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1

Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs for arid land soils and often represent a dominant portion of the soil surface cover in arid lands. Free-living soil nematode communities reflect their environment and have been used as biological indicators of soil condition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nematode communities are successionally more mature beneath well-developed, late-successional stage crusts than immature, early-successional stage crusts. We identified and enumerated nematodes by genus from beneath early- and late-stage crusts from both the Colorado Plateau, Utah (cool, winter rain desert) and Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico (hot, summer rain desert) at 0-10 and 10-30 cm depths. As hypothesized, nematode abundance, richness, diversity, and successional maturity were greater beneath well-developed crusts than immature crusts. The mechanism of this aboveground-belowground link between biological soil crusts and nematode community composition is likely the increased food, habitat, nutrient inputs, moisture retention, and/or environmental stability provided by late-successional crusts. Canonical correspondence analysis of nematode genera demonstrated that nematode community composition differed greatly between geographic locations that contrast in temperature, precipitation, and soil texture. We found unique assemblages of genera among combinations of location and crust type that reveal a gap in scientific knowledge regarding empirically derived characterization of dominant nematode genera in deserts soils and their functional role in a crust-associated food web. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Darby, B. J.; Neher, D. A.; Belnap, J.

2007-01-01

2

Succession influences wild bees in a temperate forest landscape: the value of early successional stages in naturally regenerated and planted forests.  

PubMed

In many temperate terrestrial forest ecosystems, both natural human disturbances drive the reestablishment of forests. Succession in plant communities, in addition to reforestation following the creation of open sites through harvesting or natural disturbances, can affect forest faunal assemblages. Wild bees perform an important ecosystem function in human-altered and natural or seminatural ecosystems, as they are essential pollinators for both crops and wild flowering plants. To maintain high abundance and species richness for pollination services, it is important to conserve and create seminatural and natural land cover with optimal successional stages for wild bees. We examined the effects of forest succession on wild bees. In particular, we evaluated the importance of early successional stages for bees, which has been suspected but not previously demonstrated. A range of successional stages, between 1 and 178 years old, were examined in naturally regenerated and planted forests. In total 4465 wild bee individuals, representing 113 species, were captured. Results for total bees, solitary bees, and cleptoparasitic bees in both naturally regenerated and planted conifer forests indicated a higher abundance and species richness in the early successional stages. However, higher abundance and species richness of social bees in naturally regenerated forest were observed as the successional stages progressed, whereas the abundance of social bees in conifer planted forest showed a concave-shaped relationship when plotted. The results suggest that early successional stages of both naturally regenerated and conifer planted forest maintain a high abundance and species richness of solitary bees and their cleptoparasitic bees, although social bees respond differently in the early successional stages. This may imply that, in some cases, active forest stand management policies, such as the clear-cutting of planted forests for timber production, would create early successional habitats, leading to significant positive effects for bees in general. PMID:23457602

Taki, Hisatomo; Okochi, Isamu; Okabe, Kimiko; Inoue, Takenari; Goto, Hideaki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Makino, Shun'ichi

2013-02-15

3

Succession Influences Wild Bees in a Temperate Forest Landscape: The Value of Early Successional Stages in Naturally Regenerated and Planted Forests  

PubMed Central

In many temperate terrestrial forest ecosystems, both natural human disturbances drive the reestablishment of forests. Succession in plant communities, in addition to reforestation following the creation of open sites through harvesting or natural disturbances, can affect forest faunal assemblages. Wild bees perform an important ecosystem function in human-altered and natural or seminatural ecosystems, as they are essential pollinators for both crops and wild flowering plants. To maintain high abundance and species richness for pollination services, it is important to conserve and create seminatural and natural land cover with optimal successional stages for wild bees. We examined the effects of forest succession on wild bees. In particular, we evaluated the importance of early successional stages for bees, which has been suspected but not previously demonstrated. A range of successional stages, between 1 and 178 years old, were examined in naturally regenerated and planted forests. In total 4465 wild bee individuals, representing 113 species, were captured. Results for total bees, solitary bees, and cleptoparasitic bees in both naturally regenerated and planted conifer forests indicated a higher abundance and species richness in the early successional stages. However, higher abundance and species richness of social bees in naturally regenerated forest were observed as the successional stages progressed, whereas the abundance of social bees in conifer planted forest showed a concave-shaped relationship when plotted. The results suggest that early successional stages of both naturally regenerated and conifer planted forest maintain a high abundance and species richness of solitary bees and their cleptoparasitic bees, although social bees respond differently in the early successional stages. This may imply that, in some cases, active forest stand management policies, such as the clear-cutting of planted forests for timber production, would create early successional habitats, leading to significant positive effects for bees in general.

Taki, Hisatomo; Okochi, Isamu; Okabe, Kimiko; Inoue, Takenari; Goto, Hideaki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Makino, Shun'ichi

2013-01-01

4

Restoring tropical biodiversity: Leaf traits predict growth and survival of late-successional trees in early-successional environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural succession after abandonment of degraded land often results in a low-diversity secondary forest that persists for decades. Planting late-successional species in early-successional environments may help to bypass this low-diversity stage by overcoming dispersal limitation. To identify which late-successional species perform best in early-successional environments, we tested growth and survival of species with different expressions of leaf traits over 4

Cristina Martínez-Garza; Victor Peña; Martin Ricker; Alvaro Campos; Henry F. Howe

2005-01-01

5

Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs for arid land soils and often represent a dominant portion of the soil surface cover in arid lands. Free-living soil nematode communities reflect their environment and have been used as biological indicators of soil condition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nematode communities are successionally more mature

Brian J. Darby; Deborah A. Neher; Jayne Belnap

2007-01-01

6

Water repellency and pore clogging at early successional stages of microbiotic crusts on inland dunes, Brandenburg, NE Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological soil crusts play a key role for hydrological processes in many open landscapes. They seal the topsoil and generate surface run-off. Utilization of the mineral substrate at early stages of microbiotic crusts was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water repellency indices were measured using the ethanol\\/water microinfiltrometer method, and steady state water flow was determined on the dry

Thomas Fischer; Maik Veste; Wolfgang Wiehe; Philipp Lange

2010-01-01

7

Comparative hydraulic architecture of tropical tree species representing a range of successional stages and wood density.  

PubMed

Plant hydraulic architecture (PHA) has been linked to water transport sufficiency, photosynthetic rates, growth form and attendant carbon allocation. Despite its influence on traits central to conferring an overall competitive advantage in a given environment, few studies have examined whether key aspects of PHA are indicative of successional stage, especially within mature individuals. While it is well established that wood density (WD) tends to be lower in early versus late successional tree species, and that WD can influence other aspects of PHA, the interaction of WD, successional stage and the consequent implications for PHA have not been sufficiently explored. Here, we studied differences in PHA at the scales of wood anatomy to whole-tree hydraulic conductance in species in early versus late successional Panamanian tropical forests. Although the trunk WD was indistinguishable between the successional groups, the branch WD was lower in the early successional species. Across all species, WD correlated negatively with vessel diameter and positively with vessel packing density. The ratio of branch:trunk vessel diameter, branch sap flux and whole-tree leaf-specific conductance scaled negatively with branch WD across species. Pioneer species showed greater sap flux in branches than in trunks and a greater leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, suggesting that pioneer species can move greater quantities of water at a given tension gradient. In combination with the greater water storage capacitance associated with lower WD, these results suggest these pioneer species can save on the carbon expenditure needed to build safer xylem and instead allow more carbon to be allocated to rapid growth. PMID:21445684

McCulloh, Katherine A; Meinzer, Frederick C; Sperry, John S; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Voelker, Steven L; Woodruff, David R; Domec, Jean-Christophe

2011-03-29

8

Plant hydraulics and photosynthesis of 34 woody species from different successional stages of subtropical forests.  

PubMed

It is important to understand the ecophysiological characters of plants when exploring mechanisms underlying species substitution in the process of plant succession. In the present study, we selected 34 woody species from different stages of secondary succession in subtropical forests of southern China, and measured their hydraulic conductivity, gas exchange rates, leaf nutrients and drought-tolerance traits such as xylem resistance to cavitation, turgor loss point and carbon isotope ratio. Principal component analysis revealed that early-, mid- and late-successional species were significantly separated along axis 1, which was strongly associated with hydraulic-photosynthetic coordination. In contrast to species distributed in late-successional forest, early-successional species had the highest hydraulic conductivity, net photosynthetic rates, photosynthetic nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies, but had the lowest photosynthetic water-use efficiency. However, changes of the measured drought-tolerance traits of the 34 species along the succession did not demonstrate a clear trend - no significant correlations between these traits and plant successional stages were found. Moreover, the trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and safety was not identified. Taken together, our results suggested that hydraulic efficiency and photosynthetic function, rather than drought tolerance, play an important role in species distributions along plant succession in subtropical forests. PMID:23057774

Zhu, Shi-Dan; Song, Juan-Juan; Li, Rong-Hua; Ye, Qing

2012-11-08

9

Phenotypic Plasticity of Early and Late Successional Forbs in Response to Shifts in Resources  

PubMed Central

We compared the phenotypic plasticity of two early successional forbs of nutrient-poor mobile dunes (Agriophyllum squarrosum and Corispermum macrocarpum) and two later successional forbs (weeds) of stabilized, higher nutrient dunes and cropland (Chenopodium acuminatum and Salsola collina) to variations in environmental factors. A controlled (including soil nutrients, water, and population density) greenhouse experiment was conducted in Horqin sandy land, China. Late successional species had high plasticity in growth response to nutrients and water or high performance in high soil nutrients and water, reflecting their higher nutrient habitat. In contrast, the early successional species have low plasticity, reflecting their adaptation to resource-poor early successional soil. Late successional species did not always have higher reproductive effort than early successional species. Plants did not have a uniform strategy of increasing reproductive effort with any environmental stressors. Reproductive effort increased with increasing water availability and decreasing nutrient levels, while density had no effect. Patterns of plasticity traits for late successional species exhibited a complex of Master-of-some and Jack-of-all-trades. Late successional species had higher performance or higher plasticity than early successional species.

Huang, Yingxin; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Daowei; Zhang, Hongxiang; Zheng, Wei

2012-01-01

10

Experimental Analysis of Grazing by the Mayfly Meridialaris chiloeensis on Different Successional Stages of Stream Periphyton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we determined grazing effects of the South Andean endemic mayfly Meridialaris chiloeensis on periphyton at different stages of successional development. Grazing effects were studied through a two-factor experimental design (colonization stages X grazer density) in a stream-side channel in spring and winter. Our results showed an absence of proportionality between grazer density and periphyton decline in response to grazers at low and intermediate levels of periphytic biomass; however, when periphyton biomass was high a direct inverse relationship was observed between post-grazing biomass and grazer density. The relationship between periphytic algae (chlorophyll a concentration) and periphyton (total periphytic ash-free dry mass) (C/OM index) was used as an estimation of the autotrophic fraction in the total periphyton matrix. Grazing did not alter the C/OM index indicating that both autotrophic and heterotrophic fractions of the periphyton components were reduced in the same proportion. Ordination of samples using the relative abundance of diatom species showed that herbivore effect was less evident at intermediate and late stage of colonization than at early one. These results support the statement that the outcome of the herbivore-periphyton interaction may depend on the successional stage of the periphyton community. In spring Fragilaria pinnata relative abundance, on the basis of cell counts, was reduced by grazing and Nitzschia palea was enhanced. In the winter experiment, grazing decreased Achnanthes minutissima relative abundance. (

Díaz Villanueva, Verónica; Modenutti, Beatriz

2004-07-01

11

Monitoring birds and habitat in early-successional sites in Connecticut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early-successional bird species are showing alarming declines across the Northeast and particularly in New England. Utilizing limited resources to the best advantage of these declining bird species is a vital task for land managers. In 2006 and 2007, I collected bird abundance and habitat information from 87 points in early-successional habitat in Connecticut. The objective of this effort was to

Benjamin A Mazzei

2009-01-01

12

Influence of biological soil crusts at different successional stages in the implantation of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence of biological soil crusts at different successional stages in the implantation of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid zones I. Miralles1, F. Gil-Sotres2, Y. Cantón-Castilla3, F. Domingo1, M.C. Leirós2, C. Trasar-Cepeda4 1 Experimental Estation of Arid Zones (CSIC), E-04230 La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, Spain. 2 Departamento Edafología y Química Agrícola, Grupo de Evaluación de la Calidad del Suelo, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. 3 University of Almería, Departamento de Edafología y Química Agrícola, E-04230-La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, Spain. 4 Departamento Bioquímica del Suelo, IIAG-CSIC, Apartado 122, E-15708 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Crusts (BSCs) are formed by a close association between soil particles and cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and microfungi in varying proportions. Their habitat is within or immediately on top of the uppermost millimetres of the soil and are the predominant surface cover in arid and semiarid zones. Among the diverse functions developed by BSCs in the ecosystem (hydrology, erosion, soil properties, etc.), one of the most important is its role in nutrient cycling. Within arid and semiarid environments, BSCs have been termed 'mantles of fertility' being considered hotspots of biogeochemical inputs, fixing C, N and P above- and below-ground. However, there are differences in N and C fixation rates between BSCs types. Early successional BSCs, dominated by cyanobacterial species, fix lower quantities of C and N than mature BSCs dominated by lichens. Although the positive effects of BSCs on biogeochemical soil cycles are widely accepted, no previous studies have evaluated the activities of the enzymes involved in C, N and P cycles of BSCs and how they are affected by the successional stage of the BSC. In this work, performed in the Tabernas desert (SE Spain), we studied the hydrolase enzymes involved in C (invertase, CM-cellulase, ?-glucosidase), N (urease, BAA-protease, casein-protease) and P (phosphomonoesterase) cycles in BSCs at different successional stages (cyanobacteria represents the first successional stage, lichen Diploschistes diacapsis in an intermediate state and lichen Lepraria crassissima, with the greatest successional state). Our results show that BSCs at lower successional stage enriched the surface geological substrate in hydrolase enzymes to a lesser extent than mature BSCs (Lepraria crassissima), which show the highest values in all enzymatic activities. In contrast, the specific enzyme activities (activity values expressed per unit of carbon) were higher in the BSCs at lower successional stage, decreasing in the direction: cyanobacteria > Diploschistes diacapsis-lichen > Lepraria crassissima-lichen. These results suggest a different role of BSCs depending on their successional stage with regard to the implantation of biogeochemical cycles during the surface substrate colonization. Our conclusions are highly relevant to improve the knowledge of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid areas. Keywords: Biological Soil Crusts, arid ecosystems, hydrolytic enzymes, biochemical activity

Gil-Sotres, F.; Miralles, I.; Canton-Castilla, Y.; Domingo, F.; Leiros, M. C.; Trasar-Cepeda, C.

2012-04-01

13

Abundance, distribution, trends, and ownership patterns of early-successional forests in the northeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early-successional forests are ephemeral and distinct forest communities, maintained by disturbance and dominated by small-sized trees and shrubs. These structural and compositional conditions form a unique habitat that is preferred by many wildlife species. Various sources have indicated that there have been declines in early-successional forest area and in the populations of many wildlife species associated with these habitats across

Robert T. Brooks

2003-01-01

14

Architecture and growth patterns of early versus late successional shrubs of sub-tropical moist forests of north-eastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and architecture of early versus late successional shrubs are compared and contrasted to evaluate their leaf display\\u000a characteristics. Early successional shrubs had a higher growth rate over an extended period of time compared to late successional\\u000a shrubs. Inter-branch length and branch angle were greater for late successional species as compared to early successional\\u000a ones. First- and second-order branch production

U Baruah; P S Ramakrishnan

1989-01-01

15

Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril. PMID:20231962

Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

2010-02-01

16

Some autecological characteristics of early to late successional tree species in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The breadth of the continuum concept of strategy with respect to succession was tested on 21 tree and shrub species common in either unlogged or logged stands, respectively, in the Forest Reserve of Caparo, Venezuela, by examining morphological, physiological and population characteristics. Based on a preliminary abundance analysis, `early', `mid' and `late' successional species as well as `generalists' were distinguished. Early successional species, i.e. Ochroma lagopus, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Cecropia peltata were similar in many autecological aspects, e.g. monolayered leaf arrangement, orthotropic architectural models, no adaptive reiteration, clumped distribution, but differed in gap association and distribution along a drainage gradient. Mid-successional species established themselves both in large and small gaps (> 300 m[sup2 ]; 80-300 m[sup2 ]) and showed a clumped to regular distribution pattern in logged areas; they exhibited more diverse crown and leaf characteristics than early successional species. Late successional species established themselves only in small gaps and understorey, and showed a regular spatial pattern in undisturbed areas. All late successional species displayed architectural models with plagiotropic lateral axes and showed a multilayered leaf arrangement. Adaptive reiteration was a common feature of late successional species which could be further subdivided into large, medium-sized and small trees, indicating different light requirements at maturity. Generalists were common treelet and shrub species in both disturbed and undisturbed sites where they are also capable of completing their life cycle. The light compensation point (LCP) of an individual plant was strongly influenced by its crown illuminance. Large late successional species showed the widest range of LCP values, reflecting the increasing light availability with increasing height in mature forest. On the basis of many autecological characteristics, it was found (i) that there is in fact a continuum of species strategies with respect to succession even among early and mid-successional species and (ii) that the latter group of species showed the widest breadth of autecological traits, reflecting the heterogeneous environment in which they establish and mature.

Kammesheidt, Ludwig

2000-01-01

17

Importance of early successional habitat to ruffed grouse and American woodcock  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) and American woodcock (Scolopax minor) provide millions of days of recreation each year for people in the eastern United States (U.S). These popular game birds depend on early successional forest habitats throughout much of the year. Ruffed grouse and woodcock populations are declining in the eastern United States as an abundance of shrub-dominated and young forest habitats decrease in most of the region. Continued decreases in early successional forest habitats are likely on nonindustrial private forest lands as ownership fragmentation increases and tract size decreases and on public forest lands due to societal attitudes toward proactive forest management, especially even-age treatments.

Dessecker, D.R.; McAuley, D.G.

2001-01-01

18

Soil nitrogen availability and nitrification in Mediterranean shrublands of varying fire history and successional stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-term effect of a single fire, and the long-term effect of recent fire history and successional stage on total and mineral N concentration, net nitrogen mineralization, and nitrification were evaluated in soils from a steep semi-arid shrubland chronosequence in southeast Spain. A single fire significantly increased soil mineral N availability and net nitrification. Increasing fire frequency in the last

Jose A. Carreira; F. Xavier Niell; Kate Lajtha

1994-01-01

19

Photosynthetic acclimation to variability in the light environment of early and late successional plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen plant species from early-, mid-, and late-successional habitats were grown for a period of 25 to 50 days in each of two light environments, i.e. full sunlight and in deep shade. The rate of photosynthesis for newly formed leaves was measured as a function of light intensity for plants from each light environment. Photosynthetic flexibility, measured as the difference

F. A. Bazzaz; Roger W. Carlson

1982-01-01

20

Successional stage, fragmentation and exposure to extraction influence the population structure of Euterpe precatoria (Arecaeae).  

PubMed

The neotropical palm Euterpeprecatoria is subject to extraction for its valuable palm heart. The development of management and conservation practices for this species requires understanding of its population structure, dynamics, and traditional use across the range of environments it inhabits, from different successional stages in continuous forest to forest fragments. Here, we analyzed how the population structure of E. precatoria varies with successional stage, fragmentation, and exposure to extraction, Since E. precatoria recruitment increases with disturbance, we expected seedling density to be higher in secondary forests and fragments relative to primary forests. The study was conducted from 2007-2008 in the Caribbean Slope of Costa Rica at Braulio Carrillo National Park (BCNP), La Selva Biological Station (LSBS), Manú Center, and Finca El Progreso (FEP). The first two sites had continuous primary and secondary forests (BCNP had one extracted primary forest); the last two consisted of primary forest fragments. Population structure was variable, with greater densities in the extracted primary forest, and in the secondary forests, as compared to primary forests and fragments. Palms < 5 m across all sites represented 50-90% of the total number of individuals. In sites that suffered historical over-extraction, local communities have lost the tradition of consuming this species. Understanding how population dynamics is affected by extraction and succession is essential to the design of sustainable management programs rooted in community participation. PMID:24027932

Avalos, Gerardo; Otárola, Mauricio Fernández; Engeln, James Theodore

2013-09-01

21

Bats and Gaps: The Role of Early Successional Patches in the Roosting and Foraging Ecology of Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Early successional habitats are important foraging and commuting sites for the 14 species of bats that inhabit the Central\\u000a Hardwood Region, especially larger open-adapted species such as hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), red bats (L. borealis), silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans), and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Forest gaps, small openings, and the edges between early successional patches and mature forest are

Susan C. Loeb; Joy M. O’Keefe

22

Population changes of early successional forest species after shifting cultivation in Northwestern Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population changes of early successional forest species, Wendlandia paniculata, Schima wallichii, Camellia tsaii, and Lithocarpus ducampii, were described and analyzed in a chronosequence of 1–30 year-old secondary forests representing regrowth after shifting\\u000a cultivation in northwestern Vietnam, utilizing 51 temporary plots for stem census. Another five temporary plots were used\\u000a for stem census in surrounding old-growth forest for comparison. In the

Tran Van Do; Akira Osawa; Nguyen Toan Thang; Nguyen Ba Van; Bui Thanh Hang; Cam Quoc Khanh; Le Thi Thao; Diep Xuan Tuan

2011-01-01

23

Native warm-season grasses and early successional wildlife habitat: Past lessons and a new vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other non-native perennial cool-season grasses (such as orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), timothy (Phleum pratense), bromegrasses (Bromus spp.), and bluegrass (Poa annua)) provide poor wildlife habitat. Native warm-season grasses, especially big (Andropogon gerardii) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), have been promoted to replace non-native cool-season grasses and enhance early successional

Craig A. Harper; Christopher E. Moorman; Patrick D. Keyser

24

Landscape genetics of an early successional specialist in a disturbance-prone environment.  

PubMed

Species that specialize in disturbed habitats may have considerably different dispersal strategies than those adapted to more stable environments. However, little is known of the dispersal patterns and population structure of such species. This information is important for conservation because many postfire specialists are at risk from anthropogenic changes to natural disturbance regimes. We used microsatellite markers to assess the effect of landscape variation and recent disturbance history on dispersal by a small mammal species that occupies the early seral stage of vegetation regeneration in burnt environments. We predicted that a postfire specialist would be able to disperse over multiple habitat types (generalist) and not exhibit sex-biased dispersal, as such strategies should enable effective colonization of spatially and temporally variable habitat. We found significant differentiation between sites that fitted an isolation-by-distance pattern and spatial autocorrelation of multilocus genotypes to a distance of 2-3 km. There was no consistent genetic evidence for sex-biased dispersal. We tested the influence of different habitat- and fire-specific landscape resistance scenarios on genetic distance between individuals and found a significant effect of fire. Our genetic data supported recently burned vegetation having greater conductance for gene flow than unburnt habitat, but variation in habitat quality between vegetation types and occupied patches had no effect on gene flow. Postfire specialists must evolve an effective dispersal ability to move over distances that would ensure access to early successional stage vegetation. Natural disturbance and natural heterogeneity may therefore not influence population genetic structure as negatively as expected. PMID:23379886

Pereoglou, F; Lindenmayer, D B; MacGregor, C; Ford, F; Wood, J; Banks, S C

2013-02-04

25

EARLY-SUCCESSIONAL PLANTS REGULATE GRASSLAND PRODUCTIVITY AND SPECIES COMPOSITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mass-ratio hypothesis holds that ecosystem processes depend in the short term on functional properties of dominant plant species and in the longer term on how resident species influence the recruitment of potential dominants. The latter of these effects may be especially important among early-s...

26

Sensitivity of understorey bird species in two different successional stages of the lowland Atlantic Forest, Brazil.  

PubMed

The Atlantic Forest has a high destruction rate and there is little information available on some aspects of the neotropical bird biology. Changes in environment are important factors that affect the resources available to birds. We compared the species sensitivity level of understorey birds in two areas in distinct successional stages (primary and secondary sections). Two 100 ha plots of lowland Atlantic Forest were analysed between August and December 2006. Among 25 bird species recorded, thirteen had lower abundance in secondary forest, two in primary forest, and ten had not clear tendency. According to the criteria used, the percentages for species with low, and medium and high sensitivity to habitat change were 44% and 56%, respectively. The number of species was not associated with the endemism level or foraging strata. Results show the importance of knowing bird species' sensitivity level with regard to habitat modification, and not only forest fragmentation. PMID:21969964

Loures-Ribeiro, Alan; Manhães, Marco A; Dias, Manoel M

2011-09-01

27

Experimental studies on the early stages of secondary succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study secondary successional sequences and mechanisms, denudation experiments were conducted in Central Japan with the removal of dominants, laying burned soil on the surface, and turning over the top- and subsoil. The early stages of secondary succession were predictable as to species and life-form composition.

M. Numata

1982-01-01

28

Hyperspectral reflectance of leaves and flowers of an outbreak species discriminates season and successional stage of vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral reflectance can be used to assess large-scale performances of plants in the field based on plant nutrient balance as well as composition of defence compounds. However, plant chemical composition is known to vary with season - due to its phenology - and it may even depend on the succession stage of its habitat. Here we investigate (i) how spectral reflectance could be used to discriminate successional and phenological stages of Jacobaea vulgaris in both leaf and flower organs and (ii) if chemical content estimation by reflectance is flower or leaf dependent. We used J. vulgaris, which is a natural outbreak plant species on abandoned arable fields in north-western Europe and studied this species in a chronosequence representing successional development during time since abandonment. The chemical content and reflectance between 400 and 2500 nm wavelengths of flowers and leaves were measured throughout the season in fields of different successional ages. The data were analyzed with multivariate statistics for temporal discrimination and estimation of chemical contents in both leaf and flower organs. Two main effects were revealed by spectral reflectance measurements: (i) both flower and leaf spectra show successional and seasonal changes, but the pattern is complex and organ specific (ii) flower head pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are involved in plant defence against herbivores, can be detected through hyperspectral reflectance.We conclude that spectral reflectance of both leaves and flowers can provide information on plant performance during season and successional stages. As a result, remote sensing studies of plant performance in complex field situations will benefit from considering hyperspectral reflectance of different plant organs. This approach may enable more detailed studies on the link between spectral information and plant defence dynamics both aboveground and belowground.

Carvalho, Sabrina; Schlerf, Martin; van der Putten, Wim H.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

2013-10-01

29

Overwinter survival of neotropical migratory birds in early successional and mature tropical forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many Neotropical migratory species inhabit both mature and early successional forest on their wintering grounds, yet comparisons of survival rates between habitats are lacking. Consequently, the factors affecting habitat suitability for Neotropical migrants and the potential effects of tropical deforestation on migrants are not well understood. We estimated over-winter survival and capture probabilities of Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina), and Kentucky Warbler (Oporomis formosus) inhabiting two common tropical habitat types, mature and early-successional forest. Our results suggest that large differences (for example, ratio of survival rates (gamma) < 0.85) in overwinter survival between these habitats do not exist for any of these species. Age ratios did not differ between habitats, but males were more common in forest habitats and females more common in successional habitats for Hooded Warblers and Kentucky Warblers. Future research on overwinter survival should address the need for age- and sex-specific survival estimates before we can draw strong conclusions regarding winter habitat suitability. Our estimates of over-winter survival extrapolated to annual survival rates that were generally lower than previous estimates of annual survival of migratory birds. Capture probability differed between habitats for Kentucky Warblers, but our results provide strong evidence against large differences in capture probability between habitats for Wood Thrush, Hooded Warblers, and Ovenbirds. We found no temporal or among site differences in survival or capture probability for any of the four species. Additional research is needed to examine the effects of winter habitat use on survival during migration and between-winter survival.

Conway, C. J.; Powell, G. V. N.; Nichols, J. D.

1995-01-01

30

Effects of vegetation, corridor width and regional land use on early successional birds on powerline corridors.  

PubMed

Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs) often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor) and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla) were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management. PMID:22363660

Askins, Robert A; Folsom-O'Keefe, Corrine M; Hardy, Margaret C

2012-02-20

31

Effects of Vegetation, Corridor Width and Regional Land Use on Early Successional Birds on Powerline Corridors  

PubMed Central

Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs) often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor) and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla) were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management.

Askins, Robert A.; Folsom-O'Keefe, Corrine M.; Hardy, Margaret C.

2012-01-01

32

Take me to your leader: does early successional nonhost vegetation spatially inhibit Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)?  

PubMed

The spatial influences of host and nonhost trees and shrubs on the colonization patterns of white pine weevil Pissodes strobi (Peck) were studied within a stand of planted interior hybrid spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x Picea engelmannii (Parry) ex Engelm.]. Planted spruce accounted for one third of all trees within the stand, whereas the remaining two thirds were comprised of early-successional nonhost vegetation, such as alder (Alnus spp.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), black cottonwood [Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa (T. Ng.) Brayshaw], lodgepole pine [Pinus contorta (Dougl.) ex Loud.], trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx), willow (Salix spp.), and Canadian buffaloberry [Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt.]. Unlike the spruce trees, nonhost vegetation in the stand was not uniformly distributed. Spatial point process models showed that Canadian buffaloberry, paper birch, black cottonwoood, and trembling aspen had negative associations with damage caused by the weevil, even though the density of the insects' hosts in these areas did not change. Moreover, knowing the locations of these nonhost trees provided as much, or more, inference about the locations of weevil-attacked trees as knowing the locations of suitable or preferred host trees (i.e., those larger in size). Nonhost volatiles, the alteration of soil composition, and overstory shade are discussed as potential explanatory factors for the patterns observed. New research avenues are suggested to determine whether nonhost vegetation in early successional stands might be an additional tool in the management of these insects in commercially important forests. PMID:19689899

Koopmans, Jordan M; De La Giroday, Honey-Marie C; Lindgren, B Staffan; Aukema, Brian H

2009-08-01

33

Resource competition and suppression of plants colonizing early successional old fields.  

PubMed

Early colonizing annual plants are rapidly suppressed in secondary succession on fertile midwestern old fields, while later colonizing perennials persist. Differences in competitive ability for above- and belowground resources may be partly responsible for differences in species persistence during succession, as both light and nutrient availability may change rapidly. We found that, although both above- and belowground competition suppress growth of colonizing plants, belowground competition was the dominant factor in the suppression of the annual Ambrosia artemisiifolia in 2nd-year-old fields near the W.K. Kellogg Biological Station in southwestern Michigan. Despite an ability to persist in later successional fields, seedling transplants of the perennial Achillea millefolium were also suppressed by above- and belowground competition, with belowground competition having the strongest effect. As in many old fields, nitrogen availability is the primary factor limiting plant productivity. There was no clear difference between the species in ability to compete for (15)N from an enriched patch, although there was an indication of greater precision of foraging by Achillea. Life history differences between these species and consequent differences in the phenology of root growth relative to other old-field plants are likely to play a large role in the persistence of Achillea in successional fields where Ambrosia is suppressed. PMID:20135162

Kosola, K R; Gross, K L

1999-01-01

34

Dynamics, chemical properties and bioavailability of DOC in an early successional catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been intensively studied in mature ecosystems, but little is known about DOC dynamics and the significance of DOC as a substrate for microbial activity in early-successional catchments. We determined the concentration, chemical composition, source, radiocarbon age, and bioavailability of DOC along the hydrological flow path from soil solution to a downstream pond in a recently constructed catchment (Chicken Creek Catchment, Germany). Soil solution, upwelling ground water, subsurface water in an alluvial fan, and pond water all had high DOC concentrations (averages of 6.0-11.6 mg DOC L-1), despite small carbon stocks in either vegetation or soil of the early-successional catchment. The mean 14C age of DOC in upwelling ground water was 2600 to 2800 yr. Solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR revealed a higher proportion of aromatic compounds (32%) and a lower proportion of carbohydrates (33%) in upwelling ground water than in pond water (18% and 45%, respectively). The 14C age and 13C NMR spectra suggest that DOC was partly mobilized from charred organic matter of the Quaternary substrate. In an experimental 70-days incubation experiment, 20% of the total DOC was found to be bioavailable, irrespective of the water type. Origin of microbial communities (enriched from soil, stream sediment or pond water) had only marginal effects on overall DOC utilization. Overall, these data suggest that the old DOC can support microbial activity during early ecosystem succession to some extent, although the largest fraction is recalcitrant DOC that is exported from the catchment once it has been mobilized.

