiling by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by multivariate analyses. In addition to already-identified uremic toxins, we found that plasma concentrations of N6-succinyl adenosine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine 20:4, and glycocholic acid were altered, and that these changes during early CKD were more sensitive markers than creatinine concentration, a universal indicator of renal dysfunction. Moreover, the increase in plasma indoxyl sulfate concentration occurred earlier than increases in phenyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate. These novel metabolites may serve as biomarkers in identifying early stage CKD. PMID:24232639

  5. Fate mapping of gallbladder progenitors in posteroventral foregut endoderm of mouse early somite-stage embryos

    PubMed Central

    UEMURA, Mami; IGARASHI, Hitomi; OZAWA, Aisa; TSUNEKAWA, Naoki; KUROHMARU, Masamichi; KANAI-AZUMA, Masami; KANAI, Yoshiakira

    2015-01-01

    In early embryogenesis, the posteroventral foregut endoderm gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the liver, ventral pancreas and gallbladder during early somitogenesis. Despite the detailed fate maps of the liver and pancreatic progenitors in the mouse foregut endoderm, the exact location of the gallbladder progenitors remains unclear. In this study, we performed a DiI fate-mapping analysis using whole-embryo cultures of mouse early somite-stage embryos. Here, we show that the majority of gallbladder progenitors in 9–11-somite-stage embryos are located in the lateral-most domain of the foregut endoderm at the first intersomite junction level along the anteroposterior axis. This definition of their location highlights a novel entry point to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of initial specification of the gallbladder. PMID:25648459

  6. Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Early-Stage Lung Cancer Based on Longitudinal and Balanced Data

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Zhang, Regina; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Xia; Guo, Xiuhua

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer resulting in over a million deaths per year worldwide. Typically, the problem can be approached by developing more discriminative diagnosis methods. In this paper, computer-aided diagnosis was used to facilitate the prediction of characteristics of solitary pulmonary nodules in CT of lungs to diagnose early-stage lung cancer. Methods The synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) was used to account for raw data in order to balance the original training data set. Curvelet-transformation textural features, together with 3 patient demographic characteristics, and 9 morphological features were used to establish a support vector machine (SVM) prediction model. Longitudinal data as the test data set was used to evaluate the classification performance of predicting early-stage lung cancer. Results Using the SMOTE as a pre-processing procedure, the original training data was balanced with a ratio of malignant to benign cases of 1?1. Accuracy based on cross-evaluation for the original unbalanced data and balanced data was 80% and 97%, respectively. Based on Curvelet-transformation textural features and other features, the SVM prediction model had good classification performance for early-stage lung cancer, with an area under the curve of the SVMs of 0.949 (P<0.001). Textural feature (standard deviation) showed benign cases had a higher change in the follow-up period than malignant cases. Conclusions With textural features extracted from a Curvelet transformation and other parameters, a sensitive support vector machine prediction model can increase the rate of diagnosis for early-stage lung cancer. This scheme can be used as an auxiliary tool to differentiate between benign and malignant early-stage lung cancers in CT images. PMID:23691066

  7. A large herbivore triggers alternative successional trajectories in the boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Hidding, Bert; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D

    2013-12-01

    Alternative successional trajectories (AST) may result in multiple climax states within an ecosystem when disturbances affect colonization history. In the boreal forest, ungulates have been proposed to drive AST because, under herbivore pressure, preferred species may go extinct and apparent competition may benefit browsing-resistant species. Over a 15-year period following logging, we tested whether deer herbivory altered plant species composition and whether the competitive advantage of resistant species was maintained following herbivore removal. We compared exclosures built immediately after logging with delayed exclosures built eight years later on Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada. Although the palatable tree Betula papyrifera (paper birch) and some palatable herbs recovered in delayed exclosures, we observed legacies in both tree and herb cover. Woody regeneration in delayed exclosures was dominated by Picea glauca (white spruce), and Poaceae (grasses) were abundant in the field layer. Given that only early-successional species recovered, whereas late-successional broadleaf species and Abies balsamea (balsam fir) remained rare, succession may follow an AST after a limited browsing period during early succession. PMID:24597230

  8. Characterization of early stage cartilage degradation using diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. P.; Jayadev, C.; Glyn-Jones, S.; Carr, A. J.; Murray, D. W.; Price, A. J.; Gill, H. S.

    2011-04-01

    Interest in localized and early stage treatment technologies for joint conditions such as osteoarthritis is growing rapidly. It has therefore become important to develop objective measures capable of characterizing the earliest (non-visible) changes associated with degeneration to aid treatment procedures. In addition to assessing tissue before treatment, it is further important to develop an effective, non-destructive means of monitoring post-treatment tissue healing, and of providing the high-quality data needed for trials of developing treatment methods. To investigate its ability to detect the early stages of degeneration in cartilage-on-bone, diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy was applied to normal and osteoarthritic joints. A discriminating function was developed to relate absorbance peaks of interest and track degradation around focal osteoarthritic defects. The function could distinguish between normal and degraded tissue (100% separation of normal tissue from that within 25 mm of a defect) and between different stages of osteoarthritic progression (p < 0.05). This technique allows simple, practical and non-destructive assessment of component-level properties over the full depth of the tissue. It has the potential to increase our understanding of the underlying etiologic and pathogenic processes in early stage degeneration, to assist classification and the development of new treatment methods.

  9. Bridging the gap: facilities and technologies for development of early stage therapeutic mAb candidates.

    PubMed

    Munro, Trent P; Mahler, Stephen M; Huang, Edwin P; Chin, David Y; Gray, Peter P

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently dominate the biologics marketplace. Development of a new therapeutic mAb candidate is a complex, multistep process and early stages of development typically begin in an academic research environment. Recently, a number of facilities and initiatives have been launched to aid researchers along this difficult path and facilitate progression of the next mAb blockbuster. Complementing this, there has been a renewed interest from the pharmaceutical industry to reconnect with academia in order to boost dwindling pipelines and encourage innovation. In this review, we examine the steps required to take a therapeutic mAb from discovery through early stage preclinical development and toward becoming a feasible clinical candidate. Discussion of the technologies used for mAb discovery, production in mammalian cells and innovations in single-use bioprocessing is included. We also examine regulatory requirements for product quality and characterization that should be considered at the earliest stages of mAb development. We provide details on the facilities available to help researchers and small-biotech build value into early stage product development, and include examples from within our own facility of how technologies are utilized and an analysis of our client base. PMID:21822050

  10. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  11. The Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine in Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hui-Seung; Han, Kyung-Hoon; Shin, Jeoung-A; Park, Joo-Hyun; Song, Kwan-Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to elucidate neuroprotective effect of carnosine in early stage of stroke. Methods Early stage of rodent stroke model and neuroblastoma chemical hypoxia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and antimycin A. Neuroprotective effect of carnosine was investigated with 100, 250, and 500 mg of carnosine treatment. And antioxidant expression was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in brain and blood. Results Intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg carnosine induced significant decrease of infarct volume and expansion of penumbra (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant increase than in saline group in blood and brain (p<0.05). In the analysis of chemical hypoxia, carnosine induced increase of neuronal cell viability and decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Conclusion Carnosine has neuroprotective property which was related to antioxidant capacity in early stage of stroke. And, the oxidative stress should be considered one of major factor in early ischemic stroke. PMID:24851146

  12. Selecting optimal eggs and embryonic developmental stages of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for early life-stage toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Marentette, Julie R; Chiorean, Sorina; Lavalle, Christine; Sullivan, Cheryl; Parrott, Joanne L

    2014-02-01

    Aquaculture research has indicated that fish embryo hatching success and larval survival can sometimes be predicted by embryo characteristics, such as blastomere cleavage patterns. An analogous strategy of individual assessment of spawned eggs could also be used to improve the quality of toxicity tests using early life-stages of fish where control-group survival determines experimental validity. Here we explored whether a simple method of assessing fathead minnow eggs and embryos for abnormalities could predict hatch success, and larval size at hatch, as indicators of embryo larval quality. Embryos were classified according to both their developmental stage and the presence of any abnormalities: uneven blastomere cleavage, atypical embryo size or shape, and the presence of inclusions in the yolk. Clutch size and fertilization rate did not predict embryo larval quality. Fewer abnormalities in embryos with ?32 cells correlated with longer larvae at hatch. Normal embryos were more likely to hatch successfully than abnormal embryos of the same clutch, but because abnormality rates were generally low, much of the variation in hatch success could not be attributed to visible embryo malformations. Blastomere symmetry may be a useful selection criterion in embryos <3 h postfertilization. Where toxicant exposures early in embryonic development are not required or possible, hatch success could be increased by using older embryos that have survived gastrulation. Purposeful selection of embryos with at least two blastomeres, blastomere symmetry, and few inclusions can improve control survival and improve the quality of any generated (sub)lethality data. In our laboratory, application of the egg-selection criteria significantly improved control group hatch success increasing it from a mean of 84.4 to 94.2%. PMID:24346244

  13. Reproductive Meristem22 is a unique marker for the early stages of stamen development.

    PubMed

    Romanel, Elisson; Das, Pradeep; Amasino, Richard M; Traas, Jan; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2011-01-01

    Stamens undergo a very elaborate development program that gives rise not only to many specific tissue types, but also to the male gametes. The specification of stamen identity is coordinated by a group of homeotic genes such as APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI), AGAMOUS (AG) and SEPALLATA (SEP1-4) genes. Genome-wide transcriptomic comparisons between floral buds of wild-type and ap3 mutants led to the identification of the REM22 gene, which is expressed in the early stages of stamen development. This gene is member of the plant-specific B3 DNA-binding superfamily. In this work, we dissect the spatio-temporal expression pattern of REM22 during the early stages of stamen development. To this end, both in situ hybridization analyses as well as in vivo fluorescence strategies were employed. At stage 4 of flower development, REM22 is expressed exclusively in those undifferentiated cells of the floral meristem that will give rise to the stamen primordia. At stage 5, REM22 expression is restricted to the epidermal and the subepidermal layers of anther primordia. Later, this expression is confined to the middle layer and the differentiating tapetal cells. After stage 10 when all the tissues of the anther have differentiated, REM22 expression is no longer detectable. Furthermore, we examined the pREM22::GUS-GFP marker line in an inducible system where the ectopic AG function is used to promote microsporogenesis. The data support the idea that REM22 expression is a useful marker to study the early stages of stamen development. PMID:21948714

  14. TOXICITY OF 3,4-DICHLOROANILINE TO FATHEAD MINNOWS, 'PIMEPHALES PROMELAS', IN ACUTE AND EARLY LIFE-STAGE EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 3,4-dichloroaniline in three acute exposures and two early life-stage exposures. Mean LC50's were 10.8, 9.37, and 7.58 mg/l at 24, 48, and 96 hr, respectively. In the first early life-stage test, control fish were smaller than...

  15. The Second 'Equity Gap': Exit Problems for Seed and Early Stage Venture Capitalists and Their Investee Companies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Murray

    1994-01-01

    DR. GORDON MURRAY IS WITH THE WARWICK Business School, University of Warwick, England. The availability of venture capital funds for early stage investment (such as seed capital and start-up equity finance) remains limited in the United Kingdom. This paper investigates one element of the relationship between early stage venture capital investors and their larger, development capital counterparts. It is hypothesised

  16. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil developmental stages on herbaceous plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mount Fuji

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaaki Fujiyoshi; Atsushi Kagawa; Takayuki Nakatsubo; Takehiro Masuzawa

    2006-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was conducted to examine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and soil developmental stages on the growth and nutrient absorption of pioneer plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mt. Fuji. Four herbaceous plants, Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae), Miscanthus oligostachyus (Gramineae), Aster ageratoides var. ovatus (Compositae), and Hedysarum vicioides (Leguminosae), were grown from

  17. Notch and Delta mRNAs in early-stage and mid-stage Drosophila embryos exhibit complementary patterns of protein producing potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Andrew; Wesley, Uma; Wesley, Cedric

    2010-01-01

    Notch and Delta proteins generate Notch signaling that specifies cell fates during animal development. There is an intriguing phenomenon in Drosophila embryogenesis that has not received much attention and whose significance to embryogenesis is unknown. Notch and Delta mRNAs expressed in early-stage embryos are shorter than their counterparts in mid-stage embryos. We show here that the difference in sizes is due to mRNA 3? processing at alternate polyadenylation sites. While the early-stage Notch mRNA has a lower protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Notch mRNA, the early-stage Delta mRNA has a higher protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Delta mRNA. Our data can explain the complementary patterns of Notch and Delta protein levels in early-stage and mid-stage embryos. Our data also raise the possibility that the manner and regulation of Notch signaling change in the course of embryogenesis and that this change is effected by 3? UTR and mRNA 3? processing factors. PMID:20201103

  18. Mitochondrial response to oxidative and nitrosative stress in early stages of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Noriega-Cisneros, Ruth; Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Manzo-Avalos, Salvador; Clemente-Guerrero, Mónica; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Boldogh, Istvan; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2013-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; consequently, an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in antioxidants resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. Using a rat model of DM induced by streptozotocin, we show the opposite: an increase in NO levels, S-nitrosylation, aconitase activity, and total glutathione and a decrease in lipid peroxidation at early stages of diabetes. These data imply that the decrease in lipid peroxidation is a vital early response to hyperglycemia to prevent escalation of ROS generation in mitochondria. These results also suggest a need for novel therapeutic targets to prevent the neurological consequences of diabetes. PMID:23751425

  19. [Early gastric cancer staging by radiology, endoscopy, trans-endoscopic ultrasonography and its anatomo-pathological correlation].

    PubMed

    Bracho Mosquera, V E; Yanai, H; Tada, M; Hatano, S; Okita, K

    1994-01-01

    Early gastric cancer detection is still in its more elementary step in the western hemisphere, while in Japan gastric cancer is detected mainly in its early stage. The aim of this article is to analyze the Japanese method for early gastric cancer detection and staging, by sketch of certain morphologic criterions and a report of a typical case. In our case the lesion's staging was predicted as submucosal by means of endoscopy and double contrast roentgenography. Endoscopic ultrasonography complemented the analysis. The standard anatomopathological work up for early gastric cancer in Japan is also analysed. By this former method the accuracy of the initial staging by endoscopy, and radiologic means was ensured. By a correct early gastric cancer diagnosis and staging a better selection of the surgical strategy and survival can be achieved. PMID:7774792

  20. Defective skeletogenesis and oversized otoliths in fish early stages in a changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Marta S; Faleiro, Filipa; Dionísio, Gisela; Repolho, Tiago; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Machado, Jorge; Rosa, Rui

    2014-06-15

    Early life stages of many marine organisms are being challenged by rising seawater temperature and CO? concentrations, but their physiological responses to these environmental changes still remain unclear. In the present study, we show that future predictions of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (?pH=0.5 units) may compromise the development of early life stages of a highly commercial teleost fish, Solea senegalensis. Exposure to future conditions caused a decline in hatching success and larval survival. Growth, metabolic rates and thermal tolerance increased with temperature but decreased under acidified conditions. Hypercapnia and warming amplified the incidence of deformities by 31.5% (including severe deformities such as lordosis, scoliosis and kyphosis), while promoting the occurrence of oversized otoliths (109.3% increase). Smaller larvae with greater skeletal deformities and larger otoliths may face major ecophysiological challenges, which might potentiate substantial declines in adult fish populations, putting in jeopardy the species' fitness under a changing ocean. PMID:24625652

  1. An assay to probe Plasmodium falciparum growth, transmission stage formation and early gametocyte development.

    PubMed

    Brancucci, Nicolas M B; Goldowitz, Ilana; Buchholz, Kathrin; Werling, Kristine; Marti, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    Conversion from asexual proliferation to sexual differentiation initiates the production of the gametocyte, which is the malaria parasite stage required for human-to-mosquito transmission. This protocol describes an assay designed to probe the effect of drugs or other perturbations on asexual replication, sexual conversion and early gametocyte development in the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Synchronized asexually replicating parasites are induced for gametocyte production by the addition of conditioned medium, and they are then exposed to the treatment of interest during sexual commitment or at any subsequent stage of early gametocyte development. Flow cytometry is used to measure asexual proliferation and gametocyte production via DNA dye staining and the gametocyte-specific expression of a fluorescent protein, respectively. This screening approach may be used to identify and evaluate potential transmission-blocking compounds and to further investigate the mechanism of sexual conversion in malaria parasites. The full protocol can be completed in 11 d. PMID:26134953

  2. Turning visual shapes into sounds: early stages of reading acquisition revealed in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Bertolotti, M; Vidal, J R; de Palma, L; Hamamé, C M; Ossandon, T; Kahane, P; Minotti, L; Bertrand, O; Lachaux, J-P

    2014-04-15

    The exact role of the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) during the initial stages of reading acquisition is a hotly debated issue, especially regarding the comparative effect of learning on early stimulus-dependent vs. later task-dependent processes. We show that this controversy can be solved with high-temporal resolution intracerebral EEG recordings of the VOTC. We measured High-Frequency Activity (50-150 Hz) as a proxy of population-level spiking activity while participants learned Japanese Katakana symbols, and found that learning primarily affects top-down/task-dependent neural processing, after a few minutes only. In contrast, adaptation of early bottom-up/stimulus-dependent processing takes several days to adapt and provides the basis for fluent reading. Such evidence that two consecutive stages of neural processing, stimulus- and task-dependent are differentially affected by learning, can reconcile seemingly opposite hypotheses on the role of the VOTC during reading acquisition. PMID:24370818

  3. Limited-Field Radiation Therapy in the Management of Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. Vicini; Larry Kestin; Peter Chen; Pamela Benitez; Neal S. Goldstein; Alvaro Martinez

    2003-01-01

    Background: Several phase III trials have demonstrated equivalent long-term survival between breast conserving surgery plus radiation therapy and mastectomy in patients with early-stage breast cancer but have not provided infor- mation on the optimal volume of breast tissue requiring post-lumpectomy radiation therapy. Therefore, we exam- ined the 5-year results of a single institution's experience with radiation therapy limited to the

  4. Medical comorbidities predict mortality in women with a history of early stage breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth E. Patterson; Shirley W. Flatt; Nazmus Saquib; Cheryl L. Rock; Bette J. Caan; Barbara A. Parker; Gail A. Laughlin; Kirsten Erickson; Cynthia A. Thomson; Wayne A. Bardwell; Richard A. Hajek; John P. Pierce

    2010-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to determine whether comorbid medical conditions predict additional breast cancer events and all-cause\\u000a mortality in women with a history of early stage breast cancer. Women (n = 2,542) participating in a randomized diet trial completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding whether they were\\u000a currently being treated for a wide variety of diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, gallbladder, gastrointestinal, arthritis,\\u000a and osteoporosis)

  5. Early stages of secondary succession on abandoned cropland in north-east Borneo Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Ohtsuka

    1999-01-01

    A study on community structure and floristic change in the early stages of the tropical old-field succession in an intensive shifting cultivation area, Sabah, north-east Borneo Island, was conducted in March and September 1997. Dense therophytic communities were established soon after abandonment, and rapidly changed: namely, from Galinsoga parviflora (in approximately 1–2 months) to Crassocephalum crepidioides (in approximately 3–5 months)

  6. Staging and treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer. How small is an early pancreatic cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsukasa Tsunoda; Yasuhisa Yamamoto; Masatoshi Kimoto; Hiroyuki Imai; Sueharu Iwamoto; Seiji Kawasaki; Kunihiro Kawashima; Yoshiyuki Tadaoka; Toshimitsu Majima; Eishi Onuma; Katsumichi Iki; Tadahiko Kubozoe; Toshifumi Eto

    1998-01-01

    :   To determine the tumor size that constitutes early pancreatic cancer, we reviewed and analyzed the English-language and Japanese\\u000a literature (a total of 25 publications) on small pancreatic cancers less than 2 cm in diameter and\\/or stage 1 cancers. Reports\\u000a on in situ carcinoma and intraductal carcinoma of the pancreas were also evaluated. The results were: (1) A total of

  7. Responses of early life history stages of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis to chlorination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas P. Middaugh; John A. Couch; Allan M. Crane

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of total residual chlorination (TRC) to early life stages of the striped bass,Morone saxatilis, was determined using percent embryo hatchability, incipient LC50 bioassays, histopathology, and avoidance responses.\\u000a \\u000a Beginning 8 to 9 hours after fertilization, developing embryos were exposed continuously to TRC in flowing water at 1.0–3.0\\u000a ppt salinity and 18±1C. Fifty-six percent of the control group (no TRC

  8. UVB effects on early developmental stages of commercially important macroalgae in southern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Navarro; A. Mansilla; M. Palacios

    2008-01-01

    High levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) could represent a danger to seaweeds by affecting their physiological processes\\u000a and development. The aim of this work was to study the effects of UVB radiation on early developmental stages of commercially\\u000a and ecologically important marine algal species in southern Chile, considering spores survival and embryos growth. Spores\\u000a of Mazzaella laminarioides, Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia

  9. UVB effects on early developmental stages of commercially important macroalgae in southern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Navarro; A. Mansilla; M. Palacios

    High levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) could represent a danger to seaweeds by affecting their physiological processes\\u000a and development. The aim of this work was to study the effects of UVB radiation on early developmental stages of commercially\\u000a and ecologically important marine algal species in southern Chile, considering spores survival and embryos growth. Spores\\u000a of Mazzaella laminarioides, Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia

  10. Pregnancies after radical vaginal trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Roy; Marie Plante

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of fertility-preserving surgery in the treatment of early-stage cervical cancer. Study Design: We retrospectively reviewed our first 30 patients treated by laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy, followed by radical vaginal trachelectomy, from October 1991 to April 1998. Results: The median age of the patients was 32 years (range 22-42 years); 15

  11. Evidence supporting nutritional interventions for persons in early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    PubMed

    Burgener, S C; Buettner, L; Coen Buckwalter, K; Beattie, E; Bossen, A L; Fick, D M; Fitzsimmons, S; Kolanowski, A; Richeson, N E; Rose, K; Schreiner, A; Pringle Specht, J K; Testad, I; Yu, F; McKenzie, S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to grade research evidence supporting nutritional interventions for persons with early stage dementias and to report the recommendations of a consensus panel. Thirty four studies were reviewed in the areas of dietary restriction, antioxidants, and Mediterranean diet with strong support from epidemiological studies found in all three areas. The body of evidence to support nutritional interventions in the prevention and treatment of AD is growing and has potential as a treatment modality following translational studies. PMID:18165840

  12. Production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in early stage B-CLL: suppression by interferons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Bauvois; J Dumont; C Mathiot; J-P Kolb

    2002-01-01

    Besides vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play critical roles in angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. Increased angiogenesis is observed in chronic B lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and published data reported VEGF and bFGF production in this disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate MMP expression in early stage B-CLL. Elevated

  13. Comparison of Favorable Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatments: A Single-Institution Review

    SciTech Connect

    Samant, Rajiv, E-mail: rsamant@ottawahospital.on.c [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Alomary, Ibraheem [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Alsaeed, Eyad [King Faisal Specialty Hospital, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-jasir, Badr [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cross, Peter; Genest, Paul [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Huebsch, Lothar [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained. Results: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL (49% men, 51% women, median age 33 [range 17-82] years). Treatment was as follows: extended-field radiotherapy alone (EFRT) 49%; chemotherapy alone (CTA) 13%; and CMT 38%. Among CMT patients, 36% received abbreviated doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy (three to four cycles) followed by involved-field radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 8.3 years, the estimated 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for the entire cohort were 78% and 85%, respectively. The 10-year RFS and OS rates for the various groups were as follows: 69% and 81% for EFRT; 78% and 84% for CTA; and 87% and 89% for CMT. The 10-year RFS rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) among CMT patients. The use of EFRT has diminished from approximately 90% in the 1980s to virtually no use at present, whereas the use of CTA and CMT has increased significantly (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Early-stage HL treatment has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, and our results support the superiority and continued use of CMT, specifically abbreviated-course chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy, as an appropriate treatment approach.

  14. New methodology for early-stage, microarchitecture-level power-performance analysis of microprocessors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Brooks; Pradip Bose; Viji Srinivasan; Michael Gschwind; Philip G. Emma; Michael G. Rosenfield

    2003-01-01

    The PowerTimer toolset has been developed for use in early-stage, microarchitecture-level power-performance analysis of microprocessors. The key component of the toolset is a parameterized set of energy functions that can be used in conjunction with any given cycle-accurate microarchitectural simulator. The energy functions model the power consumption of primitive and hierarchically composed building blocks which are used in microarchitecture-level performance

  15. The SNARE Ykt6 is released from yeast vacuoles during an early stage of fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars E. P. Dietrich; Karolina Peplowska; Tracy J. LaGrassa; Haitong Hou; Jan Rohde; Christian Ungermann

    2005-01-01

    The farnesylated SNARE (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) Ykt6 mediates protein palmitoylation at the yeast vacuole by means of its amino-terminal longin domain. Ykt6 is localized equally to membranes and the cytosol, although it is unclear how this distribution is mediated. We now show that Ykt6 is released efficiently from vacuoles during an early stage of yeast vacuole fusion. This

  16. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P Flavin; Suzanne M Dostaler; Kelly Simpson; Robert J Brison; William Pickett

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6). There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences

  17. Nanoscale duplex oxide growth during early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhou Guangwen; Dillon D. Fong; Paul H. Fuoss; Peter M. Baldo; Loren J. Thompson; Jeffrey A. Eastman; Wang Liang

    2009-01-01

    A combination of real-time in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and ex situ transmission electron microscopy is utilized to investigate the early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100). Sequential formation of NiO and CuO oxides was observed by increasing oxygen partial pressure, and the CuO phase was identified to form preferentially on top of NiO nanoislands. The origin of this unexpected phenomenon

  18. RNA and RNA Binding Proteins Participate in Early Stages of Cell Spreading through Spreading Initiation Centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen L. de Hoog; Leonard J. Foster; Matthias Mann

    2004-01-01

    Focal adhesions are specialized attachment and signaling centers that form at sites of cell-matrix contacts. We employed a quantitative mass spectrometry-based method called SILAC to identify and quantify proteins interacting in an attachment-dependent manner with focal adhesion proteins. Subsequent confocal microscopy revealed a previously undescribed structure, which we have termed a spreading initiation center (SIC), existing only in early stages

  19. Investigation of non-linear properties of multichannel EEG in the early stages of Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Pezard; Robert Jech; Evžen R?ži?ka

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: Modifications of brain activity in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) are difficult to detect using electroencephalography (EEG) signals and are often biased by l-DOPA treatment. We compare here the performances of both linear and non-linear methods in differentiating EEG of l-DOPA naive PD patients from that of control subjects.Methods: Resting multichannel EEG (20 electrodes, 30 s epochs)

  20. Characterisation of early precipitation stages in 6xxx series aluminium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Håkon S. Hasting; John Walmsley; Calin D. Marioara; ATJ van Helvoort; Randi Holmestad; Frederic Danoix; Williams Lefebvre

    2006-01-01

    Advanced microscopy techniques such as high angular annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy are being explored to study early precipitation stages of 6XXX-series aluminium alloys. Observations are combined with those from 3 dimensional atom probe studies of the same materials. GP-zones are imaged by annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and plasmon

  1. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Negri; Claudia Vollhardt; Craig Humphrey; Andrew Heyward; Ross Jones; Geoff Eaglesham; Katharina Fabricius

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000?gl?1. Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300?gl?1 diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with early stages of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi Chaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Salehi, Bahman; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neurological disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to compare it with healthy children. Methods: Seventy five 5-16-year-old children with early stages of CKD (stage 1, 2 and 3) and 75 healthy children without CKD were included in this case – control study as case and control groups, respectively. The participants were selected from those children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak (Iran) in the form of simple probability and based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed using Conner's Parent Rating Scale – 48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV criteria and was confirmed by a psychologist consultant. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS18. Results: ADHD inattentive type was observed in 8 cases (10.6%) with CKD and 2 controls (2.6%) (p= 0.109). Moreover, in the case and control groups, 7 (9.3%) and 6 (8%) children were affected by ADHD hyperactiveimpulsive type (p= 0.997), and 9 (12%) and 12 (16%) children were affected by ADHD mixed type (p= 0.664), respectively. Conclusion: No differences were found between the prevalence of ADHD in the children with early stages of CKD and the control group. However, due to the importance of the relationships between different types of psychiatric disorders and CKD and lack of enough evidence concerning the relationship between ADHD and different stages of CKD in children, conducting further studies in this field is recommended.

  3. Risk of Fatal Cerebrovascular Accidents after External Beam Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Glottic Larynx Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Lin, Alexander; Ahn, Peter; Wan, Fei; O’Malley, Bert; Weinstein, Gregory S.; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compared the risk of fatal cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials Using a competing risks survival analysis, we compared the risk of death due to CVA among patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or EBRT in the SEER database. Results The cumulative incidence of fatal CVA at 15 years was higher in patients receiving EBRT (2.8 %; 95% CI 2.3%–3.4%) compared to surgery (1.5 %; 95% CI 0.8 %–2.3%, p= 0.024). In multivariable competing risks regression models, EBRT remained associated with an increased risk of fatal CVA compared to surgery (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% CI 1.04–2.96, p= 0.037). Conclusion Treatment of early stage glottic larynx cancer with EBRT was associated with a small increase in the risk of late fatal CVA events relative to surgery. PMID:23595858

  4. Recurrence of Early Stage Colon Cancer Predicted by Expression Pattern of Circulating microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Shivapurkar, Narayan; Weiner, Louis M.; Marshall, John L.; Madhavan, Subha; Deslattes Mays, Anne; Juhl, Hartmut; Wellstein, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Systemic treatment of patients with early-stage cancers attempts to eradicate occult metastatic disease to prevent recurrence and increased morbidity. However, prediction of recurrence from an analysis of the primary tumor is limited because disseminated cancer cells only represent a small subset of the primary lesion. Here we analyze the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRs) in serum obtained pre-surgically from patients with early stage colorectal cancers. Groups of five patients with and without disease recurrence were used to identify an informative panel of circulating miRs using quantitative PCR of genome-wide miR expression as well as a set of published candidate miRs. A panel of six informative miRs (miR-15a, mir-103, miR-148a, miR-320a, miR-451, miR-596) was derived from this analysis and evaluated in a separate validation set of thirty patients. Hierarchical clustering of the expression levels of these six circulating miRs and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the risk of disease recurrence of early stage colon cancer can be predicted by this panel of miRs that are measurable in the circulation at the time of diagnosis (P?=?0.0026; Hazard Ratio 5.4; 95% CI of 1.9 to 15). PMID:24400111

  5. Nonlinear optical microscopy of early stage (ICRS Grade-I) osteoarthritic human cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Grønhaug, Kirsten M.; Davies, Catharina L.; Drogset, Jon O.; Lilledahl, Magnus B.

