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Sample records for early successional stage

  1. Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Belnap, J.

    2007-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs for arid land soils and often represent a dominant portion of the soil surface cover in arid lands. Free-living soil nematode communities reflect their environment and have been used as biological indicators of soil condition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nematode communities are successionally more mature beneath well-developed, late-successional stage crusts than immature, early-successional stage crusts. We identified and enumerated nematodes by genus from beneath early- and late-stage crusts from both the Colorado Plateau, Utah (cool, winter rain desert) and Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico (hot, summer rain desert) at 0-10 and 10-30 cm depths. As hypothesized, nematode abundance, richness, diversity, and successional maturity were greater beneath well-developed crusts than immature crusts. The mechanism of this aboveground-belowground link between biological soil crusts and nematode community composition is likely the increased food, habitat, nutrient inputs, moisture retention, and/or environmental stability provided by late-successional crusts. Canonical correspondence analysis of nematode genera demonstrated that nematode community composition differed greatly between geographic locations that contrast in temperature, precipitation, and soil texture. We found unique assemblages of genera among combinations of location and crust type that reveal a gap in scientific knowledge regarding empirically derived characterization of dominant nematode genera in deserts soils and their functional role in a crust-associated food web. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing archaea abundance in subtropical forests at early and late successional stages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Wei; Lian, Juyu; Ye, Wanhui; Shen, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the spatial distribution patterns of soil microorganisms is helpful in understanding the biogeochemical processes they perform, but has been less studied relative to those of macroorganisms. In this study, we investigated and compared the spatially explicit distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) abundance and the influential factors between an early (ES) and a late successional (LS) subtropical forest stand. The average AOA abundance, vegetational attributes, and soil nutrient contents were mostly greater in the LS than the ES stand (P = 0.085 or smaller), but their spatial variations were more pronounced in the ES than the LS stand. The spatial distribution patches of AOA abundance were smaller and more irregular in the ES stand (patch size <50 m) than in the LS stand (patch size about 120 m). Edaphic and vegetational variables contributed more to the spatial variations of AOA abundance for the ES (9.3%) stand than for LS stand, whereas spatial variables (MEMs) were the main contributors (62%) for the LS stand. These results suggest that environmental filtering likely influence the spatial distribution of AOA abundance at early successional stage more than that at late successional stage, while spatial dispersal is dominant at late successional stage. PMID:26565069

  3. Spatial distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing archaea abundance in subtropical forests at early and late successional stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Wei; Lian, Juyu; Ye, Wanhui; Shen, Weijun

    2015-11-01

    Characterizing the spatial distribution patterns of soil microorganisms is helpful in understanding the biogeochemical processes they perform, but has been less studied relative to those of macroorganisms. In this study, we investigated and compared the spatially explicit distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) abundance and the influential factors between an early (ES) and a late successional (LS) subtropical forest stand. The average AOA abundance, vegetational attributes, and soil nutrient contents were mostly greater in the LS than the ES stand (P = 0.085 or smaller), but their spatial variations were more pronounced in the ES than the LS stand. The spatial distribution patches of AOA abundance were smaller and more irregular in the ES stand (patch size <50 m) than in the LS stand (patch size about 120 m). Edaphic and vegetational variables contributed more to the spatial variations of AOA abundance for the ES (9.3%) stand than for LS stand, whereas spatial variables (MEMs) were the main contributors (62%) for the LS stand. These results suggest that environmental filtering likely influence the spatial distribution of AOA abundance at early successional stage more than that at late successional stage, while spatial dispersal is dominant at late successional stage.

  4. Succession stage variation in population size in an early-successional herb in a peri-urban forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rossum, Fabienne

    2009-03-01

    Urban and peri-urban forests incur high anthropogenic pressures (e.g. recreational activities, artificialization, and eutrophication). Plant species from early-successional, transient, forest habitats, often characterized by a short life span and a persistent seed bank in the soil may differ from late-successional species in key-factors for population persistence. This study investigated variation in population size and seedling recruitment for different forest succession stages and three consecutive years in Centaurium erythraea, an early-successional biennial herb, occurring in a peri-urban forest of Brussels urban zone (Belgium). Forest succession stage had a significant impact on C. erythraea population size and on its temporal fluctuation. Populations in closing vegetation (evolving to late-succession stages) showed small population sizes and a low number of recruits compared to populations from stable early-succession vegetation and clearcuts. The number of recruits was the highest after clearcutting, which can be related to the expression of the soil seed bank. Populations showed year-to-year variation in size (flowering individuals and recruits), even in stable (over three years) early-succession forest vegetation. In the absence of disturbance changing succession stage, population size is expected to depend on seed set of the previous years and subsequent seedling recruitment, which can be affected by environmental stochasticity. Opening gaps in the herbaceous vegetation may stimulate seedling recruitment, also in unoccupied patches where "cryptic" seed populations are present in the soil. Forest path and road verges, despite their potential negative impact on forests, can constitute refuge habitats for early-successional forest plant species. Their management should involve the preservation of these species.

  5. Succession Influences Wild Bees in a Temperate Forest Landscape: The Value of Early Successional Stages in Naturally Regenerated and Planted Forests

    PubMed Central

    Taki, Hisatomo; Okochi, Isamu; Okabe, Kimiko; Inoue, Takenari; Goto, Hideaki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2013-01-01

    In many temperate terrestrial forest ecosystems, both natural human disturbances drive the reestablishment of forests. Succession in plant communities, in addition to reforestation following the creation of open sites through harvesting or natural disturbances, can affect forest faunal assemblages. Wild bees perform an important ecosystem function in human-altered and natural or seminatural ecosystems, as they are essential pollinators for both crops and wild flowering plants. To maintain high abundance and species richness for pollination services, it is important to conserve and create seminatural and natural land cover with optimal successional stages for wild bees. We examined the effects of forest succession on wild bees. In particular, we evaluated the importance of early successional stages for bees, which has been suspected but not previously demonstrated. A range of successional stages, between 1 and 178 years old, were examined in naturally regenerated and planted forests. In total 4465 wild bee individuals, representing 113 species, were captured. Results for total bees, solitary bees, and cleptoparasitic bees in both naturally regenerated and planted conifer forests indicated a higher abundance and species richness in the early successional stages. However, higher abundance and species richness of social bees in naturally regenerated forest were observed as the successional stages progressed, whereas the abundance of social bees in conifer planted forest showed a concave-shaped relationship when plotted. The results suggest that early successional stages of both naturally regenerated and conifer planted forest maintain a high abundance and species richness of solitary bees and their cleptoparasitic bees, although social bees respond differently in the early successional stages. This may imply that, in some cases, active forest stand management policies, such as the clear-cutting of planted forests for timber production, would create early successional

  6. Climate extremes can drive biological assemblages to early successional stages compared to several mild disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Extreme climatic events have a major role in the structuring of biological communities, and their occurrence is expected to increase due to climate change. Here I use a manipulative approach to test the effects of extreme storm events on rocky mid-shore assemblages. This study shows that an extreme storm can cause more negative effects than several mild storms, primarily by bringing the biological assemblages towards early stages of succession. This finding contrasts with the effects of clustering of climatic events due to climate change, which are expected to mitigate its ecological impacts. Thus, the ecological consequences of climatic events that are influenced by climate change may have contrasting effects depending on the features that are considered. These results have relevant implications in the forecasting of the ecological consequences of climate change and should be considered when designing measures to mitigate its effects. PMID:27527612

  7. Climate extremes can drive biological assemblages to early successional stages compared to several mild disturbances.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Extreme climatic events have a major role in the structuring of biological communities, and their occurrence is expected to increase due to climate change. Here I use a manipulative approach to test the effects of extreme storm events on rocky mid-shore assemblages. This study shows that an extreme storm can cause more negative effects than several mild storms, primarily by bringing the biological assemblages towards early stages of succession. This finding contrasts with the effects of clustering of climatic events due to climate change, which are expected to mitigate its ecological impacts. Thus, the ecological consequences of climatic events that are influenced by climate change may have contrasting effects depending on the features that are considered. These results have relevant implications in the forecasting of the ecological consequences of climate change and should be considered when designing measures to mitigate its effects. PMID:27527612

  8. Phyllostomid Bat Occurrence in Successional Stages of Neotropical Dry Forests

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel; Stoner, Kathryn Elizabeth; Nassar, Jafet M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Aranguren, Carla I.; Henry, Mickael; González-Carcacía, José A.; Dolabela Falcão, Luiz A.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are highly endangered tropical ecosystems being replaced by a complex mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasturelands. In this context, it is urgent to understand how taxa playing critical ecosystem roles respond to habitat modification. Because Phyllostomid bats provide important ecosystem services (e.g. facilitate gene flow among plant populations and promote forest regeneration), in this study we aimed to identify potential patterns on their response to TDF transformation in sites representing four different successional stages (initial, early, intermediate and late) in three Neotropical regions: México, Venezuela and Brazil. We evaluated bat occurrence at the species, ensemble (abundance) and assemblage level (species richness and composition, guild composition). We also evaluated how bat occurrence was modulated by the marked seasonality of TDFs. In general, we found high seasonal and regional specificities in phyllostomid occurrence, driven by specificities at species and guild levels. For example, highest frugivore abundance occurred in the early stage of the moistest TDF, while highest nectarivore abundance occurred in the same stage of the driest TDF. The high regional specificity of phyllostomid responses could arise from: (1) the distinctive environmental conditions of each region, (2) the specific behavior and ecological requirements of the regional bat species, (3) the composition, structure and phenological patterns of plant assemblages in the different stages, and (4) the regional landscape composition and configuration. We conclude that, in tropical seasonal environments, it is imperative to perform long-term studies considering seasonal variations in environmental conditions and plant phenology, as well as the role of landscape attributes. This approach will allow us to identify potential patterns in bat responses to habitat modification, which constitute an invaluable tool for

  9. Early Successional Microhabitats Allow the Persistence of Endangered Plants in Coastal Sand Dunes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  10. Early successional microhabitats allow the persistence of endangered plants in coastal sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Vickstrom, Kyle E; Knight, Tiffany M

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  11. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and β- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial α-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial α-diversity is not always linked to high plant α-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial β-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession. PMID:26184121

  12. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and β- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial α-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial α-diversity is not always linked to high plant α-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial β-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession. PMID:26184121

  13. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and β- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial α-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial α-diversity is not always linked to high plant α-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial β-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession.

  14. Changes in Forest Soil Properties in Different Successional Stages in Lower Tropical China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuelin; Yang, Fangfang; Ou, Yangxu; Zhang, Deqiang; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhang, Yaru; Otieno, Dennis; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural forest succession often affects soil physical and chemical properties. Selected physical and chemical soil properties were studied in an old-growth forest across a forest successional series in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Southern China. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim was to assess the effects of forest succession change on soil properties. Soil samples (0–20 cm depth) were collected from three forest types at different succession stages, namely pine (Pinus massoniana) forest (PMF), mixed pine and broadleaf forest (PBMF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (MEBF), representing early, middle and advanced successional stages respectively. The soil samples were analyzed for soil water storage (SWS), soil organic matter (SOM), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), pH, NH4+-N, available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) and microelements (available copper (Cu), available zinc (Zn), available iron (Fe) and available boron (B)) between 1999 and 2009. The results showed that SWS, SOM, SMBC, Cu, Zn, Fe and B concentrations were higher in the advanced successional stage (MEBF stage). Conversely, P and pH were lower in the MEBF but higher in the PMF (early successional stage). pH, NH4+-N, P and K declined while SOM, Zn, Cu, Fe and B increased with increasing forest age. Soil pH was lower than 4.5 in the three forest types, indicating that the surface soil was acidic, a stable trend in Dinghushan. Conclusion/Significance These findings demonstrated significant impacts of natural succession in an old-growth forest on the surface soil nutrient properties and organic matter. Changes in soil properties along the forest succession gradient may be a useful index for evaluating the successional stages of the subtropical forests. We caution that our inferences are drawn from a pseudo-replicated chronosequence, as true replicates were difficult to find. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding on nutrient dynamics in

  15. Comparative hydraulic architecture of tropical tree species representing a range of successional stages and wood density.

    PubMed

    McCulloh, Katherine A; Meinzer, Frederick C; Sperry, John S; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Voelker, Steven L; Woodruff, David R; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2011-09-01

    Plant hydraulic architecture (PHA) has been linked to water transport sufficiency, photosynthetic rates, growth form and attendant carbon allocation. Despite its influence on traits central to conferring an overall competitive advantage in a given environment, few studies have examined whether key aspects of PHA are indicative of successional stage, especially within mature individuals. While it is well established that wood density (WD) tends to be lower in early versus late successional tree species, and that WD can influence other aspects of PHA, the interaction of WD, successional stage and the consequent implications for PHA have not been sufficiently explored. Here, we studied differences in PHA at the scales of wood anatomy to whole-tree hydraulic conductance in species in early versus late successional Panamanian tropical forests. Although the trunk WD was indistinguishable between the successional groups, the branch WD was lower in the early successional species. Across all species, WD correlated negatively with vessel diameter and positively with vessel packing density. The ratio of branch:trunk vessel diameter, branch sap flux and whole-tree leaf-specific conductance scaled negatively with branch WD across species. Pioneer species showed greater sap flux in branches than in trunks and a greater leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, suggesting that pioneer species can move greater quantities of water at a given tension gradient. In combination with the greater water storage capacitance associated with lower WD, these results suggest these pioneer species can save on the carbon expenditure needed to build safer xylem and instead allow more carbon to be allocated to rapid growth. PMID:21445684

  16. Carbon and nitrogen fixation differ between successional stages of biological soil crusts in the Colorado Plateau and Chihuahuan Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Housman, D.C.; Powers, H.H.; Collins, A.D.; Belnap, J.

    2006-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens collectively) perform essential ecosystem services, including carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fixation. Climate and land-use change are converting later successional soil crusts to early successional soil crusts with lower C and N fixation rates. To quantify the effect of such conversions on C and N dynamics in desert ecosystems we seasonally measured diurnal fixation rates in different biological soil crusts. We classified plots on the Colorado Plateau (Canyonlands) and Chihuahuan Desert (Jornada) as early (Microcoleus) or later successional (Nostoc/Scytonema or Placidium/Collema) and measured photosynthesis (Pn), nitrogenase activity (NA), and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) on metabolically active (moist) soil crusts. Later successional crusts typically had greater Pn, averaging 1.2-1.3-fold higher daily C fixation in Canyonlands and 2.4-2.8-fold higher in the Jornada. Later successional crusts also had greater NA, averaging 1.3-7.5-fold higher daily N fixation in Canyonlands and 1.3-25.0-fold higher in the Jornada. Mean daily Fv/Fm was also greater in later successional Canyonlands crusts during winter, and Jornada crusts during all seasons except summer. Together these findings indicate conversion of soil crusts back to early successional stages results in large reductions of C and N inputs into these ecosystems.

  17. Chemical variation in Jacobaea vulgaris is influenced by the interaction of season and vegetation successional stage.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Sabrina; Macel, Mirka; Mulder, Patrick P J; Skidmore, Andrew; van der Putten, Wim H

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge on spatio-temporal dynamics of plant primary and secondary chemistry under natural conditions is important to assess how plant defence varies in real field conditions. Plant primary and secondary chemistry is known to vary with both season and vegetation successional stage, however, in few studies these two sources of variation have been examined in combination. Here we examine variations in primary and secondary chemistry of Jacobaea vulgaris (Asteraceae) throughout the growing season in early, mid, and late stages of secondary succession following land abandonment using a well-established chronosequence in The Netherlands. We investigated primary and secondary chemistry of both leaves and flowers, in order to determine if patterns during seasonal (phenological) development may differ among successional stages. The chemical concentration of primary and secondary chemistry compounds in J. vulgaris varied throughout the season and was affected by vegetation succession stage. Concentrations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) tertiary-amines were highest in flowers during early Summer and in fields that had been abandoned ten to twenty years ago. PA N-oxide concentrations of both leaves and flowers, on the other hand increased with the progression of both season and succession. In Spring and early Summer chlorophyll concentrations were highest, especially in the oldest fields of the chronosequence. During phenological development, nitrogen concentration increased in flowers and decreased in leaves revealing allocation of nutrients from vegetative to reproductive plant parts throughout the growing season. The highest concentrations of N-oxides and chlorophylls were detected in older fields. Thus, our results suggest that variations in plant patterns of nutritional and defence compounds throughout the growing season are depending on successional context. PMID:24412324

  18. Phenotypic plasticity of early and late successional forbs in response to shifts in resources.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingxin; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Daowei; Zhang, Hongxiang; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    We compared the phenotypic plasticity of two early successional forbs of nutrient-poor mobile dunes (Agriophyllum squarrosum and Corispermum macrocarpum) and two later successional forbs (weeds) of stabilized, higher nutrient dunes and cropland (Chenopodium acuminatum and Salsola collina) to variations in environmental factors. A controlled (including soil nutrients, water, and population density) greenhouse experiment was conducted in Horqin sandy land, China. Late successional species had high plasticity in growth response to nutrients and water or high performance in high soil nutrients and water, reflecting their higher nutrient habitat. In contrast, the early successional species have low plasticity, reflecting their adaptation to resource-poor early successional soil. Late successional species did not always have higher reproductive effort than early successional species. Plants did not have a uniform strategy of increasing reproductive effort with any environmental stressors. Reproductive effort increased with increasing water availability and decreasing nutrient levels, while density had no effect. Patterns of plasticity traits for late successional species exhibited a complex of Master-of-some and Jack-of-all-trades. Late successional species had higher performance or higher plasticity than early successional species. PMID:23185600

  19. Phenotypic Plasticity of Early and Late Successional Forbs in Response to Shifts in Resources

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yingxin; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Daowei; Zhang, Hongxiang; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    We compared the phenotypic plasticity of two early successional forbs of nutrient-poor mobile dunes (Agriophyllum squarrosum and Corispermum macrocarpum) and two later successional forbs (weeds) of stabilized, higher nutrient dunes and cropland (Chenopodium acuminatum and Salsola collina) to variations in environmental factors. A controlled (including soil nutrients, water, and population density) greenhouse experiment was conducted in Horqin sandy land, China. Late successional species had high plasticity in growth response to nutrients and water or high performance in high soil nutrients and water, reflecting their higher nutrient habitat. In contrast, the early successional species have low plasticity, reflecting their adaptation to resource-poor early successional soil. Late successional species did not always have higher reproductive effort than early successional species. Plants did not have a uniform strategy of increasing reproductive effort with any environmental stressors. Reproductive effort increased with increasing water availability and decreasing nutrient levels, while density had no effect. Patterns of plasticity traits for late successional species exhibited a complex of Master-of-some and Jack-of-all-trades. Late successional species had higher performance or higher plasticity than early successional species. PMID:23185600

  20. Experimental Analysis of Grazing by the Mayfly Meridialaris chiloeensis on Different Successional Stages of Stream Periphyton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Villanueva, Verónica; Modenutti, Beatriz

    2004-07-01

    In this study we determined grazing effects of the South Andean endemic mayfly Meridialaris chiloeensis on periphyton at different stages of successional development. Grazing effects were studied through a two-factor experimental design (colonization stages X grazer density) in a stream-side channel in spring and winter. Our results showed an absence of proportionality between grazer density and periphyton decline in response to grazers at low and intermediate levels of periphytic biomass; however, when periphyton biomass was high a direct inverse relationship was observed between post-grazing biomass and grazer density. The relationship between periphytic algae (chlorophyll a concentration) and periphyton (total periphytic ash-free dry mass) (C/OM index) was used as an estimation of the autotrophic fraction in the total periphyton matrix. Grazing did not alter the C/OM index indicating that both autotrophic and heterotrophic fractions of the periphyton components were reduced in the same proportion. Ordination of samples using the relative abundance of diatom species showed that herbivore effect was less evident at intermediate and late stage of colonization than at early one. These results support the statement that the outcome of the herbivore-periphyton interaction may depend on the successional stage of the periphyton community. In spring Fragilaria pinnata relative abundance, on the basis of cell counts, was reduced by grazing and Nitzschia palea was enhanced. In the winter experiment, grazing decreased Achnanthes minutissima relative abundance. (

  1. Contrasting genetic diversity and differentiation of populations of two successional stages in a Neotropical pioneer tree (Eremanthus erythropappus, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Freitas, V L O; Lemos-Filho, J P; Lovato, M B

    2008-01-01

    Eremanthus erythropappus, commonly known as "candeia", is an abundant pioneer tree species, forming dense populations known as "candeial", but it is also found in forests at middle stages of succession. Trees from forests are bigger and occur in lower density than in the "candeial". The objectives of the present study were to investigate if the decrease in population density during successional process is accompanied by 1) changes in within-population genetic diversity, and 2) differentiation of populations. Eight populations, four of early successional stage ("candeial") and four of middle successional stages (forest), were analyzed with RAPD markers. The genetic diversity found was high compared to other tree species analyzed with RAPD markers. AMOVA revealed that most of the genetic variations of E. erythropappus were found within populations (85.7%), suggesting that this species is predominantly outcrossing. The relatively low differentiation among the populations can be attributed to small distances among the populations analyzed (0.2 to 10.8 km). No indication that populations from middle successional habitats show lower genetic variation than populations from early successional stages was found. The percentage of polymorphic fragments (82.8 and 84.8%) and the Shannon indexes (0.442 and 0.455) were similar in "candeial" and forest, respectively. These results suggest that if an increase in selection intensity occurred during succession, it did not result in a decrease in genetic diversity or that the selection effect was balanced by other factors, such as gene flow. Higher significant differentiation among E. erythropappus populations from "candeial" in relation to that among populations from forest was also not detected. PMID:18551405

  2. Determining successional stage of temperate coniferous forests with Landsat satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorella, M.; Ripple, W.J. )

    1993-02-01

    Thematic Mapper (TM) digital imagery was used to map forest successional stages and to evaluate spectral differences between old-growth and mature forests in the central Cascade Range of Oregon. Relative sun incidence values were incorporated into the successional stage classification to compensate for topographic induced variation. Relative sun incidence improved the classification accuracy of young successional stages, but did not improve the classification accuracy of older, closed canopy forest classes or overall accuracy. TM bands 1, 2, and 4; the normalized difference vegetation index; and TM 4/3, 4/5, and 4/7 band ratio values for od-growth forests were found to be significantly lower than the values of mature forests. The Tasseled Cap features of brightness, greenness, and wetness also had significantly lower old-growth values as compared to mature forest values. 35 refs.

  3. Influence of biological soil crusts at different successional stages in the implantation of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Sotres, F.; Miralles, I.; Canton-Castilla, Y.; Domingo, F.; Leiros, M. C.; Trasar-Cepeda, C.

    2012-04-01

    Influence of biological soil crusts at different successional stages in the implantation of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid zones I. Miralles1, F. Gil-Sotres2, Y. Cantón-Castilla3, F. Domingo1, M.C. Leirós2, C. Trasar-Cepeda4 1 Experimental Estation of Arid Zones (CSIC), E-04230 La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, Spain. 2 Departamento Edafología y Química Agrícola, Grupo de Evaluación de la Calidad del Suelo, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. 3 University of Almería, Departamento de Edafología y Química Agrícola, E-04230-La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, Spain. 4 Departamento Bioquímica del Suelo, IIAG-CSIC, Apartado 122, E-15708 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Crusts (BSCs) are formed by a close association between soil particles and cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and microfungi in varying proportions. Their habitat is within or immediately on top of the uppermost millimetres of the soil and are the predominant surface cover in arid and semiarid zones. Among the diverse functions developed by BSCs in the ecosystem (hydrology, erosion, soil properties, etc.), one of the most important is its role in nutrient cycling. Within arid and semiarid environments, BSCs have been termed 'mantles of fertility' being considered hotspots of biogeochemical inputs, fixing C, N and P above- and below-ground. However, there are differences in N and C fixation rates between BSCs types. Early successional BSCs, dominated by cyanobacterial species, fix lower quantities of C and N than mature BSCs dominated by lichens. Although the positive effects of BSCs on biogeochemical soil cycles are widely accepted, no previous studies have evaluated the activities of the enzymes involved in C, N and P cycles of BSCs and how they are affected by the successional stage of the BSC. In this work, performed in the Tabernas desert (SE Spain), we studied the hydrolase enzymes

  4. Bacterial community dynamics over successional stages of Australian biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilton, Angela; Woodhouse, Jason; Neilan, Brett

    2015-04-01

    A key aspect for successful ecological rehabilitation is understanding the naturally occurring ecosystem and landscape function which is to be restored. This allows for recovery indicators to be identified and criteria to be developed to assess progress and outcomes. In arid rangelands, environmental stresses result in characteristically heterogeneous landscapes where biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover large expanses of inter-plant areas. Here, BSCs perform crucial roles in nutrient cycling and re-distribution, affect hydrological patterns and stabilise the soil surface. They also serve as a large reservoir of microbial and avascular plant biodiversity. The recognition of these important roles has resulted in increased global arid rehabilitation efforts employing BSCs. Within Australia, research has focused on the macro components of BSCs including lichens and mosses, however, there have been insufficient studies examining the BSC bacterial communities and their dynamics over different successional stages. This project surveyed the bacterial community of crust-free soil and three successional stages of undisturbed BSCs from New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in order to provide reference standards of naturally occurring Australian BSCs. Visual assessments were conducted and BSCs were categorised as Early, Mid or Late stage depending on colour, thickness, topography and presence of lichens and mosses. The crust-free soil and different stages were sampled within three 50 m2 plots of the same edaphic conditions near the town of Cobar, NSW. High throughput sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform was performed targeting the V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Preliminary analysis has revealed a clear distinction between the crust-free and crusted soil while Canonical Analysis of Principal Co-ordinates (CAP) suggests the presence of two distinct BSC microbial communities despite three stages being sampled. Across all sample types, the dominant phyla were Actinobacteria

  5. Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional wildlife habitat in Southern New England.

    PubMed

    Buffum, Bill; Modisette, Christopher; McWilliams, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional habitat is a high priority for wildlife conservation agencies in the northeastern USA, where most forest land is privately owned. Many studies have linked regional declines in wildlife populations to the loss of early successional habitat. The government provides financial incentives to create early successional habitat, but the number of family forest owners who actively manage their forests remains low. Several studies have analyzed participation of family forest owners in federal forestry programs, but no study to date has focused specifically on creation of wildlife habitat. The objective of our study was to analyze the experience of a group of wildlife-oriented family forest owners who were trained to create early successional habitat. This type of family forest owners represents a small portion of the total population of family forest owners, but we believe they can play an important role in creating wildlife habitat, so it is important to understand how outreach programs can best reach them. The respondents shared some characteristics but differed in terms of forest holdings, forestry experience and interest in earning forestry income. Despite their strong interest in wildlife, awareness about the importance of early successional habitat was low. Financial support from the federal government appeared to be important in motivating respondents to follow up after the training with activities on their own properties: 84% of respondents who had implemented activities received federal financial support and 47% would not have implemented the activities without financial assistance. In order to mobilize greater numbers of wildlife-oriented family forest owners to create early successional habitat we recommend focusing outreach efforts on increasing awareness about the importance of early successional habitat and the availability of technical and financial assistance. PMID:24587160

  6. Encouraging Family Forest Owners to Create Early Successional Wildlife Habitat in Southern New England

    PubMed Central

    Buffum, Bill; Modisette, Christopher; McWilliams, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional habitat is a high priority for wildlife conservation agencies in the northeastern USA, where most forest land is privately owned. Many studies have linked regional declines in wildlife populations to the loss of early successional habitat. The government provides financial incentives to create early successional habitat, but the number of family forest owners who actively manage their forests remains low. Several studies have analyzed participation of family forest owners in federal forestry programs, but no study to date has focused specifically on creation of wildlife habitat. The objective of our study was to analyze the experience of a group of wildlife-oriented family forest owners who were trained to create early successional habitat. This type of family forest owners represents a small portion of the total population of family forest owners, but we believe they can play an important role in creating wildlife habitat, so it is important to understand how outreach programs can best reach them. The respondents shared some characteristics but differed in terms of forest holdings, forestry experience and interest in earning forestry income. Despite their strong interest in wildlife, awareness about the importance of early successional habitat was low. Financial support from the federal government appeared to be important in motivating respondents to follow up after the training with activities on their own properties: 84% of respondents who had implemented activities received federal financial support and 47% would not have implemented the activities without financial assistance. In order to mobilize greater numbers of wildlife-oriented family forest owners to create early successional habitat we recommend focusing outreach efforts on increasing awareness about the importance of early successional habitat and the availability of technical and financial assistance. PMID:24587160

  7. Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.

    PubMed

    Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril. PMID:20231962

  8. Spatial analysis of early successional, temperate forest community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. H.; Williams, C. A.; MacLean, R. G.; Epstein, H. E.; Vanderhoof, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    The global importance of sequestration of carbon by temperate forests makes characterizing the regrowth of these forests post-disturbance both ecologically and economically important. High intensity disturbances, such as logging, result in substantial alteration of community composition post-disturbance, creating the potential for alterations to the cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients in the ecosystem. Because logging pressure in New England continues to increase, understanding how forest ecosystems in this region respond to disturbance is crucial. This study aims to characterize interspecies interactions within New England forests by identifying synchronous and asynchronous colocation of species following a disturbance. To accomplish this, line-intercept surveys of vegetation were conducted in a clearcut forest stand located within the Harvard Forest LTER site. Survey data collected two (2010) and five (2013) years post-clearcut were analyzed using a one-dimensional Ripley's K. From 2010 to 2013, an increase in the number of interspecies relationships was observed, indicating the development of community structure. Additionally, the analysis found an increase in total vegetative cover from 2010 to 2013, and also found the majority of observed interspecies relationships to be asynchronous relationships. Together, these results imply an increase in resource competition that had the potential to drive the increase in community structure. Specifically, an increase in community structure led to the development of three distinct sub-communities: homogenous fern, tree seedling canopy over ground cover, and shrub dominated. This creates a patchy landscape in the early successional forest that allows for high species diversity (Shannon's H = 2.455). Based on the results of the Ripley's K analyses, species demonstrated definite patterns of synchronicity and asynchronicity based on both specific species interactions as well as functional group interactions. These

  9. Mapping Successional Stages in a Wet Tropical Forest Using Landsat ETM+ and Forest Inventory Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goncalves, Fabio G.; Yatskov, Mikhail; dos Santos, Joao Roberto; Treuhaft, Robert N.; Law, Beverly E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we test whether an existing classification technique based on the integration of Landsat ETM+ and forest inventory data enables detailed characterization of successional stages in a wet tropical forest site. The specific objectives were: (1) to map forest age classes across the La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica; and (2) to quantify uncertainties in the proposed approach in relation to field data and existing vegetation maps. Although significant relationships between vegetation height entropy (a surrogate for forest age) and ETM+ data were detected, the classification scheme tested in this study was not suitable for characterizing spatial variation in age at La Selva, as evidenced by the error matrix and the low Kappa coefficient (12.9%). Factors affecting the performance of the classification at this particular study site include the smooth transition in vegetation structure between intermediate and advanced successional stages, and the low sensitivity of NDVI to variations in vertical structure at high biomass levels.

  10. Determining successional stage of temperate coniferous forests with Landsat satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorella, Maria; Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    Thematic Mapper (TM) digital imagery was used to map forest successional stages and to evaluate spectral differences between old-growth and mature forests in the central Cascade Range of Oregon. Relative sun incidence values were incorporated into the successional stage classification to compensate for topographic induced variation. Relative sun incidence improved the classification accuracy of young successional stages, but did not improve the classification accuracy of older, closed canopy forest classes or overall accuracy. TM bands 1, 2, and 4; the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); and TM 4/3, 4/5, and 4/7 band ratio values for old-growth forests were found to be significantly lower than the values of mature forests (P less than or equal to 0.010). Wetness and the TM 4/5 and 4/7 band ratios all had low correlations to relative sun incidence (r(exp 2) less than or equal to 0.16). The TM 4/5 band ratio was named the 'structural index' (SI) because of its ability to distinguish between mature and old-growth forests and its simplicity.

  11. Importance of early successional habitat to ruffed grouse and American woodcock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dessecker, D.R.; McAuley, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) and American woodcock (Scolopax minor) provide millions of days of recreation each year for people in the eastern United States (U.S). These popular game birds depend on early successional forest habitats throughout much of the year. Ruffed grouse and woodcock populations are declining in the eastern United States as an abundance of shrub-dominated and young forest habitats decrease in most of the region. Continued decreases in early successional forest habitats are likely on nonindustrial private forest lands as ownership fragmentation increases and tract size decreases and on public forest lands due to societal attitudes toward proactive forest management, especially even-age treatments.

  12. Some autecological characteristics of early to late successional tree species in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammesheidt, Ludwig

    2000-01-01

    The breadth of the continuum concept of strategy with respect to succession was tested on 21 tree and shrub species common in either unlogged or logged stands, respectively, in the Forest Reserve of Caparo, Venezuela, by examining morphological, physiological and population characteristics. Based on a preliminary abundance analysis, `early', `mid' and `late' successional species as well as `generalists' were distinguished. Early successional species, i.e. Ochroma lagopus, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Cecropia peltata were similar in many autecological aspects, e.g. monolayered leaf arrangement, orthotropic architectural models, no adaptive reiteration, clumped distribution, but differed in gap association and distribution along a drainage gradient. Mid-successional species established themselves both in large and small gaps (> 300 m[sup2 ]; 80-300 m[sup2 ]) and showed a clumped to regular distribution pattern in logged areas; they exhibited more diverse crown and leaf characteristics than early successional species. Late successional species established themselves only in small gaps and understorey, and showed a regular spatial pattern in undisturbed areas. All late successional species displayed architectural models with plagiotropic lateral axes and showed a multilayered leaf arrangement. Adaptive reiteration was a common feature of late successional species which could be further subdivided into large, medium-sized and small trees, indicating different light requirements at maturity. Generalists were common treelet and shrub species in both disturbed and undisturbed sites where they are also capable of completing their life cycle. The light compensation point (LCP) of an individual plant was strongly influenced by its crown illuminance. Large late successional species showed the widest range of LCP values, reflecting the increasing light availability with increasing height in mature forest. On the basis of many autecological characteristics, it was found (i

  13. Successional stage, fragmentation and exposure to extraction influence the population structure of Euterpe precatoria (Arecaeae).

    PubMed

    Avalos, Gerardo; Otárola, Mauricio Fernández; Engeln, James Theodore

    2013-09-01

    The neotropical palm Euterpeprecatoria is subject to extraction for its valuable palm heart. The development of management and conservation practices for this species requires understanding of its population structure, dynamics, and traditional use across the range of environments it inhabits, from different successional stages in continuous forest to forest fragments. Here, we analyzed how the population structure of E. precatoria varies with successional stage, fragmentation, and exposure to extraction, Since E. precatoria recruitment increases with disturbance, we expected seedling density to be higher in secondary forests and fragments relative to primary forests. The study was conducted from 2007-2008 in the Caribbean Slope of Costa Rica at Braulio Carrillo National Park (BCNP), La Selva Biological Station (LSBS), Manú Center, and Finca El Progreso (FEP). The first two sites had continuous primary and secondary forests (BCNP had one extracted primary forest); the last two consisted of primary forest fragments. Population structure was variable, with greater densities in the extracted primary forest, and in the secondary forests, as compared to primary forests and fragments. Palms < 5 m across all sites represented 50-90% of the total number of individuals. In sites that suffered historical over-extraction, local communities have lost the tradition of consuming this species. Understanding how population dynamics is affected by extraction and succession is essential to the design of sustainable management programs rooted in community participation. PMID:24027932

  14. Landscape genetics of an early successional specialist in a disturbance-prone environment.

    PubMed

    Pereoglou, F; Lindenmayer, D B; MacGregor, C; Ford, F; Wood, J; Banks, S C

    2013-03-01

    Species that specialize in disturbed habitats may have considerably different dispersal strategies than those adapted to more stable environments. However, little is known of the dispersal patterns and population structure of such species. This information is important for conservation because many postfire specialists are at risk from anthropogenic changes to natural disturbance regimes. We used microsatellite markers to assess the effect of landscape variation and recent disturbance history on dispersal by a small mammal species that occupies the early seral stage of vegetation regeneration in burnt environments. We predicted that a postfire specialist would be able to disperse over multiple habitat types (generalist) and not exhibit sex-biased dispersal, as such strategies should enable effective colonization of spatially and temporally variable habitat. We found significant differentiation between sites that fitted an isolation-by-distance pattern and spatial autocorrelation of multilocus genotypes to a distance of 2-3 km. There was no consistent genetic evidence for sex-biased dispersal. We tested the influence of different habitat- and fire-specific landscape resistance scenarios on genetic distance between individuals and found a significant effect of fire. Our genetic data supported recently burned vegetation having greater conductance for gene flow than unburnt habitat, but variation in habitat quality between vegetation types and occupied patches had no effect on gene flow. Postfire specialists must evolve an effective dispersal ability to move over distances that would ensure access to early successional stage vegetation. Natural disturbance and natural heterogeneity may therefore not influence population genetic structure as negatively as expected. PMID:23379886

  15. Altered soil organic carbon stability in eastern deciduous forest: interplay between forest successional Stage and invasive earthworm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Filley, T. R.; McCormick, M.; Szlavecz, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Detritivore -mediated decomposition and incorporation of aboveground litter is an important processes in soil carbon cycle of forest ecosystems that can be a major control on the proportion of stable and unstable soil carbon pools. We investigated how earthworm activity interacts with litter type to alter the stability of soil organic carbon (SOC) in an eastern deciduous successional forest within at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC). Soil C and N content and chemistry (lignin and fatty acids) among particulate and mineral-bound fractions was shifted after 5 years of litter (wood and leaf) addition but with significant differences among the forest successional stages and with earthworm activity. Results from a 6 month laboratory incubation (25°C and 15°C) of bulk soil samples taken from the treatments and incubated at 25°C and 15°C demonstrate that litter addition type and earthworm activity interacted to control the proportion of labile and stable carbon. Specifically, the labile C pools in double wood and control treatments were highest in young successional forest with higher earthworm activity. However, in the double leaf treatment, the labile C pool was higher in old successional forests with less worm activity. In general, the stable C pool, released after one month, was higher in old successional forests for all three treatments. The difference of the stable pool between young and old successional forest was the largest with double wood treatment, followed by control treatment and the lowest with double leaf treatment. In summary, wood treatment shifted SOC pool to relatively more stable pool in old successional forests decreasing labile C pool but not the young sites. While double leaf treatment increased the labile pool in old forests but in young successional forests, SOC shifted to relatively more stable pool by decreasing the labile pool and increasing the stable pool. This result indicates that the type of aboveground litter

  16. Invasive Earthworms and Forest Successional Stage Interact to Impact Plant Litter Inputs and Particulate Organic Matter Chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The landscapes colonized by invasive earthworms in the eastern U.S. are often patchworks of forest stands in various stages of successional development. We established six field sites in tulip poplar dominated forests in the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Forest (SERC), MD, that span you...

  17. Effects of root decomposition on plant-soil feedback of early- and mid-successional plant species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naili; Van der Putten, Wim H; Veen, G F Ciska

    2016-10-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) is an important driver of plant community dynamics. Many studies have emphasized the role of pathogens and symbiotic mutualists in PSFs; however, less is known about the contribution of decomposing litter, especially that of roots. We conducted a PSF experiment, where soils were conditioned by living early- and mid-successional grasses and forbs with and without decomposing roots of conspecific species (conditioning phase). These soils were used to test growth responses of conspecific and heterospecific plant species (feedback phase). The addition of the roots of conspecifics decreased the biomass of both early- and mid-successional plant species in the conditioning phase. In the feedback phase, root addition had positive effects on the biomass of early-successional species and neutral effects on mid-successional species, except when mid-successional grasses were grown in soils conditioned by conspecifics, where effects were negative. Biomass of early- and mid-successional forbs was generally reduced in soils conditioned by conspecifics. We conclude that root decomposition may increase short-term negative PSF effects, but that the effects can become neutral to positive over time, thereby counteracting negative components of PSF. This implies that root decomposition is a key element of PSF and needs to be included in future studies. PMID:27214646

  18. Anthropogenic Habitats Facilitate Dispersal of an Early Successional Obligate: Implications for Restoration of an Endangered Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Katrina E.; Palace, Michael; O’Brien, Kathleen M.; Fenderson, Lindsey E.; Kovach, Adrienne I.

    2016-01-01

    Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation disrupt the connectivity of natural landscapes, with major consequences for biodiversity. Species that require patchily distributed habitats, such as those that specialize on early successional ecosystems, must disperse through a landscape matrix with unsuitable habitat types. We evaluated landscape effects on dispersal of an early successional obligate, the New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis). Using a landscape genetics approach, we identified barriers and facilitators of gene flow and connectivity corridors for a population of cottontails in the northeastern United States. We modeled dispersal in relation to landscape structure and composition and tested hypotheses about the influence of habitat fragmentation on gene flow. Anthropogenic and natural shrubland habitats facilitated gene flow, while the remainder of the matrix, particularly development and forest, impeded gene flow. The relative influence of matrix habitats differed between study areas in relation to a fragmentation gradient. Barrier features had higher explanatory power in the more fragmented site, while facilitating features were important in the less fragmented site. Landscape models that included a simultaneous barrier and facilitating effect of roads had higher explanatory power than models that considered either effect separately, supporting the hypothesis that roads act as both barriers and facilitators at all spatial scales. The inclusion of LiDAR-identified shrubland habitat improved the fit of our facilitator models. Corridor analyses using circuit and least cost path approaches revealed the importance of anthropogenic, linear features for restoring connectivity between the study areas. In fragmented landscapes, human-modified habitats may enhance functional connectivity by providing suitable dispersal conduits for early successional specialists. PMID:26954014

  19. Anthropogenic Habitats Facilitate Dispersal of an Early Successional Obligate: Implications for Restoration of an Endangered Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Katrina E; Palace, Michael; O'Brien, Kathleen M; Fenderson, Lindsey E; Kovach, Adrienne I

    2016-01-01

    Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation disrupt the connectivity of natural landscapes, with major consequences for biodiversity. Species that require patchily distributed habitats, such as those that specialize on early successional ecosystems, must disperse through a landscape matrix with unsuitable habitat types. We evaluated landscape effects on dispersal of an early successional obligate, the New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis). Using a landscape genetics approach, we identified barriers and facilitators of gene flow and connectivity corridors for a population of cottontails in the northeastern United States. We modeled dispersal in relation to landscape structure and composition and tested hypotheses about the influence of habitat fragmentation on gene flow. Anthropogenic and natural shrubland habitats facilitated gene flow, while the remainder of the matrix, particularly development and forest, impeded gene flow. The relative influence of matrix habitats differed between study areas in relation to a fragmentation gradient. Barrier features had higher explanatory power in the more fragmented site, while facilitating features were important in the less fragmented site. Landscape models that included a simultaneous barrier and facilitating effect of roads had higher explanatory power than models that considered either effect separately, supporting the hypothesis that roads act as both barriers and facilitators at all spatial scales. The inclusion of LiDAR-identified shrubland habitat improved the fit of our facilitator models. Corridor analyses using circuit and least cost path approaches revealed the importance of anthropogenic, linear features for restoring connectivity between the study areas. In fragmented landscapes, human-modified habitats may enhance functional connectivity by providing suitable dispersal conduits for early successional specialists. PMID:26954014

  20. Hyperspectral reflectance of leaves and flowers of an outbreak species discriminates season and successional stage of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; Schlerf, Martin; van der Putten, Wim H.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral reflectance can be used to assess large-scale performances of plants in the field based on plant nutrient balance as well as composition of defence compounds. However, plant chemical composition is known to vary with season - due to its phenology - and it may even depend on the succession stage of its habitat. Here we investigate (i) how spectral reflectance could be used to discriminate successional and phenological stages of Jacobaea vulgaris in both leaf and flower organs and (ii) if chemical content estimation by reflectance is flower or leaf dependent. We used J. vulgaris, which is a natural outbreak plant species on abandoned arable fields in north-western Europe and studied this species in a chronosequence representing successional development during time since abandonment. The chemical content and reflectance between 400 and 2500 nm wavelengths of flowers and leaves were measured throughout the season in fields of different successional ages. The data were analyzed with multivariate statistics for temporal discrimination and estimation of chemical contents in both leaf and flower organs. Two main effects were revealed by spectral reflectance measurements: (i) both flower and leaf spectra show successional and seasonal changes, but the pattern is complex and organ specific (ii) flower head pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are involved in plant defence against herbivores, can be detected through hyperspectral reflectance.We conclude that spectral reflectance of both leaves and flowers can provide information on plant performance during season and successional stages. As a result, remote sensing studies of plant performance in complex field situations will benefit from considering hyperspectral reflectance of different plant organs. This approach may enable more detailed studies on the link between spectral information and plant defence dynamics both aboveground and belowground.

  1. Evaporation and transpiration differences among successional stages of Tropical Dry Forest, Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, César D.; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal environments in the tropics show strong responses to changes in precipitation regimes. The monthly water availability is the main trigger for ecological responses as flowering, fructification, leaf sprouting and senescence. Among these environments, the tropical dry forests (TDF) depends directly on the soil water availability, defining the forest growing season despite the forest characteristics. However, within the same ecosystem is possible to find differences in the water fluxes due to forest age. The TDF located in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP) in Costa Rica; shows a particular matrix of secondary forest patches varying in age, structure, and species composition allowing us to evaluate the water fluxes differences among successional stages of TDF. Three permanent plots of 1000.0 m2 were selected from the Tropi-Dry project. Each plot characterized a specific successional stage of this ecosystem varying in forest structure and age. Every location was equipped to measure the hourly soil water content and forest growth, while the meteorological conditions were collected by the meteorological station of the national park. The data was collected from December 2005 to June 2009 however, due to data gaps and quality control the data analysis includes only the hydrological years between 2006 and 2009. The soil water content was measured at three depths in each plot (10, 30 and 40 cm) to determine the real evapotranspiration from the forest. The precipitation along these three years shows strong variations registering 326.5 mm-1yr-1 in the first year up to 3004.0 mm-1yr-1 during the last year, these strong changes are influenced by the ENOS phenomena in the region. Regardless the precipitation amounts the evapotranspiration do not differ strongly on a yearly basis, were 726.7 mm-1yr-1, 675.1 mm-1yr-1 and 751.6 mm-1yr-1 were exported to the atmosphere by the early, intermediate and late stages of TDF secondary forest. The yearly strong differences in

  2. Overwinter survival of neotropical migratory birds in early successional and mature tropical forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Powell, G.V.N.; Nichols, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Many Neotropical migratory species inhabit both mature and early successional forest on their wintering grounds, yet comparisons of survival rates between habitats are lacking. Consequently, the factors affecting habitat suitability for Neotropical migrants and the potential effects of tropical deforestation on migrants are not well understood. We estimated over-winter survival and capture probabilities of Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina), and Kentucky Warbler (Oporomis formosus) inhabiting two common tropical habitat types, mature and early-successional forest. Our results suggest that large differences (for example, ratio of survival rates (gamma) < 0.85) in overwinter survival between these habitats do not exist for any of these species. Age ratios did not differ between habitats, but males were more common in forest habitats and females more common in successional habitats for Hooded Warblers and Kentucky Warblers. Future research on overwinter survival should address the need for age- and sex-specific survival estimates before we can draw strong conclusions regarding winter habitat suitability. Our estimates of over-winter survival extrapolated to annual survival rates that were generally lower than previous estimates of annual survival of migratory birds. Capture probability differed between habitats for Kentucky Warblers, but our results provide strong evidence against large differences in capture probability between habitats for Wood Thrush, Hooded Warblers, and Ovenbirds. We found no temporal or among site differences in survival or capture probability for any of the four species. Additional research is needed to examine the effects of winter habitat use on survival during migration and between-winter survival.

  3. Facilitative and Inhibitory Effect of Litter on Seedling Emergence and Early Growth of Six Herbaceous Species in an Early Successional Old Field Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Pujia; Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, a field experiment was conducted to examine effects of litter on seedling emergence and early growth of four dominant weed species from the early successional stages of old field ecosystem and two perennial grassland species in late successional stages. Our results showed that increased litter cover decreased soil temperature and temperature variability over time and improved soil moisture status. Surface soil electrical conductivity increased as litter increased. The increased litter delayed seedling emergence time and rate. The emergence percentage of seedlings and establishment success rate firstly increased then decreased as litter cover increased. When litter biomass was below 600 g m−2, litter increased seedlings emergence and establishment success in all species. With litter increasing, the basal diameter of seedling decreased, but seedling height increased. Increasing amounts of litter tended to increase seedling dry weight and stem leaf ratio. Different species responded differently to the increase of litter. Puccinellia tenuiflora and Chloris virgata will acquire more emergence benefits under high litter amount. It is predicted that Chloris virgata will dominate further in this natural succession old field ecosystem with litter accumulation. Artificial P. tenuiflora seeds addition may be required to accelerate old field succession toward matured grassland. PMID:25110722

  4. Take me to your leader: does early successional nonhost vegetation spatially inhibit Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)?

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Jordan M; De La Giroday, Honey-Marie C; Lindgren, B Staffan; Aukema, Brian H

    2009-08-01

    The spatial influences of host and nonhost trees and shrubs on the colonization patterns of white pine weevil Pissodes strobi (Peck) were studied within a stand of planted interior hybrid spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x Picea engelmannii (Parry) ex Engelm.]. Planted spruce accounted for one third of all trees within the stand, whereas the remaining two thirds were comprised of early-successional nonhost vegetation, such as alder (Alnus spp.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), black cottonwood [Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa (T. Ng.) Brayshaw], lodgepole pine [Pinus contorta (Dougl.) ex Loud.], trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx), willow (Salix spp.), and Canadian buffaloberry [Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt.]. Unlike the spruce trees, nonhost vegetation in the stand was not uniformly distributed. Spatial point process models showed that Canadian buffaloberry, paper birch, black cottonwoood, and trembling aspen had negative associations with damage caused by the weevil, even though the density of the insects' hosts in these areas did not change. Moreover, knowing the locations of these nonhost trees provided as much, or more, inference about the locations of weevil-attacked trees as knowing the locations of suitable or preferred host trees (i.e., those larger in size). Nonhost volatiles, the alteration of soil composition, and overstory shade are discussed as potential explanatory factors for the patterns observed. New research avenues are suggested to determine whether nonhost vegetation in early successional stands might be an additional tool in the management of these insects in commercially important forests. PMID:19689899

  5. Demographic variation across successional stages and their effects on the population dynamics of the neotropical palm Euterpe precatoria.

    PubMed

    Otárola, Mauricio Fernández; Avalos, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Environmental heterogeneity is a strong selective force shaping adaptation and population dynamics across temporal and spatial scales. Natural and anthropogenic gradients influence the variation of environmental and biotic factors, which determine population demography and dynamics. Successional gradients are expected to influence demographic parameters, but the relationship between these gradients and the species life history, habitat requirements, and degree of variation in demographic traits remains elusive.• Methods: We used the palm Euterpe precatoria to test the effect of successional stage on plant demography within a continuous population. We calculated demographic parameters for size stages and performed matrix analyses to investigate the demographic variation within primary and secondary forests of La Selva, Costa Rica.• Key results: We observed differences in mortality and recruitment of small juveniles between primary and secondary forests. Matrix models described satisfactorily the chronosequence of population changes, which were characterized by high population growth rate in disturbed areas, and decreased growth rate in old successional forests until reaching stability.• Conclusions: Different demographic parameters can be expressed in contiguous subpopulations along a gradient of successional stages with important consequences for population dynamics. Demographic variation superimposed on these gradients contributes to generate subpopulations with different demographic composition, density, and ecological properties. Therefore, the effects of spatial variation must be reconsidered in the design of demographic analyses of tropical palms, which are prime examples of subtle local adaptation. These considerations are crucial in the implementation of management plans for palm species within spatially complex and heterogeneous tropical landscapes. PMID:24907255

  6. Dynamics, chemical properties and bioavailability of DOC in an early successional catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse-Buhl, U.; Hagedorn, F.; Dümig, A.; Gessner, M. O.; Schaaf, W.; Nii-Annang, S.; Gerull, L.; Mutz, M.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been intensively studied in mature ecosystems, but little is known about DOC dynamics and the significance of DOC as a substrate for microbial activity in early-successional catchments. We determined the concentration, chemical composition, source, radiocarbon age, and bioavailability of DOC along the hydrological flow path from soil solution to a downstream pond in a recently constructed catchment (Chicken Creek Catchment, Germany). Soil solution, upwelling ground water, subsurface water in an alluvial fan, and pond water all had high DOC concentrations (averages of 6.0-11.6 mg DOC L-1), despite small carbon stocks in either vegetation or soil of the early-successional catchment. The mean 14C age of DOC in upwelling ground water was 2600 to 2800 yr. Solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR revealed a higher proportion of aromatic compounds (32%) and a lower proportion of carbohydrates (33%) in upwelling ground water than in pond water (18% and 45%, respectively). The 14C age and 13C NMR spectra suggest that DOC was partly mobilized from charred organic matter of the Quaternary substrate. In an experimental 70-days incubation experiment, 20% of the total DOC was found to be bioavailable, irrespective of the water type. Origin of microbial communities (enriched from soil, stream sediment or pond water) had only marginal effects on overall DOC utilization. Overall, these data suggest that the old DOC can support microbial activity during early ecosystem succession to some extent, although the largest fraction is recalcitrant DOC that is exported from the catchment once it has been mobilized.

  7. Ozone effects on productivity and diversity of an early successional forest community

    SciTech Connect

    Barbo, D.N.; Chappelka, A.H.; Stolte, K.W.

    1995-06-01

    There has been little research on the effects of tropospheric ozone on diversity and productivity of native understory vegetation and tree species growing in competition. Loblolly pine and an associated early successional forest community was exposed to 4 treatments of ozone. The treatments were: CF=carbon-filtered air, NF=non-filtered 1X air, AA=ambient air and 2X=twice AA air. Pine height and diameter, number of understory species, and percent-cover were measured. First-year results show the number of species were significantly reduced in 2X compared to CF. Blackberry, although severely injured (visible), dominated the 2X treatments. Bahia grass increased in abundance and cover with decreasing ozone, panicum grass increased in abundance and cover with increasing ozone, and andropogon was unaffected. Pine height and diameter was significantly reduced in the CF treatment. This study will continue for at least one more growing season.

  8. Understanding landowner intentions to create early successional forest habitat in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dayer, Ashley A.; Stedman, Richard C.; Allred, Shorna B.; Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Fuller, Angela K.

    2016-01-01

    Early successional forest habitat (ESH) and associated wildlife species in the northeastern United States are in decline. One way to help create early successional forest conditions is engaging private forest landowners in even-aged forest management because their limited participation may have contributed to declines in ESH for wildlife species of high conservation concern. We applied the reasoned action approach from social psychology to predict intentions of landowners in the 13-county Southern Tier of New York State, USA, to conduct patch-cuts, which is a type of even-aged forest management. We tested the predictive ability of the model using data from a mail survey of landowners conducted from November 2010 to January 2011. Landowner intention to conduct patch-cuts was high (55% of respondents), with attitude being the strongest direct predictor of behavioral intention. Our results suggest that patch-cutting intentions are most likely expressed by landowners who think the behavior is good for their land and wildlife, believe in positive outcomes of land and wildlife management, belong to a game wildlife organization, and have conducted patch-cuts in the past. Strategies to engage more landowners in ESH management will have the highest likelihood of success if outreach efforts focus on influencing behavioral beliefs and subsequently attitudes, possibly working with game wildlife organizations to communicate a unified message for habitat conservation, including the importance of maintaining and creating ESH. Our results demonstrate the importance of social science research to increase the likelihood that conservation targets for declining wildlife species are met. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Relative importance of early-successional forests and shrubland habitats to mammals in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, T.K.; DeStefano, S.

    2003-01-01

    The majority of the 60 native terrestrial mammal species that reside in the northeastern United States (US) utilize resources from several habitats on a seasonal basis. However, as many as 20 species demonstrate some preference for early-successional forests, shrublands, or old-field habitats. A few of these (e.g. lagomorphs) can be considered obligate users of these habitats, and the specialist carnivores (e.g. felids) that prey on them may consequently also prefer such habitats. Other mammal species that prefer these habitats certainly depend on them to lesser and varying degrees; thus, the consequences of reducing or eliminating early-successional forests, shrublands, or old-field habitats across the landscape will likely have varying demographic consequences, and thus importance, to those species. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Beyond ectomycorrhizal bipartite networks: projected networks demonstrate contrasted patterns between early- and late-successional plants in Corsica

    PubMed Central

    Taudiere, Adrien; Munoz, François; Lesne, Annick; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Bellanger, Jean-Michel; Selosse, Marc-André; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Richard, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis connects mutualistic plants and fungal species into bipartite networks. While links between one focal ECM plant and its fungal symbionts have been widely documented, systemic views of ECM networks are lacking, in particular, concerning the ability of fungal species to mediate indirect ecological interactions between ECM plant species (projected-ECM networks). We assembled a large dataset of plant–fungi associations at the species level and at the scale of Corsica using molecular data and unambiguously host-assigned records to: (i) examine the correlation between the number of fungal symbionts of a plant species and the average specialization of these fungal species, (ii) explore the structure of the plant–plant projected network and (iii) compare plant association patterns in regard to their position along the ecological succession. Our analysis reveals no trade-off between specialization of plants and specialization of their partners and a saturation of the plant projected network. Moreover, there is a significantly lower-than-expected sharing of partners between early- and late-successional plant species, with fewer fungal partners for early-successional ones and similar average specialization of symbionts of early- and late-successional plants. Our work paves the way for ecological readings of Mediterranean landscapes that include the astonishing diversity of below-ground interactions. PMID:26539201

  11. Beyond ectomycorrhizal bipartite networks: projected networks demonstrate contrasted patterns between early- and late-successional plants in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Taudiere, Adrien; Munoz, François; Lesne, Annick; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Bellanger, Jean-Michel; Selosse, Marc-André; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Richard, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis connects mutualistic plants and fungal species into bipartite networks. While links between one focal ECM plant and its fungal symbionts have been widely documented, systemic views of ECM networks are lacking, in particular, concerning the ability of fungal species to mediate indirect ecological interactions between ECM plant species (projected-ECM networks). We assembled a large dataset of plant-fungi associations at the species level and at the scale of Corsica using molecular data and unambiguously host-assigned records to: (i) examine the correlation between the number of fungal symbionts of a plant species and the average specialization of these fungal species, (ii) explore the structure of the plant-plant projected network and (iii) compare plant association patterns in regard to their position along the ecological succession. Our analysis reveals no trade-off between specialization of plants and specialization of their partners and a saturation of the plant projected network. Moreover, there is a significantly lower-than-expected sharing of partners between early- and late-successional plant species, with fewer fungal partners for early-successional ones and similar average specialization of symbionts of early- and late-successional plants. Our work paves the way for ecological readings of Mediterranean landscapes that include the astonishing diversity of below-ground interactions. PMID:26539201

  12. Dynamics, chemical properties and bioavailability of DOC in an early successional catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse-Buhl, U.; Hagedorn, F.; Dümig, A.; Gessner, M. O.; Schaaf, W.; Nii-Annang, S.; Gerull, L.; Mutz, M.