Risse-Buhl, U.; Hagedorn, F.; Dümig, A.; Gessner, M. O.; Schaaf, W.; Nii-Annang, S.; Gerull, L.; Mutz, M.

2013-01-01

35

Ozone effects on productivity and diversity of an early successional forest community  

SciTech Connect

There has been little research on the effects of tropospheric ozone on diversity and productivity of native understory vegetation and tree species growing in competition. Loblolly pine and an associated early successional forest community was exposed to 4 treatments of ozone. The treatments were: CF=carbon-filtered air, NF=non-filtered 1X air, AA=ambient air and 2X=twice AA air. Pine height and diameter, number of understory species, and percent-cover were measured. First-year results show the number of species were significantly reduced in 2X compared to CF. Blackberry, although severely injured (visible), dominated the 2X treatments. Bahia grass increased in abundance and cover with decreasing ozone, panicum grass increased in abundance and cover with increasing ozone, and andropogon was unaffected. Pine height and diameter was significantly reduced in the CF treatment. This study will continue for at least one more growing season.

Barbo, D.N.; Chappelka, A.H. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Stolte, K.W. [USDA Forest Service, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-06-01

36

[Early-stage polyarthritis].  

PubMed

Prodromes, articular signs and the different courses in the early stage of rheumatoid arthritis are explained. Atypical forms and variants of rheumatoid arthritis are especially described. These are the following syndromes: palindromic rheumatism, polymyalgic rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren-syndrome with rheumatoid arthritis, acute symmetric polyarthritis with pitting edema of elderly people. Furthermore the significance of radiological procedures and the investigation for rheumatoid factors in the early stages are discussed. Early diagnosis and consecutively early therapeutic strategies in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis are of paramount importance for prognosis. PMID:8465130

Schlumpf, U

1993-03-23

37

Relative importance of early-successional forests and shrubland habitats to mammals in the northeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The majority of the 60 native terrestrial mammal species that reside in the northeastern United States (US) utilize resources from several habitats on a seasonal basis. However, as many as 20 species demonstrate some preference for early-successional forests, shrublands, or old-field habitats. A few of these (e.g. lagomorphs) can be considered obligate users of these habitats, and the specialist carnivores (e.g. felids) that prey on them may consequently also prefer such habitats. Other mammal species that prefer these habitats certainly depend on them to lesser and varying degrees; thus, the consequences of reducing or eliminating early-successional forests, shrublands, or old-field habitats across the landscape will likely have varying demographic consequences, and thus importance, to those species. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Fuller, T. K.; DeStefano, S.

2003-01-01

38

Detection of successional stages and spatial patterns of forest initiation strategies for an abandoned tropical dry forest pasture in Guanacaste Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canopy heights derived from a Waveform LIDAR sensor (LVIS) are used to identify characteristics of successional stages in an abandoned pasture in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. LIDAR canopy heights were validated through comparison with field collected heights The location of 3 classes derived from an automatic classification of the LIDAR data was compared against the location of successional stages identified a previous research. In addition the spatial location of two forest initiation strategies (seed dispersion) was investigated analyzing the textural information from a DEM (Digital Elevation Model) generated from the LVIS total canopy height data. The results of this research suggest a good agreement between successional stages reported in the literature and those identified with the LIDAR data. Also the fragments initiated by wind and vertebrate dispersion strategies detected in this study suggest a good agreement with several characteristics (spatial patterns) of such fragments reported by the literature.

Castillo-Nunez, Mauricio

39

Supplemental planting of early successional tree species during bottomland hardwood afforestation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reforestation of former bottom land hardwood forests that have been cleared for agriculture (i.e., afforestation) has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya spp.). These species are slow to develop vertical forest structure. However, vertical forest structure is key to colonization of afforested sites by forest birds. Although early-successional tree species often enhance vertical structure, few of these species invade afforested sites that are distant from seed sources. Furthermore, many land mangers are reluctant to establish and maintain stands of fast-growing plantation trees. Therefore, on 40 afforested bottomland sites, we supplemented heavy-seeded seedlings with 8 patches of fast-growing trees: 4 patches of 12 eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stem cuttings and 4 patches of 12 American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) seedlings. To enhance survival and growth, tree patches were subjected to 4 weed control treatments: (1) physical weed barriers, (2) chemical herbicide, (3) both physical and chemical weed control, or (4) no weed control. Overall, first-year survival of cottonwood and sycamore was 25 percent and 47 percent, respectively. Second-year survival of extant trees was 52 percent for cottonwood and 77 percent for sycamore. Physical weed barriers increased survival of cottonwoods to 30 percent versus 18 percent survival with no weed control. Similarly, sycamore survival was increased from 49 percent without weed control to 64 percent with physical weed barriers. Chemical weed control adversely impacted sycamore and reduced survival to 35 percent. Tree heights did not differ between species or among weed control treatments. Girdling of trees by deer often destroyed saplings. Thus, little increase in vertical structure was detected between growing seasons. Application of fertilizer and protection via tree shelters did not improve survival or vertical development of sycamore or cottonwood.

Twedt, D. J.; Wilson, R.R.

2002-01-01

40

Use of early-successional managed northern forest by matu reforest species during the post-fledging period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In eastern North America, after the young fledge, both adult and juvenile mature-forest birds may use regenerating clearcuts, although which species frequent early-successional forest and during which life stages is not well documented. To assess whether birds nesting in mature forest in north-central Minnesota use regenerating clearcuts 2-10 years old, we netted after birds fledged (2006-2009) and during the breeding season (2009). In addition, we monitored Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) nests and banded nestlings in adjacent mature forest and estimated the age at which juveniles used regenerating clearcuts. While banding, we also recorded nests of any species encountered opportunistically in regenerating clearcuts as evidence of breeding in this cover type. During July and August, we captured 4556 birds of 62 species, of which 1746 (38%) were of 28 mature-forest species. As reported elsewhere, most (76%) mature-forest birds we captured were of only a few species: Ovenbird, American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus), and Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia). In 2009, 21% of captures during the nesting period were of mature-forest birds. Comparing dates of fledging from monitored nests to dates of capture in clearcuts implies that nearly all (95%) hatch-year Ovenbirds using clearcuts were independent of adult care. Capture dates of juveniles of other mature-forest species were similar. Although we captured 340 hatch-year Ovenbirds in regenerating clearcuts, we captured only one of 424 Ovenbirds we had banded as nestlings in adjacent mature forest. Within the clearcuts, we encountered nests of five species that typically nest in mature forest. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

Streby, H. M.; Peterson, S. M.; McAllister, T. L.; Andersen, D. E.

2011-01-01

41

Remote sensing-based predictors improve distribution models of rare, early successional and broadleaf tree species in Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Compared to bioclimatic variables, remote sensing predictors are rarely used for predictive species modelling. When used, the predictors represent typically habitat classifications or filters rather than gradual spectral, surface or biophysical properties. Consequently, the full potential of remotely sensed predictors for modelling the spatial distribution of species remains unexplored. Here we analysed the partial contributions of remotely sensed and climatic predictor sets to explain and predict the distribution of 19 tree species in Utah. We also tested how these partial contributions were related to characteristics such as successional types or species traits. 2. We developed two spatial predictor sets of remotely sensed and topo-climatic variables to explain the distribution of tree species. We used variation partitioning techniques applied to generalized linear models to explore the combined and partial predictive powers of the two predictor sets. Non-parametric tests were used to explore the relationships between the partial model contributions of both predictor sets and species characteristics. 3. More than 60% of the variation explained by the models represented contributions by one of the two partial predictor sets alone, with topo-climatic variables outperforming the remotely sensed predictors. However, the partial models derived from only remotely sensed predictors still provided high model accuracies, indicating a significant correlation between climate and remote sensing variables. The overall accuracy of the models was high, but small sample sizes had a strong effect on cross-validated accuracies for rare species. 4. Models of early successional and broadleaf species benefited significantly more from adding remotely sensed predictors than did late seral and needleleaf species. The core-satellite species types differed significantly with respect to overall model accuracies. Models of satellite and urban species, both with low prevalence, benefited more from use of remotely sensed predictors than did the more frequent core species. 5. Synthesis and applications. If carefully prepared, remotely sensed variables are useful additional predictors for the spatial distribution of trees. Major improvements resulted for deciduous, early successional, satellite and rare species. The ability to improve model accuracy for species having markedly different life history strategies is a crucial step for assessing effects of global change. ?? 2007 The Authors.

Zimmermann, N. E.; Edwards, Jr. , T. C.; Moisen, G. G.; Frescino, T. S.; Blackard, J. A.

2007-01-01

42

Remote sensing-based predictors improve distribution models of rare, early successional and broadleaf tree species in Utah  

PubMed Central

Compared to bioclimatic variables, remote sensing predictors are rarely used for predictive species modelling. When used, the predictors represent typically habitat classifications or filters rather than gradual spectral, surface or biophysical properties. Consequently, the full potential of remotely sensed predictors for modelling the spatial distribution of species remains unexplored. Here we analysed the partial contributions of remotely sensed and climatic predictor sets to explain and predict the distribution of 19 tree species in Utah. We also tested how these partial contributions were related to characteristics such as successional types or species traits. We developed two spatial predictor sets of remotely sensed and topo-climatic variables to explain the distribution of tree species. We used variation partitioning techniques applied to generalized linear models to explore the combined and partial predictive powers of the two predictor sets. Non-parametric tests were used to explore the relationships between the partial model contributions of both predictor sets and species characteristics. More than 60% of the variation explained by the models represented contributions by one of the two partial predictor sets alone, with topo-climatic variables outperforming the remotely sensed predictors. However, the partial models derived from only remotely sensed predictors still provided high model accuracies, indicating a significant correlation between climate and remote sensing variables. The overall accuracy of the models was high, but small sample sizes had a strong effect on cross-validated accuracies for rare species. Models of early successional and broadleaf species benefited significantly more from adding remotely sensed predictors than did late seral and needleleaf species. The core-satellite species types differed significantly with respect to overall model accuracies. Models of satellite and urban species, both with low prevalence, benefited more from use of remotely sensed predictors than did the more frequent core species. Synthesis and applications. If carefully prepared, remotely sensed variables are useful additional predictors for the spatial distribution of trees. Major improvements resulted for deciduous, early successional, satellite and rare species. The ability to improve model accuracy for species having markedly different life history strategies is a crucial step for assessing effects of global change.

ZIMMERMANN, N E; EDWARDS, T C; MOISEN, G G; FRESCINO, T S; BLACKARD, J A

2007-01-01

43

Bottom-up control of carabid beetle communities in early successional wetlands: mediated by vegetation structure or plant diversity?  

PubMed

Two hypotheses of bottom-up control that predict that the species richness of Carabidae will depend either on the taxonomic diversity of plants ("taxonomic diversity hypothesis") or on the structural heterogeneity of the vegetation ("structural heterogeneity hypothesis") were tested. Plant species were classified into nine plant structural groups through cluster analysis of morphological traits (e.g. total height) at 30 early successional temporary wetlands in the east-German agricultural landscape. In a linear regression analysis, the heterogeneity of vegetation structures explained 55% of the variation in carabid beetle diversity. According to a partial correlation analysis, plant taxonomic diversity did not have a significant effect, consistent with the "structural heterogeneity hypothesis," and contradicting previous studies which concluded that plant taxonomic diversity would be the most important factor in early successional habitats. An experimental study was used to test hypotheses on the processes underlying this bottom-up control by vegetation structure: the "hunting efficiency hypothesis," the "enemy-free space hypothesis," and the "microhabitat specialization hypothesis." The composition of plant structural groups in 15 vegetation plots (1 m(2)) was manipulated, creating a gradient from dense vegetation to open plots. Subsequent pitfall catches revealed significant differences in the activity-abundances of the carabid species. Large species preferred dense vegetation plots, consistent with the enemy-free space hypothesis that large species are more vulnerable to predation on the open plots and prefer dense vegetation to escape from natural enemies. The results indicate that bottom-up control is not mediated only by plant taxonomic or functional group diversity and that vegetation structures may be more important than previously suggested. PMID:12721831

Brose, U

2003-03-20

44

Structure and diversity of Erica ciliaris and Erica tetralix heathlands at different successional stages after cutting.  

PubMed

In NW Europe, it is known that cutting is a useful tool for managers with regard to decisions about the conservation and management of wet heathlands. Nevertheless it is rarely described quantitatively in the international literature. In Spain, knowledge about this is scarce or lacking. In this study, twenty communities were selected in Galicia (NW Spain) that would represent from one to four stages of vegetation development after cutting. Two 5 × 5 m plots were established for each stage to characterise the vegetation on the basis of its species composition, frequency values, vertical structure and linear cover features. The Diversity Shannon index was calculated and multivariate analyses were performed. As succession advanced, notable changes were produced in the cover of dominant species, Erica ciliaris and Ulex gallii in the first stages and Erica tetralix and Genista berberidea in mature ones. Also, the species richness decreased because of the reduced number of herbs species in the mature stages and, finally, the cover values are indicators of the degree of vegetation development, together with the other parameters of height, overlayering or diversity. Cutting is a useful tool for management of heathlands because the existence of vegetation units belonging to different succession stages increases the internal diversity of communities. On the other hand, the vertical and horizontal structure reflects the formidable resilience of the vegetation community to this practice. This study offers a global vision of the dynamics of wet heathlands after cutting, with very useful ecological information that can be used by the people responsible for their management. PMID:21943685

Muñoz, A; García-Duro, J; Alvarez, R; Pesqueira, X M; Reyes, O; Casal, M

2011-09-22

45

Successional stage of biological soil crusts: an accurate indicator of ecohydrological condition  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological soil crusts are a key component of many dryland ecosystems. Following disturbance, biological soil crusts will recover in stages. Recently, a simple classification of these stages has been developed, largely on the basis of external features of the crusts, which reflects their level of development (LOD). The classification system has six LOD classes, from low (1) to high (6). To determine whether the LOD of a crust is related to its ecohydrological function, we used rainfall simulation to evaluate differences in infiltration, runoff, and erosion among crusts in the various LODs, across a range of soil depths and with different wetting pre-treatments. We found large differences between the lowest and highest LODs, with runoff and erosion being greatest from the lowest LOD. Under dry antecedent conditions, about 50% of the water applied ran off the lowest LOD plots, whereas less than 10% ran off the plots of the two highest LODs. Similarly, sediment loss was 400 g m-2 from the lowest LOD and almost zero from the higher LODs. We scaled up the results from these simulations using the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model. Modelling results indicate that erosion increases dramatically as slope length and gradient increase, especially beyond the threshold values of 10 m for slope length and 10% for slope gradient. Our findings confirm that the LOD classification is a quick, easy, nondestructive, and accurate index of hydrological condition and should be incorporated in field and modelling assessments of ecosystem health.

Belnap, Jayne; Wilcox, Bradford P.; Van Scoyoc, Matthew V.; Phillips, Susan L.

2013-01-01

46

Identifying genomic and metabolic features that can underlie early successional and opportunistic lifestyles of human gut symbionts.  

PubMed

We lack a deep understanding of genetic and metabolic attributes specializing in microbial consortia for initial and subsequent waves of colonization of our body habitats. Here we show that phylogenetically interspersed bacteria in Clostridium cluster XIVa, an abundant group of bacteria in the adult human gut also known as the Clostridium coccoides or Eubacterium rectale group, contains species that have evolved distribution patterns consistent with either early successional or stable gut communities. The species that specialize to the infant gut are more likely to associate with systemic infections and can reach high abundances in individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), indicating that a subset of the microbiota that have adapted to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles may do well in both early development and with disease. We identified genes likely selected during adaptation to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles as those for which early succession association and not phylogenetic relationships explain genomic abundance. These genes reveal potential mechanisms by which opportunistic gut bacteria tolerate osmotic and oxidative stress and potentially important aspects of their metabolism. These genes may not only be biomarkers of properties associated with adaptation to early succession and disturbance, but also leads for developing therapies aimed at promoting reestablishment of stable gut communities following physiologic or pathologic disturbances. PMID:22665442

Lozupone, Catherine; Faust, Karoline; Raes, Jeroen; Faith, Jeremiah J; Frank, Daniel N; Zaneveld, Jesse; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Knight, Rob

2012-06-04

47

Identifying genomic and metabolic features that can underlie early successional and opportunistic lifestyles of human gut symbionts  

PubMed Central

We lack a deep understanding of genetic and metabolic attributes specializing in microbial consortia for initial and subsequent waves of colonization of our body habitats. Here we show that phylogenetically interspersed bacteria in Clostridium cluster XIVa, an abundant group of bacteria in the adult human gut also known as the Clostridium coccoides or Eubacterium rectale group, contains species that have evolved distribution patterns consistent with either early successional or stable gut communities. The species that specialize to the infant gut are more likely to associate with systemic infections and can reach high abundances in individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), indicating that a subset of the microbiota that have adapted to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles may do well in both early development and with disease. We identified genes likely selected during adaptation to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles as those for which early succession association and not phylogenetic relationships explain genomic abundance. These genes reveal potential mechanisms by which opportunistic gut bacteria tolerate osmotic and oxidative stress and potentially important aspects of their metabolism. These genes may not only be biomarkers of properties associated with adaptation to early succession and disturbance, but also leads for developing therapies aimed at promoting reestablishment of stable gut communities following physiologic or pathologic disturbances.

Lozupone, Catherine; Faust, Karoline; Raes, Jeroen; Faith, Jeremiah J.; Frank, Daniel N.; Zaneveld, Jesse; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Knight, Rob

2012-01-01

48

Population structure and inbreeding vary with successional stage in created Spartina alterniflora marshes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recruitment patterns in clonal plant populations are predicted to vary with seed dispersal capability and disturbance regime, such that species with small, widely dispersed seeds will become increasingly dominated by vegetative recruitment on disturbed areas following early colonization. Subsequent mortality due to competitive or stochastic effects is then predicted to cause a gradual decline in both clonal diversity and the ability of surviving clones to avoid geitonogamous mating and possible inbreeding depression. We tested predictions of these hypotheses by comparing four adjacent populations of the salt marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, ranging in age from 2 to ???50 yr, by measuring fine-scale genetic structure at the level of both ramets and genets, and the rate of inbreeding. For this purpose, we sampled maternal tissue and seeds from discrete patches in the field and then genotyped both maternal and seedling tissue (germinated in a growth chamber) using standard molecular protocols. As predicted, we observed an increase in clonal diversity (measured as the complement of the Simpson Index corrected for finite sample sizes, 1-D) up to a maximum of 0.71 within 3-m2 patches at 16 yr, declining to 0.55 by ???50 yr. Local recruitment of seedlings was evident as genetic structure occurring at the level of patches, as measured by the fixation index, ??, which was inversely correlated with diversity (R2 > 0.90 at all patch scales). Outcrossing rates were positively associated with clonal diversity, with the highest level (89%) at an intermediate level of 1-D. The greatest selfing (32%) occurred in young (2-yr-old) patches with low diversity. Biparental inbreeding was minimal in all populations, never exceeding 1%. Inbreeding depression was inferred to be severe, as evidenced by near-zero adult inbreeding coefficients. These results suggest a possible fitness trade-off between clonal growth and the opportunity for outcrossing. We recommend that restoration plantings of clonal species with limited sexual recruitment capabilities should be designed to ensure adequate clonal diversity for the avoidance of inbreeding and the ability to adapt to subsequent environmental disturbances.

Travis, S. E.; Proffitt, C. E.; Ritland, K.

2004-01-01

49

Factors affecting growth and nodulation of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. Rhamnoides in soils from two successional stages of dune formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To explain the decline of Hippopha scrub in the vegetation succession in the dunes of The Netherlands, the growth and nodulation\\u000a of Hippopha plants grown in pots, using soil from an early stage (site AH) and a post-optimum stage (site HP), were investigated.\\u000a In HP-soil nodulation, yield, and the nitrogen and phosphorus content of test plants were always lower and

P. A. I. Oremus; H. Otten

1981-01-01

50

Limited toxicity of NH(x) pulses on an early and late successional tropical seagrass species: interactions with pH and light level.  

PubMed

Seagrasses have declined at a global scale due to light reduction and toxicity events, caused by eutrophication and increased sediment loading. Although several studies have tested effects of light reduction and toxicants on seagrasses, there is at present no information available on their interacting effects. In a full-factorial 5-day laboratory experiment, we studied short-term interactive effects of light conditions, pH and reduced nitrogen (NH(x)) in the water layer, mimicking pulses of river discharge, on the tropical early successional species Halodule uninervis and the late successional species Thalassia hemprichii. In contrast to recent results reported for the temperate species Zostera marina, increased NH(x) supply did not affect leaf mortality or photochemical efficiency in H. uninervis and in 7 out of 8 treatments for T. hemprichii. However, both tropical species demonstrated striking differences in nitrogen accumulation, free amino acid composition and free NH? accumulation. The increase in tissue nitrogen content was two times higher for H. uninervis than for T. hemprichii. Nitrogen stored as free amino acids (especially asparagine) only increased in H. uninervis. High pH only affected T. hemprichii, but only when not shaded, by doubling its free NH? concentrations, concomitantly decreasing its photosynthetic efficiency. Our results indicate that the early successional H. uninervis has higher tolerance to high NH(x) loads as compared to the late successional T. hemprichii. H. uninervis was better able to avoid toxic internal NH(x) levels by further assimilating glutamine into asparagine in contrast to T. hemprichii. Moreover, both tropical species seem to cope much better with high NH(x) than the temperate Z. marina. The implications for the distribution and succession of seagrass species under high nutrient loads are discussed. PMID:21536012

Christianen, M J A; van der Heide, T; Bouma, T J; Roelofs, J G M; van Katwijk, M M; Lamers, L P M

2011-04-09

51

Early stages of homopolymer collapse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in the protein folding problem has motivated a wide range of theoretical and experimental studies of the kinetics of the collapse of flexible homopolymers. In this paper, a phenomenological model is proposed for the kinetics of the early stages of homopolymer collapse following a quench from temperatures above to below the ? temperature. In the first stage, nascent droplets of the dense phase are formed, with little effect on the configurations of the bridges that join them. The droplets then grow by accreting monomers from the bridges, thus causing the bridges to stretch. During these two stages, the overall dimensions of the chain decrease only weakly. Further growth of the droplets is accomplished by the shortening of the bridges, which causes the shrinking of the overall dimensions of the chain. The characteristic times of the three stages scale as N0, N1/5, and N6/5, respectively, where N is the degree of polymerization of the chain.

Halperin, A.; Goldbart, Paul M.

2000-01-01

52

Early growth and photosynthetic responses to light in seedlings of three tropical species differing in successional strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Containerized seedlings of three commercially important tropical species were grown under four different light treatments\\u000a [i.e., 100 (open site), 45, 22 and 10% sunlight] for 130 days. Light-saturated photosynthesis (A\\u000a max) and light saturation estimates (LSE) reflected the species successional status with Terminalia superba Engl. and Diels, the pioneer species showing largest mean A\\u000a max and LSE at 100% sunlight, whereas

Richard Gyimah; Toshio Nakao

2007-01-01

53

Presence and Expression of Microbial Genes Regulating Soil Nitrogen Dynamics Along the Tanana River Successional Sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on work to assess the functional gene sequences for soil microbiota that control nitrogen cycle pathways along the successional sequence (willow, alder, poplar, white spruce, black spruce) on the Tanana River floodplain, Interior Alaska. Microbial DNA and mRNA were extracted from soils (0-10 cm depth) for amoA (ammonium monooxygenase), nifH (nitrogenase reductase), napA (nitrate reductase), and nirS and nirK (nitrite reductase) genes. Gene presence was determined by amplification of a conserved sequence of each gene employing sequence specific oligonucleotide primers and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Expression of the genes was measured via nested reverse transcriptase PCR amplification of the extracted mRNA. Amplified PCR products were visualized on agarose electrophoresis gels. All five successional stages show evidence for the presence and expression of microbial genes that regulate N fixation (free-living), nitrification, and nitrate reduction. We detected (1) nifH, napA, and nirK presence and amoA expression (mRNA production) for all five successional stages and (2) nirS and amoA presence and nifH, nirK, and napA expression for early successional stages (willow, alder, poplar). The results highlight that the existing body of previous process-level work has not sufficiently considered the microbial potential for a nitrate economy and free-living N fixation along the complete floodplain successional sequence.

Boone, R. D.; Rogers, S. L.

2004-12-01

54

13 C abundance, water-soluble and microbial biomass carbon as potential indicators of soil organic carbon dynamics in subtropical forests at different successional stages and subject to different nitrogen loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in forest ecosystems, and thereby\\u000a alters the stable C isotopic abundance of plant and soil. Three successional stages, disturbed, rehabilitated and mature forests\\u000a were studied for their responses to different nitrogen input levels. N-addition manipulative experiments were conducted at\\u000a low, medium and high N levels. To study

Hua-Jun Fang; Gui-Rui Yu; Shu-Lan Cheng; Jiang-Ming Mo; Jun-Hua Yan; Shenggong Li

2009-01-01

55

Dynamics of pioneer and primary successional stage trees in a logged Trinidadian tropical rainforest and the influence of drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis that pioneer and primary stage tree species responded differently to drought events which are thought to be increasing in importance as an ecological driver in the eastern Caribbean and northern South America. Data were collected and analyzed from trees > 20 cm dbh from 18 one ha plots over a 13 year period in a

MICHAEL P. OATHAM; SEEPERSAD RAMNARINE

56

Nitrogen effects on rhizosphere processes of range grasses from different successional seres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen and rhizosphere microorganism effects on nitrogen and carbon dynamics of Sitanion hystrix (early successional species), Stipa comata and Poa secundu which are (mid-successional species), and Agropyron spicatum (late successional species) were evaluated in a growth chamber study. Rhizosphere inocula resulted in increased nitrogen in both root and shoot tissue, and also of water-extractable carbon in the rhizosphere. Plant species,

B. A. Frederick; D. A. Klein

1994-01-01

57

Do natural disturbances or the forestry practices that follow them convert forests to early-successional communities?  

PubMed

Stand-replacing natural disturbances in mature forests are traditionally seen as events that cause forests to revert to early stages of succession and maintain species diversity. In some cases, however, such transitions could be an artifact of salvage logging and may increase biotic homogenization. We present initial (two-year) results of a study of the effects of tornado damage and the combined effects of tornado damage and salvage logging on environmental conditions and ground cover plant communities in mixed oak-pine forests in north central Mississippi. Plots were established in salvage-logged areas, adjacent to plots established before the storm in unlogged areas, spanning a gradient of storm damage intensity. Vegetation change directly attributable to tornado damage was driven primarily by a reduction in canopy cover but was not consistent with a transition to an early stage of succession. Although we observed post-storm increases of several disturbance indicators (ruderals), we also observed significant increases in the abundance of a few species indicative of upland forests. Increases in flowering were just as likely to occur in species indicative of forests as in species indicative of open woodlands. Few species declined as a result of the tornado, resulting in a net increase in species richness. Ruderals were very abundant in salvage-logged areas, which contained significantly higher amounts of bare ground and greater variance in soil penetrability than did damaged areas that were not logged. In contrast to unlogged areas severely damaged by the tornado, most upland forest indicators were not abundant in logged areas. Several of the forest and open-woodland indicators that showed increased flowering in damaged areas were absent or sparse in logged areas. Species richness was lower in salvage-logged areas than in adjacent damaged areas but similar to that in undamaged areas. These results suggest that salvage logging prevented positive responses of several forest and open-woodland species to tornado damage. Anthropogenic disturbances such as salvage logging appear to differ fundamentally from stand-level canopy-reducing disturbances in their effects on ground cover vegetation in the forests studied here and are perhaps more appropriately viewed as contributing to biotic homogenization than as events that maintain diversity. PMID:22611846

Brewer, J Stephen; Bertz, Christine A; Cannon, Jeffery B; Chesser, Jason D; Maynard, Erynn E

2012-03-01

58

Dependence of soil respiration on soil temperature and soil moisture in successional forests in Southern China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (?? SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0 ?? 4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year, ranging from (6.1 ?? 3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year in early successional forests to (10.7 ?? 4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities. ?? 2006 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Tang, X. -L.; Zhou, G. -Y.; Liu, S. -G.; Zhang, D. -Q.; Liu, S. -Z.; Li, J.; Zhou, C. -Y.

2006-01-01

59

Delirium in Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Delirium is a disorder of acute onset with fluctuating symptoms and is characterized by inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered levels of consciousness. The risk for delirium is greatest in individuals with dementia, and the incidence of both is increasing worldwide because of the aging of our population. Although several clinical trials have tested interventions for delirium prevention in individuals without dementia, little is known about the mechanisms for the prevention of delirium in early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The purpose of this article is to explore ways of preventing delirium and slowing the rate of cognitive decline in early-stage AD by enhancing cognitive reserve. An agenda for future research on interventions to prevent delirium in individuals with early-stage AD is also presented.

Fick, Donna M.; Kolanowski, Ann; Beattie, Elizabeth; McCrow, Judith

2010-01-01

60

Short-Term responses of breeding birds of grassland and early successional habitat to timing of haying in Northwestern Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2003, we evaluated nest survival and density of the Dickcissel (Spiza americana), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) in four unhayed, two early-hayed (26-31 May) and three late-hayed (17-25 June) fields in northwestern Arkansas. Rope dragging and observations revealed 89 nests. Daily nest-survival rates (SE) prior to haying ranged from 0.94 (0.03) to 0.97 (0.02). Early haying affected both nest-survival rates and bird densities negatively, whereas late haying had minimal effects. Fifteen nests in hayed portions of early-hayed fields were destroyed, whereas only 2 of 52 nests were affected by late haying. Density was at least 0.98 birds ha-1 higher in unhayed than in early-hayed fields and 1.03 birds ha-1 higher in late-hayed than in early-hayed fields. In northwestern Arkansas, postponing haying until mid- to late June would allow time for nestlings to fledge, would have little effect on bird densities, and would affect hay nutrition and regrowth minimally. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society, 2009.

Luscier, J. D.; Thompson, W. L.

2009-01-01

61

Effects of above-ground browsing by mammals on mycorrhizal infection in an early successional taiga ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an exclosure experiment in the willow stage of primary succession on the floodplain of the Tanana River, we tested\\u000a the hypothesis that browsing can reduce mycorrhizal infection. We measured the effects winter browsing by moose (Alcesalces) and snowshoe hare (Lepusamericanus) had on mycorrhizal infection and fine root biomass of willow (Salix spp.) and balsam poplar (Populusbalsamifera). We found that

Loni J. Rossow; John P. Bryant; Knut Kielland

1997-01-01

62

Favorable early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

The category of favorable early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) includes patients with Ann Arbor stages I or II disease with no bulky disease or B symptoms. The precise definition of favorable versus unfavorable early-stage disease may vary among American and European cooperative groups. The overall 10-year survival rate of patients with favorable early-stage HL exceeds 90%. Indeed, effective treatments for this group of patients have been available for more than 4 decades. However, treatment strategies have radically changed over the past 15 years and focus now on maintaining the high cure rate while reducing the risk of treatment-related long-term morbidity. The optimal treatment is still evolving, and more recently, reduction in the total amount of chemotherapy and in radiation field and dose has shown excellent results. Combined modality therapy is the preferred treatment for patients with classical favorable early-stage HL (nodular sclerosis or mixed cellularity histology). Patients with early-stage lymphocyte predominance HL are highly curable using involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) alone and do not require chemotherapy. Classical favorable HL is also curable with radiotherapy alone or with chemotherapy alone, but larger fields and higher-dose radiation or longer chemotherapy is required compared with combined modality. The freedom from treatment failure rate is significantly better with a combination of short chemotherapy and IFRT than with either chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone. Although combined modality is the standard preferred treatment for favorable disease, radiation therapy alone or chemotherapy alone could be considered under special circumstances or as part of an investigational protocol. PMID:16507270

Yahalom, Joachim

2006-03-01

63

Sensors for monitoring early stage fatigue cracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sensor systems were evaluated for their ability to detect early stage fatigue cracking in open holes. The sensor systems were (1) a Meandering Winding Magnetometer Array sensor system that induces eddy currents to monitor conductivity changes; (2) a through-transmission ultrasonic technique that monitors energy loss, and (3) the Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor which detects fatigue-induced changes in a metal surface

John M. Papazian; Jerrell Nardiello; Robert P. Silberstein; Greg Welsh; David Grundy; Chris Craven; Leslie Evans; Neil Goldfine; Jennifer E. Michaels; Thomas E. Michaels; Yuanfeng Li; Campbell Laird

2007-01-01

64

Experimental warming alters spring phenology of certain plant functional groups in an early-successional forest community.  