    2015-01-01

    In a synovial joint, the articular cartilage is directly affected during the progression of Osteoarthritis (OA). The characterization of early stage modification in extra-cellular matrix of cartilage is essential for detection as well as understanding the progression of disease. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the potential and capability of nonlinear optical microscopy for the morphological investigation of early stage osteoarthritic cartilage. ICRS Grade-I cartilage sections were obtained from the femoral condyle of the human knee. The surface of articular cartilage was imaged by second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy. Novel morphological features like microsplits and wrinkles were observed, which would otherwise not be visible in other clinical imaging modalities (e.g., CT, MRI, ultrasound and arthroscope. The presence of superficial layer with distinct collagen fibrils parallel to the articular surface in 4 specimens out of 14 specimens, indicates that different phases of OA within ICRS Grade-I can be detected by SHG microscopy. All together, the observed novel morphologies in early stage osteoarthritic cartilage indicates that SHG microscopy might be a significant tool for the assessment of cartilage disorder. PMID:26137389

  6. Predictors of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Jones, Katherine; Cabanban, Romeo; Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify mild cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) prior to extensive neurodegeneration and to evaluate the extent to which dopamine depletion and other disease-related predictors can explain cognitive profiles. Methods Neuropsychological performances of 40 nondemented early-stage PD patients and 42 healthy controls were compared across on or off dopaminergic medications. Stepwise regression evaluated cognitive predictors of early-stage PD and disease-related predictors of PD cognition (levodopa dose, disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score, sleep, quality of life, and mood) across on and off states. Results Neuropsychological performance was lower in PD patients across cognitive domains with significant memory, naming, visuomotor, and complex attention/executive deficits, but with intact visuospatial, simple attention, and phonemic fluency functions. However, medication effects were absent except for simple attention. Regression analyses revealed age, working memory, and memory recall to be the best cognitive predictors of PD, while age, quality of life, disease duration, and anxiety predicted PD cognition in the off state. Conclusion Nondemented early-stage PD patients presented with extensive mild cognitive deficits including prominent memory impairment. The profile was inconsistent with expected isolated frontostriatal dysfunction previously attributed to dopamine depletion and this highlights the need to further characterize extranigral sources of mild cognitive impairment in PD. PMID:23741229

  7. Morphological and morphometric aspects of early life stages of piabanha Brycon gouldingi (Characidae).

    PubMed

    Faustino, F; Makino, L C; Neumann, E; Nakaghi, L S O

    2015-05-01

    Adult specimens of piabanha Brycon gouldingi were collected from Rio das Mortes (Mato Grosso, Brazil), adapted to captivity and induced to spawn at Buriti Fisheries (Nova Mutum, MT, Brazil). The early developmental stages of B. gouldingi were then characterized. Samples were collected at pre-determined times from oocyte extrusion to total yolk absorption. Oocyte diameter, total larval length (LT ) and yolk-sac volume were measured. The mean ± s.d. duration of embryo developmental of B. gouldingi was 13·90 ± 0·06 h at 26·40 ± 1·13° C. The mean ± s.d. oocyte diameter was 1·13 ± 0·06 mm with 54% of oocytes ranging from 1·11 to 1·20 mm. Seven stages characterized the early developmental phase of this species: zygote, cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, histogenesis-organogenesis and hatching, with unique features related to each stage. At hatching, the larvae measured 3·40 ± 0·07 mm, presented an elongated shape with yolk-sac volume of 0·46 ± 0·08 µl, non-pigmented eyes and exhibited swimming ability. When the yolk was completely absorbed at 55 h post-hatch, mean ± larval LT was 6·68 ± 0·65 mm, the eyes were highly pigmented and the teeth were visible. These are the first reported findings on the initial developmental stages of B. gouldingi and could be used to improve captive breeding management and conservation practices. PMID:25809317

  8. Prognostic importance of DNA ploidy and p53 in early stages of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Skirnisdóttir, I; Sorbe, B; Karlsson, M; Seidal, T

    2001-12-01

    Patients with early stages (FIGO stages IA-IIC) of ovarian cancer continue to experience tumor relapses and they succumb due to their disease after seemingly adequate adjuvant therapy. In a series of 113 patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy 4-6 weeks after primary surgery, the DNA content and p53 status of the tumors were studied and related to other known prognostic factors (age, FIGO stage, histopathologic type, and tumor grade). The DNA analyses were done by flow cytometry and p53 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. DNA analyses of 103 tumors could be made and the p53 status was determined in 106 cases. Univariate analyses showed that both p53-positivity and aneuploidy of the ovarian tumors were strongly associated with tumor grade. There was also a strong association between p53 expression of the tumors and DNA aneuploidy (DNA index >1.10 and S-phase fraction >11.5%). P53-positivity and tumor grade were the only significant factors for the risk of tumor recurrence. DNA and p53 status alone were not adequate predictive factors to identify clinically relevant subgroups of patients who would benefit from adjuvant postoperative therapy. Tumor grade remains the most important prognostic factor with regard to the risk of tumor recurrence and the cancer-specific survival rate in early stage ovarian carcinoma. Overexpression of p53 also increases the risk of tumor recurrence. PMID:11713603

  9. The role of surface chemistry and VCI`s in early stages of metal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, G.R.; Chandler, C. [Cortec Corp., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Despite massive efforts to control corrosion, it still has major affects on costs, quality, and performance. Unfortunately, corrosion protection is emphasized far too late in manufacturing. Corrosion control before or during earlier stages of manufacturing and processing is not considered. Yet many product failures are caused by contamination or poor corrosion control at stages well before final packaging. Modern surface analytical methods, ISS (Ion Scattering Spectroscopy) and SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy), can monitor surface corrosion and contamination to trace product failures at early stages of metal working. This includes detection of very thin layers of corrosion on components and within surface layers prior to final coating, lamination, shipping, or assembly. This information includes quantitative analysis of iron oxide on the surface of iron phosphates or other ``conversion`` layers such as Cr, Zn, and Fe phosphates. Application of Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors (VCI`s) at early stages in processing is accomplished using special cleaners and metal working fluids. Surface contamination in corrosion and adhesion problems is not well acknowledged. Methods and considerations for cleaning, investigating, and monitoring surface chemistry and effects of contaminants on corrosion are presented with qualitative and quantitative information about contaminants commonly encountered in processing metals. Effectiveness of cleaning operations and cleaners is discussed for environmentally safe water based cleaners. The terms ``surface`` and ``cleaning`` are presented for greater understanding of how to approach common industrial corrosion and cleaning problems.

  10. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    PubMed

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-01-01

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided.  PMID:25543723

  11. The Colorado River extensional corridor: An analog for the early stages of passive margin formation

    SciTech Connect

    Beratan, K.K. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)); Nelson, J.E. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States) Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Structural asymmetry of many passive continental margins has recently led to the concept that the initial stages of rifting (extension and thinning of continental crust) occur on large-scale, low-angle normal (detachment) faults. Similarities in geometry and evolution of passive margins and detachment-related basins in the Colorado River extensional corridor (CRec), California-Arizona, suggest that development of the CRec resembles early stages of passive margin formation. Two major sets of high-angle synrift faults have been described from the upper plates of passive margins - rotational normal faults and an orthogonal set of transfer faults. Transfer faults, oriented approximately parallel to extension direction, divide an extending terrane into structural blocks which are tilted by the rotational normal faults. Similarly, the generally rectilinear shapes of syn-detachment sedimentary basins or subbasins within the CRec suggest control by two orthogonal fault sets. One set, oriented perpendicular to tectonic transport direction, broke the region into half-graben. These faults, and thus the basins, terminated against faults oriented approximately parallel to tectonic transport direction. The CRec basins experienced a two-stage history, with an early stage of active extension, which brought mid-crustal rocks to near-surface positions, followed by an adjustment stage, during which topographic relief between the range cores and the basins increased. If this adjustment resulted from differential subsidence within the extended region rather than from uplift of range cores, then the two-part evolution resembles that of classic rifted margins: an initial active stage followed by subsidence.

  12. Identifying aspects at an early stage helps to achieve separation of crosscutting concerns in the initial system

    E-print Network

    Abstract Identifying aspects at an early stage helps to achieve separation of crosscutting concerns, having to perform costly refactorings. This paper describes the Early-AIM approach that utilises corpus to perform costly refactorings. An important step towards effectively supporting early aspects identification

  13. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  14. Ultra-sensitive protein detection via Single Molecule Arrays towards early stage cancer monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Stephanie M; Arendt, Lisa M; Zhou, Wenhui; Baig, Shazia; Walter, Stephanie R; Buchsbaum, Rachel J; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Walt, David R

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of cancers and continued monitoring of tumor growth would be greatly facilitated by the development of a blood-based, non-invasive, screening technique for early cancer detection. Current technologies for cancer screening and detection typically rely on imaging techniques or blood tests that are not accurate or sensitive enough to definitively diagnose cancer at its earliest stages or predict biologic outcomes. By utilizing Single Molecule Arrays (SiMoA), an ultra-sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we were able to measure increasing levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) within murine serum over time, which we attribute to tumor development. The measured concentrations of PSA were well below the detectable limits of both a leading clinical diagnostic PSA ELISA assay as well as a commercial ultra-sensitive PSA assay. Our work benchmarks the role of SiMoA as a vital tool in monitoring previously non-detectable protein biomarkers in serum for early cancer detection and offers significant potential as a non-invasive platform for the monitoring of early stage cancer. PMID:26052106

  15. Ultra-sensitive protein detection via Single Molecule Arrays towards early stage cancer monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Stephanie M.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Zhou, Wenhui; Baig, Shazia; Walter, Stephanie R.; Buchsbaum, Rachel J.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Walt, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of cancers and continued monitoring of tumor growth would be greatly facilitated by the development of a blood-based, non-invasive, screening technique for early cancer detection. Current technologies for cancer screening and detection typically rely on imaging techniques or blood tests that are not accurate or sensitive enough to definitively diagnose cancer at its earliest stages or predict biologic outcomes. By utilizing Single Molecule Arrays (SiMoA), an ultra-sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we were able to measure increasing levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) within murine serum over time, which we attribute to tumor development. The measured concentrations of PSA were well below the detectable limits of both a leading clinical diagnostic PSA ELISA assay as well as a commercial ultra-sensitive PSA assay. Our work benchmarks the role of SiMoA as a vital tool in monitoring previously non-detectable protein biomarkers in serum for early cancer detection and offers significant potential as a non-invasive platform for the monitoring of early stage cancer. PMID:26052106

  16. OLD FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING CESSATION OF CHRONIC DISTURBANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In grasslands dominated by warm-season grasses, community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of a chronic disturbance (heavy grazing by cattle) in...

  17. Using rangeland health assessment to inform successional management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland health assessment provides qualitative information on ecosystem attributes. Successional management is a conceptual framework that allows managers to link information gathered in rangeland health assessment to ecological processes that need to be repaired to allow vegetation to change in ...

  18. Narrowband Ultraviolet B Phototherapy of Early Stage Mycosis Fungoides in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min Soo; Baek, Jae Woo; Park, Jong Bin; Kang, Dong Young; Kang, Jin Seuk; Suh, Kee Suck

    2011-01-01

    Background Narrowband UVB (NBUVB) is currently used to treat early mycosis fungoides (MF). There are a number of reports on the efficacy and safety of NBUVB in Caucasians, but little data is available for Asians. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of NBUVB for early stage MF in Korean patients. Methods We enrolled 14 patients (12 men, 2 women; age range, 10~64 years) with clinically and histologically proven MF. Three patients were stage IA, and the others were stage IB. The patients received NBUVB phototherapy three times a week. The starting dose was 70% of the minimal erythema dose and was increased in 20 percent increments if the previous treatment did not cause erythema. Clinical response, total number of treatments, total cumulative dose, duration of remission and side effects were investigated. Results Eleven of 14 patients (78.6%) achieved complete remission within a mean of 15.36±5.71 weeks (range, 5~27 weeks), 31.0±7.4 treatments (range, 16~39 treatments) and a mean cumulative UVB dose of 31.31±12.16 J/cm2 (range, 11.4~46.8 J/cm2). Three of the 14 patients (21.4%) achieved a partial remission. After discontinuation of treatment, 6 of 11 patients (54.5%) with complete remission relapsed after a mean of 8.5±4.09 months. No serious adverse effects were observed except for hyperpigmentation (7/14, 50%). Conclusion Our data suggest that NBUVB therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of early stage MF in Korean patients. PMID:22148015

  19. Avian Community Structure Along a Mountain Big Sagebrush Successional Gradient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL P. REINKENSMEYER; RICHARD F. MILLER; ROBERT G. ANTHONY; VERN E. MARR

    2007-01-01

    We compared vegetative structure and bird communities among 4 successional states in central Oregon representing a continuum from 1) postburn grassland, 2) mountain big sagebrush-Idaho fescue (Artemisia tridentata-Festuca idahoensis) shrub-steppe, 3) sagebrush-steppe-juniper (Juniperus occidentalis), to 4) old-growth western juniper. Species richness, evenness, and diversity of bird communities were highest in old-growth and mid-successional juniper (22.9 species\\/transect and 23.6 species\\/transect, respectively)

  20. Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

  1. Plasma epidermal growth factor decreased in the early stage of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian-Wen; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Hou, Miao-Miao; Wang, Xi; Tang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Yi-Wen; Ma, Jian-Fang; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2015-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a neurotrophic factor that plays an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured plasma EGF level in PD, essential tremor (ET) and normal controls to investigate whether it changes in PD and whether it is associated with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. 100 patients with PD, 40 patients with ET as disease control and 76 healthy persons were enrolled in the present study. Motor and non-motor symptoms were assessed by different scales. Plasma EGF levels of three groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Spearman test and linear logistics regression model were used to test the correlation of EGF with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Plasma EGF level was significantly decreased in early PD patients compared with normal control, but not in advanced PD patients. Interestingly, plasma EGF level was significantly increased in advanced PD and total PD patients compared with ET patients, but not in early PD patients. In addition, plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores in PD. Also plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores and NMS scores in early PD. Our results suggested that plasma EGF decreased in the early stage of PD and increased later on in the PD disease course. Also, plasma EGF level was increased significantly in PD compared with ET patients and correlated with motor and non-motor symptoms in early PD. PMID:26029474

  2. Plasma Epidermal Growth Factor Decreased in the Early Stage of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qian-Wen; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Hou, Miao-Miao; Wang, Xi; Tang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Yi-Wen; Ma, Jian-Fang; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a neurotrophic factor that plays an important role in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We measured plasma EGF level in PD, essential tremor (ET) and normal controls to investigate whether it changes in PD and whether it is associated with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. 100 patients with PD, 40 patients with ET as disease control and 76 healthy persons were enrolled in the present study. Motor and non-motor symptoms were assessed by different scales. Plasma EGF levels of three groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Spearman test and linear logistics regression model were used to test the correlation of EGF with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Plasma EGF level was significantly decreased in early PD patients compared with normal control, but not in advanced PD patients. Interestingly, plasma EGF level was significantly increased in advanced PD and total PD patients compared with ET patients, but not in early PD patients. In addition, plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores in PD. Also plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores and NMS scores in early PD. Our results suggested that plasma EGF decreased in the early stage of PD and increased later on in the PD disease course. Also, plasma EGF level was increased significantly in PD compared with ET patients and correlated with motor and non-motor symptoms in early PD. PMID:26029474

  3. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris. PMID:24100467

  4. Diversity and dynamics of bacterial communities in early life stages of the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Koty H; Distel, Dan; Paul, Valerie J

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine microbial communities of early developmental stages of the coral Porites astreoides by sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging. Bacteria are associated with the ectoderm layer in newly released planula larvae, in 4-day-old planulae, and on the newly forming mesenteries surrounding developing septa in juvenile polyps after settlement. Roseobacter clade-associated (RCA) bacteria and Marinobacter sp. are consistently detected in specimens of P. astreoides spanning three early developmental stages, two locations in the Caribbean and 3 years of collection. Multi-response permutation procedures analysis on the TRFLP results do not support significant variation in the bacterial communities associated with P. astreoides larvae across collection location, collection year or developmental stage. The results are the first evidence of vertical transmission (from parent to offspring) of bacteria in corals. The results also show that at least two groups of bacterial taxa, the RCA bacteria and Marinobacter, are consistently associated with juvenile P. astreoides against a complex background of microbial associations, indicating that some components of the microbial community are long-term associates of the corals and may impact host health and survival. PMID:22113375

  5. Large spinose microfossils in Ediacaran rocks as resting stages of early animals.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Phoebe A; Knoll, Andrew H; Kodner, Robin B

    2009-04-21

    Large (>100 microm), profusely ornamented microfossils comprise a distinctive paleontological component of sedimentary rocks deposited during the Ediacaran Period (635-542 million years ago). Smaller spinose fossils in Paleozoic rocks have commonly been interpreted as algal cysts or phycomata, but the Ediacaran populations differ from modern algal analogs in size, shape, ultrastructure, and internal contents. In contrast, cysts formed during the diapause egg-resting stages of many metazoans share features of size, ornamentation, and internal contents with large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs). Moreover, transmission electron microscopic observations of animal-resting cysts reveal a 3-layer wall ultrastructure comparable to that of LOEM taxa. Interpretation of these distinctive Ediacaran microfossils as resting stages in early metazoan life cycles offers additional perspectives on their functional morphology and stratigraphic distribution. Based on comparisons with modern marine invertebrates, the recalcitrant life stage represented by LOEMs is interpreted as an evolutionary response to prolonged episodes of bottom water anoxia in Ediacaran shelf and platform environments. As predicted by this hypothesis, the later Ediacaran disappearance of LOEM taxa coincides with geochemical evidence for a marked decline in the extent of oxygen-depleted waters impinging on continental shelves and platforms. Thus, the form, diversity, and stratigraphic range of LOEMs illuminate life cycle evolution in early animals as influenced by the evolving redox state of the oceans. PMID:19366668

  6. Genome-scale transcriptomic insights into early-stage fruit development in woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Shahan, Rachel; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

    2013-06-01

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid woodland strawberry with a small and sequenced genome, is an excellent model for studying fruit development. The strawberry fruit is unique in that the edible flesh is actually enlarged receptacle tissue. The true fruit are the numerous dry achenes dotting the receptacle's surface. Auxin produced from the achene is essential for the receptacle fruit set, a paradigm for studying crosstalk between hormone signaling and development. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying strawberry fruit set, next-generation sequencing was employed to profile early-stage fruit development with five fruit tissue types and five developmental stages from floral anthesis to enlarged fruits. This two-dimensional data set provides a systems-level view of molecular events with precise spatial and temporal resolution. The data suggest that the endosperm and seed coat may play a more prominent role than the embryo in auxin and gibberellin biosynthesis for fruit set. A model is proposed to illustrate how hormonal signals produced in the endosperm and seed coat coordinate seed, ovary wall, and receptacle fruit development. The comprehensive fruit transcriptome data set provides a wealth of genomic resources for the strawberry and Rosaceae communities as well as unprecedented molecular insight into fruit set and early stage fruit development. PMID:23898027

  7. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  8. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  9. Efficient and Rapid Isolation of Early-stage Embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Raissig, Michael T.; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

    2013-01-01

    In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays. PMID:23770918

  10. Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S.; di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Bianconi, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered.

  11. Membrane bound IL-15 is increased on CD14 monocytes in early stages of MS

    PubMed Central

    Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi; Brass, Steven; Gandhi, Roopali; Weiner, Howard L.

    2009-01-01

    IL-15 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose three-dimensional structure is similar to that of IL-2. IL-2 and IL-15 have similar as well as distinct biological functions. An active form of IL-15 that is membrane bound has also been described. Furthermore, IL-15 is known to play a role in autoimmune diseases. We thus investigated the expression of membrane bound IL-15 on monocytes (CD14+ cells) and studied its effect on T cell activation in MS patients. We found that unstimulated CD14+ cells from relapsing remitting MS patients had increased membrane bound IL-15. Those with high surface levels of IL-15 on monocytes were in the early stages of the disease. In addition, we found that T cells of MS patients had enhanced responsiveness to IL-15 and there was increased expression of IL-15 receptor on CD4+ T cells. Thus, IL-15 may be an important cytokine that drives Th1 responses early in the course of the disease and could serve as a target for immunotherapy and as an early marker in the immunologic staging of MS. PMID:18378324

  12. Experimental early-stage coalification of a peat sample and a peatified wood sample from Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Neuzil, S.G.; Lerch, H.E.; Cecil, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental coalification of a peat sample and a buried wood sample from domed peat deposits in Indonesia was carried out to examine chemical structural changes in organic matter during early-stage coalification. The experiment (125 C, 408 atm lithostatic pressure, and 177 atm fluid pressure for 75 days) was designed to maintain both lithostatic and fluid pressure on the sample, but allow by-products that may retard coalification to escape. We refer to this design as a geologically open system. Changes in the elemental composition, and 13C NMR and FTIR spectra of the peat and wood after experimental coalification suggest preferential thermal decomposition of O-containing aliphatic organic compounds (probably cellulose) during early-stage coalification. The elemental compositions and 13C NMR spectra of the experimentally coalified peat and wood were generally similar to those of Miocene coal and coalified wood samples from Indonesia. Yields of lignin phenols in the peat and wood samples decreased following experimental coalification; the wood sample exhibited a larger change. Lignin phenol yields from the experimentally coalified peat and wood were comparable to yields of lignin phenols from Miocene Indonesian lignite and coalified wood. Changes in syringyl/vanillyl and p-hydroxy/vanillyl ratios suggest direct demethoxylation as a secondary process to demethylation of methoxyl groups during early coalification, and changes in lignin phenol yields and acid/aldehyde ratios point to a coupling between demethoxylation processes and reactions in the alkyl side chain bonds of the ??-carbon in lignin phenols.

  13. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Only Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Maluta, Sergio [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Dall'Oglio, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.dalloglio@ospedaleuniverona.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Marciai, Nadia; Gabbani, Milena [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Franchini, Zeno [Department of Surgery 1, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Surgery 1, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Pietrarota, Paolo [Department of Surgery 2, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Surgery 2, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Meliado, Gabriele; Guariglia, Stefania; Cavedon, Carlo [Department of Health Physics, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Health Physics, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)

    2012-10-01

    Background: We report the results of a single-institution, phase II trial of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using a single dose of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) in patients with low-risk early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 226 patients with low-risk, early stage breast cancer were treated with local excision and axillary management (sentinel node biopsy with or without axillary node dissection). After the surgeon temporarily reapproximated the excision cavity, a dose of 21 Gy using IOERT was delivered to the tumor bed, with a margin of 2 cm laterally. Results: With a mean follow-up of 46 months (range, 28-63 months), only 1 case of local recurrence was reported. The observed toxicity was considered acceptable. Conclusions: APBI using a single dose of IOERT can be delivered safely in women with early, low-risk breast cancer in carefully selected patients. A longer follow-up is needed to ascertain its efficacy compared to that of the current standard treatment of whole-breast irradiation.

  14. Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of blood mononuclear cells link with cardiac disturbance in patients with early-stage heart failure.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Fang; Li, Yingsha; Li, Qiang; Lang, Hongmei; Zhao, Zhigang; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Yu; Shang, Qianhui; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiometabolic risk factors and asymptomatic cardiac hypertrophy are hallmarks of early-stage heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) may be associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in early-stage HF patients complicated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Totally 49 subjects were enrolled with 25 early-stage HF patients (stages A and B) having cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction and 24 healthy controls. It showed that excessive inflammation and reduced antioxidant capacity were closely associated with cardiac abnormalities in early-stage HF patients. Furthermore, the values of mitochondrial respiratory functional parameters R, CIOXPHOS, CIIOXPHOS, CI+IIOXPHOS, CI+IIETS and CIIETS were significantly lowered in early-stage HF patients. Interestingly, these respiratory parameters were correlated with inflammation and antioxidant capacity in participants. Finally, cardiometabolic risk factors such as salt intake and blood pressure were related to the mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions, which were further validated by in vitro experiments. Our study indicated that cardiometabolic risk factor-mediated mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of PBMCs link with the cellular inflammation / oxidative stress and cardiac disturbance in early-stage HF. PMID:26018291

  15. Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of blood mononuclear cells link with cardiac disturbance in patients with early-stage heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Fang; Li, Yingsha; Li, Qiang; Lang, Hongmei; Zhao, Zhigang; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Yu; Shang, Qianhui; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiometabolic risk factors and asymptomatic cardiac hypertrophy are hallmarks of early-stage heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) may be associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in early-stage HF patients complicated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Totally 49 subjects were enrolled with 25 early-stage HF patients (stages A and B) having cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction and 24 healthy controls. It showed that excessive inflammation and reduced antioxidant capacity were closely associated with cardiac abnormalities in early-stage HF patients. Furthermore, the values of mitochondrial respiratory functional parameters R, CIOXPHOS, CIIOXPHOS, CI+IIOXPHOS, CI+IIETS and CIIETS were significantly lowered in early-stage HF patients. Interestingly, these respiratory parameters were correlated with inflammation and antioxidant capacity in participants. Finally, cardiometabolic risk factors such as salt intake and blood pressure were related to the mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions, which were further validated by in vitro experiments. Our study indicated that cardiometabolic risk factor-mediated mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of PBMCs link with the cellular inflammation / oxidative stress and cardiac disturbance in early-stage HF. PMID:26018291

  16. The Early Stages of Taxol Biosynthesis: An Interim Report on the Synthesis and Identification of Early Pathway Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Bubb, Jennifer; Croteau, Rodney; Williams, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the anti-cancer drug taxol (paclitaxel) has required the collaborative efforts of several research groups to tackle the synthesis and labeling of putative biosynthetic intermediates, in concert with the identification, cloning and functional expression of the biosynthetic genes responsible for the construction of this complex natural product. Based on a combination of precursor labeling and incorporation experiments, and metabolite isolation from Taxus spp., a picture of the complex matrix of pathway oxygenation reactions following formation of the first committed intermediate, taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene, is beginning to emerge. An overview of the current state of knowledge on the early-stages of taxol biosynthesis is presented. PMID:22547034

  17. Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).

    PubMed

    Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

    2014-08-01

    The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture. PMID:23534899

  18. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    PubMed Central

    van Oudenaarde, Kim; Copper, Marcel P.; Klop, W. M. C.; van Veen, Robert; Wildeman, Maarten; Bing Tan, I.

    2010-01-01

    The indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis-T2) to identify the success rates for each subgroup according to T stage, primary or non-primary treatment and subsites. In total, 170 patients with 226 lesions are treated with PDT. From these lesions, 95 are primary neoplasms, 131 were non-primaries (recurrences and multiple primaries). The overall response rate is 90.7% with a complete response rate of 70.8%. Subgroup analysis identified oral tongue, floor of mouth sites with more favorable outcome. PDT has more favorable results with certain subsites and with previously untreated lesions. However, PDT can find its place for treating lesions in previously treated areas with acceptable results. PMID:20706842

  19. Increased Expression of Tumor Proliferation Genes in Hispanic Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalinsky, Kevin; Lim, Emerson A.; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Desai, Avni M.; Jin, Zhezhen; Tu, Yifan; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Wang, Antai; Greenlee, Heather; Crew, Katherine D.; Maurer, Matthew; Sparano, Joseph A.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic women have higher breast cancer mortality compared to non-Hispanic whites. We evaluated for Proliferation Axis Score differences, as determined by Oncotype Dx, in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. We matched 219 women, based upon age, stage, and nodal status. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, Hispanic women with hormone-sensitive, HER2-negative early-stage breast cancer had a higher Proliferation Axis Score. No differences were seen in Recurrence Score, ER, PR, or HER2 by Oncotype DX. CCNB1 and AURKA were significantly higher in Hispanic women. These tumor differences may help explain breast cancer outcome differences between the two ethnicities. PMID:25254601

  20. The Effects of Blocking Angiotensin Receptors on Early Stages of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gheissari, Alaleh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh H; Shirzadi, Roohollah; Amini, Masood; Khalili, Nooshin

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on markers of endothelial function in patients with early stage of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 32 participants with IDDM from January 2010 until May 2011 in Isfahan, Iran. The participants were candidate for receiving ARBs or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) to decrease microalbuminuria. The inclusion criteria were as follows: the age of onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)less than 15 years; normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR); normal blood pressure; normal cardiovascular examination; negative urine culture, receiving no medications except insulin. Microalbuminuria was measured in two fasting urine samples with a sampling interval of at least 1–2 months by ELISA method. Patients with two abnormal results were included. Microalbumin to creatinin ratio equal to or more than 30 mg/gm was considered abnormal. The fasting blood samples to determine serum nitric oxide (NO) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) were obtained at the time 0 (before starting the study), and after 2 months of receiving ARBmedication. Valsartan tablet (Diovan, Novartis Company) with a dose of 1 mg/kg/day up to 80 mg/day in a single dose was administered. Results: Urine microalbumin to creatinin ratio after valsartan consumption was lower than microalbumin level before the medication, P < 0.05. After valsartan consumption, serum VCAM-1 level reduced and NO level increased significantly, P < 0.05. Conclusion: Angiotensin receptor blockers may reduce VCAM-1 and microalbuminuria and may increase NO levels in early stages of DN. Thus administration of ARBs might be considered even in early stages of DN. PMID:22891149

  1. Early life-stage and multigeneration toxicity study with bisphenol A and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Staples, Charles A; Tilghman Hall, A; Friederich, Urs; Caspers, Norbert; Klecka, Gary M

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory guidelines for long term testing to assess the toxicity of xenobiotic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) with fish have focused on survival, growth, and development in early life stages. Early life stages are critical windows of exposure, but do not address later phases in the life cycle, such as reproduction, that are equally important for the continued survival of the organisms. Residual amounts of BPA are released to surface water. BPA has, therefore, been the subject of considerable toxicity testing with fish and other aquatic organisms. A long term multigeneration test with fish has been conducted to better interpret the environmental relevance of detectable levels of BPA. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 444 days over the course of three generations that included F0 reproducing adults, F1 eggs grown to be reproducing adults, and F2 eggs. Endpoints included survival, growth, reproduction, and vitellogenin concentrations. Concentrations tested ranged from 1 to 1,280 ?g/L. No observed effect concentrations (NOEC) of 640 ?g/L and higher for growth parameters show few differences between age or generation. Reproductive NOEC in F0 and F1 breeding pairs were 640 and 160 ?g/L, respectively. The lowest NOEC related to survival, growth and development or reproduction was 16 ?g/L for F2 hatching success. This long term study covered both early life and adult reproduction stages that allowed examination of all critical windows of exposure. Overall, NOEC ranging from 16 to 1,280 ?g/L were found, which are well above median and upper 95th percentile concentrations of BPA in fresh waters in North America and Europe (0.081 and 0.47 ?g/L and 0.01 and 0.035 ?g/L, respectively). The likelihood is low that measured concentrations of BPA in surface water would affect fish, even if exposed over more than one generation. PMID:21700340

  2. Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy for high-risk, early stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eastwick, Gary; Anne, Pramila Rani; Rosenblum, Norman G.; Schilder, Russell J.; Chalian, Raffi; Zibelli, Allison M.; Kim, Christine H.; Den, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report outcomes following adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) with or without chemotherapy for high-intermediate risk (HIR) and high-risk, early stage endometrial cancer as defined in Gynecologic Oncology Group trial 0249. Material and methods From May 2000 to January 2014, 68 women with HIR and high-risk endometrial cancer underwent surgical staging followed by VBT. Median VBT dose was 21 Gy delivered in three fractions prescribed to 0.5 cm depth. Paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and carboplatin area under the curve 6 was administered every 21 days in sequence with VBT. Actuarial survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Patient demographics included a median age of 66 years (range: 36-91) and stages IA (49%), IB (38%), and II (13%), respectively. Thirty-one (46%) patients had HIR disease with endometrioid histology, and 33 (48%) patients had serous or clear cell histology. Thirty-seven (54%) patients received a median 3 cycles (range: 3-6) of chemotherapy in addition to VBT, and 65 patients (96%) completed all prescribed therapy. During a median follow up of 33.1 months (range: 4.0-161.7), four patients have recurred, including one vaginal recurrence. The 3-year estimates of vaginal, pelvic, and distant recurrences were 1.9%, 2.4%, and 9.1%, respectively. The 3-year rates of disease-free and overall survival were 87.7% and 93.9%, respectively. Conclusions Early outcomes with adjuvant VBT with or without chemotherapy demonstrate high rates of vaginal and pelvic control for women with HIR disease. Early vaginal and pelvic relapses in high-risk patients suggest that pelvic external beam radiotherapy is warranted in this subgroup, but additional data from large phase III trials is warranted. PMID:25337127

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of Survival in Early-Stage Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Heist, Rebecca S.; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Lin, Xihong; Skaug, Vidar; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Haugen, Aage; Wu, Michael C.; Wang, Zhaoxi; Su, Li; Asomaning, Kofi; Christiani, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer, of which 85% is non–small-cell (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. We used genome-wide analysis of tumor tissue to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tumors are prognostic factors in early-stage NSCLC. Patients and Methods One hundred early-stage NSCLC patients from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) were used as a discovery set and 89 NSCLC patients collected by the National Institute of Occupational Health, Norway, were used as a validation set. DNA was extracted from flash-frozen lung tissue with at least 70% tumor cellularity. Genome-wide genotyping was done using the high-density SNP chip. Copy numbers were inferred using median smoothing after intensity normalization. Cox models were used to screen and validate significant SNPs associated with the overall survival. Results Copy number gains in chromosomes 3q, 5p, and 8q were observed in both MGH and Norwegian cohorts. The top 50 SNPs associated with overall survival in the MGH cohort (P ? 2.5 × 10?4) were selected and examined using the Norwegian cohort. Five of the top 50 SNPs were validated in the Norwegian cohort with false discovery rate lower than 0.05 (P < .016) and all five were located in known genes: STK39, PCDH7, A2BP1, and EYA2. The numbers of risk alleles of the five SNPs showed a cumulative effect on overall survival (Ptrend = 3.80 × 10?12 and 2.48 × 10?7 for MGH and Norwegian cohorts, respectively). Conclusion Five SNPs were identified that may be prognostic of overall survival in early-stage NSCLC. PMID:19414679

  4. Scrub-successional bird community dynamics in young and mature longleaf pine-wiregrass savannahs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Public agencies are required to manage for threatened and endangered species and for biodiversity. However, at times, management for threatened and endangered species precludes consideration of other species. We investigated how managing for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) and biodiversity at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, affected communities of bird species that use early-successional scrub habitat (hereafter, scrub-successional species). Management for red-cockaded woodpeckers at the SRS involved both (1) manipulating mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Andropogon spp.) stands via canopy thinning, removal of midstory trees, and prescribed burning; and (2) even-aged timber harvesting. The former management practice encouraged red-cockaded woodpeckers to establish new colonies in previously unoccupied stands (hereafter, 'recruitment' stands). The latter management practice is used to remove off-site planted pines and replant with preferred longleaf pines. We conducted a constant-effort mist net study in recruitment and regenerating stands (stands clearcut and planted with longleaf pine) during the breeding seasons of 1995-96. We hypothesized that the scrub-successional bird community in recruitment stands would have greater species richness and higher survival and reproductive rates per species than in regenerating stands. However, recruitment stands always had fewer scrub-successional species (1995:36 species; 1996:31 species) than regenerating stands (1995:54 species; 1996:55 species), and all species that occurred in recruitment stands also occurred in regenerating stands. Species which commonly occurred in both recruitment and regenerating stands had similar adult:juvenile ratios (P > 0.15) and relative proportion of adults in breeding condition (P > 0.05). We detected no difference in survival rates of Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis), indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), and of 'combined' scrub-successional birds between stand types (P > 0.05). We found that even-aged forestry is an important management practice for maintaining and increasing avian biodiversity on public lands, as well as an acceptable management practice for red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  5. Clinical implication of surgically treated early-stage cervical cancer with multiple high-risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Mabuchi, Seiji; Okazawa, Mika; Kawano, Mahiru; Kuroda, Hiromasa; Kamiura, Shoji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Presence of high-risk factor in cervical cancer is known to be associated with decreased survival outcomes. However, the significance of multiple high-risk factors in early-stage cervical cancer related to survival outcomes, recurrence patterns, and treatment implications is not well elucidated. Methods A retrospective study was conducted for surgically treated cervical cancer patients (stage IA2-IIB, n=540). Surgical-pathological risk factors were examined and tumors expressing ?1 high-risk factors (nodal metastasis, parametrial involvement, or positive surgical margin) were eligible for analysis (n=177, 32.8%). Survival analysis was performed based on the number of high-risk factors and the type of adjuvant therapy. Results There were 68 cases (38.4%) expressed multiple high-risk factors (2 high-risk factors: n=58, 32.8%; 3 high-risk factors: n=10, 5.6%). Multiple high-risk factors remained an independent prognosticator for decreased survival outcomes after controlling for age, histology, stage, and treatment type (disease-free survival: hazard ratio [HR], 2.34; p=0.002; overall survival: HR, 2.32; p=0.007). Postoperatively, 101 cases (57.1%) received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and 76 cases (42.9%) received radiotherapy (RT) alone. CCRT was beneficial in single high-risk factor cases: HRs for CCRT over RT alone for cumulative risk of locoregional and distant recurrence, 0.27 (p=0.022) and 0.27 (p=0.005), respectively. However, tumor expressing multiple high-risk factors completely offset the benefit of CCRT over RT alone for the risk of distant recurrence: HR for locoregional and distant recurrence, 0.31 (p=0.071) and 0.99 (p=0.980), respectively. Conclusion Special consideration for the significance of multiple high-risk factors merits further investigation in the management of surgically treated early-stage cervical cancer. PMID:25310856

  6. Targeted labeling of an early-stage tumor spheroid in a chorioallantoic membrane model with upconversion nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Holz, Jasmin A.; Ding, Yadan; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Youlin; Tu, Langping; Kong, Xianggui; Priem, Bram; Nadort, Annemarie; Lambrechts, Saskia A. G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Buma, Wybren Jan; Liu, Yichun; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    In vivo detection of cancer at an early-stage, i.e. smaller than 2 mm, is a challenge in biomedicine. In this work target labeling of an early-stage tumor spheroid (~500 ?m) is realized for the first time in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with monoclonal antibody functionalized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs-mAb).In vivo detection of cancer at an early-stage, i.e. smaller than 2 mm, is a challenge in biomedicine. In this work target labeling of an early-stage tumor spheroid (~500 ?m) is realized for the first time in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with monoclonal antibody functionalized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs-mAb). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures for the sample preparation and characterization, Chick CAM model, 3-D multicellular tumor spheroids, UCNPs circulating in CAM. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05638h

  7. Impact of the CE mark approval on exit opportunities and validation for early stage medical device companies

    E-print Network

    Kothari, Ashish (Ashish Shrikant)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to look at the impact of acquiring the CE marking approval on the outcome of early stage medical device companies, specifically its impact on strategic acquisition opportunities and on valuation. ...