    2013-07-01

    The dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been intensively studied in mature ecosystems, but little is known about DOC dynamics and the significance of DOC as a substrate for microbial activity in early-successional catchments. We determined the concentration, chemical composition, source, radiocarbon age, and bioavailability of DOC along the hydrological flow path from soil solution to a downstream pond in a recently constructed catchment (Chicken Creek Catchment, Germany). Soil solution, upwelling ground water, stream water, subsurface water in an alluvial fan, and pond water all had high DOC concentrations (averages: 6.0-11.6 mg DOC L-1), despite small carbon stocks in both vegetation and soil of the catchment. Solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR of DOC in upwelling ground water revealed a higher proportion of aromatic compounds (32%) and a lower proportion of carbohydrates (33%) than in pond water (18% and 45%, respectively). The average 14C age of DOC in upwelling ground water was 2600 to 2900 yr, while organic matter of the Quaternary substrate of the catchment had a 14C age of 3000 to 16 000 yr. Both the 14C age data and 13C NMR spectra suggest that DOC partly derived from organic matter of the Quaternary substrate (about 40 to 90% of the C in the DOC), indicating that both recent and old C of the DOC can support microbial activity during early ecosystem succession. However, in a 70 day incubation experiment, only about 11% of the total DOC was found to be bioavailable. This proportion was irrespective of the water type. Origin of the microbial communities within the catchment (enriched from soil, stream sediment or pond water) also had only a marginal effect on overall DOC utilization.

  13. Supplemental planting of early successional tree species during bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Reforestation of former bottom land hardwood forests that have been cleared for agriculture (i.e., afforestation) has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya spp.). These species are slow to develop vertical forest structure. However, vertical forest structure is key to colonization of afforested sites by forest birds. Although early-successional tree species often enhance vertical structure, few of these species invade afforested sites that are distant from seed sources. Furthermore, many land mangers are reluctant to establish and maintain stands of fast-growing plantation trees. Therefore, on 40 afforested bottomland sites, we supplemented heavy-seeded seedlings with 8 patches of fast-growing trees: 4 patches of 12 eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stem cuttings and 4 patches of 12 American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) seedlings. To enhance survival and growth, tree patches were subjected to 4 weed control treatments: (1) physical weed barriers, (2) chemical herbicide, (3) both physical and chemical weed control, or (4) no weed control. Overall, first-year survival of cottonwood and sycamore was 25 percent and 47 percent, respectively. Second-year survival of extant trees was 52 percent for cottonwood and 77 percent for sycamore. Physical weed barriers increased survival of cottonwoods to 30 percent versus 18 percent survival with no weed control. Similarly, sycamore survival was increased from 49 percent without weed control to 64 percent with physical weed barriers. Chemical weed control adversely impacted sycamore and reduced survival to 35 percent. Tree heights did not differ between species or among weed control treatments. Girdling of trees by deer often destroyed saplings. Thus, little increase in vertical structure was detected between growing seasons. Application of fertilizer and protection via tree shelters did not improve survival or vertical development of sycamore or cottonwood.

  14. Early Diagnosis and Staging.

    PubMed

    Lilja, H; Lilja, D R H

    1999-01-01

    This report reviews developments in the early diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer and updated on the incidence of postate cancer to discuss the pros and cons of population based screening. Refinements and reliability of various diagnosic procedures are described such as PSA testing, transrectal ultrasound, ratio beteen PSA-level and ultrasound measured prostate volume, rate of change of PSA-level, combination factor equations computed by neural network programs to predict likelihood of prostate cancer, artificial neural network analysis of subvisual transrectal ultrasound information, measurements of different PSA-forms of PSA (in particular percent free PSA), and glandular kallikrein 2. PMID:12496851

  15. Species-driven phases and increasing structure in early-successional plant communities.

    PubMed

    Zaplata, Markus K; Winter, Susanne; Fischer, Anton; Kollmann, Johannes; Ulrich, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Successional phases describe changes in ecological communities that proceed in steps rather than continuously. Despite their importance for the understanding of ecosystem development, there still exists no reliable definition of phases and no quantitative measure of phase transitions. In order to obtain these data, we investigated primary succession in an artificial catchment (6 ha) in eastern Germany over a period of 6 years. The data set consists of records of plant species and their cover values, and initial substrate properties, both from plots in a regular grid (20 m × 20 m) suitable for spatial data analysis. Community assembly was studied by analyses of species co-occurrence and nestedness. Additionally, we correlated lognormal and log series distributions of species abundance to each community. We here introduce a new general method for detection of successional phases based on the degree of transient spatial homogeneity in the study system. Spatially coherent vegetation patterns revealed nonoverlapping partitions within this sequence of primary succession and were characterized as two distinct ecological phases. Patterns of species co-occurrence were increasingly less random, and hence the importance of demographic stochasticity and neutral community assembly decreased during the study period. Our findings highlight the spatial dimension of successional phases and quantify the degree of change between these steps. They are an element for advancing a more reliable terminology of ecological successions. PMID:23234854

  16. Structure and diversity of Erica ciliaris and Erica tetralix heathlands at different successional stages after cutting.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, A; García-Duro, J; Alvarez, R; Pesqueira, X M; Reyes, O; Casal, M

    2012-02-01

    In NW Europe, it is known that cutting is a useful tool for managers with regard to decisions about the conservation and management of wet heathlands. Nevertheless it is rarely described quantitatively in the international literature. In Spain, knowledge about this is scarce or lacking. In this study, twenty communities were selected in Galicia (NW Spain) that would represent from one to four stages of vegetation development after cutting. Two 5 × 5 m plots were established for each stage to characterise the vegetation on the basis of its species composition, frequency values, vertical structure and linear cover features. The Diversity Shannon index was calculated and multivariate analyses were performed. As succession advanced, notable changes were produced in the cover of dominant species, Erica ciliaris and Ulex gallii in the first stages and Erica tetralix and Genista berberidea in mature ones. Also, the species richness decreased because of the reduced number of herbs species in the mature stages and, finally, the cover values are indicators of the degree of vegetation development, together with the other parameters of height, overlayering or diversity. Cutting is a useful tool for management of heathlands because the existence of vegetation units belonging to different succession stages increases the internal diversity of communities. On the other hand, the vertical and horizontal structure reflects the formidable resilience of the vegetation community to this practice. This study offers a global vision of the dynamics of wet heathlands after cutting, with very useful ecological information that can be used by the people responsible for their management. PMID:21943685

  17. Successional stage of biological soil crusts: an accurate indicator of ecohydrological condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Wilcox, Bradford P.; Van Scoyoc, Matthew V.; Phillips, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are a key component of many dryland ecosystems. Following disturbance, biological soil crusts will recover in stages. Recently, a simple classification of these stages has been developed, largely on the basis of external features of the crusts, which reflects their level of development (LOD). The classification system has six LOD classes, from low (1) to high (6). To determine whether the LOD of a crust is related to its ecohydrological function, we used rainfall simulation to evaluate differences in infiltration, runoff, and erosion among crusts in the various LODs, across a range of soil depths and with different wetting pre-treatments. We found large differences between the lowest and highest LODs, with runoff and erosion being greatest from the lowest LOD. Under dry antecedent conditions, about 50% of the water applied ran off the lowest LOD plots, whereas less than 10% ran off the plots of the two highest LODs. Similarly, sediment loss was 400 g m-2 from the lowest LOD and almost zero from the higher LODs. We scaled up the results from these simulations using the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model. Modelling results indicate that erosion increases dramatically as slope length and gradient increase, especially beyond the threshold values of 10 m for slope length and 10% for slope gradient. Our findings confirm that the LOD classification is a quick, easy, nondestructive, and accurate index of hydrological condition and should be incorporated in field and modelling assessments of ecosystem health.

  18. Remote sensing-based predictors improve distribution models of rare, early successional and broadleaf tree species in Utah

    PubMed Central

    ZIMMERMANN, N E; EDWARDS, T C; MOISEN, G G; FRESCINO, T S; BLACKARD, J A

    2007-01-01

    Compared to bioclimatic variables, remote sensing predictors are rarely used for predictive species modelling. When used, the predictors represent typically habitat classifications or filters rather than gradual spectral, surface or biophysical properties. Consequently, the full potential of remotely sensed predictors for modelling the spatial distribution of species remains unexplored. Here we analysed the partial contributions of remotely sensed and climatic predictor sets to explain and predict the distribution of 19 tree species in Utah. We also tested how these partial contributions were related to characteristics such as successional types or species traits. We developed two spatial predictor sets of remotely sensed and topo-climatic variables to explain the distribution of tree species. We used variation partitioning techniques applied to generalized linear models to explore the combined and partial predictive powers of the two predictor sets. Non-parametric tests were used to explore the relationships between the partial model contributions of both predictor sets and species characteristics. More than 60% of the variation explained by the models represented contributions by one of the two partial predictor sets alone, with topo-climatic variables outperforming the remotely sensed predictors. However, the partial models derived from only remotely sensed predictors still provided high model accuracies, indicating a significant correlation between climate and remote sensing variables. The overall accuracy of the models was high, but small sample sizes had a strong effect on cross-validated accuracies for rare species. Models of early successional and broadleaf species benefited significantly more from adding remotely sensed predictors than did late seral and needleleaf species. The core-satellite species types differed significantly with respect to overall model accuracies. Models of satellite and urban species, both with low prevalence, benefited more from

  19. Remote sensing-based predictors improve distribution models of rare, early successional and broadleaf tree species in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmermann, N.E.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Moisen, G.G.; Frescino, T.S.; Blackard, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    1. Compared to bioclimatic variables, remote sensing predictors are rarely used for predictive species modelling. When used, the predictors represent typically habitat classifications or filters rather than gradual spectral, surface or biophysical properties. Consequently, the full potential of remotely sensed predictors for modelling the spatial distribution of species remains unexplored. Here we analysed the partial contributions of remotely sensed and climatic predictor sets to explain and predict the distribution of 19 tree species in Utah. We also tested how these partial contributions were related to characteristics such as successional types or species traits. 2. We developed two spatial predictor sets of remotely sensed and topo-climatic variables to explain the distribution of tree species. We used variation partitioning techniques applied to generalized linear models to explore the combined and partial predictive powers of the two predictor sets. Non-parametric tests were used to explore the relationships between the partial model contributions of both predictor sets and species characteristics. 3. More than 60% of the variation explained by the models represented contributions by one of the two partial predictor sets alone, with topo-climatic variables outperforming the remotely sensed predictors. However, the partial models derived from only remotely sensed predictors still provided high model accuracies, indicating a significant correlation between climate and remote sensing variables. The overall accuracy of the models was high, but small sample sizes had a strong effect on cross-validated accuracies for rare species. 4. Models of early successional and broadleaf species benefited significantly more from adding remotely sensed predictors than did late seral and needleleaf species. The core-satellite species types differed significantly with respect to overall model accuracies. Models of satellite and urban species, both with low prevalence, benefited

  20. [Effect of climate change on net primary productivity of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) at different successional stages of broad-leaved Korean pine forest].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Gao, Lu-Shuang; Zhang, Xue; Guo, Jing; Ma, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Pinus koraiensis in broad-leaved Korean pine forests of Changbai Mountain at different successional stages (secondary poplar-birch forest, secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest and the primitive Korean pine forest) were selected in this paper as the research objects. In this research, the annual growth of net primary productivity (NPP) (1921-2006) of P. koraiensis was obtained by combining the tree-ring chronology and relative growth formulae, the correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis and climatic factors was developed, and the annual growth of NPP of P. koraiensis at different successional stages in relation to climatic variation within different climate periods were analyzed. The results showed that, in the research period, the correlations between climatic factors and NPP of P. koraiensis at different successional stages were different. With increasing the temperature, the correlations between NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary poplar-birch forest and the minimum temperatures of previous and current growing seasons changed from being significantly negative to being significantly positive. The positive correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest and the minimum temperature in current spring changed into significantly positive correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis and the temperatures in previous and current growing seasons. The climatic factors had a stronger hysteresis effect on NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest, but NPP of P. koraiensis in the primitive Korean pine forest had weaker correlation with temperature but stronger positive correlation with the precipitation of previous growing season. The increases of minimum and mean temperatures were obvious, but no significant variations of the maximum temperature and precipitation were observed at our site. The climatic variation facilitated the increase of the NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary poplar

  1. Root colonization and spore abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in distinct successional stages from an Atlantic rainforest biome in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zangaro, Waldemar; Rostirola, Leila Vergal; de Souza, Priscila Bochi; de Almeida Alves, Ricardo; Lescano, Luiz Eduardo Azevedo Marques; Rondina, Artur Berbel Lírio; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Carrenho, Rosilaine

    2013-04-01

    The influence of plant functional groups and moderate seasonality on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal status (root colonization and spore density) was investigated during 13 consecutive months in a chronosequence of succession in southern Brazil, consisting of grassland field, scrub vegetation, secondary forest and mature forest, in a region of transition from tropical to subtropical zones. AM root colonization and spore density decreased with advancing succession and were highest in early successional sites with grassland and scrub vegetation, intermediary in the secondary forest and lowest in the mature forest. They were little influenced by soil properties, but were sufficiently influenced by the fine root nutrient status and fine root traits among different functional plant groups. AM root colonization and spore density were higher during the favourable plant growth season (spring and summer) than during the less favourable plant growth season (autumn and winter). Spore density displayed significant seasonal variation at all sites, whilst root colonization displayed significant seasonal variation in grassland, scrub and secondary forest, but not in mature forest. The data suggest that (1) different plant functional groups display different relationships with AM fungi, influencing their abundance differentially; (2) plant species from early successional phases are more susceptible to AM root colonization and maintain higher AM sporulation than late successional species; (3) fine root traits and nutrient status influence these AM fungal attributes; and (4) higher AM spore production and root colonization is associated with the season of higher light incidence and temperature, abundant water in soil and higher plant metabolic activity. PMID:23053578

  2. Population structure and inbreeding vary with successional stage in created Spartina alterniflora marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Travis, S.E.; Proffitt, C.E.; Ritland, K.

    2004-01-01

    Recruitment patterns in clonal plant populations are predicted to vary with seed dispersal capability and disturbance regime, such that species with small, widely dispersed seeds will become increasingly dominated by vegetative recruitment on disturbed areas following early colonization. Subsequent mortality due to competitive or stochastic effects is then predicted to cause a gradual decline in both clonal diversity and the ability of surviving clones to avoid geitonogamous mating and possible inbreeding depression. We tested predictions of these hypotheses by comparing four adjacent populations of the salt marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, ranging in age from 2 to ???50 yr, by measuring fine-scale genetic structure at the level of both ramets and genets, and the rate of inbreeding. For this purpose, we sampled maternal tissue and seeds from discrete patches in the field and then genotyped both maternal and seedling tissue (germinated in a growth chamber) using standard molecular protocols. As predicted, we observed an increase in clonal diversity (measured as the complement of the Simpson Index corrected for finite sample sizes, 1-D) up to a maximum of 0.71 within 3-m2 patches at 16 yr, declining to 0.55 by ???50 yr. Local recruitment of seedlings was evident as genetic structure occurring at the level of patches, as measured by the fixation index, ??, which was inversely correlated with diversity (R2 > 0.90 at all patch scales). Outcrossing rates were positively associated with clonal diversity, with the highest level (89%) at an intermediate level of 1-D. The greatest selfing (32%) occurred in young (2-yr-old) patches with low diversity. Biparental inbreeding was minimal in all populations, never exceeding 1%. Inbreeding depression was inferred to be severe, as evidenced by near-zero adult inbreeding coefficients. These results suggest a possible fitness trade-off between clonal growth and the opportunity for outcrossing. We recommend that restoration

  3. Identifying genomic and metabolic features that can underlie early successional and opportunistic lifestyles of human gut symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Lozupone, Catherine; Faust, Karoline; Raes, Jeroen; Faith, Jeremiah J.; Frank, Daniel N.; Zaneveld, Jesse; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Knight, Rob

    2012-01-01

    We lack a deep understanding of genetic and metabolic attributes specializing in microbial consortia for initial and subsequent waves of colonization of our body habitats. Here we show that phylogenetically interspersed bacteria in Clostridium cluster XIVa, an abundant group of bacteria in the adult human gut also known as the Clostridium coccoides or Eubacterium rectale group, contains species that have evolved distribution patterns consistent with either early successional or stable gut communities. The species that specialize to the infant gut are more likely to associate with systemic infections and can reach high abundances in individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), indicating that a subset of the microbiota that have adapted to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles may do well in both early development and with disease. We identified genes likely selected during adaptation to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles as those for which early succession association and not phylogenetic relationships explain genomic abundance. These genes reveal potential mechanisms by which opportunistic gut bacteria tolerate osmotic and oxidative stress and potentially important aspects of their metabolism. These genes may not only be biomarkers of properties associated with adaptation to early succession and disturbance, but also leads for developing therapies aimed at promoting reestablishment of stable gut communities following physiologic or pathologic disturbances. PMID:22665442

  4. Response of Tridens flavus (L.) A. S. Hitchc. to soil nutrients and disturbance in an early successional old field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honu, Y.A.K.; Gibson, D.J.; Middleton, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Soil nutrients and disturbance are two of the main abiotic factors that influence plant dominance (canopy cover), density, and fecundity in early successional old field plant communities. The manner in which the dominant species in old field successional systems respond to the interaction of nutrients and disturbance is poorly known. We examined the dominance, density of flowering tillers, and reproductive output of Tridens flavus, a perennial, warm-season bunchgrass that is important in old field succession, to varying soil nutrient and disturbance regimes. We tested the hypothesis that the interaction between nutrients and disturbance would influence the performance (cover, density, fecundity) of T. flavus. To test this hypothesis, we subjected 25 m2 experimental plots to various combinations of fertilizer and mowing treatments for eight years after initially plowing the field. The performance of T. flavus was measured by estimating percent cover for 8 years (1996-2003) and both density of flowering tillers and reproductive output (panicle length and number of branches per panicle) for three years (2001-2003). The pattern of canopy cover of T. flavus over the first eight years of succession varied over time depending on mowing regime. Dominance was significantly higher in plots that were fertilized only in years one and five than in annually fertilized and unfertilized control plots. The length of panicles and density of flowering tillers were both significantly greater in annually mowed plots than in unmowed plots. In the absence of mowing in particular, T. flavus became overtopped by woody species and declined in this old field community. Therefore, disturbances such as mowing and fertilization may be important in maintaining grasses such as Tridens flavus in old fields.

  5. Characterizing Growth Patterns of Early-successional Forests Using Phenological Parameters Derived from Near-daily Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, K. M.; Cohen, W. B.; Gao, F.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing data has proven to be useful for monitoring regrowth trajectories of early-successional forest stands after disturbance. Traditionally, forest recovery has been monitored with annual images acquired during the peak of the growing season. Our research will expand upon these previous research efforts through the use of near-daily imagery to track regrowth trajectories in young stands (disturbed between 1985 and 1990) in the Blue River watershed in Oregon's western Cascade mountains. To monitor forest regrowth with high temporal frequency at the fine scales required of the fragmented and heterogeneous landscape of the study region, the STARFM fusion algorithm will be used to blend frequent, coarse-scale MODIS images (near-daily at 500m) with infrequent, fine-scale Landsat images (16-day interval at 30m) to produce near-daily, 30m resolution images. Our goal is to determine how the additional information provided by high frequency synthetic Landsat data can improve the monitoring of changes in vegetation type and forest structure during forest regrowth. The changes in the annual spectral signatures of forest stands, due to phenology, will provide a basis for which variability in vegetation type and structure will be analyzed. Furthermore, this research will also allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of using STARFM in the heterogeneous forests and complex topography of Oregon's western Cascades.

  6. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  7. Expression analysis of candidate genes regulating successional tooth formation in the human embryo

    PubMed Central

    Olley, Ryan; Xavier, Guilherme M.; Seppala, Maisa; Volponi, Ana A.; Geoghegan, Fin; Sharpe, Paul T.; Cobourne, Martyn T.

    2014-01-01

    Human dental development is characterized by formation of primary teeth, which are subsequently replaced by the secondary dentition. The secondary dentition consists of incisors, canines, and premolars, which are derived from the successional dental lamina of the corresponding primary tooth germs; and molar teeth, which develop as a continuation of the dental lamina. Currently, very little is known about the molecular regulation of human successional tooth formation. Here, we have investigated expression of three candidate regulators for human successional tooth formation; the Fibroblast Growth Factor-antagonist SPROUTY2, the Hedgehog co-receptor GAS1 and the RUNT-related transcription factor RUNX2. At around 8 weeks of development, only SPROUTY2 showed strong expression in both epithelium and mesenchyme of the early bud. During the cap stage between 12–14 weeks, SPROUTY2 predominated in the dental papilla and inner enamel epithelium of the developing tooth. No specific expression was seen in the successional dental lamina. GAS1 was expressed in dental papilla and follicle, and associated with mesenchyme adjacent to the primary dental lamina during the late cap stage. In addition, GAS1 was identifiable in mesenchyme adjacent to the successional lamina, particularly in the developing primary first molar. For RUNX2, expression predominated in the dental papilla and follicle. Localized expression was seen in mesenchyme adjacent to the primary dental lamina at the late cap stage; but surprisingly, not in the early successional lamina at these stages. These findings confirm that SPROUTY2, GAS1, and RUNX2 are all expressed during early human tooth development. The domains of GAS1 and RUNX2 are consistent with a role influencing function of the primary dental lamina but only GAS1 transcripts were identifiable in the successional lamina at these early stages of development. PMID:25484868

  8. Community assembly of biological soil crusts of different successional stages in a temperate sand ecosystem, as assessed by direct determination and enrichment techniques.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Tanja Margrit; Storm, Christian; Schwabe, Angelika

    2009-08-01

    In temperate regions, biological soil crusts (BSCs: complex communities of cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, bryophytes, and lichens) are not well investigated regarding community structure and diversity. Furthermore, studies on succession are rare. For that reason, the community assembly of crusts representing two successional stages (initial, 5 years old; and stable, >20 years old) were analyzed in an inland sand ecosystem in Germany in a plot-based approach (2 x 18 plots, each 20 x 20 cm). Two different methods were used to record the cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae in these communities comprehensively: determination directly out of the soil and enrichment culture techniques. Additionally, lichens, bryophytes, and phanerogams were determined. We examine four hypotheses: (1) A combination of direct determination and enrichment culture technique is necessary to detect cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae comprehensively. In total, 45 species of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae were detected in the study area with both techniques, including 26 eukaryotic algae and 19 cyanobacteria species. With both determination techniques, 22 identical taxa were detected (11 eukaryotic algae and 11 cyanobacteria). Thirteen taxa were only found by direct determination, and ten taxa were only found in enrichment cultures. Hence, the hypothesis is supported. Additionally, five lichen species (three genera), five bryophyte species (five genera), and 24 vascular plant species occurred. (2) There is a clear difference between the floristic structure of initial and stable crusts. The different successional stages are clearly separated by detrended correspondence analysis, showing a distinct structure of the community assembly in each stage. In the initial crusts, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Klebsormidium cf. klebsii, and Stichococcus bacillaris were important indicator species, whereas the stable crusts are especially characterized by Tortella inclinata. (3) The biodiversity of BSC taxa

  9. Early stage of nanocrystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

  10. Biological soil crusts reduce soil erosion in early successional subtropical forests in PR China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Steffen; Goebes, Philipp; Käppeler, Kathrin; Nebel, Martin; Webber, Carla; Scholten, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) have major influences on terrestrial ecosystems and play significant functional roles in soil systems, such as accelerating soil formation, changing water flows or enhancing soil stability. By that, they have the potential to protect soil surfaces against erosive forces by wind or water. However, the effect of BSCs on erosion processes is rarely mentioned in literature and most of the work done focused on arid and semi-arid environments. Furthermore, compared to the structure and function of BSCs, less attention was paid to their temporal and topographical distribution. This study aims to investigate the influence of BSCs on initial soil erosion, and their topographical development over time in initial subtropical forest ecosystems. Therefore, measurements have been conducted within a biodiversity and ecosystem functioning experiment (BEF China) near Xingangshan, Jiangxi Province, PR China. Interrill erosion was measured on 220 microscale run-off plots (ROPs, 0.4 m × 0.4 m) and the occurrence, distribution and development of BSCs within the measuring setup were recorded. BSC cover in each ROP was determined photogrammetrically in four time steps (autumn 2011, summer 2012, summer 2013 and summer 2014). BSC species were identified by morphological characteristics and classified to higher taxonomic levels. Higher BSC cover led to reduced sediment discharge and runoff volume due to its protection against splash energy, the adherence of soil particles and enhanced infiltration. Canopy ground cover and leaf area index had a positive effect on the development of BSC cover at this initial stage of the forest ecosystem. Moreover, BSC cover decreased with increasing slope, as we presume that developing BSCs are washed away more easily at steep gradients. Elevation and aspect did not show an influence. BSCs in this study were moss-dominated and 26 different moos species were found. Mean BSC cover on ROPs was 14 % in the 3rd year of the tree

  11. Early stages of Ostwald ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.

    2013-07-01

    The Becker-Döring (BD) nucleation equation is known to predict a narrow double-exponential front (DEF) in the distribution of growing particles over sizes, which is due to early transient effects. When mass conservation is included, nucleation is eventually exhausted while independent growth is replaced by ripening. Despite the enormous difference in the associated time scales, and the resulting demand on numerics, within the generalized BD model the early DEF is shown to be crucial for the selection of the unique self-similar Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner asymptotic regime. Being preserved till the latest stages of growth, the DEF provides a universal part of the initial conditions for the ripening problem, regardless of the mass exchange mechanism between the nucleus and the matrix.

  12. Comparison of throughfall chemistry in a mature hemlock forest and an early-successional deciduous forest resulting from salvage logging in Whately, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukswert, J. M.; Rhodes, A. L.; Dwyer, C. H.; Sweezy, T.

    2012-12-01

    Removal of foundation species as a result of disturbance events such as exotic species invasions can alter community composition and ecosystem function. The current hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) infestation in eastern North America that threatens the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), a foundation species, has motivated salvage logging efforts. Ecological succession resulting from salvage logging of hemlock would eventually produce a deciduous hardwood forest. The chemistry of throughfall beneath a mature hemlock forest canopy is expected to be more acidic than throughfall from a mature deciduous forest canopy because hemlock foliage releases more organic acids and fewer base cations. The chemical composition of throughfall during the early successional transition from hemlock to deciduous is less understood. We hypothesize that throughfall chemistry in a deciduous forest consisting primarily of juvenile trees may be more similar to direct precipitation because leaf area index is smaller. Differences between hemlock throughfall and direct precipitation may be larger due to the denser canopy of these mature trees. We compared the chemical composition of precipitation, hemlock throughfall, and black birch throughfall for 26 precipitation events from 4 March to 30 July 2012. The black birch (Betula lenta) forest patch resulted from salvage logging of hemlocks twenty years ago at the MacLeish Field Station in Whately, MA. From the three plots we measured the volume of water collected and pH, acid neutralizing capacity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and concentrations of cations (Ca2+, K+, Na+, Mg2+, NH4+), anions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), and dissolved silica. Precipitation totaled 405 mm during the course of the study. Throughfall totaled 347 mm in the black birch plot and 315 mm in the hemlock plot. The proportion of precipitation passing through the forest canopy was smaller in hemlock throughfall than black birch throughfall during small precipitation events

  13. Predictable communities of soil bacteria in relation to nutrient concentration and successional stage in a laboratory culture experiment.

    PubMed

    Song, Woojin; Kim, Mincheol; Tripathi, Binu M; Kim, Hyoki; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-06-01

    It is difficult to understand the processes that structure immensely complex bacterial communities in the soil environment, necessitating a simplifying experimental approach. Here, we set up a microcosm culturing experiment with soil bacteria, at a range of nutrient concentrations, and compared these over time to understand the relationship between soil bacterial community structure and time/nutrient concentration. DNA from each replicate was analysed using HiSeq2000 Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that each nutrient treatment, and each time point during the experiment, produces characteristic bacterial communities that occur predictably between replicates. It is clear that within the context of this experiment, many soil bacteria have distinct niches from one another, in terms of both nutrient concentration, and successional time point since a resource first became available. This fine niche differentiation may in part help to explain the coexistence of a diversity of bacteria in soils. In this experiment, we show that the unimodal relationship between nutrient concentration/time and species diversity often reported in communities of larger organisms is also evident in microbial communities. PMID:25913898

  14. An Investigation of Soil Moisture Status and Rates of Carbon Sequestration in a Successional Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, R. E.; Albertson, J. D.; Williams, C. A.; Epstein, H. E.

    2001-12-01

    The dynamics of carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems are controlled by a wide array of biological and physical factors such as vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture, and net radiation. In addition to the spatial variability exerted by these controls, carbon exchange rates in these environments vary over a broad spectrum of temporal scales, with large amplitudes associated with diurnal, seasonal, and even successional time scales. To explore the role of soil moisture on carbon uptake in a successional system, micrometeorological and eddy covariance measurements were taken during the earliest stages of succession in a historically cultivated but recently abandoned crop field (corn and rye) in eastern North America at the Blandy Experimental Farm in the Virginia Piedmont. Analysis of the measured flux and state variable time series explores the coupling of water and carbon fluxes as a function of environmental parameters in the presence of "natural" primary productivity in an early successional environment. Carbon uptake in both cultivated and successional systems is compared, and uptake is shown to be greater in the presence of the dominant early successional species, Setaria glauca, than in the presence of rye cultivation. In addition, the importance of soil moisture to carbon sequestration is demonstrated for both successional and cultivated plants.

  15. Interactions with successional stage and nutrient status determines the life-form-specific effects of increased soil temperature on boreal forest floor vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Hedwall, Per-Ola; Skoglund, Jerry; Linder, Sune

    2015-01-01

    The boreal forest is one of the largest terrestrial biomes and plays a key role for the global carbon balance and climate. The forest floor vegetation has a strong influence on the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the forests and is sensitive to changes in temperature conditions and nutrient availability. Additionally, the effects of climate warming on forest floor vegetation have been suggested to be moderated by the tree layer. Data on the effects of soil warming on forest floor vegetation from the boreal forest are, however, very scarce. We studied the effects on the forest floor vegetation in a long-term (18 years) soil warming and fertilization experiment in a Norway spruce stand in northern Sweden. During the first 9 years, warming favored early successional species such as grasses and forbs at the expense of dwarf shrubs and bryophytes in unfertilized stands, while the effects were smaller after fertilization. Hence, warming led to significant changes in species composition and an increase in species richness in the open canopy nutrient limited forest. After another 9 years of warming and increasing tree canopy closure, most of the initial effects had ceased, indicating an interaction between forest succession and warming. The only remaining effect of warming was on the abundance of bryophytes, which contrary to the initial phase was strongly favored by warming. We propose that the suggested moderating effects of the tree layer are specific to plant life-form and conclude that the successional phase of the forest may have a considerable impact on the effects of climate change on forest floor vegetation and its feedback effects on the carbon and nitrogen cycles, and thus on the climate. PMID:25750720

  16. Soil fungal community development in a high Arctic glacier foreland follows a directional replacement model, with a mid-successional diversity maximum

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ke; Tripathi, Binu; Moroenyane, Itumeleng; Kim, Woosung; Li, Nan; Chu, Haiyan; Adams, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Directional replacement and directional non-replacement models are two alternative paradigms for community development in primary successional environments. The first model emphasizes turnover in species between early and late successional niches. The second emphasizes accumulation of additional diversity over time. To test whether the development of soil fungal communities in the foreland of an Arctic glacier conforms to either of these models, we collected samples from the Midtre Lovénbreen Glacier, Svalbard, along a soil successional series spanning >80 years. Soil DNA was extracted, and fungal ITS1 region was amplified and sequenced on an Illumina Miseq. There was a progressive change in community composition in the soil fungal community, with greatest fungal OTU richness in the Mid Stage (50–80 years). A nestedness analysis showed that the Early Stage (20–50 years) and the Late Stage (>80 years) fungal communities were nested within the Mid Stage communities. These results imply that fungal community development in this glacier succession follows a directional replacement model. Soil development processes may initially be important in facilitating arrival of additional fungal species, to give a mid-successional diversity maximum that contains both early- and late-successional fungi. Competition may then decrease the overall diversity due to the loss of early successional species. PMID:27240660

  17. Soil fungal community development in a high Arctic glacier foreland follows a directional replacement model, with a mid-successional diversity maximum.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ke; Tripathi, Binu; Moroenyane, Itumeleng; Kim, Woosung; Li, Nan; Chu, Haiyan; Adams, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Directional replacement and directional non-replacement models are two alternative paradigms for community development in primary successional environments. The first model emphasizes turnover in species between early and late successional niches. The second emphasizes accumulation of additional diversity over time. To test whether the development of soil fungal communities in the foreland of an Arctic glacier conforms to either of these models, we collected samples from the Midtre Lovénbreen Glacier, Svalbard, along a soil successional series spanning >80 years. Soil DNA was extracted, and fungal ITS1 region was amplified and sequenced on an Illumina Miseq. There was a progressive change in community composition in the soil fungal community, with greatest fungal OTU richness in the Mid Stage (50-80 years). A nestedness analysis showed that the Early Stage (20-50 years) and the Late Stage (>80 years) fungal communities were nested within the Mid Stage communities. These results imply that fungal community development in this glacier succession follows a directional replacement model. Soil development processes may initially be important in facilitating arrival of additional fungal species, to give a mid-successional diversity maximum that contains both early- and late-successional fungi. Competition may then decrease the overall diversity due to the loss of early successional species. PMID:27240660

  18. Presence and Expression of Microbial Genes Regulating Soil Nitrogen Dynamics Along the Tanana River Successional Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, R. D.; Rogers, S. L.

    2004-12-01

    We report on work to assess the functional gene sequences for soil microbiota that control nitrogen cycle pathways along the successional sequence (willow, alder, poplar, white spruce, black spruce) on the Tanana River floodplain, Interior Alaska. Microbial DNA and mRNA were extracted from soils (0-10 cm depth) for amoA (ammonium monooxygenase), nifH (nitrogenase reductase), napA (nitrate reductase), and nirS and nirK (nitrite reductase) genes. Gene presence was determined by amplification of a conserved sequence of each gene employing sequence specific oligonucleotide primers and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Expression of the genes was measured via nested reverse transcriptase PCR amplification of the extracted mRNA. Amplified PCR products were visualized on agarose electrophoresis gels. All five successional stages show evidence for the presence and expression of microbial genes that regulate N fixation (free-living), nitrification, and nitrate reduction. We detected (1) nifH, napA, and nirK presence and amoA expression (mRNA production) for all five successional stages and (2) nirS and amoA presence and nifH, nirK, and napA expression for early successional stages (willow, alder, poplar). The results highlight that the existing body of previous process-level work has not sufficiently considered the microbial potential for a nitrate economy and free-living N fixation along the complete floodplain successional sequence.

  19. Mycorrhizal response trades off with plant growth rate and increases with plant successional status.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Liz; Bever, James D

    2015-07-01

    Early-successional plant species invest in rapid growth and reproduction in contrast to slow growing late-successional species. We test the consistency of "trade-offs between plant life history and responsiveness on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We selected four very early-, seven early-, 11 middle-, and eight late-successional plant species from six different families and functional groups and grew them with and without a mixed fungal inoculum and compared root architecture, mycorrhizal responsiveness, and plant growth rate. Our results indicate mycorrhizal responsiveness increases with plant successional stage and that this effect explains more variation in mycorrhizal response than is explained by phylogenetic relatedness. The mycorrhizal responsiveness of individual plant species was positively correlated with mycorrhizal root infection and negatively correlated with average plant mass and the number of root tips per unit mass, indicating that both plant growth rate and root architecture trade off with investment in mycorrhizal mutualisms. Because late-successional plants are very responsive to mycorrhizal fungi, our results suggest that fungal community dynamics may be an important driver of plant succession. PMID:26378299

  20. Ectomycorrhizas in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae, and Betula platyphylla var. japonica, an early-successional birch species, in cool-temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Neda, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae in the Northern Hemisphere and produces prized "matsutake" mushrooms. We questioned whether the symbiont could associate with a birch that is an early-successional species in boreal, cool-temperate, or subalpine forests. In the present study, we demonstrated that T. matsutake can form typical ectomycorrhizas with Betula platyphylla var. japonica; the associations included a Hartig net and a thin but distinct fungal sheath, as well as the rhizospheric mycelial aggregate "shiro" that is required for fruiting in nature. The in vitro shiro also emitted a characteristic aroma. This is the first report of an ectomycorrhizal formation between T. matsutake and a deciduous broad-leaved tree in the boreal or cool-temperate zones that T. matsutake naturally inhabits. PMID:25236465

  1. The Effect of Local and Landscape-Level Characteristics on the Abundance of Forest Birds in Early-Successional Habitats during the Post-Fledging Season in Western Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Labbe, Michelle A.; King, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Many species of mature forest-nesting birds (“forest birds”) undergo a pronounced shift in habitat use during the post-fledging period and move from their forest nesting sites into areas of early-successional vegetation. Mortality is high during this period, thus understanding the resource requirements of post-fledging birds has implications for conservation. Efforts to identify predictors of abundance of forest birds in patches of early-successional habitats have so far been equivocal, yet these previous studies have primarily focused on contiguously forested landscapes and the potential for landscape-scale influences in more fragmented and modified landscapes is largely unknown. Landscape composition can have a strong influence on the abundance and productivity of forest birds during the nesting period, and could therefore affect the number of forest birds in the landscape available to colonize early-successional habitats during the post-fledging period. Therefore, the inclusion of landscape characteristics should increase the explanatory power of models of forest bird abundance in early-successional habitat patches during the post-fledging period. We examined forest bird abundance and body condition in relation to landscape and habitat characteristics of 15 early-successional sites during the post-fledging season in Massachusetts. The abundance of forest birds was influenced by within-patch habitat characteristics, however the explanatory power of these models was significantly increased by the inclusion of landscape fragmentation and the abundance of forest birds in adjacent forest during the nesting period for some species and age groups. Our findings show that including factors beyond the patch scale can explain additional variation in the abundance of forest birds in early-successional habitats during the post-fledging period. We conclude that landscape composition should be considered when siting early-successional habitat to maximize its benefit to

  2. Dislocation generation during early stage sintering.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, J. E.; Lenel, F. V.; Ansell, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of capillarity-induced stresses on dislocations during early stage sintering. A special version of Hirth's (1963) theoretical calculation procedures modified to describe dislocation nucleation on planes meeting the sintering body's neck surface obliquely is shown to predict plastic flow at stress levels know to exist between micron size metal particles in the early stages of sintering.

  3. Endoscopic options for early stage esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Pari M.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery has traditionally been the preferred treatment for early stage esophageal cancer. Recent advances in endoscopic treatments have been shown to be effective and safe. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allow endoscopists to remove small, superficial lesions, providing tumor specimen that can be examined for accurate pathologic tumor staging and assessment of adequacy of resection. Endoscopic ablation procedures, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radio frequency ablation (RFA), have also been shown to safely and effectively treat esophageal dysplasia and early stage neoplasia, with excellent long-term disease control. Both approaches are becoming more widely available around the world, and provide an alternative, safe, low risk strategy for treating early stage disease, making combined endoscopic therapy the recommended treatment of choice for early stage esophageal cancers. PMID:25642334

  4. Do natural disturbances or the forestry practices that follow them convert forests to early-successional communities?

    PubMed

    Brewer, J Stephen; Bertz, Christine A; Cannon, Jeffery B; Chesser, Jason D; Maynard, Erynn E

    2012-03-01

    Stand-replacing natural disturbances in mature forests are traditionally seen as events that cause forests to revert to early stages of succession and maintain species diversity. In some cases, however, such transitions could be an artifact of salvage logging and may increase biotic homogenization. We present initial (two-year) results of a study of the effects of tornado damage and the combined effects of tornado damage and salvage logging on environmental conditions and ground cover plant communities in mixed oak-pine forests in north central Mississippi. Plots were established in salvage-logged areas, adjacent to plots established before the storm in unlogged areas, spanning a gradient of storm damage intensity. Vegetation change directly attributable to tornado damage was driven primarily by a reduction in canopy cover but was not consistent with a transition to an early stage of succession. Although we observed post-storm increases of several disturbance indicators (ruderals), we also observed significant increases in the abundance of a few species indicative of upland forests. Increases in flowering were just as likely to occur in species indicative of forests as in species indicative of open woodlands. Few species declined as a result of the tornado, resulting in a net increase in species richness. Ruderals were very abundant in salvage-logged areas, which contained significantly higher amounts of bare ground and greater variance in soil penetrability than did damaged areas that were not logged. In contrast to unlogged areas severely damaged by the tornado, most upland forest indicators were not abundant in logged areas. Several of the forest and open-woodland indicators that showed increased flowering in damaged areas were absent or sparse in logged areas. Species richness was lower in salvage-logged areas than in adjacent damaged areas but similar to that in undamaged areas. These results suggest that salvage logging prevented positive responses of several

  5. Dependence of soil respiration on soil temperature and soil moisture in successional forests in Southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tang, X.-L.; Zhou, G.-Y.; Liu, S.-G.; Zhang, D.-Q.; Liu, S.-Z.; Li, J.; Zhou, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (?? SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0 ?? 4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year, ranging from (6.1 ?? 3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year in early successional forests to (10.7 ?? 4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities. ?? 2006 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of

  6. Short-Term responses of breeding birds of grassland and early successional habitat to timing of haying in Northwestern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luscier, J.D.; Thompson, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, we evaluated nest survival and density of the Dickcissel (Spiza americana), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) in four unhayed, two early-hayed (26-31 May) and three late-hayed (17-25 June) fields in northwestern Arkansas. Rope dragging and observations revealed 89 nests. Daily nest-survival rates (SE) prior to haying ranged from 0.94 (0.03) to 0.97 (0.02). Early haying affected both nest-survival rates and bird densities negatively, whereas late haying had minimal effects. Fifteen nests in hayed portions of early-hayed fields were destroyed, whereas only 2 of 52 nests were affected by late haying. Density was at least 0.98 birds ha-1 higher in unhayed than in early-hayed fields and 1.03 birds ha-1 higher in late-hayed than in early-hayed fields. In northwestern Arkansas, postponing haying until mid- to late June would allow time for nestlings to fledge, would have little effect on bird densities, and would affect hay nutrition and regrowth minimally. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society, 2009.

  7. Treatment of early stage vocal cord carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, G.

    1989-03-01

    The cure rates for early stage vocal cord cancer are excellent with primary radiotherapy. Voice quality remains as good or becomes better than prior to treatment. For the local failures that do occur, surgical salvage will yield ultimate cure rates of about 95% for T1 and 90% for T2 tumors.

  8. The treatment of early stage ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Young, R C

    1995-10-01

    Approximately one third of women with ovarian cancer present with localized disease. A series of recent studies have identified a population of patients who require only comprehensive surgical staging for optimal results and another group that may benefit from adjuvant therapy. A series of national and international studies are evaluating a variety of adjuvant treatments in prospective randomized trials that may enhance long-term survival in poor-prognosis early ovarian cancer. PMID:7481865

  9. Suicide in the Early Stage of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gentile, Alessandro; Bonfitto, Iris; Stella, Eleonora; Mari, Massimo; Steardo, Luca; Bellomo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects with subthreshold psychotic experiences. Factors associated with the risk of suicide in the early phase of schizophrenia are previous suicidal attempts and social aspects: the lack of social support and stable relationships, social drift after the first episode, and social impairment. Also, several psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, paranoid delusions, mental disintegration and agitation, negative symptoms, depression and hopelessness, and command hallucinations) and substance abuse are associated with higher risk of suicide. It has been described that perfectionism and good levels of insight among individuals who have recently developed psychotic symptoms are significantly associated with higher numbers of suicidal attempts. Moreover, recent evidences show that prefrontal cortex-based circuit dysfunction may be related to suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia. This narrative review summarizes available evidences on suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia and deals with issues to be further studied and discussed. PMID:27445872

  10. Suicide in the Early Stage of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gentile, Alessandro; Bonfitto, Iris; Stella, Eleonora; Mari, Massimo; Steardo, Luca; Bellomo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects with subthreshold psychotic experiences. Factors associated with the risk of suicide in the early phase of schizophrenia are previous suicidal attempts and social aspects: the lack of social support and stable relationships, social drift after the first episode, and social impairment. Also, several psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, paranoid delusions, mental disintegration and agitation, negative symptoms, depression and hopelessness, and command hallucinations) and substance abuse are associated with higher risk of suicide. It has been described that perfectionism and good levels of insight among individuals who have recently developed psychotic symptoms are significantly associated with higher numbers of suicidal attempts. Moreover, recent evidences show that prefrontal cortex-based circuit dysfunction may be related to suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia. This narrative review summarizes available evidences on suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia and deals with issues to be further studied and discussed. PMID:27445872

  11. Unusual early-stage pancreatic sarcomatoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chuan-Li; Jin, Ping; Han, Chong-Xu; Xiao, Qin; Wang, Dao-Rong; Shi, Lin; Wang, Da-Xin; Chen, Hui

    2013-11-21

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the pancreas (SCP) is a very rare pathological type of carcinoma that usually has a poor prognosis. Its pathogenesis has not been elucidated. We herein report a case of an early-stage SCP involving successful treatment and a good prognosis. The patient was a 48-year-old Chinese man with a 5-mo history of vague abdominal pain. Ultrasonography revealed a 93 mm × 94 mm × 75 mm mass of mixed echogenicity in the tail of the pancreas. Laboratory test results were within the normal range, with the exception of an obviously increased pretreatment neuron-specific enolase level. The plasma transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 and interleukin-11 levels were obviously increased according to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Microscopically, the excised tumor tissue comprised cancer cells and mesenchymal cells. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for α-1-antichymotrypsin, pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 19, cytokeratin 8/18, and vimentin and negative for CD68 and lysozyme. The pathogenetic mechanism of this case shows that TGFβ1 may regulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in SCP. With early eradication of the tumor and systemic therapy, this patient has been alive for more than 3 years without tumor recurrence or distant metastasis. This case is also the first to show that TGFβ1 may regulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in early-stage SCP. PMID:24282372

  12. [Early stage of a cloverleaf skull malformation].

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Hori, A; Ulbrich, R; Rath, W

    1982-12-01

    Cloverleaf skull anomaly was diagnosed sonographically and in the fetogram, together with concomitant chondrodystrophy. This resulted in an indication for intentional abortion in the 29th week. Consequently, this rare form of skull monstrosity could be examined pathologico-anatomically for the first time in a very early stage of foetal development. Contrary to the widely held opinion that the reason for such hideous malformation is a hydrocephalus internus due to a deformation of the skull base, we found a practically negligible hydrocephalus, although the cloverleaf skull had already developed in a very marked manner. Hence, this case contradicts the generally adopted formal pathogenetic interpretation of cloverleaf skull monstrosity. PMID:7178767

  13. Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treatment Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast cancer treatment fact sheet ePublications Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet Print this fact sheet Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet (PDF, 943 KB) Related information ...

  14. Spatial variation in fish assemblages across a beaver-influenced successional landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlosser, I.J.; Kallemeyn, L.W.

    2000-01-01

    Beavers are increasingly viewed as 'ecological engineers,' having broad effects on physical, chemical, and biological attributes of north-temperate landscapes. We examine the influence of both local successional processes associated with beaver activity and regional geomorphic boundaries on spatial variation in fish assemblages along the Kabetogama Peninsula in Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota, USA. Fish abundance and species richness exhibited considerable variation among drainages along the peninsula. Geological barriers to fish dispersal at outlets of some drainages has reduced fish abundance and species richness. Fish abundance and species richness also varied within drainages among local environments associated with beaver pond succession. Fish abundance was higher in upland ponds than in lowland ponds, collapsed ponds, or streams, whereas species richness was highest in collapsed ponds and streams. Cluster analyses based on fish abundance at sites classified according to successional environment indicated that four species (northern redbelly dace, Phoxinus eos; brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans; finescale dace, P. neogaeus; and fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas), were predominant in all successional environments. Several less abundant species were added in collapsed ponds and streams, with smaller size classes of large lake species (e.g., black crappie, Pomoxis nigromaculatus; smallmouth bass, Micropertus dolomieui; yellow perch, Perca flavescens; and burbot, Lota lota) being a component of these less abundant species. The addition of smaller size classes of large lake species indicates that dispersal of early life-history stages from Kabetogama Lake played a role in determining the species richness and composition of less abundant species in successional environments on the peninsula. Furthermore, collapsed-pond and stream environments closer to Kabetogama Lake had higher species richness than similar successional sites located farther from

  15. Is the degree of clonality of forest herbs dependent on gap age? Using fingerprinting approaches to assess optimum successional stages for montane forest herbs

    PubMed Central

    Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability. Mean patch sizes of V. myrtillus, T. europaea, and C. villosa formed were 3.7 m2, 27.9 m2, and 40.6 m2, respectively. Trientalis europaea and C. villosa patches consisted mostly of more than one genet. Largest clone sizes of T. europaea were encountered in gaps of intermediate successional age (15–60 years, averaged minimum estimation of clone sizes: 6.56 m2) whereas clone size of C. villosa was found to be independent from gap age and had a mean minimum clone size of 0.49 m2. In both species, clone size was positively related to light availability. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between clone size and ramet density for T. europaea and C. villosa. Genetic variation was higher within populations of T. europaea and C. villosa than among populations. Trientalis europaea was the only species with a clear genetic isolation by distance, pointing at an equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift. In conclusion, we showed that forest canopy gap dynamics clearly affect the small-scale structure of populations of understorey plants. Species with high lateral growth rates, such as T. europaea offer the possibility to serve as “ecological clock” for dating ecological processes. PMID:22393501

  16. Metanx and Early Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haitao; Tang, Jie; Lee, Chieh Allen; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. l-Methylfolate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and methylcobalamin, individually have been reported to have beneficial effects on diabetes-induced defects. The possibility that combining these therapeutic approaches might have additional benefit led us to investigate the effect of Metanx against development of early stages of diabetic retinopathy in a mouse model. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin, and some were given Metanx (a combination food product) mixed in the food at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight. Mice were killed at 2 months and 10 months of study for assessment of retinal function, retinal vascular histopathology, accumulation of albumin in neural retina, and biochemical and physiological abnormalities in retina. Results. Two months of diabetes significantly increased leukostasis within retinal vessels and superoxide generation by the retina. Diabetes also significantly increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and phosphorylation of IκB. Daily consumption of Metanx significantly inhibited all of these abnormalities. Ten months of diabetes significantly increased the degeneration of retinal capillaries and impaired visual function (spatial frequency threshold (SFT) and a parameter of contrast sensitivity) compared to nondiabetic controls. Daily consumption of Metanx for 10 months inhibited impairment of SFT but had no significant beneficial effect on capillary degeneration, pericyte loss, or the estimate of contrast sensitivity. Conclusions. Metanx inhibited a diabetes-induced defect in retinal spatial frequency threshold and inhibited measures of oxidative stress and inflammation. It had no significant effect on contrast sensitivity or retinal capillary degeneration. Nutritional management with Metanx may help inhibit diabetes-induced defects in visual function. PMID:25574044

  17. Uncertainty during the Early Stages of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Hoyos, Maria; Gray, Eddie; Simpson, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of uncertainty during the early stages of problem solving. It is argued that students start the problem solving activity with some degree of uncertainty that may vary from high to low. This degree of uncertainty may affect students' decisions at early stages of the problem solving process. It may be suggested that an…

  18. Exploiting water versus tolerating drought: water-use strategies of trees in a secondary successional tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Pineda-García, Fernando; Paz, Horacio; Meinzer, Frederick C; Angeles, Guillermo

    2016-02-01

    In seasonal plant communities where water availability changes dramatically both between and within seasons, understanding the mechanisms that enable plants to exploit water pulses and to survive drought periods is crucial. By measuring rates of physiological processes, we examined the trade-off between water exploitation and drought tolerance among seedlings of trees of a tropical dry forest, and identified biophysical traits most closely associated with plant water-use strategies. We also explored whether early and late secondary successional species occupy different portions of trade-off axes. As predicted, species that maintained carbon capture, hydraulic function and leaf area at higher plant water deficits during drought had low photosynthetic rates, xylem hydraulic conductivity and growth rate under non-limiting water supply. Drought tolerance was associated with more dense leaf, stem and root tissues, whereas rapid resource acquisition was associated with greater stem water storage, larger vessel diameter and larger leaf area per mass invested. We offer evidence that the water exploitation versus drought tolerance trade-off drives species differentiation in the ability of tropical dry forest trees to deal with alternating water-drought pulses. However, we detected no evidence of strong functional differentiation between early and late successional species along the proposed trade-off axes, suggesting that the environmental gradient of water availability across secondary successional habitats in the dry tropics does not filter out physiological strategies of water use among species, at least at the seedling stage. PMID:26687176

  19. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin blocks early stages of breast carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Demehri, Shadmehr; Cunningham, Trevor J.; Manivasagam, Sindhu; Ngo, Kenneth H.; Reddy, Rasika; Meyers, Melissa A.; DeNardo, David G.; Yokoyama, Wayne M.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the field of cancer immunology, including studies on tumor-infiltrating CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), have led to new immunotherapeutics with proven efficacy against late-stage cancers. However, the antitumor potential of the immune system in targeting early-stage cancers remains uncertain. Here, we demonstrated that both genetic and chemical induction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) at a distant site leads to robust antitumor immunity against spontaneous breast carcinogenesis in mice. Breast tumors exposed to high circulating levels of TSLP were arrested at an early adenoma-like stage and were prevented from advancing to late carcinoma and metastasis. Additionally, CD4+ Th2 cells mediated the antitumor effects of TSLP, challenging the notion that Th2 cells only promote cancer. We also discovered that TSLP is expressed by the breast tumor cells themselves and acts to block breast cancer promotion. Moreover, TSLP-induced immunity also blocked early stages of pancreatic cancer development. Together, our findings demonstrate that TSLP potently induces immunity directed against early stages of breast cancer development without causing inflammation in the normal breast tissue. Moreover, our results highlight a previously unappreciated function of the immune system in controlling the early development of cancer and establish a fundamental role for TSLP and Th2 cells in tumor immunity against early-stage cancers. PMID:26927668

  20. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin blocks early stages of breast carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Demehri, Shadmehr; Cunningham, Trevor J; Manivasagam, Sindhu; Ngo, Kenneth H; Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Reddy, Rasika; Meyers, Melissa A; DeNardo, David G; Yokoyama, Wayne M

    2016-04-01

    Advances in the field of cancer immunology, including studies on tumor-infiltrating CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), have led to new immunotherapeutics with proven efficacy against late-stage cancers. However, the antitumor potential of the immune system in targeting early-stage cancers remains uncertain. Here, we demonstrated that both genetic and chemical induction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) at a distant site leads to robust antitumor immunity against spontaneous breast carcinogenesis in mice. Breast tumors exposed to high circulating levels of TSLP were arrested at an early adenoma-like stage and were prevented from advancing to late carcinoma and metastasis. Additionally, CD4+ Th2 cells mediated the antitumor effects of TSLP, challenging the notion that Th2 cells only promote cancer. We also discovered that TSLP is expressed by the breast tumor cells themselves and acts to block breast cancer promotion. Moreover, TSLP-induced immunity also blocked early stages of pancreatic cancer development. Together, our findings demonstrate that TSLP potently induces immunity directed against early stages of breast cancer development without causing inflammation in the normal breast tissue. Moreover, our results highlight a previously unappreciated function of the immune system in controlling the early development of cancer and establish a fundamental role for TSLP and Th2 cells in tumor immunity against early-stage cancers. PMID:26927668

  1. Discovering colorons at the early stage LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Dicus, Duane A.; Kao, Chung; Sayre, Joshua; Nandi, S.

    2011-05-01

    Prospects are investigated for the discovery of massive hypergluons using data from the early runs of the Large Hadron Collider. A center of mass energy of 7 TeV and an integrated luminosity of 1 fb{sup -1} or 5 fb{sup -1} are assumed. A phenomenological Lagrangian is adopted to evaluate the cross section of a pair of colored vector bosons (colorons, {rho}-tilde) decaying into four colored scalar resonances (hyperpions, {pi}-tilde), which then decay into eight gluons. The dominant eight-jet background from the production of 8g, 7g1q, 6g2q, and 5g3q is included. We find an abundance of signal events and that realistic cuts reduce the background enough to establish a 5{sigma} signal for the coloron mass of up to 733 GeV with 1 fb{sup -1} or 833 GeV with 5 fb{sup -1}.

  2. Surgical treatment for apparent early stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Most experts would agree that the standard surgical treatment for endometrial cancer includes a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; however, the benefit of full surgical staging with lymph node dissection in patients with apparent early stage disease remains a topic of debate. Recent prospective data and advances in laparoscopic techniques have transformed this disease into one that can be successfully managed with minimally invasive surgery. This review will discuss the current surgical management of apparent early stage endometrial cancer and some of the new techniques that are being incorporated. PMID:24596812

  3. Cognitive restructuring as an early stage in problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodner, George M.; McMillen, Theresa L. B.

    This article examines the hypothesis that there are preliminary stages in problem solving which most chemists neglect when trying to teach their students how to solve problems in introductory chemistry courses. It is during these early stages that relevant information is disembedded from the question and the problem is restructured. Unless students can successfully complete these cognitive restructuring stages, they cannot proceed on to the more analytic stages in problem solving that have received more attention from chemists.Preliminary evidence for this hypothesis consists of linear correlations between student ability to handle disembedding and cognitive restructuring tasks in the spatial domain and their ability to solve chemistry problems.