PubMed

Experimental study of the effects of projected climate change on plant phenology allows us to isolate effects of warming on life history events such as leaf out. We simulated a 2°C temperature increase and 20% precipitation increase in a recently harvested temperate deciduous forest community in central Pennsylvania, USA, and observed the leaf out phenology of all species in 2009 and 2010. Over 130 plant species were monitored weekly in study plots, but due to high variability in species composition among plots, species were grouped into five functional groups: short forbs, tall forbs, shrubs, small trees, and large trees. Tall forbs and large trees, which usually emerge in the late spring, advanced leaf out 14-18 days in response to warming. Short forbs, shrubs, and small trees emerge early in spring and did not alter their phenology in response to warming or increased precipitation treatments. Earlier leaf out of tall forbs and large trees coincided with almost three weeks of increased community-level leaf area index (LAI), indicating greater competition and a condensed spring green-up period. While phenology of large trees and tall forbs appears to be strongly influenced by temperature-based growth cues, our results suggest that photoperiod and chilling cues more strongly influence the leaf out of other functional groups. Reduced freeze events and warmer temperatures from predicted climate change will interact with non-temperature growth cues to have cascading consequences throughout the ecosystem. PMID:23505127

Rollinson, C R; Kaye, M W

2012-01-01

65

Spatial variation in fish assemblages across a beaver-influenced successional landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beavers are increasingly viewed as 'ecological engineers,' having broad effects on physical, chemical, and biological attributes of north-temperate landscapes. We examine the influence of both local successional processes associated with beaver activity and regional geomorphic boundaries on spatial variation in fish assemblages along the Kabetogama Peninsula in Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota, USA. Fish abundance and species richness exhibited considerable variation among drainages along the peninsula. Geological barriers to fish dispersal at outlets of some drainages has reduced fish abundance and species richness. Fish abundance and species richness also varied within drainages among local environments associated with beaver pond succession. Fish abundance was higher in upland ponds than in lowland ponds, collapsed ponds, or streams, whereas species richness was highest in collapsed ponds and streams. Cluster analyses based on fish abundance at sites classified according to successional environment indicated that four species (northern redbelly dace, Phoxinus eos; brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans; finescale dace, P. neogaeus; and fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas), were predominant in all successional environments. Several less abundant species were added in collapsed ponds and streams, with smaller size classes of large lake species (e.g., black crappie, Pomoxis nigromaculatus; smallmouth bass, Micropertus dolomieui; yellow perch, Perca flavescens; and burbot, Lota lota) being a component of these less abundant species. The addition of smaller size classes of large lake species indicates that dispersal of early life-history stages from Kabetogama Lake played a role in determining the species richness and composition of less abundant species in successional environments on the peninsula. Furthermore, collapsed-pond and stream environments closer to Kabetogama Lake had higher species richness than similar successional sites located farther from the lake. Cluster analyses based oh fish abundance at sites classified according to drainage indicated that species composition among drainages was influenced both by the presence or absence of geological barriers to fish dispersal and the nonrandom distribution of collapsed ponds and streams. Based on these results, we present a hierarchical conceptual model suggesting how geomorphic boundaries and beaver pond succession interact to influence fish assemblage attributes. The presence of a productive and diverse fish assemblage in headwater streams of north-temperate areas requires the entire spatial and temporal mosaic of successional habitats associated with beaver activity, including those due to the creation and abandonment of beaver ponds. The ultimate impact of the local successional mosaic on fishes, however, will be strongly influenced by the regional geomorphic context in which the mosaic occurs.

Schlosser, I. J.; Kallemeyn, L. W.

2000-01-01

66

Open Architecture Framework for Improved Early Stage Submarine Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Could transparency between current disparate methods improve efficiency in early stage submarine design. Does the lack of transparency between current design methods hinder the effectiveness of early stage submarine design. This thesis proposes that coord...

E. A. Sewell

2010-01-01

67

Treatment Choices for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI Treatment Choices for Men With Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Posted: 02/11/2011 Treatment Choices for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer About This Booklet ...

68

Pancreatic Perfusion CT in Early Stage of Severe Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Early intensive care for severe acute pancreatitis is essential for improving SAP mortality rates. However, intensive therapies for SAP are often delayed because there is no ideal way to accurately evaluate severity in the early stages. Currently, perfusion CT has been shown useful to predict prognosis of SAP in the early stage. In this presented paper, we would like to review the clinical usefulness and limitations of perfusion CT for evaluation of local and systemic complications in early stage of SAP.

Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Naoki; Tsutomu, Chiba

2012-01-01

69

[Early diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer].  

PubMed

Case of pancreatic cancer have increased in number, and the number of deaths from that disease has reached 20,000 in recent years in Japan. Only a few patients with pancreatic cancer can be cured. However, the prognosis in small pancreatic cancer such as TS1 less than 2 cm is relatively good if radical surgical resection is performed. Therefore early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is important to improve the dismal prognosis. Although clinical symptoms are not reliable for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, 30% of TS1 patients have abdominal or back pain. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that familial history of pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, obesity, and smoking are possible high-risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Serum pancreatic enzyme and tumor markers in terms of CA19-9 and CEA are measured first. Ultrasonography (US) should be performed as soon as possible. Not only tumors but also slightly dilated main pancreatic ducts and/or small simple cysts that may represent indirect changes due to pancreatic cancer can be detected with US. Enhanced computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic US are also useful. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography yields more detailed images of branch ducts, and the cytology of pancreatic juice can be determined following examination. Unfortunately, position-emission tomography is not a reliable method for the diagnosis of small tumors in the pancreas. Finally, TNM staging of pancreatic cancer is performed based on the results of these imaging examinations. PMID:16878407

Shiratori, Keiko

2006-07-01

70

Costs and effectiveness of staging and treatment options in early-stage Hodgkin’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Using a cost-effectiveness analysis, to weigh the costs and benefits of the different staging and treatment options in early-stage Hodgkin’s disease.Methods: We constructed a decision-analytic model for a hypothetical cohort of 25-year-old patients with early-stage Hodgkin’s disease. Markov models were used to simulate the lifetime costs and prognosis of each staging and treatment strategy. Baseline probabilities and cost estimates

Andrea K. Ng; Karen M. Kuntz; Peter M. Mauch

2001-01-01

71

Early stages in experiential marital therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of marital issues in symbolic-experiential therapy unfolds in somewhat predictable stages, though some of these may be imposed by tasks required by the therapist. The first stage calls for defining the dominant symbolic theme in the couple's struggle, and for engaging with that symbolic structure from a certain posture. Opening strategies are discussed for dilemmas concerning power, closeness,

Augustus Y. Napier

1987-01-01

72

Interactive sketching for the early stages of user interface design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current interactive user interface construction tools are often more of a hindrance than a benefit during the early stages of user interface design. These tools take too much time to use and force designers to specify more of the design details than they wish at this early stage. Most interface designers, especially those who have a background in graphic design,

James A. Landay; Brad A. Myers

1995-01-01

73

Interactive Sketching for the Early Stages of User Interface Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current interactive user interface construction tools are often more of a hindrance thana benefit during the early stages of interface design. These tools are hard to use andthey encourage designers and evaluators to focus on the wrong issues, such as color,fonts, and alignment, at this early stage. Most designers prefer instead to sketch earlyinterface ideas on paper. However, designing on

James A. Landay

1996-01-01

74

Scaling relationships among twig size, leaf size and leafing intensity in a successional series of subtropical forests.  

PubMed

Scaling relationships among twig size, leaf size and leafing intensity fundamentally influence the twig-leaf deployment pattern, a property that affects the architecture and functioning of plants. However, our understanding of how these relationships change within a species or between species as a function of forest succession is unclear. We determined log-log scaling relationships between twig cross-sectional area (twig size) and each of total and individual leaf area, and leafing intensity (the number of leaves per twig volume) for 78 woody species along a successional series in subtropical evergreen forests in eastern China. The series included four stages: secondary shrub (S1), young (S2), sub-climax (S3) and climax evergreen broadleaved forests (S4). The scaling slopes in each of the three relationships did not differ among the four stages. The y-intercept did not shift among the successional stages in the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and total leaf area; however, the y-intercept was greatest in S4, intermediate in S3 and lowest in S2 and S1 for the relationship between twig size and individual leaf area, while the opposite pattern was found for the twig size-leafing intensity relationship. This indicates that late successional trees have few but large leaves while early successional trees have more small leaves per unit twig size. For the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and total leaf area, there was no difference in the regression slope between recurrent (appear in more than one stages) and non-recurrent species (appear in only one stage) for each of the S1-S2, S2-S3 and S3-S4 pairs. A significant difference in the y-intercept was found in the S2-S3 pair only. In the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and individual leaf area, the regression slope between recurrent and non-recurrent species was homogeneous in the S1-S2 and S3-S4 pairs, but heterogeneous in the S2-S3 pair. We conclude that forest succession caused the shift in the intercept, but did not affect scaling slopes for relationships among twig size, leaf size and leaf intensity. For recurrent species, the invariant scaling slope in the twig-leaf size relationship between adjacent pairs of successional stages may be related to their phenotypic plasticity by adjusting their twig and leaf deployment strategy to similar to what the non-recurrent species display. PMID:23824241

Yan, En-Rong; Wang, Xi-Hua; Chang, Scott X; He, Fangliang

2013-06-01

75

Early stages of massive star formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation processes of high-mass stars are not well understood, and the basic question can be phrased as: Do massive stars form similarly to low-mass stars, but with enhanced accretion rates, or are different processes taking place, e.g., the coalescence and merging of intermediate-mass protostars in the very center of star-forming clusters? This thesis investigates the earliest known stages of massive star formation and studies many characteristic parameters to set constraints on the associated physical processes. The analysis and results of my work strongly support the accretion hypothesis and may be summarized as follows: Massive stars can form via accretion processes that are qualitatively similar and quantitatively enhanced compared to the low-mass case. Coalescence of protostars may occur in some sources, but our data indicate that merging of protostars is not the dominating process for high-mass star formation. Because the inner few AU of a star-forming cluster, where the accretion and/or coalescence processes take place, are difficult to resolve with current observational techniques at typical source distances of several kpc, indirect evidence has to be found to answer the initial question. A sample of 69 high-mass protostellar candidates was selected and studied first statistically from the cm and mm regime to near-infrared wavelengths. The analysis revealed that the chosen sample selection criteria very effectively selected a large number of luminous and massive sources at very early evolutionary stages prior to forming a significant ultracompact HII region. Most likely, these sources produce a large fraction of their luminosity by accretion. A detailed analysis of the intensity and density distributions of the sample from 1.2 mm dust continuum emission maps with 11'' spatial resolution shows that the single-dish radial profiles are not well fitted by single power-law distributions, but that they steepen towards the outside and flatten towards the center. While we interpret the steepening to the outside as a signature of the finite sizes of the star-forming cores, the inner flattening indicates fragmentation of the massive cores into a number of sub-sources. The latter is also observed in high-resolution interferometric data of some of the regions. Additionally, the inner power-law density distributions do not show strong deviations from density distributions of low-mass star-forming cores, which indicates that the initial conditions of low- and high-mass star formation are not very different. As massive molecular outflows on large scales provide insights into the star formation process at the center of the regions, we mapped the outflows of a sub-sample in the CO(2-1) line. The data, observed at higher spatial resolution (11'') than previous studies, reveal that massive bipolar and collimated outflows are as ubiquitous phenomena in high-mass star-forming regions as is also true for their low-mass counterparts. Such collimated outflows are most likely produced by star--disk interactions, and hence, massive stars should have disks as well. The observations presented in this thesis reveal accretion rate estimates in the high-mass regime around 10^-4 Msun/yr, rising as high as 10-3 Msun/yr. Such accretion rates should be sufficiently high to overcome the radiative pressure of the central protostar, and accretion can continue to form massive stars. Additionally, we find that the accretion rate of the most massive object in a core scales roughly linearly with the core mass. Furthermore, a high-resolution interferometric case study of one of our sample sources shows that its outflow, which was already known from single-dish observations, actually splits up into at least three bipolar outflows. One of this outflows is the most collimated massive outflow ever observed in molecular gas. These results give strong support to the hypothesis that massive stars form in analogous fashion to low-mass stars; they merely differ in having higher accretion rates, core masses, luminosities and outflow masses. A study of CH3OH a

Beuther, H.

2002-03-01

76

Effects of successional status, habit, sexual systems, and pollinators on flowering patterns in tropical rain forest trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on data from observations of 302 tree species at La Selva, Costa Rica, we tested a range of hypotheses about the relationship between flowering parameters such as time, frequency, and duration and ecological features such as successional status, habit, sexual systems, and pollen vectors with and without considering the effect of family membership. We predicted that early successional species

HYESOON KANG; KAMALJIT S. BAWA

2003-01-01

77

8. Early stage of power house construction at Dam No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Early stage of power house construction at Dam No. 4, showing two stiff leg derricks used to excavate limestone for power house building. Photo c. 1907. Credit PEM. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

78

Model Atmospheres for the Early Stages of Novae in Outburst.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the photospheres of classical novae during the early stages of their outbursts, continuum and line blanketed models are presented. The expanding envelopes are characterized by small density gradients that lead to very large geometrical extensions and ...

R. Wehrse P. H. Hauschildt G. Shaviv S. G. Starrfield

1990-01-01

79

Chemical Defense of Early Life Stages of Benthic Marine Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the

Niels Lindquist

2002-01-01

80

Soil carbon and microbial communities at mitigated and late successional bottomland forest wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of wetland mitigation has come into question during the past decade because the relative capacity of the mitigated\\u000a wetlands to perform normal wetland functions is mostly unknown. In this study, we wanted to determine whether soil microbial\\u000a communities were significantly different in early successional mitigated wetlands (<10 years) (ES) compared to late successional\\u000a bottomland hardwood forest wetlands (LS)

Elisa M. D’Angelo; Anastasios D. Karathanasis; Earl J. Sparks; Sloane A. Ritchey; Stephanie A. Wehr-McChesney

2005-01-01

81

Changes in microbial heterotrophic diversity along five plant successional sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the changes in microbial diversity associated with ecosystem development. We measured microbial heterotrophic evenness (a component of diversity) and other soil\\/humus properties (including basal respiration, substrate-induced respiration, pH, total C, N and P) at different stages in the development of five different ecosystems, with plant assemblages being used to define the phase in the successional sequence.

L. A Schipper; B. P Degens; G. P Sparling; L. C Duncan

2001-01-01

82

Using Spirituality to Cope with Early Stage Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) robs persons living with this disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early stage AD cope is a critical step to enhance their adaptive abilities and ultimately improve their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnography study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability for people with early stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with Alzheimer’s.

Grando, Victoria T.

2010-01-01

83

INFLUENCE OF SITE FACTORS ON THE SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF EARLY AND LATE-SUCCESSIONAL APPALACHIAN HARDWOODS ON RECLAIMED MINED LAND1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been an upsurge of interest in mined land reforestation with an emphasis on restoring native hardwood species. Research shows that most Appalachian hardwoods could be established on pre-SMCRA sites, but field observations show that many species cannot tolerate the conditions of post-law sites. The purpose of this study was to compare the survival and early

W. E. Auch; J. A. Burger; D. O. Mitchem

84

Early stage venture capital investing: comparing California and Scandinavia  

Microsoft Academic Search

While venture capital has become a global phenomenon, our knowledge about regional differences in venture capitalist (VC) behavior is quite poor. Most cross-regional comparisons have been quantitative replications of US based studies, which has made it difficult to discern qualitative differences. To help remedy this situation, we conducted semi-structured interviews with altogether 12 early stage VCs in California and Scandinavia.

Henrik Berglund

2011-01-01

85

THERMAL STRESSES IN THE EARLY STAGE OF SOLIDIFICATION OF STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model for calculation of thermal stresses and strains during solidification of steel is presented. Creep deformations are included. Stresses and strains during the early stage of solidification are studied for different steels under different cooling conditions. The results obtained may explain some observed cracking in continuously cast steel.

J. O. Kristiansson

1982-01-01

86

Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of\\u000a substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration\\u000a of a substance.

Alexey V. Melkikh; Vladimir D. Seleznev

2008-01-01

87

Viscoelastic effects in early stage phase separation in polymeric systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how viscoelasticity affects early stage spinodal decomposition in polymer solutions and blends when fluctuations of the stress and the composition are coupled in dynamics. The coupling is increased with increasing asymmetry between the two components. We introduce a long viscoelastic length &xgr;ve within which the stress relaxation governs the composition relaxation. It can be of the order of

Akira Onuki; Takashi Taniguchi

1997-01-01

88

Structural changes in the early stages of Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding of a relative absence of degeneration and regeneration in a muscle biopsy taken at 2½ weeks of age from a boy who later showed the florid pathological changes of preclinical Duchenne muscular dystrophy prompted a review of muscle biopsies taken from boys in the preclinical and early clinical stages of this disease. Only one other biopsy obtained in

W. G. Bradley; P. Hudgson; P. F. Larson; T. A. Papapetropoulos; M. Jenkison

1972-01-01

89

Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

2008-08-01

90

TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

91

Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One

P. J. Gupta

2003-01-01

92

Comparing Radiation Therapy Regimens for Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this phase III clinical trial, women with early-stage breast cancer will be randomly assigned to undergo a standard 5-week course of whole-breast irradiation (WBI) followed by a sequential boost course or 3 weeks of hypofractionated WBI with a concurrent boost.

93

Boost Radiation Beneficial in Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In women with early-stage breast cancer who had been treated with breast-conserving lumpectomy and radiation, an additional "boost" dose of radiation to the original tumor site reduced the risk of cancer coming back in the same breast, though it did not help them live longer, according to the Aug. 1, 2007, Journal of Clinical Oncology.

94

Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages  

SciTech Connect

Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

Petersen, G.I. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark). Dept. of Ecotoxicology; Kristensen, P. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. for Cleaner Technology

1998-07-01

95

Early stage non-small-cell lung cancer: challenges in staging and adjuvant treatment: evidence-based staging.  

PubMed

Staging of non-small-cell lung cancer is a multidisciplinary process involving imaging, endoscopic and surgical techniques. Accuracy is vital in order to avoid false-positive interpretations leading to a false stage III or IV diagnosis in early stage patients, or false-negative findings leading to a false early stage diagnosis in patients with mediastinal lymph node disease. CT scan offers great anatomical detail of tumour spread, but radiological imaging lacks information on the biological nature of the lesions. The latter is brought in by 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan as a metabolic imaging tool, which, however, has clearly lower spatial resolution. Therefore, contemporary staging relies on the combination of both, preferably in a fusion PET-CT scan. Absence of suspected lymph node metastasis on both CT and PET has a high negative predictive value, and these patients may in general proceed to surgery. In most others, tissue confirmation of the locoregional lymph node status is needed. The historical standard of mediastinoscopy is nowadays complemented by endoscopic techniques by the bronchial or esophageal approach. Each of these techniques remains important in modern staging algorithms. A practical scheme for rational staging in clinical practice is discussed. PMID:20943613

Vansteenkiste, J; Dooms, C; De Leyn, P

2010-10-01

96

Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in Southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of P supply to ecosystems. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment of precipitation treatments (no precipitation, natural precipitation and doubled precipitation) in three forests of early-, mid- and advanced-successional stages in Southern China was carried out. Results showed that driven by seasonality of precipitation, changes in soil acid phosphatase activities coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with significantly higher values in the wet season than in the dry season. Soil acid phosphatase activities were closely linked to forest successional stages, with enhanced values in the later stages of forest succession. In the dry season, soil acid phosphatase activities in the three forests showed a rising trend with increasing precipitation treatments. In the wet season, no precipitation treatment depressed soil acid phosphatase activity, while doubled precipitation treatment exerted no positive effects on it, and even significantly lowered it in the advanced forest. These indicate the potential transformation rate of organic P might be more dependent on water in the dry season than in the wet season. The negative responses of soil acid phosphatase activity to precipitation suggest that P supply in subtropical ecosystems might be reduced if there was a drought in a whole year or more rainfall in the wet season in the future. NP, no precipitation; Control, natural precipitation; DP, double precipitation.

Huang, W.; Liu, J.; Zhou, G.; Zhang, D.; Deng, Q.

2011-01-01

97

Conservative surgical treatment for early-stage vulvar malignant melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate the efficacy of wide local excision as a surgical treatment for early-stage vulvar melanomas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Wide local excision with or without lymph node dissection was performed in three patients with stage I vulvar melanoma (American\\u000a Joint Committee on Cancer classification, 1992).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  All three patients were successfully treated by wide local excision. There was no evidence of recurrence at long-term

Kaei Nasu; Yoshitaka Kai; Masaki Ohishi; Aiko Kato; Haruaki Sato; Sakuhei Fujiwara; Noriyuki Takai; Hisashi Narahara

2010-01-01

98

Suites of plant traits in species from different stages of a Mediterranean secondary succession.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to detect suites of traits related to whole plant and seed morphology, phenology and resource use--including water--in species differing in successional status. Twenty traits were measured on 55 species representative of 5 successional stages in Mediterranean southern France, including eight pertaining to phenology and five to water economy. Suites of traits that changed along succession in agreement with the acquisition/conservation trade-off were completed by continuous changes in phenology. Early successional species had leaves with a high specific leaf area that were produced and lost continuously through the growing season. Late-successional species were taller with long-lived, high delta(13)C leaves produced during short periods, most of them persisting during summer, and produced large seeds requiring a long ripening period. Replacement of species occurred with change in strategies of drought survival: early successional species escaped drought by dying before summer; later herbaceous species maintained favourable water status in relation to leaf shedding during summer; late successional trees with a large body allowing access to a large pool of resources, produced dense leaves that could tolerate desiccation. These changes occurred concomitantly with a shift in CSR strategies, using traits related to resource use, plant size and flowering phenology: ruderal herbs were replaced by more stress-tolerant herbs and shrubs throughout the succession, with competitive trees dominating the latest successional stage. These results suggest that the breadth of functional variability found in natura is not predicted by the CSR framework, and calls for a more integrated view of whole plant functioning. PMID:20653901

Navas, M-L; Roumet, C; Bellmann, A; Laurent, G; Garnier, E

2010-01-01

99

Early-stage thymic carcinoma: is adjuvant therapy required?  

PubMed Central

Although the prognosis of advanced thymic carconoma remains poor, previous reports have shown survival rates of 70% to 100% in patients with Masaoka stage I or stage II of the disease who were treated with surgery followed by adjuvant therapy. However, the role of adjuvant therapy in these stages is controversial. We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of 4 patients with Masaoka stage II thymic carcinoma who were treated with surgery alone between 1992 and 2008. No patient had stage I of the disease. Primary tumors were preoperatively evaluated by chest X-ray and computed tomography. Needle biopsy was not performed because the tumors were clinically diagnosed as noninvasive thymomas. The largest diameter of the primary tumor was 65 mm. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy was not detected by computed tomography. All patients underwent transsternal thymectomy. Mediastinal lymph node dissection was not performed. None of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and/or irradiation. Histopathologic examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 3 patients and undifferentiated carcinoma in one. Pathologic invasion to the adjacent organs or lymph node metastasis was not detected. All patients were alive and free from relapse at a follow-up of 72 months (range, 12-167 months). Radical resection without adjuvant therapy could be a treatment option for early Masaoka stage thymic carcinoma with low-grade histology.

Onuki, Takuya; Inagaki, Masaharu; Yamaoka, Masatoshi; Kitazawa, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Iguchi, Kesato; Kikuchi, Shinji; Goto, Yukinobu; Onizuka, Masataka; Sato, Yukio

2013-01-01

100

Early-stage thymic carcinoma: is adjuvant therapy required?  

PubMed

Although the prognosis of advanced thymic carconoma remains poor, previous reports have shown survival rates of 70% to 100% in patients with Masaoka stage I or stage II of the disease who were treated with surgery followed by adjuvant therapy. However, the role of adjuvant therapy in these stages is controversial. We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of 4 patients with Masaoka stage II thymic carcinoma who were treated with surgery alone between 1992 and 2008. No patient had stage I of the disease. Primary tumors were preoperatively evaluated by chest X-ray and computed tomography. Needle biopsy was not performed because the tumors were clinically diagnosed as noninvasive thymomas. The largest diameter of the primary tumor was 65 mm. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy was not detected by computed tomography. All patients underwent transsternal thymectomy. Mediastinal lymph node dissection was not performed. None of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and/or irradiation. Histopathologic examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 3 patients and undifferentiated carcinoma in one. Pathologic invasion to the adjacent organs or lymph node metastasis was not detected. All patients were alive and free from relapse at a follow-up of 72 months (range, 12-167 months). Radical resection without adjuvant therapy could be a treatment option for early Masaoka stage thymic carcinoma with low-grade histology. PMID:23585943

Sakai, Mitsuaki; Onuki, Takuya; Inagaki, Masaharu; Yamaoka, Masatoshi; Kitazawa, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Iguchi, Kesato; Kikuchi, Shinji; Goto, Yukinobu; Onizuka, Masataka; Sato, Yukio

2013-04-01

101

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb

Cada

1991-01-01

102

Conservative approaches in early stages of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Several authors have proposed the use of a less aggressive surgery (i.e. conization, trachelectomy plus laparoscopic lymphadenectomy, modified or type 2 radical hysterectomy) for patients affected by early stages invasive cervical carcinoma. Tumor size and pelvic nodal status are parameters that must be evaluated to better select a patient's population suitable of a less aggressive surgery, with the aim of sparing morbidity without jeopardizing cancer cure. PMID:17727934

Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Palaia, Innocenza; Basile, Stefano; Perniola, Giorgia; Sansone, Milena; Gradinaru, Nicoleta; Zullo, Marzio Angelo; Angioli, Roberto

2007-08-28

103

The early stages of a high energy heavy ion collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At high energy, the gluon distribution in nuclei reaches large densities and eventually saturates due to recombinations, which plays an important role in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. The Colour Glass Condensate (CGC) provides a framework for resumming these effects in the calculation of observables. In this talk, I present its application to the description of the early stages of heavy ion collisions.

Gelis, François

2012-09-01

104

Stochastic de sitter (inflationary) stage in the early universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of a large-scale quasi-homogeneous scalar field producing the de Sitter (inflationary) stage in the early universe is strongly affected by small-scale quantum fluctuations of the same scalar field and, in this way, becomes stochastic. The evolution of the corresponding large-scale space-time metric follows that of the scalar field and is stochastic also. The Fokker-Planck equation for the evolution

A. A. Starobinsky; Meudon Principal Cedex

1986-01-01

105

Awareness of Memory Deficits in Early Stage Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) are often described as unaware of their motor symptoms, their behavioral disorders or their cognitive deficits, including memory. Nevertheless, because patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain aware of their memory deficits despite striatal dysfunction, we hypothesize that early stage HD patients in whom degeneration predominates in the striatum can accurately judge their own memory disorders whereas more advanced patients cannot. In order to test our hypothesis, we compared subjective questionnaires of memory deficits (in HD patients and in their proxies) and objective measures of memory dysfunction in patients. Forty-six patients with manifest HD attending the out-patient department of the French National Reference Center for HD and thirty-three proxies were enrolled. We found that HD patients at an early stage of the disease (Stage 1) were more accurate than their proxies at evaluating their own memory deficits, independently from their depression level. The proxies were more influenced by patients' functional decline rather than by patients' memory deficits. Patients with moderate disease (Stage 2) misestimated their memory deficits compared to their proxies, whose judgment was nonetheless influenced by the severity of both functional decline and depression. Contrasting subjective memory ratings from the patients and their objective memory performance, we demonstrate that although HD patients are often reported to be unaware of their neurological, cognitive and behavioral symptoms, it is not the case for memory deficits at an early stage. Loss of awareness of memory deficits in HD is associated with the severity of the disease in terms of CAG repeats, functional decline, motor dysfunction and cognitive impairment, including memory deficits and executive dysfunction.

Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Fenelon, Gilles; Benisty, Sarah; Boisse, Marie-Francoise; Jacquemot, Charlotte; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine

2013-01-01

106

Early stages of calciphylaxis: are skin biopsies the answer?  

PubMed

Calciphylaxis, nowadays called calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), is a rare but life-threatening syndrome characterized by systemic medial calcification and arterial occlusion of the arterioles, leading to skin necrosis. Actually, the pathogenesis of CUA is complex and poorly understood. The vast majority of published cases presented with ulcers. We present a 71-year-old male who was referred to the Nephrology Department for evaluation and therapy for refractory edema of both legs. There were no subcutaneous plaques, ulcers or other focal lesions. We performed a deep skin biopsy of the thigh. After the biopsy, the patient developed necrosis around the sampling location. Diagnosing CUA in the early stages of the disease, however, is challenging. Should a skin biopsy be performed in the early stages of CUA in patients without ulcerations, knowing the risk of inducing ulcerations, or should an intensive treatment - after considering clinical manifestations, other noninvasive diagnostic tools (bone scan, X-ray mammography technique) and laboratory tests - be started? Although there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests for CUA and the clinical manifestations of CUA are similar to those of other disorders, a skin biopsy is not routinely recommended to confirm the diagnosis of early-stage calciphylaxis. PMID:22110432

Latus, Joerg; Kimmel, Martin; Ott, German; Ting, Evelyn; Alscher, M Dominik; Braun, Niko

2011-09-23

107

Early Stages of Calciphylaxis: Are Skin Biopsies the Answer?  

PubMed Central

Calciphylaxis, nowadays called calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), is a rare but life-threatening syndrome characterized by systemic medial calcification and arterial occlusion of the arterioles, leading to skin necrosis. Actually, the pathogenesis of CUA is complex and poorly understood. The vast majority of published cases presented with ulcers. We present a 71-year-old male who was referred to the Nephrology Department for evaluation and therapy for refractory edema of both legs. There were no subcutaneous plaques, ulcers or other focal lesions. We performed a deep skin biopsy of the thigh. After the biopsy, the patient developed necrosis around the sampling location. Diagnosing CUA in the early stages of the disease, however, is challenging. Should a skin biopsy be performed in the early stages of CUA in patients without ulcerations, knowing the risk of inducing ulcerations, or should an intensive treatment – after considering clinical manifestations, other noninvasive diagnostic tools (bone scan, X-ray mammography technique) and laboratory tests – be started? Although there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests for CUA and the clinical manifestations of CUA are similar to those of other disorders, a skin biopsy is not routinely recommended to confirm the diagnosis of early-stage calciphylaxis.

Latus, Joerg; Kimmel, Martin; Ott, German; Ting, Evelyn; Alscher, M. Dominik; Braun, Niko

2011-01-01

108

Growth Stages 2: Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lesson plans from Science NetLinks form a two-part series designed to introduce students (grades 3-5) to human growth and development from infancy through puberty. Each lesson contains detailed background information, discussion questions, and other resources that help students learn about the "key physical stages or milestones, which are research and science-supported indicators that help to track the progress of a child's physical development at different stages of life." Using these lesson plans in the classroom could prove a popular choice, as "research shows that children are fascinated by films and stories about early stages of human development and they are particularly intrigued by comparisons of themselves now and earlier." Each lesson plans comes with a comprehensive teaching guide.