  8. Applications of dissipative and anisotropic hydrodynamics in description of early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florkowski, Wojciech

    2015-05-01

    Kinetic and hydrodynamic models describing early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions are discussed. We emphasise the role of the shear-bulk coupling for the correct determination of the time dependence of the bulk viscous pressure.

  9. Cognitive–behavioral stress management increases benefit finding and immune function among women with early-stage breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie A McGregor; Michael H Antoni; Amy Boyers; Susan M Alferi; Bonnie B Blomberg; Charles S Carver

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study examined the effect of a cognitive–behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention on emotional well-being and immune function among women in the months following surgery for early-stage breast cancer.

  10. Medicines for Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults with Kidney Disease and Diabetes ....

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure" /> Consumer Summary – Oct. 11, 2012 Medicines for Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review ... and blood vessel diseases. About Your Options What medicines may help? There are four types of medicine ...

  11. To what extent is social media exposure correlated with financial performance for early stage digital consumer-facing startups?

    E-print Network

    Genre, Solene

    2014-01-01

    It is very hard to identify and evaluate very early stage investment opportunities in disruptive digital consumer-facing startups as they usually don't have any meaningful revenue data yet. However, these growing startups ...

  12. The Evolving Role of Radiotherapy in Early Stage Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ricardi, Umberto; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Piva, Cristina; Franco, Pierfrancesco

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy has a key role in the combined modality treatment of early-stage Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL). Nevertheless, late toxicity still remains an issue. A modern approach in HL radiotherapy includes lower doses and smaller fields, together with the implementation of sophisticated and dedicated delivery techniques. Aim of the present review is to discuss the current role of radiotherapy and its potential future developments, with a focus on major clinical trials, technological advances and their repercussion in the clinical management of HL patients. PMID:24959332

  13. Characterisation of early precipitation stages in 6xxx series aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasting, Håkon S.; Walmsley, John; Marioara, Calin D.; van Helvoort, ATJ; Holmestad, Randi; Danoix, Frederic; Lefebvre, Williams

    2006-02-01

    Advanced microscopy techniques such as high angular annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy are being explored to study early precipitation stages of 6XXX-series aluminium alloys. Observations are combined with those from 3 dimensional atom probe studies of the same materials. GP-zones are imaged by annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and plasmon mapping. Developed clusters are investigated and quantified by atom probe, and a high number density of clusters with a Mg/Si-ratio close to the alloy composition are confirmed to be present in the alloy.

  14. Some physiological effects of cadmium on the early life stages of the estuarine teleost Fundulus similis 

    E-print Network

    McCulloch, Wayne LeRoy

    1977-01-01

    . , Southern Illinois University Chairman of Advisory Conimi ttee: Dr, 8. N. Neff Acute I;oxicity studies on two early life stages of i-u?dulus simi )is indicated ". haI tivo week post hatch larvae are m~re sensitive o cadmium ~x"closure t, han 5-6 day... indebted to Dr Jerry M. Neff whose advise and support made the completion ~f this degree poss- ible. I would also like to thank the members of our lab who have given help and advise during the course of study. This study has been supported in part...

  15. Quantitative classification of primary progressive aphasia at early and mild impairment stages

    PubMed Central

    Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of early and mild disease in primary progressive aphasia are poorly understood. This report is based on 25 patients with aphasia quotients >85%, 13 of whom were within 2 years of symptom onset. Word-finding and spelling deficits were the most frequent initial signs. Diagnostic imaging was frequently negative and initial consultations seldom reached a correct diagnosis. Functionality was preserved, so that the patients fit current criteria for single-domain mild cognitive impairment. One goal was to determine whether recently published classification guidelines could be implemented at these early and mild disease stages. The quantitative testing of the recommended core and ancillary criteria led to the classification of ?80% of the sample into agrammatic, logopenic and semantic variants. Biological validity of the resultant classification at these mild impairment stages was demonstrated by clinically concordant cortical atrophy patterns. A two-dimensional template based on orthogonal mapping of word comprehension and grammaticality provided comparable accuracy and led to a flexible road map that can guide the classification process quantitatively or qualitatively. Longitudinal evaluations of initially unclassifiable patients showed that the semantic variant can be preceded by a prodromal stage of focal left anterior temporal atrophy during which prominent anomia exists without word comprehension or object recognition impairments. Patterns of quantitative tests justified the distinction of grammar from speech abnormalities and the desirability of using the ‘agrammatic’ designation exclusively for loss of grammaticality, regardless of fluency or speech status. Two patients with simultaneous impairments of grammatical sentence production and word comprehension displayed focal atrophy of the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior temporal lobe. These patients represent a fourth variant of ‘mixed’ primary progressive aphasia. Quantitative criteria were least effective in the distinction of the agrammatic from the logopenic variant and left considerable latitude to clinical judgement. The widely followed recommendation to wait for 2 years of relatively isolated and progressive language impairment before making a definitive diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia has promoted diagnostic specificity, but has also diverted attention away from early and mild disease. This study shows that this recommendation is unnecessarily restrictive and that quantitative guidelines can be implemented for the valid root diagnosis and subtyping of mildly impaired patients within 2 years of symptom onset. An emphasis on early diagnosis will promote a better characterization of the disease stages where therapeutic interventions are the most likely to succeed. PMID:22525158

  16. A Model of Knowledge Acquisition in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Laura E.; Mendlinger, Sheryl E.; Corso, Katherine A.; Greenberg, Caprice C.

    2012-01-01

    To meaningfully participate in the decision-making regarding a newly diagnosed breast cancer, a patient must acquire new knowledge. We describe a model of knowledge acquisition that can provide a framework for exploring the process and types of knowledge that breast cancer patients gain following their diagnosis. The four types of knowledge presented in this model—authoritative, technical, embodied, and traditional—are described and potential sources discussed. An understanding of knowledge acquisition in early stage breast cancer patients can provide healthcare practitioners with an important framework for optimizing decision-making in this population. PMID:22226068

  17. Nanoscale duplex oxide growth during early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100).

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, G.; Fong, D. D.; Wang, L.; Fuoss, P. H.; Baldo, P. M.; Thompson, L. J.; Eastman, J. A.; Materials Science Division; State Univ. of New York; Univ. of Illinois

    2009-10-01

    A combination of real-time in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and ex situ transmission electron microscopy is utilized to investigate the early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100). Sequential formation of NiO and Cu{sub 2}O oxides was observed by increasing oxygen partial pressure, and the Cu{sub 2}O phase was identified to form preferentially on top of NiO nanoislands. The origin of this unexpected phenomenon is attributed to localized enrichment of Cu atoms accompanied with NiO growth, which thermodynamically drives the nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O/NiO duplex oxide growth.

  18. Origin of the directed movement of protocells in the early stages of the evolution of life.

    PubMed

    Melkikh, Alexey V; Chesnokova, Oksana I

    2012-08-01

    The origin of the directed motion of protocells during the early stages of evolution was discussed. The expenditures for movement, space orientation, and reception of information about the environment were taken into consideration, and it was shown that directed movement is evolutionarily advantageous in the following cases: when opposite gradients of different resources (for example, matter and energy) are great enough and when there is a rapid change in environmental parameters. It was also shown that the advantage of directed movement strategies depends greatly on how information about the environment is obtained by a protocell. PMID:22772806

  19. Non-linear Langevin model for the early-stage dynamics of electrospinning jets

    E-print Network

    Lauricella, Marco; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    We present a non-linear Langevin model to investigate the early-stage dynamics of electrified polymer jets in electrospinning experiments. In particular, we study the effects of air drag force on the uniaxial elongation of the charged jet, right after ejection from the nozzle. Numerical simulations show that the elongation of the jet filament close to the injection point is significantly affected by the non-linear drag exerted by the surrounding air. These result provide useful insights for the optimal design of current and future electrospinning experiments.

  20. Nucleotide Deficiency Promotes Genomic Instability in Early Stages of Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Bester, Assaf C.; Roniger, Maayan; Oren, Yifat S.; Im, Michael M.; Sarni, Dan; Chaoat, Malka; Bensimon, Aaron; Zamir, Gideon; Shewach, Donna S.; Kerem, Batsheva

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromosomal instability in early cancer stages is caused by stress on DNA replication. The molecular basis for replication perturbation in this context is currently unknown. We studied the replication dynamics in cells in which a regulator of S phase entry and cell proliferation, the Rb-E2F pathway, is aberrantly activated. Aberrant activation of this pathway by HPV-16 E6/E7 or cyclin E oncogenes significantly decreased the cellular nucleotide levels in the newly transformed cells. Exogenously supplied nucleosides rescued the replication stress and DNA damage and dramatically decreased oncogene-induced transformation. Increased transcription of nucleotide biosynthesis genes, mediated by expressing the transcription factor c-myc, increased the nucleotide pool and also rescued the replication-induced DNA damage. Our results suggest a model for early oncogenesis in which uncoordinated activation of factors regulating cell proliferation leads to insufficient nucleotides that fail to support normal replication and genome stability. PMID:21529715

  1. Selective attention to signs of success: social dominance and early stage interpersonal perception.

    PubMed

    Maner, Jon K; DeWall, C Nathan; Gailliot, Matthew T

    2008-04-01

    Results from two experiments suggest that observers selectively attend to male, but not female, targets displaying signs of social dominance. Participants overestimated the frequency of dominant men in rapidly presented stimulus arrays (Study 1) and visually fixated on dominant men in an eyetracking experiment (Study 2). When viewing female targets, participants attended to signs of physical attractiveness rather than social dominance. Findings fit with evolutionary models of mating, which imply that dominance and physical attractiveness sometimes tend to be prioritized preferentially in judgments of men versus women, respectively. Findings suggest that sex differences in human mating are observed not only at the level of overt mating preferences and choices but also at early stages of interpersonal perception. This research demonstrates the utility of examining early-in-the-stream social cognition through the functionalist lens of adaptive thinking. PMID:18192434

  2. A rapid method for the detection of early stages of atherosclerotic lesion formation.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, K. A.; Karnovsky, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, rapid technique for detecting early changes in the arterial vessels of rats and rabbits fed an atherogenic diet is described. After perfusion fixation, the descending thoracic aorta was cytochemically stained with oil red O to detect intracellular lipid and with Hoechst 33342 dye to detect nuclear DNA. The vessels were whole mounted and the luminal surface examined en face using both transmitted light and epifluorescence microscopy. With this technique it is possible to identify and quantitate mononuclear cells adhering to the vessel wall, determine the distribution and number of intimal foam cells within the intima, and determine the mitotic index of the endothelium. Tissue samples can be quickly prepared using this technique, thus allowing rapid analysis of the influence of various substances on the early stages of atherosclerotic lesion formation in animals fed an atherogenic diet. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3202115

  3. Bacterial Interactions in Early Life Stages of Marine Cold Water Fish.

    PubMed

    Hansen; Olafsen

    1999-07-01

    > Abstract The intensive rearing of various fish species in aquaculture has revealed intimate relationships between fish and bacteria that eventually may affect establishment of a "normal" mucosal microflora or result in disease epizootics. Interactions between bacteria and mucosal surfaces play important roles both at the egg and larval stages of marine fish. Bacterial adhesion and colonization of the egg surface occur within hours after fertilization. The diverse flora which eventually develops on the egg appears to reflect the bacterial composition and load of the ambient water, but species-specific adhesion at the egg surface may also play a role in development of the egg epiflora. Proteolytic enzymes produced by members of the adherent epiflora may cause serious damage to the developing egg and may also affect further adhesion of the epiflora. Ingestion of bacteria at the yolk sac stage results in establishment of a primary intestinal microflora which seems to persist beyond first feeding. Establishment of a gut microflora is likely to undergo several stages, resulting in an "adult" microflora weeks to months after first feeding. Ingested bacteria may serve as an exogenous supply of nutrients or essential factors at an early life stage. Early exposure to high bacterial densities is probably important for immune tolerance, and thus for the establishment of a protective intestinal microflora. Successful rearing of early life stages of several marine fish species depends on knowledge of the complex interactions among the cultured organisms and the bacterial communities which develop at the mucosal surfaces and in the ambient water and rearing systems. The routine use of antibiotics during rearing of fish larvae is not advisable, since it may increase the risk of promoting antibiotic resistance and adversely affect the indigenous microflora of the larvae. The use of probiotics has proven advantageous in domestic animal production, and the search for effective probiotics may have a great potential in aquaculture of marine organisms. Bacteria with antagonistic effects against fish pathogens have been successfully administered to several fish species, resulting in decreased mortality or increased growth rate.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00248/bibs/38n1p1.html PMID:10384006

  4. Evidence of Altered Corticomotor System Connectivity in Early-Stage Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vidoni, Eric D.; Thomas, George P.; Honea, Robyn A.; Loskutova, Natalia; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose There is increasing evidence for subtle motor dysfunction early in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), including common motor behaviors that were once considered unaffected early in the disease process. Our objective was to assess if functional neural networks underlying motor behavior are altered by AD. Methods We investigated AD-related differences in regional brain activation during motor performance. Nine older adults with early-stage AD and 10 without dementia underwent fMRI while performing a visually-directed simple motor task (hand squeeze). Results Despite some similarity in brain activation during motor performance, we found that individuals without dementia exhibited greater activation in accessory motor regions supplementary motor area and cerebellum compared to those with AD. We also assessed disease-related differences in regions where activity was functionally integrated with primary motor cortex. Using a psycho-physiological interaction analysis, we found that those with AD displayed increased co-activation with primary motor cortex of bilateral motor and visual regions. Discussion and Conclusions These AD-related changes in regional co-activation during motor execution in may represent inefficiency in the motor network as a consequence of the disease process. Alternatively, they may represent compensatory activation. These findings provide further evidence that in early-stages of AD, neuromotor function is altered in AD even during simple motor behaviors. The results may have implications for performance of more complex tasks, and may be associated with the well-characterized decline in dual task performance in those with AD. PMID:22333920

  5. In vivo MRI of early stage mammary cancers and the normal mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sanaz A; Conzen, Suzanne D; Fan, Xiaobing; Markiewicz, Erica; Krausz, Thomas; Newstead, Gillian M; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2011-08-01

    Since the advent of screening mammography, approximately one-quarter of newly diagnosed breast cancers are at the earliest preinvasive stage of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Concomitant with this improvement in early detection has been a growing clinical concern that distinguishing aggressive from indolent DCIS is necessary to optimize patient management. Genetically engineered mouse models offer an appealing experimental framework in which to investigate factors that influence and predict progression of preinvasive neoplasias. Because of the small size of early stage carcinomas in mice, high-resolution imaging techniques are required to effectively observe longitudinal progression. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of MRI for assessment of in situ mammary neoplasias and early invasive mammary cancers that stochastically arise in mammary glands of C3(1) SV40 Tag transgenic mice. Additionally, images of normal mammary glands from wild-type FVB/N mice were acquired and compared with those from transgenic mice. Sixteen mice underwent MR examinations employing axial two-dimensional multi-slice gradient recalled echo scans (TR/TE =?1000/5.5 ms) with fat suppression in a two-step process targeting both the upper and lower mammary glands. MRI successfully detected in situ and early invasive neoplasias in transgenic mice with high sensitivity and specificity. The average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of in situ lesions on fat-suppressed high-resolution T(1) -weighted images was 22.9, which was lower than that of invasive tumors, lymph nodes and muscle (average SNR of 29.5-34.9, p < 0.0001) but significantly higher than that of normal mammary tissue (average SNR = 5.5, p < 0.0001). Evaluation of wild-type mammary glands revealed no cancerous or benign lesions, and comparable image contrast characteristics (average SNR = 5.2) as compared with normal tissue areas of transgenic mice. This present study demonstrates that MRI is an excellent candidate for performing longitudinal assessment of early stage mammary cancer disease progression and response to therapy in the transgenic model system. PMID:21264977

  6. Emotional curiosity: modulation of visuospatial attention by arousal is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin S. LaBar; M.-Marsel Mesulam; Darren R. Gitelman; Sandra Weintraub

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Alzheimer’s disease, even in its early stages, decreases novelty-seeking behaviors (curiosity) and impairs the shifting of spatial attention to extrapersonal targets. In this study, early-stage probable Alzheimer’s disease patients (PRAD) and young and aging controls were shown pairs of visual scenes, some of which contained emotionally-arousing material, while eye movements were recorded under free viewing

  7. Effects of Phosphorus and Nitrogen on Nodulation are Seen Already at the Stage of Early Cortical Cell Divisions in Alnus incana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANCESCO GENTILI; LUIS G. WALL; KERSTIN HUSS-DANELL

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aims The present work aimed to study early stages of nodulation in a chronological sequence and to study phosphorus and nitrogen effects on early stages of nodulation in Alnus incana infected by Frankia .A method was developed to quantify early nodulation stages in intact root systems in the root hair-infected actinorhizal plant A. incana. Plant tissue responses were

  8. Toxicity assessment of the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione using early developmental stages of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Bellas

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of zinc pyrithione (Zpt) on the early stages of development of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Larval morphological abnormalities were studied after the exposure of C. intestinalis embryos at different stages of development. The median effective concentrations (EC50) ranged from 226–590 nM. The larval settlement stage was the most sensitive to Zpt. Toxic effects of Zpt on

  9. Direct Simulation of Early-Stage Sec-Facilitated Protein Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Miller, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Direct simulations reveal key mechanistic features of early-stage protein translocation and membrane integration via the Sec-translocon channel. We present a novel computational protocol that combines non-equilibrium growth of the nascent protein with microsecond-timescale molecular dynamics trajectories. Analysis of multiple, long-timescale simulations elucidates molecular features of protein insertion into the translocon, including signal-peptide docking at the translocon lateral gate (LG), large-lengthscale conformational rearrangement of the translocon LG helices, and partial membrane integration of hydrophobic nascent-protein sequences. Furthermore, the simulations demonstrate the role of specific molecular interactions in the regulation of protein secretion, membrane integration, and integral membrane protein topology. Salt-bridge contacts between the nascent-protein N-terminus, cytosolic translocon residues, and phospholipid head groups are shown to favor conformations of the nascent protein upon early-stage insertion that are consistent with the Type II (Ncyt/Cexo) integral membrane protein topology; and extended hydrophobic contacts between the nascent protein and the membrane lipid bilayer are shown to stabilize configurations that are consistent with the Type III (Nexo/Ccyt) topology. These results provide a detailed, mechanistic basis for understanding experimentally observed correlations between integral membrane protein topology, translocon mutagenesis, and nascent-protein sequence. PMID:22852862

  10. Behavior of homologous chromosomes in early meiotic stages of human spermatocytes as revealed by FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Am, I.; Avivi, L. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel); Mukame, E. [Hasharon Hospital, Petah-Tikva (Israel)

    1994-09-01

    The process by which homologous chromosomes recognize each other at the beginning of meiosis, prior to synapsis, is poorly understood. To gain a better understanding as to when, where and how a given chromosome approaches its pairing partner, chromosome behavior at early stages of meiosis in human spermatocytes was studied. Using multi-color FISH with centromeric- and telomeric-specific probes, as well as with whole chromosome DNA libraries, it was clearly aligned. Rather, similarly to non-homologous chromosomes, they were well separated from each other. At the commencement of synapsis, during the process of homology search, homologues underwent a drastic conformational change, elongating into strands that approached each other by their telomeres. Just preceding the co-alignment of the homologous centromeres, telomeres changed their interphase random distribution and occupied a confined region of the nuclear periphery. Following synapsis, telomeres spread over the whole nuclear periphery. These dynamics in the telomeres distribution, which are unique to early stages of meiosis, are presumably related to the role that telomeres play in the process of homology search and the commencement of synapsis.

  11. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage air-liquid interface biofilm formation in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Sochorová, Zuzana; Petrá?ková, Denisa; Sita?ová, Barbora; Buriánková, Karolína; Bezoušková, Silvia; Benada, Old?ich; Kofro?ová, Olga; Jane?ek, Ji?í; Halada, Petr; Weiser, Jaroslav

    2014-07-01

    We studied the early stages of pellicle formation by Mycobacterium smegmatis on the surface of a liquid medium [air-liquid interface (A-L)]. Using optical and scanning electron microscopy, we showed the formation of a compact biofilm pellicle from micro-colonies over a period of 8-30 h. The cells in the pellicle changed size and cell division pattern during this period. Based on our findings, we created a model of M. smegmatis A-L early pellicle formation showing the coordinate growth of cells in the micro-colonies and in the homogeneous film between them, where the accessibility to oxygen and nutrients is different. A proteomic approach utilizing high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, in combination with mass spectrometry-based protein identification, was used to analyse the protein expression profiles of the different morphological stages of the pellicle. The proteins identified formed four expression groups; the most interesting of these groups contained the proteins with highest expression in the biofilm development phase, when the floating micro-colonies containing long and more robust cells associate into flocs and start to form a compact pellicle. The majority of these proteins, including GroEL1, are involved in cell wall synthesis or modification, mostly through the involvement of mycolic acid biosynthesis, and their expression maxima correlated with the changes in cell size and the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall observed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:24760966

  12. ACR appropriateness Criteria® early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Videtic, Gregory M M; Chang, Joe Yujiao; Chetty, Indrin J; Ginsburg, Mark E; Kestin, Larry L; Kong, Feng-Ming Spring; Lally, Brian E; Loo, Billy W; Movsas, Benjamin; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Willers, Henning; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2014-04-01

    Early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is diagnosed in about 15% to 20% of lung cancer patients at presentation. In order to provide clinicians with guidance in decision making for early-stage NSCLC patients, the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria Lung Cancer Panel was recently charged with a review of the current published literature to generate up-to-date management recommendations for this clinical scenario. For patients with localized, mediastinal lymph node-negative NSCLC, optimal management should be determined by an expert multidisciplinary team. For medically operable patients, surgical resection is the standard of care, with generally no role for adjuvant therapies thereafter. For patients with medical comorbidities making them at high risk for surgery, there is emerging evidence demonstrating the availability of low toxicity curative therapies, such as stereotactic body radiotherapy, for their care. As a general statement, the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:25180631

  13. The COX-2 pathway is essential during early stages of skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bondesen, Brenda A; Mills, Stephen T; Kegley, Kristy M; Pavlath, Grace K

    2004-08-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration comprises several overlapping cellular processes, including inflammation and myogenesis. Prostaglandins (PGs) may regulate muscle regeneration, because they modulate inflammation and are involved in various stages of myogenesis in vitro. PG synthesis is catalyzed by different isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX), which are inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Although experiments employing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have implicated PGs in tissue repair, how PGs regulate muscle regeneration remains unclear, and the potentially distinct roles of different COX isoforms have not been investigated. To address these questions, a localized freeze injury was induced in the tibialis anterior muscles of mice chronically treated with either a COX-1- or COX-2-selective inhibitor (SC-560 and SC-236, respectively), starting before injury. The size of regenerating myofibers was analyzed at time points up to 5 wk after injury and found to be decreased by SC-236 and in COX-2(-/-) muscles, but unaffected by SC-560. In contrast, SC-236 had no effect on myofiber growth when administered starting 7 days after injury. The attenuation of myofiber growth by SC-236 treatment and in COX-2(-/-) muscles is associated with decreases in the number of myoblasts and intramuscular inflammatory cells at early times after injury. Together, these data suggest that COX-2-dependent PG synthesis is required during early stages of muscle regeneration and thus raise caution about the use of COX-2-selective inhibitors in patients with muscle injury or disease. PMID:15084473

  14. Molecular Mechanism of the Early Stage of Amyloidogenic Hexapeptides (NFGAIL) Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Bi-Yun; Zhou, Bo; Cai, Zhuo-Wei; Xiu, Peng; Yang, Zai-Xing

    2013-10-01

    Peptides/proteins aggregation can give rise to pathological conditions of many human diseases. Small partially ordered oligomers formed in the early stage of aggregation, rather than mature fibrils, are thought to be the main toxicity agent for the living cell. Thus, understanding the pathway and the underlying physical mechanism in the early stage of aggregation is very important for prevention and treatment of these protein functional diseases. Herein we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the aggregation of four NFGAIL hexapeptides (NFGAIL peptide is a core segment of human islet amyloid polypeptide and exhibits similar aggregation kinetics as the full-length polypeptide). We observe that the peptide monomers in water mainly adopt non-structural coil configurations; the four peptides which are randomly placed in water aggregate spontaneously to partially ordered oligomer (?-sheets) through dimerization or trimerization, with the dimerization predominated. Both parallel and anti-parallel ?-sheets are observed. The hydrophobic interactions drive the initial peptides associations, and the subsequent conformational fluctuations promote the formation of more hydrogen bonds between the dangling hydrogen sites in the main chains of peptides.

  15. Lymph Node Micrometastases in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer are Not Predictive of Survival.

    PubMed

    Stany, Michael P; Stone, Pamela J B; Felix, Juan C; Amezcua, Charles A; Groshen, Susan; Ye, Wei; Kyser, Kathy L; Howard, Robin S; Zahn, Chris M; Muderspach, Laila I; Lentz, Scott E; Chernofsky, Mildred R

    2015-07-01

    Although patients with early-stage cervical cancer have in general a favorable prognosis, 10% to 40% patients still recur depending on pathologic risk factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the presence of lymph node micrometastasis (LNmM) had an impact on patient's survival. We performed a multi-institutional retrospective review on patients with early-stage cervical cancer, with histologically negative lymph nodes, treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for the study period 1994 to 2004. Tissue blocks of lymph nodes from the patient's original surgery were recut and then evaluated for the presence of micrometastases. One hundred twenty-nine patients were identified who met inclusion criteria. LNmM were found in 26 patients (20%). In an average follow-up time of 70 mo, there were 11 recurrences (8.5%). Of the 11 recurrences, 2 (18%) patients had LNmM. Patients with LNmM were more likely to have received adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. In stratified log-rank analysis, LNmM were not associated with any other high-risk clinical or pathologic variables. Survival data analysis did not demonstrate an association between the presence of LNmM and recurrence or overall survival. The presence of LNmM was not associated with an unfavorable prognosis nor was it associated with other high-risk clinical or pathologic variables predicting recurrence. Further study is warranted to understand the role of micrometastases in cervical cancer. PMID:26061072

  16. Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. PMID:20161971

  17. Phenotypic and fitness consequences of maternal nest-site choice across multiple early life stages.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Timothy S; Warner, Daniel A; Janzen, Fredric J

    2013-02-01

    Identifying the relative contributions of genetic, maternal, and environmental factors to phenotypic variation is critical for evaluating the evolutionary potential of fitness-related traits. We employed a novel two-step cross-fostering experiment to quantify the relative contributions of clutch (i.e., maternal identity) and maternally chosen nest sites to phenotypic variation during three early life stages (incubation, hibernation, dispersal) of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). By translocating eggs between nests in the field, we demonstrated that both clutch and nest site contribute to phenotypic variation at hatching. Because hatchling C. picta hibernate inside nests, we performed a second cross-foster to decouple the effects of the incubation nest with that of the hibernation nest. Incubation nest explained little variation in phenotypes at spring emergence, but winter nest site was important. We found no evidence that mothers select nest sites specific to reaction norms of their own offspring, suggesting that females may select nest sites with microhabitats that broadly meet similar requirements across the population. After hibernation, we released hatchlings to assess performance and phenotypic selection during dispersal. Hibernation nest site influenced physiological performance during dispersal, and we detected nonlinear selection on hatchling carapace length. Our experiment demonstrates that nest-site choice has substantial effects on phenotypic variation and fitness across multiple early life stages. PMID:23691653

  18. Marital relationship quality in early-stage dementia: perspectives from people with dementia and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Clare, Linda; Nelis, Sharon M; Whitaker, Christopher J; Martyr, Anthony; Markova, Ivana S; Roth, Ilona; Woods, Robert T; Morris, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Spouse caregivers of people with dementia (PwD) report relatively poor marital relationship quality (RQ), but few studies have obtained the perspective of the PwD, examined discrepancies between spouses, or considered changes in RQ over time. This study explored caregiver and PwD perceptions of RQ, identified associated factors, and examined changes over an 18-month period. Participants were 54 couples where one spouse had early-stage dementia and 54 were control couples. RQ was assessed with the Positive Affect Index. Measures of mood, stress, and quality of life (QoL) were also administered. The clinical couples were followed up after 9 and 18 months. Caregivers gave significantly lower RQ ratings than controls. PwD ratings did not differ significantly from those of caregivers or controls. Dyadic discrepancies were significantly greater in the clinical than in the control group. Caregiver ratings were associated with stress, whereas PwD ratings were associated with depression and QoL. Discrepancies were associated with caregiver stress and with PwD mood, QoL, and age. Caregiver ratings declined significantly over time; PwD ratings did not decline significantly, but showed different trends for men and women. It is important to consider RQ when considering how to support couples where one partner has early-stage dementia. PMID:21685780

  19. A fiber damage model for early stage consolidation of metal-coated fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.; Elzey, D.M.; Wadley, H.N.G. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)] [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites (TMCs) possess combinations of specific modulus, strength, and creep resistance that are well suited for a variety of aerospace applications. Recent studies of the high temperature consolidation of titanium alloy coated {alpha}-alumina fiber tows and SiC monofilaments have both revealed the widespread occurrence of fiber bending and fracture during early stage consolidation. This damage was shown to arise from the bending of unaligned fibers during consolidation and was found to be affected by the mechanical behavior of the metal-metal contacts at fiber crossovers. To predict the incidence of fiber fracture during early stage high temperature consolidation, a time-temperature dependent micromechanical model incorporating the evolving contact geometry and mechanical behavior of both the metal matrix and the ceramic fibers has been combined with a statistical representation of crossovers in the pre-consolidated layup. The damage predictions are found to compare favorably with experimental results. The model has subsequently been used to explore the effects of fiber strength, matrix constitutive properties and the processing conditions upon the incidence of fiber fracture. It reveals the existence of a temperature dependent pressurization rate below which fracture is relatively unlikely. This critical pressure rate can be significantly increased by the enhanced superplasticity of the initially nanocrystalline coating.