  4. Prognostic factors in early-stage leiomyosarcoma of the uterus.

    PubMed

    Pelmus, Manuela; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Guillou, Louis; Collin, Françoise; Bertrand, Gérard; Trassard, Martine; Leroux, Agnès; Floquet, Anne; Stoeckle, Eberhard; Thomas, Laurence; MacGrogan, Gaëtan

    2009-04-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) are rare cancers representing less than 1% of all uterine malignancies. Clinical International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage is the most important prognostic factor. Other significant prognostic factors, especially for early stages, are difficult to establish because most of the published studies have included localized and extra-pelvian sarcomas. The aim of our study was to search for significant prognostic factors in clinical stage I and II uterine LMS. The pathologic features of 108 uterine LMS including 72 stage I and II lesions were reviewed using standardized criteria. The prognostic significance of different pathologic features was assessed. The median follow-up in the whole group was 64 months (range, 6-223 months). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and metastasis-free interval and local relapse-free interval rates in the whole group and early-stage group (FIGO stages I and II) were 40% and 57%, 42% and 50%, 56% and 62%, respectively. Clinical FIGO stage was the most important prognostic factor for OS in the whole group (P = 4 x 10). In the stage I and II group, macroscopic circumscription was the most significant factor predicting OS (P = 0.001). In the same group, mitotic score and vascular invasion were associated with metastasis-free interval (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). Uterine LMSs diagnosed using standardized criteria have a poor prognosis, and clinical FIGO stage is an ominous prognostic factor. In early-stage LMS, pathologic features such as mitotic score, vascular invasion, and tumor circumscription significantly impact patient outcome. PMID:19407564

  5. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  6. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  7. Devil's Wake: Early-stage bone colonization by breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai; Yu, Cuijuan; Zhang, Xiang H. F.

    2016-01-01

    We recently discovered that bone micrometastases of breast cancer predominantly reside in the microenvironment termed the “osteogenic niche”. The heterotypic adherens junctions between cancer cells and osteogenic cells promote early-stage bone colonization by activating the mTOR pathway in cancer cells. Here, we discuss a few questions raised by these findings.

  8. Radiation Plus Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not

  9. On the transition of base flow recession from early stage to late stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debapi K.; Wang, Dingbao; Zhu, Tingju

    2016-02-01

    This paper is focused on the transition of base flow recession from early stage to late stage. The volume flow rate that takes place when such a transition occurs is identified for each of the twenty-three recession events observed at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW) in Georgia, USA, using a newly developed cumulative regression analysis method. Meanwhile, the flow at the watershed outlet, which was recorded when the discharge at the perennial stream head diminishes to zero, is identified for each recession event. As evidenced by a correlation coefficient of 0.90, these two characteristic flows are found to be highly correlated, suggesting a fundamental linkage between the transition of base flow recession from early stage to late stage and the drying up of ephemeral streams. During the early stage, the contraction of ephemeral streams largely controls the recession behavior, whereas in the late stage when perennial streams dominate the flowing streams, the contraction of flowing streams is minimal and groundwater hydraulics governs the recession behavior.

  10. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.I.; Kristensen, P.

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

  11. Surgical Treatment of Early-Stage Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Sara Y; Ulrich, Uwe A

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of cervical cancer has been a cornerstone in the management of this malignancy for more than 100 years. Today, for early-stage and low-risk cervical cancer, surgery is still considered the gold standard. If the preoperative assessment of the tumor reveals a situation prompting postoperative adjuvant radiochemotherapy, the latter should be planned as the primary treatment option, being preceded by staging laparoscopy including pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection. As an alternative to the open approach, the definitive surgical treatment should be either performed laparoscopically, or be laparoscopic-assisted, or laparoscopically robotic-assisted. PMID:27614875

  12. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu; Long, Jiang; Li, Hai; Chen, Shuhong; Liu, Qiqi; Zhang, Bei; He, Xiaomin; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongyi; Li, Yimei; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Chenzhen; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Minli; Li, Qing; Cao, Bangwei; Bai, Zhigang; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Zhongtao; Zhu, Shengtao; Zheng, Jiasheng; Ou, Xiaojuan; Ma, Hong; Jia, Jidong; You, Hong; Wang, Shengqi; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is prevalent worldwide and early diagnosis of HCC is critical for effective treatment and optimal prognosis. Methods Serum was screened first by immunoproteomic analysis for HCC-related tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Selected TAAs were clinically evaluated retrospectively in patients with HCC, liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and healthy controls. Levels of autoantibody to the selected TAAs were measured by protein microarrays containing protein antigens of the candidate TAAs. Analyses were done by using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to calculate diagnostic accuracy. Findings Twenty-two candidate TAAs were assessed by protein microarray analysis in 914 participants with serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) available. Twelve candidate TAAs were statistically different in signal intensity between HCC and controls. Among them, CENPF, HSP60 and IMP-2 showed AUC (area under the curve) values of 0.826, 0.764 and 0.796 respectively for early HCC. The highest prevalence of autoantibody positivity was observed in HCC cases with BCLC tumor stage A, well-differentiated histology and Child-Pugh grade C. Specifically, 73.6% or 79.3% cases of early HCC with negative AFP were positive for autoantibody to CENPF or HSP60. Interpretation Tumor-associated autoimmune reactions may be triggered by early stage HCCs. Measurement of serum autoantibody to TAAs may be complementary to AFP measurements and improve diagnosis of early HCC. PMID:26137588

  13. Folding of Polymer Chains in Early Stage of Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shichen; Miyoshi, Toshikazu

    Understanding the structural formation of long polymer chains in the early stage of crystallization is one of the long-standing problems in polymer science. Using solid state NMR, we investigated chain trajectory of isotactic polypropylene in the mesomorphic nano-domains formed via rapid and deep quenching. Comparison of experimental and simulated 13C-13C Double Quantum (DQ) buildup curves demonstrated that instead of random re-entry models and solidification models, individual chains in the mesomorphic form iPP adopt adjacent reentry sequences with an average folding number of = 3-4 (assuming an adjacent re-entry fraction of of 100%) during mesomorphic formation process via nucleation and growth in the early stage. This work was financially supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant DMR-1105829 and 1408855) and startup funds from the UA.

  14. [Treatment of early stage avascular necrosis of the femoral head].

    PubMed

    Zhu, He-Yu; Zhu, Bing

    2012-07-01

    Avascular necrosis is a progressively devastating disease and primarily affects weight-bearing joints. The hip is the most commonly affected joint. In early stage, nonoperative (including pharmacologic intervention and biophysical treatments) and operative modalities for protecting hip joint have become the main therapeutic methods. However there is still no satisfied mothod with reasonable effect. According to the treatment of the avascular necrosis of the femoral head of the pre-collapse stage, core decompression with modification of technique is still one of the safest and most commonly employed procedures. Recently there have been attempts to enhance the effect of core decompression with use of various growth and differentiation factors. Which is the hot spot of current research. Early diagnosis is the key to the treatment of the avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Comprehensive treatment which is based on the core decompression is still the main treatment of today. PMID:23116002

  15. The Development of Children's Early Numeracy through Key Stage 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a limited longitudinal study of young children's early numeracy development within three testing cycles, at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-of-age), located within the broader context of progress through to Key Stage 1 SAT…

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Hiroshi; Todo, Yukiharu; Watari, Hidemichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to address the current status of adjuvant chemotherapy alone in early-stage cervical cancer treatments in the literature. At present, the therapeutic effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone after radical surgery (RS) has not yet been established, and radiation therapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is recommended as the standard adjuvant therapy after RS for early-stage cervical cancer in various guidelines. The main purpose of adjuvant therapy after RS, however, should be to reduce extrapelvic recurrence rather than local recurrence, although adjuvant RT or CCRT has survival benefits for patients with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence. Moreover, several studies reported that adjuvant therapies including RT were associated with a higher incidence of complications, such as lymphedema, bowel obstruction and urinary disturbance, and a lower grade of long-term quality of life (QOL) or sexual functioning than adjuvant chemotherapy alone. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone for early-stage cervical cancer with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence were not fully investigated in prospective studies, but several retrospective studies suggest that the adjuvant effects of chemotherapy alone are at least similar to that of RT or CCRT in terms of recurrence rate, disease-free survival, or overall survival (OS) with lower incidence of complications. Whereas cisplatin based combination regimens were used in these studies, paclitaxel/cisplatin (TP) regimen, which is currently recognized as a standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with metastatic, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer by Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), had also survival benefit as an adjuvant therapy. Therefore, it may be worth considering a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) of adjuvant chemotherapy alone using TP regimen versus adjuvant RT as an alternative adjuvant therapy. Because early-stage cervical cancer is a curable

  17. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results

  18. Biomarkers of early stage osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and musculoskeletal health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Usman; Anwar, Attia; Savage, Richard S.; Costa, Matthew L.; Mackay, Nicola; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Watts, Richard A.; Winyard, Paul G.; Tarr, Joanna; Haigh, Richard C.; Thornalley, Paul J.; Rabbani, Naila

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no biochemical test for detection of early-stage osteoarthritis (eOA). Tests for early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies require refinement to improve clinical utility. We developed robust mass spectrometric methods to quantify citrullinated protein (CP) and free hydroxyproline in body fluids. We detected CP in the plasma of healthy subjects and surprisingly found that CP was increased in both patients with eOA and eRA whereas anti–CCP antibodies were predominantly present in eRA. A 4-class diagnostic algorithm combining plasma/serum CP, anti-CCP antibody and hydroxyproline applied to a cohort gave specific and sensitive detection and discrimination of eOA, eRA, other non-RA inflammatory joint diseases and good skeletal health. This provides a first-in-class plasma/serum-based biochemical assay for diagnosis and type discrimination of early-stage arthritis to facilitate improved treatment and patient outcomes, exploiting citrullinated protein and related differential autoimmunity. PMID:25788417

  19. Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1993-12-01

    Processes in growth of short cracks and stage I of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl{sup {minus}}, with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl{sup {minus}} or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage I behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK{sup m} where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

  20. Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Liu, J.; Zhou, G.; Zhang, D.; Deng, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of P supply to ecosystems. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment of precipitation treatments (no precipitation, natural precipitation and doubled precipitation) in three forests of early-, mid- and advanced-successional stages in Southern China was carried out. Results showed that driven by seasonality of precipitation, changes in soil acid phosphatase activities coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with significantly higher values in the wet season than in the dry season. Soil acid phosphatase activities were closely linked to forest successional stages, with enhanced values in the later stages of forest succession. In the dry season, soil acid phosphatase activities in the three forests showed a rising trend with increasing precipitation treatments. In the wet season, no precipitation treatment depressed soil acid phosphatase activity, while doubled precipitation treatment exerted no positive effects on it, and even significantly lowered it in the advanced forest. These indicate the potential transformation rate of organic P might be more dependent on water in the dry season than in the wet season. The negative responses of soil acid phosphatase activity to precipitation suggest that P supply in subtropical ecosystems might be reduced if there was a drought in a whole year or more rainfall in the wet season in the future. NP, no precipitation; Control, natural precipitation; DP, double precipitation.

  1. Benchmarking Successional Progress in a Quantitative Food Web

    PubMed Central

    Boit, Alice; Gaedke, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Central to ecology and ecosystem management, succession theory aims to mechanistically explain and predict the assembly and development of ecological communities. Yet processes at lower hierarchical levels, e.g. at the species and functional group level, are rarely mechanistically linked to the under-investigated system-level processes which drive changes in ecosystem properties and functioning and are comparable across ecosystems. As a model system for secondary succession, seasonal plankton succession during the growing season is readily observable and largely driven autogenically. We used a long-term dataset from large, deep Lake Constance comprising biomasses, auto- and heterotrophic production, food quality, functional diversity, and mass-balanced food webs of the energy and nutrient flows between functional guilds of plankton and partly fish. Extracting population- and system-level indices from this dataset, we tested current hypotheses about the directionality of successional progress which are rooted in ecosystem theory, the metabolic theory of ecology, quantitative food web theory, thermodynamics, and information theory. Our results indicate that successional progress in Lake Constance is quantifiable, passing through predictable stages. Mean body mass, functional diversity, predator-prey weight ratios, trophic positions, system residence times of carbon and nutrients, and the complexity of the energy flow patterns increased during succession. In contrast, both the mass-specific metabolic activity and the system export decreased, while the succession rate exhibited a bimodal pattern. The weighted connectance introduced here represents a suitable index for assessing the evenness and interconnectedness of energy flows during succession. Diverging from earlier predictions, ascendency and eco-exergy did not increase during succession. Linking aspects of functional diversity to metabolic theory and food web complexity, we reconcile previously disjoint bodies of

  2. Benchmarking successional progress in a quantitative food web.

    PubMed

    Boit, Alice; Gaedke, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Central to ecology and ecosystem management, succession theory aims to mechanistically explain and predict the assembly and development of ecological communities. Yet processes at lower hierarchical levels, e.g. at the species and functional group level, are rarely mechanistically linked to the under-investigated system-level processes which drive changes in ecosystem properties and functioning and are comparable across ecosystems. As a model system for secondary succession, seasonal plankton succession during the growing season is readily observable and largely driven autogenically. We used a long-term dataset from large, deep Lake Constance comprising biomasses, auto- and heterotrophic production, food quality, functional diversity, and mass-balanced food webs of the energy and nutrient flows between functional guilds of plankton and partly fish. Extracting population- and system-level indices from this dataset, we tested current hypotheses about the directionality of successional progress which are rooted in ecosystem theory, the metabolic theory of ecology, quantitative food web theory, thermodynamics, and information theory. Our results indicate that successional progress in Lake Constance is quantifiable, passing through predictable stages. Mean body mass, functional diversity, predator-prey weight ratios, trophic positions, system residence times of carbon and nutrients, and the complexity of the energy flow patterns increased during succession. In contrast, both the mass-specific metabolic activity and the system export decreased, while the succession rate exhibited a bimodal pattern. The weighted connectance introduced here represents a suitable index for assessing the evenness and interconnectedness of energy flows during succession. Diverging from earlier predictions, ascendency and eco-exergy did not increase during succession. Linking aspects of functional diversity to metabolic theory and food web complexity, we reconcile previously disjoint bodies of

  3. Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. Results A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Conclusion Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group. PMID:25142621

  4. Visual perception in prediagnostic and early stage Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Brian F; Blekher, Tanya M; Weaver, Marjorie; White, Kerry M; Marshall, Jeanine; Beristain, Xabier; Stout, Julie C; Gray, Jacqueline; Wojcieszek, Joanne M; Foroud, Tatiana M

    2008-05-01

    Disturbances of visual perception frequently accompany neurodegenerative disorders but have been little studied in Huntington's disease (HD) gene carriers. We used psychophysical tests to assess visual perception among individuals in the prediagnostic and early stages of HD. The sample comprised four groups, which included 201 nongene carriers (NG), 32 prediagnostic gene carriers with minimal neurological abnormalities (PD1); 20 prediagnostic gene carriers with moderate neurological abnormalities (PD2), and 36 gene carriers with diagnosed HD. Contrast sensitivity for stationary and moving sinusoidal gratings, and tests of form and motion discrimination, were used to probe different visual pathways. Patients with HD showed impaired contrast sensitivity for moving gratings. For one of the three contrast sensitivity tests, the prediagnostic gene carriers with greater neurological abnormality (PD2) also had impaired performance as compared with NG. These findings suggest that early stage HD disrupts visual functions associated with the magnocellular pathway. However, these changes are only observed in individuals diagnosed with HD or who are in the more symptomatic stages of prediagnostic HD. PMID:18419843

  5. Responses of reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes, proline and malondialdehyde to water deficits among six secondary successional seral species in Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Shi, Huijun; Zhang, Xingchang; Xu, Xuexuan

    2014-01-01

    Drought can impact local vegetation dynamics in a long term. In order to predict the possible successional pathway of local community under drought, the responses of some drought resistance indices of six successional seral species in the semi-arid Loss Hilly Region of China were illustrated and compared on three levels of soil water deficits along three growing months (7, 8 and 9). The results showed that: 1) the six species had significant differences in SOD, POD activities and MDA content. The rank correlations between SOD, POD activities and the successional niche positions of the six species were positive, and the correlation between MDA content and the niche positions was negative; 2) activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and content of proline and MDA had significant differences among the three months; 3) there existed significant interactions of SOD, CAT, POD activities and MDA content between months and species. With an exception, no interaction of proline was found. Proline in leaves had a general decline in reproductive month; 4) SOD, CAT, POD activities and proline content had negative correlations with MDA content. Among which, the correlation between SOD activity and MDA content was significant. The results implied that, in arid or semiarid region, the species at later successional stage tend to have strong drought resistance than those at early stage. Anti-drought indices can partially interpret the pathway of community succession in the drought impacted area. SOD activity is more distinct and important on the scope of protecting membrane damage through the scavenging of ROS on exposure to drought. PMID:24914928

  6. Depression in the early stages of Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Epping, Eric A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2012-01-01

    Summary Huntington disease (HD) has traditionally been considered a movement disorder, but cognitive and psychiatric symptoms also prominently factor into its clinical presentation. Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disturbances in HD, with its prevalence highest in manifest disease during stage 2, but it is also present during the illness prodrome (the period before manifestation of motor symptoms). Identification and treatment of depression in individuals with the HD mutation is an essential part of clinical management in this population, especially owing to the high risk of suicide. This article summarizes what is currently known about the presentation and treatment of depression in the early stages of HD and provides advice to clinicians treating this population. PMID:22942903

  7. Point pressure sensitivity in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Gandhi, Shifa S; Osman, Allen; Hurtig, Howard I; Pawasarat, Ian; Beals, Evan; Chung, Inna; Dubroff, Jacob; Newberg, Andrew; Ying, Gui-Shang; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2015-01-01

    A number of sensory changes occur in the earliest stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), some of which precede the expression of the classic motor phenotype by years (e.g., olfactory dysfunction). Whether point pressure sensitivity (PPS), a cutaneous measure of light touch mediated by myelinated Aβ fibers, is altered in early PD is not clear. Prior studies on this point are contradictory and are based on non-forced-choice threshold tests that confound the sensitivity measure with the response criterion. While α-synuclein pathology, a defining feature of PD, is present in the skin of PD patients, it is restricted to unmyelinated nerve fibers, suggesting PPS may be spared in this disease. We determined PPS thresholds using a state-of-the-art forced-choice staircase threshold test paradigm in 29 early stage PD patients and 29 matched controls at 11 body sites: the center of the forehead and the left and right forearms, index fingers, palms, medial soles of the feet, and plantar halluces. The patients were tested, in counterbalanced sessions, both on and off dopamine-related medications (DRMs). PPS was not influenced by PD and did not correlate with DRM l-DOPA equivalents, scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, side of the major motor disturbances, or SPECT imaging of the striatal dopamine transporter, as measured by technetium-99m TRODAT. However, PPS thresholds were lower on the left than on the right side of the body (p=0.008) and on the upper extremities relative to the toes and feet (ps<0.0001). Positive correlations were evident among the thresholds obtained across all body sectors, even though disparate regions of the body differed in terms of absolute sensitivity. This study indicates that PPS is not influenced in early stage PD regardless of whether patients are on or off DRMs. PMID:25447476

  8. Nontrivial dynamics in the early stages of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, E.; El Hasi, C.

    1995-03-01

    Inflationary cosmologies, regarded as dynamical systems, have rather simple asymptotic behavior insofar as the cosmic baldness principle holds. Nevertheless, in the early stages of an inflationary process the dynamical behavior may be very complex. In this paper, we show how even a simple inflationary scenario, based on Linde's ``chaotic inflation'' proposal, manifests nontrivial dynamical effects such as the breakup of invariant tori, the formation of cantori, and Arnol'd's diffusion. The relevance of such effects is highlighted by the facts that even the occurrence or nonoccurrence of inflation in a given universe is dependent upon them.

  9. Early stage of superradiance from Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmann, L. F.; Lambropoulos, P.; Nikolopoulos, G. M.; Zobay, O.

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the dynamics of matter and optical waves at the early stage of superradiant Rayleigh scattering from Bose-Einstein condensates. Our analysis is within a spatially dependent quantum model which is capable of providing analytic solutions for the operators of interest. The predictions of the present model are compared to the predictions of a closely related mean-field model, and we provide a procedure that allows one to calculate quantum expectation values by averaging over semiclassical solutions. The coherence properties of the outgoing scattered light are also analyzed, and it is shown that the corresponding correlation functions may provide detailed information about the internal dynamics of the system.

  10. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  11. Early-stage mycosis fungoides variants: case-based review.

    PubMed

    Cho-Vega, Jeong Hee; Tschen, Jaime A; Duvic, Madeleine; Vega, Francisco

    2010-10-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The diagnosis of classic MF is based on a combination of clinical presentation, histopathology, and T-cell monoclonality detected by molecular studies. However, the diagnosis can be difficult in cases of early MF because of the subtle nature of histologic findings and, in cases of variants of MF, because of the unusual clinical and/or pathologic features. In this review, we presented the most frequent variants of MF at early stage including hypopigmented, folliculotropic, pagetoid reticulosis, unilesional, granulomatous, and ichthyosis forms. This case-based clinicopathologic review provides the notion that a comprehensive clinicopathologic correlation is of substantial importance to render the diagnosis of MF. In addition, we discuss the role of molecular studies, which are highly sensitive and recently more applicable to routinely processed skin biopsy specimens in the diagnosis of MF. PMID:20850703

  12. Late stages of accumulation and early evolution of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vityazev, Andrey V.; Perchernikova, G. V.

    1991-01-01

    Recently developed solutions of problems are discussed that were traditionally considered fundamental in classical solar system cosmogony: determination of planetary orbit distribution patterns, values for mean eccentricity and orbital inclinations of the planets, and rotation periods and rotation axis inclinations of the planets. Two important cosmochemical aspects of accumulation are examined: the time scale for gas loss from the terrestrial planet zone, and the composition of the planets in terms of isotope data. It was concluded that the early beginning of planet differentiation is a function of the heating of protoplanets during collisions with large (thousands of kilometers) bodies. Energetics, heat mass transfer processes, and characteristic time scales of these processes at the early stages of planet evolution are considered.

  13. Prognostic factors in early-stage ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tognon, Germana; Carnazza, Mario; Ragnoli, Monica; Calza, Stefano; Ferrari, Federico; Gambino, Angela; Zizioli, Valentina; Notaro, Sara; Sostegni, Benedetta; Sartori, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the main prognostic factors in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Data were extracted from 222 patients with initial stage (I-IIA) invasive epithelial ovarian cancer treated with primary surgery followed or not followed by adjuvant therapy, from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008, at the Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy; the median follow-up was 79 months (SD ± 35,945, range 20-250 months). The negative prognostic factors that were statistically significant (p<0.050) in univariate analysis were grade 2, 3, and X (clear cell in our study); stage IB, IC, IIA; positive peritoneal cytology, age equal to/greater than 54; dense adhesions; capsule rupture (pre-operative or intra-operative) and endometrioid histotype (only for disease-free survival (DFS)). Positive cytology was strongly associated with peritoneal relapses, while adhesions were associated with pelvic relapses. A positive prognosis was associated with the mucinous histotype. Conservative treatment had been carried out in 52% of patients under 40 years of age, and we detected only two relapses and three completions of surgery after a few weeks among 31 women in total. Our study indicated a possible execution in patients with patients with cancer stage IA G1-G2 (p=0.030) or IC G1 (p=0.050), provided well staged. Adjuvant chemotherapy improved the survival of cancers that were not IA G1. The positive prognostic role of taxanes must be emphasised, when used in combination with platino. PMID:23781280

  14. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  15. An Early-Stage Atherosclerosis Research Model Based on Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenfu; Huang, Rong; Jiang, Bo; Zhao, Yuyun; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-04-01

    The arterial microenvironment plays a vital role in the pathology of atherosclerosis (AS). However, the interplay between the arterial microenvironment and atherogenesis remains unclear, partially due to the gap between cell culture and animal experiments. Addressing this problem, the present study reports a microfluidic AS model reconstituting early-stage AS. Physiological or AS-prone hemodynamic conditions are recapitulated on the model. The on-chip model recaptures the atherogenic responses of endothelial cells (ECs) in ways that the Petri dish could not. Significant cytotoxicity of a clinical anti-atherosclerotic drug probucol is discovered on the model, which does not appear on Petri dish but is supported by previous clinical evidence. Moreover, the anti-AS efficiency of platinum-nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) on the model shows excellent consistency with animal experiments. The early-stage AS model shows an excellent connection between Petri dish and animal experiments and highlights its promising role in bridging fundamental AS research, drug screening, and clinical trials. PMID:26890624

  16. Early stage of nanodroplet impact on solid wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Konno, Kazuki; Yaguchi, Hisao; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Sanada, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Masao

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated nanodroplet spreading at the early stage after the impact using molecular dynamics simulations by changing the magnitude of the intermolecular force between the liquid and wall molecules. We showed that the droplet deformation after the impact greatly depends on the intermolecular force. The temporal evolution of the spreading diameters was measured by the cylindrical control volume for several molecular layers in the vicinity of the wall. At the early stage of the nanodroplet impact, the normalized spreading radius of the droplet is proportional to the square root of the normalized time, t ˆ . This result is understood by the geometrical consideration presented by Rioboo et al. ["Time evolution of liquid drop impact onto solid, dry surfaces," Exp. Fluids 33, 112-124 (2002)]. In addition, we found that as the intermolecular force between the liquid and wall becomes stronger, the normalized spreading diameter of the first molecular layer on the wall remains less dependent on the impact velocity. Furthermore, the time evolution of the droplet spreading changes from √{ t ˆ } to log t ˆ with time.

  17. Understanding early-stage dune development: morphodynamics of aeolian protodunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddock, Matthew; Wiggs, Giles; Nield, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    For such a fundamental aspect of bedform development, the initiation and early-stage growth of sand dunes remain poorly understood. Protodunes are bedforms within the continuum of early-stage depositional aeolian features that exist between flat sand patches and small dunes. As transitory bedforms with the potential to develop into dunes, the detailed study of protodune morphodynamics can provide significant insights into nascent dune development. As part of a multi-annual study investigating bedform change through repeat morphological surveys of bedforms with differing maturity, measurements of near-surface airflow and sand transport were conducted over a protodune in a small Namibian barchan dune field. The protodune was approximately 85 m in length and 1 m high, and was without a slipface. Data show that over the course of a week, patterns of airflow and transport flux variation were linked with accretion at the crest, and erosion of the leeside edge showing an increase in protodune height, and providing evidence of the dune's vertical development. Surveys reveal the longer term evolution of the protodune, in the context of changes exhibited by nearby, fully developed barchan dunes, and long term monitoring of wind regime at the site.

  18. Early stage of Superradiance from Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, Lukas

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of matter and optical waves at the early stage of superradiant Rayleigh scattering from Bose-Einstein condensates, an instance of four-wave-mixing of matter and optical waves. Our analysis is within a spatially dependent model which treats the matter-waves as well as the optical end-fire modes quantum mechanically and is capable of providing analytic solutions for the operators of interest. In particular, we study the statistical properties of the outgoing scattered light which provide insight into the rich internal dynamics of the system at this early stage. Furthermore, we investigate coherence properties of pairs of counter propagating atomic sidemodes produced during the process. It is shown that these clouds exhibit long-range spatial coherence and strong nonclassical density cross-correlations due to entanglement between the clouds. These findings make this scheme a promising candidate for the production of highly directional nonclassically correlated atomic pulses. Our prediction of number difference squeezing between the clouds was observed in another instance of a four-wave mixing process using metastable helium. Work performed at IESL-FORTH in Crete, Greece

  19. Early stages during plasma nitriding of pure iron

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, M.D.; Martinez, O.; Oseguera, J.

    1995-12-31

    The sequence of nitride formation during the early stages of plasma nitriding of pure iron was studied by optical microscopy, SEM, TEM and x-ray diffraction. Plasma nitriding at {approximately}490 C in a 25 vol.%H{sub 2} + 75 vol.%N{sub 2} mixture starts with the formation of {gamma}{prime}-Fe{sub 4}N after 40s. Once {gamma}{prime} nucleates, it mainly spreads laterally due to diffusion shortcuts in the discontinuous surface nitride layer. Before {gamma}{prime} is continuous on the surface, {epsilon} nucleates on top of it shortly after 40S. Epsilon is then observed to grow, both inwardly and laterally along with {gamma}{prime}. A compact {gamma}{prime}/{epsilon} bilayer forms on the surface at around 100s. The kinetics of nucleation, growth and compactation of the nitrides observed in the present work was significantly more rapid than in any of the nitriding process reported in the literature, including plasma nitriding. The acceleration of the nitriding kinetics in the early stages of plasma nitriding may be attributed to enhanced diffusion resulting from a high nitrogen flux from the plasma atmosphere. The results presented are consistent with the findings of a companion work on modeling the kinetics of nitride layer growth.

  20. Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy for early stage cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Daniela D; Medeiros, Lídia RF; Edelweiss, Maria I; Pohlmann, Paula R; Stein, Airton T

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3. Most women with early cervical cancer (stages I to IIA) are cured with surgery or radiotherapy, or both. We performed this review originally because it was unclear whether cisplatin-based chemotherapy after surgery, radiotherapy or both, in women with early stage disease with risk factors for recurrence, was associated with additional survival benefits or risks. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of platinum-based chemotherapy after radical hysterectomy, radiotherapy, or both in the treatment of early stage cervical cancer. Search methods For the original 2009 review, we searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS and CancerLit, the National Research Register and Clinical Trials register, with no language restriction. We handsearched abstracts of scientific meetings and other relevant publications. We extended the database searches to November 2011 for this update. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy (after radical surgery, radiotherapy or both) with no adjuvant chemotherapy, in women with early stage cervical cancer (stage IA2-IIA) with at least one risk factor for recurrence. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted data independently. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, with death and disease progression as outcomes. Main results For this updated version, we identified three additional ongoing trials but no new studies for inclusion. Three trials including 368 evaluable women with early cervical cancer were included in the meta-analyses. The median follow-up period in these trials ranged from 29 to 42 months. All women had undergone surgery first. Two trials

  1. Metamorphic density controls on early-stage subduction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Oberhänsli, Roland; Bousquet, Romain

    2013-04-01

    Subduction is primarily driven by the densification of the downgoing oceanic slab, due to dynamic P-T-fields in subduction zones. It is crucial to unravel slab densification induced by metamorphic reactions to understand the influence on plate dynamics. By analyzing the density and metamorphic structure of subduction zones, we may gain knowledge about the driving, metamorphic processes in a subduction zone like the eclogitization (i.e., the transformation of a MORB to an eclogite), the breakdown of hydrous minerals and the release of fluid or the generation of partial melts. We have therefore developed a 2D subduction zone model down to 250 km that is based on thermodynamic equilibrium assemblage computations. Our model computes the "metamorphic density" of rocks as a function of pressure, temperature and chemical composition using the Theriak-Domino software package at different time stages. We have used this model to investigate how the hydration, dehydration, partial melting and fractionation processes of rocks all influence the metamorphic density and greatly depend on the temperature field within subduction systems. These processes are commonly neglected by other approaches (e.g., gravitational or thermomechanical in nature) reproducing the density distribution within this tectonic setting. The process of eclogitization is assumed as being important to subduction dynamics, based on the very high density (3.6 g/cm3) of eclogitic rocks. The eclogitization in a MORB-type crust is possible only if the rock reaches the garnet phase stability field. This process is primarily temperature driven. Our model demonstrates that the initiation of eclogitization of the slab is not the only significant process that makes the descending slab denser and is responsible for the slab pull force. Indeed, our results show that the densification of the downgoing lithospheric mantle (due to an increase of pressure) starts in the early subduction stage and makes a significant

  2. Suites of plant traits in species from different stages of a Mediterranean secondary succession.

    PubMed

    Navas, M-L; Roumet, C; Bellmann, A; Laurent, G; Garnier, E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect suites of traits related to whole plant and seed morphology, phenology and resource use--including water--in species differing in successional status. Twenty traits were measured on 55 species representative of 5 successional stages in Mediterranean southern France, including eight pertaining to phenology and five to water economy. Suites of traits that changed along succession in agreement with the acquisition/conservation trade-off were completed by continuous changes in phenology. Early successional species had leaves with a high specific leaf area that were produced and lost continuously through the growing season. Late-successional species were taller with long-lived, high delta(13)C leaves produced during short periods, most of them persisting during summer, and produced large seeds requiring a long ripening period. Replacement of species occurred with change in strategies of drought survival: early successional species escaped drought by dying before summer; later herbaceous species maintained favourable water status in relation to leaf shedding during summer; late successional trees with a large body allowing access to a large pool of resources, produced dense leaves that could tolerate desiccation. These changes occurred concomitantly with a shift in CSR strategies, using traits related to resource use, plant size and flowering phenology: ruderal herbs were replaced by more stress-tolerant herbs and shrubs throughout the succession, with competitive trees dominating the latest successional stage. These results suggest that the breadth of functional variability found in natura is not predicted by the CSR framework, and calls for a more integrated view of whole plant functioning. PMID:20653901

  3. Management of older women with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Punglia, Rinaa S; Hughes, Kevin S; Muss, Hyman B

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease of aging. The average age at diagnosis is 61, and the majority of deaths occur after age 65. Caring for older women with breast cancer is a major challenge, as many have coexisting illness that can preclude optimal breast cancer treatment and which frequently have greater effect than the breast cancer itself. Older patients with cancer should be screened or have a brief geriatric assessment to detect potentially remediable problems not usually assessed by oncologists (e.g., self-care, falls, social support, nutrition). Older women with early-stage breast cancer should be treated initially with surgery unless they have an exceedingly short life expectancy. Primary endocrine therapy should be considered for patients who have hormone receptor-positive tumors and a very short life expectancy, an acute illness that delays surgery, or tumors that need to be downstaged to be resectable. Sentinel node biopsy should be considered for patients in whom it might affect treatment decisions. Breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery may be omitted for selected older women, especially for those with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer that are compliant with adjuvant endocrine therapy. The majority of older women with stage I and II breast cancer have hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative tumors, and endocrine therapy provides them with optimal systemic treatment. If these patients have life expectancies exceeding at least 5 years, they should be considered for genetic assays to determine the potential value of chemotherapy. Partnering care with geriatricians or primary care physicians trained in geriatrics should be considered for all vulnerable and frail older patients. PMID:25993142

  4. Population resilience to catastrophic mortality events during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Langangen, Øystein

    2015-07-01

    Catastrophic mortality events that drastically reduce the abundance of a population or a particular life stage can have long-term ecological and economic effects, and are of great concern in species conservation and management. Severe die-offs may be caused by natural catastrophes such as disease outbreaks and extreme climates, or human-caused disturbances such as toxic spills. Forecasting potential impacts of such disturbances is difficult and highly uncertain due to unknown future conditions, including population status and environmental conditions at the time of impact. Here, we present a framework for quantifying the range of potential, population-level effects of catastrophic events based on a hindcasting approach. A dynamic population model with Bayesian parameter estimation is used to simulate the impact of severe (50-99%) mortality events during the early life stages of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), an abundant marine fish population of high economic value. We quantify the impact of such die-offs in terms of subsequent changes in population biomass and harvest through direct comparison of simulated and historical trends, and estimate the duration of the impact as a measure of population resilience. Our results demonstrate strong resilience to catastrophic events that affect early life stages owing to density dependence in survival and a broad population age structure. Yet, while population recovery is. relatively fast, losses in harvest and economic value can be substantial. Future research efforts should focus on long-term and indirect effects via food web interactions in order to better understand the ecological and economic ramifications of catastrophic mortality events. PMID:26485960

  5. Fire and Long-Term Carbon Accumulation in Boreal Peatlands are Controlled by Interactions Between Climate and Successional Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camill, P.; Rafert, G.; Barry, A.; Williams, E.; Andreassi, C.; Limmer, J.; Solick, D.

    2008-12-01

    Warming climate has the potential to dramatically alter carbon and fire dynamics in high-latitude systems. Boreal and subarctic peatlands cover 346 million hectares of land surface and store 455 Pg-C, suggesting that changes in these systems can have regional and global-scale impacts on carbon cycling. Soil carbon release is expected to increase with more frequent fires in a warmer world. The dynamics of peatland landscapes, however, will likely involve complex interactions among permafrost thaw, changes in hydrology, and successional development. Understanding landscape-level responses to warming therefore requires integrative approaches that simultaneously examine all of these processes. In this study, we examined long- term changes in plant succession, carbon accumulation, and fire in a landscape located in northern Manitoba, Canada. We recovered 17 replicate permafrost peat cores ranging in depth from 1-4.3 meters (mean = 2.2 m). Using 149 AMS 14C dates, we were able to develop detailed age chronologies for each core. We measured macrofossil abundance to reconstruct the wetland plant community, areal charcoal concentration (mm2cm-3) as a proxy for fire severity, and total carbon and nitrogen. Basal AMS 14C dates indicated that peat accumulation began almost synchronously around 8,000 cal.14C yr BP, with the exception of a few cores resulting from more recent paludification along the wetland margin. Fire severity increased across wetland successional stages, with later successional forested bogs showing greater severity (6.79-11.16 mm2cm-3) than early successional open water, fen, and poor fen communities (0.29-1.82 mm2cm-3). The exception was paludified lowland forests, which exhibited the greatest fire severity during peatland initiation and the death of the overstory (21.68 mm2cm- 3). More severe fires (> 5-10 mm2cm-3) caused peat carbon accumulation rates to decline by half (13.7-24.5 g-Cm-2yr-1) compared to unburned peat (48.9 g-Cm-2yr-1). These two results

  6. Flame acceleration in the early stages of burning in tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Fru, Gordon; Petchenko, Arkady; Akkerman, V'yacheslav; Eriksson, Lars-Erik

    2007-09-15

    Acceleration of premixed laminar flames in the early stages of burning in long tubes is considered. The acceleration mechanism was suggested earlier by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105 (1996) 225]. Acceleration happens due to the initial ignition geometry at the tube axis when a flame develops to a finger-shaped front, with surface area growing exponentially in time. Flame surface area grows quite fast but only for a short time. The analytical theory of flame acceleration is developed, which determines the growth rate, the total acceleration time, and the maximal increase of the flame surface area. Direct numerical simulations of the process are performed for the complete set of combustion equations. The simulations results and the theory are in good agreement with the previous experiments. The numerical simulations also demonstrate flame deceleration, which follows acceleration, and the so-called ''tulip flames''. (author)

  7. Contingency Table Browser - prediction of early stage protein structure.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table - this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them - analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity. PMID:26664034

  8. Comprehensive Transcriptional Analysis of Early-Stage Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Jakob; Lamy, Philippe; Nordentoft, Iver; Algaba, Ferran; Høyer, Søren; Ulhøi, Benedicte Parm; Vang, Søren; Reinert, Thomas; Hermann, Gregers G; Mogensen, Karin; Thomsen, Mathilde Borg Houlberg; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Marquez, Mirari; Segersten, Ulrika; Aine, Mattias; Höglund, Mattias; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Fristrup, Niels; Borre, Michael; Hartmann, Arndt; Stöhr, Robert; Wach, Sven; Keck, Bastian; Seitz, Anna Katharina; Nawroth, Roman; Maurer, Tobias; Tulic, Cane; Simic, Tatjana; Junker, Kerstin; Horstmann, Marcus; Harving, Niels; Petersen, Astrid Christine; Calle, M Luz; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Beukers, Willemien; van Kessel, Kim E M; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Malmström, Per-Uno; Malats, Núria; Real, Francisco X; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2016-07-11

    Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a heterogeneous disease with widely different outcomes. We performed a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of 460 early-stage urothelial carcinomas and showed that NMIBC can be subgrouped into three major classes with basal- and luminal-like characteristics and different clinical outcomes. Large differences in biological processes such as the cell cycle, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and differentiation were observed. Analysis of transcript variants revealed frequent mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in chromatin organization and cytoskeletal functions. Furthermore, mutations in well-known cancer driver genes (e.g., TP53 and ERBB2) were primarily found in high-risk tumors, together with APOBEC-related mutational signatures. The identification of subclasses in NMIBC may offer better prognostication and treatment selection based on subclass assignment. PMID:27321955

  9. Early Stage Relapsing Polychondritis Diagnosed by Nasal Septum Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takaaki; Moody, Sandra; Komori, Masafumi; Jibatake, Akira; Yaegashi, Makito

    2015-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis is a rare inflammation of cartilaginous tissues, the diagnosis of which is usually delayed by a mean period of 2.9 years from symptom onset. We present the case of a 36-year-old man with nasal pain and fever. Physical examination of the nose was grossly unremarkable, but there was significant tenderness of the nasal bridge. Acute sinusitis was initially diagnosed due to thickened left frontal sinus mucosa on computed tomography (CT); however, there was no improvement after antibiotic intake. Repeat CT showed edematous inflammation of the nasal septum; biopsy of this site demonstrated erosion and infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils in the hyaline cartilage. Relapsing polychondritis was confirmed by the modified McAdam's criteria and can be diagnosed at an early stage by nasal septum biopsy; it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with nasal symptoms alone or persistent sinus symptoms. PMID:26843866

  10. Discovery of potent wall teichoic acid early stage inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Labroli, Marc A; Caldwell, John P; Yang, Christine; Lee, Sang Ho; Wang, Hao; Koseoglu, Sandra; Mann, Paul; Yang, Shu-Wei; Xiao, Jing; Garlisi, Charles G; Tan, Christopher; Roemer, Terry; Su, Jing

    2016-08-15

    The widespread emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has dramatically eroded the efficacy of current β-lactam antibiotics and created an urgent need for novel treatment options. Using an S. aureus phenotypic screening strategy, we have identified small molecule early stage wall teichoic acid (WTA) pathway-specific inhibitors predicted to be chemically synergistic with β-lactams. These previously disclosed inhibitors, termed tarocins, demonstrate by genetic and biochemical means inhibition of TarO, the first step in WTA biosynthesis. Tarocins demonstrate potent bactericidal synergy in combination with broad spectrum β-lactam antibiotics across diverse clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. The synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a tarocin series will be detailed. Tarocins and other WTA inhibitors may provide a rational strategy to develop Gram-positive bactericidal β-lactam combination agents active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. PMID:27436582

  11. SBRT in operable early stage lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Andratschke, Nicolaus; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Since decades the gold standard for treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is surgical lobectomy plus mediastinal lymph node dissection. Patients in worse health status are treated with sublobar resection or radiation treatment. With development of stereotactic-body-radiotherapy (SBRT), outcome of patients treated with radiation was substantially improved. Comparison of SBRT and surgical techniques is difficult due to the lack of randomized trials. However, all available evidence in form of case control studies of population based studies show equivalence between sublobar resection and SBRT indicating that SBRT—when performed by a trained and experienced team—should be offered to all high-risk surgical patients. For patients not willing to take the risk of lobectomy and therefore refusing surgery, SBRT is an excellent treatment option. PMID:25806303

  12. Frontiers in Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Christine M.; Rabinovitch, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The development of breast-conserving treatment for early-stage breast cancer is one of the most important success stories in radiation oncology in the latter half of the twentieth century. Lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy provides an appealing alternative to mastectomy for many women. In recent years, there has been a shift in clinical investigational focus toward refinements in the methods of delivering adjuvant radiotherapy that provide shorter, more convenient schedules of external-beam radiotherapy and interstitial treatment. Expedited courses of whole-breast treatment have been demonstrated to be equivalent to traditional lengthier courses in terms of tumor control and cosmetic outcome and to provide an opportunity for cost efficiencies. PMID:25113764

  13. Model atmospheres for novae during the early stages

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrse, R.; Hauschildt, P.H. . Inst. fuer Theoretische Astrophysik); Shaviv, G. . Dept. of Physics); Starrfield, S. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    Continuum and line blanketing models for the photospheres of novae in the early stages of their outbursts are presented. The expanding envelopes are characterized by a very slow increase of density with decreasing radius which leads to very large geometrical extensions and large temperature differences between the inner and outer parts. The spectra show a large IR excess and a small Balmer jump which may be either in absorption or in emission. For the parameters considered (T{sub eff} = 10{sup 4}, 1.5 {times} 10{sup 4}, 2 {times} 10{sup 4}K, R = 10{sup 11} cm, solar composition), most lines are in absorption. The effects of both modifications in the temperature structure (e.g. by heating from shock fronts) and changes in the abundances of the heavy elements on the emergent spectra are briefly discussed. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Early stage differentiation of thallus cells of Porphyra haitanensis (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sujuan; Sun, Yunlong; Lu, Anming; Wang, Guangyuan

    1987-09-01

    The early stage differentiation of thallus cells of Porphyra haitanensis T. J. Chang et B. F. Zheng was studied. Protoplasts or single cells were isolated from the blades using enzyme mixture comprising 2% sea snail gut enzyme and 1% cellulase. The isolated protoplasts or single cells were incubated in the MES medium. The cell differentiations were examined under the microscope at intervals after incubation. Four types of cell differentiation, namely, normal, abnormal, carposporangial and spermatorangial, and rhizoidal types, were observed. Since normal cell differentiations occur mostly in small thalli 50 mm in length and middle portions of big thalli 200 mm in length, it is essential to select tissues from these two kinds of thalli essential for commercial production.

  15. Simulations of nucleation and early growth stages of protein crystals.

    PubMed Central

    Kierzek, A M; Wolf, W M; Zielenkiewicz, P

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of known protein crystal structures reveals that interaction energies between monomer pairs alone are not sufficient to overcome entropy loss related to fixing monomers in the crystal lattice. Interactions with several neighbors in the crystal are required for stabilization of monomers in the lattice. A microscopic model of nucleation and early growth stages of protein crystals, based on the above observations, is presented. Anisotropy of protein molecules is taken into account by assigning free energies of association (proportional to the buried surface area) to individual monomer-monomer contacts in the lattice. Lattice simulations of the tetragonal lysozyme crystal based on the model correctly reproduce structural features of the movement of dislocation on the (110) crystal face. The dislocation shifts with the speed equal to the one determined experimentally if the geometric probability of correct orientation is set to 10(-5), in agreement with previously published estimates. At this value of orientational probability, the first nuclei, the critical size of which for lysozyme is four monomers, appear in 1 ml of supersaturated solution on a time scale of microseconds. Formation of the ordered phase proceeds through the growth of nuclei (rather then their association) and requires nucleations on the surface at certain stages. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:9251778

  16. Rate of Belowground Carbon Allocation Differs with Successional Habit of Two Afromontane Trees

    PubMed Central

    Shibistova, Olga; Yohannes, Yonas; Boy, Jens; Richter, Andreas; Wild, Birgit; Watzka, Margarethe; Guggenberger, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic disturbance of old-growth tropical forests increases the abundance of early successional tree species at the cost of late successional ones. Quantifying differences in terms of carbon allocation and the proportion of recently fixed carbon in soil CO2 efflux is crucial for addressing the carbon footprint of creeping degradation. Methodology We compared the carbon allocation pattern of the late successional gymnosperm Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) Mirb. and the early successional (gap filling) angiosperm Croton macrostachyus Hochst. es Del. in an Ethiopian Afromontane forest by whole tree 13CO2 pulse labeling. Over a one-year period we monitored the temporal resolution of the label in the foliage, the phloem sap, the arbuscular mycorrhiza, and in soil-derived CO2. Further, we quantified the overall losses of assimilated 13C with soil CO2 efflux. Principal Findings 13C in leaves of C. macrostachyus declined more rapidly with a larger size of a fast pool (64% vs. 50% of the assimilated carbon), having a shorter mean residence time (14 h vs. 55 h) as in leaves of P. falcatus. Phloem sap velocity was about 4 times higher for C. macrostachyus. Likewise, the label appeared earlier in the arbuscular mycorrhiza of C. macrostachyus and in the soil CO2 efflux as in case of P. falcatus (24 h vs. 72 h). Within one year soil CO2 efflux amounted to a loss of 32% of assimilated carbon for the gap filling tree and to 15% for the late successional one. Conclusions Our results showed clear differences in carbon allocation patterns between tree species, although we caution that this experiment was unreplicated. A shift in tree species composition of tropical montane forests (e.g., by degradation) accelerates carbon allocation belowground and increases respiratory carbon losses by the autotrophic community. If ongoing disturbance keeps early successional species in dominance, the larger allocation to fast cycling compartments may deplete soil organic carbon in

  17. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill. PMID:26351964

  18. Toxicity of TFM lampricide to early life stages of walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, J.G.; Marking, L.L.; King, E.L., Jr.; Hanson, L.H.; Bills, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on gametes, newly fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, and swim-up fry of the walleye Stizostedion vitreum . When gametes from sexually mature walleyes were stripped into solutions of TFM, no effects were observed during the fertilization process at concentrations up to 3.0 mg/L - three times the concentration lethal to 99.9% of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held 12 h (LC99.9) under the same test conditions. Newly fertilized eggs likewise were unaffected during water hardening by concentrations of TFM that were lethal to sea lamprey ammocoetes. Eyed eggs, sac fry, and swim-up fry yielded LC25 values that were 2.5 to 5 times greater than the 12-h LC99.9 for sea lamprey ammocoetes. The data thus indicated that all of the early life stages of walleyes tested were considerably more resistant than sea lamprey ammocoetes to TFM, and that it is unlikely they would be adversely affected by standard stream treatments to kill sea lamprey ammocoetes.

  19. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in early stages of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Brown, G R; Rundell, J R; McManis, S E; Kendall, S N; Zachary, R; Temoshok, L

    1992-01-01

    As part of a military universal HIV screening program, 442 men were assessed for the presence of DSM-III-R defined psychiatric disorders and symptoms of anxiety and depression after notification of HIV seroconversion. Of them, 84.4% were in the earliest, asymptomatic stages of disease at the time of interview (96% did not have AIDS). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scales were used. Relevant comparisons were made to Epidemiologic Catchment Area prevalence data. HIV seropositive men were more likely than age-matched men in the community to have current diagnoses of major depression (ages 18-44) and anxiety disorders (ages 25-44). Higher lifetime rates of major depression and alcohol use disorder, and high current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (21.7%) were noted. We conclude that men who become HIV seropositive have high rates of mood and substance use disorders prior to knowledge of seroconversion, and that early in the course of HIV infection men are at risk for developing major depression, anxiety disorders, and disorders of sexual desire. PMID:1438661

  20. Endoscopic mucosal resection of early stage colon neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yasushi; Uedo, Noriya; Ishihara, Ryu; Tomita, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Early stage colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma is rare. A small colon tumour was found in a 56-year-old man during diagnostic colonoscopy performed after a positive faecal occult blood test, and he was referred for treatment. A slightly reddish superficial elevated lesion with a shallow depression 10 mm in size was found in the transverse colon. Magnifying narrow-band imaging revealed disrupted irregular microvessels and the absence of a surface pattern in the depressed area. En bloc endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of the tumour was undertaken. The tumour was positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin, and had a mitotic rate of >20/10 high-power fields and a Ki-67 proliferative index of >50%; it was diagnosed as a neuroendocrine carcinoma. The tumour minimally invaded the submucosa (300 μm) without lymphovascular involvement. The patient was followed up carefully, and at 1 year after EMR, no recurrence was found using colonoscopy and CT scans. PMID:25737221

  1. A microengineered pathophysiological model of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonseok; Hyun, Eunjeh; Seo, Jeongyun; Blundell, Cassidy; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Eunhee; Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Aree; Moon, Woo Kyung; Huh, Dongeun

    2015-08-21

    A mounting body of evidence in cancer research suggests that the local microenvironment of tumor cells has a profound influence on cancer progression and metastasis. In vitro studies on the tumor microenvironment and its pharmacological modulation, however, are often hampered by the technical challenges associated with creating physiological cell culture environments that integrate cancer cells with the key components of their native niche such as neighboring cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic complex microarchitecture of cancerous tissue. Using early-stage breast cancer as a model disease, here we describe a biomimetic microengineering strategy to reconstitute three-dimensional (3D) structural organization and microenvironment of breast tumors in human cell-based in vitro models. Specifically, we developed a microsystem that enabled co-culture of breast tumor spheroids with human mammary ductal epithelial cells and mammary fibroblasts in a compartmentalized 3D microfluidic device to replicate microarchitecture of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We also explored the potential of this breast cancer-on-a-chip system as a drug screening platform by evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of an anticancer drug (paclitaxel). Our microengineered disease model represents the first critical step towards recapitulating pathophysiological complexity of breast cancer, and may serve as an enabling tool to systematically examine the contribution of the breast cancer microenvironment to the progression of DCIS to an invasive form of the disease. PMID:26158500

  2. Multiscale Investigations of the Early Stage Oxidation on Cu Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qing; Xiao, Penghao; Lian, Xin; Yang, Shen-Che; Henkelman, Grame; Saidi, Wissam; Yang, Judith; University of Pittsburgh Team; University of Texas at Austin Team

    Previous in situ TEM experiments have shown that the oxidation of the three low index Cu surfaces (100), (110) and (111) exhibit different oxide nucleation rates, and the resulting oxides have 3-dimensional (3D) island shapes or 2D rafts under different conditions. In order to better understand these results, we have investigated the early stages of Cu oxidation using a multiscale computational approach that employs density functional theory (DFT), reactive force field (ReaxFF), and kinetic Mote Carlo (KMC). With DFT calculation, we have compared O2 dissociation barriers on Cu (100), (110) and (111) surfaces at high oxygen coverage to evaluate the kinetic barrier of sublayer oxidization. We found that O2 dissociation barriers on Cu(111) surface are all lower than those on (110) and (100) surfaces. This trend agrees with experimental observations that (111) surface is easier to oxidize. These DFT calculated energy barriers are then incorporated into KMC simulations. The large scale ReaxFF molecular dynamics and KMC simulations detail the oxidation dynamics of the different Cu surfaces, and show the formation of various oxide morphologies that are consistent with experimental observations.

  3. The Early Stages of Groundwater-fed River Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, R.; Seybold, H. F.; Gibbins, G.; Rothman, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work shows, both theoretically and empirically, that river networks fed by subsurface flow bifurcate on average at an angle of 2π/5 [1]. However, the network's existence within a complex natural framework obscures the emergence of this pattern. Fortunately, this ambiguity betrays the presence of processes that have had some effect on the channels during the network's long history. In particular, we concern ourselves with the signature of the third dimension - the topographic relief - on the early stages of channel bifurcation. While, on average, channels grow in a direction dictated by the shape of the groundwater table, we hypothesize that the valley relief plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and its relaxation to 2π/5 in this regime. A network-wide averaging of several thousand channel bifurcations driven by subsurface flow on the Florida Panhandle reveals that rivers on average branch initially at an angle wider than 2π/5, yet quickly relax to 2π/5 after a few meters. We hypothesize that this initial wide growth direction is governed by the shape of the topography. As these channels form independent valleys, the Laplacian field prevails, yielding an emergent 2π/5 branching angle. Our results therefore suggest that the path-selection of incipient channels fed by subsurface flow is coupled both to the local topography and the surrounding groundwater field. 1. Devauchelle, Olivier, et al. "Ramification of stream networks." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109.51 (2012): 20832-20836.

  4. Blood biomarkers in the early stage of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Maestrini, I; Ducroquet, A; Moulin, S; Leys, D; Cordonnier, C; Bordet, R

    2016-03-01

    In ischemic stroke patients, blood-based biomarkers may be applied for the diagnosis of ischemic origin and subtype, prediction of outcomes and targeted treatment in selected patients. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia has led to the evaluation of proteins, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids and lipids as potential biomarkers. The present report focuses on the role of blood-based biomarkers in the early stage of ischemic stroke-within 72h of its onset-as gleaned from studies published in English in such patients. Despite growing interest in their potential role in clinical practice, the application of biomarkers for the management of cerebral ischemia is not currently recommended by guidelines. However, there are some promising clinical biomarkers, as well as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) peptide and NMDA-receptor (R) autoantibodies that appear to identify the ischemic nature of stroke, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) that might be able to discriminate between acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Moreover, genomics and proteomics allow the characterization of differences in gene expression, and protein and metabolite production, in ischemic stroke patients compared with controls and, thus, may help to identify novel markers with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Additional studies to validate promising biomarkers and to identify novel biomarkers are needed. PMID:26988891

  5. Silicon: The key element in early stages of biocalcification.

    PubMed

    Matsko, Nadejda B; Znidaršič, Nada; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Dittrich, Maria; Grogger, Werner; Strus, Jasna; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2011-04-01

    Biocalcification is a widespread process of forming hard tissues like bone and teeth in vertebrates. It is also a topic connecting life sciences and earth sciences: calcified skeletons and shells deposited as sediments represent the earth's fossil record and are of paramount interest for biogeochemists trying to get an insight into the past of our planet. This study reports on the role of silicon in the early biocalcification steps, where silicon and calcium were detected on the surface of cyanobacteria (initial stage of lacustrine calcite precipitation) and in crustacean cuticles. By using innovative methodological approaches of correlative microscopy (AFM in combination with analytical TEM: EFTEM, EELS) the chemical form of silicon in biocalcifying matrices and organic-inorganic particles is determined. Previously, silicon was reported to be localized in active growth areas in the young bone of vertebrates. We have found evidence that biocalcification in evolutionarily distant organisms involves very similar initial phases with silicon as a key element at the organic-inorganic interface. PMID:20932909

  6. Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

    2013-01-01

    A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements.

  7. Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

    2013-01-28

    A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements. PMID:23387626

  8. 77 FR 25775 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... and providing SBA guaranteed leverage to Early Stage SBICs, SBA seeks to expand entrepreneurs' access... startups and small firms, accelerating research, and addressing barriers to success for entrepreneurs...

  9. Cholecystectomy is associated with higher risk of early recurrence and poorer survival after curative resection for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Wang, Shu-Kang; Zhi, Xu-Ting; Zhou, Jian; Dong, Zhao-Ru; Zhang, Zong-Li; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Ye, Qing-Hai; Fan, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Although cholecystectomy has been reported to be associated with increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the association between cholecystectomy and prognosis of HCC patients underwent curative resection has never been examined. Through retrospective analysis of the data of 3933 patients underwent curative resection for HCC, we found that cholecystectomy was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients at early stage (BCLC stage 0/A) (p = 0.020, HR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.04–1.59), and the 1-, 3-, 5-year RFS rates for patients at early stage were significantly worse in cholecystectomy group than in non-cholecystectomy group (80.5%, 61.8%, 52.0% vs 88.2%, 68.8%, 56.8%, p = 0.033). The early recurrence rate of cholecystectomy group was significantly higher than that of non-cholecystectomy group for patients at early stage (59/47 vs 236/333, p = 0.007), but not for patients at advanced stage (BCLC stage C) (p = 0.194). Multivariate analyses showed that cholecystectomy was an independent risk factor for early recurrence (p = 0.005, HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.13–2.03) of early stage HCC, but not for late recurrence (p = 0.959). In conclusion, cholecystectomy is an independent predictor for early recurrence and is associated with poorer RFS of early stage HCC. Removal of normal gallbladder during HCC resection may be avoided for early stage patients. PMID:27320390

  10. Active compressive intraoceanic deformation: early stages of ophiolites emplacement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Delescluse, Matthias; Montési, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    investigate the very early stages of formation of faulted oceanic bodies that may further be incorporated into mountain belts as ophiolites. They allow to discuss rates and duration of deformation, diffuse vs localized deformation, re-activation vs neo-formed faults, serpentinization and thermal regime, spacing of minor and major thrust faults. Delescluse, M., L. G. J. Montesi, and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Fault reactivation and selective abandonment in the oceanic lithosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 35. Delescluse, M., and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Serpentinization pulse in the actively deforming Central Indian Basin. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 276, p. 140-151. Eittreim, S. L., and J. Ewing (1972), Mid-Plate Tectonics in the Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 77(32), 6413-6421.