109

High-throughput quantification of early stages of phagocytosis.  

PubMed

Phagocytosis-the engulfment of cells and foreign bodies-is an important cellular process in innate immunity, development, and disease. Quantification of various stages of phagocytosis, especially in a rapid screening fashion, is an invaluable tool for elucidating protein function during this process. However, current methods for assessing phagocytosis are largely limited to flow cytometry and manual image-based assays, providing limited information. Here, we present an image-based, semi-automated phagocytosis assay to rapidly quantitate three distinct stages during the early engulfment of opsonized beads. Captured images are analyzed using the image-processing software ImageJ and quantified using a macro. Modifications to this method allowed quantification of phagocytosis only in fluorescently labeled transfected cells. Additionally, the time course of bead internalization could be measured using this approach. The assay could discriminate perturbations to stages of phagocytosis induced by known pharmacological inhibitors of filamentous actin and phosphoinositol-3-kinase. Our methodology offers the ability to automatically categorize large amounts of image data into the three early stages of phagocytosis within minutes, clearly demonstrating its potential value in investigating aberrant phagocytosis when manipulating proteins of interest in drug screens and disease. PMID:24003943

Yeo, Jeremy Changyu; Wall, Adam Alexander; Stow, Jennifer Lea; Hamilton, Nicholas Ahti

2013-09-01

110

Motor-cortical oscillations in early stages of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Pathophysiological changes in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits are well established in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it remains open whether such alterations already occur at early stages representing a characteristic neurophysiological marker of PD. Therefore, the present study aims at elucidating changes of synchronised oscillatory activity in early PD patients. In this study, we performed whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a resting condition and during steady state contraction of the more severely affected forearm in 10 drug–naive, de novo patients, in 10 early-stage patients with chronic medication and in 10 age-matched control subjects. While cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) did not differ between groups, patients showed increased sensori-motor cortical power at beta frequency (13–30 Hz) during rest as well as during isometric contraction compared to controls. In healthy control subjects the power of the contralateral hemisphere was significantly suppressed during isometric contraction. By contrast, both hemispheres were activated equally strongly in de novo patients. In medicated patients, the pattern was found to be reversed. Contralateral beta power was significantly correlated with motor impairment during isometric contraction but not during rest. The present results suggest that the reduced ability of the primary motor cortex to disengage from increased beta band oscillations during the execution of movements is an early marker of PD. PMID:22547636

Pollok, B; Krause, V; Martsch, W; Wach, C; Schnitzler, A; Südmeyer, M

2012-04-30

111

Fire and Long-Term Carbon Accumulation in Boreal Peatlands are Controlled by Interactions Between Climate and Successional Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warming climate has the potential to dramatically alter carbon and fire dynamics in high-latitude systems. Boreal and subarctic peatlands cover 346 million hectares of land surface and store 455 Pg-C, suggesting that changes in these systems can have regional and global-scale impacts on carbon cycling. Soil carbon release is expected to increase with more frequent fires in a warmer world. The dynamics of peatland landscapes, however, will likely involve complex interactions among permafrost thaw, changes in hydrology, and successional development. Understanding landscape-level responses to warming therefore requires integrative approaches that simultaneously examine all of these processes. In this study, we examined long- term changes in plant succession, carbon accumulation, and fire in a landscape located in northern Manitoba, Canada. We recovered 17 replicate permafrost peat cores ranging in depth from 1-4.3 meters (mean = 2.2 m). Using 149 AMS 14C dates, we were able to develop detailed age chronologies for each core. We measured macrofossil abundance to reconstruct the wetland plant community, areal charcoal concentration (mm2cm-3) as a proxy for fire severity, and total carbon and nitrogen. Basal AMS 14C dates indicated that peat accumulation began almost synchronously around 8,000 cal.14C yr BP, with the exception of a few cores resulting from more recent paludification along the wetland margin. Fire severity increased across wetland successional stages, with later successional forested bogs showing greater severity (6.79-11.16 mm2cm-3) than early successional open water, fen, and poor fen communities (0.29-1.82 mm2cm-3). The exception was paludified lowland forests, which exhibited the greatest fire severity during peatland initiation and the death of the overstory (21.68 mm2cm- 3). More severe fires (> 5-10 mm2cm-3) caused peat carbon accumulation rates to decline by half (13.7-24.5 g-Cm-2yr-1) compared to unburned peat (48.9 g-Cm-2yr-1). These two results indicated that carbon accumulation decreases over the successional development of peatlands, partially in response to increasing fire severity. The mediation of fire and carbon accumulation by successional status means that relationships among climate, fire, and carbon accumulation may be indirect. Specifically, warmer climate during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (~ 6,000-4,000 cal.14C yr. BP) corresponded to a landscape-level shift from fens to forested bogs. The median date of fires occurred more recently than 4,000 cal.14C yr. BP, indicating that the proximate cause of increased fire severity and reduced C accumulation was a shift to drier, forested Sphagnum bogs that could sustain fire rather than the direct effect of warmer temperatures causing more severe fires. These results highlight the importance of interpreting carbon and fire dynamics within a broader context of landscape successional changes.

Camill, P.; Rafert, G.; Barry, A.; Williams, E.; Andreassi, C.; Limmer, J.; Solick, D.

2008-12-01

112

Nutrient fluxes in litterfall of a secondary successional alluvial rain forest in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

During forest succession, litterfall nutrient fluxes increase significantly. The higher inputs of organic matter and nutrients through litterfall affects positively soil fertility and the species composition, which are essential components in forest restoration and management programs. In the present study, the input of nutrients to the forest soil via litterfall components was estimated for two sites of different development stages, in an early successional alluvial rain forest in Brazil. Litterfall returned to the soil, in kg/ha, ca. 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu and 11.2 Al, in the site where trees were more abundant and had higher values of basal area. In the other area, where trees where less abundant and values of basal area were comparatively low, litterfall returned < 50% of those amounts to the forest soil, except for Al. The amount of Al that returned to the soil was similar in both areas due to the high contribution of Tibouchina pulchra (82% of Al returned). Comparatively, high proportion of three dominant native tree species (Myrsine coriacea, T. pulchra and Cecropia pachystachya) explained better litter nutrient use efficiency (mainly N and P) in the site with the least advanced successional stage. Although litterfall of these species show lower nutrient concentrations than the other tree species, their nutrient fluxes were high in both sites, indicating a certain independence from soil essential nutrients. Such feature of the native species is very advantageous and should be considered in forest restoration programs. PMID:22208099

Scheer, Maurício Bergamini; Gatti, Gustavo; Wisniewski, Celina

2011-12-01

113

Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks  

SciTech Connect

Processes in growth of short cracks and stage I of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl{sup {minus}}, with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl{sup {minus}} or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage I behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK{sup m} where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

1993-12-01

114

Visual perception in prediagnostic and early stage Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Disturbances of visual perception frequently accompany neurodegenerative disorders but have been little studied in Huntington's disease (HD) gene carriers. We used psychophysical tests to assess visual perception among individuals in the prediagnostic and early stages of HD. The sample comprised four groups, which included 201 nongene carriers (NG), 32 prediagnostic gene carriers with minimal neurological abnormalities (PD1); 20 prediagnostic gene carriers with moderate neurological abnormalities (PD2), and 36 gene carriers with diagnosed HD. Contrast sensitivity for stationary and moving sinusoidal gratings, and tests of form and motion discrimination, were used to probe different visual pathways. Patients with HD showed impaired contrast sensitivity for moving gratings. For one of the three contrast sensitivity tests, the prediagnostic gene carriers with greater neurological abnormality (PD2) also had impaired performance as compared with NG. These findings suggest that early stage HD disrupts visual functions associated with the magnocellular pathway. However, these changes are only observed in individuals diagnosed with HD or who are in the more symptomatic stages of prediagnostic HD. PMID:18419843

O'Donnell, Brian F; Blekher, Tanya M; Weaver, Marjorie; White, Kerry M; Marshall, Jeanine; Beristain, Xabier; Stout, Julie C; Gray, Jacqueline; Wojcieszek, Joanne M; Foroud, Tatiana M

2008-05-01

115

Early-stage Hodgkin's disease: current approaches to treatment.  

PubMed Central

Most patients with early-stage Hodgkin's disease can now be cured by one of several therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the developments in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease that have led to long-term survival rates greater than 90%. Past and present radio-therapy (RT) planning and treatment practices are discussed in the context of both clinical and pathological staging. The role of initial bimodal therapy (RT and chemotherapy [CT]) and the use of CT in patients who suffer relapse after initial treatment with RT alone are reviewed. On the basis of prognostic factors, subgroups of patients for whom bimodal therapy is recommended, including those with a bulky mediastinal mass, have now been identified. Although treatment is highly successful, debilitating consequences of RT and CT, such as infertility, infection and second malignant diseases, remain. Newer treatment regimens may reduce morbidity and have similar or better long-term results with respect to survival and quality of life.

Rusthoven, J J; MacKenzie, R

1985-01-01

116

Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing.  

PubMed

Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-?B and TNF-? expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results suggest that genistein supplementation reduces oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant capacity and modulating proinflammatory cytokine expression during the early stage of wound healing. PMID:21679688

Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

2011-06-07

117

On-Off Intermittency and Criticality in Early Stage Electromigration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied here using high resolution resistance measurements the time and statistical behavior of abrupt resistance changes in a thin metal aluminum film undergoing electromigration. We reveal for the first time that early stage electromigration exhibits on-off intermittency. The intermittent resistance fluctuations are also shown to be scale invariant, an effect seen in the fluctuations of several physical systems including earthquakes, superconductor dynamics and stock markets. Finite size scaling of the resistance fluctuations demonstrates that they originate near a critical point.

Dalton, Eric; Clancy, Ian; Corcoran, David; Arshak, Arousian; Gooberman, George

2010-05-01

118

Early stage of superradiance from Bose-Einstein condensates  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the dynamics of matter and optical waves at the early stage of superradiant Rayleigh scattering from Bose-Einstein condensates. Our analysis is within a spatially dependent quantum model which is capable of providing analytic solutions for the operators of interest. The predictions of the present model are compared to the predictions of a closely related mean-field model, and we provide a procedure that allows one to calculate quantum expectation values by averaging over semiclassical solutions. The coherence properties of the outgoing scattered light are also analyzed, and it is shown that the corresponding correlation functions may provide detailed information about the internal dynamics of the system.

Buchmann, L. F.; Lambropoulos, P. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Herakleion GR-710 03, Crete (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, Herakleion GR-711 10, Crete (Greece); Nikolopoulos, G. M. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, Herakleion GR-711 10, Crete (Greece); Zobay, O. [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom)

2010-08-15

119

Radiation Therapy for Early Stages of Morbus Ledderhose  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Purpose:\\u000a   To evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of early stages of benign plantar fibromatosis (Morbus\\u000a Ledderhose [ML]).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:\\u000a   From 2003 to 2008, 24 patients (33 sites) with a mean age of 52 years received RT for symptomatic ML. Prior to RT, 19 patients\\u000a complained of pain and 15 had walking difficulties. 21 patients

Reinhard Heyd; Anne Pia Dorn; Markus Herkströter; Claus Rödel; Marcus Müller-Schimpfle; Ingeborg Fraunholz

2010-01-01

120

Early Stages of the HIV-1 Capsid Protein Lattice Formation  

PubMed Central

The early stages in the formation of the HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein lattice are investigated. The underlying coarse-grained (CG) model is parameterized directly from experimental data and examined under various native contact interaction strengths, CA dimer interfacial configurations, and local surface curvatures. The mechanism of early contiguous mature-style CA p6 lattice formation is explored, and a trimer-of-dimers structure is found to be crucial for CA lattice production. Quasi-equivalent generation of both the pentamer and hexamer components of the HIV-1 viral CA is also demonstrated, and the formation of pentamers is shown to be highly sensitive to local curvature, supporting the view that such inclusions in high-curvature regions allow closure of the viral CA surface. The complicated behavior of CA lattice self-assembly is shown to be reducible to a relatively simple function of the trimer-of-dimers behavior.

Grime, John M.A.; Voth, Gregory A.

2012-01-01

121

PATTERNS OF STRUCTURE AND SEEDLING DIVERSITY ALONG A FLOODING AND SUCCESSIONAL GRADIENT IN AMAZONIAN FLOODPLAIN FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure and species diversity of tree seedlings (1 - 100 cm plant height) was described in three white-water (várzea) floodplain forests in the western Brazilian Amazon. The forests are of different successional stages and they are subjected to different heights of flooding. A total of 24 square sample plots with the sizes of 1 m2 were installed, nested within three

Astrid de Oliveira Wittmann; Maria T. F. Piedade; Florian Wittmann; Jochen Schöngart; Pia Parolin

2007-01-01

122

Prognostic factors in early-stage ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify the main prognostic factors in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Data were extracted from 222 patients with initial stage (I–IIA) invasive epithelial ovarian cancer treated with primary surgery followed or not followed by adjuvant therapy, from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008, at the Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy; the median follow-up was 79 months (SD ± 35,945, range 20–250 months). The negative prognostic factors that were statistically significant (p<0.050) in univariate analysis were grade 2, 3, and X (clear cell in our study); stage IB, IC, IIA; positive peritoneal cytology, age equal to/greater than 54; dense adhesions; capsule rupture (pre-operative or intra-operative) and endometrioid histotype (only for disease-free survival (DFS)). Positive cytology was strongly associated with peritoneal relapses, while adhesions were associated with pelvic relapses. A positive prognosis was associated with the mucinous histotype. Conservative treatment had been carried out in 52% of patients under 40 years of age, and we detected only two relapses and three completions of surgery after a few weeks among 31 women in total. Our study indicated a possible execution in patients with patients with cancer stage IA G1–G2 (p=0.030) or IC G1 (p=0.050), provided well staged. Adjuvant chemotherapy improved the survival of cancers that were not IA G1. The positive prognostic role of taxanes must be emphasised, when used in combination with platino.

Tognon, Germana; Carnazza, Mario; Ragnoli, Monica; Calza, Stefano; Ferrari, Federico; Gambino, Angela; Zizioli, Valentina; Notaro, Sara; Sostegni, Benedetta; Sartori, Enrico

2013-01-01

123

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

SciTech Connect

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Cada, G.F.

1991-01-01

124

Minimizing toxicity in early-stage testicular cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Testicular cancer is the paradigm of a curable malignancy, with 10-year survival rates exceeding 95%. Cisplatin-based regimes offer a survival gain of several decades of life; however, measures of outcomes in testicular cancer are evolving. Survivorship issues are becoming increasingly important in this young adult population. Long-term risks of second malignancy and cardiovascular disease secondary to chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been extensively documented, leading to an increased uptake of surveillance. However, the optimal surveillance schedule is not universally agreed upon. Research into modalities to detect relapse and frequency is ongoing. Reducing the treatment burden with fewer cycles of chemotherapy (one cycle of bleomycin, cisplatin and etoposide instead of two for stage I high-risk nonseminomatous tumors) or less toxic alternatives (carboplatin instead of radiotherapy for stage I seminomas) is currently being explored. This article details the toxicities associated with the diagnosis and treatments of early-stage testicular cancer and current strategies used to minimize toxicity while retaining the excellent cure rates. PMID:22316366

Singhera, Mausam; Lees, Kathryn; Huddart, Robert; Horwich, Alan

2012-02-01

125

Identification of genes correlated with early stage bladder cancer progression¶  

PubMed Central

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCC) ranks 4th in incidence of all cancers in the developed world, yet the mechanisms of its origin and progression remain poorly understood. There are also few useful diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for this disease. We have combined a transgenic mouse model for invasive bladder cancer (UPII-SV40Tag mice) with DNA microarray technology, in order to determine molecular mechanisms involved in early TCC development and to identify new biomarkers for detection, diagnosis and prognosis of TCC. We have identified genes that are differentially expressed between the bladders of UPII-SV40Tag mice and their age-matched wild type (WT) littermates at 3, 6, 20 and 30 weeks of age. These are ages which correspond to premalignant, carcinoma in-situ, and early and later stage invasive TCC, respectively. Our preliminary analysis of the microarray data sets has revealed approximately 1,900 unique genes differentially expressed (? 3-fold difference at one or more time points) between WT and UPII-SV40Tag urothelium during the time course of tumor development. Among these, there were a high proportion of cell cycle regulatory genes and proliferation signaling genes that are more strongly expressed in the UPII-SV40Tag bladder urothelium. We show that several of the genes upregulated in UPII-SV40Tag urothelium, including RacGAP1, PCNA, and Hmmr are expressed at high levels in superficial bladder TCC patient samples. These findings provide insight into the earliest events in the development of bladder TCC as well as identify several promising early stage biomarkers.

Stone, Randolph; Sabichi, Anita L.; Gill, Jennifer; Lee, I-ling; Adegboyega, Patrick; Dai, Michael S.; Loganantharaj, Raja; Trutschl, Marjan; Cvek, Urska; Clifford, John L.

2010-01-01

126

[Practical assessment. Early-stage or advanced glaucoma].  

PubMed

In the case of early-stage or advanced glaucoma, the major problem is no longer diagnostic, but evaluating its response to treatment. Other than questioning the patient, assessment includes measuring visual acuity and intraocular pressure, examining the anterior segment and the optic disc, and finally an analysis of the visual field. This latter examination remains the least contestable, although subjective, in evaluating how a confirmed case of glaucoma is evolving. Examination of the optic disc using stereoscopy should include a drawing or, at best, a photograph. Finally, three recent analyzers are available and being evaluated: HRT II, GDx, OCT-3. Depending on the results (of intraocular pressure, the visual field and the optic disk), treatment can be modified and/or the assessment completed. PMID:16208236

Sellem, E

2005-06-01

127

QTL analysis of early stage heterosis for biomass in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to identify genomic regions involved in biomass heterosis using QTL, generation means, and mode-of-inheritance classification analyses. In a modified North Carolina Design III we backcrossed 429 recombinant inbred line and 140 introgression line populations to the two parental accessions, C24 and Col-0, whose F (1) hybrid exhibited 44% heterosis for biomass. Mid-parent heterosis in the RILs ranged from -31 to 99% for dry weight and from -58 to 143% for leaf area. We detected ten genomic positions involved in biomass heterosis at an early developmental stage, individually explaining between 2.4 and 15.7% of the phenotypic variation. While overdominant gene action was prevalent in heterotic QTL, our results suggest that a combination of dominance, overdominance and epistasis is involved in biomass heterosis in this Arabidopsis cross. PMID:19504257

Meyer, Rhonda Christiane; Kusterer, Barbara; Lisec, Jan; Steinfath, Matthias; Becher, Martina; Scharr, Hanno; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Selbig, Joachim; Schurr, Ulrich; Willmitzer, Lothar; Altmann, Thomas

2010-01-01

128

Research on the early planet formation stages with IPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stages of planet formation are characterized by growth of fractal aggregates, starting from (sub-)micrometer-sized grains to (fractal) aggregates of roughly mm size. In the last 20 years a number of experiments on the behaviour and growth mechanisms of aggregates has been carried out. Laboratory experiments are limited due to sedimentation (e.g. Heim and Blum 1998, Wurm et al 2001). Previous long-term microgravity experiments CODAG (Blum et al 2000) and CODAG-SRE (Krause and Blum 2004) were mainly limited by the diffusion of particles, a fact which IPE tries to overcome by means of a particle trap. We present how IPE will help to extend these experimental boundaries and how we plan to utilize IPE. Finally we outline the expectations on the facility from a planet formation point of view in the domain of the mutual interactions, evolution, growth and morphology of fractal aggregates.

Ingo von Borstel, Olaf; Blum, Jurgen; Schraepler, Rainer

129

Late effects of treatment for early-stage Hodgkin's disease.  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive survey of late effects (physical, social and reproductive) following treatment at a single institution for early stage Hodgkin's disease (HD) was performed. A total of 611 patients with stage I and II HD treated between 1973 and 1984 were reviewed; 460 were alive and were mailed a self-reported questionnaire. A total of 363 (79%) replies were received. Twenty patients died of second malignancy, 14 of heart disease and nine from respiratory disease. There were 37 cases of second malignancy [relative risk (RR) 2.2, absolute excess risk (AR) 35.8]. The 15-year incidence of heart disease was 11% and there were nine myocardial infarction deaths (RR 1.55, AR 5.4). Twenty-eight (8%) respondents stated that their career had been greatly interfered with, 53 (14.5%) perceived financial loss. Sexual activity was disrupted in 25.8%. In total, 56 men had fathered 112 pregnancies. Of 171 women, 40.3% became pregnant, resulting in 92 live births. A total of 43 men and 16 women had sought medical advice with regard to infertility.

Brierley, J. D.; Rathmell, A. J.; Gospodarowicz, M. K.; Sutcliffe, S. B.; Munro, A.; Tsang, R.; Pintilie, M.

1998-01-01

130

On the early evolutionary stage of the geosphere and biosphere and the problem of early glaciations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early evolutionary stages of the geosphere and biosphere are determined by three interrelated factors: (1) continuous\\u000a cooling of the surface and interior (mantle) of the Earth (the mean temperatures of the mantle and surface decreased by a\\u000a factor of 1.5–2 and 3–4, respectively; the mean heat flow was reduced by approximately one order of magnitude, and viscosity,\\u000a by three

N. L. Dobretsov

2010-01-01

131

Decision Making about Surgery for Early Stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Practice variation in breast cancer surgery has raised concerns about the quality of treatment decisions. We sought to evaluate the quality of decisions about surgery for early stage breast cancer by measuring patient knowledge, concordance between goals and treatments, and involvement in decisions. Study Design A mailed survey of Stage I/II breast cancer survivors was conducted at four sites. The Decision Quality Instrument measured knowledge, goals, and involvement in decisions. A multivariable logistic regression model of treatment was developed. The model-predicted probability of mastectomy was compared to treatment received for each patient. Concordance was defined as having mastectomy and predicted probability >=0.5 or partial mastectomy and predicted probability <0.5. Frequency of discussion about partial mastectomy was compared to discussion about mastectomy using chi-squared tests. Results 440 patients participated (59% response rate). Mean overall knowledge was 52.7%. 45.9% knew that local recurrence risk is higher after breast conservation. 55.7% knew that survival is equivalent for the two options. Most participants (89.0%) had treatment concordant with their goals. Participants preferring mastectomy had lower concordance (80.5%) than those preferring partial mastectomy (92.6%, p=0.001). Participants reported more frequent discussion of partial mastectomy and its advantages than of mastectomy. 48.6% reported being asked their preference. Conclusions Breast cancer survivors had major knowledge deficits, and those preferring mastectomy were less likely to have treatment concordant with goals. Patients perceived that discussions focused on partial mastectomy, and many were not asked their preference. Improvements in the quality of decisions about breast cancer surgery are needed.

Lee, Clara N; Chang, Yuchiao; Adimorah, Nesochi; Belkora, Jeff; Moy, Beverly; Partridge, Ann; Ollila, David W.; Sepucha, Karen

2011-01-01

132

METHOD FOR EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TESTS USING THREE ATHERINID FISHES AND RESULTS WITH CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed methods for obtaining embryos and conducting early life-stage toxicity tests (continuous exposure from the embryonic stage to approximately three weeks or more into the exogenous feeding stage) with three estuarine species of atherinid fishes. Early lif...

133

Chromosomal aberrations in early-stage bilharzial bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Bilharzial bladder cancer is one of the most common types of malignancy in both men and women in several developing countries including Egypt. It has several unique clinical, epidemiological, and histological characteristics, suggesting that it is an entity distinct from bladder cancer seen in Western countries. Genetic alterations in bilharzial-related bladder cancer have been studied infrequently, especially in the advanced stages of disease, that is, T3 and T4 classifications. The objective of this study was to extend establishing the baseline cytogenetic profile of this type of malignancy to early T1 and T2 classifications. For this purpose, fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to interphase nuclei of frozen-stored samples with biotinylated repetitive DNA probes specific for all chromosomes to detect numerical chromosome changes in 35 patients presenting with relatively early-stage pT1 and pT2 disease. Eleven cases had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 24 had transitional cell carcinoma. Six of 24 transitional cell carcinomas had diploid chromosome counts with all the probes. Numerical chromosome aberrations were detected in 18 cases (75%). In 12 cases, a loss of chromosome 9 was observed. In three cases, an additional loss of chromosome 17 was detected. One case demonstrated a loss of chromosome 10, whereas another two cases showed a gain of chromosome 7, next to a loss of chromosome 9. Loss of chromosome Y was observed in nine of the 27 male cases studied (33.3%), in which only one case showed an abnormality whereas four cases were detected next to loss of chromosome 9, and one case showed gain of chromosome 7. Five cases showed loss of chromosome 19 whereas gain of chromosome 4 was detected in two cases. Two of 11 samples of SCC had normal diploid chromosome counts with all the probes used. In four of 11 cases (36.4%) underrepresentation of chromosome 9, compared with the other chromosomes, was detected. An additional loss of chromosome 17 and gain of chromosome 7, next to loss of chromosome 9, was detected in three cases. One case showed loss of chromosome 17 as the only numerical aberration. Loss of the Y chromosome was detected in three cases of which one case had gain of chromosome 7 and one case had loss of chromosome 19. No correlation was found between any of the clinicopathologic parameters examined in this study and the presence or absence of any numerical chromosomal aberrations except for the significant association between schistosomal history and loss of Y chromosome (P=0.007). PMID:11801307

Aly, Magdy Sayed; Khaled, Hussein Mostafa

2002-01-01

134

Early Life Stage Mortality Rates of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thorough understanding of the early life history of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens is critical for rehabilitation of this species. Recruitment of lake sturgeon is known to be variable, but the extent of that variation and mortality rates experienced by early life stages are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify early life stage mortality and explore the

David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

2010-01-01

135

Antibody Profiling with Protein Antigen Microarrays in Early Stage Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Proteins not present in normal cells, i.e., cancer cells, may elicit a host immune response that leads to the generation of antibodies that might react with these tumor-associated proteins. In recent years, a growing number of reports have showed that autoantibody profiling may provide an alternative approach for the detection of cancer. However, most studies of antigen-autoantibody reactivity have relied on recombinant proteins. Recombinant proteins lack the proper post-translational modifications present in native proteins. Because of this limitation, native or natural protein antigen microarrays are gaining popularity for profiling antibody responses. Areas covered 1) to illustrate some examples of autoantibodies as signatures for early stage cancer; 2) to briefly outline the various protein antigen microarray platforms; 3) to illustrate the use of native or natural protein microarrays in the discovery of potential biomarkers; and, 4) to discuss the advantages of native protein antigen microarrays over other approaches. Expert opinion The nature of protein microarray platforms is conducive to multiplexing, which amplifies the potential for uncovering effective biomarkers for many significant diseases. However, the major challenge will be in integrating microarray platforms into multiplexed clinical diagnostic tools, as the main drawback is the reproducibility and coefficient of variation of the results from array to array, and the transportability of the array platform to a more automatable platform.

Liu, Brian C.-S.; DiJohnson, Daniel A.; O'Rourke, Dennis J.

2012-01-01

136

Cognitive Stimulation for Apathy in Probable Early-Stage Alzheimer's  

PubMed Central

We studied changes in apathy among 77 community-dwelling older persons with mild memory loss in a randomized clinical trial comparing two nonpharmacological interventions over four weeks. The study used a pre-post design with randomization by site to avoid contamination and diffusion of effect. Interventions were offered twice weekly after baseline evaluations were completed. The treatment group received classroom style mentally stimulating activities (MSAs) while the control group received a structured early-stage social support (SS) group. The results showed that the MSA group had significantly lower levels of apathy (P < .001) and significantly lower symptoms of depression (P < .001). While both groups improved on quality of life, the MSA group was significantly better (P = .02) than the SS group. Executive function was not significantly different for the two groups at four weeks, but general cognition improved for the MSA group and declined slightly for the SS group which produced a significant posttest difference (P < .001). Recruitment and retention of SS group members was difficult in this project, especially in senior center locations, while this was not the case for the MSA group. The examination of the data at this four-week time point shows promising results that the MSA intervention may provide a much needed method of reducing apathy and depressive symptoms, while motivating participation and increasing quality of life.

Buettner, Linda L.; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne; Atav, Serdar; Sink, Kaycee

2011-01-01

137

Disability is already pronounced in young people with early stages of affective disorders: Data from an early intervention service  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough there is growing recognition that disability emerges early in the course of psychotic disorders, it is unclear whether young people with early stages of anxiety or affective disorders are similarly affected. This study examined patient self-reported disability in young people attending a designated early intervention service.

Blake A. Hamilton; Sharon L. Naismith; Elizabeth M. Scott; Susie Purcell; Ian B. Hickie

2011-01-01

138

STAGING EARLY EMBRYOS FROM POULTRY: THE WHY'S AND HOW'S  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The staging of embryos involves the classification of their normal development from the first cleavage divisions through hatching. Individual stages are based on discrete yet often quite subtle developmental changes in embryo morphology. The collective sequence of stages describing embryo developmen...

139

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Inoperable Early Stage Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Context Patients with early stage but medically inoperable lung cancer patients have a poor rate of primary tumor control (30-40%) and a high rate of mortality (3-year survival 20-35%) with current management. Objective To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy in a high risk population of patients with early stage but medically inoperable lung cancer. Design, Setting, and Patients Phase 2 North American multicenter study of patients with biopsy-proven peripheral T1-T2, N0, M0 non-small cell tumors less than 5 cm in diameter and medical conditions precluding surgical treatment. The prescription dose was 18 Gy per fraction times 3 fractions (54 Gy total) delivered in 1½-2 weeks. The study opened May 26, 2004, and closed October 13, 2006; data were analyzed through August 31, 2009. Main Outcome Measures The primary endpoint was primary tumor control with overall survival, disease free survival, adverse events, involved lobe, regional, and disseminated recurrence as secondary endpoints. Results A total of 59 patients accrued, of which 55 were evaluable (44 T1 and 11 T2 tumors) with a median follow-up of 34.4 months (range, 4.8 to 49.9 months). Only 1 patient had a primary tumor failure; the estimated 3-year primary tumor control rate was 97.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.3%, 99.7%). Three patients had recurrence within the involved lobe; the 3-year primary tumor and involved lobe (local) control rate was 90.6% (95% CI, 76.0%, 96.5%). Two patients experienced regional failure; the local-regional control rate was 87.2% (95%CI, 71.0%, 94.7%). Eleven patients experienced disseminated recurrence; the 3-year rate of disseminated failure was 22.1% (95% CI, 12.3%, 37.8%). The rates of disease-free and overall survival at 3 years were 48.3% (95% CI, 34.4%, 60.8%) and 55.8% (95% CI, 41.6%, 67.9%), respectively. The median overall survival was 48.1 months (95% CI, 29.6% to not reached). Protocol specified treatment-related grade 3 adverse events were reported in 7 patients (12.7%; 95% CI, 9.6%, 15.8%); grade 4 events were reported in 2 patients (3.6%; 95%CI, 2.7%, 4.5%). No grade 5 adverse events were reported. Conclusion Patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer who received stereotactic body radiation therapy had a survival rate of 55.8% at 3 years, high rates of local tumor control, and moderate treatment-related morbidity.

Timmerman, Robert; Paulus, Rebecca; Galvin, James; Michalski, Jeffrey; Straube, William; Bradley, Jeffrey; Fakiris, Achilles; Bezjak, Andrea; Videtic, Gregory; Johnstone, David; Fowler, Jack; Gore, Elizabeth; Choy, Hak

2010-01-01

140

Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis.  