  20. Cost calculations at early stages of nuclear research facilities in the nordic countries

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Klaus [Danish Decommissioning (Denmark); Salmenhaara, Seppo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1805 - Kemistintie 3, Espoo, FIN - 02044 VTT (Finland); Backe, Steinar [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Cato, Anna; Lindskog, Staffan [The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Klarabergsviadukten 90, SE-106 58 Stockholm (Sweden); Callander, Clas; Efraimsson, Henrik [The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Inga [Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Spinnarvaegen 10, 611 63 Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warranted and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with fundamental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones. Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflected in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities. Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for cost calculations. It also implies that this calculation process should include a well adopted learning process. Thus, a Nordic co-operation has been established for the exchange and evaluation of cost-related information on nuclear research facilities. The aim is to identify good practices, accumulate experience, compile data from actual plants and projects, and to derive methodology for cost calculations, especially for early stages. The work includes the following tasks which constitutes the bulk of the present paper: identification of good practice with regard to the following: - strategy and planning; - methodology selection; - radiological surveying; - uncertainty analysis. - descriptions of relevant plants, features and projects: - decommissioning of reactor DR 1 in Denmark; - decommissioning of reactor R 1 in Sweden; - decommissioning of the pilot scale uranium fuel; reprocessing plant in Norway - planning for the future decommissioning of the TRIGA reactor in Finland. - techniques for assessments of costs introduction. (authors)

  1. Endoscopic features of early-stage signet-ring-cell carcinoma of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Phalanusitthepha, Chainarong; Grimes, Kevin L; Ikeda, Haruo; Sato, Hiroki; Sato, Chiaki; Hokierti, Chananya; Inoue, Haruhiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify the features of early signet ring cell gastric carcinoma using magnification endoscopy with narrow band imaging (NBI). METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 12 cases of early signet ring cell gastric carcinoma who underwent treatment in a single institution between January 2009 and April 2013. All patients had magnification endoscopy with NBI and indigo carmine contrast to closely examine the mucosal architecture, including the microvasculature and arrangement of gastric pits. Histologic examination of the final endoscopic submucosal dissection or gastrectomy specimen was performed and compared with the endoscopic findings to identify patterns specific to signet ring cell carcinoma. RESULTS: Twelve patients with early signet ring cell gastric carcinoma were identified; 75% were male, and average age was 61 years. Most of the lesions were stage T1a (83%), while the remainder were T1b (17%). The mean lesion size was 1.4 cm2. On standard endoscopy, all 12 patients had a pale, flat lesion without any evidence of mucosal abnormality such as ulceration, elevation, or depression. On magnification endoscopy with NBI, all of the patients had irregularities in the glands and microvasculature consistent with early gastric cancer. In addition, all 12 patients exhibited the “stretch sign”, an elongation or expansion of the architectural structure. Histologic examination of the resected specimens demonstrated an expanded and edematous mucosal layer infiltrated with tumor cells. CONCLUSION: The “stretch sign” appears to be specific for signet ring cell carcinoma and may aid in the early diagnosis and treatment of this aggressive pathology. PMID:26140102

  2. Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: jwong@lroc.harvard.edu; Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Keshaviah, Aparna [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Winer, Eric P. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

  3. Lack of miRNA Misregulation at Early Pathological Stages in Drosophila Neurodegenerative Disease Models

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Anita; Feuillette, Sébastien; Cassar, Marlène; Callens, Céline; Thomassin, Hélène; Birman, Serge; Lecourtois, Magalie; Antoniewski, Christophe; Tricoire, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Late onset neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health concern as the population in many countries ages. Both frequent diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD, 14% incidence for 80–84?year-old Europeans) or Parkinson disease (PD, 1.4% prevalence for >55?years old) share, with other low-incidence neurodegenerative pathologies such as spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs, 0.01% prevalence) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, 0.02% prevalence), a lack of efficient treatment in spite of important research efforts. Besides significant progress, studies with animal models have revealed unexpected complexities in the degenerative process, emphasizing a need to better understand the underlying pathological mechanisms. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs, have been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases. The current data supporting a role of miRNAs in PD, tauopathies, dominant ataxias, and FTLD will first be discussed to emphasize the different levels of the pathological processes which may be affected by miRNAs. To investigate a potential involvement of miRNA dysregulation in the early stages of these neurodegenerative diseases we have used Drosophila models for seven diseases (PD, 3 FTLD, 3 dominant ataxias) that recapitulate many features of the human diseases. We performed deep sequencing of head small RNAs after 3?days of pathological protein expression in the fly head neurons. We found no evidence for a statistically significant difference in miRNA expression in this early stage of the pathological process. In addition, we could not identify small non-coding CAG repeat RNAs (sCAG) in polyQ disease models. Thus our data suggest that transcriptional deregulation of miRNAs or sCAG is unlikely to play a significant role in the initial stages of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23115562

  4. Early-Stage Young Breast Cancer Patients: Impact of Local Treatment on Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Bantema-Joppe, Enja J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Munck, Linda de [Comprehensive Cancer Center North East, Groningen/Enschede (Netherlands); Visser, Otto [Comprehensive Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Willemse, Pax H.B. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Siesling, Sabine [Comprehensive Cancer Center North East, Groningen/Enschede (Netherlands); Department of Health Technology and Services Research, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Maduro, John H., E-mail: j.h.maduro@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: In young women, breast-conserving therapy (BCT), i.e., lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy, has been associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. Still, there is insufficient evidence that BCT impairs survival. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of BCT with mastectomy on overall survival (OS) in young women with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: From two Dutch regional population-based cancer registries (covering 6.2 million inhabitants) 1,453 women <40 years with pathologically T1N0-1M0 breast cancer were selected. Cox regression survival analysis was used to study the effect of local treatment (BCT vs. mastectomy) stratified for nodal stage on survival and corrected for tumor size, age, period of diagnosis, and use of adjuvant systemic therapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 10-year OS was 83% after BCT and 78% after mastectomy, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.72). In N0-patients, 10-year OS was 84% after BCT and 81% after mastectomy and local treatment was not associated with differences in OS (HR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89-1.58; p = 0.25). Within the N1-patient group, OS was better after BCT compared with mastectomy, 79% vs. 71% at 10 years (HR 1.91; 95% CI, 1.28-2.84; p = 0.001) and in patients treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy (HR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.66; p = 0.001). Conclusions: In this large population-based cohort of early-stage young breast cancer patients, 10-year OS was not impaired after BCT compared with mastectomy. Patients with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes had better prognosis after BCT than after mastectomy.

  5. Features of fatigue in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xianping; Zhou, Weihe; Zhang, Yuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the fatigue status and related factors in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) 1-5 years after surgery. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 254 patients with stage IA or IB NSCLC, who had undergone surgery. They completed several surveys, including the Brief Fatigue Inventory, Karnofsky Performance Scale, Physical Activity Questionnaire, Baseline Dyspnea Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The association between fatigue and functional status was assessed using Chi-square analysis. Spearman rank correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to assess the correlation between fatigue and various other factors. Results: The overall incidence of postoperative fatigue was 59.8%. Among patients with moderate to severe fatigue, 21.1% had obvious dysfunction, whereas only 9.6% of patients with mild or no fatigue (?2 = 5.369; P = 0.02) showed obvious dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that functional status (odds ratio [OR]: 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-6.19), concurrent lung disease (OR: 2.34; 95% CI: 1.08-4.99), depression (OR: 6.39; 95% CI: 2.42-17.35), and anxiety (OR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.13-4.87) were independent risk factors for fatigue, whereas physical activity (OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11-0.73) could prevent fatigue. Conclusion: More than half of the patients with early-stage NSCLC experienced fatigue 1-5 years after surgery, and moderate to severe fatigue was often associated with obvious dysfunction. The strong association of fatigue with anxiety, depression, and lung complications suggests that fatigue and other symptoms constitute a symptom cluster. Therefore, comprehensive treatment methods may achieve better therapeutic results.

  6. Left atrial enlargement in the early stage of hypertensive heart disease: a common but ignored condition.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanhua; Cao, Heng; Xu, Sudan; Lu, Yongxin; Shuai, Xinxin; Sun, Yufei; Liao, Yuhua; Li, Jingdong

    2014-03-01

    How to identify the early signs of hypertensive heart disease is the key to block or reverse the process of heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of left atrial (LA) enlargement in the early stage of hypertensive heart disease and to explore the correlations between LA enlargement and heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFnEF), as well as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Baseline clinical characteristics, biochemical indices, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic data were collected from 341 consecutive patients with essential hypertension. Among those patients, LA enlargement was more frequently presented than LV enlargement (57.2% vs 17.9%). Compared with patients without HFnEF, the prevalence of LA enlargement was higher in patients with HFnEF (82.9% vs 49.0%, P<.0001). From grade 2 to grade 3 hypertension, LA size was significantly larger in patients with MetS (P<.01) than those without. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that age, body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride level, and left ventricular diameter were independent predictors of LA enlargement. The simple measurement for identification of LA enlargement potentially allows early recognition of those patients at risk for heart failure, particularly among patients with MetS. PMID:24708380

  7. Amygdalohippocampal MR volume measurements in the early stages of Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lehericy, S.; Baulac, M.; Chiras, J.; Pierot, L.; Martin, N.; Pillon, B.; Deweer, B.; Dubois, B.; Marsault, C. [Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of hippocampal and amygdala volume measurements in diagnosing patients in the early stages of Alzheimer disease. Measurements of the hippocampal formation, amygdala, amygdalohippocampal complex (the two measurements summed), caudate nucleus, and ventricles, normalized for total intracranial volume, were obtained on coronal sections (1.5 T, 400/13 [repetition time/echo time], 5 mm) of 13 patients in the mild (minimental status {ge} 21) and five patients in the moderate stages of Alzheimer disease (10 < minimental status < 21), and eight age-matched control subjects. For patients with a minimental status score of 21 or greater, atrophy was significant for the amygdala and hippocampal formation (-36% and -25% for amygdala/total intracranial volume and hippocampal formation/total intracranial volume, respectively), but not for the caudate nucleus. No significant ventricular enlargement was found. For patients with a minimental status score less than 21, atrophy was more severe in all structures studied (amygdala/total intracranial volume -40%; hippocampal formation/total intracranial volume, -45%; caudate nucleus/total intracranial volume, -21%), and ventricles were enlarged (63%). No overlap was found between Alzheimer disease and control values for the amygdalohippocampal volume, even in the mild stages of the disease. In Alzheimer disease patients, hippocampal formation volumes correlated with the minimental status. Hippocampal and amygdala atrophy is marked and significant in the mild stages of Alzheimer disease. Volumetric measurements of the amygdala and the amygdalohippocampal complex appear more accurate than those of the hippocampal formation alone in distinguishing patients with Alzheimer disease. 46 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Disruption of Smad-dependent signaling for growth of GST-P-positive lesions from the early stage in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimura, Ryohei, E-mail: red0828@hotmail.co.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Mizukami, Sayaka, E-mail: non_sugar_life@hotmail.co.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takahashi, Miwa, E-mail: mtakahashi@nihs.go.j [Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Taniai, Eriko, E-mail: taniaie@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Kemmochi, Sayaka, E-mail: msayaka@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Mitsumori, Kunitoshi, E-mail: mitsumor@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-08-01

    To clarify the involvement of signaling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} during the hepatocarcinogenesis, the immunohistochemical distribution of related molecules was analyzed in relation with liver cell lesions expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) during liver tumor promotion by fenbendazole, phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, or thioacetamide, using rats. Our study focused on early-stage promotion (6 weeks after starting promotion) and late-stage promotion (57 weeks after starting promotion). With regard to Smad-dependent signaling, cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated Smad (phospho-Smad)-2/3 - identified as Smad3 by later immunoblot analysis - increased in the subpopulation of GST-P{sup +} foci, while Smad4, a nuclear transporter of Smad2/3, decreased during early-stage promotion. By late-stage promotion, GST-P{sup +} lesions lacking phospho-Smad2/3 had increased in accordance with lesion development from foci to carcinomas, while Smad4 largely disappeared in most proliferative lesions. With regard to Smad-independent mitogen-activated protein kinases, GST-P{sup +} foci that co-expressed phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase increased during early-stage promotion; however, p38-downstream phospho-activating transcriptional factor (ATF)-2, ATF3, and phospho-c-Myc, were inversely downregulated without relation to promotion. By late-stage promotion, proliferative lesions downregulated phospho-ATF2 and phospho-c-Myc along with lesion development, as with downregulation of phospho-p38 in all lesions. These results suggest that from the early stages, carcinogenic processes were facilitated by disruption of tumor suppressor functions of Smad-dependent signaling, while Smad-independent activation of p38 was an early-stage phenomenon. GST-P{sup -} foci induced by promotion with agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} did not change Smad expression, suggesting an aberration in the Smad-dependent signaling prerequisites for induction of GST-P{sup +} proliferative lesions.

  9. Kinetic study of model reactions in the gas phase at the early stage of coke formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nohara, D.; Sakai, T. (Dept. of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City Univ., Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467 (JP))

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the most probable gas-phase reactions at the early stage of coke formation were elucidated by kinetic study on the model reactions adopted for formation of cyclic compounds and growth of ring. It was revealed that the formation and growth of ring proceeded mainly through cycloaddition of butadiene or allyl radicals to unsaturated hydrocarbons at relatively low temperatures ({approximately}600{degrees}C), i.e., through a Diels-Alder type reaction. On the other hand, such growth of ring as formation of biphenyl accompanying dehydrogenation from benzene can proceed only at the higher temperatures. It was also revealed that in the growth of the ring, cycloaddition of butadiene favors a cyclic olefin molecule that possesses a nonconjugated double bond and a nearly planar structure.

  10. Measuring Physical Activity in Older Adults with and without Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Watts, Amber S; Vidoni, Eric D; Loskutova, Natalia; Johnson, David K; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    We compared subjective reports of physical activity with objective measures of physical fitness including cardiorespiratory capacity, body composition, and physical performance in 146 older adults with and without early stage Alzheimer's disease (ESAD). Respondents reported primarily unstructured and low-intensity activities, including walking and housework. Individuals with ESAD participated in fewer and lower intensity physical activities than those without ESAD. In those without ESAD, housework was related to lower body mass index, leisure walking was related to faster speed on a timed walking test, and participation in sports was related to higher peak oxygen intake. In individuals with ESAD, reported physical activities did not predict any of the physical fitness, body composition, or physical performance measures. We conclude that measures of physical activity require expansion of unstructured and low intensity activities to improve sensitivity in sedentary populations, especially in older adults with ESAD. PMID:24062599

  11. Understanding the early stages of growth of Ge on Si(001) from lattice based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Paramita; Nath, Pinku; Ranganathan, Madhav

    2015-09-01

    A modified lattice model is developed to study the growth of Ge on Si(001). In addition to the usual bond energies, surface reconstruction and elastic strain are explicitly taken into account in this study. We introduce an additional rebonding energy for formation of vacancies in the dimer chains. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of growth and annealing successfully reproduce several important features in the range of growth from a small fraction of a monolayer to about one monolayer thick. These include the formation of dimer chains, formation and alignment of vacancies in the dimer chains and the peak in the dimer chain length distribution. We carefully analyze separately the role of mismatch strain and surface reconstruction on this behavior. Through this work, we show a significantly simplified, but nevertheless quantitatively accurate model for the early stages of growth of Ge on Si(001).

  12. Influence of gas compression on flame acceleration in the early stage of burning in tubes

    E-print Network

    Valiev, Damir; Kuznetsov, Mikhail; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Law, Chung K; Bychkov, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of finger flame acceleration at the early stage of burning in tubes has been observed experimentally by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105: 225 (1996)] for slow propane-air flames, and elucidated analytically and computationally by Bychkov et al. [Combust. Flame 150: 263 (2007)] in the limit of an incompressible flow. We analytically, experimentally and computationally study herein the finger flame acceleration for fast burning flames, when the gas compressibility assumes an important role. Specifically, we have developed a theory through small Mach number expansion up to the first-order terms, demonstrating that gas compression reduces the acceleration rate and thereby moderates the finger flame acceleration noticeably. We have also conducted experiments for hydrogen-oxygen mixtures with considerable initial values of the Mach number, showing finger flame acceleration with the acceleration rate much smaller than those obtained previously for hydrocarbon flames. Furthermore, we have performed...

  13. Emission of spherical cesium-bearing particles from an early stage of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kouji; Kajino, Mizuo; Zaizen, Yuji; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident released radioactive materials into the environment over the entire Northern Hemisphere in March 2011, and the Japanese government is spending large amounts of money to clean up the contaminated residential areas and agricultural fields. However, we still do not know the exact physical and chemical properties of the radioactive materials. This study directly observed spherical Cs-bearing particles emitted during a relatively early stage (March 14–15) of the accident. In contrast to the Cs-bearing radioactive materials that are currently assumed, these particles are larger, contain Fe, Zn, and Cs, and are water insoluble. Our simulation indicates that the spherical Cs-bearing particles mainly fell onto the ground by dry deposition. The finding of the spherical Cs particles will be a key to understand the processes of the accident and to accurately evaluate the health impacts and the residence time in the environment. PMID:23989894

  14. Early life stage (ELS) toxicity of sucralose to fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, K I; Huggett, D B

    2014-10-01

    Sucralose, an intense artificial sweetener, has been detected in wastewater and surface waters at concentrations ranging from ng/L to low µg/L. Although over a hundred studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of sucralose for human consumption, few studies have focused on the chronic ecotoxicological effects of this compound in fish. As a remedy to this data gap, an early-life stage toxicity test was conducted to assess the effects of sucralose on hatching, survival, and growth of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Hatching, survival, and growth were unaffected by 98 mg/L of sucralose. The Lowest-Observed-Effect Concentration (LOEC) and the No-Observed-Effect Concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows determined by this study are >98 and 98 mg/L, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the concentrations of sucralose detected in the environment are well below those required to cause adverse effects to developing aquatic organisms. PMID:25120258

  15. The Utility of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing to Detect and Track Early-Stage Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Sundeep; Arena, Ross A.; Hansen, James E.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Myers, Jonathan N.; Sperling, Laurence S.; LaBudde, Brian D.; Wasserman, Karlman

    2010-01-01

    Evidence demonstrating the potential value of noninvasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to accurately detect exercise-induced myocardial ischemia is emerging. This case-based concept report describes CPET abnormalities in an asymptomatic at-risk man with suspected early-stage ischemic heart disease. When CPET was repeated 1 year after baseline assessment, his cardiovascular function had worsened, and an anti-atherosclerotic regimen was initiated. When the patient was retested after 3.3 years, the diminished left ventricular function had reversed with pharmacotherapy directed at decreasing cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Thus, in addition to identifying appropriate patients in need of escalating therapy for atherosclerosis, CPET was useful in monitoring progression and reversal of abnormalities of the coronary circulation in a safe and cost-effective manner without the use of radiation. Serial CPET parameters may be useful to track changes marking the progression and/or regression of the underlying global ischemic burden. PMID:20884826

  16. Collective interaction of QCD strings and early stages of high-multiplicity pA collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Shuryak, Edward

    2014-07-01

    We study the early stages of "central" pA and peripheral AA collisions. Several observables indicate that at a sufficiently large number of participant nucleons the system undergoes a transition into a new "explosive" regime. By defining a string-string interaction through the ? meson exchange and performing molecular dynamics simulation, we argue that one should expect a strong collective implosion of the multistring "spaghetti" state, creating significant compression of the system in the transverse plane. Another consequence is the collectivization of the "? clouds" of all strings into a chirally symmetric fireball. We find that these effects happen provided the number of strings Ns>30 or so, as only such a number can compensate a small ?-string coupling. These findings should help us to understand the subsequent explosive behavior observed for the particle multiplicities roughly corresponding to this number of strings.

  17. Perceived stigma in persons with early-stage dementia: Longitudinal findings: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Burgener, Sandy C; Buckwalter, Kathleen; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Liu, Megan F; Riley, Rebecca; Einhorn, Carol J; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne; Hahn-Swanson, Carolyn

    2013-12-01

    This longitudinal study examined perceived stigma in persons with dementia, with 50 persons with dementia, and 47 corresponding family caregivers. Data were collected at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months. Study results are reported in two parts, with findings regarding the stability of perceived stigma, measured using the modified Stigma Impact Scale, and relationship of stigma to person-centered variables being reported here. Findings included stability in perceived stigma, which did not show a downward trend until 18 months. Significant differences at baseline were found only for geographic location (rural vs. urban) with persons living in urban areas having higher levels of Stigma Impact Scale internalized shame compared to rural counterparts. Cognitive functioning was significantly, positively related to the Stigma Impact Scale social rejection and social isolation subscales. Findings support the enduring nature of perceived stigma over the early disease stages and the relationship of perceived stigma to some person-centered characteristics. PMID:24339122

  18. Identification and validation of new autoantibodies for the diagnosis of DCIS and node negative early-stage breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Jérôme; Mangé, Alain; Jarlier, Marta; Bascoul-Mollevi, Caroline; Rouanet, Philippe; Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Maudelonde, Thierry; Solassol, Jérôme

    2013-03-01

    Evidence of circulating autoantibodies in cancer patient sera has created opportunities for exploiting them as biomarkers. We report the identification and the clinical validation of an autoantibody panel in newly diagnosed patients with early-stage breast cancer. Proteomic approach and serological screening of a discovery set of sera (n = 80) were performed to identify tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Autoantibody levels were then measured in an independent validation set (n = 182) against a panel of five TAAs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sixty-seven antigens that elicited a specific humoral response in breast cancer were identified and five antigens (GAL3, PAK2, PHB2, RACK1 and RUVBL1) were selected for validation. GAL3 and RACK1 showed significantly increased reactivity in early-stage breast cancer. When combined, the five markers significantly discriminated early-stage cancer from healthy individuals (AUC = 0.81; 95% CI [0.74-0.86]). Interestingly, this value was high in both node-negative early-stage primary breast cancer (AUC = 0.81; 95% CI [0.72-0.88]) and ductal carcinoma in situ (AUC = 0.85; 95% CI [0.76-0.95]) populations. This autoantibody panel could be useful as a diagnostic tool in a screening strategy of early-stage invasive breast cancer and preinvasive breast cancer. It could be particularly appropriate in complement to mammography for women with high breast density. PMID:22886747

  19. Partial Breast Irradiation Versus Whole Breast Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Wittenberg, Eve [Institute for Technology Assessment, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Punglia, Rinaa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: rpunglia@lroc.harvard.edu

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To compare the quality-adjusted life expectancy between women treated with partial breast irradiation (PBI) vs. whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) for estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe health states in the 15 years after radiotherapy for estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. Breast cancer recurrences were separated into local recurrences and elsewhere failures. Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) risk was extracted from the Oxford overview, and rates and utilities were adapted from the literature. We studied two cohorts of women (aged 40 and 55 years), both of whom received adjuvant tamoxifen. Results: Assuming a no evidence of disease (NED)-PBI utility of 0.93, quality-adusted life expectancy after PBI (and WBRT) was 12.61 (12.57) and 12.10 (12.06) years for 40-year-old and 55-year-old women, respectively. The NED-PBI utility thresholds for preferring PBI over WBRT were 0.923 and 0.921 for 40-year-old and 55-year-old women, respectively, both slightly greater than the NED-WBRT utility. Outcomes were sensitive to the utility of NED-PBI, the PBI hazard ratio for local recurrence, the baseline IBTR risk, and the percentage of IBTRs that were local. Overall the degree of superiority of PBI over WBRT was greater for 55-year-old women than for 40-year-old women. Conclusions: For most utility values of the NED-PBI health state, PBI was the preferred treatment modality. This result was highly sensitive to patient preferences and was also dependent on patient age, PBI efficacy, IBTR risk, and the fraction of IBTRs that were local.

  20. Risk of Hospitalization According to Chemotherapy Regimen in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barcenas, Carlos H.; Niu, Jiangong; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Yufeng; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Elting, Linda S.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Giordano, Sharon H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the risk of hospitalization between patients with early-stage breast cancer who received different chemotherapy regimens. Patient and Methods We identified 3,567 patients older than age 65 years from the SEER/Texas Cancer Registry-Medicare database and 9,327 patients younger than age 65 years from the MarketScan database who were diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer between 2003 and 2007. The selection was nonrandomized and nonprospectively collected. We categorized patients according to the regimens they received: docetaxel (T) and cyclophosphamide (C), doxorubicin (A) and C, TAC, AC + T, dose-dense AC + paclitaxel (P) or AC + weekly P. We compared the rates of chemotherapy-related hospitalizations that occurred within 6 months of chemotherapy initiation and used multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify the factors associated with these hospitalizations. Results Among patients younger than age 65 years, the hospitalization rates ranged from 6.2% (dose-dense AC + P) to 10.0% (TAC), and those who received TAC and AC + T had significantly higher rates of hospitalization than did patients who received TC. Among patients older than age 65 years, these rates ranged from 12.7% (TC) to 24.2% (TAC) and the rates of hospitalization of patients who received TAC, AC + T, AC, or AC + weekly P were higher than those of patients who received TC. Conclusion TAC and AC + T were associated with the highest risk of hospitalization in patients younger than age 65 years. Among patients older than age 65 years, all regimens (aside from dose-dense AC + P) were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization than TC. Results may be affected by selection biases where less aggressive regimens are offered to frailer patients. PMID:24868022

  1. Regenerative Therapeutic Potential of Adipose Stromal Cells in Early Stage Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhar, Gangaraju; Ramadan, Ahmed; Abburi, Chandrika; Callaghan, Breedge; Traktuev, Dmitry O.; Evans-Molina, Carmella; Maturi, Raj; Harris, Alon; Kern, Timothy S.; March, Keith L.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults. Early stage DR involves inflammation, vascular leakage, apoptosis of vascular cells and neurodegeneration. In this study, we hypothesized that cells derived from the stromal fraction of adipose tissue (ASC) could therapeutically rescue early stage DR features. Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic athymic nude rats received single intravitreal injection of human ASC into one eye and saline into the other eye. Two months post onset of diabetes, administration of ASC significantly improved “b” wave amplitude (as measured by electroretinogram) within 1–3 weeks of injection compared to saline treated diabetic eyes. Subsequently, retinal histopathological evaluation revealed a significant decrease in vascular leakage and apoptotic cells around the retinal vessels in the diabetic eyes that received ASC compared to the eyes that received saline injection. In addition, molecular analyses have shown down-regulation in inflammatory gene expression in diabetic retina that received ASC compared to eyes that received saline. Interestingly, ASC were found to be localized near retinal vessels at higher densities than seen in age matched non-diabetic retina that received ASC. In vitro, ASC displayed sustained proliferation and decreased apoptosis under hyperglycemic stress. In addition, ASC in co-culture with retinal endothelial cells enhance endothelial survival and collaborate to form vascular networks. Taken together, our findings suggest that ASC are able to rescue the neural retina from hyperglycemia-induced degeneration, resulting in importantly improved visual function. Our pre-clinical studies support the translational development of adipose stem cell-based therapy for DR to address both retinal capillary and neurodegeneration. PMID:24416262

  2. Trust During the Early Stages of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    FREIMUTH, VICKI S.; MUSA, DON; HILYARD, KAREN; QUINN, SANDRA CROUSE; KIM, KEVIN

    2013-01-01

    Distrust of the government often stands in the way of cooperation with public health recommendations in a crisis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the public’s trust in government recommendations during the early stages of the H1N1 pandemic and identify factors that might account for these trust levels. We surveyed 1543 respondents about their experiences and attitudes related to H1N1 influenza between June 3, 2009 and July 6, 2009, during the first wave of the pandemic using the Knowledge Networks (KN) online panel. This panel is representative of the US population, and uses a combination of random-digit dial and address-based probability sampling frames covering 99% of the US household population to recruit participants. To ensure participation of low-income individuals and those without Internet access, KN provides hardware and access to the Internet if needed. Measures included standard demographics, a trust scale, trust ratings for individual spokespersons, involvement with H1N1, experience with H1N1, and past discrimination in health care. We found that trust of government was low (2.3 out of 4) and varied across demographic groups. Blacks and Hispanics reported higher trust in government than did Whites. Of the spokespersons included, personal health professionals received the highest trust ratings and religious leaders the lowest. Attitudinal and experience variables predicted trust better than demographic characteristics. Closely following the news about the flu virus, having some self-reported knowledge about H1N1, self-reporting of local cases and previously experiencing discrimination were the significant attitudinal and experience predictors of trust. Using a second longitudinal survey, trust in the early stages of the pandemic did predict vaccine acceptance later but only for white, non-Hispanic individuals. PMID:24117390

  3. Molecular Dynamics of Channelrhodopsin at the Early Stages of Channel Opening

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Jumpei; Kamiya, Motoshi; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Maturana, Andrés D.; Deisseroth, Karl; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Channelrhodopsin (ChR) is a light-gated cation channel that responds to blue light. Since ChR can be readily expressed in specific neurons to precisely control their activities by light, it has become a powerful tool in neuroscience. Although the recently solved crystal structure of a chimeric ChR, C1C2, provided the structural basis for ChR, our understanding of the molecular mechanism of ChR still remains limited. Here we performed electrophysiological analyses and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to investigate the importance of the intracellular and central constrictions of the ion conducting pore observed in the crystal structure of C1C2. Our electrophysiological analysis revealed that two glutamate residues, Glu122 and Glu129, in the intracellular and central constrictions, respectively, should be deprotonated in the photocycle. The simulation results suggested that the deprotonation of Glu129 in the central constriction leads to ion leakage in the ground state, and implied that the protonation of Glu129 is important for preventing ion leakage in the ground state. Moreover, we modeled the 13-cis retinal bound; i.e., activated C1C2, and performed MD simulations to investigate the conformational changes in the early stage of the photocycle. Our simulations suggested that retinal photoisomerization induces the conformational change toward channel opening, including the movements of TM6, TM7 and TM2. These insights into the dynamics of the ground states and the early photocycle stages enhance our understanding of the channel function of ChR. PMID:26114863

  4. Chronic effects of acetone on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) during early life-stage development

    SciTech Connect

    Mank, M.; Swigert, J. [Wildlife International Ltd., Easton, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A 28-day post-hatch early life-stage development toxicity test was conducted to determine the chronic effects of acetone on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). In this study, less than 24-hour old fathead minnow embryos were exposed to 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mL acetone/L and a negative control for a 4-day pre-hatch period and 28 days following hatch. During the pre-hatch period, no adverse effects on embryo survival or hatching success were observed in any of the treatment groups tested when compared to the negative control. From completion of matching to test termination, fathead minnows exposed to 4.0 mL acetone/L, experienced reduced survival, a statistically significant reduction in growth and impairment of critical behavioral functions when compared to the negative control group. Growth of fathead minnows exposed to 2.0 mL acetone/L also experienced a statistically significant effect upon growth when compared to the negative control, however, survival and behavior were not affected during the post-hatch period. Survival, growth, and behavior of fathead minnows exposed to 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 mL acetone/L from hatching to test termination was comparable to the control group. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows exposed to acetone during early life-stage development was 1.0 mL acetone/L, and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 2.0 mL acetone/L. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was calculated to be 1.4 mL acetone/L.

  5. Pair-wise comparison analysis of differential expression of mRNAs in early and advanced stage primary colorectal adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Tze Pheng; Roslani, April Camilla; Lian, Lay Hoong; Chai, Hwa Chia; Lee, Ping Chin; Hilmi, Ida; Goh, Khean Lee; Chua, Kek Heng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the mRNA expression patterns of early and advanced stage colorectal adenocarcinomas of Malaysian patients. Design Comparative expression analysis. Setting and participants We performed a combination of annealing control primer (ACP)-based PCR and reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR for the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with early and advanced stage primary colorectal tumours. We recruited four paired samples from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) of Dukes’ A and B for the preliminary differential expression study, and a total of 27 paired samples, ranging from CRC stages I to IV, for subsequent confirmatory test. The tumouric samples were obtained from the patients with CRC undergoing curative surgical resection without preoperative chemoradiotherapy. The recruited patients with CRC were newly diagnosed with CRC, and were not associated with any hereditary syndromes, previously diagnosed cancer or positive family history of CRC. The paired non-cancerous tissue specimens were excised from macroscopically normal colonic mucosa distally located from the colorectal tumours. Primary and secondary outcome measures The differential mRNA expression patterns of early and advanced stage colorectal adenocarcinomas compared with macroscopically normal colonic mucosa were characterised by ACP-based PCR and reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR. Results The RPL35, RPS23 and TIMP1 genes were found to be overexpressed in both early and advanced stage colorectal adenocarcinomas (p<0.05). However, the ARPC2 gene was significantly underexpressed in early colorectal adenocarcinomas, while the advanced stage primary colorectal tumours exhibited an additional overexpression of the C6orf173 gene (p<0.05). Conclusions We characterised two distinctive gene expression patterns to aid in the stratification of primary colorectal neoplasms among Malaysian patients with CRC. Further work can be done to assess and compare the mRNA expression levels of these identified DEGs between each CRC stage group, stages I–IV. PMID:25107436

  6. Robotic-Assisted Thoracic Surgery for Early-Stage Lung Cancer: A Review.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Paula

    2015-07-01

    This review evaluates the benefits and disadvantages associated with the use of robotic-assisted technology in performing lobectomies in patients with early-stage lung cancer. The author conducted a literature search of Ovid®, MEDLINE®, PubMed®, and CINAHL® for articles published from 2005 to 2013. Search criteria included key terms such as robot, robotic, robotic-assisted lobectomy, and lung cancer. Of 922 articles, the author included a total of 12 research-based published studies in the analysis and incorporated the findings into an evidence table. Results showed that robotic-assisted lobectomies are feasible safe procedures for patients with stage 1A or 1B lung cancer; however, there is a steep learning curve and long-term randomized studies evaluating robotic-assisted lobectomy and conventional posterolateral thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracic lobectomy are needed. For patient safety, perioperative nurses should be aware of the length of time and experience required to perform these procedures, the costs, techniques, benefits, and disadvantages. PMID:26119608

  7. Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in early-stage chronic kidney disease: cause or association?

    PubMed

    Moody, William E; Edwards, Nicola C; Madhani, Melanie; Chue, Colin D; Steeds, Richard P; Ferro, Charles J; Townend, Jonathan N

    2012-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD); a graded inverse relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and cardiovascular event rates has emerged from large-scale observational studies. Chronic kidney disease is also associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) although the precise relationship with GFR and the "threshold" at which ED begins are contentious. Abnormal endothelial function is certainly present in late-stage CKD but data in early-stage CKD appear confounded by disease states such as diabetes and hypertension which themselves promote ED. Thus, the direct effect of a reduction in GFR on endothelial function and, therefore, cardiovascular (CV) risk is far from completely established. In human studies, the precise duration of kidney impairment is seldom known and the onset of CVD often insidious, making it difficult to determine exactly when CVD first appears in the context of CKD. Kidney donors provide a near-ideal experimental model of CKD; subjects undergo an acute change from normal to modestly impaired renal function at the time of nephrectomy and lack the confounding co-morbidity that has made observational studies of CKD patients so challenging to interpret. By examining changes in endothelial function in living kidney donors before and after nephrectomy, useful insight might be gained into the pathophysiology of CVD in CKD and help determine whether targeting ED or the renal disease itself has the potential to reduce CV risk. PMID:22349087

  9. Stereotactic radiotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Badellino, Serena; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) represents a consolidated treatment option for patients with medically inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The clinical evidence accumulated in the past decade supports its use as an alternative to surgery with comparable survival outcomes. Due to its limited toxicity, SBRT is also applicable to elderly patients with very poor baseline pulmonary function or other severe comorbidities. Recent comparative studies in operable patients raised the issue of the possible use of SBRT also for this subgroup, with quite promising results that still should be fully confirmed by prospective trials with long-term follow-up. Aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the major studies conducted over the years on SBRT and to provide data on the efficacy and toxicity of this radiotherapy technique for stage I NSCLC. Technical aspects and quality of life related issues are also discussed, with the goal to provide information on the current role and limitations of SBRT in clinical practice.