  11. Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S.; Cardellini, P.; Pavanati, C.

    1997-02-01

    The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surface ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.

  12. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test. 797.1600 Section 797.1600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1600 Fish early life stage toxicity test....

  13. To Stay or to Go? Narratives of Early-Stage Sociologists about Persisting in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wöhrer, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Based on analyses of life course questionnaires, semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group interviews carried out with early-stage sociologists over a period of 8 years, this paper presents analyzes of continuity and change in the decisions made by early-stage researchers in regard to their work and careers. The longitudinal approach…

  14. TOXICITY OF TRIVALENT CHROMIUM TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF STEELHEAD TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and early life stage toxicity tests were conducted with trivalent chromium and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). A 96-h LC50 of 4,400 micrograms/l chromium was obtained with two-month-old juvenile fish. Early life stage exposure from newly fertilized eggs to 30-d post-swim...

  15. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  16. Investigation of condensed and early stage gas phase hypergolic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Jacob Daniel

    hypergolic liquid propellant combination of MMH and RFNA or pure nitric acid. The first and most important effort focuses on furthering the understanding of condensed phase reactions between MMH and nitric acid. To accomplish this goal diluted MMH and nitric acid were studied in a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. By tracking the generation or destruction of specific chemical species in the reacting fluid we can measure the reaction progress as a function of reactant concentration and temperature. This work provides the propulsion community with a quantitative global condensed phase reaction rate equation for MMH/nitric acid. The second effort focuses on improving understanding the recently proposed gas phase hypergolic reaction mechanisms using a streak camera based ultraviolet and visible spectrometer. The time resolution on the streak camera system allows for detailed investigation of the pre-ignition and early stage gas phase species present during the reaction between MMH and RFNA.

  17. Different gene transfer methods at the very early, early, late and whole embryonic stages in chicken.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Yang, Y P; Yang, Y; Feng, Yan P; Li, S J; Peng, Xiu L; Gong, Y Z

    2012-12-01

    New technologies in gene transfer combined with experimental embryology make the chicken embryo an excellent model system for gene function studies. The techniques of in ovo electroporation, in vitro culture for ex ovo electroporation and retrovirus-mediated gene transfer have already been fully developed in chicken. Yet to our knowledge, there are no definite descriptions on the features and application scopes of these techniques. The survival rates of different in vitro culture methods were compared and the EGFP expression areas of different gene transfer techniques were explored. It was that the optimal timings of removing embryo for EC culture and Petri dish system was at E1.5 and E2.5, respectively; and optimal timing of injecting retrovirus is at E0. Results indicated that the EC culture, in ovo electroporation, the Petri dish system and retrovirus-mediated method are, respectively, suitable for the very early, early, late and whole embryonic stages in chicken. Comparison of different gene transfer methods and establishment of optimal timings are expected to provide a better choice of the efficient method for a particular experiment. PMID:23134602

  18. Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Results Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low

  19. [Ovarian preservation during treatment of early stage endometrial cancer].

    PubMed

    Poilblanc, Mathieu; Samouelian, Vanessa; Querleu, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Endometrial cancer staging is based on surgery. No matter the age of the patient, the surgical staging includes at least a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Twenty to 25% of the patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer are younger than 45  years. Although some discrepancies among series may be observed, in this population, endometrial cancers are mainly of lower grade, confined to the uterus (without ovarian involvement) and of better prognosis compared to older patients. The impact of premature menopause on the quality of life, cardiovascular and bone systems should not be neglected. This raises the issue of the systematic bilateral oophorectomy legitimacy while staging endometrial cancer staging in young patient. Considering the literature, eligibility criteria to ovarian preservation in endometrial cancer would be: young patients, low-grade endometrioid tumor, disease limited to the uterus (absence of any extrauterine disease). The risk of occult ovarian lesions, either synchronous or metastatic, would than be close to 1%. The effects of residual hormonal stimulation are considered low. Nevertheless, bilateral oophorectomy should remain the standard. Oophorectomy preservation in endometrial cancer should be considered as an exception, and proposed as an individualized plan of care for patients with strict eligibility criteria. PMID:22198406

  20. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  1. Early Stage Diagnosis of Oral Cancer Using 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics12

    PubMed Central

    Tiziani, Stefano; Lopes, Victor; Günther, Ulrich L

    2009-01-01

    Oral cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and represents a significant disease burden. If detected at an early stage, survival from oral cancer is better than 90% at 5 years, whereas late stage disease survival is only 30%. Therefore, there is an obvious clinical utility for novel metabolic markers that help to diagnose oral cancer at an early stage and to monitor treatment response. In the current study, blood samples of oral cancer patients were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to derive a metabolic signature for oral cancer. Using multivariate chemometric analysis, we obtained an excellent discrimination between serum samples from cancer patients and from a control group and could also discriminate between different stages of disease. The metabolic profile obtained for oral cancer is significant, even for early stage disease and relatively small tumors. This suggests a systemic metabolic response to cancer, which bears great potential for early diagnosis. PMID:19242608

  2. Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS. PMID:23126275

  3. Swimming speed alteration in the early developmental stages of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin as ecotoxicological endpoint.

    PubMed

    Morgana, Silvia; Gambardella, Chiara; Falugi, Carla; Pronzato, Roberto; Garaventa, Francesca; Faimali, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral endpoints have been used for decades to assess chemical impacts at concentrations unlikely to cause mortality. With recently developed techniques, it is possible to investigate the swimming behavior of several organisms under laboratory conditions. The aims of this study were: i) assessing for the first time the feasibility of swimming speed analysis of the early developmental stage sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by an automatic recording system ii) investigating any Swimming Speed Alteration (SSA) on P. lividus early stages exposed to a chemical reference; iii) identifying the most suitable stage for SSA test. Results show that the swimming speed of all the developmental stages was easily recorded. The swimming speed was inhibited as a function of toxicant concentration. Pluteus were the most appropriate stage for evaluating SSA in P. lividus as ecotoxicological endpoint. Finally, swimming of sea urchin early stages represents a sensitive endpoint to be considered in ecotoxicological investigations. PMID:26826671

  4. Early Years Foundation Stage: How Much Does It Count?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The final report of the Williams committee (DCSF, 2008: 68) argues that the revised mathematics Framework (DfES, 2006) "should be reconsidered to achieve a more suitable, user-friendly form." It might also have added that there is not much help and support in it for early years teachers. A much more useful document is the "Practice guidance for…

  5. ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

  6. Basque Schools in Navarre: The Early Stages, 1931-1936

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Goni, Irene

    2005-01-01

    The Basque School, as well as a type of school, is an educational phenomenon that emerged and underwent most of its development during the twentieth century. Some initial confusion existed between the terms "Basque school," "bilingual school" and "ikastola," due to the undefined nature of the Basque model of schooling during this early period.…

  7. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in early stage Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tubiana, M.; Henry-Amar, M.; van der Werf-Messing, B.; Henry, J.; Abbatucci, J.; Burgers, M.; Hayat, M.; Somers, R.; Laugier, A.; Carde, P.

    1985-01-01

    A multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors was carried out with a Cox model on 1,139 patients with clinical Stage I + II Hodgkin's disease included in three controlled clinical trials. The following indicators had been prospectively registered: aged, sex, systemic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation, results of staging laparotomy when performed, as well as the date and type of treatment. A linear logistic analysis showed that most of the indicators are interrelated. This emphasizes the necessity of a multivariate analysis in order to assess the independent influence of each of them. The two main prognostic indicators for relapse-free survival are systemic symptoms and/or ESR and number of involved areas. The only significant factor for survival after relapse is age. Sex has a small but significant influence on relapse-free survival. The relative influence of each indicator varies with the type of treatment and these variations may help in understanding the biologic significance of the indicators.

  8. Radiotherapy Alone for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx and Hypopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, Robert L.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To describe and illustrate examples of early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Review of the NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines. Representative examples are included. Results: Early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer is defined by tumor extent based on physical and imaging examination. Conclusions: Radiotherapy alone is appropriate treatment for properly selected early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. The NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines can be an aid to the clinician in identifying favorable cancers that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone with preservation of organ function.

  9. Features controlling the early stages of creep deformation of Waspaloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A.; Wilson, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    A model has been presented for describing primary and second stage creep. General equations were derived for the amount and time of primary creep. It was shown how the model can be used to extrapolate creep data. Applicability of the model was demonstrated for Waspaloy with gamma prime particle sizes from 75 - 1000 A creep tested in the temperature range 1000 - 1400 F (538 - 760 C). Equations were developed showing the dependence of creep parameters on dislocation mechanism, gamma prime volume fraction and size.

  10. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  11. RESPONSES OF EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF THE STRIPED BASS, 'MORONE SAXATILIS' TO CHLORINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of total residual chlorination (TRC) to early life stages of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, was determined using percent embryo hatchability, incipient LC50 bioassays, histopathology, and avoidance responses. Beginning 8 to 9 hours after fertilization, developin...

  12. 76 FR 76907 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... providing SBA leverage to these ``Early Stage SBICs,'' SBA seeks to expand entrepreneurs' access to capital... startups and small firms, accelerate research, and address barriers to success for entrepreneurs and...

  13. 77 FR 25042 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... leverage to these ``Early Stage SBICs,'' SBA seeks to expand entrepreneurs' access to capital and encourage..., and address barriers to success for entrepreneurs and small businesses. The SBIC program will play...

  14. Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a clinical trial.

  15. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  16. Real-Time Observation of Early Stage Damage During Hypervelocity Impacts into Basalt Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimberley, J.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2012-03-01

    Hypervelocity impacts were conducted on basalt targets bonded to glass allowing for the early stages of damage accumulation to be observed in real time. Results show that significant damage accumulates before the arrival of tensile wave reflections.

  17. New NIA Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents ... you have a family member or friends with Alzheimer's disease? Are you wondering what they're going ...

  18. Dutasteride May Slow the Growth of Early-Stage Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    For men who are undergoing active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer, the drug dutasteride (Avodart) could help control the disease and prevent the need for more aggressive treatments. |

  19. Analysis on Gene Expression Profile in Oncospheres and Early Stage Metacestodes from Echinococcus multilocularis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Zhisheng; Suzuki, Yutaka; Horiuchi, Terumi; Yagi, Kinpei; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Irie, Takao; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonosis of great public health concern. Analysis of genome data for Echinococcus multilocularis has identified antigen families that can be used in diagnostic assays and vaccine development. However, little gene expression data is available for antigens of the egg and early larval stages. To address this information gap, we used a Next-Generation Sequencing approach to investigate three different stages (non-activated and activated oncospheres, and early stage metacestodes) of E. multilocularis (Nemuro strain). Transcriptome data analysis revealed that some diagnostic antigen gp50 isoforms and the antigen Eg95 family dominated in activated oncospheres, and the antigen B family dominated in early stage metacestodes. Furthermore, heat shock proteins and antigen II/3 are constantly expressed in the three stages. The expression pattern of various known antigens in E. multilocularis may give fundamental information for choosing candidate genes used in diagnosis and vaccine development. PMID:27092774

  20. Analysis on Gene Expression Profile in Oncospheres and Early Stage Metacestodes from Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fuqiang; Dang, Zhisheng; Suzuki, Yutaka; Horiuchi, Terumi; Yagi, Kinpei; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Irie, Takao; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2016-04-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonosis of great public health concern. Analysis of genome data for Echinococcus multilocularis has identified antigen families that can be used in diagnostic assays and vaccine development. However, little gene expression data is available for antigens of the egg and early larval stages. To address this information gap, we used a Next-Generation Sequencing approach to investigate three different stages (non-activated and activated oncospheres, and early stage metacestodes) of E. multilocularis (Nemuro strain). Transcriptome data analysis revealed that some diagnostic antigen gp50 isoforms and the antigen Eg95 family dominated in activated oncospheres, and the antigen B family dominated in early stage metacestodes. Furthermore, heat shock proteins and antigen II/3 are constantly expressed in the three stages. The expression pattern of various known antigens in E. multilocularis may give fundamental information for choosing candidate genes used in diagnosis and vaccine development. PMID:27092774

  1. Formal Verification Toolkit for Requirements and Early Design Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, Julia M.; Miller, Sheena Judson

    2011-01-01

    Efficient flight software development from natural language requirements needs an effective way to test designs earlier in the software design cycle. A method to automatically derive logical safety constraints and the design state space from natural language requirements is described. The constraints can then be checked using a logical consistency checker and also be used in a symbolic model checker to verify the early design of the system. This method was used to verify a hybrid control design for the suit ports on NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Exploration Vehicle against safety requirements.

  2. Early-stage relaxation of electrons by phonon emission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castella, Hervé; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Wilkins, J. W.

    1998-03-01

    Pump-probe experiments give insight into the relaxation of electrons during the first femtoseconds after the optical excitation. A theoretical description of this early-time regime requires a proper treatment of retardation effects for the different scattering processes. The scattering of electrons by optical phonons is investigated within the S-matrix formalism.(A. V. Kuznetsov, Ann. Phys. 258), 157 (1997) This perturbative scheme is directly compared to the non-equilibrium Green's function technique of Kadanoff and Baym. The scheme is used to numerically compute both the interband polarization and the momentum distribution function for a bulk semiconductor excited by a short laser pulse.

  3. Characterization of successional changes in bacterial community composition during bioremediation of used motor oil-contaminated soil in a boreal climate.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lijuan; Sinkko, Hanna; Penttinen, Petri; Lindström, Kristina

    2016-01-15

    The widespread use of motor oil makes it a notable risk factor to cause scattered contamination in soil. The monitoring of microbial community dynamics can serve as a comprehensive tool to assess the ecological impact of contaminants and their disappearance in the ecosystem. Hence, a field study was conducted to monitor the ecological impact of used motor oil under different perennial cropping systems (fodder galega, brome grass, galega-brome grass mixture and bare fallow) in a boreal climate zone. Length heterogeneity PCR characterized a successional pattern in bacterial community following oil contamination over a four-year bioremediation period. Soil pH and electrical conductivity were associated with the shifts in bacterial community composition. Crops had no detectable effect on bacterial community composition or complexity. However, the legume fodder galega increased soil microbial biomass, expressed as soil total DNA. Oil contamination induced an abrupt change in bacterial community composition at the early stage, yet the effect did not last as long as the oil in soil. The successional variation in bacterial community composition can serve as a sensitive ecological indicator of oil contamination and remediation in situ. PMID:26556745

  4. [Advances in Surgical Treatment of Early Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Bao, Feichao

    2016-06-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, computed tomography screening has made the disease spectrum of lung cancer shift from the previously predominating central local advanced squamous cell carcinoma to early stage lung adenocarcinoma represented by solitary pulmonary nodule, ground-glass opacity (GGO) and sub-centimeter nodule. This paper reviewed the recent proceeding in the surgical management of early stage lung cancer. PMID:27335305

  5. Early solitary small bowel metastasis from stage I cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Gavriilidis, Paschalis; Efthimiopoulos, Georgios; Zafiriou, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Patient Male, 63 Final Diagnosis: Melanoma Symptoms: Gastrointesinal haemorrhage Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Enterectomy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: It is reported that the time interval between the initial diagnosis of malignant melanoma and the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal metastases is 43.8±11.3 months. Case Report: We present the case of a 63-year-old Caucasian man who was operated on for superficial spreading Stage IB melanoma and 8 months later was diagnosed with solitary small bowel metastasis without other systemic metastases. Conclusions: Small bowel melanoma metastasis should be suspected in any patient with previous history of malignant melanoma who develops symptoms of anemia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and non-specific abdominal pain. PMID:24367718

  6. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  7. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  8. Modelling early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggieri, M.; Puglisi, A.; Oliva, L.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V.

    2016-05-01

    In this study we model early time dynamics of relativistic heavy ion collisions by an initial color-electric field which then decays to a plasma by the Schwinger mechanism. The dynamics of the many particles system produced by the decay is described by relativistic kinetic theory, taking into account the backreaction on the color field by solving self-consistently the kinetic and the field equations. Our main results concern isotropization and thermalization for a 1+1D expanding geometry. In case of small η/s (η/s ≲ 0.3) we find τisotropization ≈ 0.8 fm/c and τthermalization ≈ 1 fm/c in agreement with the common lore of hydrodynamics.

  9. Detecting early stage osteoarthritis by optical coherence tomography?

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Holger; Brill, Nicolai; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disease of our joints, manifested by a dynamically increasing degeneration of hyaline articular cartilage (AC). While currently no therapy can reverse this process, the few available treatment options are hampered by the inability of early diagnosis. Loss of cartilage surface, or extracellular matrix (ECM), integrity is considered the earliest sign of OA. Despite the increasing number of imaging modalities surprisingly few imaging biomarkers exist. In this narrative review, recent developments in optical coherence tomography are critically evaluated for their potential to assess different aspects of AC quality as biomarkers of OA. Special attention is paid to imaging surface irregularities, ECM organization and the evaluation of posttraumatic injuries by light-based modalities. PMID:26862954

  10. The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science.

    PubMed

    Lüthy, C

    2000-09-01

    The renewed success of ancient atomism in the seventeenth century has baffled historians not only because of the lack of empirical evidence in its favor but also because of the exotic heterogeneity of the models that were proposed under its name. This essay argues that one of the more intriguing reasons for the motley appearance of early modern atomism is that Democritus, with whose name this doctrine was most commonly associated, was a figure of similar incoherence. There existed in fact no fewer than four quite different Democriti of Abdera and as many literary traditions: the atomist, the "laughing philosopher," the moralizing anatomist, and the alchemist. Around the year 1600 the doctrines of these literary figures, three of whom had no tangible connection with atomism, began to merge into further hybrid personae, some of whom possessed notable scientific potential. This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms." PMID:11143784

  11. TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE GREEN SUNFISH (LEPOMIS CYANELLUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity of ammonia to early life stages of green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus was studied. One chronic and four acute exposure studies were conducted. During the chronic study green sunfish were exposed to a series of ammonia concentrations from the blastula stage through 40 days p...

  12. Prediction of invasion from the early stage of an epidemic.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Reche, Francisco J; Neri, Franco M; Taraskin, Sergei N; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2012-09-01

    Predictability of undesired events is a question of great interest in many scientific disciplines including seismology, economy and epidemiology. Here, we focus on the predictability of invasion of a broad class of epidemics caused by diseases that lead to permanent immunity of infected hosts after recovery or death. We approach the problem from the perspective of the science of complexity by proposing and testing several strategies for the estimation of important characteristics of epidemics, such as the probability of invasion. Our results suggest that parsimonious approximate methodologies may lead to the most reliable and robust predictions. The proposed methodologies are first applied to analysis of experimentally observed epidemics: invasion of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in replicated host microcosms. We then consider numerical experiments of the susceptible-infected-removed model to investigate the performance of the proposed methods in further detail. The suggested framework can be used as a valuable tool for quick assessment of epidemic threat at the stage when epidemics only start developing. Moreover, our work amplifies the significance of the small-scale and finite-time microcosm realizations of epidemics revealing their predictive power. PMID:22513723

  13. Developmental Stages of Early Dead Embryos after Prolonged Egg Storage and Incubation in Broiler Breeders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold egg storage is a common practice prior to incubation in the broiler industry.  However, cold storage longer than 10 days is associated with an increase in early embryo mortality. We were interested in determining the developmental stages of early dead embryos after prolonged egg storage and inc...

  14. Dyadic Intervention for Family Caregivers and Care Receivers in Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Carol J.; Judge, Katherine; Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The Early Diagnosis Dyadic Intervention (EDDI) program provides a structured, time-limited protocol of one-on-one and dyadic counseling for family caregivers and care receivers who are in the early stages of dementia. The goals and procedures of EDDI are based on previous research suggesting that dyads would benefit from an intervention…

  15. A Computational Cognitive Biomarker for Early-Stage Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wiecki, Thomas V; Antoniades, Chrystalina A; Stevenson, Alexander; Kennard, Christopher; Borowsky, Beth; Owen, Gail; Leavitt, Blair; Roos, Raymund; Durr, Alexandra; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Frank, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is genetically determined but with variability in symptom onset, leading to uncertainty as to when pharmacological intervention should be initiated. Here we take a computational approach based on neurocognitive phenotyping, computational modeling, and classification, in an effort to provide quantitative predictors of HD before symptom onset. A large sample of subjects-consisting of both pre-manifest individuals carrying the HD mutation (pre-HD), and early symptomatic-as well as healthy controls performed the antisaccade conflict task, which requires executive control and response inhibition. While symptomatic HD subjects differed substantially from controls in behavioral measures [reaction time (RT) and error rates], there was no such clear behavioral differences in pre-HD. RT distributions and error rates were fit with an accumulator-based model which summarizes the computational processes involved and which are related to identified mechanisms in more detailed neural models of prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Classification based on fitted model parameters revealed a key parameter related to executive control differentiated pre-HD from controls, whereas the response inhibition parameter declined only after symptom onset. These findings demonstrate the utility of computational approaches for classification and prediction of brain disorders, and provide clues as to the underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:26872129

  16. [Urinalysis in patients at the early stage of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Rybak, Katarzyna; Sporek, Mateusz; Gala-Błądzińska, Agnieszka; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Dumnicka, Paulina; Walocha, Jerzy; Drożdż, Ryszard; Kuźniewski, Marek; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Urinalysis is a routine and cheap laboratory test that provides clinically useful information in patients with acute abdominal conditions, including acute pancreatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between the results of urinalysis and the course of the disease among 65 patients with acute pancreatitis (34 men and 31 women, mean age 61 ± 19 years) at the early phase of the disease, i.e. during the first 72 hours from the onset of symptoms. Mild acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in 47 patients, moderately severe in 13 and severe in 5. The most prevalent abnormalities were proteinuria (43% of patients), high urinary bilirubin (20%), erythrocytes (18%), glucose (18%) and leukocytes (17%). High urinary protein and low specific gravity were associated with more severe acute disease and with acute kidney injury. The severity of bilirubinuria and proteinuria were positively correlated with urine concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL). Urinalysis should be routinely performed in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:27197429

  17. Biology of early life stages in cephalopod molluscs.

    PubMed

    von Boletzky, S

    2003-01-01

    Recent literature on embryonic and post-embryonic development, biology and behavioural ecology of juvenile cephalopods is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on biological processes. Life-history patterns and phylogenetic systematics, which are important for a proper understanding of the evolutionary history of the cephalopods, are only briefly touched upon. Egg sizes in cephalopods range from less than 1 mm to about 30 mm in diameter, so the hatchlings emerging from the largest eggs are bigger than the adults of pygmy squid, the smallest known cephalopods. Developmental durations from spawning to hatching range from a few days (for very small eggs developing at high temperatures) to one or possibly several years (for very large eggs developing at low temperatures). Such important differences notwithstanding, the morphogenetic processes are very similar in all cephalopod embryos, the major variant being the size of the so-called outer yolk sac, which may be rudimentary in extremely small embryos. Several questions concerning the timing of hatching in relation to the developmental stage attained, especially in terms of yok absorption, need clarification. These questions concern the elimination of the transient closure of the mouth, the final differentiation of digestive gland cells, and the removal of the tranquilliser effect of the perivitelline fluid necessary for the onset of the hatching behaviour. Cephalopod hatchlings are active predators. They refine their behavioural repertoires by learning from individual experience in dealing with prey and would-be predators. There is no truly larval phase, and the ecologically defined term paralarva should be used with caution. Given the considerable resource potential of cephalopods, investigations into dispersal and recruitment are of particular interest to fishery biology, but they are also important for ecological biogeography. The related studies of feeding and growth involve field sampling and tentative age determination

  18. Cardiovascular effects of levosimendan in the early stages of endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Goncalves, Doris; Perez-de-Sa, Valeria; Dahm, Peter; Grins, Edgars; Thörne, Johan; Blomquist, Sten

    2007-07-01

    Sepsis-associated myocardial depression is associated with calcium desensitization and adrenergic uncoupling. We conducted a prospective randomized investigation on the effects of the calcium sensitizer, levosimendan, on hemodynamics, myocardial blood flow, and myocardial lactate metabolism during porcine endotoxemia. Twelve pigs were studied. Oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry, and myocardial blood flow was measured by retrograde thermodilution. Pulmonary, arterial, and venous indwelling catheters allowed measurements of cardiac output, vascular pressures, and blood sampling. Fluids were given at an average of 15 mL . kg . h. After baseline measurements (0 min), an infusion of Escherichia coli LPS (2 microg . kg . min) was started in all animals. Beginning at 100 min, six animals received levosimendan (50 microg . kg . h), whereas six control animals received placebo. The study lasted for 300 min. All animals responded to endotoxin with pulmonary hypertension, a transient decrease in cardiac output, tachycardia, and systemic hypotension. Levosimendan infusion decreased systemic vascular resistance (P = 0.001), coronary vascular resistance (P = 0.004), and mean arterial (P < 0.001) and coronary perfusion pressures (P < 0.001), whereas pulmonary hypertension was unaffected. Heart rate progressively increased in both groups and was significantly higher in the levosimendan group (P = 0.048). Myocardial blood flow remained unchanged in both groups; however, 80 min after the start of levosimendan infusion, left ventricular myocardial hypoxia ensued, as evidenced by a negative myocardial lactate gradient (P = 0.01). Two control and five levosimendan animals died before the end of the study. Early administration of levosimendan during porcine endotoxemia increased heart rate, caused arterial vasodilation, and decreased coronary perfusion pressure, resulting in myocardial hypoxia. PMID:17510599

  19. Efficient harvesting methods for early-stage snake and turtle embryos.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2016-04-01

    Reptile development is an intriguing research target for understating the unique morphogenesis of reptiles as well as the evolution of vertebrates. However, there are numerous difficulties associated with studying development in reptiles. The number of available reptile eggs is usually quite limited. In addition, the reptile embryo is tightly adhered to the eggshell, making it a challenge to isolate reptile embryos intact. Furthermore, there have been few reports describing efficient procedures for isolating intact embryos especially prior to pharyngula stage. Thus, the aim of this review is to present efficient procedures for obtaining early-stage reptilian embryos intact. We first describe the method for isolating early-stage embryos of the Japanese striped snake. This is the first detailed method for obtaining embryos prior to oviposition in oviparous snake species. Second, we describe an efficient strategy for isolating early-stage embryos of the soft-shelled turtle. PMID:27059539

  20. Methods for Surgical Targeting of the STN in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Camalier, Corrie R; Konrad, Peter E; Gill, Chandler E; Kao, Chris; Remple, Michael R; Nasr, Hana M; Davis, Thomas L; Hedera, Peter; Phibbs, Fenna T; Molinari, Anna L; Neimat, Joseph S; Charles, David

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience progressive neurological decline, and future interventional therapies are thought to show most promise in early stages of the disease. There is much interest in therapies that target the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with surgical access. While locating STN in advanced disease patients (Hoehn-Yahr Stage III or IV) is well understood and routinely performed at many centers in the context of deep brain stimulation surgery, the ability to identify this nucleus in early-stage patients has not previously been explored in a sizeable cohort. We report surgical methods used to target the STN in 15 patients with early PD (Hoehn-Yahr Stage II), using a combination of image guided surgery, microelectrode recordings, and clinical responses to macrostimulation of the region surrounding the STN. Measures of electrophysiology (firing rates and root mean squared activity) have previously been found to be lower than in later-stage patients, however, the patterns of electrophysiology seen and dopamimetic macrostimulation effects are qualitatively similar to those seen in advanced stages. Our experience with surgical implantation of Parkinson's patients with minimal motor symptoms suggest that it remains possible to accurately target the STN in early-stage PD using traditional methods. PMID:24678307

  1. Seismic anisotropy and texture development during early stages of subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Leo, Jeanette; Walker, Andrew; Li, Zhong-Hai; Wookey, James; Ribe, Neil; Kendall, J.-Michael; Tommasi, Andréa

    2014-05-01

    Shear wave splitting measurements are frequently used to infer upper mantle flow trajectory, based on the fact that, under strain, olivine develops lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) textures in the convecting mantle. However, such inferences ought to be made carefully, since the relationship between splitting fast polarisation and olivine LPO depends on several factors, one of them being the deformation history of the volume of mantle in question. This is especially the case in regions such as subduction zones, where complex and time-dependent mantle flow occurs. Here, we present an integrated model to simulate strain-history-dependent LPO development and measure the resulting shear wave splitting in a subduction setting. We do this for a subduction model that approximates the geometry of the double-sided Molucca Sea subduction system in eastern Indonesia. We test a single-sided and a double-sided subduction case, and compare the results to shear wave splitting observations of this region. Since the subduction zone is fairly young, early textures from the slab's descent from the near-surface to the bottom of the mantle transition zone - which we simulate in our models - have not yet been overprinted by subsequent continuous flow. It further allows us to test the significance of the double-sided geometry, i.e., the need for a rear barrier to achieve trench-parallel sub-slab mantle flow. We simulate olivine LPO evolution in polycrystalline aggregates as they move and deform along pathlines extracted from a 3-D mantle flow model. Interactions between crystals are described using the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) approach. Unlike previous studies, we consider the entire subduction history from subduction initiation onwards. After calculating elastic properties associated with LPO textures, we estimate the resulting splitting parameters (fast direction φ, delay time δt) for synthetic SKS phases. Our models demonstrate that complex, backazimuth

  2. Formation of Jupiter's Core and Early Stages of Envelope Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Weidenschilling, S.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bodenheimer, P.; Hubickyj, O.

    2012-12-01

    We are performing calculations of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core starts as a seed body of a few hundred kilometers in radius and orbits within a swarm of planetesimals whose initial size distribution ranges from ~10 m to ~100 km. The planetesimals are immersed in a gaseous disk, representative of an early solar nebula. The evolution of the swarm of planetesimals accounts for collisions and gravitational stirring due to mutual interactions among bodies, and for migration and velocity damping due to interactions with the nebula gas. Collisions among planetesimals lead to growth and/or fragmentation, altering the size distribution of the swarm over time. Collisions of planetesimals with the seed body lead to its growth, resulting in the formation of a planetary core. Gas capture by the core leads to the accumulation of a tenuous atmosphere, which later becomes a massive envelope, increasing the size-dependent effective cross-section of the planet for planetesimals' accretion. Planetesimals that travel through the core's envelope release energy, affecting the thermal budget of the envelope, and deliver mass, affecting the opacity of the envelope. The calculation of dust opacity, which is especially important for envelope contraction, is performed self-consistently, accounting for coagulation and sedimentation of dust and small particles that are released in the envelope as passing planetesimals are ablated. We find that, in a disk of planetesimals with a surface density of about 10 g/cm2 at 5.2 AU, a one Earth mass core accumulates in less than 1e5 years, and that it takes over 1.5e6 years to accumulate a core of 3 Earth masses, when the core's geometrical cross-section is used for the accretion of planetesimals. Gas drag in the core's envelope increases the ability of the planet to accrete planetesimals. Smaller planetesimals are affected to a greater extent than are larger planetesimals. We find that the effective

  3. Comparison of Laparoscopy and Laparotomy in Surgical Staging of Apparent Early Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qi; Qu, Hong; Liu, Chongdong; Wang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the safety and morbidity of laparoscopic versus laparotomic comprehensive staging of apparent early stage ovarian cancer. In this retrospective study, the outcomes of patients with apparent stage I ovarian cancer who underwent laparoscopic or laparotomic comprehensive surgical staging from January 2002 to January 2014 were evaluated. The long-term survival of patients with early ovarian cancer was compared. Forty-two patients were treated by laparoscopy, and 50 were treated by laparotomy. The median operative time was 200 minutes in the laparoscopy group and 240 minutes in the laparotomy group (P >0.05). The median length of hospital stay was 3 days in the laparoscopy group and 7 days in the laparotomy group (P <0.05). Following laparoscopic and laparotomic staging, the cancer was upstaged for 9 (21.4%) and 10 (20.0%) women, respectively. The median follow-up time was 82 months in the laparoscopic and laparotomic groups, respectively. Excluding the upstaged patients, no recurrence was observed in the present study, and the overall survival and 5-year survival rates were 100% in both the laparoscopy and laparotomy groups. Laparoscopic and laparotomic comprehensive staging of early ovarian cancer were similar in terms of staging adequacy, accuracy and survival rate. Laparoscopic staging was associated with a significantly reduced hospital stay. Prospective randomized trials are required to evaluate the overall oncologic outcomes. PMID:27196468

  4. Interventional pulmonology approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of early stage non small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tofts, Ryu Peter Hambrook; Lee, Peter MJ

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer management is complex and requires a multi-disciplinary approach to provide comprehensive care. Interventional pulmonology (IP) is an evolving field that utilizes minimally invasive modalities for the initial diagnosis and staging of suspected lung cancers. Endobronchial ultrasound guided sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes for staging and detection of driver mutations is instrumental for prognosis and treatment of early and later stage lung cancers. Advances in navigational bronchoscopy allow for histological sampling of suspicious peripheral lesions with minimal complication rates, as well as assisting with fiducial marker placements for stereotactic radiation therapy. Furthermore, IP can also offer palliation for inoperable cancers and those with late stage diseases. As the trend towards early lung cancer detection with low dose computed tomography is developing, it is paramount for the pulmonary physician with expertise in lung nodule management, minimally invasive sampling and staging to integrate into the paradigm of multi-specialty care. PMID:25806251

  5. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  6. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  7. Use of Plasma Metabolomics to Identify Diagnostic Biomarkers for Early Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lijun; Yin, Mingzhu; Ke, Chaofu; Ge, Tingting; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Wang; Zhou, Xiaohua; Lou, Ge; Li, Kang

    2016-01-01

    The early detection of ovarian carcinoma is difficult due to the absence of recognizable physical symptoms and a lack of sensitive screening methods. The currently available biomarkers (such as CA125 and HE4) are insufficiently reliable to distinguish early stage (I/II) epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients from normal individuals because they possess a relatively poor sensitivity and specificity. To evaluate the application of metabolomics to biomarker discovery in the early stages of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), plasma samples from 21 early stage EOC patients and 31 healthy controls were analyzed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-Tof/MS) in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis. Eighteen metabolites, including lysophospholipids, 2-piperidone and MG (18:2), were found to be disturbed in early stage EOC with satisfactory diagnostic accuracy (AUC=0.920). These biomarkers were specifically validated in the EOC nude mouse model, and five of the biomarkers (lysophospholipids, adrenoyl ethanolamide et al.) were highly suspected of being associated with EOC because they were differentially expressed with the same tendency in the EOC nude mice versus normal controls. In conclusion, the selected metabolic biomarkers have considerable utility and significant potential for diagnosing early ovarian cancer and investigating its underlying mechanisms. PMID:27390602

  8. Cryotop vitrification of porcine parthenogenetic embryos at the early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Quan; Quan, Guo-Bo; Shao, Qing-Yong; Lv, Chun-Rong; Jiang, Yan-Ting; Zhao, Zhi-Yong; Hong, Qiong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of early developmental stages at which Cryotop vitrification is performed on subsequent survival and in vitro development of porcine parthenogenetic activation embryos. The zygotes that were cultured for 4, 8, and 18 hours post electric activation (h.p.a.) and two- and four-cell embryos were vitrified, warmed, and continuously cultured for the remaining period. The zygotes vitrified at 4, 8, and 18 h.p.a. showed similar percentages of survival, cleavage, and blastocyst formation. No difference in viability was observed after vitrification of two- and four-cell embryos, but the embryos vitrified at the two-cell stage exhibited significantly higher blastocyst formation rate than those vitrified at the four-cell stage. However, vitrifying embryos resulted in significantly decreased survival and development rates, regardless of the developmental stage of the embryos. In addition, the final developmental stage, diameter, apoptotic index, and the number of inner cell mass, trophectoderm, and total cells of blastocysts derived from embryos vitrified at any stage of the early culture were similar to those of fresh blastocysts. In conclusion, our data indicate that the early-stage porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos including the zygote, two cells, and four cells have a high ability to survive cryopreservation; these viable embryos after vitrification can produce respectable development rates and good-quality blastocysts. PMID:26462660

  9. Successional distance between the source and recipient influence seed germination and seedling survival during surface soil replacement in SW China.

    PubMed

    Shen, You-Xin; Gao, Lei; Xia, Xue; Li, Yuhui; Guan, Huilin

    2013-01-01

    Adding propagules (source) to a degraded site (recipient) is a common way of manipulating secondary succession to restore diversity and services formerly provided by forests. However, heretofore no study has considered the effect of "successional distance" between source and recipient site. Four sites in the Shilin karst area of SW China were treated as different states along a secondary successional sere: grass, shrub, young secondary forest, and primary forest. Ten 1 m ×1m soil quadrats in the grass, shrub and young forest sites were replaced with 10 cm deep soil sources from corresponding later successional stage(s) in January 2009. Woody plant seed germination was monitored in the first year and seedling survival was monitored until the end of the second year. At the end of 2010, 2097 seeds of woody plants belonging to 45 taxa had germinated, and 3.9% of the seedlings and 7.8% of the species survived. Germination of most species was sensitive to ambient light (red, far-red, R:FR ratios, photosynthetically active radiation). Soil source and recipient site had a significant effect on the total number of seeds and number of species that germinated, and on the percentage of seedlings that survived through the end of the second year. Closer successional stages between recipient site and soil source had higher seed germination and seedling-survival percentages. However, a transition threshold exists in the young forest state, where seeds can germinate but not survive the second year. Our results, although based on an unreplicated chronosequence, suggest that successional distance between soil sources and recipient sites affect forest recruitment and restoration in degraded karst of SW China. PMID:24223891

  10. Successional Distance between the Source and Recipient Influence Seed Germination and Seedling Survival during Surface Soil Replacement in SW China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, You-xin; Gao, Lei; Xia, Xue; Li, Yuhui; Guan, Huilin

    2013-01-01

    Adding propagules (source) to a degraded site (recipient) is a common way of manipulating secondary succession to restore diversity and services formerly provided by forests. However, heretofore no study has considered the effect of “successional distance” between source and recipient site. Four sites in the Shilin karst area of SW China were treated as different states along a secondary successional sere: grass, shrub, young secondary forest, and primary forest. Ten 1 m ×1m soil quadrats in the grass, shrub and young forest sites were replaced with 10 cm deep soil sources from corresponding later successional stage(s) in January 2009. Woody plant seed germination was monitored in the first year and seedling survival was monitored until the end of the second year. At the end of 2010, 2097 seeds of woody plants belonging to 45 taxa had germinated, and 3.9% of the seedlings and 7.8% of the species survived. Germination of most species was sensitive to ambient light (red, far-red, R:FR ratios, photosynthetically active radiation). Soil source and recipient site had a significant effect on the total number of seeds and number of species that germinated, and on the percentage of seedlings that survived through the end of the second year. Closer successional stages between recipient site and soil source had higher seed germination and seedling-survival percentages. However, a transition threshold exists in the young forest state, where seeds can germinate but not survive the second year. Our results, although based on an unreplicated chronosequence, suggest that successional distance between soil sources and recipient sites affect forest recruitment and restoration in degraded karst of SW China. PMID:24223891

  11. Dispersal limitation drives successional pathways in Central Siberian forests under current and intensified fire regimes.

    PubMed

    Tautenhahn, Susanne; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Jung, Martin; Kattge, Jens; Bohlman, Stephanie A; Heilmeier, Hermann; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Kahl, Anja; Wirth, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Fire is a primary driver of boreal forest dynamics. Intensifying fire regimes due to climate change may cause a shift in boreal forest composition toward reduced dominance of conifers and greater abundance of deciduous hardwoods, with potential biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks to regional and global climate. This shift has already been observed in some North American boreal forests and has been attributed to changes in site conditions. However, it is unknown if the mechanisms controlling fire-induced changes in deciduous hardwood cover are similar among different boreal forests, which differ in the ecological traits of the dominant tree species. To better understand the consequences of intensifying fire regimes in boreal forests, we studied postfire regeneration in five burns in the Central Siberian dark taiga, a vast but poorly studied boreal region. We combined field measurements, dendrochronological analysis, and seed-source maps derived from high-resolution satellite images to quantify the importance of site conditions (e.g., organic layer depth) vs. seed availability in shaping postfire regeneration. We show that dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers was the main factor determining postfire regeneration composition and density. Site conditions had significant but weaker effects. We used information on postfire regeneration to develop a classification scheme for successional pathways, representing the dominance of deciduous hardwoods vs. evergreen conifers at different successional stages. We estimated the spatial distribution of different successional pathways under alternative fire regime scenarios. Under intensified fire regimes, dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers is predicted to become more severe, primarily due to reduced abundance of surviving seed sources within burned areas. Increased dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers, in turn, is predicted to increase the prevalence of successional pathways dominated by deciduous hardwoods

  12. Litterfall production along successional and altitudinal gradients of subtropical monsoon evergreen broadleaved forests in Guangdong, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, G.; Guan, L.; Wei, X.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Zhang, Q.; Yan, J.; Wen, D.; Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Huang, Z.; Kong, G.; Mo, J.; Yu, Q.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of litterfall production is important for understanding nutrient cycling, forest growth, successional pathways, and interactions with environmental variables in forest ecosystems. Litterfall was intensively studied during the period of 1982-2001 in two subtropical monsoon vegetation gradients in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, Guangdong Province, China. The two gradients include: (1) a successional gradient composed of pine forest (PF), mixed pine and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (BF), and (2) an altitudinal gradient composed of Baiyunci ravine rain forest (BRF), Qingyunci ravine rain forest (QRF), BF and mountainous evergreen broadleaved forest (MMF). Mean annual litterfall production was 356, 861 and 849 g m-2 for PF, MF and BF of the successional gradient, and 1016, 1061, 849 and 489 g m-2 for BRF, QRF, BF and MMF of the altitudinal gradient, respectively. As expected, mean annual litterfall of the pioneer forest PF was the lowest, but rapidly increased over the observation period while those in other forests were relatively stable, confirming that forest litterfall production is closely related to successional stages and growth patterns. Leaf proportions of total litterfall in PF, MF, BF, BRF, QRF and MMF were 76.4%, 68.4%, 56.8%, 55.7%, 57.6% and 69.2%, respectively, which were consistent with the results from studies in other evergreen broadleaved forests. Our analysis on litterfall monthly distributions indicated that litterfall production was much higher during the period of April to September compared to other months for all studied forest types. Although there were significant impacts of some climate variables (maximum and effective temperatures) on litterfall production in some of the studied forests, the mechanisms of how climate factors (temperature and rainfall) interactively affect litterfall await further study. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Using rangeland health assessment to inform successional management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland health assessment provides qualitative information on ecosystem attributes. Successional management is a conceptual framework that allows managers to link information gathered in rangeland health assessment to ecological processes that need to be repaired to allow vegetation to change in ...

  14. OLD FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING CESSATION OF CHRONIC DISTURBANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In grasslands dominated by warm-season grasses, community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of a chronic disturbance (heavy grazing by cattle) in...

  15. Unique MRI findings for differentiation of an early stage of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takanori; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Yabuki, Hidehiko; Ito, Akira

    2015-01-01

    CT scan and ultrasonography images revealed two small uniformly low-density and hypoechoic lesions in the liver, respectively, 7 years after curative resection of rectal cancer, in a 74-year-old man. The area of the liver including the two lesions was segmentally resected. Two lesions were histopathologically confirmed as early but active stage alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis. This case is very unique and rare, since early stage hepatic AE cases have only accidentally been confirmed from cases in which malignant hepatic tumours were suspected, and because two independent AE lesions were detected. Abdominal MRI showed two isointense tumour lesions with small areas of high-signal intensity in their centres on T2-weighted images. MRI findings appear to reflect the macroscopic view and microscopic findings of early stage AE with active cyst in the centre of each hepatic lesion well. PMID:25697300

  16. Proton MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis of early-stage subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Tekşam, Mehmet; Cakir, Banu; Ağildere, Ahmet Muhteşem

    2006-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, fatal neurological disorder of childhood and early adolescence. In this report, we present brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and conventional magnetic resonance MR imaging findings of early-stage (stage II) SSPE in an 8-year-old child. MRS demonstrated increased myo-inositol/creatine and choline/creatine ratios, and a decreased N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratio. Conventional MR imaging demonstrated nonspecific, patchy T2 hyperintensities in the periventricular white matter and a nonspecific focus of T2 hyperintensity in the right frontal subcortical white matter. The MRS findings suggested active inflammation and demyelination as is seen in early-stage SSPE. PMID:16752349

  17. Laparoscopic surgery on broken points for uterine sarcoma in the early stage decrease prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Guo-Nan; Wang, Chang; Li, Chao; Shi, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Uterine sarcoma, a rare solid tumor in uterus, is difficult to identify in the early stage from some benign uterine tumors, such as uterine fibroids. Hence, uterine sarcoma may be treated in the same way as uterine fibroids; and this may not be found until pathological diagnosis. Consequently, this can lead to tumor’s abdominal spread, planting and local invasive growth, resulting in an early uterine sarcoma, an increased relapse rate after surgery and a decreased survival. Therefore, it’s important to avoid these unintended and iatrogenic complications through an accurate diagnosis and an appropriate surgical approach. The surgical staging and a complete resection of the tumor are both important for patients’ prognosis. In this review, we will discuss the laparoscopic surgery for uterine sarcoma in the early stage and patients’ prognosis. PMID:27503773

  18. Laparoscopic surgery on broken points for uterine sarcoma in the early stage decrease prognosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Guo-Nan; Wang, Chang; Li, Chao; Shi, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Uterine sarcoma, a rare solid tumor in uterus, is difficult to identify in the early stage from some benign uterine tumors, such as uterine fibroids. Hence, uterine sarcoma may be treated in the same way as uterine fibroids; and this may not be found until pathological diagnosis. Consequently, this can lead to tumor's abdominal spread, planting and local invasive growth, resulting in an early uterine sarcoma, an increased relapse rate after surgery and a decreased survival. Therefore, it's important to avoid these unintended and iatrogenic complications through an accurate diagnosis and an appropriate surgical approach. The surgical staging and a complete resection of the tumor are both important for patients' prognosis. In this review, we will discuss the laparoscopic surgery for uterine sarcoma in the early stage and patients' prognosis. PMID:27503773

  19. Optimal adaptive two-stage designs for early phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guogen; Wilding, Gregory E; Hutson, Alan D; Gerstenberger, Shawn

    2016-04-15

    Simon's optimal two-stage design has been widely used in early phase clinical trials for Oncology and AIDS studies with binary endpoints. With this approach, the second-stage sample size is fixed when the trial passes the first stage with sufficient activity. Adaptive designs, such as those due to Banerjee and Tsiatis (2006) and Englert and Kieser (2013), are flexible in the sense that the second-stage sample size depends on the response from the first stage, and these designs are often seen to reduce the expected sample size under the null hypothesis as compared with Simon's approach. An unappealing trait of the existing designs is that they are not associated with a second-stage sample size, which is a non-increasing function of the first-stage response rate. In this paper, an efficient intelligent process, the branch-and-bound algorithm, is used in extensively searching for the optimal adaptive design with the smallest expected sample size under the null, while the type I and II error rates are maintained and the aforementioned monotonicity characteristic is respected. The proposed optimal design is observed to have smaller expected sample sizes compared to Simon's optimal design, and the maximum total sample size of the proposed adaptive design is very close to that from Simon's method. The proposed optimal adaptive two-stage design is recommended for use in practice to improve the flexibility and efficiency of early phase therapeutic development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26526165

  20. A profile of identity in early-stage dementia and a comparison with healthy older people.

    PubMed

    Caddell, Lisa S; Clare, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether people in the early stages of dementia experience their sense of identity differently to healthy older people and to examine whether different aspects of identity are related to each other in each group. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study; 50 people with early-stage dementia and 50 age-matched people without dementia completed measures pertaining to different aspects of identity. Measures of mood and self-esteem were also included so that any differences could be taken into account in the analysis. There were very few differences in identity between the groups. After differences in levels of anxiety were accounted for, there were no differences in scores on most measures of identity. However, people in the early stages of dementia scored significantly lower on one subtotal for one measure of identity, whereas healthy older adults reported significantly more identity-related distress than people in the early stages of dementia. For both groups, there were no associations between different aspects of identity. People in the early stages of dementia do not differ much from healthy older adults in terms of their identity. Since healthy older people experience more distress relating to identity, they may be more likely to benefit from some sort of intervention than people in the early stages of dementia. It might be useful to consider identity as consisting of multiple components in future studies, rather than assuming that one aspect of identity represents the overall experience of identity. PMID:23171274

  1. Outcomes in Patients With Early-Stage Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Ito, Yoshinori; Asai, Masao; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sumi, Minako; Itami, Jun

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome in patients with early-stage hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between February 1988 and February 2007, 77 patients with Stage I or Stage II HPC underwent definitive RT in the Division of Radiation Oncology at the National Cancer Center Hospital. Eleven of the patients received local irradiation, and the other 66 patients received elective bilateral neck irradiation and booster irradiation to the primary lesion. The median follow-up period for all the patients was 33 months from the start of RT, ranging from 3 to 229 months. Results: The rates of overall survival, HPC-specific survival, HPC recurrence-free survival, and local control with laryngeal voice preservation for the 77 patients at 5 years were 47%, 74%, 57%, and 70%, respectively. The survival rates were not affected by the patient characteristics or treatment factors, but the RT field was significantly correlated with local control in a multivariate analysis. Seven of the patients had Grade 3 or greater complications, but these complications occurred after salvage surgery in 6 of the patients. Of the 77 patients, 83% had synchronous or metachronous malignancies, but these malignancies did not influence the survival of the patients if the malignancies were detected at an early stage. Conclusion: RT is an appropriate treatment method for early-stage HPC. However, because synchronous or metachronous malignancies occur at a relatively high frequency, careful follow-up and the early detection of such malignancies are critical.

  2. Triaging early-stage lung cancer patients into non-surgical pathways: who, when, and what?

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Feng-Ming (Spring)

    2015-01-01

    More lung cancer patients are being diagnosed at an earlier stage due to improved diagnostic imaging techniques, a trend that is expected to accelerate with the dissemination of lung cancer screening. Surgical resection has always been considered the standard treatment for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, non-surgical treatment options for patients with early-stage NSCLC have evolved significantly over the past decade with many new and exciting alternative treatments now available. These alternative treatments include radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), percutaneous cryoablation therapy (PCT), photodynamic therapy (PDT) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), including stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy. We describe the established alternatives to surgical resection, their advantages and disadvantages, potential complications and efficacy. We then describe the optimal treatment approach for patients with early-stage NSCLC based on tumor operability, size and location. Finally, we discuss future directions and whether any alternative therapies will challenge surgical resection as the treatment of choice for patients with operable early-stage lung cancer. PMID:26380185

  3. Triaging early-stage lung cancer patients into non-surgical pathways: who, when, and what?

    PubMed

    Sroufe, Rameses; Kong, Feng-Ming Spring

    2015-08-01

    More lung cancer patients are being diagnosed at an earlier stage due to improved diagnostic imaging techniques, a trend that is expected to accelerate with the dissemination of lung cancer screening. Surgical resection has always been considered the standard treatment for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, non-surgical treatment options for patients with early-stage NSCLC have evolved significantly over the past decade with many new and exciting alternative treatments now available. These alternative treatments include radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), percutaneous cryoablation therapy (PCT), photodynamic therapy (PDT) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), including stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy. We describe the established alternatives to surgical resection, their advantages and disadvantages, potential complications and efficacy. We then describe the optimal treatment approach for patients with early-stage NSCLC based on tumor operability, size and location. Finally, we discuss future directions and whether any alternative therapies will challenge surgical resection as the treatment of choice for patients with operable early-stage lung cancer. PMID:26380185

  4. Upregulation of α3β1-Integrin in Podocytes in Early-Stage Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Kaichiro; Kaneyama, Noriko; Shiraiwa, Sawako; Moriya, Hitomi; Miyatake, Han; Tanaka, Eitaro; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Miyauchi, Masaaki; Kimura, Moritsugu; Wada, Takehiko; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Podocyte injury plays an important role in the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Downregulation of α3β1-integrin expression in podocytes is thought to be associated with podocyte detachment from the glomerular basement membrane, although the mechanisms remain obscure. To determine the mechanism of podocyte detachment, we analyzed the expression levels of α3β1-integrin in podocytes in early and advanced stages of DN. Methods. Surgical specimens from DN patients were examined by in situ hybridization, and the expression levels of α3- and β1-integrin subunits in glomeruli of early (n = 6) and advanced (n = 8) stages were compared with those of normal glomeruli (n = 5). Heat-sensitive mouse podocytes (HSMP) were cultured with TGF-β1 to reproduce the microenvironment of glomeruli of DN, and the expression levels of integrin subunits and the properties of migration and attachment were examined. Results. Podocytes of early-stage DN showed upregulation of α3- and β1-integrin expression while those of advanced stage showed downregulation. Real-time PCR indicated a tendency for upregulation of α3- and β1-integrin in HSMP cultured with TGF-β1. TGF-β1-stimulated HSMP also showed enhanced in vitro migration and attachment on collagen substrate. Conclusions. The results suggested that podocyte detachment during early stage of DN is mediated through upregulation of α3β1-integrin. PMID:27340677

  5. Role of modern radiation therapy in early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: A young radiation oncologists’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Ciammella, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    The role of radiotherapy is well established in combined modality programs for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma, but still debated with regards to late toxicity issues. Modern radiotherapy prescribing attitudes include lower doses and smaller fields, together with the implementation of sophisticated and dedicated delivery techniques. Aim of this review is to briefly discuss the current role of radiotherapy in this field and the potential future developments. Major trials conducted in recent years in early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma are critically reviewed and discussed with a focus on radiotherapy-related issues and with an attention to current treatment options by a “young” radiation oncologists’ perspective. PMID:24669302

  6. Highly-accurate metabolomic detection of early-stage ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gaul, David A.; Mezencev, Roman; Long, Tran Q.; Jones, Christina M.; Benigno, Benedict B.; Gray, Alexander; Fernández, Facundo M.; McDonald, John F.

    2015-01-01

    High performance mass spectrometry was employed to interrogate the serum metabolome of early-stage ovarian cancer (OC) patients and age-matched control women. The resulting spectral features were used to establish a linear support vector machine (SVM) model of sixteen diagnostic metabolites that are able to identify early-stage OC with 100% accuracy in our patient cohort. The results provide evidence for the importance of lipid and fatty acid metabolism in OC and serve as the foundation of a clinically significant diagnostic test. PMID:26573008

  7. Haemoglobin degradation underpins the sensitivity of early ring stage Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinins.

    PubMed

    Xie, Stanley C; Dogovski, Con; Hanssen, Eric; Chiu, Francis; Yang, Tuo; Crespo, Maria P; Stafford, Che; Batinovic, Steven; Teguh, Silvia; Charman, Susan; Klonis, Nectarios; Tilley, Leann

    2016-01-15

    Current first-line artemisinin antimalarials are threatened by the emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Decreased sensitivity is evident in the initial (early ring) stage of intraerythrocytic development, meaning that it is crucial to understand the action of artemisinins at this stage. Here, we examined the roles of iron (Fe) ions and haem in artemisinin activation in early rings using Fe ion chelators and a specific haemoglobinase inhibitor (E64d). Quantitative modelling of the antagonism accounted for its complex dependence on the chemical features of the artemisinins and on the drug exposure time, and showed that almost all artemisinin activity in early rings (>80%) is due to haem-mediated activation. The surprising implication that haemoglobin uptake and digestion is active in early rings is supported by identification of active haemoglobinases (falcipains) at this stage. Genetic down-modulation of the expression of the two main cysteine protease haemoglobinases, falcipains 2 and 3, renders early ring stage parasites resistant to artemisinins. This confirms the important role of haemoglobin-degrading falcipains in artemisinin activation, and shows that changes in the rate of artemisinin activation could mediate high-level artemisinin resistance. PMID:26675237

  8. Haemoglobin degradation underpins the sensitivity of early ring stage Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinins

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Stanley C.; Dogovski, Con; Hanssen, Eric; Chiu, Francis; Yang, Tuo; Crespo, Maria P.; Stafford, Che; Batinovic, Steven; Teguh, Silvia; Charman, Susan; Klonis, Nectarios; Tilley, Leann

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Current first-line artemisinin antimalarials are threatened by the emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Decreased sensitivity is evident in the initial (early ring) stage of intraerythrocytic development, meaning that it is crucial to understand the action of artemisinins at this stage. Here, we examined the roles of iron (Fe) ions and haem in artemisinin activation in early rings using Fe ion chelators and a specific haemoglobinase inhibitor (E64d). Quantitative modelling of the antagonism accounted for its complex dependence on the chemical features of the artemisinins and on the drug exposure time, and showed that almost all artemisinin activity in early rings (>80%) is due to haem-mediated activation. The surprising implication that haemoglobin uptake and digestion is active in early rings is supported by identification of active haemoglobinases (falcipains) at this stage. Genetic down-modulation of the expression of the two main cysteine protease haemoglobinases, falcipains 2 and 3, renders early ring stage parasites resistant to artemisinins. This confirms the important role of haemoglobin-degrading falcipains in artemisinin activation, and shows that changes in the rate of artemisinin activation could mediate high-level artemisinin resistance. PMID:26675237

  9. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko )

    1989-09-01

    It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

  10. Robotic surgery for early stage cervical cancer: Evolution and current trends.

    PubMed

    Medlin, Erin E; Kushner, David M; Barroilhet, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    The management of early stage cervical cancer often includes surgery in the form of radical hysterectomy, radical trachelectomy, or radical parametrectomy. Surgical techniques have evolved to include minimal invasive approaches, and more recently, to include robotic assisted techniques. This review highlights the evolution of surgical management of early cervical cancer and specifically explores robotic assisted radical hysterectomy, radical trachelectomy, radical parametrectomy, and the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26768315

  11. [Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].