PubMed

A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements. PMID:23387626

Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

2013-01-28

141

Aromatase inhibitors and calcium absorption in early stage breast cancer  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effect of aromatase inhibitors (AI) on intestinal calcium absorption, measured using the gold-standard dual stable calcium isotope method. In this pilot study, we recruited 10 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who planned to initiate AI therapy; women receiving chemotherapy were excluded. Women completed two 24 h inpatient calcium absorption study visits, the first prior to AI therapy and the second at least 6 weeks following onset of AI therapy. We calculated total fractional calcium absorption (TFCA) using the dose-corrected fractional recovery of two stable isotopes from 24 h urine collections. Ten postmenopausal women (mean ± SD age, 66 ± 7 years; 25(OH)D 40 ± 7 ng/mL, and total calcium intake of 1,714 ± 640 mg/day) exhibited no change in TFCA related to AI therapy (0.155 ± 0.042 prior to and 0.160 ± 0.064 following AI therapy, p = 1.0). Subjects exhibited a surprisingly small decline in serum estradiol levels with AI therapy that was not statistically significant. However, there was a significant correlation between duration of AI therapy and the decline in serum estradiol levels (r = ?0.65, p = 0.040). In this pilot study, AI therapy did not decrease TFCA. Women with early stage breast cancer exhibited an unexpectedly low TFCA, most likely due to their high calcium intake. The null effect of AI therapy on TFCA might relate to the brief duration of AI therapy, the minimal effect of AI therapy on estradiol levels, subjects’ high calcium intake or excellent vitamin D status.

Tevaarwerk, Amye; Burkard, Mark E.; Wisinski, Kari B.; Shafer, Martin M.; Davis, Lisa A.; Gogineni, Jyothi; Crone, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

142

Aromatase inhibitors and calcium absorption in early stage breast cancer.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of aromatase inhibitors (AI) on intestinal calcium absorption, measured using the gold-standard dual stable calcium isotope method. In this pilot study, we recruited 10 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who planned to initiate AI therapy; women receiving chemotherapy were excluded. Women completed two 24 h inpatient calcium absorption study visits, the first prior to AI therapy and the second at least 6 weeks following onset of AI therapy. We calculated total fractional calcium absorption (TFCA) using the dose-corrected fractional recovery of two stable isotopes from 24 h urine collections. Ten postmenopausal women (mean±SD age, 66±7 years; 25(OH)D 40±7 ng/mL, and total calcium intake of 1,714±640 mg/day) exhibited no change in TFCA related to AI therapy (0.155±0.042 prior to and 0.160±0.064 following AI therapy, p=1.0). Subjects exhibited a surprisingly small decline in serum estradiol levels with AI therapy that was not statistically significant. However, there was a significant correlation between duration of AI therapy and the decline in serum estradiol levels (r=-0.65, p=0.040). In this pilot study, AI therapy did not decrease TFCA. Women with early stage breast cancer exhibited an unexpectedly low TFCA, most likely due to their high calcium intake. The null effect of AI therapy on TFCA might relate to the brief duration of AI therapy, the minimal effect of AI therapy on estradiol levels, subjects' high calcium intake or excellent vitamin D status. PMID:22350731

Tevaarwerk, Amye; Burkard, Mark E; Wisinski, Kari B; Shafer, Martin M; Davis, Lisa A; Gogineni, Jyothi; Crone, Elizabeth; Hansen, Karen E

2012-02-18

143

Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements.

Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

2013-01-01

144

Estimated Soil Respiration Rates Decreased with Long-Term Soil Microclimate Changes in Successional Forests in Southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of soil respiration to short-term environmental factors changes has been well studied, whereas the influences of long-term soil microclimate changes on soil respiration are still highly unclear, especially in tropical ecosystems. We hypothesized that soil carbon accumulation in southern China, especially in mature forest during recent years, partly resulted from reducing soil respiration rates. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the temporal trends and variations of air temperature, soil temperature and soil water content (hereafter referred to as SWC), and then estimated soil respiration rates in the 1980s and 2000s with soil temperature and SWC by regression model in three subtropical forests which are at early-, mid-, and advanced-successional stages, respectively, in Dinghushan Nature Reserve (hereafter referred to as DNR) in southern China. The annual mean ambient air temperature increased by 1.03 ± 0.15°C in the last 50 years (1954-2007) in DNR. Rainfall amount in the corresponding period did not change significantly, but rainfall pattern changed remarkably in the last three decades (1978-2007). Soil temperature is correlated with ambient air temperature. The average SWC was 36.8 ± 8.4%, 34.7 ± 8.1% and 29.6 ± 8.1% in the 1980s, and then dropped sharply to 23.6 ± 2.9%, 20.5 ± 4.2% and 17.6 ± 3.9% in the 2000s, for the advanced, mid- and early-successional forests, respectively. Concurrent changes of soil temperature and SWC may have a negative effect on soil respiration rates for all three forests, implicated that soil respiration may have a negative feedback to regional climate change and carbon could be sequestered in subtropical forests in southern China.

Huang, Yuhui; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhang, Qianmei

2011-12-01

145

Is Early Adolescence Really a Stage of Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of whether or not early adolescence is a transitional or stable period of development may be dependent on our ability to describe ways in which early adolescents are quantitatively and qualitatively different from when they were children and how these early adolescent characteristics are forerunners to the more elaborate constructs of…

Thornburg, Hershel D.

1983-01-01

146

Active compressive intraoceanic deformation: early stages of ophiolites emplacement?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic lithosphere is strong and continental lithosphere is weak. As a result, there is relatively little deformation in the oceanic domain away from plate boundaries. However, the interior of oceanic lithosphere does deform when highly stressed. We review here places where intraoceanic compression is at work. In the more than 30 years since the first observations of active compressive intraplate deformation in the Central Indian Ocean through seismic profiling (Eittreim et al., 1972), compressive deformation has been identified in a variety of other oceanic tectonic settings: as a result of small differential motion between large plates (between North America and South America in the Central Atlantic; between Eurasia and Nubia offshore Gibraltar; between Macquarie and Australia plates in the Southern Ocean), within back-arcs (northwest Celebes Sea, Okushiri Ridge in the Japan Sea, on the eastern border of the Caroline plate), and ahead of subduction (Zenisu Ridge off Nankai Trough). Deformation appears to be more diffuse when larger plates are involved, and more localized for younger plates, perhaps in relation with the increasing rigidity of oceanic plates with age. The best example of diffuse deformation studied so far remains the Central Indian Ocean. Numerous marine data have been collected in this area, including shallow and deep seismic, heat flow measurements, multibeam bathymetry. The present-day deformation field has been modeled using GPS and earthquakes as far field and near field constraints respectively. Reactivation of the oceanic fabric (including for portions of the Indo-Australian plate which are now in subduction as evidenced by the September 2009 Padang earthquake), selective fault abandonment (Delescluse et al., 2008) and serpentinization (Delescluse and Chamot-Rooke, 2008) are some of the important processes that shape the present-day pattern of deformation. These rare intraplate deformation areas constitute excellent natural laboratories to investigate the very early stages of formation of faulted oceanic bodies that may further be incorporated into mountain belts as ophiolites. They allow to discuss rates and duration of deformation, diffuse vs localized deformation, re-activation vs neo-formed faults, serpentinization and thermal regime, spacing of minor and major thrust faults. Delescluse, M., L. G. J. Montesi, and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Fault reactivation and selective abandonment in the oceanic lithosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 35. Delescluse, M., and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Serpentinization pulse in the actively deforming Central Indian Basin. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 276, p. 140-151. Eittreim, S. L., and J. Ewing (1972), Mid-Plate Tectonics in the Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 77(32), 6413-6421.

Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Delescluse, Matthias; Montési, Laurent

2010-05-01

147

Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surface ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.

Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S. [Inst. de Ciencias Ambientales y Salud, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Programa Seguridad Quimica; Cardellini, P.; Pavanati, C. [Univ. degli Studi di Padova Via Trieste (Italy). Dept. di Biologia

1997-02-01

148

13 CFR 107.565 - Restrictions on third-party debt of Early Stage SBICs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Restrictions on third-party debt of Early Stage SBICs. ...§ 107.565 Restrictions on third-party debt of Early Stage SBICs. ...have, incur, or refinance any third-party debt other than accounts...

2013-01-01

149

The early stages of verb acquisition in English, Spanish and GermanMCCUNE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a preliminary report on how children acquire verb paradigms, proposing a set of verb stages. The stages are: 1. Holophrases: the first action words appear; 2. Early Word Combinations: actions words combine to form semantic relations; 3. Early Verbal Combinations: verbs become obligatory, marked by an increase in verb use, and a later increase in the number

David Ingram; Anne Welti; Christine Priem

150

Caring for relatives with early stage Alzheimer's disease: An exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an exploratory study involving semi-structured interviews with 20 primary caregivers of persons in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease. The challenges unique to the early stage of the disease are explained and illustrated through interview excerpts. The issues and themes of these interviews are summarized. Implications for practice are also discussed.

Daniel R. Kuhn

1998-01-01

151

Allelopathy in saline agricultural land: Vegetation successional changes and patch dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In reclamation fields of salt-affected wasteland, five plant communities colonized the undisturbed land, represented byCynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sporobolus arabicus, andSuaeda fruticosa. Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca), a highly salt tolerant plant when cultivated, shared dominance withCynodon, Desmostachya, andSporobolus in 15-month-old fields, whereasPolypogon was the only dominant species in 30-month-old kallar grass fields. Through successional stages, soil pH, salinity,

Khalid Mahmood; K. A. Malik; K. H. Sheikh; M. A. K. Lodhi

1989-01-01

152

Setting the Stage for Lifetime Physical Activity in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale and suggestions for emphasizing health-related physical education in preschool settings. In order to accomplish this, it will examine what is currently known about early childhood physical activity, as well as the existing professional preparation and accreditation standards for early

Schneider, Holly; Lounsbery, Monica

2008-01-01

153

A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

2010-01-01

154

Differential responses of antioxidant enzymes in pioneer and late-successional tropical tree species grown under sun and shade conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the ability of pioneer and late-successional species to adapt to a strong light environment in a reforestation area, we examined the activities of antioxidant enzymes in relation to photosystem II, chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentration for eight tropical tree species grown under 100% (sun) and 10% (shade) sunlight irradiation. The pioneer (early-succession) species (PS) were Cecropia

Viviane F. Favaretto; Carlos A. Martinez; Hilda H. Soriani; Rosa P. M. Furriel

2011-01-01

155

Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS. PMID:23126275

Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

2012-11-05

156

Surface reactions during the early stages of weathering of albite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the nature and distribution of surface species occurring during the initial stage of weathering of albite. Instead of the classical acidbase titration experiments used extensively in previous work, the surface of freshly ground mineral was titrated by adding increasing amounts of solid to pure water. The aqueous phase

Roland Wollast; Lei Chou

1992-01-01

157

Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

Young, Tabitha L.

2013-01-01

158

Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

Young, Tabitha L.

2013-01-01

159

On Some Features of Early Embryonic Development Stages of Cnidaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Division of the life cycle of Cnidaria (except for Anthozoa) into two independent generations, polypoid and medusoid, i.e., metagenesis, is considered to be unjustified. Like other Metazoa, their life cycle can be divided into three periods: embryonic, postembryonic, and definitive, i.e., according to the age [9, 10]. An important feature of Cnidaria is the transition of some postembryonic stages to

Z. S. Kaufman

2004-01-01

160

Early Years Foundation Stage: How Much Does It Count?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The final report of the Williams committee (DCSF, 2008: 68) argues that the revised mathematics Framework (DfES, 2006) "should be reconsidered to achieve a more suitable, user-friendly form." It might also have added that there is not much help and support in it for early years teachers. A much more useful document is the "Practice guidance for…

Thompson, Ian

2008-01-01

161

ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

2011-01-01

162

Vertebrate limb development — the early stages in chick and mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

More news this year about FGFs and their roles in vertebrate limb initiation; Wnt signalling is shown for the first time to be another component of the signalling cascade involved in early limb formation. Ectodermal compartments that control apical ridge formation were previously described in chick embryos and are now shown to exist in mouse embryos; Engrailed1 is expressed in

Cheryll Tickle; Andrea Münsterberg

2001-01-01

163

Early Life History of Marine Fish: The Egg Stage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Originating from a series of lectures given at the College of Fisheries, University of Washington, in March/April 1975, this volume gives a brief general description of development and objectives of the study of the early life history of fish and continue...

G. Hempel

1979-01-01

164

Early stage epithelial ovarian cancers: a study of morphologic prognostic factors.  

PubMed

We intended to reevaluate the morphologic prognostic factors for early-stage ovarian carcinomas. We reviewed 111 patients diagnosed with early-stage ovarian cancer who had undergone primary surgery at Hacettepe Hospital between 1984 and 2001, using diagnostic criteria from the WHO-2003 classification. We applied the Universal grading system suggested by Shimizu/Silverberg and noted FIGO-stage, histotype, tumor size, bilaterality, and endometriosis. These features were compared with each other and survival. The survival analysis was carried out by Kaplan-Meier curves. Of the cases, 52 were reclassified as 'borderline tumor' or 'cystadenoma with borderline foci' and 59 as 'invasive carcinoma'. FIGO-stage and mitotic count were significant for survivals of 59 patients with cancer. Mitotic index was also significant for the probability of metastasis. The patients with stage-II cancer had 5.65 times more risk of recurrence than stage-I cancer. The 5-year overall and disease-free survivals rates were 90.6% and 87.5% for stage-I, 54.7% and 39.3% for stage-II, respectively. Universal grade did not reach statistical significance for survivals but it was related to FIGO-stage significantly. In conclusion, FIGO-stage is the most reliable prognosticator. Although prognostic value of universal grade is not significant, mitotic count may provide important prognostic information for early-stage ovarian carcinomas. PMID:23643734

Terzi, Aysen; Akta?, Is?l Y?ld?z; Dolgun, An?l; Ayhan, Ali; Küçükali, Türkan; Usubütün, Alp

2013-03-30

165

Labors Lost: Women's Work and the Early Modern English Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korda's study is a fascinating and wide-ranging account of working women's behind-the-scenes and hitherto unacknowledged contributions to theatrical production in Shakespeare's time. She reveals that the purportedly all-male professional stage relied on the labor, wares, ingenuity, and capital of women of all stripes, including ordinary crafts- and tradeswomen who supplied costumes, props, and comestibles; wealthy heiresses and widows who provided

Natasha Korda

2011-01-01

166

Growth Stages 2: Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the second of a two-part series aimed at introducing students to the different stages of growth and development in human beings from birth to 18 years of age. In this lesson, student interactives are used to help students focus on the kinds of physical changes that children of their age range begin to undergo during puberty.

Science Netlinks;

2003-03-29

167

CMB quadrupole suppression. II. The early fast roll stage  

SciTech Connect

Within the effective field theory of inflation, an initialization of the classical dynamics of the inflaton with approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energy of the inflaton leads to a brief fast roll stage that precedes the slow roll regime. The fast roll stage leads to an attractive potential in the wave equations for the mode functions of curvature and tensor perturbations. The evolution of the inflationary perturbations is equivalent to the scattering by this potential and a useful dictionary between the scattering data and observables is established. Implementing methods from scattering theory we prove that this attractive potential leads to a suppression of the quadrupole moment for CMB and B-mode angular power spectra. The scale of the potential is determined by the Hubble parameter during slow roll. Within the effective field theory of inflation at the grand unification (GUT) energy scale we find that if inflation lasts a total number of e-folds N{sub tot}{approx}59, there is a 10%-20% suppression of the CMB quadrupole and about 2%-4% suppression of the tensor quadrupole. The suppression of higher multipoles is smaller, falling off as 1/l{sup 2}. The suppression is much smaller for N{sub tot}>59, therefore if the observable suppression originates in the fast roll stage, there is the upper bound N{sub tot}{approx}59.

Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H. J. de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); LPTHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI) et Denis Diderot (Paris VII), Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 7589, Tour 24, 5eme. etage, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Sanchez, N. G. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

2006-12-15

168

PLGlycoprotein regulates chemosensitivity in early developmental stages of the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multidrug resistance (MDR) P-glyco- protein (P-gp) is an active transporter associated with chemoresistance of tumor cells. A fundamental aspect not yet entirely clarified is the physiological role of MDR-P- gp in normal mammalian tissues. In this paper we report that multidrug (chemo)resistance is already present in mouse oocytes and early cleavage embryos. Expression of MDR-specific P-gp is detectable by

L. ELBLINGW; A. REHBERGER; T. WALDHOR; M. MICKSCHE

169

INTRALABORATORY COMPARISON OF THE EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST USING THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The interlaboratory precision of the ASTM early life-stage toxicity test with the sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus) as investigated at five contract and two EPA laboratories using endosulfan nd pentachlorobenzene. ach laboratory conducted two tests with each hemical. ests ...

170

Minimally-invasive thermal ablation of early-stage breast cancer: A systemic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMinimally-invasive thermal ablation techniques provide an effective approach for local destruction of solid tumor. A novel application is the use for treatment of early-stage breast carcinoma.

Z. Zhao; F. Wu

2010-01-01

171

Geographic proximity to treatment for early stage breast cancer and likelihood of mastectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWomen with early stage breast cancer who live far from a radiation therapy facility may be more likely to opt for mastectomy over breast conserving surgery (BCS). The geographic dimensions of this relationship deserve further scrutiny.

Francis P. Boscoe; Christopher J. Johnson; Kevin A. Henry; Daniel W. Goldberg; Kaveh Shahabi; Elena B. Elkin; Leslie K. Ballas; Myles Cockburn

2011-01-01

172

Temperature Adaptation of the Japanese Eel (Anguilla japonica) in its Early Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Su-Lean Chang, Guang-Hsiung Kou and I Chiu Liao (2004) Temperature adaptation of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in its early stages. Zoological Studies 43(3): 571-579. The biology and ecology of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in the early developmental stages are still not clear. This study was conduct- ed to determine the optimum water temperature for incubation of embryos and yolk-sac

Su-Lean Chang; Guang-Hsiung Kou; I Chiu Liao

173

Dietary shifts of a dominant reservoir planktivore during early life stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied dietary shifts in the early life stages of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, a dominant forage species in North\\u000a American reservoirs. Larval fish and zooplankton samples were collected weekly during spring in Sardis Reservoir, Mississippi,\\u000a USA. Diet and prey electivity data suggested the existence of three dietary niches during early life stages: microzooplankton\\u000a (larvae ?10 mm total length) in

L. E. Miranda; H. Gu

1998-01-01

174

The early stages of verb acquisition in German, Spanish and English  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a preliminary report on how children acquire verb paradigms, proposing a set of verb stages. The stages\\u000a are: 1. Holophrases: the first action words appear; 2. Early Word Combinations: actions words combine to form semantic relations;\\u000a 3. Early Verbal Combinations: verbs become obligatory, marked by an increase in verb use, and a later increase in the number

David Ingram; Anne Welti; Christine Priem

175

RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SPATIAL ANALYSES FOR NON-REPLICATED EARLY-STAGE SUGARCANE FIELD EXPERIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early stages of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) selection programs, large numbers of clones are tested in non-replicated plots. Field trends are likely to affect the performance of these non-replicated experimental genotypes and mask their true genetic potential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different spatial analyses for their relative efficiency in accounting for field trends in early-stage

S. J. Edmé; P. Y. P. Tai; J. D. Miller

176

Emotional expression and psychological and physical well-being among early-stage breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships between emotional expression processes and physical and psychological well-being among early-stage breast cancer patients. Participants were 128 women (average age = 50.09, average years of education = 15.17) diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Participants completed assessments by mail 4--8 weeks after their surgery and at 3, 6, and 12 month follow-up. Following the initial

Jenifer L. Culver

2002-01-01

177

Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

178

[Surgical treatment of early-stage vulva carcinoma and the complications of the operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of patients with early-stage squamous-cell carcinoma of the vulva (with a depth of invasion > 1 mm), i.e. stage T1 with a tumour diameter < or = 2 cm or T2 with a diameter > 2 cm without suspect groin nodes on palpation, has become less radical; in this way, the complications can be reduced without compromising the

J. A. de Hullu; A. van der Zee

2005-01-01

179

TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE SMALLMOUTH BASS AT FOUR PH VALUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Early life stages of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui Lacepede) were exposed to ammonia concentrations at four different pH values (from 6.5 to 8.7). Acute lethal tests were conducted with juveniles, and partial chronic tests were initiated at the late embryo stage and exte...

180

TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE GREEN SUNFISH (LEPOMIS CYANELLUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity of ammonia to early life stages of green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus was studied. One chronic and four acute exposure studies were conducted. During the chronic study green sunfish were exposed to a series of ammonia concentrations from the blastula stage through 40 days p...

181

Myocardial expression of atrial natriuretic factor gene in early stages of hamster cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventricular cardiomyocytes represent the most important source of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in pathological conditions such as congestive heart failure (CHF). It has been suggested that in cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster ventricles the ANF gene can be reactivated during the hypertrophic stage occurring before heart failure. The present study was undertaken to investigate ANF gene expression during early stages of myocardial

Paolo Di Nardo; Marilena Minieri; Arnaldo Carbone; Nicola Maggiano; Rosella Micheletti; Giuseppe Peruzzi; Giuseppe Tallarida

1993-01-01

182

Chemotherapy plus involved-field radiation in early-stage Hodgkin's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Treatment of early-stage Hodgkin's disease is usually tailored in line with prognostic factors that allow for reductions in the amount of chemotherapy and extent of radiotherapy required for a possible cure. METHODS: From 1993 to 1999, we identified 1538 patients (age, 15 to 70 years) who had untreated stage I or II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease with favorable prognostic features

Christophe Fermé; Houchingue Eghbali; Jacobus H. Meerwaldt; Chantal Rieux; Jacques Bosq; Françoise Berger; Théodore Girinsky; Pauline Brice; Mars B. van't Veer; Jan A. Walewski; Pierre Lederlin; Umberto Tirelli; Patrice Carde; Eric Van Den Neste; Emmanuel Gyan; Mathieu Monconduit; Marine Diviné; John M. M. Raemaekers; Gilles Salles; Evert M. Noordijk; Geert-Jan Creemers; Jean Gabarre; Anton Hagenbeek; Oumédaly Reman; Michel Blanc; José Thomas; Brigitte Vié; Johanna C. Kluin-Nelemans; Fernando Viseu; Joke W. Baars; Philip Poortmans; Pieternella J. Lugtenburg; Christian Carrie; Jérôme Jaubert; Michel Henry-Amar

2007-01-01

183

Early Stages of Golgi Vesicle and Tubule Formation Require Diacylglycerol  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the role for diacylglycerol (DAG) in membrane bud formation in the Golgi apparatus. Addition of propranolol to specifically inhibit phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP), an enzyme responsible for converting phosphatidic acid into DAG, effectively prevents formation of membrane buds. The effect of PAP inhibition on Golgi membranes is rapid and occurs within 3 min. Removal of the PAP inhibitor then results in a rapid burst of buds, vesicles, and tubules that peaks within 2 min. The inability to form buds in the presence of propranolol does not appear to be correlated with a loss of ARFGAP1 from Golgi membranes, as knockdown of ARFGAP1 by RNA interference has little or no effect on actual bud formation. Rather, knockdown of ARFGAP1 results in an increase in membrane buds and a decrease of vesicles and tubules suggesting it functions in the late stages of scission. How DAG promotes bud formation is discussed.

Asp, Lennart; Kartberg, Fredrik; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Julia; Smedh, Maria; Elsner, Markus; Laporte, Frederic; Barcena, Montserrat; Jansen, Karen A.; Valentijn, Jack A.; Koster, Abraham J.; Bergeron, John J.M.

2009-01-01

184

Microbial Diversity within Early-Stage Cultured Panulirus ornatus Phyllosomas?  

PubMed Central

A thorough understanding of the microorganisms and pathogens associated with the larval stage of the tropical ornate rock lobster, Panulirus ornatus, is required to overcome disease outbreaks that currently block aquaculture attempts. This study used microscopy in addition to culture and molecularly based microbiological techniques to characterize the bacterial community associated with cultured, developmental stage PI to PII P. ornatus phyllosomas. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated colonization of phyllosomas by filamentous, rod-shaped, and coccus-shaped bacteria. A clone library constructed from dead phyllosomas sampled from the larval rearing tank on day 10 was dominated by Thiothrix-affiliated sequences (56% of clones). A comparable library from live phyllosomas also contained Thiothrix-affiliated sequences, though these only represented 19% of clones within the library. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed identification of the filamentous bacteria as Thiothrix sp., being present on dead phyllosomas. FISH also identified Leucothrix sp. and Vibrio sp., as well as a range of other rod- and coccus-shaped bacteria, colonizing both live and dead phyllosomas. The development of the microbial community associated with phyllosomas was monitored through a standard larval rearing run using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Vibrio sp.-affiliated bands dominated the profiles of live animals through the rearing period and dead phyllosomas sampled on selected days. The population of Vibrio sp. associated with phyllosomas was monitored with culture-based analysis on selective media and demonstrated to increase significantly on day 7, coinciding with the beginning of the larval molt. An isolated Vibrio harveyi strain demonstrated an identical 16S rRNA sequence with retrieved DGGE and clone library sequences. Colonization of phyllosomas with filamentous bacterial species potentially hinders the ability of the animals to molt and, combined with the added stress of the molt process, likely results in reduced immune function, allowing opportunistic pathogenic Vibrio sp. to cause larval mortalities.

Payne, Matthew S.; Hall, Mike R.; Sly, Lindsay; Bourne, David G.

2007-01-01

185

High resolution electron microscopy of the early decomposition stage of Al-Li alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early decomposition stages of Al-7.8at.%Li, Al-10.4at%Li and Al-11.8at%Li alloys were studied by high resolution electron microscopy. In all the above alloys, it was confirmed that in the as-quenched stage small ordered domains of Llâ structure were present surrounded by the disordered matrix. From this microstructure, it was concluded that the alloy was already decomposed as in the as-quenched stage.

G. Schmitz; K. Hono; P. Haasen

1994-01-01

186

Building on the Early Years Foundation Stage: Developing Good Practice for Transition into Key Stage 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum and the independent Cambridge Primary Review both highlight the need to re-think children's educational experiences in English classrooms between the ages of five and seven. Recent government initiatives have led to experiences in these early primary years being adult-directed and often in…

Fisher, Julie

2011-01-01

187

Three Biomarkers Identified from Serum Proteomic Analysis for the Detection of Early Stage Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection remains the most promising approach to improve long-term survival of patients with ovarian cancer. In a five-center case- control study, serum proteomic expressions were analyzed on 153 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 42 with other ovarian cancers, 166 with benign pelvic masses, and 142 healthy women. Data from patients with early stage ovarian cancer and healthy women

Zhen Zhang; Robert C. Bast; Yinhua Yu; Jinong Li; Lori J. Sokoll; Alex J. Rai; Jason M. Rosenzweig; Bonnie Cameron; Young Y. Wang; Xiao-Ying Meng; Andrew Berchuck; Carolien van Haaften-Day; Neville F. Hacker; Henk W. A. de Bruijn; Ian J. Jacobs; Eric T. Fung; Daniel W. Chan

2004-01-01

188

Morphological analysis of neovascularization at early stages of rat splenic autografts in comparison with tumor angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to reveal the neovascularization at early stages of splenic autografts three-dimensionally, to illustrate the differences between it and tumor angiogenesis, and to establish its origin. Early vascular formation after transplantation of the rat spleen or Waker tumor into the major omentum was examined by using a video macroscope, vascular casting methods and the organ culture technique.

Katsunori Sasaki; Yoshihiro Kiuchi; Yoji Sato; Shinji Yamamori

1991-01-01

189

Developmental Stages of Early Dead Embryos after Prolonged Egg Storage and Incubation in Broiler Breeders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cold egg storage is a common practice prior to incubation in the broiler industry.  However, cold storage longer than 10 days is associated with an increase in early embryo mortality. We were interested in determining the developmental stages of early dead embryos after prolonged egg storage and inc...

190

Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early

Burns, Kellie

2006-01-01

191

Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

2010-01-01

192

Neuroinflammation and regeneration in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology in the neocortex show upregulation of cell cycle proteins, adhesion and inflammation related factors, indicating the early involvement of inflammatory and regenerating pathways in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. These brain changes precede the neurofibrillary pathology and the extensive process of neurodestruction and (astro)gliosis. Amyloid ? deposition, inflammation and regenerative mechanisms are also early pathogenic

J. J. M. Hoozemans; R. Veerhuis; J. M. Rozemuller-Kwakkel; P. Eikelenboom

2006-01-01

193

Imaging early stage osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), contribute to bone fracture repair if they are delivered to the injury site. However, it is difficult to assess the retention and differentiation of these cells after implantation. Current options for non-invasively tracking the transplanted stem cells are limited. Cell-based therapies using MSCs would benefit greatly through the use of an imaging methodology that allows cells to be tracked in vivo and in a timely fashion. In this study, we implemented an in vivo imaging methodology to specifically track early events such as differentiation of implanted human MSCs (hMSCs). This system uses the collagen type 1 (Col1?1) promoter to drive expression of firefly luciferase (luc) in addition to a constitutively active promoter to drive the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). The resulting dual-promoter reporter gene system provides the opportunity for osteogenic differentiation-specific luc expression for in vivo imaging and constitutive expression of GFP for cell sorting. The function of this dual-promoter reporter gene was validated both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the ability of this dual-promoter reporter system to image an early event of osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was demonstrated in a murine segmental bone defect model in which reporter-labeled hMSCs were seeded into an alginate hydrogel scaffold and implanted directly into the defect. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed to visualize the turn-on of Col1?1 upon osteogenic differentiation and followed by X-ray imaging to assess the healing process for correlation with histological analyses. PMID:23440976

Corn, David J; Kim, Yunhui; Krebs, Melissa D; Mounts, Troy; Molter, Joseph; Gerson, Stanton; Alsberg, Eben; Dennis, James E; Lee, Zhenghong

2013-02-25

194

The ?-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the ?-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the ?1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the ?3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the ?1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

195

Litterfall production along successional and altitudinal gradients of subtropical monsoon evergreen broadleaved forests in Guangdong, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of litterfall production is important for understanding nutrient cycling, forest growth, successional pathways, and interactions with environmental variables in forest ecosystems. Litterfall was intensively studied during the period of 1982-2001 in two subtropical monsoon vegetation gradients in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, Guangdong Province, China. The two gradients include: (1) a successional gradient composed of pine forest (PF), mixed pine and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (BF), and (2) an altitudinal gradient composed of Baiyunci ravine rain forest (BRF), Qingyunci ravine rain forest (QRF), BF and mountainous evergreen broadleaved forest (MMF). Mean annual litterfall production was 356, 861 and 849 g m-2 for PF, MF and BF of the successional gradient, and 1016, 1061, 849 and 489 g m-2 for BRF, QRF, BF and MMF of the altitudinal gradient, respectively. As expected, mean annual litterfall of the pioneer forest PF was the lowest, but rapidly increased over the observation period while those in other forests were relatively stable, confirming that forest litterfall production is closely related to successional stages and growth patterns. Leaf proportions of total litterfall in PF, MF, BF, BRF, QRF and MMF were 76.4%, 68.4%, 56.8%, 55.7%, 57.6% and 69.2%, respectively, which were consistent with the results from studies in other evergreen broadleaved forests. Our analysis on litterfall monthly distributions indicated that litterfall production was much higher during the period of April to September compared to other months for all studied forest types. Although there were significant impacts of some climate variables (maximum and effective temperatures) on litterfall production in some of the studied forests, the mechanisms of how climate factors (temperature and rainfall) interactively affect litterfall await further study. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Zhou, G.; Guan, L.; Wei, X.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, Q.; Yan, J.; Wen, D.; Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Huang, Z.; Kong, G.; Mo, J.; Yu, Q.

2007-01-01

196

Prediction of invasion from the early stage of an epidemic  

PubMed Central

Predictability of undesired events is a question of great interest in many scientific disciplines including seismology, economy and epidemiology. Here, we focus on the predictability of invasion of a broad class of epidemics caused by diseases that lead to permanent immunity of infected hosts after recovery or death. We approach the problem from the perspective of the science of complexity by proposing and testing several strategies for the estimation of important characteristics of epidemics, such as the probability of invasion. Our results suggest that parsimonious approximate methodologies may lead to the most reliable and robust predictions. The proposed methodologies are first applied to analysis of experimentally observed epidemics: invasion of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in replicated host microcosms. We then consider numerical experiments of the susceptible–infected–removed model to investigate the performance of the proposed methods in further detail. The suggested framework can be used as a valuable tool for quick assessment of epidemic threat at the stage when epidemics only start developing. Moreover, our work amplifies the significance of the small-scale and finite-time microcosm realizations of epidemics revealing their predictive power.