  10. Laser plasma plume structure and dynamics in the ambient air: The early stage of expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Cirisan, M.; Jouvard, J. M.; Lavisse, L. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS - Universite de Bourgogne, 1 allee des Granges Forestier, F-71100 Chalon-Sur-Saone (France); Hallo, L. [CELIA, UMR 5107 - Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 cours de La Liberation, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Oltra, R. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS - Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    Laser ablation plasma plume expanding into the ambient atmosphere may be an efficient way to produce nanoparticles. From that reason it would be interesting to study the properties of these laser induced plasmas formed under conditions that are known to be favorable for nanoparticles production. In general, plume behavior can be described as a two-stage process: a 'violent' plume expansion due to the absorption of the laser beam energy (during the laser pulse) followed by a fast adiabatic expansion in the ambient gas (after the end of the laser pulse). Plasma plume may last a few microseconds and may have densities 10{sup -6} times lower than the solid densities at temperatures close to the ambient temperature. Expansion of the plasma plume induced by the impact of a nanosecond laser beam ({lambda} 1064 nm) on the surface of metallic samples in the open air has been investigated by means of fast photography. Spatio-temporal evolution of the plume at the early stage of its expansion (first 330 ns) has been recorded. Structure and dynamics of the plasma plume have been investigated and compared to numerical simulations obtained with a hydro-code, as well as some scaling laws. In addition, measurements using different sample materials (Al, Fe, and Ti) have been performed in order to analyze the influence of target material on plume expansion.

  11. Exercise maintains blood-brain barrier integrity during early stages of brain metastasis formation.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Gretchen; Davidson, Sarah J; Wrobel, Jagoda K; Toborek, Michal

    2015-08-01

    Tumor cell extravasation into the brain requires passage through the blood-brain barrier, which is a highly protected microvascular environment fortified with tight junction (TJ) proteins. TJ integrity can be regulated under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. There is evidence that exercise can modulate oxidation status within the brain microvasculature and protect against tumor cell extravasation and metastasis formation. In order to study these events, mature male mice were given access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel (exercise) or access to a locked wheel (sedentary) for five weeks. The average running distance was 9.0 ± 0.2 km/day. Highly metastatic tumor cells (murine Lewis lung carcinoma) were then infused into the brain microvasculature through the internal carotid artery. Analyses were performed at early stage (48 h) and late stage (3 weeks) post tumor cell infusion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed fewer isolated tumor cells extravasating into the brain at both 48 h and 3 weeks post surgery in exercised mice. Occludin protein levels were reduced in the sedentary tumor group, but maintained in the exercised tumor group at 48 h post tumor cell infusion. These results indicate that voluntary exercise may participate in modulating blood-brain barrier integrity thereby protecting the brain during metastatic progression. PMID:26056010

  12. Combined chemical and optical methods for monitoring the early decay stages of surrogate human models.

    PubMed

    Statheropoulos, M; Agapiou, A; Zorba, E; Mikedi, K; Karma, S; Pallis, G C; Eliopoulos, C; Spiliopoulou, C

    2011-07-15

    As the body decays shortly after death, a variety of gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) constantly emanate. Ethical and practical reasons limit the use of human corpses in controlled, time-dependent, intervening experiments for monitoring the chemistry of body decay. Therefore the utilization of pig carcasses serves as a potential surrogate to human models. The aim of this work was to study buried body decay in conditions of entrapment in collapsed buildings. Six domestic pigs were used to study carcass decay. They were enclosed in plastic body bags after being partially buried with rubbles, resembling entrapment in collapsed buildings. Three experimental cycles were performed, employing two pig carcasses in each cycle; VOCs and inorganic gases were measured daily, along with daily visible and thermal images. VOCs were collected in standard sorbent tubes and subsequently analyzed using a Thermal Desorption/Gas Chromatograph/high sensitivity bench-top Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TD/GC/TOF-MS). A comprehensive, stage by stage, detailed information on the decay process is being presented based on the experimental macroscopic observations, justifying thus the use of pig carcasses as surrogate material. A variety of VOCs were identified including almost all chemical classes: sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen compounds (aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, acids and esters), hydrocarbons, fluorides and chlorides. Carcasses obtained from a pig farm resulted in more sulfur and nitrogen cadaveric volatiles. Carbon dioxide was by far the most abundant inorganic gas identified along with carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. Visual monitoring was based on video captured images allowing for macroscopic observations, while thermal camera monitoring which is mostly temperature dependent, resulted in highlighting the local micro-changes on the carcasses, as a result of the intense microbial activity. The combination of chemical and optical methods proved very useful and informative, uncovering hidden aspects of the early stages of decay and also guiding in the development of combined chemical and imaging methods for the detection of dead bodies. PMID:21450424

  13. Childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia and perspectives on risk assessment of early-life stage exposures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Andrea S; Eastmond, David A; Preston, R Julian

    2006-01-01

    Recognition that children are a potentially susceptible subpopulation has led to the development of child-specific sensitivity factors. Establishing reliable sensitivity factors in support of risk assessment of early-life stage exposures can be aided by evaluating studies that enhance our understanding both of the biological basis of disease processes and the potential role of environmental exposures in disease etiology. For these reasons, we evaluated childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) studies from the point of view of mechanism and etiology. ALL is the most common form of childhood cancer proposed to result from a prenatal primary event and a postnatal second event. This multi-stage model is supported by the observation that chromosomal translocations/fusion genes (e.g., TEL-AML1) involved in producing ALL are detected at birth (prenatal event), and a postnatal event (e.g., TEL deletion) is required for disease manifestation. It appears that a proportion of ALL cases are the result of environmental exposures, in which case preconceptional, prenatal, and postnatal stages are likely to be critical exposure windows. To this end, we recognized postnatal infection-related risk factors as potential candidates associated with the ALL second event. Additionally, we discuss use of ALL-associated fusion genes and genetic polymorphisms, together or separately, as indicators of ALL susceptibility and increased risk. The possibility of using fusion genes alone as biomarkers of response is also discussed because they can serve as predictors of key events in the development of a mode of action (a sequence of key events, starting with interaction of an agent with a cell, ultimately resulting in cancer formation) for particular environmental exposures. Furthermore, we discuss use of an initiated animal model for ALL, namely transgenic mice with TEL-AML1 expression, for exploring mechanisms by which different classes of environmental exposures could be involved in inducing the postnatal step in ALL formation. PMID:17049456

  14. Different effects of ER? and TROP2 expression in Chinese patients with early-stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ji-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Pei-Rong; Ou, Qing-Jian; Zhang, Mei-Fang; Jiang, Wu; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2012-12-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ER?) and TROP2 expressed in colon carcinoma and might play an important role there. We explored the relationship of ER? and TROP2 expression with the prognosis of early-stage colon cancer. ER? and TROP2 levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal mucosa and tumoral tissues from 220 Chinese patients with T(3)N(0)M(0) (stage IIa) and T(4)N(0)M(0) (stage IIb) colon cancer in the Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, who underwent curative surgical resection between 1995 and 2003. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to analyze the overall survival (OS) data, and the ROC curve, Kaplan-Meier estimate, log rank test, and Jackknife method were used to show the effect of ER? and TROP2 expression at different stages of cancer. The 5-year survival rates were not significantly different between the patients with stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer (83 vs. 80 %, respectively). The high expression of ER? was related to decreasing OS in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, while the high expression of TROP2 was related to decreasing OS in stage IIb colon cancer. The expression of ER? and TROP2 has tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effect in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, respectively. PMID:23055188

  15. No Value for Routine Chest Radiography in the Work-Up of Early Stage Cervical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hoogendam, Jacob P.; Zweemer, Ronald P.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; de Jong, Pim A.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.; Verheijen, René H. M.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Evidence supporting the recommendation to include chest radiography in the work-up of all cervical cancer patients is limited. We investigated the diagnostic value of routine chest radiography in cervical cancer staging. Methods All consecutive cervical cancer patients who presented at our tertiary referral center in the Netherlands (January 2006 – September 2013), and for whom ?6 months follow-up was available, were included. As part of the staging procedure, patients underwent a routine two-directional digital chest radiograph. Findings were compared to a composite reference standard consisting of all imaging studies and histology obtained during the 6 months following radiography. Results Of the 402 women who presented with cervical cancer, 288 (71.6%) underwent chest radiography and had ?6 months follow-up. Early clinical stage (I/II) cervical cancer was present in 244/288 (84.7%) women, while 44 (15.3%) presented with advanced disease (stage III/IV). The chest radiograph of 1 woman – with advanced pre-radiograph stage (IVA) disease – showed findings consistent with pulmonary metastases. Radiographs of 7 other women – 4 early, 3 advanced stage disease – were suspicious for pulmonary metastases which was confirmed by additional imaging in only 1 woman (with pre-radiograph advanced stage (IIIB) disease) and excluded in 6 cases, including all women with early stage disease. In none of the 288 women were thoracic skeletal metastases identified on imaging or during 6 months follow up. Radiography was unremarkable in 76.4% of the study population, and showed findings unrelated to the cervical carcinoma in 21.2%. Conclusion Routine chest radiography was of no value for any of the early stage cervical cancer patients presenting at our tertiary center over a period of 7.7 years. PMID:26135733

  16. Effects of Mixture of Pharmaceuticals on Early Life Stages of Tench (Tinca tinca)

    PubMed Central

    Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60??g·L?1 for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60??g·L?1). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2??g·L?1) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench. PMID:24772417

  17. Hematopoietic cytokines as therapeutic players in early stages Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Kyle; Rudyk, Christopher; Prowse, Natalie A.; Hayley, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a devastating age related neurodegenerative disease that is believed to have a lengthy prodromal state. It is critical to find methods to harness compensatory recovery processes in order to slow or prevent the eventual progression of clinical symptoms. The current perspective paper argues that immune system signaling molecules represent such a promising therapeutic approach. Two cytokines of interest are granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and erythropoietin (EPO). These hematopoietic cytokines have been protective in models of stroke, neuronal injury, and more recently PD. It is our belief that these trophic cytokines can be used not only for cell protection but also regeneration. However, success is likely dependent on early intervention. This paper will outline our perspective on the development of novel trophic recovery treatments for PD. In particular, we present new data from our lab suggesting that EPO and GM-CSF can foster neural re-innervation in a “mild” or partial lesion PD model that could be envisioned as reflecting the early stages of the disease.

  18. A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (p<0.001), better memory functioning (p?=?0.01) and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p?=?0.018) than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r?=?0.54, p?=?0.005) and a lower social impact of fatigue (r?=??0.46, p?=?0.029) correlated with an increased number of working hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

  19. Effects of mixture of pharmaceuticals on early life stages of tench (Tinca tinca).

    PubMed

    Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 ?g · L(-1) for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 ?g · L(-1)). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 ?g · L(-1)) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench. PMID:24772417

  20. Visualization in an early stage of the problem-solving process in GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaser, Andreas D.; Sester, Monika; Egenhofer, Max J.

    2000-02-01

    Methods of user-computer interaction have remained largely unchanged since the introduction of graphical user interfaces and their popularization by the Apple Macintosh in the early 1980s. Most of today's applications rely on primitive modalities, such as typing and pointing for input generation, which works well for a host of common business applications, but falls short for more complex tasks. To improve the interaction between user and computer we propose a concept that allows people to visualize their ideas, problems, or instructions during the initial phase of an interaction with a computer by augmenting traditional interaction modalities with sketching, gesturing and talking. This approach leads to a more natural user-computer interaction and enhances a user's ability to find solutions to a problem. We suggest that computers become actively involved in the process of problem formulation and that they provide support and give advice where this is adequate. This leads to a process of incremental problem formulation where user and computer are able to better visualize the actual task and fewer misunderstandings occur. Geographic information systems (GIS) would benefit from improved user interaction techniques. GIS are inherently complex and an interaction is often tedious, mostly because such systems are based on sequential and nonspatial input methods that lack the capability of expressing spatial concepts appropriately. We advocate for a visualization in an early stage of the problem solving process in GIS and discuss its advantages and challenges. The paper gives application examples and discusses future research topics.

  1. Effects of silver nanocolloids on early life stages of the scleractinian coral Acropora japonica.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Ryota; Kataoka, Chisato; Kashiwada, Shosaku

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the effects of silver nanocolloids (SNCs) on the early life stages of the reef-building coral Acropora japonica were investigated. The tolerance of this species to SNC contamination was estimated by exposing gametes, larvae, and primary polyps to a range of SNC concentrations (0, 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 ?g l(-1)). Pure SNCs were immediately ionized to Ag(+) in seawater and concentrations of ?50 ?g l(-1) SNC had a significant detrimental effect on fertilization, larval metamorphosis, and primary polyp growth. Exposure to 50 ?g l(-1) SNC did not significantly affect larval survival; however, the larvae were deformed and lost their ability to metamorphose. At the highest concentration (500 ?g l(-1) SNC), all gametes, larvae, and primary polyps died. These experiments provide the first data on the effects of silver-nanomaterial-contaminated seawater on cnidarians, and suggest that silver nanomaterials can influence the early development of corals through anthropogenic wastewater inputs. PMID:25047545

  2. A Report On Eight Early-Stage State And Regional Projects Testing Value-Based Payment

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Douglas; Grembowski, David; Gibbons, Claire; Marcus-Smith, Miriam; Hernandez, Susan E.; Chang, Judy; Renz, Anne; Lau, Bernard; Cruz, Erin dela

    2014-01-01

    To help contain health care spending and improve the quality of care, practitioners and policy makers are trying to move away from fee-for-service toward value-based payment, which links providers’ reimbursement to the value, rather than the volume, of services delivered. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, eight grantees across the country are designing and implementing value-based payment reform projects. For example, in Salem, Oregon, the Physicians Choice Foundation is testing “Program Oriented Payments,” which include incentives for providers who follow a condition-specific program of care designed to meet goals set jointly by patient and provider. In this article we describe the funding rationale and the specific objectives, strategies, progress, and early stages of implementation of the eight projects. We also share some early lessons and identify prerequisites for success, such as ensuring that providers have broad and timely access to data so they can meet patients’ needs in cost-effective ways. PMID:23650332

  3. Probing Very Early Stage of Radio Source Evolution in NGC 1275 with VERA

    E-print Network

    Chida, H; Akiyama, K; Kino, M; Honma, M; Nishijima, K

    2015-01-01

    We report on VLBI observations of NGC 1275 with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) during 2008 and 2013 at 15, 22 and 43 GHz. Our observations provide long-term variations in the radio flux and structure of the inner jet in NGC 1275 on sub-parsec scales, particularly at C3 which is a new radio component accountable for the recent active state in radio regime since early-2000s. We found the apparent velocity of C3 was $\\beta_{\\rm{app}} = 0.267 \\pm 0.007 $, which was consistent with typical velocities of the hot spot and/or radio lobes in the young radio sources. Furthermore, the radio flux and size of C3 had simultaneously increased during September 2007 and May 2012 with keeping optically-thin spectra, suggesting that the particle acceleration occurred inside C3 as generally seen in the hot spots of the radio lobes. Our new observations suggest that C3 is a new-born hot spot and/or radio lobe at a very early stage of its evolution. Our results imply the radio lobes...

  4. Ultraviolet-B phototherapy for early-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, D L; Lish, K M; Yalowitz, C B; Soter, N A

    1992-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND DESIGN--Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a slowly advancing disease that initially presents in the skin and may later progress to involve the lymph nodes and viscera. Since CTCL most often presents on non-sunlight-exposed regions of the body, a possible protective role for UVB irradiation has been suggested. Recent observations have also found that UVB irradiation serves an immunoregulatory role. Given that limited data are available regarding the use of UVB phototherapy in treating CTCL, a retrospective nonrandomized study of 37 nonconsecutive patients with early CTCL was performed to assess the efficacy of UVB phototherapy in the treatment of CTCL. RESULTS--Twenty-five (71%) of the 35 patients treated with UVB phototherapy (two were unavailable for follow-up) achieved a total clinical remission. Median time to remission was 5 months, and median duration of the remission was 22 months. Twenty-five (83%) of 30 patients with disease limited to patches achieved remission, whereas none of the patients with plaque-level disease achieved a remission. Of the 25 patients who achieved complete remission, five (20%) had a recurrence of CTCL. CONCLUSIONS--Phototherapy with UVB appears to be effective in patients with early patch-stage CTCL. PMID:1626959

  5. Predictors and Outcomes of Limited Resection for Early-Stage Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ayanian, John Z.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Nerenz, David R.; Jaklitsch, Michael T.; Rogers, Selwyn O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lobectomy is considered the standard treatment for early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, more limited resections are commonly performed. We examined patient and surgeon factors associated with limited resection and compared postoperative and long-term outcomes between sublobar and lobar resections. Methods A population- and health system–based sample of patients newly diagnosed with stage I or II NSCLC between 2003 and 2005 in five geographically defined regions, five integrated health-care delivery systems, and 15 Veterans Affairs hospitals was observed for a median of 55 months, through May 31, 2010. Predictors of limited resection and postoperative outcomes were compared using unadjusted and propensity score–weighted analyses. All P values are from two-sided tests. Results One hundred fifty-five (23%) patients underwent limited resection and 524 (77%) underwent lobectomy. In adjusted analyses of patient-specific factors, smaller tumor size (P = .004), coverage by Medicare or Medicaid, no insurance or unknown insurance (P = .02), more severe lung disease (P < .001), and a history of stroke (P = .049) were associated with receipt of limited resection. In adjusted analyses of surgeon characteristics, thoracic surgery specialty (P = .02), non–fee-for-service compensation (P = .008), and National Cancer Institute cancer center designation (P = .006) were associated with higher odds of limited resection. Unadjusted 30-day mortality was higher with limited resection than with lobectomy (7.1% vs 1.9%, difference = 5.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5% to 10.8%, P = .003), and the adjusted difference was not statistically significant (6.5% vs 2.9%, difference = 3.6%, 95% CI = ?.1% to 9.2%, P = .09). Postoperative complications did not differ by type of surgery (all P > .05). Over the course of the study, a non-statistically significant trend toward improved long-term survival was evident for lobectomy, compared with limited resection, in adjusted analyses (hazard ratio of death = 1.35 for limited resection, 95% CI = 0.99 to 1.84, P = .05). Conclusions Evidence is statistically inconclusive but suggestive that lobectomy, compared with limited resection, is associated with increased long-term survival for early-stage lung cancer. Clinical, socioeconomic, and surgeon factors appear to be associated with the choice of surgical resection. PMID:21960708

  6. Public–private partnerships improve health outcomes in individuals with early stage Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, James E; Tolea, Magdalena I; George, Nika; Wingbermuehle, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In a collaborative effort between the Missouri Department of Health, Area Agencies on Aging (AAA), Alzheimer Association, and academic researchers, we tested whether early dementia detection and comprehensive care consultations would improve health outcomes in care receivers (CRs) and their family caregivers (FCGs), therefore addressing an important public health concern. Participants and methods A total of 244 community-dwelling older adults screened for early-stage dementia by the AAA field staff were referred to the Alzheimer Association and participated in Project Learn MORE (Missouri Outreach and Referral Expanded) (PLM) – a 2-year, nonrandomized multisite intervention consisting of comprehensive care consultations to improve coping skills. PLM participants were compared against 96 controls receiving the Alzheimer Association’s “usual services” between January 2011 and December 2012. We examined CR and FCG outcomes, including burden, care confidence, and mood, as effects of PLM, on delaying transitions in level of care. Results CRs showed improved knowledge (P=0.002) and reduced depression (P=0.007), while FCGs demonstrated improved knowledge (P=0.003) and ability to identify sources of support for the CR (P=0.032) and for themselves (P=0.043). However, FCGs were more burdened after PLM (P=0.02), due to increased awareness of Alzheimer’s disease. PLM delayed transitions in care (odds ratio [OR] 3.32, 95% confidence level [CI]: 1.25–8.83) with the number needed to treat =6.82. Conclusion PLM was successful in improving detection of incident cases of dementia in the community and in connecting patients and their families with needed services. Our findings support the use of state agencies and community service partners to detect dementia. Early implementation of psychosocial interventions could have significant impact in improving patient- and family-centered outcomes, potentially providing a cost-efficient alternative to pharmacotherapy. PMID:24748780

  7. Repression of Inflammasome by Francisella tularensis during Early Stages of Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Rachel J.; Rabadi, Seham M.; Westcott, Elizabeth L.; Bradley, Stephen; Catlett, Sally V.; Banik, Sukalyani; Harton, Jonathan A.; Bakshi, Chandra Shekhar; Malik, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is an important human pathogen responsible for causing tularemia. F. tularensis has long been developed as a biological weapon and is now classified as a category A agent by the Centers for Disease Control because of its possible use as a bioterror agent. F. tularensis represses inflammasome; a cytosolic multi-protein complex that activates caspase-1 to produce proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. However, the Francisella factors and the mechanisms through which F. tularensis mediates these suppressive effects remain relatively unknown. Utilizing a mutant of F. tularensis in FTL_0325 gene, this study investigated the mechanisms of inflammasome repression by F. tularensis. We demonstrate that muted IL-1? and IL-18 responses generated in macrophages infected with F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) or the virulent SchuS4 strain are due to a predominant suppressive effect on TLR2-dependent signal 1. Our results also demonstrate that FTL_0325 of F. tularensis impacts proIL-1? expression as early as 2 h post-infection and delays activation of AIM2 and NLRP3-inflammasomes in a TLR2-dependent fashion. An enhanced activation of caspase-1 and IL-1? observed in FTL_0325 mutant-infected macrophages at 24 h post-infection was independent of both AIM2 and NLRP3. Furthermore, F. tularensis LVS delayed pyroptotic cell death of the infected macrophages in an FTL_0325-dependent manner during the early stages of infection. In vivo studies in mice revealed that suppression of IL-1? by FTL_0325 early during infection facilitates the establishment of a fulminate infection by F. tularensis. Collectively, this study provides evidence that F. tularensis LVS represses inflammasome activation and that F. tularensis-encoded FTL_0325 mediates this effect. PMID:23821549

  8. Effects of Phosphate Binder Therapy on Vascular Stiffness in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Michael E.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Rothstein, Marcos; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Bierhals, Andrew J.; Cheng, Steven C.; Ross, Will; Windus, David; Dávila-Román, Víctor G.; Hruska, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and contributed to by the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The CKD-MBD begins in early CKD and its vascular manifestations begin with vascular stiffness proceeding to increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and vascular calcification (VC). Phosphorus is associated with this progression and is considered a CVD risk factor in CKD. We hypothesized that modifying phosphorus balance with lanthanum carbonate (LaCO3) in early CKD would not produce hypophosphatemia and may affect vascular manifestations of the CKD-MBD. Methods We randomized 38 subjects with normophosphatemic stage 3 CKD to a fixed dose of LaCO3 or matching placebo without adjusting dietary phosphorus in a 12-month randomized, double-blind, pilot and feasibility study. The primary outcome was the change in serum phosphorus. Secondary outcomes were changes in measures of phosphate homeostasis and vascular stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), cIMT and VC over 12 months. Results There were no statistically significant differences between LaCO3 and placebo with respect to the change in serum phosphorus, urinary phosphorus, tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, PWV, cIMT, or VC. Biomarkers of the early CKD-MBD such as plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and sclerostin were increased 2–3-fold at baseline but were not affected by LaCO3. Conclusion 12 months of LaCO3 had no effect on serum phosphorus and did not alter phosphate homeostasis, PWV, cIMT, VC, or biomarkers of the CKD-MBD. PMID:23941761

  9. Repression of inflammasome by Francisella tularensis during early stages of infection.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Rachel J; Rabadi, Seham M; Westcott, Elizabeth L; Bradley, Stephen; Catlett, Sally V; Banik, Sukalyani; Harton, Jonathan A; Bakshi, Chandra Shekhar; Malik, Meenakshi

    2013-08-16

    Francisella tularensis is an important human pathogen responsible for causing tularemia. F. tularensis has long been developed as a biological weapon and is now classified as a category A agent by the Centers for Disease Control because of its possible use as a bioterror agent. F. tularensis represses inflammasome; a cytosolic multi-protein complex that activates caspase-1 to produce proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. However, the Francisella factors and the mechanisms through which F. tularensis mediates these suppressive effects remain relatively unknown. Utilizing a mutant of F. tularensis in FTL_0325 gene, this study investigated the mechanisms of inflammasome repression by F. tularensis. We demonstrate that muted IL-1? and IL-18 responses generated in macrophages infected with F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) or the virulent SchuS4 strain are due to a predominant suppressive effect on TLR2-dependent signal 1. Our results also demonstrate that FTL_0325 of F. tularensis impacts proIL-1? expression as early as 2 h post-infection and delays activation of AIM2 and NLRP3-inflammasomes in a TLR2-dependent fashion. An enhanced activation of caspase-1 and IL-1? observed in FTL_0325 mutant-infected macrophages at 24 h post-infection was independent of both AIM2 and NLRP3. Furthermore, F. tularensis LVS delayed pyroptotic cell death of the infected macrophages in an FTL_0325-dependent manner during the early stages of infection. In vivo studies in mice revealed that suppression of IL-1? by FTL_0325 early during infection facilitates the establishment of a fulminate infection by F. tularensis. Collectively, this study provides evidence that F. tularensis LVS represses inflammasome activation and that F. tularensis-encoded FTL_0325 mediates this effect. PMID:23821549

  10. The Difference in Prognostic Factors between Early Recurrence and Late Recurrence in Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: Nodal Stage Differently Impacts Early and Late Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung Gwe; Lee, Hak Min; Cho, Sang-Hoon; Bae, Suk Jin; Lee, Seung Ah; Hwang, Seung Hyun; Jeong, Joon; Lee, Hy-De

    2013-01-01

    Background Probability of recurrence in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer remains constant for long periods. We compared tumor burden impact on late versus early recurrence in our cohort with long-term follow-up. Methods Five hundred and ninety five patients diagnosed with ER-positive breast cancer between 1989 and 2001 were classified into three groups: early recurrence within 5 years, late recurrence after 5 years, and no recurrence. We identified prognostic factors among the groups using logistic regression analysis. Results At median follow-up of 11.7 years, among 595 ER-positive women, 98 (16.4%) had early recurrence and 58 (9.7%) had late recurrence. On multivariate analysis, higher nodal stage (N0 vs. N2, odds ratio [OR] 3.189; N0 vs. N3, OR 9.948), higher histologic grade (grade 1 vs. grade 2, OR 3.896; grade 1 vs. grade 3, OR 5.945), age >35 years (OR 0.295), and receiving endocrine therapy (OR 0.293) affected early recurrence. Compared to no recurrence, receiving endocrine therapy (OR 0.285) was solely related to decreased risk of late recurrence. Increased risk of early recurrence was noted with the higher nodal stage when early and no recurrences were compared. This phenomenon was not found in late recurrence. In the last comparison between the early and late recurrence, higher nodal stage (N0 vs. N3, OR 16.779) and higher histologic grade (grade 1 vs. grade 3, OR 18.111) repeatedly weighted for early recurrence. Conclusions Nodal burden had an attenuated influence on late recurrence, which suggests that, unlike early recurrence, tumor biology might have a more important role than tumor load for late recurrence in ER-positive disease. PMID:23717438

  11. [Mitosis in early invasive malignant melanoma. How reliable is histogenetic classification at stage pT1?].

    PubMed

    Bösmüller, H; Haitchi-Petnehazy, S; Hintringer, T; Mentzel, T

    2012-03-01

    Since early February 2010 we have been implementing the latest version of the 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification in our institution. Since, according to the guidelines for stage pT1 melanomas, the number of mitoses/mm(2) is of particular significance, we have been able to observe a notable shift from pT1a to pT1b. Highlighting the mitotic count as one of the key features of the diagnosis of malignant melanoma, we observed that the major part of stage-switched melanomas belonged to a minimally invasive subset of melanomas previously categorized as pT1a UICC (7(th) edition). A level of reasonable doubt remains regarding the distinct histogenetic classification of mitosis as early stage melanoma with regard to their epithelial or melanocytic origin. PMID:21845361

  12. Refugees and Evacuees: Enhancing Historical Understanding through Irish Historical Fiction with Key Stage 2 and Early Key Stage 3 Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Paul; Gove-Humphries, Alison; Jackson, Darius

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the use of historical fiction as a means of undertaking a historical enquiry into the experiences of refugees and evacuees with Key Stage 2 and 3 pupils. The authors reflect on the reasons why people have come to Britain before focussing on specific circumstances associated with World War 2. This is undertaken through the use…

  13. A Vacuolar Processing Enzyme,  VPE, Is Involved in Seed Coat Formation at the Early Stage of Seed Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru Nakaune; Kenji Yamada; Maki Kondo; Tomohiko Kato; Satoshi Tabata; Mikio Nishimura; Ikuko Hara-Nishimura

    2005-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) is a Cys proteinase responsible for the maturation of vacuolar proteins. Arabidopsis thaliana dVPE, which was recently found in the database, was specifically and transiently expressed in two cell layers of the seed coat (ii2 and ii3) at an early stage of seed development. At this stage, cell death accompanying cell shrinkage occurs in the ii2

  14. Multivitamin use and breast cancer outcomes in women with early-stage breast cancer: the Life After Cancer Epidemiology study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn L. Kwan; Heather Greenlee; Valerie S. Lee; Adrienne Castillo; Erica P. Gunderson; Laurel A. Habel; Lawrence H. Kushi; Carol Sweeney; Emily K. Tam; Bette J. Caan

    Little is known about the relation of multivitamin use to breast cancer outcomes. 2,236 women diagnosed from 1997 to 2000\\u000a with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I ? 1 cm, II, or IIIA) were enrolled about 2 years post-diagnosis, primarily from the\\u000a Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry (83%). Multivitamin use pre-diagnosis and post-diagnosis was assessed\\u000a via mailed questionnaire. Outcomes were ascertained yearly by

  15. Oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomši?, Sanja; Stankovi?, Suzana; Lucu, ?edomil

    2011-09-01

    Changes in oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity during early development were studied in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam. The oxygen consumption rate increased from 0.12 ?mol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 in unfertilized eggs to 0.38 ?mol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 25 min after fertilization. Specific activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase was significantly stimulated after fertilization, ranging up to 1.07 ?mol Pi h-1 mg protein-1 in the late blastula stage and slightly lower values in the early and late pluteus stages.

  16. OLD-FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING INTENSIVE HERBIVORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of severe disturbance, which was heavy grazing by cattle, in an old-field grassland subject to invasi...

  17. Rethinking the Food and Drug Administration's 2013 guidance on developing drugs for early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Lon S

    2014-03-01

    The February 2013 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for developing drugs for early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) creates certain challenges as they guide toward the use of one cognitive outcome to gain accelerated marketing approval for preclinical AD drugs, and a composite clinical scale - the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale in particular - for the primary outcome for prodromal AD clinical trials. In light of the developing knowledge regarding early stage diagnoses and clinical trials outcomes, we recommend that FDA describe its requirements for validating preclinical AD diagnoses for drug development purposes, maintain the principle for requiring coprimary outcomes, and encourage the advancement of outcomes for early stage AD trials. The principles for drug development for early stage AD should not differ from those for clinical AD, especially as the diagnoses of prodromal and early AD impinge on each other. The FDA should not recommend that a composite scale be used as a sole primary efficacy outcome to support a marketing claim unless it requires that the cognitive and functional components of such a scale are demonstrated to be individually meaningful. The current draft guidelines may inadvertently constrain efforts to better assess the clinical effects of new drugs and inhibit innovation in an area where evidence-based clinical research practices are still evolving. PMID:24698029

  18. Investigating Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways for Early Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD Test Guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an on-going effort to develop efficient and cost-effec...