    PubMed

    Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA. PMID:23829961

  12. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  13. Factors influencing recruitment of walleye and white bass to three distinct early ontogenetic stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence recruitment to sequential ontogenetic stages is critical for understanding recruitment dynamics of fish and for effective management of sportfish, particularly in dynamic and unpredictable environments. We sampled walleye (Sander vitreus) and white bass (Morone chrysops) at 3 ontogenetic stages (age 0 during spring: ‘age-0 larval’; age 0 during autumn: ‘age-0 juvenile’; and age 1 during autumn: ‘age-1 juvenile’) from 3 reservoirs. We developed multiple linear regression models to describe factors influencing age-0 larval, age-0 juvenile and age-1 juvenile walleye and white bass abundance indices. Our models explained 40–80% (68 ± 9%; mean ± SE) and 71%–97% (81 ± 6%) of the variability in catch for walleye and white bass respectively. For walleye, gizzard shad were present in the candidate model sets for all three ontogenetic stages we assessed. For white bass, there was no unifying variable in all three stage-specific candidate model sets, although walleye abundance was present in two of the three white bass candidate model sets. We were able to determine several factors affecting walleye and white bass year-class strength at multiple ontogenetic stages; comprehensive analyses of factors influencing recruitment to multiple early ontogenetic stages are seemingly rare in the literature. Our models demonstrate the interdependency among early ontogenetic stages and the complexities involved with sportfish recruitment.

  14. Successional change in photosynthetic capacities after wildfires across the North American boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahara, N.; Ueyama, M.; Iwata, H.; Ichii, K.; Harazono, Y.; Nagano, H.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire is a major disturbance across the North American boreal forests. Canopy ecophysiology is important to understand recovery of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes after wildfires. We developed a big-leaf model coupled photosynthesis (Farquhar et al., 1980) and stomatal conductance (Ball et al., 1987) models. We inputted eddy covariance data from fire chronosequence across the North American boreal forests into the big-leaf model for optimizing parameters: maximum carboxylation rate at 25℃ (Vcmax25) and stomatal conductance parameters. The model was optimized with a global optimization technique: SCE-UA method (Duan et al., 1994). The estimated canopy-scale parameters were then downscaled into a leaf scale (vcmax25; values per sun leaf area) using a two-leaf radiation transfer model (de Pury and Farquhar, 1997) and leaf area index. We used 6 sites from two fire chronosequence in Alaska (1~, 3~, 5~, 15~ and 80~ years after fire; Liu et al., 2005; Iwata et al., 2011) and 6 sites from a Canadian chronosequence study (6~, 15~, 23~, 40~ and 74~ years after fire; Goulden et al., 2010). Preliminary results showed clear seasonal variations in canopy-scale Vcmax25 with the maximum during the summer. In Alaska, the downscaled vcmax25 for four years after fire exceeded those of mature forests, indicating that the photosynthetic capacity recovered quickly in the early successional stage. This quick recovery was not seen in gross primary productivity. We will show the variations of the ecophysiological parameters in terms of environment conditions and stand age. References Ball et al., 1987: In Progress in Photosynthesis Research, 221-224. de Pury and Farquhar, 1997: Plant, Cell and Environ., 20, 537-557. Duan et al., 1994: J. Hydrology, 158, 265-284. Farquhar et al., 1980: Planta, 149, 78-90. Goulden et al., 2010: Global Change Biol., 17, 855-871. Iwata et al., 2011: SOLA., 7, 105-108. Liu et al., 2005: J. Geophys. Res., 110, D13101.

  15. Outcomes of laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery in clinically early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) is becoming an important technique in the surgical management of young women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of laparoscopic FSS in presumed clinically early-stage EOC. Methods We retrospectively searched databases of patients who received laparoscopic FSS for EOC between January 1999 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Women aged ≤40 years were included. The perioperative, oncological, and obstetric outcomes of these patients were evaluated. Results A total of 18 patients was evaluated. The median age of the patients was 33.5 years (range, 14 to 40 years). The number of patients with clinically stage IA and IC was 6 (33.3%) and 12 (66.7%), respectively. There were 7 (38.9%), 5 (27.8%), 3 (16.7%), and 3 patients (16.7%) with mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and serous tumor types, respectively. Complete surgical staging to preserve the uterus and one ovary with adnexa was performed in 4 patients (22.2%). Two out of them were upstaged to The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA1. During the median follow-up of 47.3 months (range, 11.5 to 195.3 months), there were no perioperative or long term surgical complications. Four women (22.2%) conceived after their respective ovarian cancer treatments. Three (16.7%) of them completed full-term delivery and one is expecting a baby. One patient had disease recurrence. No patient died of the disease. Conclusion FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC is a challenging and cautious procedure. Further studies are urgent to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC. PMID:26768783

  16. Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 μg/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 μg/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 μg/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection. PMID:23124699

  17. Implications of mismatch repair-deficient status on management of early stage colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Hisato; Zaanan, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    For primary colorectal cancers (CRCs), tumor stage has been the best predictor of survival after resection and the key determinant of patient management. However, considerable stage-independent variability in clinical outcome is observed that is likely due to molecular heterogeneity. This is particularly important in early stage CRCs where patients can be cured by surgery alone and only a proportion derives benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Thus, the identification of molecular prognostic markers to supplement conventional pathologic staging systems has the potential to guide patient management and influence outcomes. CRC is a heterogeneous disease with molecular phenotypes reflecting distinct forms of genetic instability. The chromosomal instability pathway (CIN) is the most common phenotype, accounting for 85% of all sporadic CRCs. Alternatively, the microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype represents ~15% of all CRCs and is caused by deficient DNA mismatch repair (MMR) as a consequence of germline mutations in MMR genes or, more commonly, epigenetic silencing of the MLH1 gene with frequent mutations in the BRAF oncogene. MSI tumors have distinct phenotypic features and are consistently associated with a better stage-adjusted prognosis compared with microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors. Among non-metastatic CRCs, the difference in prognosis between MSI and MSS tumors is larger for stage II than stage III patients. On the other hand, the predictive impact of MMR status for adjuvant chemotherapy remains a contentious issue in that most studies demonstrate a lack of benefit for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II MSI-H CRCs, whereas it remains unclear in MSI-H stage III tumors. Here, we describe the molecular aspects of the MMR system and discuss the implications of MMR-deficient/MSI-H status in the clinical management of patients with early stage CRC. PMID:26697201

  18. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  19. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix stage IB and early stage II. Prognostic value of the histological tumor regression after initial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Calais, G.; Le Floch, O.; Chauvet, B.; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A.; Bougnoux, P. )

    1989-12-01

    In our center limited centro pelvic invasive carcinomas of the uterine cervix (less than 4 cm) are treated with brachytherapy and surgery. With these therapeutic modalities no residual carcinoma was observed for 80% of the patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our results with this treatment, and to evaluate the prognostic value of the pathological status of the cervix. From 1976 to 1987 we have treated 115 patients with these modalities. Staging system used was the FIGO classification modified for Stage II (divided in early Stage II and late Stage II). Patients were Stage IB (70 cases) and early Stage II (45 cases); 60 Gy were delivered with utero vaginal brachytherapy before any treatment. Six weeks later a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Twenty-one patients with positive nodes received a pelvic radiotherapy (45 to 55 Gy). Local control rate was 97% (100% for Stage IB and 93% for early Stage II). Uncorrected 10-year actuarial survival rate was 96% for Stage IB and 80% for early Stage II patients. No treatment failure was observed for Stage IB patients. Ninety-two patients (80%) had no residual carcinoma in the cervix (group 1) and 23 patients (20%) had a residual tumor (group 2). The sterilization rate of the cervix was 87% for Stage IB tumors versus 69% for early Stage II, and was 82% for N- patients versus 68% for N+ patients. Ten year actuarial survival rate was 92% for group 1 and 78% for group 2 (p = 0, 1). Grade 3 complications rate was 6%. We conclude that brachytherapy + surgery is a safe treatment for limited centro pelvic carcinomas of the uterine cervix (especially Stage IB) and that pathological status of the cervix after brachytherapy is not a prognostic factor.

  20. The Night before the LHC -thoughts about expectations in the early stage and beyond-

    SciTech Connect

    Nojiri, Mihoko M.

    2008-11-23

    I review recent developments on the use of m{sub T2} variables for SUSY parameter study, which might be useful for analyses of the data in the early stage of the LHC experiments. I will also mention some of recent interesting studies relevant to the SUSY analysis.

  1. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  2. Communication in the Early Stage of Language Development in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltokorpi, Sini; Huttunen, Kerttu

    2008-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is characterized by multiple physical abnormalities, and impaired vision and hearing. In this pilot study, communication in the early stage of language development in three one- to eight-year-old children with CHARGE syndrome was explored using video recorded free-play interaction sessions and a parental questionnaire. The children…

  3. Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

    2013-01-01

    This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

  4. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

  5. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

  6. Towards a Conceptualization of the Early Career Stage of Principalship: Current Research, Idiosyncrasies and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    This review aims at providing a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of the early career stage of principalship by documenting the experiences and tasks of new principals (NPs) in the first three years in the post, and their personal and organizational determinants. The synthesis is based on empirical research…

  7. ECT2 amplification and overexpression as a new prognostic biomarker for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yoshihiko; Minami, Yuko; Iwakawa, Reika; Yokota, Jun; Usui, Shingo; Tsuta, Koji; Shiraishi, Kouya; Sakashita, Shingo; Satomi, Kaishi; Iijima, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Genetic abnormality in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma was examined to search for new prognostic biomarkers. Six in situ lung adenocarcinomas and nine small but invasive adenocarcinomas were examined by array-comparative genomic hybridization, and candidate genes of interest were screened. To examine gene abnormalities, 83 cases of various types of lung carcinoma were examined by quantitative real-time genomic PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results were then verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas. Array-comparative genomic hybridization indicated frequent amplification at chromosome 3q26. Of the seven genes located in this region, we focused on the epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (ECT2) oncogene, as ECT2 amplification was detected only in invasive adenocarcinoma, and not in in situ carcinoma. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses also detected overexpression of ECT2 in invasive adenocarcinoma, and this was correlated with both the Ki-67 labeling index and mitotic index. In addition, it was associated with disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. These results were verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas resected at another hospital. Abnormality of the ECT2 gene occurs at a relatively early stage of lung adenocarcinogenesis and would be applicable as a new biomarker for prognostication of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24484057

  8. ECT2 amplification and overexpression as a new prognostic biomarker for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yoshihiko; Minami, Yuko; Iwakawa, Reika; Yokota, Jun; Usui, Shingo; Tsuta, Koji; Shiraishi, Kouya; Sakashita, Shingo; Satomi, Kaishi; Iijima, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Masayuki

    2014-04-01

    Genetic abnormality in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma was examined to search for new prognostic biomarkers. Six in situ lung adenocarcinomas and nine small but invasive adenocarcinomas were examined by array-comparative genomic hybridization, and candidate genes of interest were screened. To examine gene abnormalities, 83 cases of various types of lung carcinoma were examined by quantitative real-time genomic PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results were then verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas. Array-comparative genomic hybridization indicated frequent amplification at chromosome 3q26. Of the seven genes located in this region, we focused on the epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (ECT2) oncogene, as ECT2 amplification was detected only in invasive adenocarcinoma, and not in in situ carcinoma. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses also detected overexpression of ECT2 in invasive adenocarcinoma, and this was correlated with both the Ki-67 labeling index and mitotic index. In addition, it was associated with disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. These results were verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas resected at another hospital. Abnormality of the ECT2 gene occurs at a relatively early stage of lung adenocarcinogenesis and would be applicable as a new biomarker for prognostication of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24484057

  9. Early life stage rainbow trout (Oncohynchus mykiss) mortalities due to Flavobacterium columnare in Idaho, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is the etiologic agent of columnaris disease, a pervasive disease of fresh water finfish. During the past 4 years, losses that ranged from 5-50% in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry, as small as 0.2 g, have been occurring in an early life stage production facility in t...

  10. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  11. Patients with Old Age or Proximal Tumors Benefit from Metabolic Syndrome in Early Stage Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian-xin; Yu, Hong-mei; Liang, Wei-ping; Jin, Ying; Ren, Chao; He, Ming-ming; Chen, Wei-wei; Luo, Hui-yan; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Li, Yu-hong; Xu, Rui-hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. Methods Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. Results Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P = 0.036). Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P = 0.009 in multivariate analysis) or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P = 0.047 in multivariate analysis). No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P = 0.052 in univariate analysis). Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors. PMID:24599168

  12. 13 CFR 107.565 - Restrictions on third-party debt of Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions on third-party debt of Early Stage SBICs. 107.565 Section 107.565 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Borrowing by...

  13. 13 CFR 107.565 - Restrictions on third-party debt of Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restrictions on third-party debt of Early Stage SBICs. 107.565 Section 107.565 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Borrowing by...

  14. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  15. Prostatic Fatty Acids and Cancer Recurrence Following Radical Prostatectomy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Results from some observational studies suggest that diet and energy balance influence the clinical course of early-stage prostate cancer. To evaluate possible mechanisms, we prospectively examined the relation between prostatic concentrations of fatty acids at diagnosis and cancer recurr...

  16. Responding to the Challenges of Active Citizenship through the Revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    The revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) now places a stronger emphasis on personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as one of its three prime areas. PSED has three characteristics of learning: active learning, creating and thinking critically, and playing and exploring. These aspects of the revised EYFS closely align with the…

  17. Detection of failures in a stator of turbo-generator on early stages of their evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormyshev, V. M.; Medvedeva, M. A.; Naboychenko, E. S.; Prisyazhnyy, A. V.; Shamanov, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    Methodology of finding out defects in a stator of turbo-generator on early stage of their development is considered. Methodology is based on the analysis of measureable parameters of the temperature field on a working machine. To the number of the exposed defects behave: decline of possibility of hollow core of a winding of the stator and defects of the stators iron.

  18. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  19. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  20. Memory Club: A Group Intervention for People with Early-Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia E.; Watson, Jennifer; Rice-Oeschger, Laura; Kakos, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnosis of dementia in its early stages presents a window of opportunity for examining the immediate and long-term consequences of the illness at a point when the individual with memory loss can still participate in decision making. Design and Methods: Memory Club is a l0-session group program designed to provide information about…

  1. Test Design Optimization in CAT Early Stage with the Nominal Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E.

    2007-01-01

    The early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) refers to the phase of the trait estimation during the administration of only a few items. This phase can be characterized by bias and instability of estimation. In this study, an item selection criterion is introduced in an attempt to lessen this instability: the D-optimality criterion. A…

  2. A Functional Account of Verb Use in the Early Stages of English Multiword Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron-Faulkner, Thea

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates flexibility of verb use in the early stages of English multiword development, and its relationship with patterns attested in the input. The data is taken from a case study of a monolingual English-speaking boy aged 2; 5-2; 9 and his mother while engaged in daily activities in the home. Data were coded according to…

  3. a Three-Stage Model for the Inner Engine of GRBs:. Prompt Emission and Early Afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, J.; Niebergal, B.; Ouyed, R.

    We describe a model within the "quark-nova" scenario to interpret the recent observations of early X-ray afterglows of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the Swift satellite. This is a three-stage model within the context of a core-collapse supernova. STAGE 1 is an accreting (proto-) neutron star leading to a possible delay between the core collapse and the GRB. STAGE 2 is accretion onto a quark star, launching an ultrarelativistic jet generating the prompt GRB. This jet also creates the afterglow as the jet interacts with the surrounding medium creating an external shock. Slower shells ejected from the quark star (during accretion), can re-energize the external shock leading to a flatter segment in the X-ray afterglow. STAGE 3, which occurs only if the quark star collapses to form a black hole, consists of an accreting black hole. The jet launched in this accretion process interacts with the preceding quark star jet, and could generate the flaring activity frequently seen in early X-ray afterglows. Alternatively, a STAGE 2b can occur in our model if the quark star does not collapse to a black hole. The quark star in this case can then spin down due to magnetic braking, and the spin down energy may lead to flattening in the X-ray afterglow as well. This model seems to account for both the energies and the timescales of GRBs, in addition to the newly discovered early X-ray afterglow features.

  4. Bile duct invasion can be an independent prognostic factor in early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ye-Rang; Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), bile duct invasion occurs far more rarely than vascular invasion and is not well characterized. In addition, the pathologic finding of bile duct invasion is not considered an independent prognostic factor for HCC following surgery. In this study, we determined the characteristics of HCC with bile duct invasion, and assessed the clinical significance of bile duct invasion. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 363 patients who underwent hepatic resection for HCC at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) from January 2009 to December 2011. Preoperative, operative, and pathological data were collected. The risk factors for recurrence and survival were analyzed. Subsequently, the patients were divided into 2 groups according to disease stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer 7th edition): early stage (T1 and 2) and advanced stage (T3 and 4) group; and risk factors in the sub-groups were analyzed. Results Among 363 patients, 13 showed bile duct invasion on pathology. Patients with bile duct invasion had higher preoperative total bilirubin levels, greater microvascular invasion, and a higher death rate than those without bile duct invasion. In multivariate analysis, bile duct invasion was not an independent prognostic factor for survival for the entire cohort, but, was an independent prognostic factor for early stage. Conclusions Bile duct invasion accompanied microvascular invasion in most cases, and could be used as an independent prognostic factor for survival especially in early stage HCC (T1 and T2). PMID:26693236

  5. Analysis of Turbulent flow in early stages of atherosclerosis of coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaganagar, Kiran

    2005-11-01

    During the early stages of atherosclerotic heart disease, fatty material accumulates in the coronary artery resulting in development of streaks of plaque and creating high levels of turbulence, and with significantly modified flow parameters. Diagnostic measures performed during this early stage may not show any evidence of coronary artery disease, because the lumen of the coronary artery has not decreased in caliber. These streaks do not obstruct the flow of blood but alter the flow characteristics, even at this preclinical stage. This talk presents the preliminary results for the analysis of turbulent flow characteristics for a range of atherosclerotic plaque configurations in the left main coronary artery. For this purpose a CAD/medical imaging based direct-simulation (DNS) tool has been developed. The Navier-stokes equations are solved in the vertical vorticity-velocity formulation. The plaque is introduced using immersed body technique. The geometric acquisition of the artery geometry and plaque morphology is obtained using CAD based commercial software.

  6. Following iron speciation in the early stages of magnetite magnetosome biomineralization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Firlar, Emre; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Olszewska, Agata; Faivre, Damien; Prozorov, Tanya

    2016-02-26

    Understanding magnetosome magnetite biomineralization is of fundamental interest to devising the strategies for bioinspired synthesis of magnetic materials at the nanoscale. Thus, we investigated the early stages of magnetosome formation in this work and correlated the size and emergent crystallinity of magnetosome nanoparticles with the changes in chemical environment of iron and oxygen by utilizing advanced analytical electron microscopy techniques. We observed that magnetosomes in the early stages of biomineralization with the sizes of 5–10 nm were amorphous, with a majority of iron present as Fe3+, indicative of ferric hydroxide. The magnetosomes with intermediate sizes showed partially crystalline structure withmore » a majority of iron present as Fe3+ and trace amounts of Fe2+. The fully maturated magnetosomes were indexed to magnetite. Furthermore, our approach provides spatially resolved structural and chemical information of individual magnetosomes with different particle sizes, attributed to magnetosomes at different stages of biomineralization.« less

  7. The δ-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

    We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the δ-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the δ1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the δ3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the δ1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

  8. Effects of water level, shade and time on germination and growth of freshwater marsh plants along a simulated successional gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, C.H.; Bridgham, S.D.; Leicht, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We examined the effect of soil organic content (1.4, 3.6, 7.2% soil C), water level (+2, -1, -4 cm from soil surface) and duration (13 or 33 days) on 10 species that varied in abundance during succession in freshwater marshes. We also determined the effect of shade (0, 40, 80% shade) and soil organic content (1.4 and 7.2% soil C) on germination of six species over 62 days with water 0.5 cm below the soil surface. 2. Water level consistently affected species germination on both dates. Above-ground biomass was generally higher with increasing organic content of soil, but shade had little effect on germination or height. 3 The hydrologic zone in which species were found in the field was a good indicator of the response of germination to hydrology. Both early successional species and species wide-spread across the successional gradient show similar germination on all organic contents, while later successional species appear to germinate best at higher organic contents. 4. Successional changes in soils are capable of affecting plant community development, independent of disturbance.

  9. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Y; Yan, F; Niu, L L; Chen, Q N; Zheng, H R; Li, J Y

    2016-03-24

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery. PMID:26972797

  10. Exploration of novel predictive markers in rat plasma of the early stages of chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Yuriko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Kouichi; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-02-01

    To identify blood markers for early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), blood samples were collected from rats with adenine-induced CKD over 28 days. Plasma samples were subjected to metabolomic profiling by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by multivariate analyses. In addition to already-identified uremic toxins, we found that plasma concentrations of N6-succinyl adenosine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine 20:4, and glycocholic acid were altered, and that these changes during early CKD were more sensitive markers than creatinine concentration, a universal indicator of renal dysfunction. Moreover, the increase in plasma indoxyl sulfate concentration occurred earlier than increases in phenyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate. These novel metabolites may serve as biomarkers in identifying early stage CKD. PMID:24232639

  11. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. Y.; Yan, F.; Niu, L. L.; Chen, Q. N.; Zheng, H. R.; Li, J. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery.

  12. Dosemetric Parameters Predictive of Rib Fractures after Proton Beam Therapy for Early-Stage Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yojiro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Kato, Takahiro; Kadoya, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Motohisa; Azami, Yusuke; Hareyama, Masato; Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Jingu, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Proton beam therapy (PBT) is the preferred modality for early-stage lung cancer. Compared with X-ray therapy, PBT offers good dose concentration as revealed by the characteristics of the Bragg peak. Rib fractures (RFs) after PBT lead to decreased quality of life for patients. However, the incidence of and the risk factors for RFs after PBT have not yet been clarified. We therefore explored the relationship between irradiated rib volume and RFs after PBT for early-stage lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and the risk factors for RFs following PBT for early-stage lung cancer. We investigated 52 early-stage lung cancer patients and analyzed a total of 215 irradiated ribs after PBT. Grade 2 RFs occurred in 12 patients (20 ribs); these RFs were symptomatic without displacement. No patient experienced more severe RFs. The median time to grade 2 RFs development was 17 months (range: 9-29 months). The three-year incidence of grade 2 RFs was 30.2%. According to the analysis comparing radiation dose and rib volume using receiver operating characteristic curves, we demonstrated that the volume of ribs receiving more than 120 Gy3 (relative biological effectiveness (RBE)) was more than 3.7 cm(3) at an area under the curve of 0.81, which increased the incidence of RFs after PBT (P < 0.001). In this study, RFs were frequently observed following PBT for early-stage lung cancer. We demonstrated that the volume of ribs receiving more than 120 Gy3 (RBE) was the most significant parameter for predicting RFs. PMID:27087118

  13. Esophagectomy Compared to Chemoradiation for Early Stage Esophageal Cancer in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Julian A.; Buono, Donna L.; Strauss, Joshua; McBride, Russell B.; Hershman, Dawn L.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2009-01-01

    Background Esophagectomy has been the traditional treatment of choice for early stage esophageal cancer. However, esophagectomy is associated with high mortality and morbidity in the elderly, and these patients often receive chemoradiation instead. We compared outcomes of esophagectomy versus chemoradiation in a population-based sample of elderly patients with early stage esophageal cancer. Methods We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database to identify patients ≥65 years diagnosed with stage 1 or 2 esophageal cancer from 1991–2002. We assessed associations of treatment with esophagectomy or chemoradiation with demographic and clinical variables. We performed survival analyses to compare outcomes with treatment modality, adjusted for potential confounders. Results We identified 730 patients with stage 1 or 2 esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy (n=341; 46.7%) or chemoradiation (n=389, 53.3%). Older age, squamous cell histology, and lower socioeconomic status were associated with increased odds of receipt of chemoradiation. In multivariable analyses, chemoradiation was associated with worse disease-specific (HR 2.08, 95%CI 1.64–2.64) and overall survival (HR 1.92, 95%CI 1.58–2.34). Receipt of chemoradiation was associated with worse survival for adenocarcinoma (HR 3.01, 95%CI 2.24–4.04), but there was no significant difference for squamous cell (HR 1.33, 95%CI 0.98–1.80). Conclusion Compared to chemoradiation, esophagectomy may be associated with improved survival for early stage esophageal cancer in the elderly. The results suggest that there may also be a subset of squamous cell patients for whom chemoradiation is adequate therapy. A randomized trial would be useful to determine optimal treatment for elderly patients with early stage esophageal cancer. PMID:19637343

  14. Repeated burning of eastern tallgrass prairie increases richness and diversity, stabilizing late successional vegetation.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Marlin L; Jones, Michael D

    2013-03-01

    Understanding temporal effects of fire frequency on plant species diversity and vegetation structure is critical for managing tallgrass prairie (TGP), which occupies a mid-continental longitudinal precipitation and productivity gradient. Eastern TGP has contributed little information toward understanding whether vegetation-fire interactions are uniform or change across this biome. We resampled 34 fire-managed mid- and late-successional ungrazed TGP remnants occurring across a dry to wet-mesic moisture gradient in the Chicago region of Illinois, USA. We compared hypotheses that burning acts either as a stabilizing force or causes change in diversity and structure, depending upon fire frequency and successional stage. Based on western TGP, we expected a unimodal species richness distribution across a cover-productivity gradient, variable functional group responses to fire frequency, and a negative relationship between fire frequency and species richness. Species diversity was unimodal across the cover gradient and was more strongly humpbacked in stands with greater fire frequency. In support of a stabilizing hypothesis, temporal similarity of late-successional vegetation had a logarithmic relationship with increasing fire frequency, while richness and evenness remained stable. Temporal similarity within mid-successional stands was not correlated with fire frequency, while richness increased and evenness decreased over time. Functional group responses to fire frequency were variable. Summer forb richness increased under high fire frequency, while C4 grasses, spring forbs, and nitrogen-fixing species decreased with fire exclusion. On mesic and wet-mesic sites, vegetation structure measured by the ratio of woody to graminoid species was negatively correlated with abundance of forbs and with fire frequency. Our findings that species richness responds unimodally to an environmental-productivity gradient, and that fire exclusion increases woody vegetation and leads to loss

  15. Scrub-successional bird community dynamics in young and mature longleaf pine-wiregrass savannahs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Public agencies are required to manage for threatened and endangered species and for biodiversity. However, at times, management for threatened and endangered species precludes consideration of other species. We investigated how managing for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) and biodiversity at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, affected communities of bird species that use early-successional scrub habitat (hereafter, scrub-successional species). Management for red-cockaded woodpeckers at the SRS involved both (1) manipulating mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Andropogon spp.) stands via canopy thinning, removal of midstory trees, and prescribed burning; and (2) even-aged timber harvesting. The former management practice encouraged red-cockaded woodpeckers to establish new colonies in previously unoccupied stands (hereafter, 'recruitment' stands). The latter management practice is used to remove off-site planted pines and replant with preferred longleaf pines. We conducted a constant-effort mist net study in recruitment and regenerating stands (stands clearcut and planted with longleaf pine) during the breeding seasons of 1995-96. We hypothesized that the scrub-successional bird community in recruitment stands would have greater species richness and higher survival and reproductive rates per species than in regenerating stands. However, recruitment stands always had fewer scrub-successional species (1995:36 species; 1996:31 species) than regenerating stands (1995:54 species; 1996:55 species), and all species that occurred in recruitment stands also occurred in regenerating stands. Species which commonly occurred in both recruitment and regenerating stands had similar adult:juvenile ratios (P > 0.15) and relative proportion of adults in breeding condition (P > 0.05). We detected no difference in survival rates of Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis), indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), and of 'combined' scrub-successional

  16. Astronomical Constraints on the Duration of Early Jurassic Stages and Global Carbon Cycle and Climatic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Hinnov, L.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Storm, M.; Xu, W.; Riding, J. B.; Ullmann, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Jurassic (201.3 to 174.1 Ma) is bracketed by the end-Triassic mass extinction and global warming event, and the Toarcian-Aalenian shift to (global) icehouse conditions (McElwain et al., 1999; Hesselbo et al., 2002; Ruhl et al., 2011; Korte et al., in review). It is further marked by the early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), with possibly the largest exogenic carbon cycle perturbation of the Mesozoic and related perturbations in global geochemical cycles, climate and the environment, which are linked to large igneous province emplacement in the Karoo-Ferrar region (Jenkyns, 2010; Burgess et al., 2015). Furthermore, Early Jurassic continental rifting and the break-up of Pangaea and subsequent Early Jurassic opening of the Hispanic Corridor and Viking Strait respectively linked the equatorial Tethys Ocean to Eastern Panthalassa and the high-latitude Arctic Boreal realm. This initiated changes in (global) ocean currents and Earth's heat distribution and ultimately was followed by the opening of the proto-North Atlantic (Porter et al., 2013; Korte et al., in review). Here, we present high-resolution (sub-precession scale) elemental concentration data from the Mochras borehole (UK), which represents ~1300m of possibly the most complete and expanded lower Jurassic hemi-pelagic marine sedimentary archive known. We construct a floating ~9 Myr astronomical time-scale for the complete Early Jurassic Pliensbachian stage and biozones. Combined with radiometric and astrochronological constraints on early Jurassic stage boundaries, we construct a new Early Jurassic Time-Scale. With this we assess the duration and rate of change of early Jurassic global carbon cycle and climatic perturbations and we asses fundamental changes in the nature and expression of Early Jurassic long (100 - 1000 kyr) eccentricity cycles.

  17. Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castellanos, A.E.; Martinez, M.J.; Llano, J.M.; Halvorson, W.L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

    2005-01-01

    Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bridging the gap: facilities and technologies for development of early stage therapeutic mAb candidates.

    PubMed

    Munro, Trent P; Mahler, Stephen M; Huang, Edwin P; Chin, David Y; Gray, Peter P

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently dominate the biologics marketplace. Development of a new therapeutic mAb candidate is a complex, multistep process and early stages of development typically begin in an academic research environment. Recently, a number of facilities and initiatives have been launched to aid researchers along this difficult path and facilitate progression of the next mAb blockbuster. Complementing this, there has been a renewed interest from the pharmaceutical industry to reconnect with academia in order to boost dwindling pipelines and encourage innovation. In this review, we examine the steps required to take a therapeutic mAb from discovery through early stage preclinical development and toward becoming a feasible clinical candidate. Discussion of the technologies used for mAb discovery, production in mammalian cells and innovations in single-use bioprocessing is included. We also examine regulatory requirements for product quality and characterization that should be considered at the earliest stages of mAb development. We provide details on the facilities available to help researchers and small-biotech build value into early stage product development, and include examples from within our own facility of how technologies are utilized and an analysis of our client base. PMID:21822050

  19. Characterization of early stage cartilage degradation using diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. P.; Jayadev, C.; Glyn-Jones, S.; Carr, A. J.; Murray, D. W.; Price, A. J.; Gill, H. S.

    2011-04-01

    Interest in localized and early stage treatment technologies for joint conditions such as osteoarthritis is growing rapidly. It has therefore become important to develop objective measures capable of characterizing the earliest (non-visible) changes associated with degeneration to aid treatment procedures. In addition to assessing tissue before treatment, it is further important to develop an effective, non-destructive means of monitoring post-treatment tissue healing, and of providing the high-quality data needed for trials of developing treatment methods. To investigate its ability to detect the early stages of degeneration in cartilage-on-bone, diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy was applied to normal and osteoarthritic joints. A discriminating function was developed to relate absorbance peaks of interest and track degradation around focal osteoarthritic defects. The function could distinguish between normal and degraded tissue (100% separation of normal tissue from that within 25 mm of a defect) and between different stages of osteoarthritic progression (p < 0.05). This technique allows simple, practical and non-destructive assessment of component-level properties over the full depth of the tissue. It has the potential to increase our understanding of the underlying etiologic and pathogenic processes in early stage degeneration, to assist classification and the development of new treatment methods.

  20. Prognostic role of FGFR1 amplification in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cihoric, N; Savic, S; Schneider, S; Ackermann, I; Bichsel-Naef, M; Schmid, R A; Lardinois, D; Gugger, M; Bubendorf, L; Zlobec, I; Tapia, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) was discovered in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the lung with FGFR1 amplification described as a promising predictive marker for anti-FGFR inhibitor treatment. Only few data are available regarding prevalence, prognostic significance and clinico-pathological characteristics of FGFR1-amplified and early-stage non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). We therefore investigated the FGFR1 gene status in a large number of well-characterised early-stage NSCLC. Methods: FGFR1 gene status was evaluated using a commercially available fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) probe on a tissue microarray (TMA). This TMA harbours 329 resected, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, nodal-negative NSCLC with a UICC stage I–II. The FISH results were correlated with clinico-pathological features and overall survival (OS). Results: The prevalence of an FGFR1 amplification was 12.5% (41/329) and was significantly (P<0.0001) higher in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (20.7%) than in adenocarcinoma (2.2%) and large cell carcinoma (13%). Multivariate analysis revealed significantly (P=0.0367) worse 5-year OS in patients with an FGFR1-amplified NSCLC. Conclusions: FGFR1 amplification is common in early-stage SCC of the lung and is an independent and adverse prognostic marker. Its potential role as a predictive marker for targeted therapies or adjuvant treatment needs further investigation. PMID:24853178

  1. Tailoring Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Based on Tumor Biology or Tumor Burden?

    PubMed

    Ribnikar, Domen; Cardoso, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether to offer adjuvant chemotherapy to patients with early-stage breast cancer has always been challenging to answer. It is well known that a substantial proportion of patients with early-stage breast cancer are over treated, especially when staging and hormonal and HER2 receptors are solely taken into consideration. The advances in our knowledge of breast cancer biology and its clinical implications were the basis for the discovery of additional reliable prognostic markers to aid decision making for adjuvant treatment. Gene expression profiling is a molecular tool that more precisely defines the intrinsic characteristics of each individual tumor. The application of this technology has led to the development of gene signatures/profiles with relevant prognostic-and some predictive-value that have become important tools in defining which patients with early-stage breast cancer can be safely spared from chemotherapy. However, the exact clinical utility of these tools will only be determined after the results of two large prospective randomized trials, MINDACT and TailorX, evaluating their role become available. Notwithstanding the existence of these genomic tools, tumor burden (defined as tumor size and nodal status) still has independent prognostic value and must be incorporated in decision making. In addition, these gene signatures have limited predictive value, and new biomarkers and new targets are needed. Therefore close collaboration between clinicians and scientists is crucial. Lastly, issues of cost-effectiveness, reimbursement, and availability are crucial and widely variable around the globe. PMID:27249737

  2. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Results Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60–0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0

  3. Rehabilitation outcomes in patients with early and two-stage reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Ilgin; İnanir, Murat; Şen, Suzan; Çakmak, Esra; Kablanoğlu, Serkan; Selçuk, Barin; Dursun, Nigar

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to assess rehabilitation outcomes for early and two-stage repair of hand flexor tendon injuries. The secondary purpose of this study was to compare the findings between treatment groups. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three patients were included in this study. Early repair (n=14) and two-stage repair (n=9) groups were included in a rehabilitation program that used hand splints. This retrospective evaluated patients according to their demographic characteristics, including age, gender, injured hand, dominant hand, cause of injury, zone of injury, number of affected fingers, and accompanying injuries. Pain, range of motion, and grip strength were evaluated using a visual analog scale, goniometer, and dynamometer, respectively. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in pain and finger flexion after treatment compared with baseline measurements. However, no significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups. Similar results were obtained for grip strength and pinch grip, whereas gross grip was better in the early tendon repair group. [Conclusion] Early and two-stage reconstruction of patients with flexor tendon injuries can be performed with similarly favorable responses and effective rehabilitation programs.

  4. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI. PMID:23329298

  5. The Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine in Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hui-Seung; Han, Kyung-Hoon; Shin, Jeoung-A; Park, Joo-Hyun; Song, Kwan-Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to elucidate neuroprotective effect of carnosine in early stage of stroke. Methods Early stage of rodent stroke model and neuroblastoma chemical hypoxia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and antimycin A. Neuroprotective effect of carnosine was investigated with 100, 250, and 500 mg of carnosine treatment. And antioxidant expression was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in brain and blood. Results Intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg carnosine induced significant decrease of infarct volume and expansion of penumbra (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant increase than in saline group in blood and brain (p<0.05). In the analysis of chemical hypoxia, carnosine induced increase of neuronal cell viability and decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Conclusion Carnosine has neuroprotective property which was related to antioxidant capacity in early stage of stroke. And, the oxidative stress should be considered one of major factor in early ischemic stroke. PMID:24851146

  6. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  7. Transcriptome profile of the early stages of breast cancer tumoral spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Marín, Rosario; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna; Garcia-Venzor, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Torres, Carolina; Gaytan-Cervantes, Javier; Mitre-Aguilar, Irma B.; Maldonado, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen or nutrient deprivation of early stage tumoral spheroids can be used to reliably mimic the initial growth of primary and metastatic cancer cells. However, cancer cell growth during the initial stages has not been fully explored using a genome-wide approach. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the transcriptome of breast cancer cells during the initial stages of tumoral growth using RNAseq in a model of Multicellular Tumor Spheroids (MTS). Network analyses showed that a metastatic signature was enriched as several adhesion molecules were deregulated, including EPCAM, E-cadherin, integrins and syndecans, which were further supported by an increase in cell migration. Interestingly, we also found that the cancer cells at this stage of growth exhibited a paradoxical hyperactivation of oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition, we found a large number of regulated (long non coding RNA) lncRNAs, several of which were co-regulated with neighboring genes. The regulatory role of some of these lncRNAs on mRNA expression was demonstrated with gain of function assays. This is the first report of an early-stage MTS transcriptome, which not only reveals a complex expression landscape, but points toward an important contribution of long non-coding RNAs in the final phenotype of three-dimensional cellular models. PMID:27021602

  8. [Methods and conditions of fertility preservation in early-stage ovarian tumors].

    PubMed

    Szatmári, Erzsébet; Máté, Szabolcs; Sipos, Norbert; Szánthó, András; Silhavy, Mihály; Rigó, János

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to review the literature of fertility-sparing techniques and their safety in early-stage malignant ovarian tumors, especially in epithelial ovarian cancer. Fertility preservation is widely accepted in early-stage borderline, germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumors. Based on data from retrospective studies, fertility-sparing surgery in epithelial ovarian cancer can be recommended in stage IA, grade 1-2 and favorable hystologic type ovarian cancer. Above stage IA, or in grade 3, or in clear-cell tumors decision making process about fertility-sparing surgery should be individual. Correct surgical staging is mandatory and oncologic safety should be of primary importance. In the group of carefully selected patients oncological outcomes are identical to those of radical surgery. Spontaneous pregnancy rates vary, but they are generally high. Adequate counseling with patients, detailed documentation and careful follow-up is of outstanding importance. In order to improve the quality of fertility preservation techniques, establishment of treatment centers is recommended. PMID:23545230

  9. Transcriptome profile of the early stages of breast cancer tumoral spheroids.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Marín, Rosario; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna; Garcia-Venzor, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Torres, Carolina; Gaytan-Cervantes, Javier; Mitre-Aguilar, Irma B; Maldonado, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen or nutrient deprivation of early stage tumoral spheroids can be used to reliably mimic the initial growth of primary and metastatic cancer cells. However, cancer cell growth during the initial stages has not been fully explored using a genome-wide approach. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the transcriptome of breast cancer cells during the initial stages of tumoral growth using RNAseq in a model of Multicellular Tumor Spheroids (MTS). Network analyses showed that a metastatic signature was enriched as several adhesion molecules were deregulated, including EPCAM, E-cadherin, integrins and syndecans, which were further supported by an increase in cell migration. Interestingly, we also found that the cancer cells at this stage of growth exhibited a paradoxical hyperactivation of oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition, we found a large number of regulated (long non coding RNA) lncRNAs, several of which were co-regulated with neighboring genes. The regulatory role of some of these lncRNAs on mRNA expression was demonstrated with gain of function assays. This is the first report of an early-stage MTS transcriptome, which not only reveals a complex expression landscape, but points toward an important contribution of long non-coding RNAs in the final phenotype of three-dimensional cellular models. PMID:27021602

  10. Stage-dependent remodeling of the nuclear envelope and lamina during rabbit early embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    POPKEN, Jens; SCHMID, Volker J.; STRAUSS, Axel; GUENGOER, Tuna; WOLF, Eckhard; ZAKHARTCHENKO, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing 3D structured illumination microscopy, we investigated the quality and quantity of nuclear invaginations and the distribution of nuclear pores during rabbit early embryonic development and identified the exact time point of nucleoporin 153 (NUP153) association with chromatin during mitosis. Contrary to bovine early embryonic nuclei, featuring almost exclusively nuclear invaginations containing a small volume of cytoplasm, nuclei in rabbit early embryonic stages show additionally numerous invaginations containing a large volume of cytoplasm. Small-volume invaginations frequently emanated from large-volume nuclear invaginations but not vice versa, indicating a different underlying mechanism. Large- and small-volume nuclear envelope invaginations required the presence of chromatin, as they were restricted to chromatin-positive areas. The chromatin-free contact areas between nucleolar precursor bodies (NPBs) and large-volume invaginations were free of nuclear pores. Small-volume invaginations were not in contact with NPBs. The number of invaginations and isolated intranuclear vesicles per nucleus peaked at the 4-cell stage. At this stage, the nuclear surface showed highly concentrated clusters of nuclear pores surrounded by areas free of nuclear pores. Isolated intranuclear lamina vesicles were usually NUP153 negative. Cytoplasmic, randomly distributed NUP153-positive clusters were highly abundant at the zygote stage and decreased in number until they were almost absent at the 8-cell stage and later. These large NUP153 clusters may represent a maternally provided NUP153 deposit, but they were not visible as clusters during mitosis. Major genome activation at the 8- to 16-cell stage may mark the switch from a necessity for a deposit to on-demand production. NUP153 association with chromatin is initiated during metaphase before the initiation of the regeneration of the lamina. To our knowledge, the present study demonstrates for the first time major remodeling

  11. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Dun; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Qiang; Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie; Lian, Qing-Quan; Deng, Hai-Teng; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2010-08-15

    Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.

  12. ABC transporters and xenobiotic defense systems in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Kropf, Christian; Segner, Helmut; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of oviparous fish, in contrast to (ovo) viviparous species, develop in the aquatic environment, and therefore need solute transport systems at their body surfaces for maintaining internal homeostasis and defending against potentially harmful substances. We hypothesized that solute transporters undergo changes in tissue distribution from the embryo to the larval stage. We therefore studied the mRNA profiles of eight ABC transporters (abcb1a, abcb1b, abcc1, abcc2, abcc3, abcc4, abcc5, abcg2) and three solute carriers (oatp1d, putative oatp2 putative, mate1) in different body regions (head, yolk sac epithelium, abdominal viscera, skin/muscles) of developing rainbow trout. Additionally, we investigated mRNA levels of phase I (cyp1a, cyp3a) and phase II (gstp, putative ugt1, putative ugt2) biotransformation enzymes. The study covered the developmental period from the eleuthero-embryo stage to the first-feeding larval stage (1-20days post-hatch, dph). At 1dph, transcripts of abcc2, abcc4, abcg2, cyp3a, gstp, putative mate1, and putative oatp2 occurred primarily in the yolk sac epithelium, whereas at later stages expression of these genes was predominantly observed in the abdominal viscera. The functional activity of ABC transporters in fish early life stages was assessed by rhodamine B accumulation assays. Finally, we investigated the potential impact of xenobiotics (clotrimazole, clofibric acid) on the ABC and biotransformation systems of trout early life stages. While clofibric acid had no effect, clotrimazole lead to an increased rhodamine B accumulation. The results provide evidence that the transition from the eleuthero-embryo to the larval stage is accompanied by a major alteration in tissue expression of ABC transporters. PMID:26945521

  13. Notch and Delta mRNAs in early-stage and mid-stage Drosophila embryos exhibit complementary patterns of protein producing potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Andrew; Wesley, Uma; Wesley, Cedric

    2010-01-01

    Notch and Delta proteins generate Notch signaling that specifies cell fates during animal development. There is an intriguing phenomenon in Drosophila embryogenesis that has not received much attention and whose significance to embryogenesis is unknown. Notch and Delta mRNAs expressed in early-stage embryos are shorter than their counterparts in mid-stage embryos. We show here that the difference in sizes is due to mRNA 3′ processing at alternate polyadenylation sites. While the early-stage Notch mRNA has a lower protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Notch mRNA, the early-stage Delta mRNA has a higher protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Delta mRNA. Our data can explain the complementary patterns of Notch and Delta protein levels in early-stage and mid-stage embryos. Our data also raise the possibility that the manner and regulation of Notch signaling change in the course of embryogenesis and that this change is effected by 3′ UTR and mRNA 3′ processing factors. PMID:20201103

  14. An assay to probe Plasmodium falciparum growth, transmission stage formation and early gametocyte development

    PubMed Central

    Brancucci, Nicolas M B; Goldowitz, Ilana; Buchholz, Kathrin; Werling, Kristine; Marti, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Conversion from asexual proliferation to sexual differentiation initiates the production of the gametocyte, which is the malaria parasite stage required for human-to-mosquito transmission. This protocol describes an assay designed to probe the effect of drugs or other perturbations on asexual replication, sexual conversion and early gametocyte development in the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Synchronized asexually replicating parasites are induced for gametocyte production by the addition of conditioned medium, and they are then exposed to the treatment of interest during sexual commitment or at any subsequent stage of early gametocyte development. Flow cytometry is used to measure asexual proliferation and gametocyte production via DNA dye staining and the gametocyte-specific expression of a fluorescent protein, respectively. This screening approach may be used to identify and evaluate potential transmission-blocking compounds and to further investigate the mechanism of sexual conversion in malaria parasites. The full protocol can be completed in 11 d. PMID:26134953

  15. Turning visual shapes into sounds: early stages of reading acquisition revealed in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Bertolotti, M; Vidal, J R; de Palma, L; Hamamé, C M; Ossandon, T; Kahane, P; Minotti, L; Bertrand, O; Lachaux, J-P

    2014-04-15

    The exact role of the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) during the initial stages of reading acquisition is a hotly debated issue, especially regarding the comparative effect of learning on early stimulus-dependent vs. later task-dependent processes. We show that this controversy can be solved with high-temporal resolution intracerebral EEG recordings of the VOTC. We measured High-Frequency Activity (50-150 Hz) as a proxy of population-level spiking activity while participants learned Japanese Katakana symbols, and found that learning primarily affects top-down/task-dependent neural processing, after a few minutes only. In contrast, adaptation of early bottom-up/stimulus-dependent processing takes several days to adapt and provides the basis for fluent reading. Such evidence that two consecutive stages of neural processing, stimulus- and task-dependent are differentially affected by learning, can reconcile seemingly opposite hypotheses on the role of the VOTC during reading acquisition. PMID:24370818

  16. Calreticulin enriched as an early-stage encapsulation protein in wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae.

    PubMed

    Choi, J Y; Whitten, M M A; Cho, M Y; Lee, K Y; Kim, M S; Ratcliffe, N A; Lee, B L

    2002-05-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism of the early-stage encapsulation reaction in insects, we purified a 47kDa protein from injected beads into Galleria mellonella larvae. When a cDNA clone was isolated, the 47kDa protein showed high homology with Drosophila and human calreticulin. Western blotting analysis showed that the 47kDa protein was present in the hemocytes, but not in the plasma. When the early-stage encapsulated beads were coated with 47kDa protein antibody and reinjected into G. mellonella larvae, any further encapsulation reaction was inhibited. These results suggest that calreticulin is involved in non-self recognition in invertebrate cellular defense reactions. PMID:11888648

  17. The D-Optimality Item Selection Criterion in the Early Stage of CAT: A Study with the Graded Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E. S.

    2008-01-01

    During the early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), item selection criteria based on Fisher"s information often produce less stable latent trait estimates than the Kullback-Leibler global information criterion. Robustness against early stage instability has been reported for the D-optimality criterion in a polytomous CAT with the…

  18. Gene expression analysis of early and late maturation stage rat enamel organ

    PubMed Central

    LACRUZ, RODRIGO S.; SMITH, CHARLES E.; CHEN, YI-BU; HUBBARD, MICHAEL J.; HACIA, JOSEPH G.; PAINE, MICHAEL L.

    2011-01-01

    Enamel maturation is a dynamic process that involves high rates of mineral acquisition, associated fluctuations in extracellular pH and resorption of extracellular enamel proteins. During maturation, ameloblasts change from a tall, thin and highly polarized organization characteristic of the secretory stage, to a low columnar and widened morphology in the maturation stage. To identify potential differences in gene expression throughout maturation, we obtained enamel organ epithelial cells derived from the early and late maturation stages from rat incisor and analyzed global gene expression profiles at each stage. Sixty three candidate genes were identified with potential roles in the maturation process. qPCR was used to confirm results from this genome-wide analysis in a subset of genes. Enriched transcripts in late maturation (n= 38) included those associated with lysosomal activity, solute carrier transport and calcium signaling. Cellular responses to oxidative stress, proton transport, cell death and immune system-related transcripts were also up-regulated. Transcripts down-regulated in the late maturation stage (n= 25) included those with functions related to cell adhesion, cell signaling, and T-cell activation. These results indicate that ameloblasts undergo widespread molecular changes during the maturation stage of amelogenesis and so provide the bases for future functional investigations into the mechanistic basis of enamel mineralization. PMID:22243241

  19. Comparison of Favorable Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatments: A Single-Institution Review

    SciTech Connect

    Samant, Rajiv; Alomary, Ibraheem; Alsaeed, Eyad; Al-jasir, Badr; Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle; Cross, Peter; Genest, Paul; Huebsch, Lothar

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained. Results: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL (49% men, 51% women, median age 33 [range 17-82] years). Treatment was as follows: extended-field radiotherapy alone (EFRT) 49%; chemotherapy alone (CTA) 13%; and CMT 38%. Among CMT patients, 36% received abbreviated doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy (three to four cycles) followed by involved-field radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 8.3 years, the estimated 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for the entire cohort were 78% and 85%, respectively. The 10-year RFS and OS rates for the various groups were as follows: 69% and 81% for EFRT; 78% and 84% for CTA; and 87% and 89% for CMT. The 10-year RFS rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) among CMT patients. The use of EFRT has diminished from approximately 90% in the 1980s to virtually no use at present, whereas the use of CTA and CMT has increased significantly (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Early-stage HL treatment has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, and our results support the superiority and continued use of CMT, specifically abbreviated-course chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy, as an appropriate treatment approach.

  20. Atrophy Patterns in Early Clinical Stages Across Distinct Phenotypes of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; La Joie, Renaud; Vogel, Jacob W.; Möller, Christiane; Lehmann, Manja; van Berckel, Bart N.M.; Seeley, William W.; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L.; Kramer, Joel H.; Barkhof, Frederik; Rosen, Howard J.; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Jagust, William J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Scheltens, Philip; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can present with distinct clinical variants. Identifying the earliest neurodegenerative changes associated with each variant has implications for early diagnosis, and for understanding the mechanisms that underlie regional vulnerability and disease progression in AD. We performed voxel-based morphometry to detect atrophy patterns in early clinical stages of four AD phenotypes: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, “visual variant,” n = 93), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA, “language variant,” n = 74), and memory-predominant AD categorized as early age-of-onset (EOAD, <65 years, n = 114) and late age-of-onset (LOAD, >65 years, n = 114). Patients with each syndrome were stratified based on: (1) degree of functional impairment, as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and (2) overall extent of brain atrophy, as measured by a neuroimaging approach that sums the number of brain voxels showing significantly lower gray matter volume than cognitively normal controls (n = 80). Even at the earliest clinical stage (CDR =0.5 or bottom quartile of overall atrophy), patients with each syndrome showed both common and variant-specific atrophy. Common atrophy across variants was found in temporoparietal regions that comprise the posterior default mode network (DMN). Early syndrome-specific atrophy mirrored functional brain networks underlying functions that are uniquely affected in each variant: Language network in lvPPA, posterior cingulate cortex-hippocampal circuit in amnestic EOAD and LOAD, and visual networks in PCA. At more advanced stages, atrophy patterns largely converged across AD variants. These findings support a model in which neurodegeneration selectively targets both the DMN and syndrome-specific vulnerable networks at the earliest clinical stages of AD. PMID:26260856

  1. Evidence supporting nutritional interventions for persons in early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    PubMed

    Burgener, S C; Buettner, L; Coen Buckwalter, K; Beattie, E; Bossen, A L; Fick, D M; Fitzsimmons, S; Kolanowski, A; Richeson, N E; Rose, K; Schreiner, A; Pringle Specht, J K; Testad, I; Yu, F; McKenzie, S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to grade research evidence supporting nutritional interventions for persons with early stage dementias and to report the recommendations of a consensus panel. Thirty four studies were reviewed in the areas of dietary restriction, antioxidants, and Mediterranean diet with strong support from epidemiological studies found in all three areas. The body of evidence to support nutritional interventions in the prevention and treatment of AD is growing and has potential as a treatment modality following translational studies. PMID:18165840

  2. Breakdown of the semiclassical approximation during the early stages of preheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul R.; Molina-París, Carmen; Sanders, Dillon H.

    2015-10-01

    The validity of the semiclassical approximation is investigated during the preheating phase in models of chaotic inflation using a modification of a criterion previously proposed for semiclassical gravity. If the modified criterion is violated then fluctuations of the two-point function for the quantum fields are large and the semiclassical approximation is not valid. Evidence is provided that the semiclassical approximation breaks down during the early stages of preheating, well before either scattering effects or backreaction effects are important.

  3. Therapeutic role of systematic lymphadenectomy in early-stage endometrial cancer: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    LI, MEI-YI; HU, XIAO-XIA; ZHONG, JIAN-HONG; CHEN, LU-LU; LIN, YONG-XIU

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current review was to examine whether systematic lymphadenectomy is safe and effective for treating early-stage endometrial cancer. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were systematically searched during April 2014 to identify studies comparing the use of systematic lymphadenectomy and no systematic lymphadenectomy in parallel for the treatment of early-stage endometrial cancer. A total of 13 eligible studies involving 51,155 patients were included in this review. The median overall survival (OS) rate at 5 years following lymphadenectomy was 90% (range, 73.1–98.3%) for patients undergoing the systematic procedure and 88.2% (range, 68–98.4%) for patients not undergoing the systematic procedure. For the two types of lymphadenectomy, OS has tended to improve over the last 20 years. The combined rate of disease-free and progression-free survival was higher in patients who underwent systematic lymphadenectomy, and the recurrence rate was lower. In particular, systematic lymphadenectomy was associated with markedly higher OS than the non-systematic procedure for patients with intermediate- and high-risk endometrial cancer when ≥11 lymph nodes were removed. Systematic lymphadenectomy demonstrates clinical benefit in patients with early-stage endometrial cancer and should thus be a standard treatment option. In conclusion, systematic lymphadenectomy leads to higher OS than no systematic lymphadenectomy in intermediate- and high-risk patients with early-stage endometrial cancer, particularly when the procedure removes ≥11 lymph nodes. PMID:27313706

  4. Treatment strategies in early-stage oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a French national survey.

    PubMed

    Gorphe, Philippe; Blanchard, Pierre; Morinière, Sylvain; Fakhry, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study is to perform a national survey of practices in early-stage squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx (base of tongue and tonsils) targeting surgical and non-surgical procedures in France. A questionnaire concerning practices in surgery, radiotherapy, HPV screening, and two clinical cases were sent to all centers participating in the French Head and Neck Oncology Society, and to public hospitals listed as authorized to treat head and neck cancer according to the French National Cancer Institute (INCa). Sixty-four teams comprising almost all the University Hospitals and most of the Comprehensive Cancer Centers completed the survey questionnaire and responded to the clinical cases. Surgical and radiotherapy strategies were used in similar measure for early-stage SCC of the base of the tongue while tonsil lesions were mainly treated with surgery. The main arguments were disease control for the teams offering patients surgery, and functional results for those offering radiotherapy. However, concomitant chemoradiotherapy was chosen more frequently than radiotherapy alone in early-stage SCC of the base of tongue. Age and tobacco-alcohol addiction were decisive criteria in decision making for the majority of the teams. French oncology teams offered surgical and radiotherapy strategies in similar measure to treat early-stage SCC of the oropharynx (base of tongue and tonsils) as well as a high rate of multimodality therapy. Decision making was guided by the desire to achieve oncologic results adapted to the patient and his age, as well as functional preservation taking into account life expectancy. PMID:26253428

  5. Gadolinium metallo nanocongregates as potential magnetosensors for detecting early stage cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Ranu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2015-04-27

    Gadolinium chelates and gadolinium based inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively studied, because of the high magnetic moment of gadolinium. Here, metallic gadolinium nanocongregates have been developed. Upon injecting these nanoparticles in the mice, they initially circulate in the blood stream and are localized at the cancer site, which could be visualized upon application of magnetic field hence acting as small magnetic nanosensors searching for even small cancers, detecting cancers at a very early stage.