Perez-Reche, Francisco J.; Neri, Franco M.; Taraskin, Sergei N.; Gilligan, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

197

Lymphatic Mapping and Sentinel Lymphadenectomy for Early-Stage Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Objective: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy (LM/SL) have been applied to virtually all solid neoplasms since our original description of LM/SL for melanoma. Our objectives were to determine the diagnostic and therapeutic utility of LM/SL, investigate carbon dye for mapping the microanatomy of lymphatic flow within the sentinel node (SN), and determine the prognostic accuracy of molecular assessment of the SN. Methods: Since 1985, 1599 patients with AJCC Stage I/II melanoma have been treated by LM/SL at our institution and 4590 have been treated by wide excision (WE) without nodal staging. We examined the incidence of clinical nodal recurrence after WE alone, the incidence of subclinical nodal metastases found by LM/SL, and the incidence of nodal recurrence in basins with histopathology-negative SNs. Results: In 1514 LM/SL patients with a primary of known Breslow thickness, the incidence of metastasis in nodes claimed to be sentinel was 7.3%, 19.7%, 33.2%, and 39.7% for primary lesions ?1.0, 1.01–2.0, 2.01–4.0, and >4.0 mm, respectively. In 3652 WE-only patients, the corresponding rates of nodal recurrence were 12.0%, 32.0%, 34.4%, and 30.1%. Thus, LM/SL detected only 60% of expected nodal metastases from primary melanomas <2.01 mm. Forty of 1599 (3.1%) patients developed recurrence in basins with immunohistochemistry (IH)-negative SNs. To determine whether nonrandom intranodal distribution of tumor cells could explain missed SN metastases, we coinjected carbon particles and blue dye during LM/SL in 166 patients: 25 (16%) patients had nodal metastases, all of which were found only in nodal subsectors containing carbon particles. When paraffin-embedded SNs from a subset of 162 IH-negative patients were re-examined by quantitative multimarker reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT) assay, 49 (30%) gave positive signals. These patients had a significantly higher risk of disease recurrence and death than did patients whose IH and qRT results were negative (p < 0.0001). Comparison of 287 prognostically matched pairs of patients who underwent immediate (after LM/SL) versus delayed (after observation) dissection of nodal metastases revealed 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates of 73%, 69%, and 69% versus 51%, 37%, and 32%, respectively (P ? 0.001). Conclusions: SN assessment based on intranodal compartmentalization of lymphatic flow (carbon dye mapping) should increase the accuracy of IH and, in combination with multimarker qRT assessment, will allow confident identification of most patients for whom surgery alone is curative. Our data suggest a significant therapeutic benefit for immediate dissection based on identification of a tumor-involved SN.

Morton, Donald L.; Hoon, Dave S. B.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Turner, Roderick R.; Essner, Richard; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Wanek, Leslie A.; Glass, Edwin; Foshag, Leland J.; Hsueh, Eddy C.; Bilchik, Anton J.; Elashoff, David; Elashoff, Robert

2003-01-01

198

Submucosal Tumor-like Early-stage Mucinous Gastric Carcinoma: A Case Study.  

PubMed

Mucinous gastric carcinoma (MGC) is an unusual histologic subtype, and early detection of MGC is very rare. Early-stage MGC appears as an elevated lesion resembling a submucosal tumor (SMT) due to abundant mucin pools in the submucosa or mucosa. We report a rare case of SMT-like early-stage MGC. Tumor type was predicted preoperatively based on characteristic endoscopic findings, in which an SMT-like mass was observed at the gastric fundus. The tumor was covered by nearly normal mucosa, but with an opening allowing for the passage of copious mucus discharge. A total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy was subsequently performed. Histopathology of the tumor revealed early-stage (lamina propria) mucinous adenocarcinoma. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2013;62:122-125). PMID:23981947

Yoo, Chan Hui; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won; Kim, Hyung Hun; Lee, Jun Sik; Song, Jun Young; Jang, Hee Kyung

2013-08-25

199

Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.  

PubMed

According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. PMID:23036413

Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

2011-12-20

200

Using rangeland health assessment to inform successional management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rangeland health assessment provides qualitative information on ecosystem attributes. Successional management is a conceptual framework that allows managers to link information gathered in rangeland health assessment to ecological processes that need to be repaired to allow vegetation to change in ...

201

fMRI differences between early and late stage-1 sleep.  

PubMed

This study sought to test for differences in regional brain activity between stage-1 sleep immediately following wake and immediately preceding stage-2 sleep. Data were collected during daytime fMRI sessions with simultaneous EEG acquisition. A stage-1 interval was defined as follows: > or =30s of wake, immediately followed by > or =60s of continuous stage 1, immediately followed by > or =30s of stage 2. We compared brain activity between the first 30s of stage 1 (early stage 1), the last 30s of stage 1 (late stage 1), and isolated wake. A conjunction analysis sorted each voxel into one of a series of mutually exclusive categories that represented the various possible combinations of a significant increase, decrease, or no difference among these three states. The initial dataset consisted of 14 healthy volunteers. A total of 22 sessions in these participants yielded six stage-1 intervals (from four participants) that met criteria for inclusion in the analysis. There were multiple clusters of significant voxels. Examples include changes in default-mode network areas where activity increased compared to wake only in early stage 1 and a bilateral change in the hippocampus where activity increased compared to wake only in late stage 1. These results suggest that activity in anatomically identifiable, volumetric brain regions exhibit differences during stage-1 sleep that would not have been detected with the EEG. These differences may also have specific relevance to understanding the process of sleep onset as well as the neural mechanisms of performance lapses during sleep deprivation. PMID:18584959

Picchioni, Dante; Fukunaga, Masaki; Carr, Walter S; Braun, Allen R; Balkin, Thomas J; Duyn, Jeff H; Horovitz, Silvina G

2008-06-07

202

A blind comparison of the effectiveness of endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopy in staging early gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIMS—Endoscopic ultrasonography is expected to be useful for invasion depth staging of early gastric cancer. A prospective blind study of the staging characteristics of endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography for early gastric cancer was performed. ?METHODS—Findings of endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography using a 20 MHz thin ultrasound probe were independently reviewed and the results of 52 early gastric cancer lesions analysed. ?RESULTS—The overall accuracy rates in invasion depth staging of early gastric cancer were 63% for endoscopy and 71% for endoscopic ultrasonography. No statistically significant differences were observed in overall accuracy. Endoscopic ultrasonography tended to overstage, and lesions that were classified as mucosal cancer by endoscopic ultrasonography were very likely (95%) to be limited to the mucosa on histological examination. All 16 lesions staged as mucosal cancer independently but coincidentally by both methods were histologically limited to the mucosa. ?CONCLUSIONS—Endoscopic ultrasonography is expected to compensate for the understaging of lesions with submucosal invasion that are endoscopically staged as mucosal cancer. ?? Keywords: early gastric cancer; endoscopic ultrasonography; endoscopy

Yanai, H; Noguchi, T; Mizumachi, S; Tokiyama, H; Nakamura, H; Tada, M; Okita, K

1999-01-01

203

Endogenous Opioids Inhibit Early Stage Pancreatic Pain in a Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims The endogenous opioid system is involved in modulating the experience of pain, the response to stress and the action of analgesic therapies. Recent human imaging studies have demonstrated a significant tonic modulation of visceral pain, raising the question of whether endogenous opioids tonically modulate the pain of visceral cancer. Methods Transgenic mice expressing the first 127 amino acids of simian virus 40 large T antigen, under the control of the rat elastase-1 promoter that spontaneously develop pancreatic cancer were used to investigate the role of endogenous opioids in the modulation of pancreatic cancer pain. Visceral pain behaviors were assessed as degree of hunching and vocalization. Results Whereas, mice with late stage pancreatic cancer displayed spontaneous, morphine-reversible, visceral pain-related behaviors such as hunching and vocalization, these behaviors were absent in mice with early stage pancreatic cancer. Following systemic administration of the central nervous system (CNS) penetrant opioid receptor antagonists naloxone or naltrexone, mice with early stage pancreatic cancer, displayed significant visceral pain-related behaviors, while systemic administration of the CNS non-penetrant opioid antagonist naloxone-methiodide did not induce an increase in visceral pain behaviors. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a CNS opioid-dependent mechanism tonically modulates early and late stage pancreatic cancer pain. Understanding the mechanisms that mask this pain in early stage disease and drive this pain in late stage disease may allow improved diagnosis, treatment, and care of patients with pancreatic cancer.

Sevcik, Molly A.; Jonas, Beth M.; Lindsay, Theodore H.; Halvorson, Kyle G.; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Mukherjee, Pinku; Maggio, John E.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

2007-01-01

204

Combined Modality Therapy for Early Stage Operable and Locally Advanced Potentially Resectable Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Surgical resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains the primary treatment for early stage disease, that is,\\u000a stage I and II disease. Yet, the vast majority of patients with lung cancer present with either distant metastatic disease\\u000a (stage IV) or locally advanced NSCLC (stage IIIA and IIIB). Today, despite modest gains in outcome in patients with early\\u000a stage disease,

Joseph I. Clark; Kathy S. Albain

205

Rhamnetin-induced suppression of clonal expansion during early stage of adipogenesis.  

PubMed

Adipocyte differentiation plays a pivotal role in the progression of obesity which is a major risk factor for several diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease. In this study, the inhibitory effect of rhamnetin, a flavonoid compound, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was investigated. Rhamnetin decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets, and inhibited the elevation of triglyceride content in the adipocytes (IC(50) = 17.3 ?M). The expressions of PPAR?, C/EBP?, and perilipin, adipocyte differentiation markers, were significantly reduced by rhamnetin. Triglyceride biosynthesis and clonal expansion of adipocytes were completely inhibited during the early stage by rhamnetin. Additionally, rhamnetin significantly decreased the expression of C/EBP?, an early stage marker. Our results indicate that suppression of clonal expansion during the early stage of adipogenesis by rhamnetin may be associated with inhibition of the C/EBP?, C/EBP?, and PPAR? pathways. PMID:22870818

Ji, So-Young; Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Lee, Youn-Sun; Yu, Ji-Yeon; Shin, Dong-Mi; Lee, Seunghyun; Yoo, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

2012-06-30

206

Delirium in early-stage alzheimer's disease: enhancing cognitive reserve as a possible preventive measure.  

PubMed

Delirium is a disorder of acute onset with fluctuating symptoms and is character ized by inattention, disorganized thinking and altered levels of consciousness. The risk for delirium is greatest in individual with dementia, and the incidence of both is increasing worldwide because of the aging of our population. Although s clinical trials have tested interventions f delirium prevention in individuals without dementia, little is known about the m anisms for the prevention of delirium i early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Th purpose of this article is to explore ways o preventing delirium and slowing the ra of cognitive decline in early-stage AD enhancing cognitive reserve. An agenda for future research on interventions to prevent delirium in individuals with early-stage AD is also presented. PMID:19326827

Fick, Donna M; Kolanowski, Ann; Beattie, Elizabeth; McCrow, Judith

2009-03-01

207

Primary Gastric Lymphoma: Conservative Treatment Modality Is Not Inferior to Surgery for Early-Stage Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, survival rates, and treatment modalities in patients with primary gastric lymphoma (PGL). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed data from patients treated for PGL in our clinic from 1998 through 2010. Staging was performed using the Lugano Staging System. Overall and disease-free survival (OS and DFS) were calculated from the date of diagnosis. Results. We identified 79 patients. Thirty-seven patients (47%) were male. The median age at presentation was 57 (18–85) years. The median follow-up time was 41 (9–52) months. Thirty patients (38%) underwent surgery, 74 (92%) received chemotherapy, and 18 (23%) received radiotherapy. The five-year OS and DFS rates were 91.2% and 83.9%, respectively, in patients with stage I/II or IIE disease and 70.6% and 65.5%, respectively, in patients with stage IV disease (P = 0.02 for both rates). Treatment modality (surgical or conservative) had no impact on OS or DFS in early stages. In a multivariate analysis, poor performance status, advanced stage, and high LDH levels were significant bad prognostic factors for DFS, while advanced stage, poor performance status, and age >?60 years were significant bad prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion. Surgery provides no advantage for survival over conservative treatment; thus, conservative treatment modalities should be preferred initially at early stages of PGL.

Selcukbiricik, Fatih; Tural, Deniz; Elicin, Olgun; Berk, Selin; Ozguroglu, Mustafa; Bese, Nuran; Ferhanoglu, Burhan

2012-01-01

208

Initial Medical Attention on Patients with Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is commonly believed to be incidental. Understanding the reasons that caused initial detection of these patients is important for early diagnosis. However, these reasons are not well studied. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients diagnosed with stage I or II NSCLC between 2000 and 2009 at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. Information on suggestive LC-symptoms or other reasons that caused detection were extracted from patients' medical records. We applied univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate the association of suggestive LC-symptoms with tumor size and patient survival. Results Of the 1396 early stage LC patients, 733 (52.5%) presented with suggestive LC-symptoms as chief complaint. 347 (24.9%) and 287 (20.6%) were diagnosed because of regular check-ups and evaluations for other diseases, respectively. The proportion of suggestive LC-symptom-caused detection had a linear relationship with the tumor size (correlation 0.96; with p<.0001). After age, gender, race, smoking status, therapy, and stage adjustment, the symptom-caused detection showed no significant difference in overall and LC-specific survival when compared with the other (non-symptom-caused) detection. Conclusion Symptoms suggestive of LC are the number one reason that led to detection in early NSCLC. They were also associated with tumor size at diagnosis, suggesting early stage LC patients are developing symptoms. Presence of symptoms in early stages did not compromise survival. A symptom-based alerting system or guidelines may be worth of further study to benefit NSCLC high risk individuals.

Chen, Xing; Gorlov, Ivan P.; Ying, Jun; Merriman, Kelly W.; Kimmel, Marek; Lu, Charles; Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C.; Gorlova, Olga Y.

2012-01-01

209

Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) technology to distinguish sera of early-stage lung cancer patients from control individuals. ESI-MS m\\/z (mass divided by charge) data were generated from sera of 43 non-small cell lung cancer patients (pathological stages I and II) and 21 control individuals. Identifications of m\\/z peak area significances

James R. Hocker; Marvin D. Peyton; Megan R. Lerner; Stephanie L. Mitchell; Stan A. Lightfoot; Theresa J. Lander; Leah M. Bates-Albers; Nicole T. Vu; Rushie J. Hanas; Thomas C. Kupiec; Daniel J. Brackett; Jay S. Hanas

2011-01-01

210

Early Interactions Between Blood-Stage Plasmodium Parasites and the Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence provides strong support for the importance of innate immunity in shaping the subsequent adaptive immune\\u000a response to blood-stage Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria. Early interactions between blood-stage parasites and cells of the innate immune\\u000a system, including dendritic cells, monocytes\\/macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, NKT cells, and ?? T cells, are important\\u000a in the timely control of

B. C. Urban; R. Ing; M. M. Stevenson

211

Effects of acidified seawater on early life stages of scleractinian corals (Genus Acropora )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification, caused by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, is currently an important environmental problem. It is therefore necessary to investigate the effects of\\u000a ocean acidification on all life stages of a wide range of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the effects\\u000a of increased CO2 on early life stages of organisms, including corals. Using a range of

Ryota Suwa; Masako Nakamura; Masaya Morita; Kazuaki Shimada; Akira Iguchi; Kazuhiko Sakai; Atsushi Suzuki

2010-01-01

212

Proteome analysis of soybean roots under waterlogging stress at an early vegetative stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain better insight into how soybean roots respond to waterlogging stress, we carried out proteomic profiling combined\\u000a with physiological analysis at two time points for soybean seedlings in their early vegetative stage. Seedlings at the V2\\u000a stage were subjected to 3 and 7 days of waterlogging treatments. Waterlogging stress resulted in a gradual increase of lipid\\u000a peroxidation and in

Iftekhar Alam; Dong-Gi Lee; Kyung-Hee Kim; Choong-Hoon Park; Shamima Akhtar Sharmin; Hyoshin Lee; Ki-Won Oh; Byung-Wook Yun; Byung-Hyun Lee

2010-01-01

213

The Power of Personality in Discriminating Between Healthy Aging and Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined differences in personality in the earliest stages of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) relative to healthy aging, and the power of personality in discriminating healthy aging from early-stage DAT. Four groups of participants (middle-aged controls, older controls, persons with very mild DAT, and persons with mild DAT) and their families were administered Costa and McCrae's NEO

Janet M. Duchek; David A. Balota; Martha Storandt; Randy Larsen

2007-01-01

214

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on the early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in the life history, of

A. Franke; C. Clemmesen

2011-01-01

215

Porcine nuclei in early growing stage do not possess meiotic competence in matured oocytes.  

PubMed

To determine whether the nuclei of early growing stage porcine oocytes can mature to the MII stage, we examined meiotic competence of nuclei that had been fused with enucleated GV oocytes using the nuclear transfer method. In vitro matured oocytes were enucleated and then fused with early growing oocytes (30-40 ?m in diameter) from 5 to 7-wk-old piglets using the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). Reconstructed oocytes were cultured for 24 h to the MII stage. Although these oocytes extruded the first polar body, they did not contain normal haploid chromosomes, and the spindles were misaligned or absent at the metaphase II (MII) stage. Furthermore, maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity levels were low in oocytes reconstructed with early growing oocytes at metaphase I (MI) and MII. In contrast, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity was detected between the MI and MII stages, although at slightly lower levels. In conclusion, the nuclei of early growing oocytes did not accomplish normal meiotic division in matured oocytes due to misaligned or absent spindle formation. PMID:22538003

Ogawa, H; Matsuzaki, T; Yamamoto, A; Kashiwazaki, N; Kono, T

2012-04-24

216

The association between height and prostate cancer grade in the Early Stage Prostate Cancer Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We examined the relationship between height and prostate cancer grade.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The Early Stage Prostate Cancer Cohort Study is an observational cohort of 1,037 men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer,\\u000a T0–3NxM0. High-grade prostate cancer was defined as a biopsy Gleason score ? 7 (4 + 3). Logistic regression models were created to\\u000a calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the cross-sectional relationship

Wildon R. Farwell; Christopher Lourenco; Erika Holmberg; Robert B. Hall; Leonard D’Avolio; Elizabeth V. Lawler; J. Michael Gaziano

217

Can stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in early stage lung cancers produce comparable success as surgery?  

PubMed

Early stage non-small cell lung cancer is a potentially curable manifestation of a disease that is typically associated with a grim prognosis. Therapies directed at early stage disease can be challenging to deliver because patients tend to be elderly with multiple comorbidities. Surgery, the standard of care, has been validated with long-term follow-up. However, the risk of perioperative mortality and morbidity can limit the feasibility of an operation for many high-risk patients. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy uses highly focused, ablative doses of radiation to treat tumors and has emerged as an alternative to surgery. PMID:23931020

Shirvani, Shervin M; Chang, Joe Y; Roth, Jack A

2013-08-01

218

Speech acoustic markers of early stage and prodromal Huntington's disease: a marker of disease onset?  

PubMed

Speech disturbances (e.g., altered prosody) have been described in symptomatic Huntington's Disease (HD) individuals, however, the extent to which speech changes in gene positive pre-manifest (PreHD) individuals is largely unknown. The speech of individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene is a behavioural/motor/cognitive marker demonstrating some potential as an objective indicator of early HD onset and disease progression. Speech samples were acquired from 30 individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene (13 PreHD, 17 early stage HD) and 15 matched controls. Participants read a passage, produced a monologue and said the days of the week. Data were analysed acoustically for measures of timing, frequency and intensity. There was a clear effect of group across most acoustic measures, so that speech performance differed in-line with disease progression. Comparisons across groups revealed significant differences between the control and the early stage HD group on measures of timing (e.g., speech rate). Participants carrying the mutant HTT gene presented with slower rates of speech, took longer to say words and produced greater silences between and within words compared to healthy controls. Importantly, speech rate showed a significant correlation to burden of disease scores. The speech of early stage HD differed significantly from controls. The speech of PreHD, although not reaching significance, tended to lie between the performance of controls and early stage HD. This suggests that changes in speech production appear to be developing prior to diagnosis. PMID:22982606

Vogel, Adam P; Shirbin, Christopher; Churchyard, Andrew J; Stout, Julie C

2012-09-14

219

Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat  

SciTech Connect

It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko (Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

1989-09-01

220

Treatment options in early stages of Hodgkin's Lymphoma, high cure rate with lower short and long-term toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of early stages in HL varied among cooperative groups and clinical trials. Most of them considered early stages; stage I, II, and IIIA without bulky disease. Bulky disease has been defined at the Costwolds Meeting as those tumors with more than 10 cm or a mediastinal involvement of more than one-third of the chest wall diameter. Other factors

Santiago Pavlovsky

2005-01-01

221

Prevalence and characteristics of pain in early and late stages of ALS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare pain frequency in early and late stages of ALS and to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status. Sixty-four patients in different stages of ALS were asked to complete the Neuropathic Pain Scale and to draw the localization of their pain on a body cartoon. The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) values were obtained from the medical record. A ?(2) correlation was used to compare the proportion of patients with pain in different stages of ALS. Correlation coefficient was used to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status (ALSFRS-R). Pain was reported by about half the patients. Using FVC values, patients were subdivided into early, intermediate and late stage of the disease. There was a negative correlation between pain intensity and functional status. There was no statistically significant difference in the presence of pain among patients in the different stages of ALS. In conclusion, our study showed that pain is common in ALS patients. Although pain intensity did correlate negatively with functional status, as expected, we were surprised to find that pain was also present in the early stages of the disease. PMID:23286754

Rivera, Itza; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Casey, Pat; Heller, Scott; Allen, Jeffrey; Siddique, Teepu; Sufit, Robert

2013-01-04

222

Scrub-successional bird community dynamics in young and mature longleaf pine-wiregrass savannahs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Public agencies are required to manage for threatened and endangered species and for biodiversity. However, at times, management for threatened and endangered species precludes consideration of other species. We investigated how managing for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) and biodiversity at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, affected communities of bird species that use early-successional scrub habitat (hereafter, scrub-successional species). Management for red-cockaded woodpeckers at the SRS involved both (1) manipulating mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Andropogon spp.) stands via canopy thinning, removal of midstory trees, and prescribed burning; and (2) even-aged timber harvesting. The former management practice encouraged red-cockaded woodpeckers to establish new colonies in previously unoccupied stands (hereafter, 'recruitment' stands). The latter management practice is used to remove off-site planted pines and replant with preferred longleaf pines. We conducted a constant-effort mist net study in recruitment and regenerating stands (stands clearcut and planted with longleaf pine) during the breeding seasons of 1995-96. We hypothesized that the scrub-successional bird community in recruitment stands would have greater species richness and higher survival and reproductive rates per species than in regenerating stands. However, recruitment stands always had fewer scrub-successional species (1995:36 species; 1996:31 species) than regenerating stands (1995:54 species; 1996:55 species), and all species that occurred in recruitment stands also occurred in regenerating stands. Species which commonly occurred in both recruitment and regenerating stands had similar adult:juvenile ratios (P > 0.15) and relative proportion of adults in breeding condition (P > 0.05). We detected no difference in survival rates of Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis), indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), and of 'combined' scrub-successional birds between stand types (P > 0.05). We found that even-aged forestry is an important management practice for maintaining and increasing avian biodiversity on public lands, as well as an acceptable management practice for red-cockaded woodpeckers.

Krementz, D. G.; Christie, J.S.

1999-01-01

223

Early stages of formation and dispersal of the temperate flora in the Boreal Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Budantsev, L. Yu. (Komarov Botanical Institute, Prof. Popov Str. 2, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia). Early stages of formation\\u000a and dispersal of the temperate flora in the Boreal Region. Bot. Rev.58(1): 1–48, 1992.—The thesis of this review is that, as stated as early as 1908 by V. L. Komarov, the composition of a flora can\\u000a be understood only as a process,

Lev Yu. Budantsev

1992-01-01

224

Walter Puchner - Early Modern Greek Drama: From Page to Stage - Journal of Modern Greek Studies 25:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial scholarly research on early Modern Greek drama was largely philological, but also entertained the possibility that these plays had a stage history. Evidence of a stage history for early modern Greek drama came to light in recent years indicating that there was more activity than anyone previously suspected. Evidence for theater performances in early modern Greece is now quite

Walter Puchner

2007-01-01

225

Binding interactions in early- and late-stage amyloid aggregates of TTR(105-115).  

PubMed

One of the central aims of amyloid research is to identify chemical and structural features that confer amyloidogenic propensity. In this study, we use Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy to acquire an atom-specific map of the interactions between soluble and aggregated Transthyretin peptide (TTR(105-115)) in early- and late-stage amyloidogenesis. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor the transition of early-stage samples, containing protofilaments, to late-stage samples composed of fully-mature fibrils. Progressive aggregation was accompanied by an increase in the correlation time tau(c) of soluble TTR(105-115) as indicated by (1)H NMR line broadening, but no significant change in the (1)H chemical shifts. The STD profile of backbone amide protons is in good agreement with an earlier computational study predicting hydrogen bonding propensity for each residue in small TTR(105-115) aggregates (Paci et al., J. Mol. Biol. (2004) 555-569). The STD profiles of C(alpha) and C(beta) protons identify a central aliphatic region of the peptide, Ala108-Leu111, that plays a crucial, but different role in early- and late-stage amyloidogenesis. In general, the STD profiles of early and fully-mature samples are dissimilar, suggesting different mechanisms of self-assembly in protofilaments and mature amyloid fibrils. The early-stage mechanism appears to be more dependent on main-chain hydrogen bonding, while the late-stage mechanism involves an increased number of interactions between bulky side chains. PMID:19501449

Liang, Yanfang; Jasbi, Shohreh Zahedi; Haftchenary, Sina; Morin, Sylvie; Wilson, Derek J

2009-05-22

226

Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Castellanos, A. E.; Martinez, M. J.; Llano, J. M.; Halvorson, W. L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

2005-01-01

227

Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.  

PubMed

Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 ?g/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 ?g/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 ?g/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection. PMID:23124699

Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

2012-11-05

228

Leaves of pioneer and later-successional trees have similar lifetime carbon gain in tropical secondary forest.  

PubMed

Different life history strategies among tropical rain forest species are generally related to inherent trade-offs in leaf and crown traits, with early-successional species having traits that facilitate high productivity but a relatively wasteful use of resources and shade-tolerant later-successional species exhibiting the opposite strategy. But the degree to which these trait differences contribute to short- and long-term carbon gain of different species that coexist in natural forest has not been quantitatively scaled. We applied a canopy model in combination with measurements of canopy structure, mass distribution, and leaf photosynthesis to determine whole-plant daily photosynthesis (P(pl)) of individuals of three short-lived pioneers (SLP), four later-successional species, and three lianas growing together in a 0.5-, 2-, and 3-yr-old secondary tropical forest stand. Whole-plant daily photosynthesis per unit leaf mass (P(lfm)) and aboveground mass (P(m)) were assumed to indicate daily returns on investment at the leaf and crown level. By integrating these calculations with measured leaf longevities, we determined the lifetime carbon gain per unit leaf mass. Vegetation height and leaf area index increased with stand age. Two of the SLPs, Trema and Ochroma, increasingly dominated the top of the vegetation. In the 0.5-yr-old stand, these species also had the highest P(m) and P(lfm) values. Whole-plant daily photosynthesis per unit leaf mass tended to decline with stand age but much more strongly so in the later-successional species than in the SLP. Leaf longevity was not significantly correlated with individual leaf traits (e.g., specific leaf area or leaf N content) but was strongly and negatively correlated with P(lfm) in the youngest stand. Later-successional species had considerably greater leaf longevities than SLP. Lifetime carbon gain per unit leaf mass, however, was relatively similar between the different species. Thus due to the strong negative correlation that exists between daily leaf productivity (P(lfm)) and longevity, short-lived pioneers and later-successional species achieve similar lifetime carbon gain per unit leaf mass in natural secondary forest. This could help explain why the slower-growing later-successional species are able to persist during the first years of succession. PMID:20462124

Selaya, N Galia; Anten, Niels P R

2010-04-01

229

Portfolio management in early stage drug discovery - a traveler's guide through uncharted territory.  

PubMed

Portfolio management in drug development has become a best practice in the pharmaceutical industry. By contrast, early on in the value chain - the discovery phase - portfolio management is still in its infancy. Nevertheless, owing to the attrition of R&D projects from phase to phase and the cost of capital involved, these early phases of drug discovery play a significant part for the overall cost of bringing new, innovative drugs to the market. This paper describes various approaches to manage a portfolio of projects in early-stage drug discovery and provides crucial factors that determine the success of such an approach. PMID:21600301

Betz, Ulrich A K

2011-05-11

230

Early diagnosis and stage classification of vocal cord abductor paralysis in patients with multiple system atrophy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Vocal cord abductor paralysis (VCAP) is a life threatening complication which may cause nocturnal sudden death in patients with multiple system atrophy. However, the early diagnosis of VCAP is often difficult to make on routine laryngoscopy performed during wakefulness, as stridor, which is the sole symptom of VCAP in the early stage, develops only during sleep. The aim was to investigate laryngeal dysfunction in patients with multiple system atrophy while awake and asleep. METHODS: Seven patients with multiple system atrophy with nocturnal stridor and five control patients were studied. Vocal cord movement was analysed by laryngoscopy while the patients were awake and also during sleep induced by intravenous diazepam. RESULTS: When awake, for the seven patients with multiple system atrophy normal movement of the vocal cords occurred in three, mild abduction restriction in three, and paradoxical movement in one. When asleep, however, all showed obvious paradoxical movement with high pitched inspiratory stridor. In controls, there were no differences in the vocal cord movement between wakefulness and sleep. From these findings, VCAP could be divided into four stages: stage 0 (normal) with normal vocal cord movement during both wakefulness and sleep, stage 1 (mild VCAP) with normal movement during wakefulness and paradoxical movement during sleep, stage 2 (moderately severe VCAP) with abduction restriction during wakefulness and paradoxical movement during sleep, and stage 3 (severe VCAP) with an almost midline position for the vocal cords during both wakefulness and sleep. CONCLUSIONS: Laryngoscopy during sleep can disclose subclinical VCAP, making an early diagnosis of VCAP in patients with multiple system atrophy. Stage 2 of VCAP seems to be a suitable stage for tracheostomy in patients with multiple system atrophy. Images

Isozaki, E; Naito, A; Horiguchi, S; Kawamura, R; Hayashida, T; Tanabe, H

1996-01-01

231

Impact of [ 18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Staging and Management of Early-Stage Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Accurate staging is critical to select patients with early-stage (I-II) follicular lymphoma (ESFL) suitable for involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) and to define the radiotherapy portal. We evaluated the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET on staging, treatment, and outcome for patients with ESFL on conventional staging. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with untreated ESFL (World Health Organization Grade I-IIIa, or 'low

Andrew Wirth; Marcus Foo; John F. Seymour; Michael P. MacManus; Rodney J. Hicks

2008-01-01

232

Photodynamic therapy of early stage cancer of lung, esophagus, and stomach with two different photosensitizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early-stage cancer of lung (17 patients), esophagus (8 patients) and stomach (10 patients). Fifteen patients had second primary tumors. New drugs photoheme and photosens were used as photosensitizers. Complete remission was obtained in 87%. The patients are followed up without relapses to 2.5 years.

Chissov, Valery I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Trakhtenberg, A. K.; Mamontov, A. S.; Vaschakmadze, L. A.; Frank, G. A.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Belous, T. A.; Gladunov, V. K.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Zharkova, Natalja N.; Menenkov, V. D.

1996-01-01

233

EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST METHODS FOR GULF TOADFISH, 'OPSANUS BETA', AND RESULTS USING CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) were continuously exposed as embryos, sac fry and juveniles to technical chlorpyrifos in two 49-day early life-stage toxicity tests. Survival was significantly (alpha = 0.05) reduced only in 150 micrograms/l). However, toadfish exposed to chlorpyrifos...