  19. Total Synthesis of Maoecrystal V: Early-Stage C–H Functionalization and Lactone Assembly by Radical Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ping; Gu, Zhenhua; Zakarian, Armen

    2014-01-01

    A total synthesis of the unusual ent-kaurane maoecrystal V is described. The synthesis strategy features a counterintuitive early disconnection of the lactone subunit to a polycyclic enol ether intermediate in order to preserve the central tetrahydrofuran ring until the beginning stages of the synthesis. This strategy enables an application of C–H functionalization at the early phase of the synthesis during the construction of a dihydrobenzo-furan intermediate. PMID:24047444

  20. Tough Adults, Frail Babies: An Analysis of Stress Sensitivity across Early Life-History Stages of Widely Introduced Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, M. Carmen; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna; Ordóñez, Víctor; Rius, Marc

    2012-01-01

    All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C), low salinities (26 and 22‰) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be responsible for ensuring population survival. PMID:23077518

  1. Metabolism of metamizol in early stages of the incubated hen's egg.

    PubMed

    Kiep, L; Maderner, S; Seifert, K

    2002-12-01

    In a previous paper we introduced a model for studying the metabolism of xenobiotics in the incubated hen's egg. This model is characterized by application of the xenobiotic into the yolk sac and identification of metabolites in the allantoic fluid (AF). Depending on the stage of development, the incubated hen's egg can be used both conservatively--in the sense of an animal experiment--and alternatively as a complementary method (appr. first half of incubation period). In the present investigation we used the sodium salt of [(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)-N-methylamino] methanesulfonic acid (1; metamizol, dipyrone) as model substance. Concentrations of 1 up to 32 mg/egg did not affect the viability of the incubated eggs. After inoculation of 1 (10 mg/egg) on the sixth day of incubation (DI) eight compounds were identified in the AF on DI 11 (TLC, GC, GC-MS, synthesis, MS, 13C NMR): 4-methylamino-(2), 4-amino-(3), 4-hydroxy-(4), 4-acetylamino-(5), 4-N-acetyl-N-methylamino-(6), 4-N-hydroxyacetyl-N-methylamino-(7), 4-N-hydroxyoxalyl-N-methylamino-(8) and 4-N-formyl-N-methylamino-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrazol- 3-one (-antipyrine; 9), respectively. Main metabolites are 2 and 5; 4 and 7 occur as sulfate or glucuronide conjugates. Compound 7 is also eliminated in it's free form. To our knowledge 7 has been detected as a new metabolite of 1 for the first time. The metabolic route of 7 was elucidated after application of 6. Compounds 8 and 9 are artefacts of 7. The data presented here demonstrate the usefulness of the developed model also in early stages of the incubated hen's egg. Consequently, the model is suitable as a complementary method for xenobiotic metabolism. PMID:12561246

  2. Surgical Management for Early-Stage Bilateral Breast Cancer Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jing-yan; Quan, Chen-lian; Tan, Yu-long; Liu, Guang-yu; Shao, Zhi-min; Wu, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the current surgical management strategy for bilateral breast cancer (BBC) patients and to assess the changes in this strategy in China. Methods This is a retrospective review of all patients with early-stage BBC who underwent surgical treatment at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center between June 2007 and June 2014. Results A total of 15,337 patients with primary breast cancer were identified. Of these patients, 218 (1.5%) suffered from synchronous bilateral breast cancer (sBBC), and 296 (2.0%) suffered from metachronous bilateral breast cancer (mBBC). Patients with a lobular carcinoma component, those with estrogen receptor-positive cancer, and those with an accompanying sclerosing adenosis in the affected breast tended to develop BBC. The rates of bilateral mastectomy, breast conserving therapy, reconstruction, and combined surgeries were 86.2%, 6.4%, 3.7%, and 3.7%, respectively, for patients with sBBC and 81.1%, 4.4%, 3.0%, and 11.5%, respectively, for patients with mBBC. The interval between bilateral cancers, age at first diagnosis of breast cancer, histopathological type, and stage have significant impacts on the choice of surgery for patients with BBC. Conclusions Bilateral mastectomy was the dominant surgical management for patients with BBC in China, despite the increased application of breast reconstruction surgery observed in recent years. Bilateral prosthetic breast reconstruction was the ideal choice for patients with sBBC. Chinese surgeons should take responsibility for patient education and inform their patients about their surgical options. PMID:25874699

  3. Comparative toxicity of inorganic contaminants released by placer mining to early life stages of salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, K.J.; Hamilton, S.J. (National Fisheries Contaminant Research Center, Yankton, SD (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The acute toxicities of four trace inorganics associated with placer mining were determined, individually and in environmentally relevant mixtures, to early life stages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Alaska and Montana, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from Alaska and Washington, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Montana. The descending rank order of toxicity to all species and life stages was copper greater than zinc greater than lead greater than arsenic. For each of the three species, sensitivity to the inorganics was greater in juveniles than in alevins or in swim-up fry. Arctic grayling from Alaska were more sensitive than the other species tested, including Arctic grayling from Montana. For Arctic grayling, sensitivity to all four inorganics was significantly greater in swim-up fry from Alaska than in alevins from Montana, and sensitivity to arsenic and copper was significantly greater in juveniles from Alaska than in juveniles from Montana. In tests with environmentally relevant mixtures (based on ratios of concentrations measured in streams with placer mining) of these four inorganics, copper was identified as the major toxic component because it accounted for greater than or equal to 97% of the summed toxic units of the mixture, and an equitoxic mixture of these inorganics showed less-than-additive toxicity. Total and total recoverable copper concentrations reported in five Alaskan streams with active placer mines were higher than the acutely toxic concentrations that the authors found to be acutely toxic to Arctic grayling and coho salmon from Alaska. However, caution should be used when comparing our results obtained in 'clear' water to field situations, because speciation and toxicity of these inorganics may be altered in the presence of sediments suspended by placer mining activities.

  4. Comparative toxicity of inorganic contaminants released by placer mining to early life stages of salmonids.

    PubMed

    Buhl, K J; Hamilton, S J

    1990-12-01

    The acute toxicities of four trace inorganics associated with placer mining were determined, individually and in environmentally relevant mixtures, to early life stages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Alaska and Montana, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from Alaska and Washington, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Montana. The descending rank order of toxicity to all species and life stages was copper greater than zinc greater than lead greater than arsenic. For each of the three species, sensitivity to the inorganics was greater in juveniles than in alevins or in swim-up fry. Arctic grayling from Alaska were more sensitive than the other species tested, including Arctic grayling from Montana. For Arctic grayling, sensitivity to all four inorganics was significantly greater in swim-up fry from Alaska than in alevins from Montana, and sensitivity to arsenic and copper was significantly greater in juveniles from Alaska than in juveniles from Montana. In tests with environmentally relevant mixtures (based on ratios of concentrations measured in streams with placer mining) of these four inorganics, copper was identified as the major toxic component because it accounted for greater than or equal to 97% of the summed toxic units of the mixture, and an equitoxic mixture of these inorganics showed less-than-additive toxicity. Total and total recoverable copper concentrations reported in five Alaskan streams with active placer mines were higher than the acutely toxic concentrations, either individually or in mixtures, that the authors found to be acutely toxic to Arctic grayling and coho salmon from Alaska. However, caution should be used when comparing our results obtained in "clear" water to field situations, because speciation and toxicity of these inorganics may be altered in the presence of sediments suspended by placer mining activities. PMID:2090446

  5. A simple method to evaluate reactivity of acylglucuronides optimized for early stage drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Norimasa; Ohashi, Shigeki; Tagashira, Mizuka; Kohira, Terutomo; Yamada, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    Drugs containing the carboxylic functional group can be metabolized to form acylglucuronides believed to cause idiosyncratic drug toxicity when the acylglucuronide is unstable. Recent studies have shown that the half-life of an acylglucuronide in phosphate buffer is the best means for classifying acylglucuronides into safe, warning, and withdrawn drugs. However, it is difficult to halt the late stage development of new chemical entities due to the instability of their acylglucuronides. We report an optimized in vitro method for determining the half-lives of acylglucuronides in simple phosphate buffer without the need for authentic standards. The experiment was divided into two incubations. In the first incubation, acylglucuronide was synthesized by human liver microsomes, and in the second incubation, the degradation rate of acylglucuronide in phosphate buffer was determined. The degradation rate constants of acylglucuronides were determined from changes in the LC-MS/MS peak area and the half-lives were calculated. We evaluated the half-lives of 10 drugs: 3 safe drugs (telmisartan, gemfibrozil and flufenamic acid) and 7 withdrawn or warning drugs (zomepirac, diclofenac, furosemide, ibuprofen, S-naproxen, probenecid and tolmetin). The half-lives of the 3 safe drugs were 10.6 h or longer, whereas the half-lives of the 7 withdrawn or warning drugs were 4.0 h or shorter. Although authentic acylglucuronide standards were not used, we obtained half-lives of acylglucuronides in phosphate buffer similar to those reported previously. Using this method, the risk of reactivity caused by acylglucuronides can be evaluated in the early stages of drug discovery. PMID:23832447

  6. Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of the Montpellier Phase II Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Lemanski, Claire [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Azria, David, E-mail: azria@valdorel.fnclcc.f [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); INSERM, U896, IRCM, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Gourgon-Bourgade, Sophie [Biostatistics Unit, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Gutowski, Marian; Rouanet, Phillippe; Saint-Aubert, Bernard [Department of Surgical and Reconstructive Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Ailleres, Norbert; Fenoglietto, Pascal [Radiophysics Unit, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); Dubois, Jean-Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France); INSERM, U896, IRCM, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France)

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: We recently presented the intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) technique given as a reliable alternative to conventional boost radiation after breast-conserving surgery. The low crude numbers of recurrence in elderly patients led us to investigate the feasibility and the efficacy of this procedure as a sole treatment. Methods and Materials: We included 94 patients older than 65 years in this phase II trial. Among them, 42 patients presented with all the inclusion criteria, i.e., stages pT0 to pT1 and pN0, ductal invasive unifocal carcinoma, and tumor-free margin of >2 mm. IORT was delivered using a dedicated linear accelerator. One 21-Gy fraction was prescribed and specified at the 90% isodose, using electrons. In vivo dosimetry was performed for all patients. The primary endpoint was the quality index. Secondary endpoints were quality of life, local recurrences, cosmetic results, and specific and overall rates of survival. Results: The median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-49 months), and median age was 72 years (range, 66-80 years). The median tumor diameter was 10 mm. All patients received the total prescribed dose. No acute grade 3 toxicities were observed. Endpoints for all but one patient corresponded to acceptable quality index criteria. Pretreatment quality-of-life scores were maximal, and no significant decrease was observed during follow-up. Cosmesis was good to excellent at 6 months. Two patients experienced recurrence but underwent salvage mastectomy. Conclusion: Our results confirm that exclusive partial-breast IORT is feasible for treating early-stage breast cancer in the elderly. IORT may be considered an alternative treatment for a selected population and offers a safe one-step treatment.

  7. Validation of the Accuracy of Intraoperative Lymphatic Mapping and Sentinel Lymphadenectomy for Early-Stage Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Donald L.; Thompson, John F.; Essner, Richard; Elashoff, Robert; Stern, Stacey L.; Nieweg, Omgo E.; Roses, Daniel F.; Karakousis, Constantine P.; Mozzillo, Nicola; Reintgen, Douglas; Wang, He-jing; Edwin, MPH; Glass, C.; Cochran, Alistair J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the multicenter application of intraoperative lymphatic mapping, sentinel lymphadenectomy, and selective complete lymph node dissection (LM/SL/SCLND) for the management of early-stage melanoma. Summary Background Data The multidisciplinary technique of LM/SL/SCLND has been widely adopted, but not validated in a multicenter trial. The authors began the international Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (MSLT) 5 years ago to evaluate the survival of patients with early-stage primary melanoma after wide excision alone versus wide excision plus LM/SL/SCLND. This study examined the accuracy of LM/SL/SCLND in the MSLT, using the experience of the organizing center (John Wayne Cancer Institute [JWCI]) as a standard for comparison. Methods Before entering patients into the randomization phase, each center in the MSLT was required to finish a 30-case learning phase with complete nuclear medicine, pathology, and surgical review. Selection of MSLT patients in the LM/SL/SCLND treatment arm was based on complete pathologic and surgical data. The comparison group of JWCI patients was selected using these criteria: primary cutaneous melanoma having a thickness ?1 mm with a Clark level ?III, or a thickness <1 mm with a Clark level ?IV (MSLT criterion); LM/SL performed between June 1, 1985, and December 30, 1998; and patient not entered in the MSLT. The accuracy of LM/SL/SCLND was determined by comparing the rates of sentinel node (SN) identification and the incidence of SN metastases in the MSLT and JWCI groups. Results There were 551 patients in the MSLT group and 584 patients in the JWCI group. In both groups, LM performed with blue dye plus a radiocolloid was more successful (99.1%) than LM performed with blue dye alone (95.2%) (p = 0.014). After a center had completed the 30-case learning phase, the success of SN identification in the MSLT group was independent of the center’s case volume or experience in the MSLT. Conclusions Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy can be successfully learned and applied in a standardized fashion with high accuracy by centers worldwide. Successful SN identification rates of 97% can be achieved, and the incidence of nodal metastases approaches that of the organizing center. A multidisciplinary approach (surgery, nuclear medicine, and pathology) and a learning phase of ?30 consecutive cases per center are sufficient for mastery of LM/SL in cutaneous melanoma. Lymphatic mapping performed using blue dye plus radiocolloid is superior to LM using blue dye alone. PMID:10522715

  8. Functional role of endothelial adhesion molecules in the early stages of brain metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Manuel Sarmiento; Serres, Sébastien; Anthony, Daniel C.; Sibson, Nicola R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs), which are normally associated with leukocyte trafficking, have also been shown to play an essential role in tumor metastasis to non-CNS sites. However, the role played by CAMs in brain metastasis is largely unexplored. It is known that leukocyte recruitment to the brain is very atypical and that mechanisms of disease in peripheral tissues cannot be extrapolated to the brain. Here, we have established the spatiotemporal expression of 12 key CAMs in the initial phases of tumor seeding in 2 different models of brain metastasis. Methods BALB/c or SCID mice were injected intracardially (105 cells/100 ?L phosphate-buffered saline with either 4T1-GFP or MDA231BR-GFP cells, respectively (n = 4–6/group), and expression of the CAMs was determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence colocalisation. Results Endothelial expression of E-selectin, VCAM-1, ALCAM, ICAM-1, VLA-4, and ?4 integrin was markedly increased early in tumor seeding. At the same time, the natural ligands to these adhesion molecules were highly expressed on the metastatic tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Two of these ligands showed particularly high tumor cell expression (ALCAM and VLA-4), and consequently their functional role in tumor seeding was determined. Antibody neutralization of either ALCAM or VLA-4 significantly reduced tumor seeding within the brain (>60% decrease in tumor number/mm2 brain; P < .05–0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that ALCAM/ALCAM and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions play an important functional role in the early stages of metastasis seeding in the brain. Moreover, this work identifies a specific subset of ligand-receptor interactions that may yield new therapeutic and diagnostic targets for brain metastasis. PMID:24311639

  9. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-24

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  10. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-08

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  11. Sensitivity of the early life stages of macroalgae from the Northern Hemisphere to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Roleda, Michael Y; Wiencke, Christian; Hanelt, Dieter; Bischof, Kai

    2007-01-01

    The reproductive cells of macroalgae are regarded as the life history stages most susceptible to various environmental stresses, including UV radiation (UVR). UVR is proposed to determine the upper depth distribution limit of macroalgae on the shore. These hypotheses were tested by UV-exposure experiments, using spores and young thalli of the eulittoral Rhodophyceae Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus and various sublittoral brown macroalgae (Phaeophyceae) with different depth distribution from Helgoland (German Bight) and Spitsbergen (Arctic). In spores, the degree of UV-induced inhibition of photosynthesis is lower in eulittoral species and higher in sublittoral species. After UV stress, recovery of photosynthetic capacity is faster in eulittoral compared to sublittoral species. DNA damage is lowest while repair of DNA damage is highest in eulittoral compared to sublittoral species. When the negative impact of UVR prevails, spore germination is inhibited. This is observed in deep water kelp species whereas the same UVR doses do not inhibit germination of shallow water kelp species. A potential acclimation mechanism to increase UV tolerance of brown algal spores is the species-specific ability to increase the content of UV-absorbing phlorotannins in response to UV-exposure. Growth rates of young Mastocarpus and Chondrus gametophytes exposed to experimental doses of UVR are not affected while growth rates of all young kelp sporophytes exposed to UVR are significantly lowered. Furthermore, morphological UV damage in Laminaria ochroleuca includes tissue deformation, lesion, blistering and thickening of the meristematic part of the lamina. The sensitivity of young sporophytes to DNA damage is correlated with thallus thickness and their optical characteristics. Growth rate is an integrative parameter of all physiological processes in juvenile plants. UV inhibition of growth may affect the upper distribution depth limit of adult life history stages. Juveniles possess several mechanisms to minimize UVR damage and, hence, are less sensitive but at the expense of growth. The species-specific susceptibility of the early life stages of macroalgae to UVR plays an important role for the determination of zonation patterns and probably also for shaping up community structure. PMID:17645656

  12. NEW EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST USING THE CALIFORNIA GRUNION (LEURESTHES TENUIS) AND RESULTS WITH CHLORPYRIFOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    California grunion were continuously exposed as embryos and fry to technical chlorpyrifos in two toxicity tests conducted in the same exposure apparatus. The first test, a 35-day early life-stage (ELS) test, began with approximately 2.5-day-old embryos that were exposed in flow-t...

  13. Continuous Exposure to Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) During Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) were exposed continuously to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) at 0, 10, 1,000, or 10,000 pfu/L of water to estimate the effects of chronic IPNV exposure on early life stages. Fish density averaged 35 fish/L (low) or 140 fish/L (high), and wate...

  14. Initial investigation of a hypothesized link between thyroid peroxidase inhibition and fish early-life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  15. Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

  16. Induction and accumulation of PR proteins activityduring early stages of root colonizationby the mycoparasite Trichoderma harzianum strain T-203

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Yedidia; Nicole Benhamou; Yoram Kapulnik; Ilan Chet

    2000-01-01

    The biochemical nature of the interaction between the antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum strain T-203 and cucumber roots was studied during the early stages of root colonization by the fungus. Pathogenesis related (PR) proteins of the plant and enzyme activity of the fungus following the penetration and colonization of the roots by T. harzianum were explored up to 72 h post-inoculation. Scanning

  17. Perceived interference from pain, distress, and expectations of disease recurrence following surgery for early stage breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameet Mahendra Kumar

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between a number of psychosocial variables in a sample of early stage breast cancer patients following surgery. The first hypothesis predicted that pre-operative partner support would buffer against pre-operative anxiety in predicting interference in activities due to pain three months after surgery. No significant relationship was found between anxiety or partner support around the

  18. Relative sensitivity of early life stages of Arctic grayling, Coho salmon, and rainbow trout to nine inorganics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Buhl; S. J. Hamilton

    1991-01-01

    The acute toxicity of nine inorganics associated with placer mining sediments to early life stages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) was determined in soft water (hardness, 41 mg liter-1 CaCO3) at 12 degrees C. The relative toxicities of the inorganics varied by four orders of magnitude; from most toxic to least

  19. Scanning electron microscopic study on the development of primitive blood vessels in chick embryos at the early somite-stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reiji Hirakow; Tamiko Hiruma

    1981-01-01

    Primary vasculogenesis in chick embryos at the early somite stage 11–14 somites) was investigated mainly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with special reference to the development of primitive blood vessels such as the arteria et vena vitellina (AV, VV), aorta dorsalis (AD) and vena cardinalis (VC). After glutaraldehyde fixation, the endoderm or ectoderm was removed from the embryos to expose

  20. Detection and prevalence of disseminated tumor cells from the bone marrow of early stage male breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hartkopf, Andreas D; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Walter, Christina B; Hahn, Markus; Fehm, Tanja; Wallwiener, Markus; Brucker, Sara Y

    2015-07-01

    Male breast cancer (mBC) is a rare entity. As detection of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow of females with early stage breast cancer is a promising prognostic marker, we aimed to determine the prevalence and prognostic value of DTCs in mBC. Bone marrow aspirates were collected from male patients undergoing primary surgery for early stage breast cancer (T1-4, N0-2, M0) at Tuebingen University, Germany, between January 2001 and April 2015. DTCs were identified by immunocytochemistry (pancytokeratin antibody A45/B-B3) and cytomorphology. 24 patients with mBC were included into the analysis. DTCs were detected in four of these (17 %). There was no significant association between the DTC status and any other clinicopathological parameter. Also, no significant impact of the DTC status on DFS or OS could be observed. DTCs are detectable in patients with early stage mBC. The detection rate is comparable to that in women. No associations between DTCs and clinicopathological features or prognosis were observed, which is most likely due to the small sample size. The detection of DTCs in male patients with early stage breast cancer emphasizes the transmission of future clinical applications for DTCs from women to men. PMID:26012646

  1. Amino acid composition of early stages of cephalopods and effect of amino acid dietary treatments on Octopus vulgaris paralarvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Villanueva; J. Riba; C. Ru??z-Capillas; A. V. González; M. Baeta

    2004-01-01

    During the present study, we aimed to provide a first look at the amino acid composition of the early stages of cephalopods and follow possible effects of certain dietary treatments. Amino acid profiles of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, squid Loligo vulgaris and octopus, Octopus vulgaris hatchlings and wild juveniles of L. vulgaris and O. vulgaris were analysed. Cephalopod hatchlings showed high

  2. Continuous exposure to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus during early life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss(Walbaum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) were exposed continuously to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) at 0, 10, 1,000, or 100,000 pfu/L of water to estimate the effects of chronic IPNV exposure on early life stages. Fish density averaged 35 fish/L or 140 fish/L, with a tank flow rat...

  3. Ecological Patterns of Early Life Stages of Fishes in a Large River-Floodplain of the San Francisco Estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TED R. SOMMER; WILLIAM C. HARRELL; RYON KURTH; FREDERICK FEYRER; STEVEN C. ZEUG

    2004-01-01

    We examined assemblage patterns of early life stages of fishes for two major tributaries of the upper San Francisco Estuary: (1) Sacramento River channel, and (2) Yolo Bypass, the river's seasonal floodplain. Over four hydrologically diverse years (1999-2002), we collected 15 species in Yolo Bypass egg and larval samples, 18 species in Yolo Bypass rotary screw trap samples, and 10

  4. 2 Understanding and quantifying mortality in pelagic, early life stages of marine 3 organisms --Old challenges and new perspectives

    E-print Network

    North, Elizabeth W.

    U N C O R R E C T E D P R O O F 1 Preface 2 Understanding and quantifying mortality in pelagic that variable mortality is the most impor- 6 tant factor controlling the population dynamics of marine organ- 7 of understanding and quantifying mortality in pelagic, early life 11 stages of marine organisms has been the focus

  5. Scanning Electron Micrograph of an Early Floral Developmental Stage of the Outcrossing Subspecies of Clarkia xantania (Onagraceae)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    C. J. Runions (Cornell University; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology ADR; POSTAL)

    2004-03-09

    Scanning electron micrograph of an early floral developmental stage of the outcrossing subspecies of Clarkia xantania (Onagraceae). Sepals, which are covered by trichomes, have been partially removed and floral organs have been falsely colored: style and stigma, yellow; large anthers, blue; small anthers, purple; petals, red.

  6. A FATHEAD MINNOW 'PIMEPHALES PROMELAS' EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY TEST METHOD EVALUATION AND EXPOSURE TO FOUR ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 32-day test was developed at the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth for conducting early life stage (ELS) toxicity tests with fathead minnows Pimephales promelas. These test procedures were evaluated by using the prescribed methods to establish estimated maximum acceptabl...

  7. An accumulation of tandem DNA repeats on the Y chromosome in Silene latifolia during early stages of sex chromosome evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Hobza; Martina Lengerova; Julia Svoboda; Hana Kubekova; Eduard Kejnovsky; Boris Vyskot

    2006-01-01

    Sex chromosomes in mammals are about 300 million years old and typically have a highly degenerated Y chromosome. The sex chromosomes in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia in contrast, represent an early stage of evolution in which functional X–Y gene pairs are still frequent. In this study, we characterize a novel tandem repeat called TRAYC, which has accumulated on the

  8. IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 23, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2005 2003 Detecting Internet Worms at Early Stage

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shigang

    Internet Worms at Early Stage Shigang Chen and Sanjay Ranka, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Managing the security threat, worms repetitively caused enor- mous damage to the Internet community during the past years. A new security service that monitors the ongoing worm activities on the Internet will greatly contribute

  9. Correlative control of early stages of flower bud initiation in 'bourse' shoots of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh. cv.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Correlative control of early stages of flower bud initiation in 'bourse' shoots of apple (Malus x leaves whose axillary buds differen- tiate and may grow out as shoots. The bourse shoot can flower again- tive growth. Our objectives were to determine what treatments could cause 90-100% of bourse buds

  10. Obesity, Tamoxifen Use, and Outcomes in Women With Estrogen Receptor-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Dignam; Kelly Wieand; Karen A. Johnson; Bernard Fisher; Lei Xu; Eleftherios P. Mamounas

    Background: Obesity is associated with both increased breast cancer risk and poorer prognosis after disease onset. However, little is known about the effect of obesity on treat- ment efficacy. We evaluated the association of obesity with outcomes and with tamoxifen efficacy in women with early- stage, hormone-responsive breast cancer participating in a multicenter cancer cooperative group clinical trial. Methods: The

  11. Early or advanced stage type 2 diabetes is not accompanied by in vivo skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HMML De Feyter; Broek van den NMA; SFE Praet; K Nicolaij; Loon van LJC; JJ Prompers

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Several lines of evidence support a potential role of skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and\\/or type 2 diabetes. However, it remains to be established whether mitochondrial dysfunction represents either cause or consequence of the disease. We examined in vivo skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in early and advanced stages of type 2 diabetes, with the

  12. The assessment of antiangiogenic and antivascular therapies in early-stage clinical trials using magnetic resonance imaging: issues and recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M O Leach; K M Brindle; J L Evelhoch; J R Griffiths; M R Horsman; A Jackson; G C Jayson; I R Judson; M V Knopp; R J Maxwell; D McIntyre; A R Padhani; P Price; R Rathbone; G J Rustin; P S Tofts; G M Tozer; W Vennart; J C Waterton; S R Williams; P Workman; MO Leach

    2005-01-01

    Vascular and angiogenic processes provide an important target for novel cancer therapeutics. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is being used increasingly to noninvasively monitor the action of these therapeutics in early-stage clinical trials. This publication reports the outcome of a workshop that considered the methodology and design of magnetic resonance studies, recommending how this new tool might best be used.

  13. "I've Never Seen People Work So Hard!" Teachers' Working Conditions in the Early Stages of School Turnaround

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; Rooney, Erin; Robertson-Kraft, Claire

    2015-01-01

    School turnaround--a reform strategy that strives for quick and dramatic transformation of low-performing schools--has gained prominence in recent years. This study uses interviews and focus groups conducted with 86 teachers in 13 schools during the early stages of school turnaround in a large urban district to examine teachers' perceptions of the…

  14. USE OF MULTIPHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO IMAGE BENZO[A]PYRENE AND METABOLITES IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiphoton laser scanning micrsocopy holds promise as a tool to study the tissue distribution of environmental chemical contaminants during fish early life stage development. One such chemical for which this is possible is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon that a...

  15. Toxicity of uranium mine receiving waters to early life stage fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas) in the laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G Pyle; S. M Swanson; D. M Lehmkuhl

    2002-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, nickel, and molybdenum in aquatic systems around northern Saskatchewan uranium mines are an environmental concern. Early life stage fathead minnows were used to assess toxicity from several aquatic systems near the Key Lake and Rabbit Lake uranium operations. Hatching success of fish embryos exposed to waters receiving contaminants associated with uranium ore milling was reduced by

  16. EFFECTS OF KELTHANE AND PYDRIN ON EARLY LIFE STAGES OF FATHEAD MINNOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) AND AMPHIPODS (HYALELLA AZTECA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryonic, larval and early juvenile stages of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and juvenile amphipods (Hyalella azteca) were exposed to Kelthane, and fathead minnows were exposed to Pydrin in a small self-contained continuous-flow diluter system for approximately 30 days. S...

  17. Financing early-stage ventures: the role of uncertainty and financial markets in the investment choices of venture

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the investment choices of venture capitalists Introduction The venture capital financing of firms according to invest in a decision-making environment characterized not only by asymmetric information but also1 Financing early-stage ventures: the role of uncertainty and financial markets in the investment

  18. Metacognitive Monitoring and Dementia: How Intrinsic and Extrinsic Cues Influence Judgments of Learning in People With Early-Stage

    E-print Network

    Patel, Aniruddh D.

    Metacognitive Monitoring and Dementia: How Intrinsic and Extrinsic Cues Influence Judgments of Learning in People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Ayanna K. Thomas and Meeyeon Lee Tufts University of intrinsic and extrinsic cues on Judgment of Learning (JOL) accuracy. Changes in association strength between

  19. Microspore embryogenesis in wheat: new marker genes for early, middle and late stages of embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Díaz, Rosa Angélica; Castillo, Ana María; Vallés, María Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Microspore embryogenesis involves reprogramming of the pollen immature cell towards embryogenesis. We have identified and characterized a collection of 14 genes induced along different morphological phases of microspore-derived embryo development in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) anther culture. SERKs and FLAs genes previously associated with somatic embryogenesis and reproductive tissues, respectively, were also included in this analysis. Genes involved in signalling mechanisms such as TaTPD1-like and TAA1b, and two glutathione S-transferase (GSTF2 and GSTA2) were induced when microspores had acquired a 'star-like' morphology or had undergone the first divisions. Genes associated with control of plant development and stress response (TaNF-YA, TaAGL14, TaFLA26, CHI3, XIP-R; Tad1 and WALI6) were activated before exine rupture. When the multicellular structures have been released from the exine, TaEXPB4, TaAGP31-like and an unknown embryo-specific gene TaME1 were induced. Comparison of gene expression, between two wheat cultivars with different response to anther culture, showed that the profile of genes activated before exine rupture was shifted to earlier stages in the low responding cultivar. This collection of genes constitutes a value resource for study mechanism of intra-embryo communication, early pattern formation, cell wall modification and embryo differentiation. PMID:23839308

  20. Nigericin is a potent inhibitor of the early stage of vaccinia virus replication.

    PubMed

    Myskiw, Chad; Piper, Jessica; Huzarewich, Rhiannon; Booth, Tim F; Cao, Jingxin; He, Runtao

    2010-12-01

    Poxviruses remain a significant public health concern due to their potential use as bioterrorist agents and the spread of animal borne poxviruses, such as monkeypox virus, to humans. Thus, the identification of small molecule inhibitors of poxvirus replication is warranted. Vaccinia virus is the prototypic member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which also includes variola and monkeypox virus. In this study, we demonstrate that the carboxylic ionophore nigericin is a potent inhibitor of vaccinia virus replication in several human cell lines. In HeLa cells, we found that the 50% inhibitory concentration of nigericin against vaccinia virus was 7.9 nM, with a selectivity index of 1038. We present data demonstrating that nigericin targets vaccinia virus replication at a post-entry stage. While nigericin moderately inhibits both early vaccinia gene transcription and translation, viral DNA replication and intermediate and late gene expression are severely compromised in the presence of nigericin. Our results demonstrate that nigericin has the potential to be further developed into an effective antiviral to treat poxvirus infections. PMID:20951746

  1. Ultrasonic force microscopy for nanomechanical characterization of early and late-stage amyloid-? peptide aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Tinker-Mill, Claire; Mayes, Jennifer; Allsop, David; Kolosov, Oleg V.