  6. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation May Reduce Medication Costs in Early Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Mallory L.; Currie, Amanda D.; Molinari, Anna L.; Turchan, Maxim; Millan, Sarah M.; Heusinkveld, Lauren E.; Roach, Jonathon; Konrad, Peter E.; Davis, Thomas L.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Phibbs, Fenna T.; Hedera, Peter; Byrne, Daniel W.; Charles, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is well-known to reduce medication burden in advanced stage Parkinson’s disease (PD). Preliminary data from a prospective, single blind, controlled pilot trial demonstrated that early stage PD subjects treated with STN-DBS also required less medication than those treated with optimal drug therapy (ODT). Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze medication cost and utilization from the pilot trial of DBS in early stage PD and to project 10 year medication costs. Methods: Medication data collected at each visit were used to calculate medication costs. Medications were converted to levodopa equivalent daily dose, categorized by medication class, and compared. Medication costs were projected to advanced stage PD, the time when a typical patient may be offered DBS. Results: Medication costs increased 72% in the ODT group and decreased 16% in the DBS+ODT group from baseline to 24 months. This cost difference translates into a cumulative savings for the DBS+ODT group of $7,150 over the study period. Projected medication cost savings over 10 years reach $64,590. Additionally, DBS+ODT subjects were 80% less likely to require polypharmacy compared with ODT subjects at 24 months (p <  0.05; OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.04–0.97). Conclusions: STN-DBS in early PD reduced medication cost over the two-year study period. DBS may offer substantial long-term reduction in medication cost by maintaining a simplified, low dose medication regimen. Further study is needed to confirm these findings, and the FDA has approved a pivotal, multicenter clinical trial evaluating STN-DBS in early PD. PMID:26967937

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Phosphoproteins in the Rice Nucleus During the Early Stage of Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Yang, Pingfang; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-07-01

    The early stage of seed germination is the first step in the plant life cycle without visible morphological change. To investigate the mechanism controlling the early stage of rice seed germination, we performed gel-and label-free nuclear phosphoproteomics. A total of 3467 phosphopeptides belonging to 102 nuclear phosphoproteins from rice embryos were identified. Protein-synthesis-related proteins were mainly phosphorylated. During the first 24 h following imbibition, 115 nuclear phosphoproteins were identified, and significant changes in the phosphorylation level over time were observed in 29 phosphoproteins. Cluster analysis indicated that nucleotide-binding proteins and zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins increased in abundance during the first 12 h of imbibition and then decreased. The in silico protein-protein interactions for 29 nuclear phosphoproteins indicated that the Sas10/Utp3 protein, which functions in snoRNA binding and gene silencing, was the center of the phosphoprotein network in nuclei. The germination rate of seeds was significantly slowed with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. The mRNA expression of the zinc finger CCCH-type protein did not change, and the zinc finger BED-type protein was upregulated in rice embryos during the early stage of germination with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. These results suggest that the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nuclear proteins are involved in rice seed germination. Furthermore, transcription factors such as zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins might play a key role through nuclear phosphoproteins, and Sas10/Utp3 protein might interact with nuclear phosphoproteins in rice embryos to mediate the early stage of seed germination. PMID:26035336

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with early stages of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi Chaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Salehi, Bahman; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neurological disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to compare it with healthy children. Methods: Seventy five 5-16-year-old children with early stages of CKD (stage 1, 2 and 3) and 75 healthy children without CKD were included in this case – control study as case and control groups, respectively. The participants were selected from those children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak (Iran) in the form of simple probability and based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed using Conner's Parent Rating Scale – 48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV criteria and was confirmed by a psychologist consultant. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS18. Results: ADHD inattentive type was observed in 8 cases (10.6%) with CKD and 2 controls (2.6%) (p= 0.109). Moreover, in the case and control groups, 7 (9.3%) and 6 (8%) children were affected by ADHD hyperactiveimpulsive type (p= 0.997), and 9 (12%) and 12 (16%) children were affected by ADHD mixed type (p= 0.664), respectively. Conclusion: No differences were found between the prevalence of ADHD in the children with early stages of CKD and the control group. However, due to the importance of the relationships between different types of psychiatric disorders and CKD and lack of enough evidence concerning the relationship between ADHD and different stages of CKD in children, conducting further studies in this field is recommended. PMID:26034734

  9. Cryopreservation of In Vitro-Produced Early-Stage Porcine Embryos in a Closed System

    PubMed Central

    Men, Hongsheng; Spate, Lee D.; Murphy, Clifton N.; Prather, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cryostorage of porcine embryos in a closed pathogen-free system is essential for the maintenance and safeguard of swine models. Previously, we reported a protocol for the successful cryopreservation of porcine embryos at the blastocyst stage in 0.25 mL ministraws. In this experiment, we aimed at developing a protocol to apply the same concept for the cryopreservation of early-stage porcine embryos. Porcine embryos from day 2 through day 4 were delipidated by using a modified two-step centrifugation method and were then cryopreserved in sealed 0.25 mL straws by using a slow cooling method. Control groups included open pulled straw (OPS) vitrified embryos after delipidation and noncryopreserved embryos without delipidation. There were no significant differences in cryosurvival between embryos frozen in 0.25 mL straws and OPS vitrified embryos across all the stages (two cell to morula) examined (p>0.05). Similarly, in all groups examined, the blastocyst rates were not different between the two cryopreserved groups. However, the blastocyst rates from the cryopreserved groups were significantly lower than the noncryopreserved controls (p<0.05). This experiment demonstrated that early-stage porcine embryos can survive cryopreservation in a closed system by using a slow cooling method at a comparable rate to those vitrified by using an ultrarapid cooling method (p>0.05). However, the developmental competence was significantly reduced after cryopreservation compared to noncryopreserved embryos. Further research is needed to optimize the protocol to improve the developmental potential of cryopreserved early-stage porcine embryos in sealed straws. PMID:26309801

  10. Neurophysiological Evidence of Compensatory Brain Mechanisms in Early-Stage Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    López-Góngora, Mariana; Escartín, Antonio; Martínez-Horta, Saul; Fernández-Bobadilla, Ramón; Querol, Luis; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Riba, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system disorder characterized by white matter inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration. Although cognitive dysfunction is a common manifestation, it may go unnoticed in recently-diagnosed patients. Prior studies suggest MS patients develop compensatory mechanisms potentially involving enhanced performance monitoring. Here we assessed the performance monitoring system in early-stage MS patients using the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) observed following behavioral errors. Twenty-seven early-stage MS patients and 31 controls were neuropsychologically assessed. Electroencephalography recordings were obtained while participants performed: a) a stop task and b) an auditory oddball task. Behavior and ERP measures were assessed. No differences in performance were found between groups in most neuropsychological tests or in behavior or ERP components in the auditory oddball task. However, the amplitude of the ERN associated with stop errors in the stop task was significantly higher in patients. ERN amplitude correlated positively with scores on the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score, and negatively with the time since last relapse. Patients showed higher neuronal recruitment in tasks involving performance monitoring. Results suggest the development of compensatory brain mechanisms in early-stage MS and reflect the sensitivity of the ERN to detect these changes. PMID:26322632

  11. Expansion of CTCs from early stage lung cancer patients using a microfluidic co-culture model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo; Shiratsuchi, Hiroe; Lin, Jules; Chen, Guoan; Reddy, Rishindra M.; Azizi, Ebrahim; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Chang, Andrew C.; Lin, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Waghray, Meghna; Luker, Gary; Simeone, Diane M.; Wicha, Max S.; Beer, David G.; Ramnath, Nithya; Nagrath, Sunitha

    2014-01-01

    The potential utility of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to guide clinical care in oncology patients has gained momentum with emerging micro- and nanotechnologies. Establishing the role of CTCs in tumor progression and metastasis depends both on enumeration and on obtaining sufficient numbers of CTCs for downstream assays. The numbers of CTCs are few in early stages of cancer, limiting detailed molecular characterization. Recent attempts in the literature to culture CTCs isolated from metastatic patients using monoculture have had limited success rates of less than 20%. Herein, we have developed a novel in-situ capture and culture methodology for ex-vivo expansion of CTCs using a three dimensional co-culture model, simulating a tumor microenvironment to support tumor development. We have successfully expanded CTCs isolated from 14 of 19 early stage lung cancer patients. Expanded lung CTCs carried mutations of the TP53 gene identical to those observed in the matched primary tumors. Next-generation sequencing further revealed additional matched mutations between primary tumor and CTCs of cancer-related genes. This strategy sets the stage to further characterize the biology of CTCs derived from patients with early lung cancers, thereby leading to a better understanding of these putative drivers of metastasis. PMID:25474037

  12. Immunocompetence of chickens during early and tumorigenic stages of Rous-associated virus-1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Fadly, A M; Lee, L F; Bacon, L D

    1982-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the effects of congenital infection with the Rous-associated virus-1 (RAV-1) on the immune function chickens during the early and late tumorigenic stages of infection. In another experiment, the effects of niridazole on the immune competence and the tumor incidence in chickens congenitally infected with RAV-1 were studied. Lymphocyte stimulation by phytohemagglutinin, the phytohemagglutinin skin test, the response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes and Brucella abortus, and histological evaluation of lymphoid organs were used to determine the immune competence in normal and infected chickens. Results indicated that both B- and T-cell immune functions during the early and late stages of RAV-1 infection were comparable to those of normal uninfected chickens. Administration of niridazole to congenitally infected chickens at 5 weeks of age for 7 or 21 days had no effect on the T-cell-mediated immunity; however, administration of the drug for 21 days eliminated lymphoma development. Unlike infection with other oncogenic viruses such as those causing Marek's disease and reticuloendotheliosis, infection with RAV-1 caused no detectable immunodepression during the early and late stages of infection. PMID:6290392

  13. Promoting Quality and Evidence-Based Care in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Daniel F.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Barlow, William E.; Gralow, Julie R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for long-term follow-up of early-stage breast cancer patients developed by oncology societies in the United States and Europe recommend that breast cancer survivors undergo regular evaluation with history and physical examination, as well as annual mammography. Routine blood tests, circulating tumor markers, and/or surveillance imaging studies beyond mammography are not recommended in the absence of concerning symptoms or physical examination findings because of lack of supportive clinical evidence. Despite these guidelines, studies have shown that 20% to 40% of oncologists assess serum tumor markers as part of routine monitoring of early-stage breast cancer patients. As part of efforts to both address the financial challenges confronting the health-care system and optimize patient outcomes, the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s Cost of Care Task Force identified adherence to breast cancer surveillance guidelines as an opportunity to improve care and reduce cost. However, these recommendations are based on trials done in an era of outdated technology and limited therapeutic options. It is possible that recent improvements in diagnostics and treatments could make earlier detection of recurrent disease important for improving both survival and quality of life outcomes. Research is necessary to further inform optimal breast cancer follow-up strategies, which could impact these recommendations. At this time, outside of well-conducted clinical trials, there is no role for ordering routine serial blood or imaging tests in monitoring for recurrence in early-stage breast cancer patients. PMID:24627271

  14. Maturation of Rhodococcus equi-containing vacuoles is arrested after completion of the early endosome stage.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Mora, Eugenia; Polidori, Marco; Lührmann, Anja; Schaible, Ulrich E; Haas, Albert

    2005-08-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause bronchopneumonia in foals and AIDS patients. Here, we have analyzed R. equi-containing vacuoles (RCVs) in murine macrophages by confocal laser scanning microscopy, by transmission electron microscopy and by immunochemistry upon purification. We show that RCVs progress normally through the early stages of phagosome maturation acquiring PI3P, early endosome antigen-1, and Rab5, and loosing all or much of them within minutes. Although mature RCVs possess the normally late endocytic markers, lysosome-associated membrane proteins, lysobisphosphatidic acid and Rab7, they lack other hallmark features of late endocytic organelles such as possession of cathepsin D, acid beta-glucuronidase, proton-pumping ATPase and the ability to fuse with prelabeled lysosomes. Bacterial strains possessing a virulence-associated plasmid maintain a nonacidified compartment for 48 h, whereas isogenic strains lacking such plasmids acidify progressively. In summary, RCVs represent a novel phagosome maturation stage positioned after completion of the early endosome stage and before reaching a fully mature late endosome compartment. In addition, vacuole biogenesis can be influenced by bacterial plasmids. PMID:15998320

  15. Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae. PMID:24507122

  16. Ontogenetic development in the morphology and behavior of loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) during early life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Duan, Ming; Cheng, Fei; Xie, Songguang

    2014-09-01

    Loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) are a commercially important fish in China and an ideal aquaculture species. However, culturists experience high larval and juvenile mortality during mass production. To provide insight into ways to improve larviculture techniques, we describe the morphological characteristics and behavior of loach during the larval and early juvenile stages. Yolksac larvae ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 mm body length (BL) between days 0 to 4; preflexion larvae ranged from 3.6 to 5.5 mm BL between days 4 to 6; flexion larvae ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 mm BL between days 5 and 14; and postflexion larvae ranged from 7.1 to 15.7 mm BL between days 11 to 27; the minimum length and age of juveniles was 14.1 mm BL and 23 d, respectively. Loach are demersal from hatch through to the early juvenile stages. A suite of morphological characteristics (e.g., external gill filament and ventral mouth opening) and behavioral traits have developed to adapt to demersal living. We observed positive allometric growth in eye diameter, head length, head height, and pectoral fin length during the early larval stages, reflecting the priorities in the development of the organs essential for survival. Our results provide a basis for developing techniques to improve the survival of larval and juvenile loach during mass production.

  17. Mitochondrial Epigenetic Changes Link to Increased Diabetes Risk and Early-Stage Prediabetes Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Louise D.; Linarelli, Leah E.; Brooke, Joseph; Smith, Cayleen; Wall, Sarah S.; Greenawald, Mark H.; Seidel, Richard W.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Almeida, Fabio A.; Cheng, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by mitochondrial derangement and oxidative stress. With no known cure for T2D, it is critical to identify mitochondrial biomarkers for early diagnosis of prediabetes and disease prevention. Here we examined 87 participants on the diagnosis power of fasting glucose (FG) and hemoglobin A1c levels and investigated their interactions with mitochondrial DNA methylation. FG and A1c led to discordant diagnostic results irrespective of increased body mass index (BMI), underscoring the need of new biomarkers for prediabetes diagnosis. Mitochondrial DNA methylation levels were not correlated with late-stage (impaired FG or A1c) but significantly with early-stage (impaired insulin sensitivity) events. Quartiles of BMI suggested that mitochondrial DNA methylation increased drastically from Q1 (20 < BMI < 24.9, lean) to Q2 (30 < BMI < 34.9, obese), but marginally from Q2 to Q3 (35 < BMI < 39.9, severely obese) and from Q3 to Q4 (BMI > 40, morbidly obese). A significant change was also observed from Q1 to Q2 in HOMA insulin sensitivity but not in A1c or FG. Thus, mitochondrial epigenetic changes link to increased diabetes risk and the indicator of early-stage prediabetes. Further larger-scale studies to examine the potential of mitochondrial epigenetic marker in prediabetes diagnosis will be of critical importance for T2D prevention. PMID:27298712

  18. Toxicity of chlorine dioxide to early life stages of marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Hose, J.E.; Di Fiore, D.; Parker, H.S.; Sciarrotta, T.

    1989-03-01

    With increasing interest in minimizing exposure to chlorine, many electric generating and water treatment plants are exploring the use of alternative biocides such as chlorine dioxide. Unlike chlorine, chlorine dioxide does not react with ambient organic compounds to form potentially carcinogenic trihalomethanes such as chloroform. However, the toxicity of chlorine dioxide to aquatic organisms has received little study. No information exists on chlorine toxicity to marine organisms. Furthermore, West Coast electric power stations usually discharge chlorine intermittently once or twice daily and substantial mixing of receiving water occurs between treatments. Therefore, this study sought to obtain information on chlorine dioxide toxicity using an exposure schedule typical of generating stations which discharge into the marine environment. Early life history stages of a plant, invertebrate and fish were tested since these stages are generally acknowledged to be most sensitive to toxicants and are the stages that are most likely to be exposed to the effluent.

  19. Can early hepatic fibrosis stages be discriminated by combining ultrasonic parameters?

    PubMed

    Bouzitoune, Razika; Meziri, Mahmoud; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Padilla, Frédéric; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we put forward a new approach to classify early stages of fibrosis based on a multiparametric characterization using backscatter ultrasonic signals. Ultrasonic parameters, such as backscatter coefficient (Bc), speed of sound (SoS), attenuation coefficient (Ac), mean scatterer spacing (MSS), and spectral slope (SS), have shown their potential to differentiate between healthy and pathologic samples in different organs (eye, breast, prostate, liver). Recently, our group looked into the characterization of stages of hepatic fibrosis using the parameters cited above. The results showed that none of them could individually distinguish between the different stages. Therefore, we explored a multiparametric approach by combining these parameters in two and three, to test their potential to discriminate between the stages of liver fibrosis: F0 (normal), F1, F3, and/without F4 (cirrhosis), according to METAVIR Score. Discriminant analysis showed that the most relevant individual parameter was Bc, followed by SoS, SS, MSS, and Ac. The combination of (Bc, SoS) along with the four stages was the best in differentiating between the stages of fibrosis and correctly classified 85% of the liver samples with a high level of significance (p<0.0001). Nevertheless, when taking into account only stages F0, F1, and F3, the discriminant analysis showed that the parameters (Bc, SoS) and (Bc, Ac) had a better classification (93%) with a high level of significance (p<0.0001). The combination of the three parameters (Bc, SoS, and Ac) led to a 100% correct classification. In conclusion, the current findings show that the multiparametric approach has great potential in differentiating between the stages of fibrosis, and thus could play an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26945441

  20. Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Nakaya, Yukiko; Lee, Hyung Chul; Ladher, Raj; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Han, Jae Yong; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sheng, Guojun

    2015-04-01

    Birds and mammals, phylogenetically close amniotes with similar post-gastrula development, exhibit little conservation in their post-fertilization cleavage patterns. Data from the mouse suggest that cellular morphogenesis and molecular signaling at the cleavage stage play important roles in lineage specification at later (blastula and gastrula) stages. Very little is known, however, about cleavage-stage chick embryos, owing to their poor accessibility. This period of chick development takes place before egg-laying and encompasses several fundamental processes of avian embryology, including zygotic gene activation (ZGA) and blastoderm cell-layer increase. We have carried out morphological and cellular analyses of cleavage-stage chick embryos covering the first half of pre-ovipositional development, from Eyal-Giladi and Kochav stage (EGK-) I to EGK-V. Scanning electron microscopy revealed remarkable subcellular details of blastomere cellularization and subgerminal cavity formation. Phosphorylated RNA polymerase II immunostaining showed that ZGA in the chick starts at early EGK-III during the 7th to 8th nuclear division cycle, comparable with the time reported for other yolk-rich vertebrates (e.g. zebrafish and Xenopus). The increase in the number of cell layers after EGK-III is not a direct consequence of oriented cell division. Finally, we present evidence that, as in the zebrafish embryo, a yolk syncytial layer is formed in the avian embryo after EGK-V. Our data suggest that several fundamental features of cleavage-stage development in birds resemble those in yolk-rich anamniote species, revealing conservation in vertebrate early development. Whether this conservation lends morphogenetic support to the anamniote-to-amniote transition in evolution or reflects developmental plasticity in convergent evolution awaits further investigation. PMID:25742796

  1. Elevated risk of early reoperation in total hip replacement during the stage of unit closure.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Mikko; Malmivaara, Antti; Paavola, Mika; Seitsalo, Seppo

    2016-04-01

    Background and purpose - The effects of launch or closure of an entire arthroplasty unit on the first or last patients treated in these units have not been studied. Using a 3-year follow-up, we investigated whether patients who were treated at the launch or closure stage of an arthroplasty unit of a hospital would have a higher risk of reoperation than patients treated in-between at the same units. Patients and methods - From the Finnish Arthroplasty Register, we identified all the units that had performed total joint arthroplasty and the units that were launched or closed in Finland between 1998 and 2011. The risks of reoperation within 3 years for the 41,748 total hip and knee replacements performed due to osteoarthritis in these units were modeled with Cox proportional-hazards regression, separately for hip and knee and for the launch and the closure stage. Results - The unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total hip and knee replacements performed in the initial stage of activity of the units that were launched were similar to the reoperation risks in patients who were operated in these units after the early stage of activity. The unadjusted and risk-adjusted HRs for early reoperation after total hip replacement (THR) were increased at the closure stage (adjusted HR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.8). The reoperation risk at the closure stage after total knee replacement (TKR) was not increased. Interpretation - The results indicate that closure of units performing total hip replacements poses an increased risk of reoperation. Closures need to be managed carefully to prevent the quality from deteriorating when performing the final arthroplasties. PMID:26541178

  2. Is Ovarian Preservation Feasible in Early-Stage Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix?

    PubMed

    Lu, Huaiwu; Li, Jing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Dongyan; Lin, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In cervical adenocarcinoma, surgical treatment involves bilateral oophorectomy, which affects the long-term quality of life. The aim of our study was to access the incidence of ovarian metastasis in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma and to suggest an algorithm for the triage of these patients to preserve the ovaries. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total 101 patients with cervical adenocarcinoma who had undergone radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and bilateral oophorectomy were included in this study. Data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of the cases were collected and low risk factors for ovarian metastasis in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma were analyzed. RESULTS The ovary metastasis rate of cervical adenocarcinoma in this study was 4.95%, while it is only 2% in stage IB1. Pathological grade, LSVI, lymph node status, tumor size, depth of stromal invasion, and involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus were associated with ovarian metastasis, while LSVI, lymph node status, depth of stromal invasion, and involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus were associated with ovarian metastasis in stage IB. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI and lymph node metastasis were independent risk factors for ovarian metastasis in all stages of cervical adenocarcinoma, but involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus was an independent risk factor for ovarian metastasis in stage IB. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of ovarian metastasis in cervical adenocarcinoma is low. Our study suggests that ovarian preservation is safe and feasible in patients with no risk factors for ovarian metastasis. Further prospective studies are warranted. PMID:26852916

  3. Is Ovarian Preservation Feasible in Early-Stage Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huaiwu; Li, Jing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Dongyan; Lin, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    Background In cervical adenocarcinoma, surgical treatment involves bilateral oophorectomy, which affects the long-term quality of life. The aim of our study was to access the incidence of ovarian metastasis in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma and to suggest an algorithm for the triage of these patients to preserve the ovaries. Material/Methods A total 101 patients with cervical adenocarcinoma who had undergone radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and bilateral oophorectomy were included in this study. Data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of the cases were collected and low risk factors for ovarian metastasis in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma were analyzed. Results The ovary metastasis rate of cervical adenocarcinoma in this study was 4.95%, while it is only 2% in stage IB1. Pathological grade, LSVI, lymph node status, tumor size, depth of stromal invasion, and involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus were associated with ovarian metastasis, while LSVI, lymph node status, depth of stromal invasion, and involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus were associated with ovarian metastasis in stage IB. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI and lymph node metastasis were independent risk factors for ovarian metastasis in all stages of cervical adenocarcinoma, but involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus was an independent risk factor for ovarian metastasis in stage IB. Conclusions The incidence of ovarian metastasis in cervical adenocarcinoma is low. Our study suggests that ovarian preservation is safe and feasible in patients with no risk factors for ovarian metastasis. Further prospective studies are warranted. PMID:26852916

  4. Elevated risk of early reoperation in total hip replacement during the stage of unit closure

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, Mikko; Malmivaara, Antti; Paavola, Mika; Seitsalo, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — The effects of launch or closure of an entire arthroplasty unit on the first or last patients treated in these units have not been studied. Using a 3-year follow-up, we investigated whether patients who were treated at the launch or closure stage of an arthroplasty unit of a hospital would have a higher risk of reoperation than patients treated in-between at the same units. Patients and methods — From the Finnish Arthroplasty Register, we identified all the units that had performed total joint arthroplasty and the units that were launched or closed in Finland between 1998 and 2011. The risks of reoperation within 3 years for the 41,748 total hip and knee replacements performed due to osteoarthritis in these units were modeled with Cox proportional-hazards regression, separately for hip and knee and for the launch and the closure stage. Results — The unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total hip and knee replacements performed in the initial stage of activity of the units that were launched were similar to the reoperation risks in patients who were operated in these units after the early stage of activity. The unadjusted and risk-adjusted HRs for early reoperation after total hip replacement (THR) were increased at the closure stage (adjusted HR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.8). The reoperation risk at the closure stage after total knee replacement (TKR) was not increased. Interpretation — The results indicate that closure of units performing total hip replacements poses an increased risk of reoperation. Closures need to be managed carefully to prevent the quality from deteriorating when performing the final arthroplasties. PMID:26541178

  5. Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Nakaya, Yukiko; Lee, Hyung Chul; Ladher, Raj; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Han, Jae Yong; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sheng, Guojun

    2015-01-01

    Birds and mammals, phylogenetically close amniotes with similar post-gastrula development, exhibit little conservation in their post-fertilization cleavage patterns. Data from the mouse suggest that cellular morphogenesis and molecular signaling at the cleavage stage play important roles in lineage specification at later (blastula and gastrula) stages. Very little is known, however, about cleavage-stage chick embryos, owing to their poor accessibility. This period of chick development takes place before egg-laying and encompasses several fundamental processes of avian embryology, including zygotic gene activation (ZGA) and blastoderm cell-layer increase. We have carried out morphological and cellular analyses of cleavage-stage chick embryos covering the first half of pre-ovipositional development, from Eyal-Giladi and Kochav stage (EGK-) I to EGK-V. Scanning electron microscopy revealed remarkable subcellular details of blastomere cellularization and subgerminal cavity formation. Phosphorylated RNA polymerase II immunostaining showed that ZGA in the chick starts at early EGK-III during the 7th to 8th nuclear division cycle, comparable with the time reported for other yolk-rich vertebrates (e.g. zebrafish and Xenopus). The increase in the number of cell layers after EGK-III is not a direct consequence of oriented cell division. Finally, we present evidence that, as in the zebrafish embryo, a yolk syncytial layer is formed in the avian embryo after EGK-V. Our data suggest that several fundamental features of cleavage-stage development in birds resemble those in yolk-rich anamniote species, revealing conservation in vertebrate early development. Whether this conservation lends morphogenetic support to the anamniote-to-amniote transition in evolution or reflects developmental plasticity in convergent evolution awaits further investigation. PMID:25742796

  6. Temperature Influences Selective Mortality during the Early Life Stages of a Coral Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Tauna L.; Sponaugle, Su

    2011-01-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

  7. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Tauna L; Sponaugle, Su

    2011-01-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

  8. Early stage domain coarsening of the isotropic-nematic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradač, Z.; Kralj, Samo; Žumer, S.

    2011-07-01

    We study numerically the early stage domain coarsening dynamics of the temperature driven isotropic-nematic (I-N) liquid crystal phase transition. System of rod like objects which interact via the modified Lebwohl-Lasher pairwise interaction is considered in 3D. The coarsening dynamics is followed using Brownian molecular dynamics. The box-restricted lattice point fluctuations are allowed in order to get rid of lattice geometry enforced phenomena. We analyze order parameter growth and domain coarsening in the early regime of the I-N phase transition as a function of the quench rate. We show that soon after the transition bimodal distribution of domains appears, where the shorter branch gradually vanishes. The behavior of the system is in accordance with predictions of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism which was originally introduced to model conditions in the early universe.

  9. Operative link on gastritis assessment stage is an appropriate predictor of early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Ge, Zhi-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Bo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the predictive value of Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment (OLGIM) stages in gastric cancer. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 71 patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) and 156 patients with non-EGC. All patients underwent endoscopic examination and systematic biopsy. Outcome measures were assessed and compared, including the Japanese endoscopic gastric atrophy (EGA) classification method and the modified OLGA method as well as the modified OLGIM method. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status was determined for all study participants. Stepwise logistic regression modeling was performed to analyze correlations between EGC and the EGA, OLGA and OLGIM methods. RESULTS: For patients with EGC and patients with non-EGC, the proportions of moderate-to-severe EGA cases were 64.8% and 44.9%, respectively (P = 0.005), the proportions of OLGA stages III-IV cases were 52.1% and 22.4%, respectively (P < 0.001), and the proportions of OLGIM stages III-IV cases were 42.3% and 19.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). OLGA stage and OLGIM stage were significantly related to EGA classification; specifically, logistic regression modeling showed significant correlations between EGC and moderate-to-severe EGA (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.06-3.58, P = 0.031) and OLGA stages III-IV (OR = 3.14, 95%CI: 1.71-5.81, P < 0.001), but no significant correlation between EGC and OLGIM stages III-IV (P = 0.781). H. pylori infection rate was significantly higher in patients with moderate-to-severe EGA (75.0% vs 54.1%, P = 0.001) or OLGA/OLGIM stages III-IV (OLGA: 83.6% vs 55.8%, P < 0.001; OLGIM: 83.6% vs 57.8%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: OLGA classification is optimal for EGC screening. A surveillance program including OLGA stage and H. pylori infection status may facilitate early detection of gastric cancer. PMID:27053859

  10. The early development of the nervous system in staged insectivore and primate embryos.

    PubMed

    Müller, F; O'Rahilly, R

    1980-10-01

    The early development of the nervous system was studied in stage embryos of hemicentetes semispinosus, Microcebus murinus, Alouatta seniculus, Cebus appella, Cebus albifrons, macaca mulatta, and Homo sapiens. The specimens were assigned to Carnegie stages 11-13. Serial transverse sections were examined and graphic reconstructions were prepared. The early development of the neural tube is basically similar in all the species investigated but differences in detail are noticeable. The mesencephalic flexure serves in all cases as a landmark for malpighi's tripartite subdivision of the brain. The nonhuman embryos seem to show a little more variation than the human in the closure of the neuropores in relation to somitic count. With the exception of the later-appearing terminal-vomeronasal component, all major portions of the neural crest as classified by O'Rahilly ('65) are represented in both the nonhuman and the human embryos studied. No crest is present at the level of rhombomere 1, nor at rhombomere 3 except in the platyrrhines and some human embryos, nor at rhombomere 5 except in certain human specimens. An indication of the division of the trigeminal ganglion into its primary divisions is rare at stage 11 (C. apella), may be visible at stage 12 (Alouatta, macaca, Homo), and is definite (in Homo) at stage 13. Ganglionic contributions from head ectoderm (epipharyngeal placodes), as previously described in the human and some other vertebrate embryos, were sought and found in Cebus apella. In both nonhuman and human, a tendency is noted whereby the rostral limit of the occipitospinal crest, high at stage 11, seems to descend relatively at stage 12, and ascend again at stage 13 (at least in the human) to become associated with the appearance of the accessory and hypoglossal nerves. In general, the motor components of the nerves are identifiable before the sensory elements, and, in the present study, nerve fibers were first observed in the human at stage 13 in some of

  11. Comparative Efficacy of Interventional Therapies for Early-stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Tian; Chang, Lei; MN, Rahmathullah; Wu, Long; Yuan, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are several interventional therapies that improve the prognosis and increase the survival rate of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (early-stage HCC), but it is uncertain about whether one is superior to others, and available researches investigating the comparative effects of different treatments are limited. The main objective of this Bayesian network meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of these different treatment strategies for early-stage HCC and rank these interventions for practical consideration. We performed an electronic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, and extracted data from randomized controlled trials that compared different interventional therapies for early-stage HCC. Direct comparison and network meta-analyses were conducted with Aggregate Data Drug Information System software. Consistency models were created to determine whether there was a significant difference between any 2 therapies, and cumulative probability was used to rank different treatments. Twenty-one randomized controlled trials involving 2691 patients were included. In our network meta-analysis, the combination therapy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was associated with better 1-year survival rate, as compared with hepatic resection alone (P < 0.05, odds ratio [OR] 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06–0.83), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) alone (P < 0.05, OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03–0.45), and RFA alone (P < 0.05, OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07–0.70). TACE + RFA had a higher 3-year survival rate than PEI alone (P < 0.05, OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.72) and RFA alone (P < 0.05, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24–0.87). And there was a statistical difference between RFA + PEI and PEI alone (P < 0.05, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12–0.93) for 3-year survival rate. The results of rank test and cumulative probability showed that TACE + RFA ranked highest on the evaluation of 1-year, 3

  12. Early-Stage White Matter Lesions Detected by Multispectral MRI Segmentation Predict Progressive Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Jokinen, Hanna; Gonçalves, Nicolau; Vigário, Ricardo; Lipsanen, Jari; Fazekas, Franz; Schmidt, Reinhold; Barkhof, Frederik; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2015-01-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are the main brain imaging surrogate of cerebral small-vessel disease. A new MRI tissue segmentation method, based on a discriminative clustering approach without explicit model-based added prior, detects partial WML volumes, likely representing very early-stage changes in normal-appearing brain tissue. This study investigated how the different stages of WML, from a “pre-visible” stage to fully developed lesions, predict future cognitive decline. MRI scans of 78 subjects, aged 65–84 years, from the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) study were analyzed using a self-supervised multispectral segmentation algorithm to identify tissue types and partial WML volumes. Each lesion voxel was classified as having a small (33%), intermediate (66%), or high (100%) proportion of lesion tissue. The subjects were evaluated with detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline and at three annual follow-up visits. We found that voxels with small partial WML predicted lower executive function compound scores at baseline, and steeper decline of executive scores in follow-up, independently of the demographics and the conventionally estimated hyperintensity volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. The intermediate and fully developed lesions were related to impairments in multiple cognitive domains including executive functions, processing speed, memory, and global cognitive function. In conclusion, early-stage partial WML, still too faint to be clearly detectable on conventional MRI, already predict executive dysfunction and progressive cognitive decline regardless of the conventionally evaluated WML load. These findings advance early recognition of small vessel disease and incipient vascular cognitive impairment. PMID:26696814

  13. Clinical heterogeneity in patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Feng, Tao; Wang, Yong-jun; Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Biao

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical heterogeneity of Parkinson's disease (PD) among a cohort of Chinese patients in early stages. Clinical data on demographics, motor variables, motor phenotypes, disease progression, global cognitive function, depression, apathy, sleep quality, constipation, fatigue, and L-dopa complications were collected from 138 Chinese PD subjects in early stages (Hoehn and Yahr stages 1-3). The PD subject subtypes were classified using k-means cluster analysis according to the clinical data from five- to three-cluster consecutively. Kappa statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the consistency among different subtype solutions. The cluster analysis indicated four main subtypes: the non-tremor dominant subtype (NTD, n=28, 20.3%), rapid disease progression subtype (RDP, n=7, 5.1%), young-onset subtype (YO, n=50, 36.2%), and tremor dominant subtype (TD, n=53, 38.4%). Overall, 78.3% (108/138) of subjects were always classified between the same three groups (52 always in TD, 7 in RDP, and 49 in NTD), and 98.6% (136/138) between five- and four-cluster solutions. However, subjects classified as NTD in the four-cluster analysis were dispersed into different subtypes in the three-cluster analysis, with low concordance between four- and three-cluster solutions (kappa value=-0.139, P=0.001). This study defines clinical heterogeneity of PD patients in early stages using a data-driven approach. The subtypes generated by the four-cluster solution appear to exhibit ideal internal cohesion and external isolation. PMID:21887844

  14. Relationship of Age for Grade and Pubertal Stage to Early Initiation of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Paul J.; Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan L.; Tortolero, Susan; Baumler, Elizabeth; Banspach, Stephen W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies suggest students who are substantially older than the average age for their grade engage in risky health behaviors, including substance use. However, most studies do not account for the distinct reasons why students are old for their grade (ie, grade retention vs delayed school entry) or for their pubertal stage. Thus, whether the association between age for grade and substance use is confounded by these factors is unknown. We sought to determine whether age, grade, or pubertal stage were associated with early substance use. Methods Cross-sectional Healthy Passages Wave I survey data from 5,147 fifth graders and their caregivers in Alabama, California, and Texas from 2004 through 2006 were analyzed in 2014. Logistic regressions examined whether older age for grade, grade retention, delayed school entry, or pubertal stage were associated with use of any substance, cigarettes, alcohol, or other drugs. Results Seventeen percent of fifth graders reported trying at least 1 substance. Among boys, advanced pubertal stage was associated with increased odds of cigarette, alcohol, or other drug use, whereas delayed school entry was associated with lower odds of any substance, alcohol, or other drug use. Among girls, advanced pubertal stage was associated only with higher odds of alcohol use, and delayed school entry was not associated with substance use. Neither older age for grade or grade retention was independently associated with substance use after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion Advanced pubertal stage may be a more important risk factor for substance use than age for grade. Pediatricians should consider initiating substance use screening earlier for patients with advanced pubertal stage. PMID:26583575

  15. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  16. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Early Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Charles, David; Konrad, Peter E.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Molinari, Anna L.; Tramontana, Michael G.; Finder, Stuart G.; Gill, Chandler E.; Bliton, Mark J.; Kao, Chris C.; Phibbs, Fenna T.; Hedera, Peter; Salomon, Ronald M.; Cannard, Kevin R.; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Davis, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective and approved therapy for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), and a recent study suggests efficacy in mid-stage disease. This manuscript reports the results of a pilot trial investigating preliminary safety and tolerability of DBS in early PD. Methods Thirty subjects with idiopathic PD (Hoehn & Yahr Stage II off medication), age 50–75, on medication ≥ 6 months but < 4 years, and without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias were randomized to optimal drug therapy (ODT) (n=15) or DBS+ODT (n=15). Co-primary endpoints were the time to reach a 4-point worsening from baseline in the UPDRS-III off therapy and the change in levodopa equivalent daily dose from baseline to 24 months. Results As hypothesized, the mean UPDRS total and part III scores were not significantly different on or off therapy at 24 months. The DBS+ODT group took less medication at all time points, and this reached maximum difference at 18 months. With a few exceptions, differences in neuropsychological functioning were not significant. Two subjects in the DBS+ODT group suffered serious adverse events; remaining adverse events were mild or transient. Conclusions This study demonstrates that subjects with early stage PD will enroll in and complete trials testing invasive therapies and provides preliminary evidence that DBS is well tolerated in early PD. The results of this trial provide the data necessary to design a large, phase III, double-blind, multicenter trial investigating the safety and efficacy of DBS in early PD. PMID:24768120

  17. OLD-FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING INTENSIVE HERBIVORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of severe disturbance, which was heavy grazing by cattle, in an old-field grassland subject to invasi...

  18. A role for E2-2 at the DN3 stage of early thymopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Ingela; Forssell, Johan; Penha-Goncalves, Mario N; Bergqvist, Ingela; Holmberg, Dan

    2008-06-01

    Roles for the E-proteins E2A and HEB during T lymphocyte development have been well established. Based on our previous observations of counter selection against T cells lacking E2-2, it seemed reasonable to assume that there would be a function also for E2-2 in thymocyte development. Aiming at assigning such a role for E2-2, we analyzed the expression of E2-2, E2A, HEB as well as Id mRNA during T cell development. Interestingly, whereas all three E-proteins were expressed during early thymocyte development, significant expression beyond the DP stage was detected only for E2A. Among the Id proteins, Id2 displayed a prominent expression exclusively in DN1, whereas Id3 showed some expression in DN1, followed by a down regulation and then a prominent induction, peaking in the DP stage. E2-2 was expressed during the DN stages, as well as in the DP stage, suggesting that E2-2 operates in concert with the other E-proteins during early thymocyte development. We found that E2-2 null thymocytes displayed a partial block at the DN3 stage of development, as well as a reduced expression of pre-T alpha, known to be regulated also by E2A and HEB. The fact that E2-2 deficient thymocytes develop without gross abnormalities is likely to stem from redundancy due to the co-expression of E2A and HEB. PMID:18384878

  19. Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

  20. ARID1A expression in early stage colorectal adenocarcinoma: an exploration of its prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lik Hang; Sadot, Eran; Ivelja, Sinisa; Vakiani, Efsevia; Hechtman, Jaclyn F; Sevinsky, Christopher J; Klimstra, David S; Ginty, Fiona; Shia, Jinru

    2016-07-01

    ARID1A is a chromatin remodeling gene that is mutated in a number of cancers including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Loss of ARID1A has been associated with an adverse outcome in some types of cancer. However, literature data have not been consistent. Major limitations of some outcome studies include small sample size and heterogeneous patient population. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of ARID1A in a homogeneous group of early stage CRC patients, a population where prognostic markers are particularly relevant. We collected a retrospective series of 578 stage I or II CRCs. All patients underwent surgery with curative intent and without neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. ARID1A expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray. We found ARID1A loss in 49 of 552 analyzable tumors (8.9%). Compared with the ARID1A-retained group, cases with ARID1A loss were associated with female sex (P<.001), mismatch-repair protein deficiency (P<.001), poor differentiation (P<.001), lymphovascular invasion (P=.001), and higher pT stage (P=.047). However, at a median follow-up of 49months, ARID1A loss did not correlate with overall, disease-specific, or recurrence-free survival. This is the first systematic analysis to evaluate the prognostic significance of ARID1A in stage I/II CRCs, and our data indicate that ARID1A loss lacks prognostic significance in this population despite its association with other adverse features. Such data are clinically relevant, as efforts are ongoing in identifying markers that can detect the small but significant subset of early stage CRCs that will have a poor outcome. PMID:26980037

  1. Subsets of a Large Cognitive Battery Better Power Clinical Trials on Early Stage Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Chengjie; Weng, Hua; Bennett, David A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Shah, Raj C.; Fague, Scot; Hall, Charles B.; Lipton, Richard B.; Morris, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Cognitive batteries routinely used by the Alzheimer disease (AD) research community may contain items uninformative for tracking disease progression to power clinical trials on early stage AD. We aim to identify subsets of the most informative items from an existing cognitive battery for better powering clinical trials on early AD. Methods Longitudinal change in item scores from the battery was associated with the onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in 1513 elderly individuals. Items whose longitudinal changes were correlated with the onset of MCI were selected as informative for tracking the early cognitive progression. Results 226 items in the battery were annually assessed over a follow-up of up to 13 years. Changes of item scores over time from 187 items were significantly correlated with the onset of MCI. For clinical trials on preclinical AD and on MCI, informative items permit smaller or similar sample sizes as compared to the entire battery, whereas uninformative items require much larger sample sizes. Conclusions Longitudinal changes in item scores from about 17% of items in the cognitive battery are uninformative for tracking early disease progression. Clinical trials on early AD can be better powered using informative items rather than the entire battery. PMID:25376544

  2. Plasma epidermal growth factor decreased in the early stage of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian-Wen; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Hou, Miao-Miao; Wang, Xi; Tang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Yi-Wen; Ma, Jian-Fang; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2015-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a neurotrophic factor that plays an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured plasma EGF level in PD, essential tremor (ET) and normal controls to investigate whether it changes in PD and whether it is associated with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. 100 patients with PD, 40 patients with ET as disease control and 76 healthy persons were enrolled in the present study. Motor and non-motor symptoms were assessed by different scales. Plasma EGF levels of three groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Spearman test and linear logistics regression model were used to test the correlation of EGF with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Plasma EGF level was significantly decreased in early PD patients compared with normal control, but not in advanced PD patients. Interestingly, plasma EGF level was significantly increased in advanced PD and total PD patients compared with ET patients, but not in early PD patients. In addition, plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores in PD. Also plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores and NMS scores in early PD. Our results suggested that plasma EGF decreased in the early stage of PD and increased later on in the PD disease course. Also, plasma EGF level was increased significantly in PD compared with ET patients and correlated with motor and non-motor symptoms in early PD. PMID:26029474

  3. Identification of Owl Monkey CD4 Receptors Broadly Compatible with Early-Stage HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Nicholas R.; Sharma, Amit; Wilkerson, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most HIV-1 variants isolated from early-stage human infections do not use nonhuman primate versions of the CD4 receptor for cellular entry, or they do so poorly. We and others have previously shown that CD4 has experienced strong natural selection over the course of primate speciation, but it is unclear whether this selection has influenced the functional characteristics of CD4 as an HIV-1 receptor. Surprisingly, we find that selection on CD4 has been most intense in the New World monkeys, animals that have never been found to harbor lentiviruses related to HIV-1. Based on this, we sampled CD4 genetic diversity within populations of individuals from seven different species, including five species of New World monkeys. We found that some, but not all, CD4 alleles found in Spix's owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) encode functional receptors for early-stage human HIV-1 isolates representing all of the major group M clades (A, B, C, and D). However, only some isolates of HIV-1 subtype C can use the CD4 receptor encoded by permissive Spix's owl monkey alleles. We characterized the prevalence of functional CD4 alleles in a colony of captive Spix's owl monkeys and found that 88% of surveyed individuals are homozygous for permissive CD4 alleles, which encode an asparagine at position 39 of the receptor. We found that the CD4 receptors encoded by two other species of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae and Aotus nancymaae) also serve as functional entry receptors for early-stage isolates of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, are used for preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, a significant limitation of the macaque model is the fact that most circulating HIV-1 variants cannot use the macaque CD4 receptor to enter cells and have to be adapted to these species. This is particularly true for viral variants from early stages of infection, which represent the most relevant vaccine targets. In this study, we found that some individuals

  4. Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy for the early-stage differential thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), the modified Miccoli’s thyroid surgery, is the most widespread minimally invasive technique and has been widely used for treatment of thyroid disease. This study aimed to verify the potential benefits of the modified Miccoli’s thyroid surgery, determine the feasibility of the MIVAT for early-stage differential thyroid carcinoma and evaluate the likelihood of the surgical method as a standard operation for early malignant thyroid carcinoma. Methods A total of 135 patients were retrospectively compared which included two groups of patients: the first group underwent the conventional thyroidectomy; the other group underwent MIVAT. Patients with thyroid nodule smaller than 20 mm and without previous neck surgery were included while those with wide-ranging and distant metastases of cervical tissues, or any suspected thyroid nodal metastases were excluded for analysis. MIVAT and the central compartment (level VI) lymph nodes dissection (LND) were considered as a new treatment method for this retrospective study. In addition to the comparison of surgical outcomes between the new treatment and the conventional thyroid surgery, other surgical parameters including operative time, operative volume of hemorrhage, incisional length, postoperative volume of drainage, length of hospitalization, accidence of hoarse voice, accidence of bucking, accidence of hypocalcemia and peak angle of cervical axial rotation were also compared. Results Out of 135 patients, 111 patients underwent conventional thyroid surgery and 24 patients underwent MIVAT plus level VI LND for treatment of early-stage differential malignant carcinoma. Patients who received the new surgical treatment had significantly shorter incisional length (3.1 cm vs. 6.9 cm, p < 0.0001), shorter operative time (109 min vs. 139 min, p = 0.014) and fewer operative hemorrhage (29.5 ml vs. 69.7 ml, p < 0.0001) when compared to the conventional treatment

  5. Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S.; di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Bianconi, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered.

  6. Early-stage comparative sustainability assessment of new bio-based processes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Akshay D; Meesters, Koen; den Uil, Herman; de Jong, Ed; Worrell, Ernst; Patel, Martin K

    2013-09-01

    Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analyze eight new bio-based process alternatives developed within the CatchBio research consortium in the Netherlands. This assessment relies on a multi-criteria approach, integrating the performance of chemical conversions based on five indicators into an index value. These indicators encompass economics, environmental impact, hazards and risks thereby incorporating elements of green chemistry principles, and techno-economic and life cycle assessments. The analyzed bio-based options target the production of fuels and chemicals through chemical catalysis. For each bio-based process, two R&D stages (current laboratory and expected future) are assessed against a comparable conventional process. The multi-criteria assessment in combination with the uncertainty and scenario analysis shows that the chemical production processes using biomass as feedstock can provide potential sustainability benefits over conventional alternatives. However, further development is necessary to realize the potential benefits from biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes for fuel production. This early stage assessment is intended as an input for R&D decision making to support optimal allocation and utilization of resources to further develop promising bio-based processes. PMID:24078179

  7. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929

  8. Visual perception in prediagnostic and early stage Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    O’DONNELL, BRIAN F.; BLEKHER, TANYA M.; WEAVER, MARJORIE; WHITE, KERRY M.; MARSHALL, JEANINE; BERISTAIN, XABIER; STOUT, JULIE C.; GRAY, JACQUELINE; WOJCIESZEK, JOANNE M.; FOROUD, TATIANA M.

    2009-01-01

    Disturbances of visual perception frequently accompany neurodegenerative disorders but have been little studied in Huntington’s disease (HD) gene carriers. We used psychophysical tests to assess visual perception among individuals in the prediagnostic and early stages of HD. The sample comprised four groups, which included 201 nongene carriers (NG), 32 prediagnostic gene carriers with minimal neurological abnormalities (PD1); 20 prediagnostic gene carriers with moderate neurological abnormalities (PD2), and 36 gene carriers with diagnosed HD. Contrast sensitivity for stationary and moving sinusoidal gratings, and tests of form and motion discrimination, were used to probe different visual pathways. Patients with HD showed impaired contrast sensitivity for moving gratings. For one of the three contrast sensitivity tests, the prediagnostic gene carriers with greater neurological abnormality (PD2) also had impaired performance as compared with NG. These findings suggest that early stage HD disrupts visual functions associated with the magnocellular pathway. However, these changes are only observed in individuals diagnosed with HD or who are in the more symptomatic stages of prediagnostic HD. PMID:18419843

  9. Prognostic Fifteen-Gene Signature for Early Stage Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dung-Tsa; Davis-Yadley, Ashley H.; Huang, Po-Yu; Husain, Kazim; Centeno, Barbara A.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pimiento, Jose M.; Malafa, Mokenge

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of patients treated with surgery for early stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are variable with median survival ranging from 6 months to more than 5 years. This challenge underscores an unmet need for developing personalized medicine strategies to refine the current treatment decision-making process. To derive a prognostic gene signature for patients with early stage PDAC, a PDAC cohort from Moffitt Cancer Center (n = 63) was used with overall survival (OS) as the primary endpoint. This was further evaluated using an independent microarray cohort dataset (Stratford et al: n = 102). Technical validation was performed by NanoString platform. A prognostic 15-gene signature was developed and showed a statistically significant association with OS in the Moffitt cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.26; p<0.001) and Stratford et al cohort (HR = 2.07; p = 0.02), and was independent of other prognostic variables. Moreover, integration of the signature with the TNM staging system improved risk prediction (p<0.01 in both cohorts). In addition, NanoString validation showed that the signature was robust with a high degree of reproducibility and the association with OS remained significant in the two cohorts. The gene signature could be a potential prognostic tool to allow risk-adapted stratification of PDAC patients into personalized treatment protocols; possibly improving the currently poor clinical outcomes of these patients. PMID:26247463

  10. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  11. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  12. Large spinose microfossils in Ediacaran rocks as resting stages of early animals

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Phoebe A.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Kodner, Robin B.

    2009-01-01

    Large (>100 μm), profusely ornamented microfossils comprise a distinctive paleontological component of sedimentary rocks deposited during the Ediacaran Period (635–542 million years ago). Smaller spinose fossils in Paleozoic rocks have commonly been interpreted as algal cysts or phycomata, but the Ediacaran populations differ from modern algal analogs in size, shape, ultrastructure, and internal contents. In contrast, cysts formed during the diapause egg-resting stages of many metazoans share features of size, ornamentation, and internal contents with large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs). Moreover, transmission electron microscopic observations of animal-resting cysts reveal a 3-layer wall ultrastructure comparable to that of LOEM taxa. Interpretation of these distinctive Ediacaran microfossils as resting stages in early metazoan life cycles offers additional perspectives on their functional morphology and stratigraphic distribution. Based on comparisons with modern marine invertebrates, the recalcitrant life stage represented by LOEMs is interpreted as an evolutionary response to prolonged episodes of bottom water anoxia in Ediacaran shelf and platform environments. As predicted by this hypothesis, the later Ediacaran disappearance of LOEM taxa coincides with geochemical evidence for a marked decline in the extent of oxygen-depleted waters impinging on continental shelves and platforms. Thus, the form, diversity, and stratigraphic range of LOEMs illuminate life cycle evolution in early animals as influenced by the evolving redox state of the oceans. PMID:19366668

  13. Efficient and Rapid Isolation of Early-stage Embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Raissig, Michael T.; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

    2013-01-01

    In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays. PMID:23770918

  14. Involved Node Radiation Therapy: An Effective Alternative in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Petersen, Peter M.; Specht, Lena

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy in a cohort of 97 clinical stage I-II HL patients. Methods and Materials: Patients were staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans, treated with adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy, and given INRT (prechemotherapy involved nodes to 30 Gy, residual masses to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. Results: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7 malignancies were diagnosed, and 5 patients developed heart disease. Conclusions: INRT offers excellent tumor control and represents an effective alternative to more extended radiation therapy in the combined modality treatment for early-stage HL.

  15. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  16. Early life stages contribute strongly to local adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Postma, Froukje M; Ågren, Jon

    2016-07-01

    The magnitude and genetic basis of local adaptation is of fundamental interest in evolutionary biology. However, field experiments usually do not consider early life stages, and therefore may underestimate local adaptation and miss genetically based tradeoffs. We examined the contribution of differences in seedling establishment to adaptive differentiation and the genetic architecture of local adaptation using recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between two locally adapted populations (Italy and Sweden) of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana We planted freshly matured, dormant seeds (>180 000) representing >200 RILs at the native field sites of the parental genotypes, estimated the strength of selection during different life stages, mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fitness and its components, and quantified selection on seed dormancy. We found that selection during the seedling establishment phase contributed strongly to the fitness advantage of the local genotype at both sites. With one exception, local alleles of the eight distinct establishment QTL were favored. The major QTL for establishment and total fitness showed evidence of a fitness tradeoff and was located in the same region as the major seed dormancy QTL and the dormancy gene DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1). RIL seed dormancy could explain variation in seedling establishment and fitness across the life cycle. Our results demonstrate that genetically based differences in traits affecting performance during early life stages can contribute strongly to adaptive differentiation and genetic tradeoffs, and should be considered for a full understanding of the ecology and genetics of local adaptation. PMID:27330113

  17. Dissection and Downstream Analysis of Zebra Finch Embryos at Early Stages of Development

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jessica R.; Stanciauskas, Monika E.; Aralere, Tejas S.; Saha, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    The zebra finch (Taeniopygiaguttata) has become an increasingly important model organism in many areas of research including toxicology1,2, behavior3, and memory and learning4,5,6. As the only songbird with a sequenced genome, the zebra finch has great potential for use in developmental studies; however, the early stages of zebra finch development have not been well studied. Lack of research in zebra finch development can be attributed to the difficulty of dissecting the small egg and embryo. The following dissection method minimizes embryonic tissue damage, which allows for investigation of morphology and gene expression at all stages of embryonic development. This permits both bright field and fluorescence quality imaging of embryos, use in molecular procedures such as in situ hybridization (ISH), cell proliferation assays, and RNA extraction for quantitative assays such as quantitative real-time PCR (qtRT-PCR). This technique allows investigators to study early stages of development that were previously difficult to access. PMID:24999108

  18. Resistance to Streptomyces turgidiscabies in potato involves an early and sustained transcriptional reprogramming at initial stages of tuber formation.

    PubMed

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Lysøe, Erik; Alsheikh, Muath; Davik, Jahn; Brurberg, May Bente

    2016-06-01

    Common scab, caused by species from the bacterial genus Streptomyces, is an important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) crops worldwide. Early tuberization is a critical period for pathogen infection; hence, studies of host gene expression responses during this developmental stage can be important to expand our understanding of the infection process and to identify putative resistance genes. In an infection experiment with the highly susceptible potato cultivar Saturna and the relatively resistant cultivar Beate, transcription profiles were obtained by RNA sequencing at two developmental stages: the early hook stage and the early tuber formation stage. Our results indicate that 'Beate' mounts an early and sustained response to infection by S. turgidiscabies, whereas the defence response by 'Saturna' ceases before the early tuber formation stage. Most pronounced were the putative candidate defence-associated genes uniquely expressed in 'Beate'. We observed an increase in alternative splicing on pathogen infection at the early hook stage for both cultivars. A significant down-regulation of genes involved in the highly energy-demanding process of ribosome biogenesis was observed for the infected 'Beate' plants at the early hook stage, which may indicate an allocation of resources that favours the expression of defence-related genes. PMID:26416294

  19. Discovery of piRNAs Pathway Associated with Early-Stage Spermatogenesis in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Guobin; Guo, Qixin; Liu, Xiangping; Bi, Yulin; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Zhiteng; Guo, Xiaoming; Wan, Fang; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Qi; Chen, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play a key role in spermatogenesis. Here, we describe the piRNAs profiling of primordial germ cells (PGCs), spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and the spermatogonium (Sp) during early-stage spermatogenesis in chicken. We obtained 31,361,989 reads from PGCs, 31,757,666 reads from SSCs, and 46,448,327 reads from Sp cells. The length distribution of piRNAs in the three samples showed peaks at 33 nt. The resulting genes were subsequently annotated against the Gene Ontology (GO) database. Five genes (RPL7A, HSPA8, Pum1, CPXM2, and PRKCA) were found to be involved in cellular processes. Interactive pathway analysis (IPA) further revealed three important pathways in early-stage spermatogenesis including the FGF, Wnt, and EGF receptor signaling pathways. The gene Pum1 was found to promote germline stem cell proliferation, but it also plays a role in spermatogenesis. In conclusion, we revealed characteristics of piRNAs during early spermatogonial development in chicken and provided the basis for future research. PMID:27045806

  20. Experimental early-stage coalification of a peat sample and a peatified wood sample from Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Neuzil, S.G.; Lerch, H.E.; Cecil, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental coalification of a peat sample and a buried wood sample from domed peat deposits in Indonesia was carried out to examine chemical structural changes in organic matter during early-stage coalification. The experiment (125 C, 408 atm lithostatic pressure, and 177 atm fluid pressure for 75 days) was designed to maintain both lithostatic and fluid pressure on the sample, but allow by-products that may retard coalification to escape. We refer to this design as a geologically open system. Changes in the elemental composition, and 13C NMR and FTIR spectra of the peat and wood after experimental coalification suggest preferential thermal decomposition of O-containing aliphatic organic compounds (probably cellulose) during early-stage coalification. The elemental compositions and 13C NMR spectra of the experimentally coalified peat and wood were generally similar to those of Miocene coal and coalified wood samples from Indonesia. Yields of lignin phenols in the peat and wood samples decreased following experimental coalification; the wood sample exhibited a larger change. Lignin phenol yields from the experimentally coalified peat and wood were comparable to yields of lignin phenols from Miocene Indonesian lignite and coalified wood. Changes in syringyl/vanillyl and p-hydroxy/vanillyl ratios suggest direct demethoxylation as a secondary process to demethylation of methoxyl groups during early coalification, and changes in lignin phenol yields and acid/aldehyde ratios point to a coupling between demethoxylation processes and reactions in the alkyl side chain bonds of the ??-carbon in lignin phenols.

  1. An Ordered Bipolar Outflow from a Massive Early-stage Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jonathan C.; Kong, Shuo; Zhang, Yichen; Fontani, Francesco; Caselli, Paola; Butler, Michael J.

    2016-04-01

    We present ALMA follow-up observations of two massive, early-stage core candidates, C1-N and C1-S, in IRDC G028.37+00.07, that were previously identified by their {{{N}}}2{{{D}}}+(3-2) emission, and show high levels of deuteration of this species. The cores are also dark at far-infrared wavelengths up to ∼ 100 μ {{m}}. We detect 12CO(2-1) from a narrow, highly collimated bipolar outflow that is being launched from near the center of the C1-S core, which is also the location of the peak 1.3 mm dust continuum emission. This protostar, C1-Sa, has associated dense gas traced by {{{C}}}18{{O}}(2-1) and DCN(3-2), from which we estimate that it has a radial velocity that is near the center of the range exhibited by the C1-S massive core. A second outflow-driving source is also detected within the projected boundary of C1-S, but it appears to be at a different radial velocity. After considering the properties of the outflows, we conclude that C1-Sa is a promising candidate for an early-stage massive protostar and as such it shows that these early phases of massive star formation can involve highly ordered outflow, and thus accretion, processes, similar to models developed to explain low-mass protostars.