234

Value Roadmapping: A Structured Approach for Early Stage Technology Investment Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deciding to invest in early stage technologies is one of the most important tasks of technology management and arguably also the most uncertain. It assumes a particular significance in the rise of technology companies in emerging economies, which have to make appropriate investment decisions. Technology managers already have a wide range of methods and tools at their disposal, but these

M. C. Dissel; R. Phaal; C. J. Farrukh; D. R. Probert

2006-01-01

235

Evidence That Genetic Instability Occurs at an Early Stage of Colorectal Tumorigenesis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal instability is believed to be a common feature of most human tumors, but the stage at which such instability originates has not been defined. At the molecular level, chromosomal instability is charac- terized by allelic imbalance (AI), representing losses or gains of defined chromosomal regions. We have assessed AI in early colorectal tumors using newly developed methods for assessing

Ie-Ming Shih; Wei Zhou; Steven N. Goodman; Christoph Lengauer; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Bert Vogelstein

2001-01-01

236

Early-stage firms and delay-based inventory control using decision-making tableaux  

Microsoft Academic Search

A resource constrained early-stage firm commercialising assembled products faces supply chain (SC) problems that could ultimately cause the company to fail. Delays, complexity, and associated cost overruns throughout the SC can quickly drain cash flow, putting a new firm in a disadvantaged position. This is exacerbated by the increased use of outsourced global suppliers, demands of resellers, and pressure for

Tucker J. Marion; Rifat Sipahi

2010-01-01

237

Predation on Early Life Stages of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality of early life stages can limit recruitment of fishes, and understanding the impacts of various sources of mortality has long been a goal of fisheries management. The impacts of predation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify sources of predation that affect lake sturgeon eggs, larvae, and

David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

2010-01-01

238

Early stage expansion and time-resolved spectral emission of laser-induced plasma from polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the nanosecond laser ablation regime, absorption of laser energy by the plasma during its early stage expansion critically influences the properties of the plasma and thus its interaction with ambient air. These influences can significantly alter spectral emission of the plasma. For organic samples especially, recombination of the plasma with the ambient air leads to interfering emissions with respect

Myriam Boueri; Matthieu Baudelet; Jin Yu; Xianglei Mao; Samuel S. Mao; Richard Russo

2009-01-01

239

Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease

F. P. H. Gazeau; J.-P. Gattuso; C. Dawber; A. E. Pronker; F. Peene; J. Peene; C. H. R. Heip; J. J. Middelburg

2010-01-01

240

Minimally Invasive Approaches for Diagnosis and Treatment of Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breastcancermanagementhasbeenevolvingtowardmin- imally invasive approaches. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy techniques provide accurate histologic diagnosis without the need for surgical biopsy. Breast conservation therapy has become the treatment standard for early- stage breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a new procedure that can predict axillary lymph node status without the need of axillary lymph node dissection. The next challenge is to treat

ELENA M. VERKOOIJENb

241

Early childhood, the critical stage in human interactions with disease and culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the continuous interactions between evolving Homo sapiens and the multiple health-related factors that significantly have shaped the course of human evolution. Early childhood, particularly the precarious post-weaning stage, is seen to be the most critical period determining survival in disease confrontations. Selection for the fundamental biological defenses predated human emergence; however, human cultures add a significant dimension

Corinne Shear Wood

1983-01-01

242

Literacy in the Foundation Stage: Literacy and Play in Two Early Years Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers practitioners' beliefs and practice in relation to play in the literacy curriculum in two early years settings and the impact on the experiences of the children in these settings. Both settings were working with the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage (QCA/DfEE, 2000). One week was spent in each setting and…

Miller, Linda; Paige-Smith, Alice

2004-01-01

243

Strategies used in the early stages of learning to read: a comparison of children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research compared the reading strategies used by adults and children in the early stages of learning to read. There were 72 adults (48 men and 24 women) and 96 children (64 boys and 32 girls) in the study. The reading ages of all subjects ranged (in years and months) from 7.0 to 7.11. Additionally, the chronological ages of the

Norma Mudd

1987-01-01

244

Laparoscopic Assessment of the Sentinel Lymph Node in Early Stage Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to describe a minimally invasive technique enabling us to identify the sentinel lymph node in patients affected by early stage cervical cancer and to report the preliminary data.Method. Patent Blue Violet was injected around the tumor. Laparoscopy was undertaken and the blue-dyed lymph nodes (BDLN) were sought. The evidenced BDLN were removed, and

D. Dargent; X. Martin; P. Mathevet

2000-01-01

245

Social security arrangements and early-stage entrepreneurial activity; an empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study focuses on the relation between social security arrangements and the rate of early-stage entrepreneurial activity at the country level. Using a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, we explore how various measures of entrepreneurial activity are related to various measures of social security arrangements. On the one hand we look at aggregate indicators such

André van Stel; Peter Brouwer; Sander Wennekers; Jolanda Hessels

2006-01-01

246

Invasion by Ligustrum lucidum(Oleaceae) in NW Argentina: early stage characteristics in different habitat types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently biological invasions are considered one of the world's most serious conservation problems. Ligustrum lucidum is the most abundant exotic tree in secondary forest patches of montane forests of NW Argentina. We studied the determinants of success of the early stages of its life cycle in distinct habitat types, with the hope of identifying vulnerabilities that could be exploited to

Roxana Aragón; Martha Groom

2003-01-01

247

Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Our current knowledge of the neurobiology of romantic love remains scanty. In view of the complexity of a sentiment like love, it would not be surprising that a diversity of biochemical mechanisms could be involved in the mood changes of the initial stage of a romance. In the present study, we have examined whether the early romantic phase of

Enzo Emanuele; Pierluigi Politi; Marika Bianchi; Piercarlo Minoretti; Marco Bertona; Diego Geroldi

2006-01-01

248

A semikinetic model for early stage plasmasphere refilling 2. Effects of wave-particle interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors treat the early stages of plasmasphere refilling along an initially depleted L = 4 magnetic flux tube through a semikinetic model. The companion paper by Wilson et. al. describes the plasma evolution for a baseline refilling situation in which Coulomb collisions play a central role. Here they focus on the effects of wave-particle interactions in which stochastic diffusion

J. Lin; J. L. Horwitz; G. R. Wilson; C. W. Ho; D. G. Brown

1992-01-01

249

A semikinetic model for early stage plasmasphere refilling. II - Effects of wave-particle interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper treats the early stages of plasmasphere refilling along an initially depleted L = 4 magnetic flux tube through a semikinetic model, with special attention given to the effects of wave-particle interactions in which stochastic diffusion of ions in perpendicular velocity due to equatorially concentrated electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves plays a central role. Characteristic individual ion trajectories are examined,

J. Lin; J. L. Horwitz; G. R. Wilson; C. W. Ho; D. G. Brown

1992-01-01

250

Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

2013-01-01

251

Early Stages of Hydrothermal Alteration in Anomalous Primitive CCs NWA 5958 and Paris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite its 3.0 petrographic type, alteration features are observed in NWA 5958 by SEM observations. Magnetometry suggests the presence of Fe-phyllosilicates, as in the Paris CM. These two CCs allow us to study early stages of hydrothermal alteration.

Elmaleh, A.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R. H.; Göpel, C.; Fieni, C.; Pont, S.; Humayun, M.

2012-09-01

252

Communication in the Early Stage of Language Development in Children with CHARGE Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CHARGE syndrome is characterized by multiple physical abnormalities, and impaired vision and hearing. In this pilot study, communication in the early stage of language development in three one- to eight-year-old children with CHARGE syndrome was explored using video recorded free-play interaction sessions and a parental questionnaire. The children…

Peltokorpi, Sini; Huttunen, Kerttu

2008-01-01

253

The significance of lipids at early stages of marine fish: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work reviews the significance of lipids at different early stages of marine fish larvae. Lipids in broodstock nutrition are considered to be important for the quality of the larvae. Lipids affect the spawning and the egg quality of many fish species and a deficiency in (n?3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in broodstock negatively affects fecundity, fertilization rate

Jose R. Rainuzzo; Kjell I. Reitan; Yngvar Olsen

1997-01-01

254

Early life stages of fishes as indicators of estuarine ecosystem health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major goal of current environmental policies is to preserve or return areas to a good ecological status, which should be assessed at the ecosystem level, using several biological elements, together with physical, chemical and pollution elements. This study investigated the use of early life stages of fishes as indicators of estuarine ecosystem condition, testing the hypothesis that estuaries with

Sandra Ramos; Eva Amorim; Michael Elliott; Henrique Cabral; Adriano A. Bordalo

255

77 FR 25775 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...email. Within three business days, SBA will determine...A. Early Stage SBIC Model LPA. In order to expedite...Applicant must adopt SBA Model Valuation Guidelines...only when it has a clear business purpose: i. Example...capital to the SBIC. The Model LPA contains...

2012-05-01

256

Digital support for net-based teamwork in early design stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early stages of the product development process are the most important ones. Decisions made here affect the success of a new product. Due to the complexity of products, a multidisciplinary knowledge is required. In the globalised world the company's internal and external experts are spread all over the world. Time and cost pressure impedes teamwork with personal attendance. As

Christoph Ganser; Thomas Kennel; Andreas Kunz

2007-01-01

257

A Functional Account of Verb Use in the Early Stages of English Multiword Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigates flexibility of verb use in the early stages of English multiword development, and its relationship with patterns attested in the input. The data is taken from a case study of a monolingual English-speaking boy aged 2; 5-2; 9 and his mother while engaged in daily activities in the home. Data were coded according to…

Cameron-Faulkner, Thea

2012-01-01

258

News Notes: Two Proteins May Be Key to Screening for Early-Stage Liver Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified an improved method of screening high-risk patients for one of the most common types of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), particularly if the patient has a history of hepatitis. By changing the threshold of one commonly used screening test and adding a second, complementary test, researchers were able to accurately identify more early stage HCC cases.

259

Experimental early-stage coalification of a peat sample and a peatified wood sample from Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental coalification of a peat sample and a buried wood sample from domed peat deposits in Indonesia was carried out to examine chemical structural changes in organic matter during early-stage coalification. The experiment (125°C, 408 atm lithostatic pressure, and 177 atm fluid pressure for 75 days) was designed to maintain both lithostatic and fluid pressure on the sample, but allow

William H. Orem; Sandra G. Neuzil; Harry E. Lerch; C. Blaine Cecil

1996-01-01

260

Toxic effects of cadmium at early stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short term assay was conducted to investigate the cadmium toxicity at the early stages of development in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, using the trout microinjection technique. A total of four groups were reared and bred in the laboratory during experiments. One group was treated only with DMSO at a concentration of 5 ?l\\/sac?fry and microinjected into the yolk

N. Kotsanis

1997-01-01

261

Immunohistochemical study of tau accumulation in early stages of Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau results in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the neuronal cell soma and neuropil threads (NTs) in the cell processes. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate serially cut thick tissue sections from the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and non-demented elderly subjects. In the early stages of neurofibrillary pathology,

Takashi Togo; Haruhiko Akiyama; Eizo Iseki; Hirotake Uchikado; Hiromi Kondo; Kenji Ikeda; Kuniaki Tsuchiya; Rohan de Silva; Andrew Lees; Kenji Kosaka

2004-01-01

262

Experiences in early stage Alzheimer's disease: Understanding the paradox of acceptance and denial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wealth of information about the biomedical aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent dementia among people over age 65, stands in counterpoint to the lack of systematic inquiry around the lived experiences of people with AD. Thirteen (four women, nine men) people, recently diagnosed with early stage AD, participated in this 6-month longitudinal study. This paper reports on

Colleen R. Macquarrie

2005-01-01

263

Including persons with early stage Alzheimer's disease in support groups and strategy planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Metro Denver Chapter of the Alzheimer's Association (ADRDA) conducted a pilot program that included early stage Alzheimer's patients in a group setting with family members. The goal of the program was to provide a positive arena where Alzheimer's patients and family members could develop strategies for issues to be considered following the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Participants felt that

Mary E. McAfee; Patricia A. Ruh; Paul Bell; Diane Martichuski

1989-01-01

264

Neurochemical Diversity of Dystrophic Neurites in the Early and Late Stages of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the neurochemical and morphological diversity of abnormal neurites associated with ?-amyloid plaque formation in the early and late stages of Alzheimer's disease. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease was characterised by the presence of abnormal neurites containing either neurofilament or chromogranin A immunoreactivity. All clustered dystrophic neurites in these cases were associated with ?-amyloid plaques. Neurofilament immunoreactive dystrophic neurites in preclinical

Tracey C. Dickson; Carolyn E. King; Graeme H. McCormack; James C. Vickers

1999-01-01

265

77 FR 25042 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...qualified applicant that is not given a green light to apply for an Early Stage SBIC license should receive a green light to apply for a regular debenture...24 months of the date when the SBIC is computing its CIP, or if the financed small...

2012-04-27

266

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

267

Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a phase III clinical trial.

268

Prostatic Fatty Acids and Cancer Recurrence Following Radical Prostatectomy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: Results from some observational studies suggest that diet and energy balance influence the clinical course of early-stage prostate cancer. To evaluate possible mechanisms, we prospectively examined the relation between prostatic concentrations of fatty acids at diagnosis and cancer recurr...

269

Reducing Treatment Intensity Doesn't Compromise Results in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Reducing the dose of chemotherapy and radiotherapy did not compromise treatment efficacy in patients  with early-stage, low-risk Hodgkin lymphoma but led to fewer side effects, according to a study published August 12, 2010, in the New England Journal of Medicine.

270

Chemical and Bacteriological Changes in Grass Silage during the Early Stages of Fermentation I. Chemical Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The results showed that aeration of the forages influenced the bacterial flora and the chemical quality of the silages examined. The majority of the organisms isolated from the silages during the early stages of fermentation were cocci and Gram-negative rods. A few diphtheroids, aerobic bacilli, and pseudomonads were found, but occurred too infrequently to be of importance. Lactobacilli were

C. W. Langston; Cecelia Bouma; C. H. Gordon; W. C. Jacobson; C. G. Melin; L. A. Moore; J. E. McCalmont

1962-01-01

271

Creating Socionas: Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the ability to translate this understanding into products and services that are pleasurable and easy to use

C. E. Postma

2012-01-01

272

Cationic Gradient Reversal and Cytoskeleton-independent Volume Regulatory Pathways Define an Early Stage of Apoptosis*  

PubMed Central

Cell shrinkage, or apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), is a ubiquitous characteristic of programmed cell death that is independent of the death stimulus and occurs in all examples of apoptosis. Here we distinguished two specific stages of AVD based on cell size and a unique early reversal of intracellular ions that occurs in response to activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic cell death signal pathways. The primary stage of AVD is characterized by an early exchange of the normal intracellular ion distribution for sodium from 12 to 113.6 mm and potassium from 139.5 to 30 mm. This early ionic reversal is associated with a 20–40% decrease in cell volume, externalization of phosphatidylserine, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase activation and activity along with nuclear condensation that occurs independent of actin cytoskeleton disruption. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, however, prevents a secondary stage of AVD in apoptotic cells, characterized by a loss of both potassium and sodium that results in an 80–85% loss in cell volume, DNA degradation, and apoptotic body formation. Together these studies demonstrate that AVD occurs in two distinct stages with the earliest stage reflecting a cellular cationic gradient reversal.

Bortner, Carl D.; Sifre, Maria I.; Cidlowski, John A.

2009-01-01

273

Early-stage primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon  

PubMed Central

Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colorectum detected at an early stage is very rare; most cases are detected at an advanced stage. Therefore, its prognosis is poorer than that of ordinary colorectal cancer. A 56-year-old Korean man was seen at this hospital for management of signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon. Colonoscopic examination revealed a IIa-like, ill-defined and flatly elevated 9-mm residual tumor in the cecum. Endoscopic mucosal resection was preformed. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed signet ring cell carcinoma that had invaded the lamina propria without venous or perineural invasion. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and positron CT showed no evidence of primary lesions or distant metastasis. An additional laparoscopic right-hemicolectomy was performed; no residual tumor or lymph node metastasis was found. We report a case of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon detected at an early stage and provide a review of the literature.

Kim, Jae Hyun; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won; Kim, Sung Eun

2013-01-01

274

Altered Dynamic Postural Control during Step Turning in Persons with Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Persons with early-stage Parkinson's disease (EPD) do not typically experience marked functional deficits but may have difficulty with turning tasks. Studies evaluating turning have focused on individuals in advanced stages of the disease. The purpose of this study was to compare postural control strategies adopted during turning in persons with EPD to those used by healthy control (HC) subjects. Fifteen persons with EPD, diagnosed within 3 years, and 10 HC participated. Participants walked 4 meters and then turned 90°. Dynamic postural control was quantified as the distance between the center of pressure (COP) and the extrapolated center of mass (eCOM). Individuals with EPD demonstrated significantly shorter COP-eCOM distances compared to HC. These findings suggest that dynamic postural control during turning is altered even in the early stages of PD.

Song, Jooeun; Sigward, Susan; Fisher, Beth; Salem, George J.

2012-01-01

275

Effects of copper on early developmental stages of Lessonia nigrescens Bory (Phaeophyceae).  

PubMed

Copper effects on the early developmental gametophytic and sporophytic stages of the kelp Lessonia nigrescens were tested in gradients of increasing concentrations of ASV-labile copper. The results demonstrated a high sensitivity to copper of all life-history stages of the alga, where even the lowest tested concentration affected spore release as well as their subsequent settlement. More significant, concentrations higher than 7.87 microg L(-1) totally interrupted the development of the spores after they settle. This effect led to a failure in the formation of male and female gametophytes and, as a consequence, to a complete disruption of the normal life cycle of the kelp. Thus, we suggest that the absence of L. nigrescens from copper-enriched environments results from the high sensitivity of its early life cycle stages, which limits growth and maturation of the gametophytic microscopic phase and, as a consequence, prevents development of the macroscopic sporophytic phase. PMID:16720066

Contreras, Loretto; Medina, Matías H; Andrade, Santiago; Oppliger, Valeria; Correa, Juan A

2006-05-23

276

The treatment and outcomes of early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer: have we made any progress?  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to determine the progress and trends in the treatment and survival of women with early-stage (I–II) epithelial ovarian cancer. Data were obtained from the SEER database between 1988 and 2001. Kaplan–Meier and Cox regressions methods were employed for statistical analyses. Of the 8372 patients, the median age was 57 years (range: 12–99 years). A total of 6152 patients (73.4%) presented with stage I and 2220 (26.5%) with stage II disease. Over the periods 1988–1992, 1993–1997, and 1998–2001, 3-year disease-specific survivals increased from 86.1 to 87.2 to 88.8% (P=0.076). The number of patients that underwent lymphadenectomy has increased significantly from 26.2 to 38.7 to 54.2% over the study period (P<0.001). Of those patients who underwent staging procedures with lymphadenectomy, there was no improvement in survival over the three study periods (from 93.2 to 93.5 to 93.1%; P=0.978). On multivariate analysis, younger age, nonclear cell histology, earlier stage, lower grade, surgery, and lymphadenectomy were significant independent prognostic factors for improved survival. After adjusting for surgical staging with lymphadenectomy, the year of diagnosis was no longer an important prognostic factor. In conclusion, the use of lymphadenectomy during surgery for early-stage ovarian cancer has doubled over the last 14 years. The marginal improvement in survival demonstrated over time is potentially attributed to the increased use of staging procedures with lymphadenectomy.

Chan, J K; Fuh, K; Shin, J Y; Cheung, M K; Powell, C B; Chen, L-m; Kapp, D S; Osann, K

2008-01-01

277

Optimization of a novel enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins.  

PubMed

An enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins has been previously reported by the Leather and Shoe Research Association of New Zealand (LASRA) as an alternative to current industry operations. The newly developed process had marked benefits over conventional processing in terms of a lowered energy usage (73%), processing time (47%) as well as water use (49%), but had been developed as a "proof of principle''. The objective of this work was to develop the process further to a stage ready for adoption by industry. Mass balancing was used to investigate potential modifications for the process based on the understanding developed from a detailed analysis of preliminary design trials. Results showed that a configuration utilising a 2 stage counter-current system for the washing stages and segregation and recycling of enzyme float prior to dilution in the neutralization stage was a significant improvement. Benefits over conventional processing include a reduction of residual TDS by 50% at the washing stages and 70% savings on water use overall. Benefits over the un-optimized LASRA process are reduction of solids in product after enzyme treatment and neutralization stages by 30%, additional water savings of 21%, as well as 10% savings of enzyme usage. PMID:20861557

Lim, Y F; Bronlund, J E; Allsop, T F; Shilton, A N; Edmonds, R L

2010-01-01

278

Quantitative Changes in the Mitochondrial Proteome from Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment, Early Stage and Late Stage Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

The major barrier to treating or preventing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is its unknown etiology/pathogenesis. Although increasing evidence supports a role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD, there have been few studies that simultaneously evaluate changes in multiple mitochondrial proteins. To evaluate changes in suites of potentially interacting mitochondrial proteins, we applied 2-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and the isotope coded affinity tag (ICAT) method to identify and quantify proteins in mitochondrial enriched fractions isolated from short postmortem interval temporal pole specimens from subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, 4 subjects pooled), early Alzheimer’s disease (EAD, 4 subjects pooled), late-stage AD (LAD, 8 subjects pooled) and age-matched normal control (NC, 7 subjects pooled) subjects. A total of 112 unique, non-redundant proteins were identified and quantified in common to all three stages of disease progression. Overall, patterns of protein change suggest activation of mitochondrial pathways that include proteins responsible for transport and utilization of ATP. These proteins include adenine nucleotide translocase (ADT1), voltage dependent anion channels (VDACs), hexokinase (HXK1) and creatine kinase (KCRU). Comparison of protein changes throughout the progression of AD suggests the most pronounced changes occur in EAD mitochondria.

Lynn, Bert C.; Wang, Jianquan; Markesbery, William R.; Lovell, Mark A.

2010-01-01

279

Reproductive Meristem22 is a unique marker for the early stages of stamen development.  

PubMed

Stamens undergo a very elaborate development program that gives rise not only to many specific tissue types, but also to the male gametes. The specification of stamen identity is coordinated by a group of homeotic genes such as APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI), AGAMOUS (AG) and SEPALLATA (SEP1-4) genes. Genome-wide transcriptomic comparisons between floral buds of wild-type and ap3 mutants led to the identification of the REM22 gene, which is expressed in the early stages of stamen development. This gene is member of the plant-specific B3 DNA-binding superfamily. In this work, we dissect the spatio-temporal expression pattern of REM22 during the early stages of stamen development. To this end, both in situ hybridization analyses as well as in vivo fluorescence strategies were employed. At stage 4 of flower development, REM22 is expressed exclusively in those undifferentiated cells of the floral meristem that will give rise to the stamen primordia. At stage 5, REM22 expression is restricted to the epidermal and the subepidermal layers of anther primordia. Later, this expression is confined to the middle layer and the differentiating tapetal cells. After stage 10 when all the tissues of the anther have differentiated, REM22 expression is no longer detectable. Furthermore, we examined the pREM22::GUS-GFP marker line in an inducible system where the ectopic AG function is used to promote microsporogenesis. The data support the idea that REM22 expression is a useful marker to study the early stages of stamen development. PMID:21948714

Romanel, Elisson; Das, Pradeep; Amasino, Richard M; Traas, Jan; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

2011-01-01

280

The Utility of Stroop Task Switching as a Marker for Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Past studies have suggested attentional control tasks such as the Stroop task and the task switching paradigm may be sensitive to the early detection of Dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). The current study combined these tasks to create a Stroop switching task. Performance was compared across young adults, older adults, and individuals diagnosed with “Very Mild” dementia. Results indicated that this task strongly discriminated healthy aging from early stage DAT. In a logistic regression analysis, incongruent error rates from the Stroop Switch discriminated healthy aging from DAT better than any of the other 18 cognitive tasks given in a psychometric battery.

Hutchison, Keith A.; Balota, David A.; Duchek, Janet M.

2009-01-01

281

[Characteristics of endocrine disorders in the early stages of the development of chronic experimental pancreatitis].  

PubMed

The experiments on normal mongrel dogs and those with chronic experimental pancreatitis were performed to reveal the early changes of the endocrine pancreas function. The concentration of immunoreactive insulin and glucagon were studied in afferent vessels of the organ after intraarterial glucose-loading during pancreatic perfusion in situ. The data obtained have shown that in chronic pancreatitis the maximum secretion of insulin is decreased and delayed, as compared to normal animals. At the same time insulin-glucagon secretion ratio remains unchanged. That was indicative of the normal alpha-cell function at the early stages of the disease. PMID:3315035

Vladimiro, V G; Podotykina, O I; Zhuravlev, A G; Sukhanov, L D

1987-10-01

282

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil developmental stages on herbaceous plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mount Fuji  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot culture experiment was conducted to examine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and soil developmental stages on the growth and nutrient absorption of pioneer plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mt. Fuji. Four herbaceous plants, Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae), Miscanthus oligostachyus (Gramineae), Aster ageratoides var. ovatus (Compositae), and Hedysarum vicioides (Leguminosae), were grown from

Masaaki Fujiyoshi; Atsushi Kagawa; Takayuki Nakatsubo; Takehiro Masuzawa

2006-01-01

283

Hereditary polycystic kidney disease (adult form): A microdissection study of two cases at an early stage of the disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary polycystic kidney disease (adult form): A microdissection study of two cases at an early stage of the disease. Kidney fragments from two cases of hereditary polycystic kidney disease (adult form) at an early stage were examined by microdissection. Localized cystic dilatations were found in proximal and distal tubules, loops of Henle, and collecting tubules. Entirely normal nephrons and collecting

Luc Baert

1978-01-01

284

A system for dispensing sub-milligram doses of active pharmaceutical powders for early stage solubility assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

At early stages of drug development, the solubility of compounds is an important screening criterion. However, because scientists lack the automated tools needed to perform comprehensive early stage solubility studies, they are only able to perform a small number of experiments by hand, thus exploring only a fraction of the potential formulation design space. To allow a larger formulation design

Nathan R. Kane; Brad Broce; Javier Gonzalez-Zugasti; Wendy Pryce Lewis; Martin LeQuesne; Anthony V. Lemmo

2004-01-01

285

The Second 'Equity Gap': Exit Problems for Seed and Early Stage Venture Capitalists and Their Investee Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

DR. GORDON MURRAY IS WITH THE WARWICK Business School, University of Warwick, England. The availability of venture capital funds for early stage investment (such as seed capital and start-up equity finance) remains limited in the United Kingdom. This paper investigates one element of the relationship between early stage venture capital investors and their larger, development capital counterparts. It is hypothesised

Gordon Murray

1994-01-01

286

Consumer research in the early stages of new product development : issues and applications in the food domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

New products that deliver added consumer value contribute significantly to the success of companies. In the numerous studies of new product performance over the years, consensus has developed that understanding consumer needs is of paramount strategic value, especially in the early stages of the product development process. During these early stages, the product has not yet been specified and the

Ellen van Kleef

2006-01-01

287

Development of in vitro culture method for early stage zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles for use in cryopreservation studies.  

PubMed

There have been no reported methods for in vitro growth of early stage ovarian follicles for fish and their cryopreservation is still under investigation. If cryopreservation of early stage ovarian follicles can be achieved, in vitro procedures for ovarian follicle culture, development, ovulation and fertilisation after cryopreservation would be needed. The aim of the present study was to develop an in vitro culture method for early stage zebrafish ovarian follicles for use after their cryopreservation. Procedures for in vitro culture of stage I (primary growth) and stage II (cortical alveolus) ovarian follicles were developed. The effects of concentration of L-15 medium, pH and the concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and activin A were studied. The results demonstrated that early stage zebrafish ovarian follicles can be cultured in vitro for 24 h, stage I and II ovarian follicles can grow to the sizes of early stage II and stage III ovarian follicles after hCG treatment. The method developed here is effective for assessing early stage zebrafish ovarian follicles growth competence in vitro. The results from the present study indicated that in vitro culture is the most reliable method for assessing ovarian follicle viability when compared with vital dye staining methods. PMID:20452004

Tsai, S; Rawson, D M; Zhang, T

2010-05-08

288

What has happened to VBM (vinblastine, bleomycin, and methotrexate) chemotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma?  

PubMed

The VBM (vinblastine, bleomycin, methotrexate) chemotherapy combined with involved-field radiotherapy in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma has not become popular in spite of its excellent results. Nine small trials with this combined therapy were carried out and described in eleven reports. VBM+ radiotherapy offered complete remission rates of 94-100%, with 5-year progression-free survival of 75-95% (elderly patients included). Considerable pulmonary toxicity was recorded in the first trials, but was fully controlled in the later studies through slight modifications of the schedule. The pulmonary toxicity was found related to mediastinal radiotherapy, bleomycin dose and administration of chemotherapy after radiotherapy; it is mitigated by low doses of prednisone. The very good results, the abated side effects on the lungs, the low extrapulmonary toxicity, and the anthracycline-free formulation make this combination therapy worth considering for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, particularly in the case of mediastinal involvement or in elderly patients. PMID:21592816

Gobbi, Paolo G; Federico, Massimo

2011-05-17

289

Smart bandages--a colourful approach to early stage infection detection & control in wound care.  

PubMed

With the recent increase in bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics, the early-stage detection and control of infection has become imperative in the fight against opportunistic pathogens in healthcare. The traditional ?-lactam wonder-drugs (e.g. penicillin and cephalosporins), are rendered inactive due to enzymatic hydrolysis by bacterial ?-lactamase enzymes as a bacterial defence mechanism. However, this deactivation mechanism produces different responses in the two aforementioned drugs - with the cephalosporins showing a molecular rearrangement mechanism which could be utilised for prodrug delivery. This unique mechanism could mean that inactive forms of cephalosporin antibiotics, once used as chemotherapeutics in oncology, could once again be used in the fight against disease as sensors to detect and treat bacterial colonisation. Therefore, we hypothesize that cephalosporin-dye bandages might provide an effective method to visually detect, and subsequently control, the early stages of an infection using photoantimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). PMID:23245203

Brocklesby, Kayleigh L; Johns, Stephen C; Jones, Allison E; Sharp, Duncan; Smith, Robert B

2012-12-12

290

Awareness of memory functioning, autobiographical memory and identity in early-stage dementia.  

PubMed

Sense of identity is thought to be closely related to autobiographical memory. Theoretical models of awareness suggest that both may also be related to level of awareness of memory functioning among people with early-stage dementia. This study explores the relationships between autobiographical memory, identity and awareness in early-stage dementia. Thirty participants with Alzheimer's disease, or vascular or mixed dementia were assessed using the Autobiographical Memory Interview, with an additional section eliciting recall for the mid-life period, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and the Memory Awareness Rating Scale. Lower levels of awareness of memory functioning were associated with poorer autobiographical recall for the mid-life period and with a more positive and definite sense of identity. Reduced awareness may serve a protective function against the threats to self posed by the onset and progression of dementia. PMID:18924000

Naylor, Emma; Clare, Linda

291

Gene expression analysis of early and late maturation stage rat enamel organ  

PubMed Central

Enamel maturation is a dynamic process that involves high rates of mineral acquisition, associated fluctuations in extracellular pH and resorption of extracellular enamel proteins. During maturation, ameloblasts change from a tall, thin and highly polarized organization characteristic of the secretory stage, to a low columnar and widened morphology in the maturation stage. To identify potential differences in gene expression throughout maturation, we obtained enamel organ epithelial cells derived from the early and late maturation stages from rat incisor and analyzed global gene expression profiles at each stage. Sixty three candidate genes were identified with potential roles in the maturation process. qPCR was used to confirm results from this genome-wide analysis in a subset of genes. Enriched transcripts in late maturation (n= 38) included those associated with lysosomal activity, solute carrier transport and calcium signaling. Cellular responses to oxidative stress, proton transport, cell death and immune system-related transcripts were also up-regulated. Transcripts down-regulated in the late maturation stage (n= 25) included those with functions related to cell adhesion, cell signaling, and T-cell activation. These results indicate that ameloblasts undergo widespread molecular changes during the maturation stage of amelogenesis and so provide the bases for future functional investigations into the mechanistic basis of enamel mineralization.