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation of amyloid-? peptides into protein fibres is one of the main neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While imaging of amyloid-? aggregate morphology in vitro is extremely important for understanding AD pathology and in the development of aggregation inhibitors, unfortunately, potentially highly toxic, early aggregates are difficult to observe by current electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods, due to low contrast and variability of peptide attachment to the substrate. Here, we use a poly-L-Lysine (PLL) surface that captures all protein components from monomers to fully formed fibres, followed by nanomechanical mapping via ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM), which marries high spatial resolution and nanomechanical contrast with the non-destructive nature of tapping mode AFM. For the main putative AD pathogenic component, A?1-42, the PLL-UFM approach reveals the morphology of oligomers, protofibrils and mature fibres, and finds that a fraction of small oligomers is still present at later stages of fibril assembly. PMID:24500006

  2. Cytokines, fatigue, and cutaneous erythema in early stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Agolli, Linda; Visco, Vincenzo; Monaco, Flavia; Muni, Roberta; Spagnoli, Alessandra; Campanella, Barbara; Valeriani, Maurizio; Minniti, Giuseppe; Osti, Mattia F; Amanti, Claudio; Pellegrini, Patrizia; Brunetti, Serena; Costantini, Anna; Alfò, Marco; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Marchetti, Paolo; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that patients developing high-grade erythema of the breast skin during radiation treatment could be more likely to present increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines which may lead, in turn, to associated fatigue. Forty women with early stage breast cancer who received adjuvant radiotherapy were enrolled from 2007 to 2010. Fatigue symptoms, erythema, and cytokine levels (IL-1?, IL-2, IL6, IL-8, TNF-?, and MCP-1) were registered at baseline, during treatment, and after radiotherapy completion. Seven (17.5%) patients presented fatigue without associated depression/anxiety. Grade ?2 erythema was observed in 5 of these 7 patients. IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-? were statistically increased 4 weeks after radiotherapy (P < 0.05). After the Heckman two-step analysis, a statistically significant influence of skin erythema on proinflammatory markers increase (P = 0.00001) was recorded; in the second step, these blood markers showed a significant impact on fatigue (P = 0.026). A seeming increase of fatigue, erythema, and proinflammatory markers was observed between the fourth and the fifth week of treatment followed by a decrease after RT. There were no significant effects of hormone therapy, breast volume, and anemia on fatigue. Our study seems to suggest that fatigue is related to high-grade breast skin erythema during radiotherapy through the increase of cytokines levels. PMID:24800238

  3. Cytokines, Fatigue, and Cutaneous Erythema in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Visco, Vincenzo; Muni, Roberta; Campanella, Barbara; Valeriani, Maurizio; Minniti, Giuseppe; Osti, Mattia F.; Amanti, Claudio; Pellegrini, Patrizia; Brunetti, Serena; Costantini, Anna; Alfò, Marco; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Marchetti, Paolo; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that patients developing high-grade erythema of the breast skin during radiation treatment could be more likely to present increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines which may lead, in turn, to associated fatigue. Forty women with early stage breast cancer who received adjuvant radiotherapy were enrolled from 2007 to 2010. Fatigue symptoms, erythema, and cytokine levels (IL-1?, IL-2, IL6, IL-8, TNF-?, and MCP-1) were registered at baseline, during treatment, and after radiotherapy completion. Seven (17.5%) patients presented fatigue without associated depression/anxiety. Grade ?2 erythema was observed in 5 of these 7 patients. IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-? were statistically increased 4 weeks after radiotherapy (P < 0.05). After the Heckman two-step analysis, a statistically significant influence of skin erythema on proinflammatory markers increase (P = 0.00001) was recorded; in the second step, these blood markers showed a significant impact on fatigue (P = 0.026). A seeming increase of fatigue, erythema, and proinflammatory markers was observed between the fourth and the fifth week of treatment followed by a decrease after RT. There were no significant effects of hormone therapy, breast volume, and anemia on fatigue. Our study seems to suggest that fatigue is related to high-grade breast skin erythema during radiotherapy through the increase of cytokines levels. PMID:24800238

  4. Cognitive rehabilitation for elderly people with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive rehabilitation including tasks of cognitive training on performance of everyday activities in elderly people with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three elderly people (15 men, 28 women) with a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease who had a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 18 or above were randomly assigned to two groups: the cognitive rehabilitation group (experimental) and control group. This study used a randomized controlled trial design. Cognitive rehabilitation is consisted of 8 sessions, each lasting 60 minutes (individual 30?min, group 30?min). The eight weekly individual sessions of cognitive rehabilitation were performed consisting of an individualized intervention focusing on a personally meaningful goal. The eight weekly group sessions involved practicing time-and-place orientation, matching faces and names, and learning memory and sustaining attention. [Results] Significant improvements were observed in rating of occupation performance and satisfaction, Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease (QOL-AD), and the orientation subscale of the MMSE in the experimental group, whereas participants in the control group did not show any significant difference in any tests between before and after the intervention. [Conclusion] Cognitive rehabilitation including tasks of cognitive training is an effective intervention for improving performance and satisfaction with respect to activities of daily living and specific cognitive functions. PMID:25729212

  5. Dietary Intake, Supplement Use, and Survival Among Women Diagnosed with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Juliann; Rock, Cheryl L.; Natarajan, Loki; Saquib, Nazmus; Newman, Vicky A.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Al-Delaimy, Wael K.; Pierce, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies examining the relationship between micronutrient intakes and survival following diagnosis of breast cancer have reported mixed results. This may be partly due to considerable variance in amounts of micronutrients consumed from diet and supplements across studies. Methods Early stage breast cancer survivors (n=3081) completed four 24-hour dietary and supplement recalls at the baseline assessment (1995 to 2000) and were followed for a median of 9.0 years. Mean micronutrient intakes were compared to dietary reference intakes (DRI) to assess micronutrient adequacy for both users and non-users of supplements. Cox regressions were performed to assess whether intakes of selected micronutrients were associated with all-cause mortality. Results 412 deaths occurred between baseline and August 2009. Among these women, more supplement users had adequate micronutrient intakes than non-users for 15 out of 17 micronutrients. Less than 10% of supplement users (< 2% of non-supplement users) reported levels that exceeded the tolerable upper limit for each micronutrient except magnesium. After adjusting for age, tumor characteristics, and health status variables, micronutrient intakes were not significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusion Dietary supplements may improve overall micronutrient intakes of breast cancer survivors. However, vitamin and mineral intakes were not associated with all-cause mortality. PMID:21391124

  6. The early stages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast suspensions damage in moderate pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    El Zakhem, H; Lanoisellé, J-L; Lebovka, N I; Nonus, M; Vorobiev, E

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) application to colloidal suspension of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The electrical conductivity measurements during the PEF-treatment of S. cerevisiae suspensions were used to monitor the extent of cell damages in the intervals of electric field strength E = 3-15 kV/cm and time of PEF treatment t(PEF) = 10(-4) to 1s. At relatively small fields (E < 7.5 kV/cm) the early stages of yeast cells damages were observed. At such treatment conditions, the damage was incomplete and developed at long time of PEF treatment, below the value of E = 7.5 kV/cm which is commonly referred in literature as a threshold for this culture. Data obtained for the disintegration in conductivity experiments were found in good correlation with direct counting of yeast lethality using light microscopy. The PEF-induced lethality of the yeast cells and size flocs increased with the mixing of suspensions and the increase of temperature. PMID:16427256

  7. Keishibukuryogan Reduces Renal Injury in the Early Stage of Renal Failure in the Remnant Kidney Model

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Takako; Tashiro, Izumi; Fujimoto, Makoto; Jo, Michiko; Sakai, Shinya; Oka, Hiroshi; Goto, Hirozo; Shimada, Yutaka; Shibahara, Naotoshi

    2011-01-01

    The effects of keishibukuryogan on the early stage of progressive renal failure were examined in rats subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy. Keishibukuryogan, one of the traditional herbal formulations, was given orally at a dose of 1% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) in chow. Administration of keishibukuryogan was started at 1 week after 5/6 nephrectomy and was continued for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, Azan staining did not reveal any severe histological changes in the kidneys of the nephrectomized rats. On the other hand, significant increases in mRNA expressions of transforming growth factor-?1 and fibronectin related to tissue fibrosis, as examined by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction, were observed in nephrectomized rats, and they were significantly suppressed by 3% keishibukuryogan treatment. Against gene expressions related to macrophage infiltration, 3% keishibukuryogan treatment significantly suppressed osteopontin mRNA levels, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA levels showed a tendency to decrease, but without statistical significance. It was also observed that 3% keishibukuryogan attenuated serum urea nitrogen and urinary protein excretion levels. From these results, it was suggested that keishibukuryogan exerts beneficial effects that result in slowing the progression of chronic renal failure. PMID:19633031

  8. Lipid peroxidation may not be important in an early stage of alcohol-induced liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Inomata, T.; Rao, G.A.; Tsukamoto, H.

    1986-03-01

    Role of lipid peroxidation (LP) in alcoholic liver injury (ALI) is still controversial. The authors have previously described a rat model which produced the sequential injury from alcoholic fatty liver to liver necrosis and fibrosis. In the present study, the authors have examined the degree of LP and GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver to investigate whether the LP can be identified in an early stage of progressive ALI. Six pairs of male Wistar rats were continuously infused intragastrically for 30 days with a high fat diet (25% total calories) plus either ethanol or isocaloric amount of dextrose. Following intoxication, the content of diene conjugates in mitochondrial and microsomal lipids as well as the liver GSH/GSSG ratio were determined by the diene difference spectrum and fluorometry, respectively. The UV absorption at 234nm by mitochondrial lipid from alcoholic rats (0.668 +/- 0.023 OD/mg) was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of controls (0.977 +/- 0.102 OD/mg). The microsomal lipid, however, exhibited a similar absorbance in the two groups (0.986 +/- 0.086 vs 1.149 +/- 0.091 OD/mg0. Similarly, no difference in the ratio of GSH/GSSG was found (6.05 +/- 0.27 vs 5.35 +/- 0.44). These results do not support a concept that LP is an important pathogenetic factor for the progression of alcoholic fatty liver to liver necrosis.

  9. Lower hypoxia thresholds of cuttlefish early life stages living in a warm acidified ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Trübenbach, Katja; Repolho, Tiago; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Baptista, Miguel; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Dionísio, Gisela; Leal, Miguel Costa; Calado, Ricardo; Pörtner, Hans O.

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of future ocean acidification and global warming on the hypoxia thresholds of marine biota are, to date, poorly known. Here, we show that the future warming and acidification scenario led to shorter embryonic periods, lower survival rates and the enhancement of premature hatching in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Routine metabolic rates increased during the embryonic period, but environmental hypercapnia significantly depressed pre-hatchling's energy expenditures rates (independently of temperature). During embryogenesis, there was also a significant rise in the carbon dioxide partial pressure in the perivitelline fluid (PVF), bicarbonate levels, as well as a drop in pH and oxygen partial pressure (pO2). The critical partial pressure (i.e. hypoxic threshold) of the pre-hatchlings was significantly higher than the PVF oxygen partial pressure at the warmer and hypercapnic condition. Thus, the record of oxygen tensions below critical pO2 in such climate scenario indicates that the already harsh conditions inside the egg capsules are expected to be magnified in the years to come, especially in populations at the border of their thermal envelope. Such a scenario promotes untimely hatching and smaller post-hatching body sizes, thus challenging the survival and fitness of early life stages. PMID:23926158

  10. Marginal blebbing during the early stages of TNF-induced apoptosis indicates alteration in actomyosin contractility.

    PubMed

    Domnina, L V; Ivanova, O Y; Pletjushkina, O Y; Fetisova, E K; Chernyak, B V; Skulachev, V P; Vasiliev, J M

    2004-01-01

    Dynamics of alterations of cell surface topography during TNF-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells was examined by phase-contrast videomicroscopy and immunomorphological analysis. The final stage of apoptosis accompanied by cell rounding and general blebbing of the cell surface became after 4-6 h of incubation but much earlier, after 1.5-3 h, essentially flattened lamellipodia at the active edges transformed into the small blebs that were continuously extended and retracted during the next 1-2 h. This phenomenon was called "marginal blebbing". It took place before the cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol. Marginal blebbing was inhibited by drugs that depolymerized actin microfilaments (cytochalasin, latrunculin) or decreased Rho-kinase-dependent contractility of actin-myosin cortex (H7, HA-1077, Y27632). A pancaspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk, completely prevented marginal and general blebbing, and TNF-induced apoptosis. DEVD-fmk, a specific inhibitor of caspase-3, inhibited both marginal and general blebbing but not cell rounding and death. Thus, marginal blebbing is an early microfilament-dependent apoptotic event. It is suggested that it is initiated by minimal activation of caspase-3 and the following local Rho-kinase-dependent stimulation of actin-myosin cortex contractility. Localization of marginal blebs at the active edge may be associated with special organization of cortex in that zone. PMID:15223024

  11. Numerical simulations of the early stages of high-speed droplet breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, J. C.; Colonius, T.

    2015-07-01

    Experiments reported in the literature are reproduced using numerical simulations to investigate the early stages of the breakup of water cylinders in the flow behind normal shocks. Qualitative features of breakup observed in the numerical results, such as the initial streamwise flattening of the cylinder and the formation of tips at its periphery, support previous experimental observations of stripping breakup. Additionally, the presence of a transitory recirculation region at the cylinder's equator and a persistent upstream jet in the wake is noted and discussed. Within the uncertainties inherent to the different methods used to extract measurements from experimental and numerical results, comparisons with experimental data of various cylinder deformation metrics show good agreement. To study the effects of the transition between subsonic and supersonic post-shock flow, we extend the range of incident shock Mach numbers beyond those investigated by the experiments. Supersonic post-shock flow velocities are not observed to significantly alter the cylinder's behavior, i.e., we are able to effectively collapse the drift, acceleration, and drag curves for all simulated shock Mach numbers. Using a new method that minimizes noise errors, the cylinder's acceleration is calculated; acceleration curves for all shock Mach numbers are subsequently collapsed by scaling with the pressure ratio across the incident shock. Furthermore, we find that accounting for the cylinder's deformed diameter in the calculation of its unsteady drag coefficient allows the drag coefficient to be approximated as a constant over the initial breakup period.

  12. Psychological Stress and Immunological Modulations in Early-stage Melanoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Richtig, Erika; Trapp, Eva Maria; Avian, Alexander; Brezinsek, Hans Peter; Trapp, Michael; Egger, Josef Wilhelm; Kapfhammer, Hans Peter; Rohrer, Peter Michael; Berghold, Andrea; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Demel, Ulrike

    2015-06-24

    Mental stress may have a negative impact on the immune state of cancer patients, in whom immunologic surveillance is essential for survival. This study investigated the immunological response of 19 patients with early-stage melanoma and a matched control group undergoing the Determination Stress Test before surgery. Cytokine and chemokine levels and lymphocyte subpopulations were measured at baseline and post-stress test time-points. Following the stress test lower levels of interleukin (IL)-6 were observed in the melanoma group compared with healthy volunteers (p?=?0.044). IL-10 increased significantly in the control group 30 min after the stress test (p?=?0.002) in comparison with the melanoma group (p?=?0.407). CCL5/Rantes decreased significantly in the melanoma group, whereas CD16/CD56+ natural killer cells increased in both groups, with a sharp decrease below baseline after stress in the melanoma group (p?=?0.001). This pilot study shows an altered immunological response to stressors in melanoma patients. PMID:25587794

  13. Toxicity of oil sands to early life stages of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Colavecchia, Maria V; Backus, Sean M; Hodson, Peter V; Parrott, Joanne L

    2004-07-01

    The present study examines the effects of exposure to oil sands on the early life stages (ELS) of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Sediments within and outside natural oil sand deposits were collected from sites along the Athabasca River (AB, Canada). The ELS toxicity tests were conducted with control water, natural oil sands, reference sediments, and oil-refining wastewater pond sediments. Eggs and larvae were exposed to 0.05 to 25.0 g sediment/L and observed for mortality, hatching, malformations, growth, and cytochrome P4501A induction as measured by immunohistochemistry. Natural bitumen and wastewater pond sediments caused significant hatching alterations and exposure-related increases in ELS mortality, malformations, and reduced size. Larval deformities included edemas, hemorrhages, and spinal malformations. Exposure to reference sediments and controls showed negligible embryo mortality and malformations and excellent larval survival. Sediment analyses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed high concentrations of alkyl-substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared to unsubstituted PAHs in natural oil sands (220-360 microg/g) and oil-mining wastewater pond sediments (1,300 microg/g). The ELS sediment toxicity tests are rapid and sensitive bioassays that are useful in the assessment of petroleum toxicity to aquatic organisms. PMID:15230323

  14. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, J.; Jin, F.; Wang, J.; Zheng, N.; Cong, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The potential effects of high CO2 and associated ocean acidification (OA) in marine fishes and other non-calcified organisms are less well understood. In this study, we investigated the responses of early life stages (ELS) of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed to a series of experimental manipulation of CO2 levels. Results showed that CO2-driven seawater acidification (pH 7.6 and pH 7.2) had no detectable effect on hatching time, hatching rate, or heart rate of embryos. However, the deformity rate of larvae in the pH 7.2 treatment was significantly higher than that in the control treatment. There is no significant difference between the left and right otolith areas in each treatment. However, the average otolith area of larvae in the pH 7.6 treatment was significantly smaller than that in the control. Such alterations in the developmental abnormalities and otolith size of marine medaka larvae due to elevated-CO2 levels suggests that this species will be increasingly challenged by future OA. Further studies of the impacts of OA on marine fish to assess whether or not the environmental influence in one generation can affect the later life history and the phenotype of subsequent generations are needed.

  15. Norvaline and Norleucine May Have Been More Abundant Protein Components during Early Stages of Cell Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Carreño, Claudia; Becerra, Arturo; Lazcano, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    The absence of the hydrophobic norvaline and norleucine in the inventory of protein amino acids is readdressed. The well-documented intracellular accumulation of these two amino acids results from the low-substrate specificity of the branched-chain amino acid biosynthetic enzymes that act over a number of related ?-ketoacids. The lack of absolute substrate specificity of leucyl-tRNA synthase leads to a mischarged norvalyl-tRNALeu that evades the translational proofreading activites and produces norvaline-containing proteins, (cf. Apostol et al. J Biol Chem 272:28980-28988, 1997). A similar situation explains the presence of minute but detectable amounts of norleucine in place of methionine. Since with few exceptions both leucine and methionine are rarely found in the catalytic sites of most enzymes, their substitution by norvaline and norleucine, respectively, would have not been strongly hindered in small structurally simple catalytic polypeptides during the early stages of biological evolution. The report that down-shifts of free oxygen lead to high levels of intracellular accumulation of pyruvate and the subsequent biosynthesis of norvaline (Soini et al. Microb Cell Factories 7:30, 2008) demonstrates the biochemical and metabolic consequences of the development of a highly oxidizing environment. The results discussed here also suggest that a broader definition of biomarkers in the search for extraterrestrial life may be required.

  16. Early stage breast cancer detection by means of time-domain ultra-wide band sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanoon, T. F.; Abdullah, M. Z.

    2011-11-01

    The interest in the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) impulses for medical imaging, particularly early stage breast cancer detection, is driven by safety advantage, super resolution capability, significant dielectric contrast between tumours and their surrounding tissues, patient convenience and low operating costs. However, inversion algorithms leading to recovery of the dielectric profile are complex in their nature, and vulnerable to noisy experimental conditions and environment. In this paper, we present a simplified yet robust gradient-based iterative image reconstruction technique to solve the nonlinear inverse scattering problem. The calculation is based on the Polak-Ribière's approach while the Broyden's formula is used to update the gradient in an iterative scheme. To validate this approach, both numerical and experimental results are presented. Animal derived biological targets in the form of chicken skin, beef and salted butter are used to construct an experimental breast phantom, while vegetable oil is used as a background media. UWB transceivers in the form of biconical antennas contour the breast forming a full view scanning geometry at a frequency range of 0-5 GHz. Results indicate the feasibility of experimental detection of millimetre scaled targets.

  17. Citrullination as early-stage indicator of cell response to Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Bashir Mustafa; Movia, Dania; Knyazev, Anton; Langevin, Dominique; Davies, Anthony Mitchell; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Volkov, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been widely explored as potential technologies for information systems and medical applications. The impact of SWCNTs on human health is of prime concern, if SWCNTs have a future in the manufacturing industry. This study proposes a novel, inflammation-independent paradigm of toxicity for SWCNTs, identifying the protein citrullination process as early-stage indicator of inflammatory responses of macrophages (THP-1) and of subtle phenotypic damages of lung epithelial (A549) cells following exposure to chemically-treated SWCNTs. Our results showed that, while most of the cellular responses of A549 cells exposed to SWCNTs are different to those of similarly treated THP-1 cells, the protein citrullination process is triggered in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both cell lines, with thresholds comparable between inflammatory (THP-1) and non-inflammatory (A549) cell types. The cellular mechanism proposed herein could have a high impact in predicting the current risk associated with environmental exposure to SWCNTs.

  18. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, J.; Jin, F.; Wang, J.; Zheng, N.; Cong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of elevated CO2 level and reduced carbonate saturation state in marine environment on fishes and other non-calcified organisms are still poorly known. In present study, we investigated the effects of ocean acidification on embryogenesis and organogenesis of newly hatched larvae of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) after 21 d exposure of eggs to different artificially acidified seawater (pH 7.6 and 7.2, respectively), and compared with those in control group (pH 8.2). Results showed that CO2-driven seawater acidification (pH 7.6 and 7.2) had no detectable effect on hatching time, hatching rate, and heart rate of embryos. However, the deformity rate of larvae in pH 7.2 treatment was significantly higher than that in control treatment. The left and right sagitta areas did not differ significantly from each other in each treatment. However, the mean sagitta area of larvae in pH 7.6 treatment was significantly smaller than that in the control (p = 0.024). These results suggest that although marine medaka might be more tolerant of elevated CO2 than some other fishes, the effect of elevated CO2 level on the calcification of otolith is likely to be the most susceptibly physiological process of pH regulation in early life stage of marine medaka.

  19. Potential of fecal microbiota for early-stage detection of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Georg; Tap, Julien; Voigt, Anita Y; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kultima, Jens Roat; Costea, Paul I; Amiot, Aurélien; Böhm, Jürgen; Brunetti, Francesco; Habermann, Nina; Hercog, Rajna; Koch, Moritz; Luciani, Alain; Mende, Daniel R; Schneider, Martin A; Schrotz-King, Petra; Tournigand, Christophe; Tran Van Nhieu, Jeanne; Yamada, Takuji; Zimmermann, Jürgen; Benes, Vladimir; Kloor, Matthias; Ulrich, Cornelia M; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Sobhani, Iradj; Bork, Peer

    2014-01-01

    Several bacterial species have been implicated in the development of colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but CRC-associated changes of fecal microbiota and their potential for cancer screening remain to be explored. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples to identify taxonomic markers that distinguished CRC patients from tumor-free controls in a study population of 156 participants. Accuracy of metagenomic CRC detection was similar to the standard fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and when both approaches were combined, sensitivity improved > 45% relative to the FOBT, while maintaining its specificity. Accuracy of metagenomic CRC detection did not differ significantly between early- and late-stage cancer and could be validated in independent patient and control populations (N = 335) from different countries. CRC-associated changes in the fecal microbiome at least partially reflected microbial community composition at the tumor itself, indicating that observed gene pool differences may reveal tumor-related host–microbe interactions. Indeed, we deduced a metabolic shift from fiber degradation in controls to utilization of host carbohydrates and amino acids in CRC patients, accompanied by an increase of lipopolysaccharide metabolism. PMID:25432777

  20. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Šev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L?1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250??g?L?1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15??g?L?1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50??g?L?1 died soon after hatching; at 25??g?L?1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5??g?L?1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  1. Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  2. Apoptosis is required during early stages of tail regeneration in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ai-Sun; Adams, Dany S.; Qiu, Dayong; Koustubhan, Punita; Levin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Xenopus tadpole is able to regenerate its tail, including skin, muscle, notochord, spinal cord and neurons and blood vessels. This process requires rapid tissue growth and morphogenesis. Here we show that a focus of apoptotic cells appears in the regeneration bud within 12 h of amputation. Surprisingly, when caspase-3 activity is specifically inhibited, regeneration is abolished. This is true of tails both before and after the refractory period. Programmed cell death is only required during the first 24 h after amputation, as later inhibition has no effect on regeneration. Inhibition of caspase-dependent apoptosis results in a failure to induce proliferation in the growth zone, a mispatterning of axons in the regenerate, and the appearance of ectopic otoliths in the neural tube, in the context of otherwise normal continued development of the larva. Larvae amputated during the refractory stage exhibit a much broader domain of caspase-3-positive cells, suggesting a window for the amount of apoptosis that is compatible with normal regeneration. These data reveal novel roles for apoptosis in development and indicate that a degree of apoptosis is an early and obligate component of normal tail regeneration, suggesting the possibility of the existence of endogenous inhibitory cells that must be destroyed by programmed cell death for regeneration to occur. PMID:17150209

  3. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness.

    PubMed

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:25699003

  4. Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paula A P; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; de Melo, Daniela C; Luz, Ronald K

    2015-03-01

    In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around 11.64 g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mg L-1, since they determine the shortest sedation time (23 and 72 seconds, for the group of lowest and highest weights, respectively). PMID:25806995

  5. Impact of Adjuvant External-Beam Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Uterine Papillary Serous and Clear Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Anne, E-mail: akim2@health-quest.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vassar Brothers Medical Center, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States); Schreiber, David [Department of Veterans Affairs, New York Harbor Healthcare System, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Rineer, Justin [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, FL (United States); Choi, Kwang; Rotman, Marvin [Department of Radiation Oncology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in early-stage high- to intermediate-risk endometrioid adenocarcinoma is well established and has been shown to improve locoregional control. Its role in the management of early-stage clear cell carcinoma and uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) remains controversial. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database, we identified women with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage Sixth Edition. Stage IA-IIB clear cell carcinoma or UPSC who underwent hysterectomy with or without adjuvant RT between 1988 and 2003. We used Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis to compare overall survival (OS) for all patients. Results: We identified 1,333 women of whom 451 had clear cell carcinoma and 882 had UPSC. Of those patients, 775 underwent surgery alone and 558 received adjuvant RT as well. For Stages I-IIB disease, the median OS with surgery alone was 106 months, vs. 151 months with adjuvant RT (p = 0.006). On subgroup analysis, we saw the benefit from adjuvant RT only in Stage IB-C patients. For Stage IB disease, patients undergoing surgery alone had a median OS of 117 months, vs. median survival not reached with the addition of RT (p = 0.006). For Stage IC disease, surgery alone had a median OS of 35 months vs. 120 months with RT (p = 0.001). Although the apparent benefit of RT diminished when measured via multivariate analysis, the impact of RT on survival did show a trend toward significance (hazard ration 0.808, confidence interval 95% 0.651-1.002, p = 0.052) Conclusion: In FIGO Stage IB-C papillary serous and clear cell uterine carcinoma, adjuvant RT seems to play an important role in improving survival.

  6. Quality of Post-Treatment Surveillance of Early Stage Breast Cancer in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Abhishek D.; Sheffield, Kristin M.; Vargas, Gabriela M.; Han, Yimei; Chao, Celia; Riall, Taylor S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Only annual mammography and physical exam are recommended for the post-treatment surveillance of early stage breast cancer. METHODS We used Texas Cancer Registry-Medicare linked data (2001-2007) to identify physician visits and use of mammography, MRI, CT, and PET CT scans in patients 66 and older with ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) and stage I-III ductal carcinoma who underwent curative-intent surgery. We also evaluated the trends in use of recommended and non-recommended tests. RESULTS We identified 8,598 patients with resected DCIS (37.3%) or invasive ductal cancer (62.7%). Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) was performed in 58.7%. Only 55.3% saw a physician twice a year for two years and underwent annual mammography for two consecutive years in the surveillance period. Mammography use decreased from 81.0% in 2001 to 75.2% in 2007 (p<0.0001), and breast MRI use rose from 0.5% to 7.0% (p<0.0001). For asymptomatic patients, the use of CT/MRI of the abdomen, chest, and head was 26.5%, 22.9%, and 22.0%, and this slightly increased during the study period. There was a significant increase in PET/PET CT use, from 1.9% in 2001 to 8.9% in 2007 (p<0.0001). There was a concomitant decrease in bone scan use from 20.8% in 2001 to 13.0% in 2007 (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Adherence to evidence-based guidelines has been substandard and the use of non-recommended tests has persisted over the study period. The rise in PET use and attendant decrease in bone scan implicates a population receiving PET scan in lieu of bone scan for surveillance of asymptomatic metastatic disease. In an elderly population of breast cancer patients in Texas, these findings imply both underuse and overuse. PMID:23889950

  7. The Gammaretroviral p12 protein has multiple domains that function during the early stages of replication

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Moloney murine leukaemia virus (Mo-MLV) gag gene encodes three main structural proteins, matrix, capsid and nucleocapsid and a protein called p12. In addition to its role during the late stages of infection, p12 has an essential, but undefined, function during early post-entry events. As these stages of retroviral infection remain poorly understood, we set out to investigate the function of p12. Results Examination of the infectivity of Mo-MLV virus-like particles containing a mixture of wild type and mutant p12 revealed that the N- and C-terminal regions of p12 are sequentially acting domains, both required for p12 function, and that the N-terminal activity precedes the C-terminal activity in the viral life cycle. By creating a panel of p12 mutants in other gammaretroviruses, we showed that these domains are conserved in this retroviral genus. We also undertook a detailed mutational analysis of each domain, identifying residues essential for function. These data show that different regions of the N-terminal domain are necessary for infectivity in different gammaretroviruses, in stark contrast to the C-terminal domain where the same region is essential for all viruses. Moreover, chimeras between the p12 proteins of Mo-MLV and gibbon ape leukaemia virus revealed that the C-terminal domains are interchangeable whereas the N-terminal domains are not. Finally, we identified potential functions for each domain. We observed that particles with defects in the N-terminus of p12 were unable to abrogate restriction factors, implying that their cores were impaired. We further showed that defects in the C-terminal domain of p12 could be overcome by introducing a chromatin binding motif into the protein. Conclusions Based on these data, we propose a model for p12 function where the N-terminus of p12 interacts with, and stabilizes, the viral core, allowing the C-terminus of p12 to tether the preintegration complex to host chromatin during mitosis, facilitating integration. PMID:23035841

  8. Modelling dispersal dynamics of the early life stages of a marine flatfish (Solea solea L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Geneviève; Maes, Gregory E.; Bolle, Loes J.; Volckaert, Filip A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Connectivity throughout the life cycle of flatfish remains an open question, especially during the early life stages. Their effective management requires understanding of how spawning grounds and nurseries are connected and what processes influence larval retention and dispersal. The case of sole (Solea solea L.) is of particular interest because it is one of the most valuable commercial species in the North Sea, although stocks are chronically overexploited and variability in interannual recruitment is high. The transport of sole larvae from the spawning grounds to the nurseries is driven by hydrodynamic processes, but the final dispersal pattern and larval survival/abundance might be influenced by both behavioral and environmental factors. Therefore it is important to understand the relative impact of hydrodynamics, environment, behavior and ecophysiology on sole larval dispersal. Here we use a particle-tracking transport model coupled to a 3D hydro-dynamic model of the North Sea to investigate interannual variability of the transport of sole larvae over a 12-year period (1995-2006). A sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the relative impact of hydrodynamics, temperature and behavior on the recruitment dynamics to the nurseries. Four scenarios have been tested: (i) constant forcing of sea surface temperature during all years but varying meteorological forcing and river runoff, (ii) constant meteorological forcing during the whole period but varying sea surface temperature and river runoff, (iii) no vertical migration and (iv) an extended drift period (max. 30 days) before settlement if the larvae are not close to a suitable sediment type. Results suggest that year-to-year variability of larval supply to the nurseries is high, both in terms of abundance and larval source (balance between retention and dispersal). Sensitivity analysis shows that larval abundance at the end of the larval stage increases considerably if a settling delay is included. The impact of vertical migration on larval transport and the variations in larval retention at the nurseries due to varying meteorological conditions and sea surface temperature forcing are not spatially consistent.

  9. North Kona slump: Submarine flank failure during the early(?) tholeiitic shield stage of Hualalai Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Coombs, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The North Kona slump is an elliptical region, about 20 by 60 km (1000-km2 area), of multiple, geometrically intricate benches and scarps, mostly at water depths of 2000-4500 m, on the west flank of Hualalai Volcano. Two dives up steep scarps in the slump area were made in September 2001, using the ROV Kaiko of the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), as part of a collaborative Japan-USA project to improve understanding of the submarine flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes. Both dives, at water depths of 2700-4000 m, encountered pillow lavas draping the scarp-and-bench slopes. Intact to only slightly broken pillow lobes and cylinders that are downward elongate dominate on the steepest mid-sections of scarps, while more equant and spherical pillow shapes are common near the tops and bases of scarps and locally protrude through cover of muddy sediment on bench flats. Notably absent are subaerially erupted Hualalai lava flows, interbedded hyaloclastite pillow breccia, and/or coastal sandy sediment that might have accumulated downslope from an active coastline. The general structure of the North Kona flank is interpreted as an intricate assemblage of downdropped lenticular blocks, bounded by steeply dipping normal faults. The undisturbed pillow-lava drape indicates that slumping occurred during shield-stage tholeiitic volcanism. All analyzed samples of the pillow-lava drape are tholeiite, similar to published analyses from the submarine northwest rift zone of Hualalai. Relatively low sulfur (330-600 ppm) and water (0.18-0.47 wt.%) contents of glass rinds suggest that the eruptive sources were in shallow water, perhaps 500-1000-m depth. In contrast, saturation pressures calculated from carbon dioxide concentrations (100-190 ppm) indicate deeper equilibration, at or near sample sites at water depths of -3900 to -2800 m. Either vents close to the sample sites erupted mixtures of undegassed and degassed magmas, or volatiles were resorbed from vesicles during flowage downslope after eruption in shallow water. The glass volatile compositions suggest that the tholeiitic lavas that drape the slump blocks were erupted either (1) early during shield-stage tholeiitic volcanism prior to emergence of a large subaerial edifice, or alternatively (2) from submarine radial vents during subaerial shield-building. Because no radial vents have been documented on land or underwater for the unbuttressed flanks of any Hawaii volcano, alternative (1) is favored. In comparison to other well-documented Hawaiian slumps and landslides, North Kona structures suggest a more incipient slump event, with smaller down-slope motions and lateral displacements.

  10. Early Stage Selection Repeatability: Can We Learn Anything from the Past?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane cultivar development program at Canal Point involves several stages of variety selection and advancement. Stage 2 of this program involves the evaluation of approximately 1500 clones and the advancement of approximately 135 clones to Stage 3 based on objective, quantitative yield data...

  11. The Carbon_h-Factor: Predicting Individuals' Research Impact at Early Stages of Their Career

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005) introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term “research impact” to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific “impact” of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well). As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index, the proposed index integrates the scientist's research age (Carbon_h-factor) into the h-index, thus reporting the average gain of h-index per year. Comprehensive calculations of the Carbon_h-factor were made for a broad variety of four research-disciplines (economics, neuroscience, physics and psychology) and for researchers performing on three high levels of research impact (substantial, outstanding and epochal) with ten researchers per category. For all research areas and output levels we obtained linear developments of the h-index demonstrating the validity of predicting one's later impact in terms of research impact already at an early stage of their career with the Carbon_h-factor being approx. 0.4, 0.8, and 1.5 for substantial, outstanding and epochal researchers, respectively. PMID:22194909

  12. The Carbon_h-factor: predicting individuals' research impact at early stages of their career.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005) introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term "research impact" to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific "impact" of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well). As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index, the proposed index integrates the scientist's research age (Carbon_h-factor) into the h-index, thus reporting the average gain of h-index per year. Comprehensive calculations of the Carbon_h-factor were made for a broad variety of four research-disciplines (economics, neuroscience, physics and psychology) and for researchers performing on three high levels of research impact (substantial, outstanding and epochal) with ten researchers per category. For all research areas and output levels we obtained linear developments of the h-index demonstrating the validity of predicting one's later impact in terms of research impact already at an early stage of their career with the Carbon_h-factor being approx. 0.4, 0.8, and 1.5 for substantial, outstanding and epochal researchers, respectively. PMID:22194909

  13. Environmental control on early life stages of flatfishes in the Lima Estuary (NW Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Sandra; Ré, Pedro; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2009-06-01

    Several flatfishes spawn in oceanic waters and pelagic larvae are transported inshore to settle in the nursery areas, usually estuaries, where they remain during their juvenile life. Nursery areas appear as extremely important habitats, not only for juveniles but also for the earlier planktonic larval fish. Yet, the majority of nursery studies tend to focus only on one development stage, missing an integrative approach of the entire early life that fishes spent within a nursery ground. Thus, the present study assessed the influence of environmental parameters on the dynamics of the larval and juvenile flatfishes, throughout their nursery life in the Lima Estuary. Between April 2002 and April 2004, fortnightly subsurface ichthyoplankton samples were collected and juveniles were collected from October 2003 until September 2005. Larval assemblages comprised nine flatfish species, while only six were observed among the juvenile assemblages. Solea senegalensis and Platichthys flesus were the most abundant species of both fractions of the Lima Estuary flatfishes. Larval flatfish assemblages varied seasonally, without relevant differences between lower and middle estuary. Platichthys flesus dominated the spring samples and summer and autumn periods were characterized by an increase of overall abundance and diversity of larval flatfishes, mainly S. senegalensis, associated with temperature increase and reduced river flow. On the contrary, during the winter abundance sharply decreased, as a consequence of higher river run-off that might compromised the immigration of incompetent marine larvae. Juvenile flatfishes were more abundant in the middle and upper areas of the estuary, but the species richness was higher near the river mouth. Sediment type, distance from the river mouth, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen were identified as the main environmental factors structuring the juvenile flatfish assemblages. Juveniles were spatially discrete, with the most abundant species S. senegalensis and P. flesus associated with the middle and upper estuary, while the remaining species were associated with the lower estuarine areas. The larval fraction exhibited distinct dynamics from the juvenile estuarine flatfish community. Larval flatfishes showed a strong seasonal structure mainly regulated by biological features as the spawning season and also by seasonal variations of water characteristics. On the other hand, juvenile flatfishes were markedly controlled by site specific characteristics such as sediments structure, distance from the river mouth and salinity regime. The present study emphasized the idea that the environmental control varies throughout the ontogenetic development, stressing the importance of integrating all the early life of a species in flatfish nursery studies.