  2. Applying NGS Data to Find Evolutionary Network Biomarkers from the Early and Late Stages of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yung-Hao; Wu, Chia-Chou; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Ting-Shou; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major liver tumor (~80%), besides hepatoblastomas, angiosarcomas, and cholangiocarcinomas. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to construct protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) for early-stage and late-stage liver cancer. By comparing the networks of these two stages, we found that the two networks showed some common mechanisms and some significantly different mechanisms. To obtain differential network structures between cancer and noncancer PPINs, we constructed cancer PPIN and noncancer PPIN network structures for the two stages of liver cancer by systems biology method using NGS data from cancer cells and adjacent noncancer cells. Using carcinogenesis relevance values (CRVs), we identified 43 and 80 significant proteins and their PPINs (network markers) for early-stage and late-stage liver cancer. To investigate the evolution of network biomarkers in the carcinogenesis process, a primary pathway analysis showed that common pathways of the early and late stages were those related to ordinary cancer mechanisms. A pathway specific to the early stage was the mismatch repair pathway, while pathways specific to the late stage were the spliceosome pathway, lysine degradation pathway, and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway. This study provides a new direction for cancer-targeted therapies at different stages. PMID:26366411

  3. [The ultrastructure of mixed mammary gland tumours in bitches. III. The early stages of the myoepithelial proliferation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    von Bomhard, D; von Sandersleben, J

    1975-08-12

    The early stages of myoepithelial proliferation in 14 mixed canine mammary tumours were studied by light- and electron microscopy. Two different early stages can be distinguished: 1. Proliferations inside the basal lamina with partial maintenance of the organoid pattern. 2. Proliferations with a break through the basal lamina and transposition of tumour cells into the surrounding connective tissue. The intracytoplasmic fibrillae of myoepithelial tumour cells are striped periodically and thicker than those of normal myothelia. It is suggested that the amorphous as well as the fibrous intercellular substance in the early stages is derived from the described myoepithelial tumour cells. PMID:169622

  4. Inhibitory bacteria reduce fungi on early life stages of endangered Colorado boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas).

    PubMed

    Kueneman, Jordan G; Woodhams, Douglas C; Van Treuren, Will; Archer, Holly M; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie J

    2016-04-01

    Increasingly, host-associated microbiota are recognized to mediate pathogen establishment, providing new ecological perspectives on health and disease. Amphibian skin-associated microbiota interact with the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but little is known about microbial turnover during host development and associations with host immune function. We surveyed skin microbiota of Colorado's endangered boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas), sampling 181 toads across four life stages (tadpoles, metamorphs, subadults and adults). Our goals were to (1) understand variation in microbial community structure among individuals and sites, (2) characterize shifts in communities during development and (3) examine the prevalence and abundance of known Bd-inhibitory bacteria. We used high-throughput 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) to characterize bacteria and microeukaryotes, respectively. Life stage had the largest effect on the toad skin microbial community, and site and Bd presence also contributed. Proteobacteria dominated tadpole microbial communities, but were later replaced by Actinobacteria. Microeukaryotes on tadpoles were dominated by the classes Alveolata and Stramenopiles, while fungal groups replaced these groups after metamorphosis. Using a novel database of Bd-inhibitory bacteria, we found fewer Bd-inhibitory bacteria in post-metamorphic stages correlated with increased skin fungi, suggesting that bacteria have a strong role in early developmental stages and reduce skin-associated fungi. PMID:26565725

  5. Supradiaphragmatic early stage Hodgkin's disease: does mantle radiation therapy still have a role?

    PubMed

    Frezza, G; Barbieri, E; Zinzani, P L; Babini, L; Tura, S

    1996-01-01

    Extended field radiation therapy represents the main therapeutic option in early stage Hodgkin's disease with favorable prognostic features. Its role however has recently been criticized, mainly due to the high incidence of late complications in irradiated tissues. Furthermore, surgical staging, which in the opinion of many is mandatory for proper selection of patients for radiotherapy alone, has a well-known morbidity, and splenectomy has been associated with a high risk of secondary leukemias. Lastly, the failure rate after radiotherapy only is not negligible and second-line treatment is not always successful. A review of our experience and of the recent literature has allowed us to refute these objections. The results of radiotherapy, when properly performed, are highly reliable and have been reproducible in many Institutions. Chemotherapy alone cannot yet be regarded as an alternative to radiotherapy in these patients since data reported on this issue are conflicting. Present knowledge regarding the relationship between clinical features and the risk of occult subdiaphragmatic spread allows patients with localized disease to be selected without surgical staging; the results of radiotherapy in clinically staged patients confirm this statement. Concern for the late effects in irradiated tissues is justified, and future efforts should be directed at reducing the toxicity of this treatment. Associating a short chemotherapy course with low-dose radiotherapy to involved sites could help to achieve this goal. PMID:8641642

  6. Immune and hormonal changes in early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Everaus, H; Lehtmaa, J; Luik, E; Kŏdar, H

    1992-11-01

    Fifty-six previously untreated stage-I (according to Rai) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients were examined for their clinical data, immunological characteristics, and hormonal values. Dysfunction of T and B lymphocytes was demonstrated by changed lymphocyte blastogenic response to stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (ConA), pisum sativatum agglutinin (PSA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), recombinant interleukin 2 (IL 2), and dextran sulfate (DxS); also by decreased immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgA, IgE) and increased beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) values. Simultaneously, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune system integration, imbalance of sex hormones, and changes in thyroid hormones were observed in the same group of patients. Disturbed immunohormonal interactions in early-stage CLL may be responsible for the pathogenetic mechanisms in this lymphoproliferative malignancy. PMID:1457579

  7. Susceptibility of some vertebrate hosts to infection with early third-stage larvae of Gnathostoma hispidum.

    PubMed

    Sohn, W M; Lee, S H

    1997-09-01

    Susceptibility of some vertebrates was examined to the early third-stage larvae (EL3) of Gnathostoma hispidum. The larvae collected from the Chinese loaches were infected to 4 silk carps, 3 snake heads, 3 bullfrogs, 5 mice and 9 albino rats. No worms were detected in fish, silk carps and snake heads. In 3 bullfrogs fed 30 larvae, a total of 9 EL3 was recovered in the gastrointestinal tract (8 larvae) and liver (one). In 5 mice infected with 50 larvae, a total of 37 (74.0%) advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) was recovered from the muscle (31 larvae), liver (5 larvae) and kidney at 4 weeks after infection. In 9 albino rats infected with 115 larvae, a total of 40 (34.8%) AdL3 was found in the muscle. The mammalian hosts were found susceptible to the EL3 of G. hispidum from Chinese loaches. PMID:9335187

  8. Symptomatic Lymphocele Formation After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Early Stage Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Garagozova, Nigar; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Beier, Anna; Köhler, Christhardt; Favero, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    In early stage cervical cancer, nodal status is the most important prognostic factor, and execution of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy is currently an integral part of surgical therapy. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been progressively incorporated with surgical therapy and could reduce morbidity. However, the current incidence of complications exclusively related to the procedure is unknown. We report on a 29-year-old woman affected by cervical cancer (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique Stage 1b1), who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy in combination with radical vaginal trachelectomy, and who later developed a symptomatic pelvic lymphocele that required surgical therapy. Conservative procedures in the pelvic lymph nodes are not free of complications, especially with regard to the formation of symptomatic lymphoceles. This report brings to light an important discussion about the exact magnitude of the complications associated with the procedure. PMID:26260297

  9. Early-stage precipitation in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (7050)

    SciTech Connect

    Sha Gang; Cerezo, Alfred

    2004-09-06

    GP zone and metastable {eta}{sup '} formation during the early-stage precipitation of a 7050 Al alloy aged at 121 deg. C has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy, together with 3-dimensional atom probe analysis (of the chemistry and morphology) of individual precipitates. Small Mg-rich clusters (GPI zones) are found in the alloy after short ageing times at 121 deg. C, together with larger GPI zones (Zn/Mg=1.0). Zn-rich {eta}{sup '} platelets are seen to form mainly between 30 and 240 min ageing, coexisting with larger GPI zones. A significant fraction of <1 1 0> elongated clusters have also been observed over this period of ageing. The dominant mechanism for {eta}{sup '} formation at this stage is shown to be by transformation of small GPI zones, via these elongated clusters and not by nucleation on larger zones.

  10. Blood rheology and platelet function in untreated early-stage essential hypertensives complicated with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sugimori, Hiroko; Tomoda, Fumihiro; Koike, Tsutomu; Kinuno, Hiroyuki; Kurosaki, Hiroko; Masutani, Toshitaka; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether hemorheology and platelet function are affected in essential hypertensives (EHTs) of the World Health Organization stage I when complicated with metabolic syndrome (Mets). In 156 untreated EHTs, blood viscosity and platelet surface markers were determined. Blood viscosity was significantly elevated in 54 subjects with Mets compared with 102 subjects without Mets. Hematocrit and plasma viscosity increased in the group with Mets, although red blood cell rigidity index "k" did not differ between groups. As a whole group, blood viscosity correlated positively with hematocrit and plasma viscosity. Additionally, plasma viscosity correlated positively with plasma leptin, triglyceride, homeostasis model assessment index, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen, but negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In contrast, no differences were seen in platelet surface markers between groups. In conclusion, EHTs of the early stage complicated with Mets are characterized by increased blood viscosity due to hemoconcentration and increased plasma viscosity. PMID:22570768

  11. Prognostic significance of circulating laminin gamma2 for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yu; Wang, Zitong; Ma, Li; Zhang, Lina; Guo, Yinan; Gu, Meng; Wang, Ziyu; Wang, Yue; Yue, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Background Laminin gamma2 (Ln-γ2) chain, a distinctive subunit of heterotrimeric laminin-332, is frequently upregulated in carcinomas and is of great importance in cell migration and invasion. Despite this, the status of circulating Ln-γ2 in lung cancer patients is still uncertain. Patients and methods In this retrospective study, serum samples from 538 all-stage (stages I–IV) patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 94 age-matched healthy volunteers were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were statistically analyzed in combination with clinicopathological information. Results Circulating Ln-γ2 was markedly increased in NSCLC, even in stage I cases (P<0.01), reflecting the progression of lung cancer. Survival analysis on 370 eligible patients indicated that serum Ln-γ2-negative patients survived much longer compared with Ln-γ2-positive individuals (P=0.028), and it was especially the case for stage I (P<0.001), stage T1 (P=0.001), and stage N0 patients (P=0.038), all of whom represented early-stage cases. For the advanced patients, however, overall survivals were not significantly different among stages II–IV (P=0.830), stages T2–T4 (P=0.575), stages N1–N3 (P=0.669), and stage M1 (P=0.849). Cox analysis subsequently defined serum Ln-γ2 as an independent prognostic indicator of NSCLC, particularly for early-stage patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated the association of serum Ln-γ2 with smoking behavior, but its association with tumor progression and early prognostic significance were not altered in the nonsmoking cohort. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that elevation of circulating Ln-γ2 was an early-emerging event in NSCLC and was significantly associated with poor prognosis in NSCLC, especially for early-stage cases. PMID:27462170

  12. Detection of Cancer DNA in Plasma of Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Balukrishna, Sasidharan; Cochran, Rory; Croessmann, Sarah; Zabransky, Daniel J.; Wong, Hong Yuen; Toro, Patricia Valda; Cidado, Justin; Blair, Brian G.; Chu, David; Burns, Timothy; Higgins, Michaela J.; Stearns, Vered; Jacobs, Lisa; Habibi, Mehran; Lange, Julie; Hurley, Paula J.; Lauring, Josh; VanDenBerg, Dustin; Kessler, Jill; Jeter, Stacie; Samuels, Michael L.; Maar, Dianna; Cope, Leslie; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Argani, Pedram; Wolff, Antonio C.; Park, Ben H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Detecting circulating plasma tumor DNA (ptDNA) in early stage cancer patients has the potential to change how oncologists recommend systemic therapies for solid tumors after surgery. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a novel sensitive and specific platform for mutation detection. Experimental Design In this prospective study, primary breast tumors and matched pre- and post-surgery blood samples were collected from early stage breast cancer patients (n=29). Tumors (n=30) were analyzed by Sanger sequencing for common PIK3CA mutations, and DNA from these tumors and matched plasma were then analyzed for PIK3CA mutations using ddPCR. Results Sequencing of tumors identified seven PIK3CA exon 20 mutations (H1047R) and three exon 9 mutations (E545K). Analysis of tumors by ddPCR confirmed these mutations and identified five additional mutations. Pre-surgery plasma samples (n=29) were then analyzed for PIK3CA mutations using ddPCR. Of the fifteen PIK3CA mutations detected in tumors by ddPCR, fourteen of the corresponding mutations were detected in pre-surgical ptDNA, while no mutations were found in plasma from patients with PIK3CA wild type tumors (sensitivity 93.3%, specificity 100%). Ten patients with mutation positive ptDNA pre-surgery had ddPCR analysis of post-surgery plasma, with five patients having detectable ptDNA post-surgery. Conclusions This prospective study demonstrates accurate mutation detection in tumor tissues using ddPCR, and that ptDNA can be detected in blood before and after surgery in early stage breast cancer patients. Future studies can now address whether ptDNA detected after surgery identifies patients at risk for recurrence, which could guide chemotherapy decisions for individual patients. PMID:24504125

  13. Impact of diabetes mellitus on oncological outcomes after radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and oncological outcomes in early stage cervical cancer patients who underwent radical surgical resection. Methods Patients with early stage cervical cancer diagnosed between 2001 and 2014 were retrospectively enrolled. We assessed the outcomes of 402 non-DM and 42 DM patients with cervical cancer. We tested the prognostic value of DM via Cox proportional hazard modeling. Results Patients with DM were more likely to be older and overweight. In the DM group, 20 and 22 patients were and were not taking metformin, respectively. The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate for the whole study population were 88.49% and 96.34%, respectively. In the DM group, there was no evidence that metformin affected the RFS (p=0.553) or the OS (p=0.429). In multivariate analysis, age (p=0.007), histology (p=0.006), and deep stromal invasion (p=0.007) were independent adverse prognostic factors for RFS. There was a borderline significant association of increased RFS with DM (p=0.051). However, a time-varying-effect Cox model revealed that the DM was associated with a worse RFS (hazard ratio, 11.15; 95% CI, 2.00 to 62.08, p=0.022) after 5 years. DM (p=0.008), age (p=0.009), and node status (p=0.001) were the only 3 independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion Early stage cervical cancer patients with type 2 DM have a poorer oncological outcome than patients without DM. PMID:27029749

  14. Low-Dose Consolidation Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Unfavorable Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Torok, Jordan A.; Wu, Yuan; Prosnitz, Leonard R.; Kim, Grace J.; Beaven, Anne W.; Diehl, Louis F.; Kelsey, Chris R.

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) trial HD11 established 4 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) and 30 Gy of radiation therapy (RT) as a standard for early stage (I, II), unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Additional cycles of ABVD may allow for a reduction in RT dose and improved toxicity profile. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with combined modality therapy at the Duke Cancer Institute for early stage, unfavorable HL by GHSG criteria from 1994 to 2012 were included. Patients who did not undergo post-chemotherapy functional imaging (positron emission tomography or gallium imaging) or who failed to achieve a complete response were excluded. Clinical outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Late effects were also evaluated. Results: A total of 90 patients met inclusion criteria for analysis. Median follow-up was 5 years. Chemotherapy consisted primarily of ABVD (88%) with a median number of 6 cycles. The median dose of consolidation RT was 23.4 Gy. Four patients had relapses, 2 of which were in-field. Ten-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-0.97) and 98% (95% CI: 0.92-0.99), respectively. For the subset of patients (n=46) who received 5 to 6 cycles of chemotherapy and ≤24 Gy, the 10-year PFS and OS values were 88% (95% CI: 70%-96%) and 98% (95% CI: 85% - 99%), respectively. The most common late effect was hypothyroidism (20%) with no cardiac complications. Seven secondary malignancies were diagnosed, with only 1 arising within the RT field. Conclusions: Lower doses of RT may be sufficient when combined with more than 4 cycles of ABVD for early stage, unfavorable HL and may result in a more favorable toxicity profile than 4 cycles of ABVD and 30 Gy of RT.

  15. Early oligomerization stages for the non-amyloid component of α-synuclein amyloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugene, Cindie; Laghaei, Rozita; Mousseau, Normand

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, much effort has focused on the early stages of aggregation and the formation of amyloid oligomers. Aggregation processes for these proteins are complex and their non-equilibrium nature makes any experimental study very difficult. Under these conditions, simulations provide a useful alternative for understanding the dynamics of the early stages of oligomerization. Here, we focus on the non-Aβ amyloid component (NAC) of the monomer, dimer, and trimer of α-synuclein, an important 35-residue sequence involved in the aggregation and fibrillation of this protein associated with Parkinson's disease. Using Hamiltonian and temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations combined with the coarse grained Optimized Potential for Efficient peptide structure Prediction potential, we identify the role of the various regions and the secondary structures for the onset of oligomerization. For this sequence, we clearly observe the passage from α-helix to β-sheet, a characteristic transition of amyloid proteins. More precisely, we find that the NAC monomer is highly structured with two α-helical regions, between residues 2-13 and 19-25. As the dimer and trimer form, β-sheet structures between residues 2-14 and 26-34 appear and rapidly structure the system. The resulting conformations are much more structured than similar dimers and trimers of β-amyloid and amylin proteins and yet display a strong polymorphism at these early stages of aggregation. In addition to its inherent experimental interest, comparison with other sequences shows that NAC could be a very useful numerical model for understanding the onset of aggregation.

  16. Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy for high-risk, early stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eastwick, Gary; Anne, Pramila Rani; Rosenblum, Norman G.; Schilder, Russell J.; Chalian, Raffi; Zibelli, Allison M.; Kim, Christine H.; Den, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report outcomes following adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) with or without chemotherapy for high-intermediate risk (HIR) and high-risk, early stage endometrial cancer as defined in Gynecologic Oncology Group trial 0249. Material and methods From May 2000 to January 2014, 68 women with HIR and high-risk endometrial cancer underwent surgical staging followed by VBT. Median VBT dose was 21 Gy delivered in three fractions prescribed to 0.5 cm depth. Paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and carboplatin area under the curve 6 was administered every 21 days in sequence with VBT. Actuarial survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Patient demographics included a median age of 66 years (range: 36-91) and stages IA (49%), IB (38%), and II (13%), respectively. Thirty-one (46%) patients had HIR disease with endometrioid histology, and 33 (48%) patients had serous or clear cell histology. Thirty-seven (54%) patients received a median 3 cycles (range: 3-6) of chemotherapy in addition to VBT, and 65 patients (96%) completed all prescribed therapy. During a median follow up of 33.1 months (range: 4.0-161.7), four patients have recurred, including one vaginal recurrence. The 3-year estimates of vaginal, pelvic, and distant recurrences were 1.9%, 2.4%, and 9.1%, respectively. The 3-year rates of disease-free and overall survival were 87.7% and 93.9%, respectively. Conclusions Early outcomes with adjuvant VBT with or without chemotherapy demonstrate high rates of vaginal and pelvic control for women with HIR disease. Early vaginal and pelvic relapses in high-risk patients suggest that pelvic external beam radiotherapy is warranted in this subgroup, but additional data from large phase III trials is warranted. PMID:25337127

  17. Prediction of motor outcome by shoulder subluxation at early stage of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Yi, Ji Hyun; Chang, Chul Hoon; Jung, Young Jin; Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Jun; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We attempted to determine whether shoulder subluxation at the early stage of stroke can predict motor outcome in relation to the corticospinal tract (CST) state on diffusion tensor tractography. Fifty-nine stroke patients with severe hemiparesis were recruited. The patients were classified according to the distance of shoulder subluxation (group A: ≥2 cm, group B: <2 cm) and the affected CST on diffusion tensor tractography at the first evaluation (CST type A—the CST was discontinued at the stroke lesion; CST type B—the integrity of the CST was preserved). Motor function of the patients was evaluated twice (first: beginning of rehabilitation—24.1 ± 16.6 days; second: discharge after first rehabilitation—58.5 ± 24.1 days) using the Medical Research Council score, Motricity Index, and Modified Brunnstrom Classification. Regarding the improvement of the Medical Research Council for the finger extensor and upper Motricity Index, the order in terms of better recovery was as follows: group B–type B, group A–type B, group B–type A, and group A–type A (P < 0.05). The distance of shoulder subluxation showed significant correlation with improvement of the finger extensor (moderate negative correlation, r = −0.37) and improvement of the Modified Brunnstrom Classification (weak negative correlation, r = −0.29) (P < 0.05). The presence of shoulder subluxation at the early stage of stroke can be a predictor of motor outcome of the affected upper extremity and the degree of shoulder subluxation can be a predictor of the motor function of the affected hand. Therefore, our results suggest that shoulder subluxation in relation to the affected CST state at the early stage of stroke can be a prognostic factor for motor outcome. PMID:27512873

  18. Jasmonate signaling is activated in the very early stages of iron deficiency responses in rice roots.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Senoura, Takeshi; Oikawa, Takaya; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Minoru; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2016-07-01

    Under low iron availability, plants induce the expression of various genes involved in iron uptake and translocation at the transcriptional level. This iron deficiency response is affected by various plant hormones, but the roles of jasmonates in this response are not well-known. We investigated the involvement of jasmonates in rice iron deficiency responses. High rates of jasmonate-inducible genes were induced during the very early stages of iron deficiency treatment in rice roots. Many jasmonate-inducible genes were also negatively regulated by the ubiquitin ligases OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and positively regulated by the transcription factor IDEF1. Ten out of 35 genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were rapidly induced at 3 h of iron deficiency treatment, and this induction preceded that of known iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation. Twelve genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were also upregulated in HRZ-knockdown roots. Endogenous concentrations of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl isoleucine tended to be rapidly increased in roots in response to iron deficiency treatment, whereas these concentrations were higher in HRZ-knockdown roots under iron-sufficient conditions. Analysis of the jasmonate-deficient cpm2 mutant revealed that jasmonates repress the expression of many iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation under iron sufficiency, but this repression is partly canceled under an early stage of iron deficiency. These results indicate that jasmonate signaling is activated during the very early stages of iron deficiency, which is partly regulated by IDEF1 and OsHRZs. PMID:27143046

  19. Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

    2011-12-01

    Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 μatm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 μatm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which could lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

  20. Overlapping DNA Methylation Dynamics in Mouse Intestinal Cell Differentiation and Early Stages of Malignant Progression

    PubMed Central

    Forn, Marta; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Merlos-Suárez, Anna; Muñoz, Mar; Lois, Sergi; Carriò, Elvira; Jordà, Mireia; Bigas, Anna; Batlle, Eduard; Peinado, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of intestinal crypt cell differentiation and tumorigenesis have been used to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying both processes. DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark and plays an important role in cell identity and differentiation programs and cancer. To get insights into the dynamics of cell differentiation and malignant transformation we have compared the DNA methylation profiles along the mouse small intestine crypt and early stages of tumorigenesis. Genome-scale analysis of DNA methylation together with microarray gene expression have been applied to compare intestinal crypt stem cells (EphB2high), differentiated cells (EphB2negative), ApcMin/+ adenomas and the corresponding non-tumor adjacent tissue, together with small and large intestine samples and the colon cancer cell line CT26. Compared with late stages, small intestine crypt differentiation and early stages of tumorigenesis display few and relatively small changes in DNA methylation. Hypermethylated loci are largely shared by the two processes and affect the proximities of promoter and enhancer regions, with enrichment in genes associated with the intestinal stem cell signature and the PRC2 complex. The hypermethylation is progressive, with minute levels in differentiated cells, as compared with intestinal stem cells, and reaching full methylation in advanced stages. Hypomethylation shows different signatures in differentiation and cancer and is already present in the non-tumor tissue adjacent to the adenomas in ApcMin/+ mice, but at lower levels than advanced cancers. This study provides a reference framework to decipher the mechanisms driving mouse intestinal tumorigenesis and also the human counterpart. PMID:25933092

  1. Biopsy Findings After Breast Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vapiwala, Neha Starzyk, Jill; Harris, Eleanor E.; Tchou, Julia C.; Boraas, Marcia C.; Czerniecki, Brian J.; Rosato, Ernest F.; Orel, Susan G.; Solin, Lawrence J.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the patterns and factors predictive of positive ipsilateral breast biopsy after conservation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of Stage I-II breast cancer patients initially treated with lumpectomy and radiotherapy between 1977 and 1996, who later underwent post-treatment ipsilateral breast biopsies. Results: A total of 223 biopsies were performed in 193 treated breasts: 171 single and 22 multiple biopsies. Of the 223 biopsies, 56% were positive and 44% were negative for recurrence. The positive biopsy rate (PBR) was 59% for the first and 32% for subsequent biopsies. The median time to the first post-treatment biopsy was 49 months. Of the patients with negative initial biopsy findings, 11% later developed local recurrence. The PBR was 40% among patients with physical examination findings only, 65% with mammographic abnormalities only, and 79% with both findings (p = 0.001). Analysis of the procedure type revealed a PBR of 86% for core and 58% for excisional biopsies compared with 28% for aspiration cytology alone (p = 0.025). The PBR varied inversely with age at the original diagnosis: 49% if {>=}51 years, 57% if 36-50 years, and 83% if {<=}35 years (p = 0.05). The PBR correlated directly with the interval after radiotherapy: 49% if {<=}60 months, 59% if 60.1-120 months, 77% if 120.1-180 months, and 100% if >180 months after completing postlumpectomy radiotherapy (p = 0.01). The PBR was not linked with recurrence location, initial pathologic T or N stage, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or final pathologic margins (all p {>=} 0.15). Conclusion: After definitive radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, a greater PBR was associated with the presence of both mammographic and clinical abnormalities, excisional or core biopsies, younger age at the initial diagnosis, and longer intervals after radiotherapy completion.

  2. Cortical hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in Parkinson's disease is extensive: probably even at early disease stages.

    PubMed

    Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, Mallar; Jonsdottir, Kristjana Yr; Sato, Noriko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ito, Kengo; Arahata, Yutaka; Kato, Takashi; Gjedde, Albert

    2010-05-01

    Recent cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glucose consumption (CMRglc) studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) revealed conflicting results. Using simulated data, we previously demonstrated that the often-reported subcortical hypermetabolism in PD could be explained as an artifact of biased global mean (GM) normalization, and that low-magnitude, extensive cortical hypometabolism is best detected by alternative data-driven normalization methods. Thus, we hypothesized that PD is characterized by extensive cortical hypometabolism but no concurrent widespread subcortical hypermetabolism and tested it on three independent samples of PD patients. We compared SPECT CBF images of 32 early-stage and 33 late-stage PD patients with that of 60 matched controls. We also compared PET FDG images from 23 late-stage PD patients with that of 13 controls. Three different normalization methods were compared: (1) GM normalization, (2) cerebellum normalization, (3) reference cluster normalization (Yakushev et al.). We employed standard voxel-based statistics (fMRIstat) and principal component analysis (SSM). Additionally, we performed a meta-analysis of all quantitative CBF and CMRglc studies in the literature to investigate whether the global mean (GM) values in PD are decreased. Voxel-based analysis with GM normalization and the SSM method performed similarly, i.e., both detected decreases in small cortical clusters and concomitant increases in extensive subcortical regions. Cerebellum normalization revealed more widespread cortical decreases but no subcortical increase. In all comparisons, the Yakushev method detected nearly identical patterns of very extensive cortical hypometabolism. Lastly, the meta-analyses demonstrated that global CBF and CMRglc values are decreased in PD. Based on the results, we conclude that PD most likely has widespread cortical hypometabolism, even at early disease stages. In contrast, extensive subcortical hypermetabolism is probably not a feature of PD. PMID

  3. [Further understanding on myocardial damage in the early stage post severe burn and its clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Huang, Y S

    2016-05-20

    A series of studies demonstrated that myocardial damage and cardiac dysfunction occurs immediately following severe burn, even before significant reduction in blood volume due to increased capillary permeability. Such myocardial damage and cardiac dysfunction leads to cardiac deficiency, and it is a precipitating factor for burn shock and ischemic/hypoxic injury. In recent years, many experimental and clinical studies elucidated the pathogenesis and confirmed the clinical importance of prevention and treatment of"shock heart"in the early stage post severe burn. PMID:27188482

  4. The Evolving Role of Radiotherapy in Early Stage Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ricardi, Umberto; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Piva, Cristina; Franco, Pierfrancesco

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy has a key role in the combined modality treatment of early-stage Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL). Nevertheless, late toxicity still remains an issue. A modern approach in HL radiotherapy includes lower doses and smaller fields, together with the implementation of sophisticated and dedicated delivery techniques. Aim of the present review is to discuss the current role of radiotherapy and its potential future developments, with a focus on major clinical trials, technological advances and their repercussion in the clinical management of HL patients. PMID:24959332

  5. 'Making the best you can of it': living with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Macrae, Hazel

    2008-04-01

    Drawing upon data from a qualitative study of persons who are in the early stage of the condition, this paper examines the meaning of Alzheimer's disease. It contrasts the meaning of the disease as portrayed in popular culture with its meaning as interpreted by persons living with it. Findings show that persons with the illness do not necessarily accept the negative cultural meaning of the disease, nor the helpless 'victim' role in which they are generally cast. With a determination to 'make the best of it', strategies such as humour, normalisation, present-time orientation, and life review are employed to create a meaningful life. PMID:18298633

  6. Composition effects on the early-stage oxidation kinetics of (001) Cu-Au alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G.-W.; Eastman, J. A.; Birtcher, R. C.; Baldo, P. M.; Pearson, J. E.; Thompson, L. J.; Wang, L.; Yang, J. C.

    2007-02-01

    An in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy study of the nucleation and growth of oxide islands during the early-stage oxidation of (001) Cu1-xAux alloys (x⩽38at.%) was undertaken in order to investigate the effects of alloying on oxide island nucleation behavior and growth kinetics. The kinetic data reveal that Au enhances the nucleation density of oxide islands and suppresses their growth rate. Our results provide insight into reasons for the decreased passivation properties of Cu when alloyed with Au.

  7. Clinical results of early stage prostatic cancer treated by pelvic lymphadenectomy and /sup 125/I implants

    SciTech Connect

    Kandzari, S.J.; Belis, J.A.; Kim, J.C.; Gnepp, D.R.; Riley, R.S.

    1982-05-01

    Eighty patients with clinically early stage adenocarcinoma of the prostate were treated with pelvic lymphadenectomy and interstitial implantation of /sup 125/I seeds. A new applicator that permits greater accuracy in spacing the seeds has been developed. Postoperative complications were minimal, with urinary irritability being the most common. Multiple transrectal needle biopsies were performed 12 and 18 months after treatment in 46 patients. The prostatic biopsies were negative for carcinoma in 61 per cent and positive in 39 per cent of the patients. Long-term followup is needed to correlate post-treatment biopsies with survival and to determine if patients with positive biopsies should receive further treatment.

  8. A Model of Isotope Separation in Cells at the Early Stages of Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, A. V.; Bokunyaeva, A. O.

    2016-03-01

    The separation of the isotopes of certain ions can serve as an important criterion for the presence of life in the early stages of its evolution. A model of the separation of isotopes during their transport through the cell membrane is constructed. The dependence of the selection coefficient on various parameters is found. In particular, it is shown that the maximum efficiency of the transport of ions corresponds to the minimum enrichment coefficient. At the maximum enrichment, the efficiency of the transport system approaches ½. Calculated enrichment coefficients are compared with experimentally obtained values for different types of cells, and the comparison shows a qualitative agreement between these quantities.

  9. Clean Energy Finance: Challenges and Opportunities of Early-Stage Energy Investing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heap, D.; Pless, J.; Aieta, N.

    2013-12-01

    Characterized by a changing landscape and new opportunities, today's increasingly complex energy decision space will need innovative financing and investment models to appropriately assess risk and profitability. This report provides an overview of the current state of clean energy finance across the entire spectrum but with a focus on early stage investing, and it includes insights from investors across all investment classes. Further, this report aims to provide a roadmap with the mechanisms, limitations, and considerations involved in making successful investments by identifying risks, challenges, and opportunities in the clean energy sector.

  10. Origin of the Directed Movement of Protocells in the Early Stages of the Evolution of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Chesnokova, Oksana I.

    2012-08-01

    The origin of the directed motion of protocells during the early stages of evolution was discussed. The expenditures for movement, space orientation, and reception of information about the environment were taken into consideration, and it was shown that directed movement is evolutionarily advantageous in the following cases: when opposite gradients of different resources (for example, matter and energy) are great enough and when there is a rapid change in environmental parameters. It was also shown that the advantage of directed movement strategies depends greatly on how information about the environment is obtained by a protocell.

  11. Origin of the directed movement of protocells in the early stages of the evolution of life.

    PubMed

    Melkikh, Alexey V; Chesnokova, Oksana I

    2012-08-01

    The origin of the directed motion of protocells during the early stages of evolution was discussed. The expenditures for movement, space orientation, and reception of information about the environment were taken into consideration, and it was shown that directed movement is evolutionarily advantageous in the following cases: when opposite gradients of different resources (for example, matter and energy) are great enough and when there is a rapid change in environmental parameters. It was also shown that the advantage of directed movement strategies depends greatly on how information about the environment is obtained by a protocell. PMID:22772806

  12. Nonlinear Langevin model for the early-stage dynamics of electrospinning jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauricella, Marco; Pontrelli, Giuseppe; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro

    2015-09-01

    We present a nonlinear Langevin model to investigate the early-stage dynamics of electrified polymer jets in electrospinning experiments. In particular, we study the effects of air drag force on the uniaxial elongation of the charged jet, right after ejection from the nozzle. Numerical simulations show that the elongation of the jet filament close to the injection point is significantly affected by the nonlinear drag exerted by the surrounding air. These results provide useful insights for the optimal design of current and future electrospinning experiments.

  13. Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; De Coensel, Bert; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Botteldooren, Dick; Hostens, Kris; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenically generated underwater noise in the marine environment is ubiquitous, comprising both intense impulse and continuous noise. The installation of offshore wind farms across the North Sea has triggered a range of ecological questions regarding the impact of anthropogenically produced underwater noise on marine wildlife. Our interest is on the impact on the "passive drifters," i.e., the early life stages of fish that form the basis of fish populations and are an important prey for pelagic predators. This study deals with the impact of pile driving and operational noise generated at offshore wind farms on Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass) larvae. PMID:26610960

  14. Scintigraphic appearance of the tibia in the early stages following fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, P.J.; Barsoum, M.K.; Clayton, C.B.

    1983-05-01

    A scintigraphic study of the human tibia in the early stages following fracture of the shaft was carried out to investigate the condition of the blood supply of the main fracture fragments. Using a gamma camera and 99mTc-MDP, scintigraphs were obtained from less than 24 hours to 21 days after injury. A generalized increase in tracer uptake was found in the tibia in all cases. In some cases very early after injury there was an additional local increase at the fracture site. In 10% of cases ''cold spots'' were observed, which may indicate an impaired blood supply to bone tissue adjacent to the fracture. Neither the presence of a ''cold spot'' nor any other scintigraphic feature could be correlated with the progress or time to fracture union.

  15. Adventitial fibroblasts are activated in the early stages of atherosclerosis in the apolipoprotein E knockout mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Fang; Ji Jian; Li Li; Chen Rong; Hu Weicheng . E-mail: huweicheng@sdu.edu.cn

    2007-01-19

    The role of the adventitia in vascular function and vascular lesion formation has been largely ignored. This study observed the activation of the adventitia and specifically the fibroblasts in the development of atherosclerosis in the apoE(-/-) mouse. The results showed a gradual increase in expression of collagen types I and III after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of hyperlipidic diet. The earliest expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) protein and mRNA was detected in the adventitial fibroblast before the formation of intimal lesions. Proliferation, too, was first found in the adventitial fibroblasts. We hypothesize that the adventitial fibroblast is activated in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Adventitial inflammation may be an early event in the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  16. Selective attention to signs of success: social dominance and early stage interpersonal perception.

    PubMed

    Maner, Jon K; DeWall, C Nathan; Gailliot, Matthew T

    2008-04-01

    Results from two experiments suggest that observers selectively attend to male, but not female, targets displaying signs of social dominance. Participants overestimated the frequency of dominant men in rapidly presented stimulus arrays (Study 1) and visually fixated on dominant men in an eyetracking experiment (Study 2). When viewing female targets, participants attended to signs of physical attractiveness rather than social dominance. Findings fit with evolutionary models of mating, which imply that dominance and physical attractiveness sometimes tend to be prioritized preferentially in judgments of men versus women, respectively. Findings suggest that sex differences in human mating are observed not only at the level of overt mating preferences and choices but also at early stages of interpersonal perception. This research demonstrates the utility of examining early-in-the-stream social cognition through the functionalist lens of adaptive thinking. PMID:18192434

  17. The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish.

    PubMed

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Berankova, Petra; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the early-life stage toxicity test on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with tramadol hydrochloride. The FET was performed using the method inspired by the OECD guideline 236. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 144h. An embryo-larval toxicity test on C. carpio was performed according to OECD guideline 210 also with tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 32 days. Hatching was significantly influenced in both acute and subchronic toxicity assays. Subchronic exposure also influenced early ontogeny, both morphometric and condition characteristics and caused changes in antioxidant enzyme activity. The LOEC value was found to be 10μg/l tramadol hydrochloride. PMID:27208654

  18. Impact of [{sup 18}F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Staging and Management of Early-Stage Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Andrew Foo, Marcus; Seymour, John F.; MacManus, Michael P.; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Accurate staging is critical to select patients with early-stage (I-II) follicular lymphoma (ESFL) suitable for involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) and to define the radiotherapy portal. We evaluated the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET on staging, treatment, and outcome for patients with ESFL on conventional staging. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with untreated ESFL (World Health Organization Grade I-IIIa, or 'low grade') following a minimum of physical examination, computerized tomography, and bone marrow examination (conventional assessment) and who had staging PET from June 1997 to June 2006 were studied retrospectively. Stage allocation was based on routine imaging reports. Disease sites, stage, and management plan were recorded based on conventional assessment or conventional assessment plus PET. Results: FDG avidity was demonstrated in 97% of patients in whom disease was evident on conventional assessment after biopsy. PET findings suggested a change of stage or management in 19 patients: 13 (31%) who were upstaged to Stage III-IV, altering ideal management from IFRT to systemic therapy, and 6 (14%) who had the involved field enlarged, including 4 upstaged from Stage I to II. Of these 19 cases, PET findings were considered true positive in 8 patients, indeterminate in 10, and false positive in only 1 patient. Conclusions: Our data confirm that ESFL is usually FDG-avid. In routine practice, PET has the potential to upstage and thereby alter management in a high proportion of patients with apparent ESFL.

  19. Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of blood mononuclear cells link with cardiac disturbance in patients with early-stage heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Fang; Li, Yingsha; Li, Qiang; Lang, Hongmei; Zhao, Zhigang; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Yu; Shang, Qianhui; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiometabolic risk factors and asymptomatic cardiac hypertrophy are hallmarks of early-stage heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) may be associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in early-stage HF patients complicated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Totally 49 subjects were enrolled with 25 early-stage HF patients (stages A and B) having cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction and 24 healthy controls. It showed that excessive inflammation and reduced antioxidant capacity were closely associated with cardiac abnormalities in early-stage HF patients. Furthermore, the values of mitochondrial respiratory functional parameters R, CIOXPHOS, CIIOXPHOS, CI+IIOXPHOS, CI+IIETS and CIIETS were significantly lowered in early-stage HF patients. Interestingly, these respiratory parameters were correlated with inflammation and antioxidant capacity in participants. Finally, cardiometabolic risk factors such as salt intake and blood pressure were related to the mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions, which were further validated by in vitro experiments. Our study indicated that cardiometabolic risk factor-mediated mitochondrial respiratory dysfunctions of PBMCs link with the cellular inflammation / oxidative stress and cardiac disturbance in early-stage HF. PMID:26018291

  20. Evidence of Altered Corticomotor System Connectivity in Early-Stage Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vidoni, Eric D.; Thomas, George P.; Honea, Robyn A.; Loskutova, Natalia; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose There is increasing evidence for subtle motor dysfunction early in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), including common motor behaviors that were once considered unaffected early in the disease process. Our objective was to assess if functional neural networks underlying motor behavior are altered by AD. Methods We investigated AD-related differences in regional brain activation during motor performance. Nine older adults with early-stage AD and 10 without dementia underwent fMRI while performing a visually-directed simple motor task (hand squeeze). Results Despite some similarity in brain activation during motor performance, we found that individuals without dementia exhibited greater activation in accessory motor regions supplementary motor area and cerebellum compared to those with AD. We also assessed disease-related differences in regions where activity was functionally integrated with primary motor cortex. Using a psycho-physiological interaction analysis, we found that those with AD displayed increased co-activation with primary motor cortex of bilateral motor and visual regions. Discussion and Conclusions These AD-related changes in regional co-activation during motor execution in may represent inefficiency in the motor network as a consequence of the disease process. Alternatively, they may represent compensatory activation. These findings provide further evidence that in early-stages of AD, neuromotor function is altered in AD even during simple motor behaviors. The results may have implications for performance of more complex tasks, and may be associated with the well-characterized decline in dual task performance in those with AD. PMID:22333920

  1. Early outcomes of one-stage combined osteotomy in Legg-Calve´-Perthes disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Basant Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Legg-Calve´-Perthes disease (LCPD) is an idiopathic avascular necrosis of the femoral head. There are multiple approaches to the treatment of LCPD ranging from conservative management to a wide variety of surgical methods. Conservative management necessitates extreme degrees of abduction in an orthosis for a longer period of time which further jeopardize capital femoral head vascularity. Surgical containment methods are used in cases where it is desirable. Initial surgical containment methods are varus or varus-derotational osteotomy of the proximal femur or an innominate osteotomy as described by Salter and other pelvic osteotomies. The purpose of this study was to describe the early results of containment methods by one-stage combined osteotomy (femoral varus osteotomy and Salter innominate osteotomy) in patients with severe LCPD. Materials and Methods: 23 children were operated in the age group of 4–9 years for LCPD by one-stage combined osteotomy procedure between January 2005 and June 2012. There were 19 boys and 4 girls, left hip involved in 10 cases and right in 13 cases. Preoperatively, they were classified according to Catterall, Joseph's stage and lateral pillar (LP) classification. Postoperatively, clinical results were evaluated in accordance with Ratliff classification and radiological assessment was made by Mose's index, modified Stulberg classification and Epiphyseal extrusion index. Results: Seventeen hips were Catterall group III, 6 in group IV and all had two or more “head-at-risk” signs. There were 2 patients with stage IIA, 15 were in stage IIB and 6 were in stage IIIA as classified by Joseph's stage of disease. According to LP classification, 11 patients were group B, 3 were group B/C and 9 were in group C. At an average followup of 5.4 years (range 2–9.5 years), the clinical results were good in 12, fair in 9 and poor in 2. According to Mose scale, 8 patients had good results, 13 fair results and 2 had poor results. Based

  2. Different soil respiration responses to litter manipulation in three subtropical successional forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Xiao, Yin

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground litter inputs have been greatly altered by human disturbances and climate change, which have important effects on soil respiration. However, the knowledge of how soil respiration responds to altered litter inputs is limited in tropical and subtropical forests. We conducted an aboveground litterfall manipulation experiment in three successional forests in the subtropics to examine the soil respiration responses to different litter inputs from January 2010 to July 2012. The soil respiration decreased by 35% in the litter exclusion treatments and increased by 77% in the doubled litter additions across all three forests. The reduction in soil respiration induced by the litter exclusion was greatest in the early successional forest, which may be related to a decrease in the soil moisture and shifts in the microbial community. The increase in soil respiration produced by the doubled litter addition was largest in the mature forest, which was most probably due to its relatively high quantity and quality of litterfall. Our results suggest that the effect of reduced litter inputs on the soil respiration lessened with forest succession but that the doubled litter inputs resulted in a stronger priming effect in the mature forest than in the other two forests.

  3. Different soil respiration responses to litter manipulation in three subtropical successional forests

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Xiao, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground litter inputs have been greatly altered by human disturbances and climate change, which have important effects on soil respiration. However, the knowledge of how soil respiration responds to altered litter inputs is limited in tropical and subtropical forests. We conducted an aboveground litterfall manipulation experiment in three successional forests in the subtropics to examine the soil respiration responses to different litter inputs from January 2010 to July 2012. The soil respiration decreased by 35% in the litter exclusion treatments and increased by 77% in the doubled litter additions across all three forests. The reduction in soil respiration induced by the litter exclusion was greatest in the early successional forest, which may be related to a decrease in the soil moisture and shifts in the microbial community. The increase in soil respiration produced by the doubled litter addition was largest in the mature forest, which was most probably due to its relatively high quantity and quality of litterfall. Our results suggest that the effect of reduced litter inputs on the soil respiration lessened with forest succession but that the doubled litter inputs resulted in a stronger priming effect in the mature forest than in the other two forests. PMID:26656136

  4. Different soil respiration responses to litter manipulation in three subtropical successional forests.

    PubMed

    Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Xiao, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground litter inputs have been greatly altered by human disturbances and climate change, which have important effects on soil respiration. However, the knowledge of how soil respiration responds to altered litter inputs is limited in tropical and subtropical forests. We conducted an aboveground litterfall manipulation experiment in three successional forests in the subtropics to examine the soil respiration responses to different litter inputs from January 2010 to July 2012. The soil respiration decreased by 35% in the litter exclusion treatments and increased by 77% in the doubled litter additions across all three forests. The reduction in soil respiration induced by the litter exclusion was greatest in the early successional forest, which may be related to a decrease in the soil moisture and shifts in the microbial community. The increase in soil respiration produced by the doubled litter addition was largest in the mature forest, which was most probably due to its relatively high quantity and quality of litterfall. Our results suggest that the effect of reduced litter inputs on the soil respiration lessened with forest succession but that the doubled litter inputs resulted in a stronger priming effect in the mature forest than in the other two forests. PMID:26656136

  5. Changes in sexual problems over time in women with and without early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Maria; Liu, Ying; Schootman, Mario; Aft, Rebecca L.; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Gillanders, William E.; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate whether age-matched women with and without early-stage breast cancer differentially experience sexual problems over time and whether changes in patients’ problems differ by surgery type. Methods We conducted four interviews (4–6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years) after surgery (patients) or a negative/benign screening mammogram (controls). Mixed-effects models with repeated ordinal measurements tested effects of time and diagnostic group (stages 0, I, IIA vs. controls) and, for patients, effects of time and type of surgery (mastectomy vs. lumpectomy), on a newly developed 9-item sexual-problems measure. Two-sided P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Using data from 1033 women (17.3% stage 0, 33.4% stage I/IIA, 49.3% controls; mean age 57.1; 23.1% non-white; 64.7% married), two factors measuring problems with sexual attractiveness and sexual interest/enjoyment emerged in exploratory factor analysis (alpha ≥ .74 for each subscale and the 9-item measure). Patients and controls reported few sexual problems on average, but compared with baseline, controls were more likely to report sexual problems on the 9-item measure over time, and stage I patients were less likely to report problems with sexual attractiveness over time (each P < 0.05). Patients with mastectomy (35.7%) were 2.7 times more likely to report sexual problems on the 9-item measure at 2-year follow-up compared with baseline (P = 0.0339). Conclusions Patients and controls experienced few sexual problems over time and, in fact, controls were more likely to report sexual problems at subsequent interviews, whereas patients did not. PMID:20461020

  6. The Problems of Replication in the Early Stages of Evolution: Enumeration of Variants and Spatial Configurations of Replicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.

    2014-12-01

    Two main problems of replication in the early stages of evolution are discussed: the problem of exponentially large number of conformational degrees of freedom and the problem of enumeration of variants.

  7. A comparison of seed banks across a sand dune successional gradient at Lake Michigan dunes (Indiana, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, S. A.; Pavlovic, N.B.; Grundel, R.; Frohnapple, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    In habitats where disturbance is frequent, seed banks are important for the regeneration of vegetation. Sand dune systems are dynamic habitats in which sand movement provides intermittent disturbance. As succession proceeds from bare sand to forest, the disturbance decreases. At Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, we examined the seed banks of three habitat types across a successional gradient: foredunes, secondary dunes, and oak savanna. There were differences among the types of species that germinated from each of the habitats. The mean seed bank density increased across the successional gradient by habitat, from 376 to 433 to 968 seeds m-2, but with foredune and secondary dune seed bank densities being significantly lower than the savanna seed bank density. The number of seeds germinated was significantly correlated with soil organic carbon, demonstrating for this primary successional sequence that seed density increases with stage and age. The seed bank had much lower species richness than that of the aboveground vegetation across all habitats. Among sites within a habitat type, the similarity of species germinated from the seed banks was very low, illustrating the variability of the seed bank even in similar habitat types. These results suggest that restoration of these habitats cannot rely on seed banks alone. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  8. Late, not early, stages of Kanizsa shape perception are compromised in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Brian P.; Joseph, Jamie; Silverstein, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric disorder characterized by symptoms including delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thought. Kanizsa shape perception is a basic visual process that builds illusory contour and shape representations from spatially segregated edges. Recent studies have shown that schizophrenia patients exhibit abnormal electrophysiological signatures during Kanizsa shape perception tasks, but it remains unclear how these abnormalities are manifested behaviorally and whether they arise from early or late levels in visual processing. Method To address this issue, we had healthy controls and schizophrenia patients discriminate quartets of sectored circles that either formed or did not form illusory shapes (illusory and fragmented conditions, respectively). Half of the trials in each condition incorporated distractor lines, which are known to disrupt illusory contour formation and thereby worsen illusory shape discrimination. Results Relative to their respective fragmented conditions, patients performed worse than controls in the illusory discrimination. Conceptually disorganized patients—characterized by their incoherent manner of speaking—were primarily driving the effect. Regardless of patient status or disorganization levels, distractor lines worsened discrimination more in the illusory than the fragmented condition, indicating that all groups could form illusory contours. Conclusion People with schizophrenia form illusory contours but are less able to utilize those contours to discern global shape. The impairment is especially related to the ability to think and speak coherently. These results suggest that Kanizsa shape perception incorporates an early illusory contour formation stage and a later, conceptually-mediated shape integration stage, with the latter being primarily compromised in schizophrenia. PMID:24513023

  9. Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. PMID:20161971

  10. Current concepts and controversies in the management of early stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Lauren S.; Lee, Mark; Advani, Ranjana H.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, due to the recognition of late effects related to high-dose extended field radiotherapy and heavy alkylator chemotherapy, combined modality therapy with abbreviated chemotherapy and limited field radiotherapy has emerged as the standard of care for early stage Hodgkin lymphoma, with cure rates in excess of 80%. Currently, however, controversy remains over identifying the most appropriate criteria to risk-stratify patients with early stage disease, so that those with a favorable prognosis receive limited treatment without compromising cure rates and those with unfavorable risk receive more intensified therapy. The optimal risk stratification system remains unclear, with variable definitions of favorable and unfavorable disease used by research groups in North America and Europe. Thus, comparison of clinical trial results has been challenging, and additional controversies persist regarding optimal chemotherapy regimens, duration of therapy, and the role of radiotherapy. Investigations are ongoing to assess the potential of functional imaging and biomarkers as tools for risk stratification. The collective goal is to further refine current stratification strategies to allow for an individualized, risk-adapted treatment approach that minimizes long-term late effects without compromising high cure rates. PMID:21463118

  11. Uncovering Driver DNA Methylation Events in Nonsmoking Early Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Songwei; Chen, Luonan

    2016-01-01

    As smoking rates decrease, proportionally more cases with lung adenocarcinoma occur in never-smokers, while aberrant DNA methylation has been suggested to contribute to the tumorigenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. It is extremely difficult to distinguish which genes play key roles in tumorigenic processes via DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing from a large number of differentially methylated genes. By integrating gene expression and DNA methylation data, a pipeline combined with the differential network analysis is designed to uncover driver methylation genes and responsive modules, which demonstrate distinctive expressions and network topology in tumors with aberrant DNA methylation. Totally, 135 genes are recognized as candidate driver genes in early stage lung adenocarcinoma and top ranked 30 genes are recognized as driver methylation genes. Functional annotation and the differential network analysis indicate the roles of identified driver genes in tumorigenesis, while literature study reveals significant correlations of the top 30 genes with early stage lung adenocarcinoma in never-smokers. The analysis pipeline can also be employed in identification of driver epigenetic events for other cancers characterized by matched gene expression data and DNA methylation data. PMID:27610367

  12. Development sites and early stages of eleven species of Clusiidae (Diptera) occurring in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rotheray, Graham E; Horsfield, David

    2013-01-01

    Two hundred and ninety-six rearing records of 11 clusiid species (Diptera, Clusiidae) were obtained from 8 tree species in England, Finland, France, Norway, Russia and Scotland, mainly during the period 1994 to 2004. Larvae and puparia were found between annual layers of whitewood (sapwood and heartwood) of wet, decay-softened, dead wood. Levels of host tree specificity were low, most species were reared from 2-4 host trees, maximum 6. The clusiid larva is distinguished by: a small, translucent head skeleton with an obliquely-shaped apex to the artium; a pseudocephalon fixed in an inverted position except for an external, flattened section bearing the antennomaxillary organs; a spherical prothorax with a truncate rim embedded with sensilla and, a wedge-shaped anal segment bearing a pair of conspicuous, sclerotised, red-brown hooks on the inner margins of which are the posterior spiracular plates. Many of these features support a distinctive feeding mechanism, spot-sucking of biofilm coating wet, decaying whitewood. Early stage characters support the results of recent supraspecific taxonomic and systematic investigations, such as the synonymy of Paraclusia Czerny under Clusia Haliday and the recognition of species groups in Clusiodes Coquillett. Based on early stages, supraspecific clusiid taxa are easily recognised but at species level, differences are relatively fine-grained and minor. A key is provided to identify puparia of species reared in this study. PMID:26131483

  13. Proliferative potential and p53 overexpression in precursor and early stage lesions of bronchioloalveolar lung carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, H.; Kameda, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Nakatani, Y.; Inayama, Y.; Iida, M.; Noda, K.; Ogawa, N.; Shibagaki, T.; Kanisawa, M.

    1995-01-01

    To elucidate the pathogenesis of bronchioloalveolar lung carcinoma (BAC), we evaluated the lesion size, growth fraction, and p53 overexpression of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) and early stage BAC. AAH was classified as showing low grade or high grade atypia. AAH-like carcinoma, presumably very early stage BAC, was distinguished from AAH in that it exhibited remarkable atypia suggestive of malignant potential and from overt BAC in that it lacked unequivocal malignant features, including invasive/destructive growth. The growth fraction was determined immunohistochemically in terms of the Ki-67 labeling index. The overexpression of p53 was evaluated by assessing the nuclear accumulation of immunoreactive p53 protein. Both the lesion size and the growth fraction increased from low grade AAH, to high grade AAH, to AAH-like carcinoma, and to overt adenocarcinoma. The overexpression of p53 in AAH-like carcinoma was similar to that in overt adenocarcinoma and was more frequent than that in AAH. Our findings indicate that AAH, AAH-like carcinoma, and overt BAC represent different categories, although the cellular events occurring in these lesions presumably represent a continuous spectrum of the changes that are reflected in the cytomorphology and lesion size. The findings here suggest that AAH and AAH-like carcinomas constitute a population of heterogeneous lesions representing different steps toward overt BAC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7717455

  14. Time-resolved EUV spectroscopy in the early stage of laser ablation of carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseleur, Pierre; Hansen, Tue N.; Larour, Jean; Lunney, James G.

    2002-09-01

    In the early stages of laser ablation the combination of high density and optical opacity makes it difficult to use visible spectroscopy for plasma diagnosis. However, these problems can be overcome by working at shorter wavelengths in the EUV. We have used time-resolved EUV emission spectroscopy to study the early stages (1-30 ns) of plasma development in the laser ablation of carbon at an irradiance of 5 GW cm -2. The ablation was done using a 6 ns Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 μm. The spectra were recorded using a grazing incidence spectrometer with a 5 ns-gated micro-channel plate (MCP) detector. An ion probe operating in the time-of-flight mode was used to measure the ion velocity distribution of the plasma outflow. In the 10-35 nm region the predominant line emission was due to Li-like carbon. The temporal variation of the electron density and temperature was deduced by fitting the observed spectrum to a synthetic spectrum calculated using the FLY numerical model of the plasma ionisation and excitation. The temperature deduced from spectroscopy was in good agreement with the estimation from the measured ion velocity distribution in the plasma outflow.

  15. Ultrastructural observations of the early and late stages of gorgonian coral (Junceella juncea) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Jhuang, Yating; Spikings, Emma; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lin, Chiahsin

    2014-08-01

    The developmental oogenesis of gorgonian coral was investigated at the histological level. The objective of this study was to examine and improve the understanding of Junceella juncea oogenesis using ultrastructural methods, such as histological sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. At least three types of yolk materials were observed in this study: yolk body, lipid granules and cortical alveoli. Some of the complex yolk materials were encompassed by concentric or arched layers of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex in early stage oocytes. Different types of vesicles were found in both early and late stage oocytes and some granules could be seen inside the empty vesicles. This may be a possible method for elaborating complex yolk materials. Homogeneous yolks from different types of inclusions were abundant and the autosynthesis of yolk may be a major mechanism in J. juncea oocytes. This is the first report of the ultrastructural observation of oogenesis in gorgonian coral species using transmission electron microscopy. Our study obtained relatively detailed information at the ultrastructural level, and it provides an overview of the oocyte ultrastucture of the gorgonian coral J. juncea. PMID:24973261

  16. Defective skeletogenesis and oversized otoliths in fish early stages in a changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Marta S; Faleiro, Filipa; Dionísio, Gisela; Repolho, Tiago; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Machado, Jorge; Rosa, Rui

    2014-06-15

    Early life stages of many marine organisms are being challenged by rising seawater temperature and CO₂ concentrations, but their physiological responses to these environmental changes still remain unclear. In the present study, we show that future predictions of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (ΔpH=0.5 units) may compromise the development of early life stages of a highly commercial teleost fish, Solea senegalensis. Exposure to future conditions caused a decline in hatching success and larval survival. Growth, metabolic rates and thermal tolerance increased with temperature but decreased under acidified conditions. Hypercapnia and warming amplified the incidence of deformities by 31.5% (including severe deformities such as lordosis, scoliosis and kyphosis), while promoting the occurrence of oversized otoliths (109.3% increase). Smaller larvae with greater skeletal deformities and larger otoliths may face major ecophysiological challenges, which might potentiate substantial declines in adult fish populations, putting in jeopardy the species' fitness under a changing ocean. PMID:24625652

  17. Robotic Compartment-Based Radical Surgery in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Toptas, Tayfun; Uysal, Aysel; Ureyen, Isin; Erol, Onur; Simsek, Tayup

    2016-01-01

    A radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is the recommended treatment option in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Although various classifications were developed in order to define the resection margins of this operation, no clear standardization could be achieved both in the nomenclature and in the extent of the surgery. Total mesometrial resection (TMMR) is a novel procedure which aims to remove all components of the compartment formed by Müllerian duct in which female reproductive organs develop. TMMR differs from the conventional radical hysterectomy techniques in that its surgical philosophy, terminology, and partly resection borders are different. In this paper, a TMMR with therapeutic pelvic lymphadenectomy operation that we performed for the first time with robot-assisted laparoscopic (robotic) approach in an early-stage cervical cancer patient was presented. This procedure has already been described in open surgery by Michael Höckel and translated to the robotic surgery by Rainer Kimmig. Our report is the second paper, to our knowledge, to present the initial experience regarding robotic TMMR in the English literature. PMID:27195167

  18. Alteration of podocyte protein expression and localization in the early stage of various hemodynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Wang, Juan; Yin, Xiaohui; Zhai, Xiaoyue; Li, Zilong

    2013-01-01

    Given that podocalyxin (PCX) and nestin play important roles in podocyte morphogenesis and the maintenance of structural integrity, we examined whether the expression and localization of these two podocyte proteins were influenced in the early stage of various hemodynamic conditions. Mice kidney tissues were prepared by in vivo cryotechnique (IVCT). The distribution of glomeruli and podocyte proteins was visualized with DAB staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy. The mRNA levels were examined by real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed the following: Under the normal condition, PCX stained intensely along glomerular epithelial cells, whereas nestin was clearly staining in the endothelial cells and appeared only weakly in the podocytes. Under the acute hypertensive and cardiac arrest conditions, PCX and nestin staining was not clear, with a disarranged distribution, but the colocalization of PCX and nestin was apparent under this condition. In addition, under the acute hypertensive and cardiac arrest conditions, the mRNA levels of PCX and nestin were significantly decreased. Collectively, the abnormal redistribution and decreased mRNA expressions of PCX and nestin are important molecular events at the early stage of podocyte injury during hemodynamic disorders. IVCT may have more advantages for morphological analysis when researching renal diseases. PMID:23502465

  19. Lymph Node Micrometastases in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer are Not Predictive of Survival.

    PubMed

    Stany, Michael P; Stone, Pamela J B; Felix, Juan C; Amezcua, Charles A; Groshen, Susan; Ye, Wei; Kyser, Kathy L; Howard, Robin S; Zahn, Chris M; Muderspach, Laila I; Lentz, Scott E; Chernofsky, Mildred R

    2015-07-01

    Although patients with early-stage cervical cancer have in general a favorable prognosis, 10% to 40% patients still recur depending on pathologic risk factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the presence of lymph node micrometastasis (LNmM) had an impact on patient's survival. We performed a multi-institutional retrospective review on patients with early-stage cervical cancer, with histologically negative lymph nodes, treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for the study period 1994 to 2004. Tissue blocks of lymph nodes from the patient's original surgery were recut and then evaluated for the presence of micrometastases. One hundred twenty-nine patients were identified who met inclusion criteria. LNmM were found in 26 patients (20%). In an average follow-up time of 70 mo, there were 11 recurrences (8.5%). Of the 11 recurrences, 2 (18%) patients had LNmM. Patients with LNmM were more likely to have received adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. In stratified log-rank analysis, LNmM were not associated with any other high-risk clinical or pathologic variables. Survival data analysis did not demonstrate an association between the presence of LNmM and recurrence or overall survival. The presence of LNmM was not associated with an unfavorable prognosis nor was it associated with other high-risk clinical or pathologic variables predicting recurrence. Further study is warranted to understand the role of micrometastases in cervical cancer. PMID:26061072

  20. An early stage evaluation of the Supporting Program for Obstetric Care Underserved Areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Na, Baeg Ju; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jin Yong

    2014-06-01

    "The Supporting Program for Obstetric Care Underserved Areas (SPOU)" provides financial aids to rural community (or district) hospitals to reopen prenatal care and delivery services for regions without obstetrics and gynecology clinics or hospitals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early stage effect of the SPOU program. The proportion of the number of birth through SPOU was calculated by each region. Also survey was conducted to investigate the extent of overall satisfaction, elements of dissatisfaction, and suggestions for improvement of the program; 209 subjects participated from 7 to 12 December, 2012. Overall, 20% of pregnant women in Youngdong (71 cases) and Gangjin (106 cases) used their community (or district) hospitals through the SPOU whereas Yecheon (23 cases) was 8%; their satisfaction rates were high. Short distance and easy accessibility was the main reason among women choosing community (or district) hospital whereas the reasons of not selecting the community (or district) hospital were favor of the outside hospital's facility, system, and trust in the medical staffs. The SPOU seems to be currently effective at an early stage. However, to successfully implement this program, the government should make continuous efforts to recruit highly qualified medical staffs and improve medical facility and equipment. PMID:24932075

  1. The Chromosomes of Turkey Embryos during Early Stages of Parthenogenetic Development

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Ko; Buss, Edward G.

    1981-01-01

    In the early stages of parthenogenetic development in turkey eggs, many blastoderms are mosaics of haploid, diploid and polyploid cells. The genome composition of these blastoderms can be identified by C-banding. They may be generally described as either A-Z/2A-ZZ/nA-nZ or A-W/2A-WW/nA-nW and are found in a nearly 1:1 ratio. The blastoderms showing the W body (W+) become lethal within two days of incubation. The haploid cell proportion decreases rapidly during the early stage of development, and, as haploid cells decrease, the proportion of polyploid cells appears to increase. At six days of incubation, various kinds of parthenogenetic development can be observed. Their genome compositions are either diploid (2A-ZZ) or mosaic (A-Z/2A-ZZ). These findings suggest that diploid parthenogenesis occurs by either suppression of meiosis II or chromosome doubling some time after the first cleavage division. The frequent occurrence of mosaic blastoderms indicates that the majority, if not all, of the parthenogenetic embryos initiate their development in haploid ova. PMID:7327389

  2. A decision-analytic model for early stage breast cancer: lumpectomy vs mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Büyükdamgaci-Alogan, G; Elele, T; Hayran, M; Erman, M; Kiliçkap, S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to construct a decision model that incorporated patient preferences over differing health state prospects and to analyze the decision context of early stage breast cancer patients in relation to two main surgical treatment options. A Markov chain was constructed to project the clinical history of breast carcinoma following surgery. A Multi Attribute Utility Model was developed for outcome evaluation. Transition probabilities were obtained by using subjective probability assessment. This study was performed on the sample population of female university students and utilities were elicited from these healthy volunteers. The results were validated by using Standard Gamble technique. Finally, Monte Carlo Simulation was utilized in Treeage-Pro 2006-Suit software program in order to calculate expected utility generated by each treatment option. The results showed that, if the subject had mastectomy, mean value for the quality adjusted life years gained was 6.42; on the other hand, if the preference was lumpectomy, it was 7.00 out of a possible 10 years. Sensitivity analysis on transition probabilities to local recurrence and salvaged states was performed and two threshold values were observed. Additionally, sensitivity analysis on utilities showed that the model was more sensitive to no evidence of disease state; however, was not sensitive to utilities of local recurrence and salvaged states. The decision model was developed with reasonable success for early stage breast cancer patients, and tested by using general public data. The results obtained from these data showed that lumpectomy was more favourable for these participants. PMID:18348655

  3. Diagnosis of early-stage esophageal cancer by Raman spectroscopy and chemometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Mika; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Taketani, Akinori; Andriana, Bibin B; Ishihara, Ryu; Wongravee, Kanet; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2016-02-01

    Esophageal cancer is a disease with high mortality. In order to improve the 5 year survival rate after cancer treatment, it is important to develop a method for early detection of the cancer and for therapy support. There is increasing evidence that Raman spectroscopy, in combination with chemometric analysis, is a powerful technique for discriminating pre-cancerous and cancerous biochemical changes. In the present study, we used Raman spectroscopy to examine early-stage (stages 0 and I) esophageal cancer samples ex vivo. Comparison between the Raman spectra of cancerous and normal samples using a t-test showed decreased concentrations of glycogen, collagen, and tryptophan in cancerous tissue. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis and self-organization maps (SOMs) discriminated the datasets of cancerous and normal samples into two groups, but there was a relatively large overlap between them. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on Raman bands found in the t-test was able to predict the tissue types with 81.0% sensitivity and 94.0% specificity. PMID:26694647

  4. Protection induced by early stage vaccination with pandemic influenza virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gi-Ja; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2016-07-19

    The 2009 worldwide influenza pandemic emphasized the need for new approaches to develop emergency vaccines. In this study, a virus-like particle vaccine comprised of hemagglutinin (HA) and M1 from the pandemic influenza virus A/California/04/09 were used and its ability to induce protective immunity during the early stage of vaccination was assessed in a mouse model. A single intramuscular vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) provided protection on days 4 and 7 post-vaccination against lethal virus challenge with only moderate body weight loss. VLP vaccination induced significantly higher IgG antibody responses and high hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) titers on day 4 post-vaccination. A predominant IgG2a antibody response and viral neutralizing antibodies were induced on day 7. These immune responses were closely correlated with protection. Lung virus titers decreased significantly on day 7 compared to those on day 4 post-vaccination. The lung virus titer on day 4 post-vaccination also decreased significantly compared to that of the naïve control. These results demonstrate that VLP vaccination confers effective protection during the early stage after vaccination in a mouse model. PMID:27317263

  5. Towards non-invasive diagnostic imaging of early-stage Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Kirsten L.; Sbarboro, James; Sureka, Ruchi; de, Mrinmoy; Bicca, Maíra A.; Wang, Jane; Vasavada, Shaleen; Satpathy, Sreyesh; Wu, Summer; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Velasco, Pauline T.; Macrenaris, Keith; Waters, E. Alex; Lu, Chang; Phan, Joseph; Lacor, Pascale; Prasad, Pottumarthi; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Klein, William L.

    2015-01-01

    One way to image the molecular pathology in Alzheimer's disease is by positron emission tomography using probes that target amyloid fibrils. However, these fibrils are not closely linked to the development of the disease. It is now thought that early-stage biomarkers that instigate memory loss are composed of Aβ oligomers. Here, we report a sensitive molecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast probe that is specific for Aβ oligomers. We attach oligomer-specific antibodies onto magnetic nanostructures and show that the complex is stable and binds to Aβ oligomers on cells and brain tissues to give a magnetic resonance imaging signal. When intranasally administered to an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, the probe readily reached hippocampal Aβ oligomers. In isolated samples of human brain tissue, we observed a magnetic resonance imaging signal that distinguished Alzheimer's disease from controls. Such nanostructures that target neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are potentially useful for evaluating the efficacy of new drugs and ultimately for early-stage Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and disease management.

  6. Predictors of cognitive decline in the early stage of probable Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Marra, C; Silveri, M C; Gainotti, G

    2000-01-01

    Several papers have attempted to find neurological and neuropsychological predictors of progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) till now. Despite this quite large amount of works, different and not univocal conclusions have been reported in this field. Different study samples, different end-points and differences in statistical methods can explain much of the inconsistency in the results obtained. In our study, AD patients were examined in a very early stage of the disease to avoid any possible risk to examine subjects at different times of evolution. All the patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological test battery twice (baseline and follow-up) spaced out over about 1 year and were divided into two groups of fast decliners (FD) and slow decliners (SD) on the basis of their rate of decay at the MMSE score. Verbal memory tests, mental control abilities and attention-demanding tasks seem to play a pivotal role in distinguishing the two groups of subjects in the early stage of the disease. Moreover, FD patients show a worse performance than SD at the baseline in most of the cognitive domains explored. In conclusion, different subtypes of AD do exist and an important predictor of progression is represented by the severity of the cognitive impairment at the onset. PMID:10867447

  7. Behavior of homologous chromosomes in early meiotic stages of human spermatocytes as revealed by FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Am, I.; Avivi, L.; Mukame, E.

    1994-09-01

    The process by which homologous chromosomes recognize each other at the beginning of meiosis, prior to synapsis, is poorly understood. To gain a better understanding as to when, where and how a given chromosome approaches its pairing partner, chromosome behavior at early stages of meiosis in human spermatocytes was studied. Using multi-color FISH with centromeric- and telomeric-specific probes, as well as with whole chromosome DNA libraries, it was clearly aligned. Rather, similarly to non-homologous chromosomes, they were well separated from each other. At the commencement of synapsis, during the process of homology search, homologues underwent a drastic conformational change, elongating into strands that approached each other by their telomeres. Just preceding the co-alignment of the homologous centromeres, telomeres changed their interphase random distribution and occupied a confined region of the nuclear periphery. Following synapsis, telomeres spread over the whole nuclear periphery. These dynamics in the telomeres distribution, which are unique to early stages of meiosis, are presumably related to the role that telomeres play in the process of homology search and the commencement of synapsis.

  8. Clinical implications of insulin-like growth factor 1 system in early-stage cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y-F; Shen, M-R; Hsu, K-F; Cheng, Y-M; Chou, C-Y

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify the expression and the correlation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system and their prognostic impacts in cervical cancer. Seventy-two patients with early-stage cervical cancer were eligible. We obtained the serum levels of total IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the expression of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in cancerous tissue by immuno-fluorescent (IF) stains. The 5-year recurrence-free and overall survival rates were significantly lower (P=0.003 and P=0.01, respectively) among patients with high-grade expression of tissue IGF-1R, compared with those with low-grade expression. After adjustment for other factors, preoperative serum total IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 levels failed to predict cancer death and recurrence. High-grade expression of IGF-1R and elevated preoperative squamous cell carcinoma antigen level were independent predictors of both death and recurrence, and combination of both factors could further help identify the subgroup of patients at higher death risk. The IF staining indicates the colocalisation of IGF-1 and IGF-1R in the cancerous tissues, whereas the IGF-1R expression is not correlated with circulating levels of IGF-1 or IGFBP-3. In early-stage cervical cancer, IGF-1 system may have a paracrine or autocrine function and the adverse impacts on prognosis by IGF-1R overexpression are implicated. PMID:18781172

  9. Thermodynamics, morphology, and kinetics of early- stage self-assembly of pi-conjugated oligopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, Bryce; Tovar, John; Ferguson, Andrew

    Synthetic oligopeptides containing π-conjugated cores self-assemble novel materials with attractive electronic and photophysical properties. All-atom, explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of Asp-Phe-Ala-Gly-OPV3-Gly-Ala-Phe-Asp peptides were used to parameterize an implicit solvent model to simulate self-assembly. At low-pH conditions, peptides assemble into β-sheet-like stacks with strongly favorable monomer association free energies of ΔF ~ - 25kB T . Aggregation at high-pH produces disordered aggregates destabilized by Coulombic repulsion between negatively charged Asp termini. We model simulations of hundereds of monomers as a continuous-time Markov process. We infer transition rates between different aggregate sizes and microsecond relaxation times for early-stage assembly. Our data suggests a hierarchical model of assembly in which peptides coalesce into small clusters over tens of nanoseconds followed by structural ripening and diffusion limited aggregation on longer time scales. This work provides new molecular-level understanding of early-stage assembly, and a means to study the impact of peptide chemistry upon the thermodynamics, assembly kinetics, and morphology of the supramolecular aggregates. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Award DE-SC0004857. Molecular simulations partially conducted on University of Illinois Computational Science and Engineering Program parallel computing resources.

  10. Uncovering Driver DNA Methylation Events in Nonsmoking Early Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xindong; Gao, Lin; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Jia, Songwei; Chen, Luonan

    2016-01-01

    As smoking rates decrease, proportionally more cases with lung adenocarcinoma occur in never-smokers, while aberrant DNA methylation has been suggested to contribute to the tumorigenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. It is extremely difficult to distinguish which genes play key roles in tumorigenic processes via DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing from a large number of differentially methylated genes. By integrating gene expression and DNA methylation data, a pipeline combined with the differential network analysis is designed to uncover driver methylation genes and responsive modules, which demonstrate distinctive expressions and network topology in tumors with aberrant DNA methylation. Totally, 135 genes are recognized as candidate driver genes in early stage lung adenocarcinoma and top ranked 30 genes are recognized as driver methylation genes. Functional annotation and the differential network analysis indicate the roles of identified driver genes in tumorigenesis, while literature study reveals significant correlations of the top 30 genes with early stage lung adenocarcinoma in never-smokers. The analysis pipeline can also be employed in identification of driver epigenetic events for other cancers characterized by matched gene expression data and DNA methylation data. PMID:27610367

  11. Growth rate of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    An, Chansik; Choi, Youn Ah; Choi, Dongil; Paik, Yong Han; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Paik, Seung Woon; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The goal of this study was to estimate the growth rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identify the host factors that significantly affect this rate. Methods Patients with early-stage HCC (n=175) who underwent two or more serial dynamic imaging studies without any anticancer treatment at two tertiary care hospitals in Korea were identified. For each patient, the tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) of HCC was calculated by comparing tumor volumes between serial imaging studies. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Results The median TVDT was 85.7 days, with a range of 11 to 851.2 days. Multiple linear regression revealed that the initial tumor diameter (a tumor factor) and the etiology of chronic liver disease (a host factor) were significantly associated with the TVDT. The TVDT was shorter when the initial tumor diameter was smaller, and was shorter in HCC related to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection than in HCC related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (median, 76.8 days vs. 137.2 days; P=0.0234). Conclusions The etiology of chronic liver disease is a host factor that may significantly affect the growth rate of early-stage HCC, since HBV-associated HCC grows faster than HCV-associated HCC. PMID:26523271

  12. Divergent natural selection promotes immigrant inviability at early and late stages of evolutionary divergence.

    PubMed

    Ingley, Spencer J; Johnson, Jerald B

    2016-03-01

    Natural selection's role in speciation has been of fundamental importance since Darwin first outlined his theory. Recently, work has focused on understanding how selection drives trait divergence, and subsequently reproductive isolation. "Immigrant inviability," a barrier that arises from selection against immigrants in their nonnative environment, appears to be of particular importance. Although immigrant inviability is likely ubiquitous, we know relatively little about how selection acts on traits to drive immigrant inviability, and how important immigrant inviability is at early-versus-late stages of divergence. We present a study evaluating the role of predation in the evolution of immigrant inviability in recently diverged population pairs and a well-established species pair of Brachyrhaphis fishes. We evaluate performance in a high-predation environment by assessing survival in the presence of a predator, and swimming endurance in a low-predation environment. We find strong signatures of local adaptation and immigrant inviability of roughly the same magnitude both early and late in divergence. We find remarkably conserved selection for burst-speed swimming (important in predator evasion), and selection for increased size in low-predation environments. Our results highlight the consistency with which selection acts during speciation, and suggest that similar factors might promote initial population differentiation and maintain differentiation at late stages of divergence. PMID:26831519

  13. Gene Expression Profiling during Early Acute Febrile Stage of Dengue Infection Can Predict the Disease Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Calzavara-Silva, Carlos E.; Gomes, Ana L. V.; Brito, Carlos A. A.; Cordeiro, Marli T.; Silva, Ana M.; Magalhães, Cecilia; Andrade, Raoni; Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Marques, Ernesto T. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background We report the detailed development of biomarkers to predict the clinical outcome under dengue infection. Transcriptional signatures from purified peripheral blood mononuclear cells were derived from whole-genome gene-expression microarray data, validated by quantitative PCR and tested in independent samples. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was performed on patients of a well-characterized dengue cohort from Recife, Brazil. The samples analyzed were collected prospectively from acute febrile dengue patients who evolved with different degrees of disease severity: classic dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) samples were compared with similar samples from other non-dengue febrile illnesses. The DHF samples were collected 2–3 days before the presentation of the plasma leakage symptoms. Differentially-expressed genes were selected by univariate statistical tests as well as multivariate classification techniques. The results showed that at early stages of dengue infection, the genes involved in effector mechanisms of innate immune response presented a weaker activation on patients who later developed hemorrhagic fever, whereas the genes involved in apoptosis were expressed in higher levels. Conclusions/Significance Some of the gene expression signatures displayed estimated accuracy rates of more than 95%, indicating that expression profiling with these signatures may provide a useful means of DHF prognosis at early stages of infection. PMID:19936257

  14. Toxicity Assessment of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Early Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoshan; Tian, Shengyan; Cai, Zhonghua

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been explored recently for their beneficial applications in many biomedical areas, in environmental remediation, and in various industrial applications. However, potential risks have also been identified with the release of nanoparticles into the environment. To study the ecological effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms, we used early life stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) to examine such effects on embryonic development in this species. The results showed that ≥10 mg/L of iron oxide nanoparticles instigated developmental toxicity in these embryos, causing mortality, hatching delay, and malformation. Moreover, an early life stage test using zebrafish embryos/larvae is also discussed and recommended in this study as an effective protocol for assessing the potential toxicity of nanoparticles. This study is one of the first on developmental toxicity in fish caused by iron oxide nanoparticles in aquatic environments. The results will contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and support the sustainable development of nanotechnology. PMID:23029464

  15. Alterations in the sputum proteome and transcriptome in smokers and early-stage COPD subjects.

    PubMed

    Titz, Bjoern; Sewer, Alain; Schneider, Thomas; Elamin, Ashraf; Martin, Florian; Dijon, Sophie; Luettich, Karsta; Guedj, Emmanuel; Vuillaume, Gregory; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peck, Michael J; Chaudhary, Nveed I; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2015-10-14

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most prevalent lung diseases. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD. In this parallel-group clinical study we investigated to what extent the transitions in a chronic-exposure-to-disease model are reflected in the proteome and cellular transcriptome of induced sputum samples. We selected 60 age- and gender-matched individuals for each of the four study groups: current asymptomatic smokers, smokers with early stage COPD, former smokers, and never smokers. The cell-free sputum supernatant was analyzed by quantitative proteomics and the cellular mRNA fraction by gene expression profiling. The sputum proteome of current smokers clearly reflected the common physiological responses to smoke exposure, including alterations in mucin/trefoil proteins and a prominent xenobiotic/oxidative stress response. The latter response also was observed in the transcriptome, which additionally demonstrated an immune-cell polarization change. The former smoker group showed nearly complete attenuation of these biological effects. Thirteen differentially abundant proteins between the COPD and the asymptomatic smoker group were identified including TIMP1, APOA1, C6orf58, and BPIFB1 (LPLUNC1). In summary, our study demonstrates that sputum profiling can capture the complex and reversible physiological response to cigarette smoke exposure, which appears to be only slightly modulated in early-stage COPD. PMID:26306861

  16. Neck circumference and early stage atherosclerosis: the cardiometabolic risk in Chinese (CRC) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neck circumference (NC) has been previously related to cardiometabolic risk factors. In this study we examined the association between NC and early stage atherosclerosis in Chinese adults. Methods The study samples were from a community-based health examination survey in central China. In total 2,318 men and women (18-64 y) were included in the final analyses. Carotid radial pulse wave velocity (crPWV), carotid femoral PWV (cfPWV), carotid artery dorsalis pedis PWV (cdPWV) and NC were measured. Results After adjustment for age, sex, lipids, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index (BMI), high NC was significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV, cdPWV and crPWV (P = 0.001, 0.049, and 0.038; respectively). In addition, we found significant interaction between hypertension status and NC level in relation to cfPWV, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, lipids and heart rate(P for interaction = 0.034). The associations between NC and cfPWV were significant (P = 0.02) among those with hypertension, but not significant among those without hypertension. Conclusions Our data showed that high NC was associated with an increased risk of early stage atherosclerosis in Chinese adults, independent of other metabolic risk factors. Hypertension might modify the association between NC and cfPWV. PMID:25001365

  17. Development of the embryo, larva and early juvenile of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Developmental staging system.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Koji; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-05-01

    We described the developmental stages for the embryonic, larval and early juvenile periods of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to elucidate sequential events of craniofacial development. Craniofacial development of cichlids, especially differentiation and morphogenesis of the pharyngeal skeleton, progresses until about 30 days postfertilization (dpf). Because there is no comprehensive report describing the sequential processes of craniofacial development up to 30 dpf, we newly defined 32 stages using a numbered staging system. For embryonic development, we defined 18 stages (stages 1-18), which were grouped into seven periods named the zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, pharyngula and hatching periods. For larval development, we defined seven stages (stages 19-25), which were grouped into two periods, early larval and late larval. For juvenile development until 30 dpf, we defined seven stages (stages 26-32) in the early juvenile period. This developmental staging system for Nile tilapia O. niloticus will benefit researchers investigating skeletogenesis throughout tilapia ontogeny and will also facilitate comparative evolutionary developmental biology studies of haplochromine cichlids, which comprise the species flocks of Lakes Malawi and Victoria. PMID:17501907

  18. Orthostatic hypotension is associated with decreased cerebrospinal fluid levels of chromogranin A in early stage of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kaiserova, Michaela; Prikrylova Vranova, Hana; Galuszka, Jan; Stejskal, David; Mensikova, Katerina; Zapletalova, Jana; Mares, Jan; Kanovsky, Petr

    2015-10-01

    An association between the CSF chromogranin A (CgA) and orthostatic blood pressure changes was investigated in 20 patients in the early stage of Parkinson disease (PD). There was a positive correlation between the CSF CgA and diastolic blood pressure change, when CSF CgA levels were lower in patients with orthostatic hypotension (OH). Decreased CSF CgA may be useful in predicting OH in the early stage of PD. PMID:26359267

  19. Cost calculations at early stages of nuclear research facilities in the nordic countries

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Klaus; Salmenhaara, Seppo; Backe, Steinar; Cato, Anna; Lindskog, Staffan; Callander, Clas; Efraimsson, Henrik; Andersson, Inga; Sjoeblom, Rolf

    2007-07-01

    The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warranted and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with fundamental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones. Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflected in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities. Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for cost calculations. It also implies that this calculation process should include a well adopted learning process. Thus, a Nordic co-operation has been established for the exchange and

  20. Properties of large scale plasma flow during the early stage of the plasmaspheric refilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Craven, P.; Torr, D. G.; Richards, P. G.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to better characterize the macroscopic properties of the interhemisphere plasma flow by solving a more complete set of hydrodynamic equations than that solved previously. Specifically, the ion continuity, momentum and energy equations were solved for the plasma flow along the closed magnetic field lines. During the initial stage of the supersonic outflow in the equatorial region, the ions cool substantially. Using the hydrodynamic model for the large-scale plasma flow, the dynamics of shocks was examined which form in the geomagnetic flux tubes during the early stages of refilling. These shocks are more like those forming in neutral gases than the electrostatic shocks driven by microinstabilities involving ion-ion interaction. Therefore, the shocks seen in the hydrodynamic model are termed as hydrodynamic shocks. Such shocks are generally unsteady and therefore the usual shock jump conditions given by Rankine-Hugoniot relations are not strictly applicable to them. The density, flow velocity and temperature structures associated with the shocks are examined for both asymmetrical and symmetrical flows. In the asymmetrical flow the outflow from one of two conjugate ionospheres is dominant. On the other hand, in the symmetrical case outflows from the two ionospheric sources are identical. Both cases are treated by a two-stream model. In the late type of flow, the early-time refilling shows a relaxation type of oscillation, which is driven by the large-scale interactions between the two identical streams. After this early stage, the resulting temperature structure shows some interesting features. In the equatorial region the streams are isothermal, but in the off-equatorial regions the streams have quite different temperatures, and also densities and flow velocities. The dense and slow stream is found to be warmer than the low-density fast stream. In the late stage of refilling, the temperature is found to steadily increase from the conjugate

  1. Arm Swing Magnitude and Asymmetry During Gait in the Early Stages of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lewek, Michael D.; Poole, Roxanne; Johnson, Julia; Halawa, Omar; Huang, Xuemei

    2009-01-01

    The later stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by altered gait patterns. Although decreased arm swing during gait is the most frequently reported motor dysfunction in individuals with PD, quantitative descriptions of gait in early PD have largely ignored upper extremity movements. This study was designed to perform a quantitative analysis of arm swing magnitude and asymmetry that might be useful in the assessment of early PD. Twelve individuals with early PD (in “off” state) and eight controls underwent gait analysis using an optically-based motion capture system. Participants were instructed to walk at normal and fast velocities, and then on heels (to minimize push-off). Arm swing was measured as the excursion of the wrist with respect to the pelvis. Arm swing magnitude for each arm, and inter-arm asymmetry, were compared between groups. Both groups had comparable gait velocities (p=0.61), and there was no significant difference between the groups in the magnitude of arm swing in all walking conditions for the arm that swung more (p=0.907) or less (p=0.080). Strikingly, the PD group showed significantly greater arm swing asymmetry (asymmetry angle: 13.9±7.9%) compared to the control group (asymmetry angle: 5.1±4.0%; p=0.003). Unlike arm swing magnitude, arm swing asymmetry unequivocally differs between people with early PD and controls. Such quantitative evaluation of arm swing, especially its asymmetry, may have utility for early and differential diagnosis, and for tracking disease progression in patients with later PD. PMID:19945285

  2. Effect of chronic copper and pentachlorophenol exposure to early life stages of Xenopus laevis

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    An evaluation of the effects of low-level copper and pentachlorophenol exposure on various early life stages of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis was performed using stage-specific and long-term continuous exposures. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted such that separate subsets of embryos and larvae from the same clutch were exposed to two toxicants, copper and pentachlorophenol, from 0 d to 4 d (standard Frog Embryo Teratagenesis Assay Xenopus [FETAX]), 4 d to 8 d, 8 d to 12 d, and 12 d to 16 d. Results from two separate concentration-response experiments indicated that sensitivity to either toxicant increased in each successive time period. Continuous exposure studies conducted for 60 to 75 days indicated that copper, but not pentachlorophenol induced reduction deficiency malformations of the hind limb at concentrations as low as 0.05 mg/L. Pentachlorophenol concentrations as low as 0.5/{micro}g/L inhibited tail resorption. However, copper did not adversely affect the process of tail resorption. These results indicated that studies evaluating longer-term developmental processes are important in ecological hazard evaluation.

  3. Are Early Relapses in Advanced-Stage Ovarian Cancer Doomed to a Poor Prognosis?

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Fabien; Guerby, Paul; Luyckx, Mathieu; Haddad, Pascale; Stoeckle, Eberhard; Morice, Philippe; Leblanc, Eric; Lecuru, Fabrice; Daraï, Emile; Classe, Jean Marc; Pomel, Christophe; Filleron, Thomas; Ferron, Gwenael; Querleu, Denis; Rafii, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Objective Early recurrence (ER) after completion of therapeutic regimen in advanced-stage ovarian cancer is a challenging clinical situation. Patients are perceived as invariably having a poor prognosis. We investigated the possibility of defining different prognostic subgroups and the parameters implicated in prognosis of ER patients. Study Design We analyzed a multi-centric database of 527 FIGO stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer patients. We defined patients relapsing within 12 months as ER and investigated using Cox logistic regression the prognostic factors in ER group. We subsequently divided ER patients into good and poor prognosis groups according to a lower or higher overall survival (OS) at 12 months after relapse and determined parameters associated to poor prognosis. Results The median follow up was 49 months. One hundred and thirty eight patients recurred within 12 months. OS and Disease Free Survival (DFS) were 24.6 and 8.6 months, respectively, in this group of patients. Among the ER patients, 73 had a poor prognosis with an OS after relapse below 12 months (mean OS = 5.2 months) and 65 survived after one year (mean OS = 26.9 months). Residual disease (RD) after debulking surgery and mucinous histological subtype negatively impacted prognosis (HR = 1.758, p = 0.017 and HR = 8.641, p = 0.001 respectively). The relative risk of death within 12 months following relapse in ER patients was 1.61 according to RD status. However, RD did not affect DFS (HR = 0.889, p = 0.5). Conclusion ER in advanced-stage ovarian cancer does not inevitably portend a short-term poor prognosis. RD status after initial cytoreduction strongly modulates OS, that gives additional support to the concept of maximum surgical effort even in patients who will experience early recurrence. The heterogeneity in outcomes within the ER group suggests a role for tumor biology in addition to classical clinical parameters. PMID:26820579

  4. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris. PMID:24100467

  5. The incidence of bone metastasis after early-stage breast cancer in Canada.

    PubMed

    Liede, Alexander; Jerzak, Katarzyna J; Hernandez, Rohini K; Wade, Sally W; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    Current information on the incidence and prevalence of bone metastases in women with breast cancer is scarce. This study examined the occurrence and predictors of bone metastases, as well as post-metastasis survival in a prospective cohort of Canadian women with breast cancer. We included women treated for early-stage (stage I, II, or III) breast cancer at the Henrietta Banting Breast Centre (HBBC) in Toronto, Canada between 1987 and 2000. Data were abstracted from medical records and pathology reports in the HBBC database; follow-up extended to end of data availability or August 31, 2015. Actuarial survival analyses provided cumulative incidence of bone metastases at 5, 10, and 15 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier curves describe breast cancer mortality. Regression models assessed patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics as predictors of bone metastases with all-cause mortality as a competing risk. Among 2097 women studied, the 5-, 10-, and 15-year probability of bone metastasis was 6.5, 10.3, and 11.3 % for the first recurrence, and 8.4, 12.5, and 13.6 % for any bone recurrence. At median follow-up (12.5 years), 13.2 % of patients had bone metastases. Median survival was 1.6 years following bone metastasis, and shorter if both bone and visceral metastases occurred. Advanced age and adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen were protective against bone metastasis. In this representative cohort of women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, with long follow-up, the incidence of bone metastases was consistent with longitudinal studies from the United Kingdom, Denmark, and the US. PMID:27083181

  6. Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Julia S.; Winer, Eric P.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

  7. Analysis of cerebro-spinal fluid protein composition in early developmental stages in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Gato, A; Martín, P; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Pulgar, M A; Moro, J A

    2004-04-01

    Foetal cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) has a very high protein concentration when compared to adult CSF, and in many species five major protein fractions have been described. However, the protein concentration and composition in CSF during early developmental stages remains largely unknown. Our results show that in the earliest stages (18 to 30 H.H.) of chick development there is a progressive increase in CSF protein concentration until foetal values are attained. In addition, by performing electrophoretic separation and high-sensitivity silver staining, we were able to identify a total of 21 different protein fractions in the chick embryo CSF. In accordance with the developmental pattern of their concentration, these can be classified as follows: A: high-concentration fractions which corresponded with the ones described in foetal CSF by other authors; B: low-concentration fractions which remained stable throughout the period studied; C: low-concentration fractions which show changes during this period. The evolution and molecular weight of the latter group suggest the possibility of an important biological role. Our data demonstrate that all the CSF protein fractions are present in embryonic serum; this could mean that the specific transport mechanisms in neuroepithelial cells described in the foetal period evolve in very early stages of development. In conclusion, this paper offers an accurate study of the protein composition of chick embryonic CSF, which will help the understanding of the influences on neuroepithelial stem cells during development and, as a result, the appropriate conditions for the in vitro study of embryonic/foetal nervous tissue cells. PMID:15039986

  8. Genetic mutation analysis at early stages of cell line development using next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wright, Chapman; Groot, Joost; Swahn, Samantha; McLaughlin, Helen; Liu, Mei; Xu, Chongfeng; Sun, Chao; Zheng, Eric; Estes, Scott

    2016-05-01

    A central goal for most biopharmaceutical companies is to reduce the development timeline to reach clinical proof of concept. This objective requires the development of tools that ensure the quality of biotherapeutic material destined for the clinic. Recent advances in high throughput protein analytics provide confidence in our ability to assess productivity and product quality attributes at early stages of cell line development. However, one quality attribute has, until recently, been absent from the standard battery of analytical tests facilitating informed choices early in cell line selection: genetic sequence confirmation. Techniques historically used for mutation analysis, such as detailed mass spectrometry, have limitations on the sample number and turnaround times making it less attractive at early stages. Thus, we explored the utility of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) as a solution to address these limitations. Amplicon sequencing is one such NGS technique that is robust, rapid, sensitive, and amenable to multiplexing, all of which are essential attributes for our purposes. Here we report a NGS method based upon amplicon sequencing that has been successfully incorporated into our cell line development workflow alongside other high-throughput protein analytical assays. The NGS method has demonstrated its value by identifying at least one Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) clone expressing a variant form of the biotherapeutic in each of the four clinical programs in which it has been utilized. We believe this sequence confirmation method is essential to safely accelerating the time to clinical proof of concept of biotherapeutics, and guard against delays related to sequence mutations. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:813-817, 2016. PMID:27004436

  9. Adoption of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy For Early-Stage Breast Cancer From 2004 Through 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Elyn H.; Mougalian, Sarah S.; Soulos, Pamela R.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Gross, Cary P.; Yu, James B.

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a newer method of radiation therapy (RT) that has been increasingly adopted as an adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). IMRT may result in improved cosmesis compared to standard RT, although at greater expense. To investigate the adoption of IMRT, we examined trends and factors associated with IMRT in women under the age of 65 with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of early stage breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by whole-breast irradiation (WBI) who were ≤65 years old in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2011. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of IMRT (vs standard RT). Results: We identified 11,089 women with early breast cancer (9.6%) who were treated with IMRT and 104,448 (90.4%) who were treated with standard RT, after BCS. The proportion of WBI patients receiving IMRT increased yearly from 2004 to 2009, with 5.3% of WBI patients receiving IMRT in 2004 and 11.6% receiving IMRT in 2009. Further use of IMRT declined afterward, with the proportion remaining steady at 11.0% and 10.7% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Patients treated in nonacademic community centers were more likely to receive IMRT (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.43 for nonacademic vs academic center). Compared to privately insured patients, the uninsured patients (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95) and those with Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) were less likely to receive IMRT. Conclusions: The use of IMRT rose from 2004 to 2009 and then stabilized. Important nonclinical factors associated with IMRT use included facility type and insurance status.

  10. Computer simulation on the cooperation of functional molecules during the early stages of evolution.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wentao; Hu, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    It is very likely that life began with some RNA (or RNA-like) molecules, self-replicating by base-pairing and exhibiting enzyme-like functions that favored the self-replication. Different functional molecules may have emerged by favoring their own self-replication at different aspects. Then, a direct route towards complexity/efficiency may have been through the coexistence/cooperation of these molecules. However, the likelihood of this route remains quite unclear, especially because the molecules would be competing for limited common resources. By computer simulation using a Monte-Carlo model (with "micro-resolution" at the level of nucleotides and membrane components), we show that the coexistence/cooperation of these molecules can occur naturally, both in a naked form and in a protocell form. The results of the computer simulation also lead to quite a few deductions concerning the environment and history in the scenario. First, a naked stage (with functional molecules catalyzing template-replication and metabolism) may have occurred early in evolution but required high concentration and limited dispersal of the system (e.g., on some mineral surface); the emergence of protocells enabled a "habitat-shift" into bulk water. Second, the protocell stage started with a substage of "pseudo-protocells", with functional molecules catalyzing template-replication and metabolism, but still missing the function involved in the synthesis of membrane components, the emergence of which would lead to a subsequent "true-protocell" substage. Third, the initial unstable membrane, composed of prebiotically available fatty acids, should have been superseded quite early by a more stable membrane (e.g., composed of phospholipids, like modern cells). Additionally, the membrane-takeover probably occurred at the transition of the two substages of the protocells. The scenario described in the present study should correspond to an episode in early evolution, after the emergence of single

  11. The role of norepinephrine and insulin resistance in an early stage of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Penesova, Adela; Radikova, Zofia; Cizmarova, Eva; Kvetnanský, Richard; Blazicek, Pavel; Vlcek, Miroslav; Koska, Juraj; Vigas, Milan

    2008-12-01

    The interrelationship between activity of sympathetic nervous system and metabolic risk factors in youth with hypertension (HT) has been poorly studied. The aim of our present study was to assess the interrelationship between metabolic risk factors, such as insulin resistance, concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and catecholamines in an early stage of HT onset. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 17 young males with early-diagnosed nontreated HT grade 1 and 16 gender-, age-, and BMI-matched normotensive controls. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, PAI-1, and plasma renin activity (PRA) were determined in venous plasma. Insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) proposed by Cederholm, Matsuda, and Gutt were calculated. HT had higher baseline levels of norepinephrine, insulin (P= 0.02), and PAI-1 (P= 0.04). ISIs were lower in HT subjects (P < 0.001). Baseline concentrations of epinephrine were negatively associated with HDL cholesterol (r=-0.415, P= 0.02), ISI Matsuda (r=-0.361, P= 0.04), ISI Cederholm (r=-0.354, P= 0.04), and ISI Gutt (r=-0.429, P= 0.01), and positively with PRA (r= 0.609, P < 0.0001). Positive association was found between baseline concentrations of norepinephrine and PAI-1 (r= 0.418, P= 0.02). The sympathetic overactivity, which occurs in the early stage of HT may contribute to reduced insulin sensitivity even in young patients and intensify the undesirable development of metabolic cardiovascular risk factors and progress of the disease. PMID:19120146

  12. Identification of morphological markers of sarcopenia at early stage of aging in skeletal muscle of mice.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Ramy K A; de Leonardis, Erika Chacin; Guerrero-Martínez, José A; Rahim, Ibtissem; Mokhtar, Doaa M; Saleh, Abdelmohaimen M; Abdalla, Kamal E H; Pozo, María J; Escames, Germaine; López, Luis C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2016-10-01

    The gastrocnemius muscle (GM) of young (3months) and aged (12months) female wild-type C57/BL6 mice was examined by light and electron microscopy, looking for the presence of structural changes at early stage of the aging process. Morphometrical parameters including body and gastrocnemius weights, number and type of muscle fibers, cross section area (CSA), perimeter, and Feret's diameter of single muscle fiber, were measured. Moreover, lengths of the sarcomere, A-band, I-band, H-zone, and number and CSA of intermyofibrillar mitochondria (IFM), were also determined. The results provide evidence that 12month-old mice had significant changes on skeletal muscle structure, beginning with the reduction of gastrocnemius weight to body weight ratio, compatible with an early loss of skeletal muscle function and strength. Moreover, light microscopy revealed increased muscle fibers size, with a significant increase on their CSA, perimeter, and diameter of both type I and type II muscle fibers, and a reduction in the percentage of muscle area occupied by type II fibers. Enhanced connective tissue infiltrations, and the presence of centrally nucleated muscle fibers, were also found in aged mice. These changes may underlie an attempt to compensate the loss of muscle mass and muscle fibers number. Furthermore, electron microscopy discovered a significant age-dependent increase in the length of sarcomeres, I and H bands, and reduction on the overlapped actin/myosin length, supporting contractile force loss with age. Electron microscopy also showed an increased number and CSA of IFM with age, which may reveal more endurance at 12months of age. Together, mice at early stage of aging already show significant changes in gastrocnemius muscle morphology and ultrastructure that are suggestive of the onset of sarcopenia. PMID:27435496

  13. Feedback dynamics analysis of secondary successional transients in ecosystems.

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, L T; Fey, W R

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical dynamic model of the mutual causalities that generate secondary successional behavior in ecological systems is developed using zero- and first-order nonlinear difference equations. The model is based on Odum's tabular model of ecological succession, and has been simulation-tested for the case of secondary succession in a grassland ecosystem. It shows how energy, abiotic and biotic matter, and community (species) diversity interact in time and space to produce autogenic succession, that is, developmental changes generated by biotic components within the system as distinguished from allogenic forcing functions from without the system. The simulations demonstrate that successional transients can arise from the endogenous feedback structure of the ecosystem and provide strong evidence for the validity of the model. PMID:1058489

  14. Altered Gray Matter Structural Covariance Networks in Early Stages of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Montembeault, Maxime; Rouleau, Isabelle; Provost, Jean-Sébastien; Brambati, Simona Maria

    2016-06-01

    Clinical symptoms observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may reflect variations within specific large-scale brain networks, modeling AD as a disconnection syndrome. The present magnetic resonance imaging study aims to compare the organization of gray matter structural covariance networks between 109 cognitively unimpaired controls (CTRL) and 109 AD patients positive to beta-amyloid at the early stages of the disease, using voxel-based morphometry. The default-mode network (DMN; medial temporal lobe subsystem) was less extended in AD patients in comparison with CTRL, with a significant decrease in the structural association between the entorhinal cortex and the medial prefrontal and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. The DMN (midline core subsystem) was also less extended in AD patients. Trends toward increased structural association were observed in the salience and executive control networks. The observed changes suggest that early disruptions in structural association between heteromodal association cortices and the entorhinal cortex could contribute to an isolation of the hippocampal formation, potentially giving rise to the clinical hallmark of AD, progressive memory impairment. It also provides critical support to the hypothesis that the reduced connectivity within the DMN in early AD is accompanied by an enhancement of connectivity in the salience and executive control networks. PMID:25994962

  15. Genomic Instability: A Stronger Prognostic Marker Than Proliferation for Early Stage Luminal Breast Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Benhamo, Vanessa; Gravier, Eléonore; Rigaill, Guillem; Gruel, Nadège; Robin, Stéphane; de Rycke, Yann; Mariani, Odette; Pierron, Gaëlle; Gentien, David; Reyal, Fabien; Cottu, Paul; Fourquet, Alain; Rouzier, Roman; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Delattre, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background The accurate prognosis definition to tailor treatment for early luminal invasive breast carcinoma patients remains challenging. Materials and Methods Two hundred fourteen early luminal breast carcinomas were genotyped with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) array to determine the number of chromosomal breakpoints as a marker of genomic instability. Proliferation was assessed by KI67 (immunohistochemistry) and genomic grade index (transcriptomic analysis). IHC3 (IHC4 score for HER2 negative tumors) was also determined. Results In the training set (109 cases), the optimal cut-off was 34 breakpoints with a specificity of 0.94 and a sensitivity of 0.57 (Area under the curve (AUC): 0.81[0.71; 0.91]). In the validation set (105 cases), the outcome of patients with > 34 breakpoints (11 events / 22 patients) was poorer (logrank test p < 0.001; Relative Risk (RR): 3.7 [1.73; 7.92]), than that of patients with < 34 breakpoints (19 events / 83 patients).Whereas genomic grade and KI67 had a significant prognostic value in univariate analysis in contrast to IHC3 that failed to have a statistical significant prognostic value in this series, the number of breakpoints remained the only significant parameter predictive of outcome (RR: 3.47, Confidence Interval (CI [1.29; 9.31], p = 0.014)) in multivariate analysis . Conclusion Genomic instability, defined herein as a high number of chromosomal breakpoints, in early stage luminal breast carcinoma is a stronger prognostic marker than proliferation. PMID:24143191

  16. Early stage of implosion in inertial confinement fusion: Shock timing and perturbation evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, V. N.; Gotchev, O. V.; Vianello, E.; Boehly, T. R.; Knauer, J. P.; McKenty, P. W.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Betti, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Cherfils-Clérouin, C.

    2006-01-01

    Excessive increase in the shell entropy and degradation from spherical symmetry in inertial confinement fusion implosions limit shell compression and could impede ignition. The entropy is controlled by accurately timing shock waves launched into the shell at an early stage of an implosion. The seeding of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the main source of the asymmetry growth, is also set at early times during the shock transit across the shell. In this paper we model the shock timing and early perturbation growth of directly driven targets measured on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. By analyzing the distortion evolution, it is shown that one of the main parameters characterizing the growth is the size of the conduction zone Dc, defined as a distance between the ablation front and the laser deposition region. Modes with kDc>1 are stable and experience oscillatory behavior [V. N. Goncharov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2091 (1999)]. The model shows that the main stabilizing mechanism is the dynamic overpressure due to modulations in the blow-off velocity inside the conduction zone. The long wavelengths with kDc<1 experience growth because of coupled Richtmyer-Meshkov-like and Landau-Darrieus instabilities [L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Pergamon, New York, 1982)]. To match the simulation results with both the shock timing and perturbation growth measurements a new nonlocal thermal transport model is developed and used in hydrocodes.

  17. Clearcut stand size and scrub-successional bird assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of clearcut stand size on species richness, reproductive effort, and relative abundance of scrub-successional birds and the entire bird assemblage at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. We used standardized mist-net grids to mark and recapture birds in clearcuts replanted with longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) in stands of 2 to 57 ha that were two to six years old. Species richness for the entire bird assemblage was not explained by stand size (P = 0.67), stand age (P = 0.95), or the interaction of these two variables (P = 0.90). Similarly, species richness of scrub-successional birds was not explained by stand size (P = 0.63), stand age (P = 0.55), or the interaction of stand size and stand age (P = 0.35). Regressing species richness on clearcut stand size, we found a significant negative relationship between these variables for the entire bird assemblage (P = 0.01) and for scrub-successional birds (P = 0.02). The ratio of juveniles to adults in mist-net samples varied by year (P = 0.04), but neither clearcut size (P = 0.23) nor the interaction of clearcut size and year (P = 0.25) was related to the ratio of juveniles to adults in the sample. We found no relationship between the frequency of capture of any category of birds and stand size (scrub-successional, P = 0.52; woodland, P = 0.77; combined sample, P = 0.55). Neither bird-species richness, reproductive effort, nor relative abundance differed across clearcut stand sizes. Clearcut stand size does not appear to be an important management variable if variation in species richness, reproductive effort, or relative abundance are objectives. We suggest that even-aged forestry is a useful tool for managing birds in the southeastern United States.

  18. Subduction-related metamorphism beneath ophiolites (Oman) and during early stages of continental collision (Himalaya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, Mike; Waters, David; Cowan, Robert; Cherry, Alan; Cooper, Charles

    2014-05-01

    Subduction-related metamorphism occurs beneath ophiolites (Oman), beneath island arcs (Kohistan) and during the early stages of continental collision (Kaghan, Tso Morari; Himalaya). Ophiolite obduction necessarily involves subduction of first oceanic, then continental crust to mantle depths beneath the ophiolite. In Oman an inverted pressure and temperature profile is exposed beneath the Semail ophiolite from garnet+clinopyroxene-bearing granulite to hornblende+plagioclase amphibolite down through epidote amphibolite and a variety of greenschist facies meta-sediments, dominantly cherts, marbles and quartzites. Thermobarometry on Grt+Cpx-bearing amphibolites immediately beneath the contact with mantle sequence harzburgites shows that the upper sole rocks formed at PT conditions of 770-900°C and 11-13 kbar, equivalent to depths of 30-40 km in oceanic lithosphere. Heat for metamorphism can only have been derived from the overlying mantle peridotites. Pressures are higher than can be accounted for by the thickness of the preserved ophiolite (15-20 km). Timing of peak metamorphism was synchronous with formation of the ophiolite gabbroic - trondhjemite crustal sequence and eruption of the pillow lavas (Cenomanian; 96-95 Ma). During the later stages of obduction the continental margin was dragged down to depths of nearly 100 km and basaltic sills within calc-schists were converted to eclogites (20-25 kbar; 500-560oC; 79.1 Ma), then exhumed back up the same subduction channel. Apparent 'extensional' fabrics throughout the HP units are related to upward flow of deeply buried rocks in a wholly compressional environment. Eclogites in a similar structural position occur along the Himalaya in the northernmost exposures of Indian plate rocks. These eclogites formed either during the latest stage of ophiolite obduction or the earliest stage of continental collision.

  19. Theta oscillations are sensitive to both early and late conflict processing stages: effects of alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Sanja; Azma, Sheeva; Irimia, Andrei; Sherfey, Jason; Halgren, Eric; Marinkovic, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging evidence indicates that decision conflict activates medial and lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices. Theoretical accounts of cognitive control highlight anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a central node in this network. However, a better understanding of the relative primacy and functional contributions of these areas to decision conflict requires insight into the neural dynamics of successive processing stages including conflict detection, response selection and execution. Moderate alcohol intoxication impairs cognitive control as it interferes with the ability to inhibit dominant, prepotent responses when they are no longer correct. To examine the effects of moderate intoxication on successive processing stages during cognitive control, spatio-temporal changes in total event-related theta power were measured during Stroop-induced conflict. Healthy social drinkers served as their own controls by participating in both alcohol (0.6 g/kg ethanol for men, 0.55 g/kg women) and placebo conditions in a counterbalanced design. Anatomically-constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) approach was applied to complex power spectra for theta (4-7 Hz) frequencies. The principal generator of event-related theta power to conflict was estimated to ACC, with contributions from fronto-parietal areas. The ACC was uniquely sensitive to conflict during both early conflict detection, and later response selection and execution stages. Alcohol attenuated theta power to conflict across successive processing stages, suggesting that alcohol-induced deficits in cognitive control may result from theta suppression in the executive network. Slower RTs were associated with attenuated theta power estimated to ACC, indicating that alcohol impairs motor preparation and execution subserved by the ACC. In addition to their relevance for the currently prevailing accounts of cognitive control, our results suggest that alcohol-induced impairment of top-down strategic processing

  20. Amygdalohippocampal MR volume measurements in the early stages of Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lehericy, S.; Baulac, M.; Chiras, J.; Pierot, L.; Martin, N.; Pillon, B.; Deweer, B.; Dubois, B.; Marsault, C.

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of hippocampal and amygdala volume measurements in diagnosing patients in the early stages of Alzheimer disease. Measurements of the hippocampal formation, amygdala, amygdalohippocampal complex (the two measurements summed), caudate nucleus, and ventricles, normalized for total intracranial volume, were obtained on coronal sections (1.5 T, 400/13 [repetition time/echo time], 5 mm) of 13 patients in the mild (minimental status {ge} 21) and five patients in the moderate stages of Alzheimer disease (10 < minimental status < 21), and eight age-matched control subjects. For patients with a minimental status score of 21 or greater, atrophy was significant for the amygdala and hippocampal formation (-36% and -25% for amygdala/total intracranial volume and hippocampal formation/total intracranial volume, respectively), but not for the caudate nucleus. No significant ventricular enlargement was found. For patients with a minimental status score less than 21, atrophy was more severe in all structures studied (amygdala/total intracranial volume -40%; hippocampal formation/total intracranial volume, -45%; caudate nucleus/total intracranial volume, -21%), and ventricles were enlarged (63%). No overlap was found between Alzheimer disease and control values for the amygdalohippocampal volume, even in the mild stages of the disease. In Alzheimer disease patients, hippocampal formation volumes correlated with the minimental status. Hippocampal and amygdala atrophy is marked and significant in the mild stages of Alzheimer disease. Volumetric measurements of the amygdala and the amygdalohippocampal complex appear more accurate than those of the hippocampal formation alone in distinguishing patients with Alzheimer disease. 46 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Differential oxidative status and immune characterization of the early and advanced stages of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Freitas, L F; De Rossi, T; Campos, F C; Simão, A N Colado; Barbosa, D S; Pinge-Filho, P; Cecchini, R; Cecchini, A L

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is the malignant neoplasia with the highest incidence in women worldwide. Chronic oxidative stress and inflammation have been indicated as major mediators during carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Human studies have not considered the complexity of tumor biology during the stages of cancer advance, limiting their clinical application. The purpose of this study was to characterize systemic oxidative stress and immune response parameters in early (ED; TNM I and II) and advanced disease (AD; TNM III and IV) of patients diagnosed with infiltrative ductal carcinoma breast cancer. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated by plasmatic lipoperoxidation, carbonyl content, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide levels (NO), total radical antioxidant parameter (TRAP), superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities and GSH levels. Immune evaluation was determined by TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-10 levels and leukocytes oxidative burst evaluation by chemiluminescence. Tissue damage analysis included heart (total CK and CKMB), liver (AST, ALT, GGT), and renal (creatinine, urea, and uric acid) plasmatic markers. C-reactive protein (CRP) and iron metabolism were also evaluated. Analysis of the results verified different oxidative stress statuses occur at distinct cancer stages. ED was characterized by reduction in catalase, 8-isoprostanes, and GSH levels, with enhanced lipid peroxidation and TBARS levels. AD exhibited more pronounced oxidative status, with reduction in catalase activity and TRAP, intense lipid peroxidation and high levels of NO, TBARs, and carbonyl content. ED patients presented a Th2 immune pattern, while AD exhibited Th1 status. CRP levels and ferritin were increased in both stages of disease. Leukocytes burst impairment was observed in both the groups. Plasma iron levels were significantly elevated in AD. The data obtained indicated that oxidative stress enhancement and immune response impairment may be necessary to ensure

  2. Facial affect recognition in early and late-stage schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ferreiro, María Verónica; Aguado, Luis; Rodriguez-Torresano, Javier; Palomo, Tomás; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto; Pedreira-Massa, José Luis

    2016-04-01

    Prior studies have shown deficits in social cognition and emotion perception in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and multi-episode schizophrenia (MES) patients. These studies compared patients at different stages of the illness with only a single control group which differed in age from at least one clinical group. The present study provides new evidence of a differential pattern of deficit in facial affect recognition in FEP and MES patients using a double age-matched control design. Compared to their controls, FEP patients only showed impaired recognition of fearful faces (p=.007). In contrast to this, the MES patients showed a more generalized deficit compared to their age-matched controls, with impaired recognition of angry, sad and fearful faces (ps<.01) and an increased misattribution of emotional meaning to neutral faces. PANSS scores of FEP patients on Depressed factor correlated positively with the accuracy to recognize fearful expressions (r=.473). For the MES group fear recognition correlated positively with negative PANSS factor (r=.498) and recognition of sad and neutral expressions was inversely correlated with disorganized PANSS factor (r=-.461 and r=-.541, respectively). These results provide evidence that a generalized impairment of affect recognition is observed in advanced-stage patients and is not characteristic of the early stages of schizophrenia. Moreover, the finding that anomalous attribution of emotional meaning to neutral faces is observed only in MES patients suggests that an increased attribution of salience to social stimuli is a characteristic of social cognition in advanced stages of the disorder. PMID:26874869

  3. Consensus conference: multimodality management of early- and intermediate-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Rodolfo

    2008-09-01

    Surgery is the mainstay of treatment in early- and intermediate-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), yet recurrences are frequent. Studies have documented the benefits of chemotherapy administered after resection, but a number of questions remain regarding how overall outcomes can be further improved. To provide the oncology community with direction on these issues, a consensus conference of leading experts in the NSCLC field was held at the Fifth Annual Atlanta Lung Cancer Symposium on October 25-27, 2007. The available scientific literature is presented and when such literature is lacking, clinical experience is provided to support the following conclusions. Preoperative staging should be done in accordance with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, but endoscopic fine needle aspiration of enlarged mediastinal nodes can be used, and if histology is positive for malignancy, mediastinoscopy can be avoided. Neoadjuvant systemic therapy is not generally recommended but can be considered to downstage an unresectable patient. There is currently no role for preoperative radiation or chemoradiation. Adjuvant systemic therapy is not recommended for stage IA and IB patients; however, adverse prognostic factors are acceptable reasons to consider adjuvant systemic therapy in the latter. Adjuvant systemic therapy is recommended for stage IIA, IIB, and IIIA patients, consistent with recent American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines. A cisplatin-based regimen should be started within 60 days after surgery, but if relatively contraindicated, carboplatin is an acceptable alternative. Adjuvant radiation therapy is not recommended for N0 and N1 patients, but is used in N2 patients to decrease local recurrence. PMID:18779538