  14. Early Stages of Oxidative Stress-Induced Membrane Permeabilization: A Neutron Reflectometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Hillary L.; Howland, Michael C.; Szmodis, Alan W.; Li, Qijuan; Daemen, Luke L.; Parikh, Atul N.; Majewski, Jaroslaw

    2009-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry was used to probe in situ the structure of supported lipid bilayers at the solid–liquid interface during the early stages of UV-induced oxidative degradation. Single-component supported lipid bilayers composed of gel phase, dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), and fluid phase, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), phospholipids were exposed to low-dose oxidative stress generated by UV light and their structures were examined by neutron reflectometry. An interrupted illumination mode, involving exposures in 15 min increments with 2 h intervals between subsequent exposures, and a continuous mode involving a single 60 (or 90) min exposure period were employed. In both cases, pronounced differences in the structure of the lipid bilayer after exposure were observed. Interrupted exposure led to a substantial decrease in membrane coverage but preserved its total thickness at reduced scattering length densities. These results indicate that the initial phase during UV-induced membrane degradation involves the formation of hydrophilic channels within the membrane. This is consistent with the loss of some lipid molecules we observe and attendant reorganization of residual lipids forming hemimicellar edges of the hydrophilic channels. In contrast, continuous illumination produced a graded interface of continuously varied scattering length density (and hence hydrocarbon density) extending 100–150 Å into the liquid phase. Exposure of a DPPC bilayer to UV light in the presence of a reservoir of unfused vesicles showed low net membrane disintegration during oxidative stress, presumably because of surface back-filling from the bulk reservoir. Chemical evidence for membrane degradation was obtained by mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Further evidence for the formation of hydrophilic channels was furnished by fluorescence microscopy and imaging ellipsometry data. PMID:19275260

  15. Effects of a homologous series of linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactants on fathead minnow early life stages.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, R E; Wong, D C; Dorn, P B; Rodgers, J H

    1999-11-01

    Effects of a homologous series of three primarily linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactants were studied in laboratory flow-through 28-day early-life-stage tests with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque). Surfactants were a C(9-11), C(12-13), and C(14-15) with an average of 6, 6.5, and 7 ethylene oxide units per mole of alcohol, respectively. Average measured surfactant recoveries were 103%, 81%, and 79% of nominal concentrations for the C(9-11) EO 6, C(12-13) EO 6.5, and C(14-15) EO 7 studies, respectively. Embryo survival at 48 h was not adversely affected at any of the concentrations tested. Impaired hatching and deformed fry were observed only in the C(12-13) EO 6.5 study. The 28-day LC50 values were 4.87, 2.39, and 1.02 mg/L for the C(9-11) EO 6, C(12-13) EO 6.5, and C(14-15) EO 7 surfactants, respectively. The corresponding NOECs for survival were 1.01, 1.76, and 0.74 mg/L. Posthatch fry growth was more sensitive than survival for the C(12-13) EO 6.5 and C(14-15) EO 7 surfactants. Survival of posthatch fry decreased with increasing surfactant alkyl chain length. Twenty-eight-day laboratory data were compared to 96-h laboratory, 10-day laboratory and 30-day stream mesocosm data for fathead minnow previously determined for these surfactants. Survival endpoints from the different exposures were comparable and only varied within a factor of two. Similarity of results suggests that it is possible to effectively use 96-h, 10-day, or 28-day laboratory data to predict environmental effects concentrations of these surfactants for fish. http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n4p536.html

  16. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses. PMID:24080042

  17. Gold nanoparticles allow detection of early-stage edema in mice via computed tomography imaging

    PubMed Central

    Domey, Jenny; Teichgräber, Ulf; Hilger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high X-ray attenuation, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) emerged as preclinical contrast agents by giving high vasculature contrast. For this reason, GNPs are regularly applied for computed tomography (CT) imaging of tumors but not for the visualization of inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and applicability of preclinical GNPs (AuroVist™) of two different sizes (1.9 nm and 15 nm) for the detection of inflammation-associated phagocytes in early-stage edema. Both GNP variants were stable under in vitro conditions and achieved high micro-CT (mCT) contrast after embedment into agarose. Fifteen-nanometer GNPs were detected after uptake into macrophages via mCT imaging exhibiting higher X-ray contrast than cells treated with 1.9 nm GNPs and untreated ones. Both 1.9 nm and 15 nm GNPs exhibited good biocompatibility on murine macrophages according to ATP and cellular dehydrogenase levels. Reactive oxygen species levels produced by phagocytic cells decreased significantly (P?0.05) after co-incubation with GNPs regardless of the size of the nanoparticle (NP) in comparison to untreated control cells. In vivo mCT studies of inflammation imaging revealed that GNPs with a diameter of 15 nm accumulated within subcutaneous edema 2 hours after injection with a maximum signaling 8 hours postinjection and could be detected up to 48 hours within the edema region. In contrast, 1.9 nm GNPs were not shown to accumulate at the site of the inflammation region and were mostly excreted via the renal system 2–4 hours after injection. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that both GNP variants (1.9 nm and 15 nm) were stable and biocompatible under in vitro conditions. However, only 15 nm NPs have the potential as contrast agent for phagocyte labeling and applications in CT imaging of inflammation on a cellular level.

  18. Perceived Social Support Change in Patients with Early-stage Breast Cancer and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Tess; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Pérez, Maria; Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify variables associated with levels of and change in social support in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients and age-matched controls. Methods Telephone interviews measuring perceived social support and other demographic and psychosocial variables were conducted at 4–6 weeks and 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery (patients) or a normal/benign screening mammogram (controls). A latent trajectory model was used to model the intercept (starting point) and slope (changing) aspects of social support. Results Participants included 542 controls and 541 patients (77% White, 23% African American; mean age 57.7 [SD = 10.6]). Most participants reported high social support. Patients reported significantly higher levels of social support at baseline than controls. For patients, social support had a significant negative slope that significantly varied between individuals; the intercept of social support also varied significantly. Predictors of lower social support intercept in patients included not being married/partnered, being White, having lower perceived general health, and having higher negative affect (modeled as a latent variable defined by anxiety and depression symptom severity). Patients who were African American (vs. White) or had mastectomy (vs. lumpectomy) had steeper social support declines, and participants with both these characteristics had lower starting points as well as steeper declines. Social support among controls did not change significantly. Conclusions Clinicians might consider psychosocial interventions for patients reporting low social support around the time of diagnosis and surgical treatment, and for patients at risk for steeper declines in support, such as African Americans and women undergoing mastectomy. PMID:23477582

  19. The Early Stages of Formation of a Solar System Dust Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy, Ashley J.; Dermott, S. F.; Kehoe, T. J. J.

    2009-09-01

    A solar system dust band is formed as the dust released in the catastrophic disruption of an asteroid in the main belt decays under the effects of radiation forces and is sculpted by gravitational perturbations. There are currently known to be at least three full dust band pairs (Low et al., 1984) and these have been associated with several-million-year-old asteroidal disruptions (Dermott et al., 2002; Nesvorny et al., 2003; 2008). A method of coadding the IRAS data set to increase the signal-to-noise ratio revealed the existence of an additional, very faint, partially-formed dust band at 17 degrees inclination (Espy et al., 2009), likely a confirmation of the M/N pair suggested by Sykes (1988). Partial dust bands represent a very early stage of the dynamical evolution of the dust released in the catastrophic disruption of a parent asteroid. We build a model of the formation of this partial band, in order to determine the main dynamical mechanisms controlling dust band formation. Comparison of this model to the coadded IRAS observations also allows us to put strong constraints on the node, semi-major axis, inclination and age of the source body, as well as the cross-sectional area and size-distribution of dust in the band. Because of the young age of partial dust bands, typically much less than a million years old, collisions have not yet begun to play an important role and the size-distribution is closer to that created in the original disruption. Additionally, less of the dust produced in the disruption has been lost to removal by P-R drag than in the older, fully-formed dust bands. These factors imply that partial dust bands provide important information about the dust originally produced in the catastrophic disruption of an asteroid.

  20. Relaxin Peptide Hormones Are Protective During the Early Stages of Ischemic Stroke in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, Jordan M.; Alibhai, Faisal J.; Connell, Barry J.; Saleh, Tarek M.; Wilson, Brian C.; Summerlee, Alastair J. S.

    2015-01-01

    The pregnancy hormone relaxin protects tissue from ischemic damage. The ability of relaxin-3, a relaxin paralog, to do so has not been explored. The cerebral expression levels of these peptides and their receptors make them logical targets for study in the ischemic brain. We assessed relaxin peptide-mediated protection, relative relaxin family peptide receptor (RXFP) involvement, and protective mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats receiving permanent (pMCAO) or transient middle cerebral artery occlusions (tMCAO) were treated with relaxin peptides, and brains were collected for infarct analysis. Activation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway was evaluated as a potential protective mechanism. Primary cortical rat astrocytes were exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation and treated with relaxin peptides, and viability was examined. Receptor involvement was explored using RXFP3 antagonist or agonist treatment and real-time PCR. Relaxin and relaxin-3 reduced infarct size after pMCAO. Both peptides activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Because relaxin-3 has not previously been associated with this pathway and displays promiscuous RXFP binding, we explored the receptor contribution. Expression of rxfp1 was greater than that of rxfp3 in rat brain, although peptide binding at either receptor resulted in similar overall protection after pMCAO. Only RXFP3 activation reduced infarct size after tMCAO. In astrocytes, rxfp3 gene expression was greater than that of rxfp1. Selective activation of RXFP3 maintained astrocyte viability after oxygen glucose deprivation. Relaxin peptides are protective during the early stages of ischemic stroke. Differential responses among treatments and models suggest that RXFP1 and RXFP3 initiate different protective mechanisms. This preliminary work is a pivotal first step in identifying the clinical implications of relaxin peptides in ischemic stroke. PMID:25456068

  1. Relaxin peptide hormones are protective during the early stages of ischemic stroke in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Lindsay H; Willcox, Jordan M; Alibhai, Faisal J; Connell, Barry J; Saleh, Tarek M; Wilson, Brian C; Summerlee, Alastair J S

    2015-02-01

    The pregnancy hormone relaxin protects tissue from ischemic damage. The ability of relaxin-3, a relaxin paralog, to do so has not been explored. The cerebral expression levels of these peptides and their receptors make them logical targets for study in the ischemic brain. We assessed relaxin peptide-mediated protection, relative relaxin family peptide receptor (RXFP) involvement, and protective mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats receiving permanent (pMCAO) or transient middle cerebral artery occlusions (tMCAO) were treated with relaxin peptides, and brains were collected for infarct analysis. Activation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway was evaluated as a potential protective mechanism. Primary cortical rat astrocytes were exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation and treated with relaxin peptides, and viability was examined. Receptor involvement was explored using RXFP3 antagonist or agonist treatment and real-time PCR. Relaxin and relaxin-3 reduced infarct size after pMCAO. Both peptides activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Because relaxin-3 has not previously been associated with this pathway and displays promiscuous RXFP binding, we explored the receptor contribution. Expression of rxfp1 was greater than that of rxfp3 in rat brain, although peptide binding at either receptor resulted in similar overall protection after pMCAO. Only RXFP3 activation reduced infarct size after tMCAO. In astrocytes, rxfp3 gene expression was greater than that of rxfp1. Selective activation of RXFP3 maintained astrocyte viability after oxygen glucose deprivation. Relaxin peptides are protective during the early stages of ischemic stroke. Differential responses among treatments and models suggest that RXFP1 and RXFP3 initiate different protective mechanisms. This preliminary work is a pivotal first step in identifying the clinical implications of relaxin peptides in ischemic stroke. PMID:25456068

  2. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin activity at the early growing stage in foals.

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, M; Asano, M; Tagami, M; Tsukiyama, K; Fujinaga, T

    1998-01-01

    Serum concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P), as well as antigenic ceruloplasmin (Cp) and oxidase activity as a functional index for copper metabolism, were measured in 10 foals (5 males and 5 females) and their dams. Samples were harvested from the foals within 1 wk after birth and monthly from 1 to 17 mo of age. Samples were collected from their dams in the perinatal period (monthly from 2 mo before delivery to 5 mo postpartum). Serum oxidase activity, antigenic Cp and Cu in foals were extremely low at 1 wk. Serum Cp had the lowest value of 17.0 +/- 8.0 (mean +/- SD) mg/dL within the 1st wk, then increased rapidly up to 43.7 +/- 5.8 mg/dL at 1 mo, and maintained this level until the 17th mo. Serum Zn in foals had the highest value of 73.2 +/- 13.1 micrograms/dL within 1 wk, then decreased to 38.3 +/- 5.9 micrograms/dL by 17 mo. Serum Mn, Ca and P in mares were almost stable and within established reference ranges for our laboratory in the perinatal period, and these values in foals were also in the normal range. Even on appropriate feeding, serum Cu, Cp and oxidase activity were quite low a few weeks after birth, while a higher proportion of Cp-binding copper was found in the foals. This might be caused by the limited synthesis of ceruloplasmin in this period. These data suggest that newborn foals are in a critical situation of marginal copper status in the early stage of growth. PMID:9553711

  3. Latitudinal variation in thermal tolerance thresholds of early life stages of corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolsey, E. S.; Keith, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Schmidt-Roach, S.; Baird, A. H.

    2015-06-01

    Organisms living in habitats characterized by a marked seasonal temperature variation often have a greater thermal tolerance than those living in more stable habitats. To determine the extent to which this hypothesis applies to reef corals, we compared thermal tolerance of the early life stages of five scleractinian species from three locations spanning 17° of latitude along the east coast of Australia. Embryos were exposed to an 8 °C temperature range around the local ambient temperature at the time of spawning. Upper thermal thresholds, defined as the temperature treatment at which the proportion of abnormal embryos or median life span was significantly different to ambient controls, varied predictably among locations. At Lizard Island, the northern-most site with the least annual variation in temperature, the proportion of abnormal embryos increased and life span decreased 2 °C above ambient in the two species tested. At two southern sites, One Tree Island and Lord Howe Island, where annual temperature variation was greater, upper temperature thresholds were generally 4 °C or greater above ambient for both variables in the four species tested. The absolute upper thermal threshold temperature also varied among locations: 30 °C at Lizard Island; 28 °C at One Tree Island; 26 °C at Lord Howe Island. These results support previous work on adult corals demonstrating predictable differences in upper thermal thresholds with latitude. With projected ocean warming, these temperature thresholds will be exceeded in northern locations in the near future, adding to a growing body of evidence indicating that climate change is likely to be more detrimental to low latitude than high latitude corals.

  4. Economic Impact of Gene Expression Profiling in Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer in France

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Gregory; Romano, Olivier; Foa, Cyril; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Chantelard, Jean-Victor; Hervé, Robert; Barletta, Hugues; Durieux, Axel; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Salmon, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The heterogeneous nature of breast cancer can make decisions on adjuvant chemotherapy following surgical resection challenging. Oncotype DX is a validated gene expression profiling test that predicts the likelihood of adjuvant chemotherapy benefit in early-stage breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine the costs of chemotherapy in private hospitals in France, and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Oncotype DX from national insurance and societal perspectives. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in seven French private hospitals, capturing retrospective data from 106 patient files. Cost estimates were used in conjunction with a published Markov model to assess the cost-effectiveness of using Oncotype DX to inform chemotherapy decision making versus standard care. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results The cost of adjuvant chemotherapy in private hospitals was estimated at EUR 8,218 per patient from a national insurance perspective and EUR 10,305 from a societal perspective. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that introducing Oncotype DX improved life expectancy (+0.18 years) and quality-adjusted life expectancy (+0.17 QALYs) versus standard care. Oncotype DX was found cost-effective from a national insurance perspective (EUR 2,134 per QALY gained) and cost saving from a societal perspective versus standard care. Inclusion of lost productivity costs in the modeling analysis meant that costs for eligible patients undergoing Oncotype DX testing were on average EUR 602 lower than costs for those receiving standard care. Conclusions As Oncotype DX was found both cost and life-saving from a societal perspective, the test was considered to be dominant to standard care. However, the delay in coverage has the potential to erode the quality of the French healthcare system, thus depriving patients of technologies that could improve clinical outcomes and allow healthcare professionals to better allocate hospital resources to improve the standard of care for all patients. PMID:26086912

  5. Fertility sparing surgery for treatment of early-stage cervical cancer: open vs. robotic radical trachelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nick, Alpa M.; Frumovitz, Michael M.; Soliman, Pamela T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the open versus robotic surgical approaches and provide surgical outcome data on patients who have undergone radical trachelectomy (RT). Methods We identified patients who underwent open (ORT) or robotic radical trachelectomy (RRT) between September 2005–June 2011. Tumor characteristics, perioperative, operative and obstetrical outcomes were analyzed. Results Thirty-seven patients with early stage cervical cancer that desired future fertility underwent attempted radical trachelectomy, and 32 patients (20 with 1B1, 11 with 1A2, and 5 with 1A1 with LVSI/poorly differentiated histology) had successful completion of RT. Five (1 open/4 robotic) underwent conversion to radical hysterectomy secondary to close (<5mm) endocervical margin (p=0.08). The median age at diagnosis was 28.9 years (range; 21.4–37.2), 70% were nulliparous, and 9 had a visible lesion. Twenty-five patients (68%) underwent ORT and 12 (32%) underwent RRT. RRT was associated with less blood loss (62.5 mL vs. 300 mL, p=0.0001) and decreased length of postoperative stay (1 vs. 4 days, p<0.001), with no difference in operative time or histopathologic outcomes. Twenty-three patients (62%) had no residual cervical disease on final pathology. Common long-term morbidities were irregular menstrual bleeding or amenorrhea (25%), cerclage erosion (13%), or cervical stenosis (9%). Although there was a higher rate of conversion to hysterectomy in the robotic surgery cohort, rates of serious morbidities among the cohorts were comparable (robotic: 33% vs. open: 24%, p=0.70). Eleven (36%) patients are actively attempting pregnancy and three have achieved pregnancy. The median time of follow up is 17.0 months (range 0.30–64.9 months). There are no documented recurrences. Conclusions RRT results in less blood loss and decreased length of hospital stay with no compromise in histopathologic outcomes. PMID:22035808

  6. Transient increases in p53-responsible gene expression at early stages of Epstein-Barr virus productive replication.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshitaka; Shirata, Noriko; Murata, Takayuki; Nakasu, Sho; Kudoh, Ayumi; Iwahori, Satoko; Nakayama, Sanae; Chiba, Shigeki; Isomura, Hiroki; Kanda, Teru; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2010-02-15

    Expression of Epstein-Barr Virus BZLF1, a key protein initiating the switch from latent to lytic infection, is known to cause cell growth arrest by accumulating p53 and p21(WAF1/CIP1) in epithelial cells, but its molecular mechanism remains elusive. We found here that the BZLF1 protein stimulates p53 binding to its recognition sequence. The BZLF1 accelerated the rate of p53-DNA complex formation through the interaction with p53 protein and also enhanced p53-specific transcription in vitro. Furthermore, p53 protein was found to bind to its target promoter regions specifically in the early stages of lytic replication. Overexpression of p53 at the early stages of lytic replication enhanced viral genome replication, supporting the idea that p53 plays an important role in the initiation steps of EBV replication. Taking the independent role of BZLF1 on p53 degradation into consideration, we propose that the BZLF1 protein regulates p53 and its target gene products in two distinctive manners; transient induction of p53 at the early stages for the initiation of viral productive replication and p53 degradation at the later stages for S-phase like environment preferable for viral replication. PMID:20139729

  7. Early Developmental Stages of the Green Tiger Prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus de Haan (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse D. Ronquillo; Toshio Saisho; Robert Scott McKinley

    2006-01-01

    Gravid females of Penaeus semisulcatus were spawned in the laboratory by natural means. The embryos were documented and the larvae were reared from hatching to\\u000a postlarval stage at 28.2–30.0 C and 33.5–34.5 g kg?1 salinity for about 10 days (223 h 55 min). Six naupliar stages, three protozoea stages, three mysis stages and the first\\u000a postlarval stage were described and illustrated. The larvae were fed only

  8. Ptaquiloside-induced early-stage urothelial lesions show increased cell proliferation and intact ?-catenin and E-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    Gil da Costa, Rui M; Oliveira, Paula A; Bastos, Margarida M S M; Lopes, Célia C; Lopes, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is a carcinogenic plant whose main toxin, ptaquiloside, causes cancer in farm and laboratory animals. Ptaquiloside contaminates underground waters as well as meat and milk from bracken-grazing animals and is a suspected human carcinogen. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis can be achieved by studying the early stages of this process. Unfortunately, most research on ptaquiloside has focused on the late, malignant, lesions, so the early changes of ptaquiloside-induced carcinogenesis remain largely unknown. This study aims to characterize early-stage ptaquiloside-induced urinary bladder lesions both morphologically and immunohistochemically. 12 male CD-1 mice were administered 0.5 mg ptaquiloside intraperitoneally, weekly, for 15 weeks, followed by 15 weeks without treatment. 12 control animals were administered saline. Bladders were tested immunohistochemically for antibodies against a cell proliferation marker (Ki-67), and two cell adhesion markers (E-cadherin and ?-catenin). Two exposed animals died during the work. Six ptaquiloside-exposed mice developed low-grade and two developed high grade urothelial dysplasia. No lesions were detected on control animals. Significantly, increased (p < 0.05) Ki-67 labeling indices were found on dysplastic urothelium from ptaquiloside-exposed mice, compared with controls. No differences were found concerning E-cadherin and ?-catenin expression. Early-stage ptaquiloside-induced urothelial lesions show increased cell proliferation but there is no evidence for reduced intercellular adhesiveness, though this may be a later event in tumor progression. PMID:22859263

  9. Involvement of reactive oxygen species during early stages of ectomycorrhiza establishment between Castanea sativa and Pisolithus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Paula; Martins, Anabela; Pais, Maria Salomé; Tavares, Rui M; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2007-05-01

    Evidence for the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) establishment is lacking. In this paper, we evaluated ROS production and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) during the early contact of the ECM fungus Pisolithus tinctorius with the roots of Castanea sativa (chestnut tree). Roots were placed in contact with P. tinctorius mycelia, and ROS production was evaluated by determining the levels of H(2)O(2) and O(2) (.-) during the early stages of fungal contact. Three peaks of H(2)O(2) production were detected, the first two coinciding with O(2) (.-) bursts. The first H(2)O(2) production peak coincided with an increase in SOD activity, whereas CAT activity seemed to be implicated in H(2)O(2) scavenging. P. tinctorius growth was evaluated in the presence of P. tinctorius-elicited C. sativa crude extracts prepared during the early stages of fungal contact. Differential hyphal growth that matched the H(2)O(2) production profile with a delay was detected. The result suggests that during the early stages of ECM establishment, H(2)O(2) results from an inhibition of ROS-scavenging enzymes and plays a role in signalling during symbiotic establishment. PMID:17216276

  10. Long-Term Outcomes of Early-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Alone

    SciTech Connect

    Su Shengfa [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Oncology, GuiYang Medical College Hospital, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Han Fei; Zhao Chong; Chen Chunyan; Xiao Weiwei; Li Jiaxin [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lu Taixiang, E-mail: ssf2010@sina.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Reports of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have been limited. The present study evaluated the long-term survival outcomes and toxicity of early-stage NPC patients treated with IMRT alone. Methods and Materials: Between February 2001 and January 2008, 198 early-stage (T1-T2bN0-N1M0) NPC patients had undergone IMRT alone. The data from these patients were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were treated to 68 Gy at 2.27 Gy/fraction prescribed to the planning target volume of the primary nasopharygeal gross tumor volume. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system was used to assess the toxicity. Results: At a median follow-up of 50.9 months (range, 12-104), the 5-year estimated disease-specific survival, local recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rate was 97.3%, 97.7%, and 97.8%, respectively. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival rate was 100% for those with Stage T1 and T2a and 94.2% for those with Stage T2b lesions (p = 0.252). The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rate for Stage T1N0, T2N0, T1N1, and T2N1 patients was 100%, 98.8%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively (p = .073). All local recurrence occurred in patients with T2b lesions. Five patients developed distant metastasis. Of these 5 patients, 4 had had Stage T2bN1 disease and 1 had had Stage T2bN0 disease with retropharyngeal lymph node involvement. The most common acute toxicities were mainly Grade 1 or 2. At 24 months after IMRT, no Grade 3 or 4 xerostomia had developed, and 62 (96.9%) of 64 evaluated patients were free of trismus; only 2 patients (3.1%) had Grade 1 trismus. Radiation encephalopathy and cranial nerve injury were not observed. Conclusions: IMRT alone for Stage T1N0, T2N0, T1N1, and T2N1 yielded satisfactory survival outcomes with acceptable toxicity, and no differences were found in survival outcomes among these four subgroups. Patients with Stage T2b lesions might have relatively greater risk of local recurrence and those with T2bN1 disease mighth have a greater risk of distant metastasis.

  11. Plant-fungus mutualism affects spider composition in successional fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura K. Finkes; Alan B. Cady; Juliana C. Mulroy; Keith Clay; Jennifer A. Rudgers

    2006-01-01

    Mutualistic symbionts are widespread in plants and may have strong, bottom-up influences on community structure. Here we show that a grass-endophyte mutualism shifts the composition of a generalist predator assemblage. In replicated, successional fields we manipulated endophyte infection by Neotyphodium coenophialum in a dominant, non-native plant (Lolium arundinaceum). We compared the magnitude of the endophyte effect with manipulations of thatch

  12. Clearcut stand size and scrub-successional bird assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of clearcut stand size on species richness, reproductive effort, and relative abundance of scrub-successional birds and the entire bird assemblage at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. We used standardized mist-net grids to mark and recapture birds in clearcuts replanted with longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) in stands of 2 to 57 ha that were two to six years old. Species richness for the entire bird assemblage was not explained by stand size (P = 0.67), stand age (P = 0.95), or the interaction of these two variables (P = 0.90). Similarly, species richness of scrub-successional birds was not explained by stand size (P = 0.63), stand age (P = 0.55), or the interaction of stand size and stand age (P = 0.35). Regressing species richness on clearcut stand size, we found a significant negative relationship between these variables for the entire bird assemblage (P = 0.01) and for scrub-successional birds (P = 0.02). The ratio of juveniles to adults in mist-net samples varied by year (P = 0.04), but neither clearcut size (P = 0.23) nor the interaction of clearcut size and year (P = 0.25) was related to the ratio of juveniles to adults in the sample. We found no relationship between the frequency of capture of any category of birds and stand size (scrub-successional, P = 0.52; woodland, P = 0.77; combined sample, P = 0.55). Neither bird-species richness, reproductive effort, nor relative abundance differed across clearcut stand sizes. Clearcut stand size does not appear to be an important management variable if variation in species richness, reproductive effort, or relative abundance are objectives. We suggest that even-aged forestry is a useful tool for managing birds in the southeastern United States.

  13. {sup 1}H NMR-based spectroscopy detects metabolic alterations in serum of patients with early-stage ulcerative colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying; Lin, Lianjie [Second Department of Gastroenterology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)] [Second Department of Gastroenterology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Xu, Yanbin [Wanlei Life Sciences (Shenyang) Co., Ltd., Shenyang 110179 (China)] [Wanlei Life Sciences (Shenyang) Co., Ltd., Shenyang 110179 (China); Lin, Yan; Jin, Yu [Second Department of Gastroenterology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)] [Second Department of Gastroenterology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zheng, Changqing, E-mail: changqing_zheng@126.com [Second Department of Gastroenterology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)] [Second Department of Gastroenterology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Twenty ulcerative colitis patients and nineteen healthy controls were enrolled. •Increased 3-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, phenylalanine, and decreased lipid were found. •We report early stage diagnosis of ulcerative colitis using NMR-based metabolomics. -- Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC) has seriously impaired the health of citizens. Accurate diagnosis of UC at an early stage is crucial to improve the efficiency of treatment and prognosis. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR)-based metabolomic analysis was performed on serum samples collected from active UC patients (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 19), respectively. The obtained spectral profiles were subjected to multivariate data analysis. Our results showed that consistent metabolic alterations were present between the two groups. Compared to healthy controls, UC patients displayed increased 3-hydroxybutyrate, ?-glucose, ?-glucose, and phenylalanine, but decreased lipid in serum. These findings highlight the possibilities of NMR-based metabolomics as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for UC.

  14. Early stages of spinodal decomposition in Fe-Cr resolved by in-situ small-angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörnqvist, M.; Thuvander, M.; Steuwer, A.; King, S.; Odqvist, J.; Hedström, P.

    2015-02-01

    In-situ, time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigations of the early stages of the spinodal decomposition process in Fe-35Cr were performed at 773 and 798 K. The kinetics of the decomposition, both in terms of characteristic distance and peak intensity, followed a power-law behaviour from the start of the heat treatment (a'= 0.10-0.11 and a? = 0.67-0.86). Furthermore, the method allows tracking of the high-Q slope, which is a sensitive measure of the early stages of decomposition. Ex-situ SANS and atom probe tomography were used to verify the results from the in-situ investigations. Finally, the in-situ measurement of the evolution of the characteristic distance at 773 K was compared with the predictions from the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook model, which showed good agreement with the experimental data (a'= 0.12-0.20 depending on the assumed mobility).

  15. Influence of early fate decisions at the two-cell stage on the derivation of mouse embryonic stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    González, Sheyla; Ibáñez, Elena; Santaló, Josep

    2011-07-01

    The first event of differentiation in mammalian embryogenesis is the segregation of the inner cell mass and trophectoderm lineages in the blastocyst. Cellular and molecular events related to this process are still a controversial issue. During the years it was thought that first allocation of blastomeres before the blastocyst stage was done in the late eight-cell stage with the formation of inner and outer cells. Lately, many studies have pointed out that individual blastomeres at the four-cell stage differ in their developmental properties according to their position within the embryo. In this report, we wanted to elucidate whether these early decisions influence the production of mouse embryonic stem cell lines, so that a selective isolation of blastomeres at the four-cell stage to derive the lines could improve the efficiency of the derivation process. Results from blastomere tracking experiments support the idea of a different developmental potential of blastomeres within the four-cell stage embryo. However, we also show a high plasticity in the developmental pattern of blastomeres once isolated from the embryo, thus making all four-cell stage blastomeres equally competent to derive ESC lines. PMID:21531646

  16. Partial-Breast Irradiation Versus Whole-Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Wittenberg, Eve [Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA (United States); Suh, W. Warren [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Punglia, Rinaa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: rpunglia@lroc.harvard.edu

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation (PBI) is a new treatment paradigm for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Although PBI may lead to greater local recurrence rates, it may be cost-effective because of better tolerability and lower cost. We aim to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of PBI compared with whole-breast radiation therapy (WBRT) for estrogen receptor-positive postmenopausal women treated for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe health states in the 15 years after radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. External beam (EB) and MammoSite (MS) PBI were considered and assumed to be equally effective, but carried different costs. Patients received tamoxifen, but not chemotherapy. Utilities, recurrence risks, and costs were adapted from the literature; the baseline utility for no disease after radiotherapy was set at 0.92. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to model uncertainty in the PBI hazard ratio, recurrence pattern, and patient utilities. Costs (in 2004 US dollars) and quality-adjusted life-years were discounted at 3%/y. Results: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for WBRT compared with EB-PBI was $630,000/quality-adjusted life-year; WBRT strongly dominated MS-PBI. One-way sensitivity analysis found that results were sensitive to PBI hazard ratio, recurrence pattern, baseline recurrence risk, and no evidence of disease PBI utility values. Probabilistic sensitivity showed that EB-PBI was the most cost-effective technique over a wide range of assumptions and societal willingness-to-pay values. Conclusions: EB-PBI was the most cost-effective strategy for postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer. Unless the quality of life after MS-PBI proves to be superior, it is unlikely to be cost-effective.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Primary versus Secondary Prophylaxis with Pegfilgrastim in Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott D. Ramsey; Zhimei Liu; Rob Boer; Sean D. Sullivan; Jennifer Malin; Quan V. Doan; Robert W. Dubois; Gary H. Lyman

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveProphylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) reduces the risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of G-CSF pegfilgrastim primary (starting in cycle 1 and continuing in subsequent cycles of chemotherapy) versus secondary (only after an FN event) prophylaxis in women with early-stage breast cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy with a ?20% FN risk.

  18. Using FDTD to improve our understanding of partial wave spectroscopy for advancing ultra early-stage cancer detection techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamesina J. Simpson; I. R. Capoglu; V. Backman

    2009-01-01

    We present numerical modeling techniques and results geared towards improving our understanding of the physical basis underlying partial wave spectroscopy. This work is in support of an ongoing effort in developing and advancing ultra early-stage cancer detection techniques. First, our initial finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling methodology and results for synthesizing partial wave spectroscopy are presented for an inhomogeneous dielectric sphere.

  19. Alterations of Toll-like Receptor 4 Expression on Peripheral Blood Monocytes During the Early Stage of Human Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Guang Li; Zong-Guang Zhou; Yuan Li; Xue-Lian Zheng; Song Lei; Lin Zhu; Yong Wang

    2007-01-01

    We sought to study Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during the early stage\\u000a of human acute pancreatitis (AP). Thirty consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis admitted within 24 hr of onset of abdominal\\u000a pain were enrolled prospectively in this study. Blood samples were taken by venipuncture at admission and on the third and\\u000a seventh days

  20. Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties to increase their thermal tolerance windows. PMID:22701620