LACRUZ, RODRIGO S.; SMITH, CHARLES E.; CHEN, YI-BU; HUBBARD, MICHAEL J.; HACIA, JOSEPH G.; PAINE, MICHAEL L.

2011-01-01

292

Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6). There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences

Michael P Flavin; Suzanne M Dostaler; Kelly Simpson; Robert J Brison; William Pickett

2006-01-01

293

Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years

Julia S. Wong; Alphonse G. Taghian; Jennifer R. Bellon; Aparna Keshaviah; Barbara L. Smith; Eric P. Winer; Barbara Silver; Jay R. Harris

2008-01-01

294

Background and Rationale for Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has undergone substantial transformation over the last several decades,\\u000a from being the sole treatment modality using large treatment fields to adjuvant local therapy directed to limited site(s)\\u000a after systemic therapy. Radiation doses and field sizes have decreased, leading to dramatic reductions in risks of long-term\\u000a complications from radiotherapy compared with the treatments of the

Lena Specht; Andrea K. Ng

295

Early stage of Al3Zr precipitation in a rapidly solidified Al-Cr-Zr alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early stages of A13Zr precipitation have been studied in detail in the ternary Al-2.4 at.% Cr-1.1 at.% Zr alloy. A supersaturated solid solution of Zr in the asrapidly solidified state decomposes during subsequent heat treatment at 400°C. This decomposition leads to a homogeneous precipitation of very small Al3Zr (LI2) particles in the grain interior, but this homogeneous precipitation is not

H. Octor; S. Naka

1989-01-01

296

Immunohistochemical approach to the pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in its early stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunohistochemical and histochemical study was carried out on the brains of nine cases of BSE-diagnosed cattle as part of the surveillance plan in Catalonia, Spain. The animals had no clinical symptoms reported and were thus at early stages of the disease.The first part of the study consisted of a characterization of PrPBSE deposits throughout the encephalon. The behaviour of

E. Vidal; M. Márquez; R. Tortosa; C. Costa; A. Serafín; M. Pumarola

2006-01-01

297

Environmental aspects of VOCs evolved in the early stages of human decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the time profile, measured as “accumulation”, of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during the early stages of human decomposition was investigated. A human cadaver was placed in a sealed bag at approximately the 4th day after death. Evolved VOCs were monitored for 24 h by sampling at different time intervals. VOCs produced were analyzed by thermal desorption\\/gas chromatography\\/mass

M. Statheropoulos; A. Agapiou; C. Spiliopoulou; G. C. Pallis; E. Sianos

2007-01-01

298

Binding interactions in early- and late-stage amyloid aggregates of TTR (105–115)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central aims of amyloid research is to identify chemical and structural features that confer amyloidogenic propensity. In this study, we use Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy to acquire an atom-specific map of the interactions between soluble and aggregated Transthyretin peptide (TTR105–115) in early- and late-stage amyloidogenesis. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor the transition

Yanfang Liang; Shohreh Zahedi Jasbi; Sina Haftchenary; Sylvie Morin; Derek J. Wilson

2009-01-01

299

Urinary Prostaglandin D Synthase (?-Trace) Excretion Increases in the Early Stage of Diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Circulating levels of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS)\\/?-trace reportedly increase in renal failure as well as in cardiovascular injuries. We investigated the alterations of L-PGDS in urine and plasma in the early stage of type-2 diabetic patients. Method: Thirty-six type-2 diabetic patients and 29 normal subjects were studied. Overnight spot urine and plasma samples were obtained in the morning.

Nobuhito Hirawa; Yoshio Uehara; Toshio Ikeda; Tomoko Gomi; Kumiko Hamano; Yasuo Totsuka; Minoru Yamakado; Masao Takagi; Naomi Eguchi; Hiroshi Oda; Kousuke Seiki; Hiroshi Nakajima; Yoshihiro Urade

2001-01-01

300

Mitochondrial dysfunction at the early stage of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to clarify the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure at the early stage.\\u000a Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intravenous administration of 10 mg\\/kg cisplatin. 0.9% saline was infused into them\\u000a at a rate of 2 ml\\/h for 3 h, starting with a 2-ml bolus injection before cisplatin administration. 3 h following cisplatin\\u000a administration, no

Xie Li-ping; C. Skrezek; H. Wand; F. Reibe

2000-01-01

301

Emotional enhancement of perceptual priming is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptual priming for emotionally-negative and neutral scenes was tested in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy younger, middle-aged and older adults. In the study phase, participants rated the scenes for their arousal properties. In the test phase, studied and novel scenes were initially presented subliminally, and the exposure duration was gradually increased until a valence categorization was made. The

Kevin S. LaBar; Dana C. Torpey; Craig A. Cook; Stephanie R. Johnson; Lauren H. Warren; James R. Burke; Kathleen A. Welsh-Bohmer

2005-01-01

302

Early Reliability Prediction: An Approach to Software Reliability Assessment in Open Software Adoption Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional software reliability models are not adequate to assess the reliability of software system in which OSS (Open Source Software) adopted as a new feature add-on because OSS can be modified while the inside of COTS(Commercial Off-The-Shelf) products cannot be changed. This paper presents an approach to software reliability assessment of OSS adopted software system in the early stage. We

Wangbong Lee; Boo-Geum Jung; Jongmoon Baik

2008-01-01

303

Imaging capability of an early stage breast tumor by CP-MCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capability of diagnostic imaging of an early stage breast tumor using microwaves has been investigated by means of FDTD-based numerical simulations. More than ten years ago, we developed chirp pulse microwave computed tomography (CP-MCT) for microwave imaging of a human body. In this study, we'll show that CP-MCT provides useful information on the tumor region in the breast. To specify

M. Miyakawa; T. Ishida; M. Watanabe

2004-01-01

304

Intra and interspecific competition among invasive and native species during early stages of plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant competition is a primary ecological process limiting grassland restoration success. Appropriate restoration techniques\\u000a require an understanding of the degree to which intra and interspecific competition control invasive and native plant growth.\\u000a The objective of this study was to determine how the intensity of intra and interspecific competition changes during early\\u000a stages of plant growth. Two invasive (Bromus\\u000a tectorum and

Seema ManglaRoger; Roger L. Sheley; Jeremy J. James; Steven R. Radosevich

2011-01-01

305

Surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer in elderly: an international comparison.  

PubMed

Over 40% of breast cancer patients are diagnosed above the age of 65. Treatment of these elderly patients will probably vary over countries. The aim of this study was to make an international comparison (several European countries and the US) of surgical and radiation treatment for elderly women with early stage breast cancer. Survival comparisons were also made. Data were obtained from national or regional population-based registries in the Netherlands, Switzerland, Ireland, Belgium, Germany, and Portugal. For the US patients were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Early stage breast cancer patients aged ? 65 diagnosed between 1995 and 2005 were included. An international comparison was made for breast and axillary surgery, radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS), and relative or cause-specific survival. Overall, 204.885 patients were included. The proportion of patients not receiving any surgery increased with age in many countries; however, differences between countries were large. In most countries more than half of all elderly patients received breast conserving surgery (BCS), with the highest percentage in Switzerland. The proportion of elderly patients that received radiotherapy after BCS decreased with age in all countries. Moreover, in all countries the proportion of patients who do not receive axillary surgery increased with age. No large differences in survival between countries were recorded. International comparisons of surgical treatment for elderly women with early stage breast cancer are scarce. This study showed large international differences in treatment of elderly early stage breast cancer patients, with the most striking result the large proportion of elderly who did not undergo surgery at all. Despite large treatment differences, survival does not seem to be affected in a major way. PMID:22119939

Kiderlen, M; Bastiaannet, E; Walsh, P M; Keating, N L; Schrodi, S; Engel, J; van de Water, W; Ess, S M; van Eycken, L; Miranda, A; de Munck, L; van de Velde, C J H; de Craen, A J M; Liefers, G J

2011-11-27

306

Early stages of solidification\\/stabilization of storm water runoff solid residuals in cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents a study of a cement-based solidification\\/stabilization process of storm water runoff solid residuals by non-conventional differential thermal analysis (NCDTA). The study was used to investigate the early hydration stages of a type I Portland cement containing the raw residual, two fractions of the residuals (coarse and fine), and two additives (quicklime and sodium bentonite). During these

Caroline A. Pinto; J. Dweck; J. J. Sansalone; F. K. Cartledge; M. E. Tittlebaum; P. M. Büchler

2005-01-01

307

Early stages of bubble formation in helium-implanted (100) silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early stages of bubble formation in Czochralski grown, (100)-oriented silicon are investigated by implanting 2 × 1016 He+ cm-2 at 20 keV and treating the samples in the temperature range 100-450 °C. Elastic recoil detection is used to measure the helium content and depth distribution, while the gas release is studied by thermal desorption spectrometry. To evidence the radiation damage

B. Pivac; O. Milat; P. Dubek; S. Bernstorff; F. Corni; C. Nobili; R. Tonini

2003-01-01

308

REM sleep without atonia at early stage of sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate whether REM sleep without atonia (RWA) is detected even at early stage of sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), all-night polysomnography with video monitoring was performed on 5 patients presenting with no nocturnal behavioral complaints. RWA associated with sleep talk and\\/or minor movements in the head, neck, face and extremities was documented in all cases. Preserved proper NREM\\/REM

Naoko Tachibana; Kaku Kimura; Kazuhito Kitajima; Takashi Nagamine; Jun Kimura; Hiroshi Shibasaki

1995-01-01

309

Pregnancies after radical vaginal trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of fertility-preserving surgery in the treatment of early-stage cervical cancer. Study Design: We retrospectively reviewed our first 30 patients treated by laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy, followed by radical vaginal trachelectomy, from October 1991 to April 1998. Results: The median age of the patients was 32 years (range 22-42 years); 15

Michel Roy; Marie Plante

1998-01-01

310

UVB effects on early developmental stages of commercially important macroalgae in southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) could represent a danger to seaweeds by affecting their physiological processes\\u000a and development. The aim of this work was to study the effects of UVB radiation on early developmental stages of commercially\\u000a and ecologically important marine algal species in southern Chile, considering spores survival and embryos growth. Spores\\u000a of Mazzaella laminarioides, Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia

N. P. Navarro; A. Mansilla; M. Palacios

2008-01-01

311

UVB effects on early developmental stages of commercially important macroalgae in southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) could represent a danger to seaweeds by affecting their physiological processes\\u000a and development. The aim of this work was to study the effects of UVB radiation on early developmental stages of commercially\\u000a and ecologically important marine algal species in southern Chile, considering spores survival and embryos growth. Spores\\u000a of Mazzaella laminarioides, Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia

N. P. Navarro; A. Mansilla; M. Palacios

312

Full-Chip Thermal Analysis for the Early Design Stage via Generalized Integral Transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of predicting the temperature profile is critically important for timing estimation, leakage reduction, power estimation, hotspot avoidance and reliability concerns during modern IC design. This paper presents an accurate and fast analytical full-chip thermal simulator for early-stage temperature-aware chip design. By using the generalized integral transforms (GIT), an accurate formulation is derived to estimate the temperature distribution of

Pei-Yu Huang; Yu-Min Lee

2009-01-01

313

Toward equilibration in the early stages after a high energy heavy ion collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stages in the evolution of the gluons produced in the central region of a head-on high-energy heavy ion collision are studied. An equation is given for the rate of change of transverse momentum into longitudinal momentum where the longitudinal direction is along the collision axis. We are able to follow the system up to the time where equilibration seems to be setting in, but we are unable to actually follow the system as it reaches equilibrium.

Mueller, A. H.

2000-04-01

314

Diagnosis of second breast cancer events after initial diagnosis of early stage breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether there are any characteristics of women or their initial tumors that might be useful for tailoring surveillance\\u000a recommendations to optimize outcomes. We followed 17,286 women for up to 5 years after an initial diagnosis of ductal carcinoma\\u000a in situ (DCIS) or early stage (I\\/II) invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 1996 and 2006. We calculated rates per 1,000\\u000a women

Diana S. M. Buist; Linn A. Abraham; William E. Barlow; Arun Krishnaraj; Regan C. Holdridge; Edward A. Sickles; Patricia A. Carney; Karla Kerlikowske; Berta M. Geller

2010-01-01

315

Morphology and proliferation kinetics of early tumor stages induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rat kidneys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A total of 49 dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)induced rat renal cell tumors were analyzed and classified cytomorphologically at an\\u000a early stage of development. Of these, 17 were basophilictubular tumors, two of which showed a direct transition to proximal\\u000a tubules of the P3segment; 21 lesions were vacuolated and contained glycogen; these were defined cytomorphologically as a separate tumor type\\u000a the histogenetic derivation of

Christof Brummer; Hartmut M. Rabes

1992-01-01

316

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a new treatment modality for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer, and has been developed in the United States, the European Union, and Japan. We started a feasibility study of this therapy in July 1998, using a stereotactic body frame. The eligibility criteria for primary lung cancer were: 1) solitary tumor less than 4 cm (T1-3N0M); 2)

M. Hiraoka; Y. Matsuo; Y. Nagata

2007-01-01

317

Lymphocyte Subtypes in Experimentally Induced Early-stage Bovine Tuberculous Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identity of the lymphocyte subtypes constituting the lymphocytic mantle within developing early-stage lesions of bovine tuberculosis was investigated immunohistochemically in calves inoculated intranasally with 2×107colony-forming units of a field isolate of Mycobacterium bovis. Pulmonary lesions were examined 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, and bronchial lymph node lesions at 35 days. The immunolabelling results reported were

J. P. Cassidy; D. G. Bryson; M. M. Gutiérrez Cancela; F. Forster; J. M. Pollock; S. D. Neill

2001-01-01

318

Comparison of Favorable Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatments: A Single-Institution Review  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained. Results: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL (49% men, 51% women, median age 33 [range 17-82] years). Treatment was as follows: extended-field radiotherapy alone (EFRT) 49%; chemotherapy alone (CTA) 13%; and CMT 38%. Among CMT patients, 36% received abbreviated doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy (three to four cycles) followed by involved-field radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 8.3 years, the estimated 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for the entire cohort were 78% and 85%, respectively. The 10-year RFS and OS rates for the various groups were as follows: 69% and 81% for EFRT; 78% and 84% for CTA; and 87% and 89% for CMT. The 10-year RFS rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) among CMT patients. The use of EFRT has diminished from approximately 90% in the 1980s to virtually no use at present, whereas the use of CTA and CMT has increased significantly (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Early-stage HL treatment has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, and our results support the superiority and continued use of CMT, specifically abbreviated-course chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy, as an appropriate treatment approach.

Samant, Rajiv, E-mail: rsamant@ottawahospital.on.c [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Alomary, Ibraheem [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Alsaeed, Eyad [King Faisal Specialty Hospital, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-jasir, Badr [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cross, Peter; Genest, Paul [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Huebsch, Lothar [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

2010-03-15

319

Special considerations in early-stage breast cancer patients and survivors.  

PubMed

Long-term outcomes for early-stage breast cancer have continued to improve, and more patients are becoming long-term survivors. In addition to patients' concern about risk of developing recurrent disease, they are also concerned about potential toxicities of treatment. Current guidelines for long-term follow-up are reviewed. Potential toxicities of tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors are reviewed. Management of menopausal symptoms, cancer-related fatigue, and cognitive function is discussed. PMID:24021258

Zelnak, Amelia B

2013-07-16

320

Gray matter decrease distribution in the early stages of Anorexia Nervosa restrictive type in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have used Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) to examine brain structure in Anorexia Nervosa patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a sample of Anorexia Nervosa restrictive type (AN-r) adolescent patients in the early stages of the illness, using VBM in order to characterize morphometric gray matter (GM) changes. Participants were 16 AN-r female patients (with no

Santino Gaudio; Federico Nocchi; Tiziana Franchin; Elisabetta Genovese; Vittorio Cannatà; Daniela Longo; Giuseppe Fariello

2011-01-01

321

A Pilot Study of Circulating miRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Early Stage Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo date, there are no highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive biomarkers for detection of breast cancer at an early stage. The occurrence of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in blood components (including serum and plasma) has been repeatedly observed in cancer patients as well as healthy controls. Because of the significance of miRNA in carcinogenesis, circulating miRNAs in blood may be

Hua Zhao; Jie Shen; Leonard Medico; Dan Wang; Christine B. Ambrosone; Song Liu

2010-01-01

322

First-Year Recruitment of Largemouth Bass: The Interdependency of Early Life Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four early life events (i.e., hatching, the ontogenetic diet shift to piscivory, fall lipid accumulation, and the first winter) are conceptualized as being critical to 1st-yr recruitment success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) via cause-and-effect as- sociations among them. Toward this end, we conducted a multiple life-stage investigation of largemouth bass to examine the functional dependency and significance to recruitment

Stuart A. Ludsin; Dennis R. DeVries

1997-01-01

323

Project Management Process in Early Stage E-Businesses: Strategies for Leading and Managing Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-business start-ups continue to grow despite market turmoil and consolidation. E-commerce is projected to grow to $1.3 trillion by 2003 (Forester Research, 2000). Innovative business models, significant cost-savings, immediate global access, and speed of transactions continue to attract venture capital and entrants across industries. This paper presents preliminary results that (1) identify project management process problems and opportunities early stage

Joseph W. Weiss

2001-01-01

324

Detecting physiological and pesticide-induced apoptosis in early developmental stages of invasive bivalves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, embryos and early larval stages of two invasive bivalves, the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), were assayed for physiological apoptosis and stress-induced apoptosis post-exposure to a molluscicide, Bayluscide®. Physiological apoptosis was measured at 4-h intervals and Bayluscide® exposures were 4 h and 24 h beginning at both 30 min post-fertilization and at 24 h post-fertilization. Apoptosis was

Karen Perry; John Lynn

2009-01-01

325

Comparative toxicity of two oil dispersants to the early life stages of two marine species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute, flow-through, spiked-exposure toxicity tests were performed on the early life stages of two marine species using two oil dispersants. The species represent two common near-shore marine taxa: molluscs (red abalone, Haliotis rufescens) and crustaceans (kelp forest mysid, Holmesimysis costata). The dispersants were composed of complex mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants and solvents. The toxicity data showed that one

Michael M. Singer; Saji George; Diana Benner; Susan Jacobson; Ronald S. Tjeerdema; Michael L. Sowby

1993-01-01

326

The early stages of oxidation of ion-implanted nickel at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early stages of oxidation of nickel implanted with nickel, chromium, or lithium ions in oxygen at 1100°C have been studied using various electron-optical techniques. The unimplanted metal develops initially a fine-grained, convoluted scale having a ridged, cellular structure. Subsequently, the oxide grains increase in size significantly and oxidation becomes predominantly controlled by diffusion of Ni2+ions across a compact, columnar

Zhou Peide; F. H. Stott; R. P. M. Procter; W. A. Grant

1981-01-01

327

Resveratrol Attenuates Renal Hypertrophy in Early-Stage Diabetes by Activating AMPK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies suggest the involvement of the adenosine monophosphate-activated serine\\/threonine protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Resveratrol, an agent that activates AMPK, may have the potential to protect against the development of DN. This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of resveratrol on renal hypertrophy in early-stage diabetes and the underlying mechanisms.

Da-Fa Ding; Na You; Xiao-Mei Wu; Jia-Rong Xu; Ai-Ping Hu; Xiao-Long Ye; Qun Zhu; Xiu-Qing Jiang; Heng Miao; Chao Liu; Yi-Bing Lu

2010-01-01

328

Circulating microRNAs, possible indicators of progress of rat hepatocarcinogenesis from early stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, are believed promising biomarkers for several diseases as well as a novel target of drugs, including cancer. In particular, miRNAs might allow detection of early stages of carcinogenesis. The present study was conducted to provide concrete evidence using chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rat as a

Tokuo Sukata; Kayo Sumida; Masahiko Kushida; Keiko Ogata; Kaori Miyata; Setsuko Yabushita; Satoshi Uwagawa

2011-01-01

329

Brain event-related potentials: Diagnosing early-stage Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pattern of components from brain event-related potentials (ERPs) (cognitive non-invasive electrical brain measures) performed well in separating early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects from normal-aging control subjects and shows promise for developing a clinical diagnostic for probable AD. A Number–Letter task elicited brain activity related to cognitive processes. In response to the task stimuli, brain activity was recorded as ERPs,

Robert M. Chapman; Geoffrey H. Nowlis; John W. McCrary; John A. Chapman; Tiffany C. Sandoval; Maria D. Guillily; Margaret N. Gardner; Lindsey A. Reilly

2007-01-01

330

Amygdalohippocampal MR volume measurements in the early stages of Alzheimer disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the accuracy of hippocampal and amygdala volume measurements in diagnosing patients in the early stages of Alzheimer disease. Measurements of the hippocampal formation, amygdala, amygdalohippocampal complex (the two measurements summed), caudate nucleus, and ventricles, normalized for total intracranial volume, were obtained on coronal sections (1.5 T, 400\\/13 [repetition time\\/echo time], 5 mm) of 13 patients in the mild

S. Lehericy; M. Baulac; J. Chiras; L. Pierot; N. Martin; B. Pillon; B. Deweer; B. Dubois; C. Marsault

1994-01-01

331

Differential Gene Expression in Sugarcane Regulated by Ethephon at Early Growth Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential gene expression in the plants at different sampling time were analyzed by using cDNA-AFLP after foliar spray\\u000a of ethephon and water, respectively, at early growth stage of sugarcane. The preliminary results showed that the polymorphisms\\u000a of cDNA-AFLP products were abundant; and the differential gene expressions were marked between the ethephon treatment and\\u000a the control; some sequences of transcript derived

YUAN-WEN WEII; Chun-Jin Hu; Zhi-Nian Deng; Yang-Rui Li

2006-01-01

332

On the role of extracellular polymeric substances during early stages of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation.  

PubMed

The structural integrity and protection of bacterial biofilms are intrinsically associated with a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by the bacteria cells. However, the role of these substances during biofilm adhesion to a surface remains largely unclear. In this study, the influence of EPS on Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation was investigated. This bacterium is associated with economically important plant diseases; it presents a slow growth rate and thus allows us to pinpoint more precisely the early stages of cell-surface adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show evidence of EPS production in such early stages and around individual bacteria cells attached to the substrate surface even a few hours after inoculation. In addition, EPS formation was investigated via attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To this end, X. fastidiosa cells were inoculated within an ATR liquid cell assembly. IR-ATR spectra clearly reveal EPS formation already during the early stages of X. fastidiosa biofilm formation, thereby providing supporting evidence for the hypothesis of the relevance of the EPS contribution to the adhesion process. PMID:23164974

Lorite, Gabriela S; de Souza, Alessandra A; Neubauer, Daniel; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine; Cotta, Mônica A

2012-09-01

333

Initiation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids  

SciTech Connect

Picosecond time-resolved images of plasma initiation were recorded during pulsed-laser ablation of metal targets in an air atmosphere. An early-stage plasma was observed to form before the release of a material vapor plume. Close to the target surface, interferometry measurements indicate that the early-stage plasma has an electron number density on the order of 10{sup 20}cm{sup -3}. The longitudinal expansion of the ionization front for this plasma has a velocity 10{sup 9}cm/s, during the laser pulse. In contrast, a material--vapor plume forms approximately 200 ps after the laser pulse, and it moves away from the target at 10{sup 6}cm/s. The experimental observations of the early-stage plasma were simulated by using a theoretical model based on a two-fluids description of laser plasmas. The results indicate that the initiation of the plasma is due to air breakdown assisted by electron emission from the target.

Mao, Samuel S.; Mao, Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

2000-10-16

334

Accelerated fractionation with a concurrent boost for early stage breast cancer.  

PubMed

Hypofractionated radiation refers to treatment with greater than 2 Gy per fraction, usually in fewer number and an overall shorter treatment period, compared to conventional radiation fractionation. Randomized prospective trials of hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (WBI) have demonstrated comparable outcomes as conventional fractionation in early stage postlumpectomy radiation in selected groups of patients. These data have changed the traditional radiobiology estimation of the alpha/beta ratio that predicted fractionation sensitivity for breast cancer, suggesting that further increase in dose per fraction is possible for early stage breast cancer without significantly increasing late effects. Many questions remain regarding hypofractionated WBI and span from optimal patient selection to radiation technique including dose planning optimization and the incorporation of a tumor bed boost. A concurrent radiation boost has been studied in a number of single institution studies and has shown to be feasible with acceptable acute and short-term late toxicity. A phase III trial by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG 1005) in North America and other trials in Europe are currently studying in-breast cancer control from hypofractionated WBI with a concurrent tumor bed boost. Results from these current trials could improve the acceptance and broaden the applicability of hypofractionation treatment courses for the treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer. PMID:23333014

Freedman, Gary M; White, Julia R; Arthur, Douglas W; Allen Li, X; Vicini, Frank A

2013-01-17

335

Nitrification and nitrate reductase activity along a secondary successional gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of nitrification was studied in a secondary successional gradient on Nantucket Island, MA. It was hypothesized that 1) variability in nitrification along the gradient is controlled by litter primary and secondary chemistry, and 2) differences in nitrate availability along the gradient are reflected in potential nitrate assimilation rates in plant tissue. Nitrification varied significantly (ppSchizachyrium scoparium). Although there

C. Barford; K. Lajtha

1992-01-01

336

Soil amino acid composition across a boreal forest successional sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil amino acids are important sources of organic nitrogen for plant nutrition, yet few studies have examined which amino acids are most prevalent in the soil. In this study, we examined the composition, concentration, and seasonal patterns of soil amino acids across a primary successional sequence encompassing a natural gradient of plant productivity and soil physicochemical characteristics. Soil was collected

Nancy R. Werdin-Pfisterer; Knut Kielland; Richard D. Boone

2009-01-01

337

Oncologic outcomes of primary and post-irradiated early stage rectal cancer: A retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the oncologic outcomes of primary and post-irradiated early stage rectal cancer and the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients. METHODS: Eighty-four patients with stage?I?rectal cancer after radical surgery were studied retrospectively and divided into ypstage?I?group (n = 45) and pstage?I?group (n = 39), according to their preoperative radiation, and compared by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The median follow-up time of patients was 70 mo. No significant difference was observed in disease progression between the two groups. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 84.4% and 92.3%, respectively (P = 0.327) and the 5-year overall survival rate was 88.9% and 92.3%, respectively, for the two groups (P = 0.692). The disease progression was not significantly associated with the pretreatment clinical stage in ypstage?I?group. The 5-year disease progression rate was 10.5% and 19.2%, respectively, for the patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy and for those who rejected chemotherapy in the ypstage?I?group (P = 0.681). CONCLUSION: The oncologic outcomes of primary and post-irradiated early stage rectal cancer are similar. Patients with ypstage?I?rectal cancer may slightly benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.

Du, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Yong-Chun; Cai, Yong; Xue, Wei-Cheng; Gu, Jin

2011-01-01

338

Quantitative study on guinea pig spermatogenesis shows a relative high percentage of early meiotic prophase stages.  

PubMed

Meiosis is the special double cellular division characterized by the reduction of chromosome number of the final products and recombination of genetic information present in maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes. Early stages of meiotic prophase, leptotene and zygotene (L/Z), are functionally important since homologous chromosomes recognize, align, and pair during them. They are poorly represented in the seminiferous tubules of mammalian species, and this fact turns studies focused on these stages difficult to perform. As a consequence, the molecular bases of these important events are so far poorly known and understood in higher eukaryotes. The purpose of this work was to provide an advantageous experimental mammalian model (with a reasonable number of cells) for biochemical and molecular analysis of early meiotic prophase stages. Here, we present the results of our quantitative study on testes material of both immature and adult guinea pig specimens (Cavia porcellus). We show that their seminiferous tubules contain a comparatively high percentage of L/Z spermatocytes, as well as a very conspicuous chromosome bouquet at the L/Z transition, which points out this species as a well-suited one to address studies on such stages in mammals. PMID:15103745

Rodríguez, Rosana E; Wettstein, Rodolfo M

2004-05-01

339

The effects of parasites on the early life stages of a damselfish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early life history traits, such as larval growth, influence the success of coral reef fish in the transition from the larval to the juvenile life phase. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between parasites and growth in the early life history stages of such fishes. This study examined how parasite prevalence (% infected) and load, and the relationship between parasite presence and fish growth, differed among life stages of the damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis. Parasite prevalence decreased significantly between the larval stage, which was sampled immediately before settlement on the reef (97 %) and recently settled juveniles (60 %); prevalence was also high for 4-month-old juveniles (90 %), 7-month-old juveniles (100 %) and adult fish (100 %). Total numbers of parasites per fish decreased dramatically (fourfold) between larval and recently settled fish, and then increased in the older stages to levels similar to those observed in larvae, but they did so more gradually than did prevalence. One explanation for these patterns is that heavily infected larvae were preferentially removed from the population during or soon after settlement. Daily fish growth, determined from otolith increments, revealed that growth did not differ between parasitised and non-parasitised larval fish, whereas recently settled fish that were parasitised had faster growth; these parasitised recently settled fish also displayed faster growth prior to settlement. These data provide evidence that parasites may explain some of the variation in growth and survival observed among coral reef fishes after settlement and thereby have a greater impact on population dynamics than previously understood.

Sun, D.; Blomberg, S. P.; Cribb, T. H.; McCormick, M. I.; Grutter, A. S.

2012-12-01

340

[Comparative characterization of mesenchymal bone marrow stromal cells at early and late stages of culturing].  

PubMed

The mesenchymal stromal cell is a multipotent precursor of osteoblasts, adipocytes, and some other cell types. In this study, a comparative analysis of cultured mesenchymal stromal cells from the rat bone marrow at the early and late stages of subculturing has been performed using molecular genetic and cytological methods. The culture has undergone 11 passages during 140 days. Upon long-term culturing, the mesenchymal stromal cells have proved to lose their potential for adipogenic differentiation but preserve the potential for osteogenesis. Morphological characters typical of osteogenic differentiation can be observed at the earlier stages of culturing (passages 1-4) but disappear at later stages (passages 9-11), despite mineralization of the extracellular matrix and the expression of osteogenic differentiation markers. A comparative analysis of the proliferation potential of stromal cells has shown that differences in the period of cell population doubling at the early and later stages of culturing are insignificant. An almost complete arrest of cell growth has been observed in the middle of the culture period (passages 5 and 6). PMID:18946989

Kozhevnikova, M N; Mikaelian, A S; Paiushina, O V; Starostin, V I

341

Material properties of North Atlantic cod eggs and early-stage larvae and their influence on acoustic scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chu, D., Wiebe, P. H., Copley, N. J., Lawson, G. L., and Puvanendran, V. 2003. Material properties of North Atlantic cod eggs and early-stage larvae and their influence on acoustic scattering. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60: 508-515. To study the acoustic signatures of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at different biological stages from eggs to early-stage larvae (<37 days

Dezhang Chu; Peter H. Wiebe; Nancy J. Copley; Gareth L. Lawson; Velmurugu Puvanendran

2003-01-01

342

Involvement of R-cadherin in the early stage of glomerulogenesis.  

PubMed

The earliest commitment to the formation of glomeruli is recognizable in S-shaped bodies. Although cell-cell adhesion seems likely to play a crucial role in this process, how glomerular epithelial cells segregate from the other parts of the nephron is unknown. In this study, immunofluorescence microscopy and monoclonal antibodies specific for mouse R-, E-, P- and N-cadherins were used to examine which of these adhesion molecules are involved in glomerulogenesis of the mouse kidney. Weak R-cadherin staining was first found in the vesicle stage, becoming restricted to glomerular visceral epithelial cells (VEC) during the S-shaped body stage. The intensity of this staining became stronger in the capillary loop stage, whereas parietal epithelial cells (PEC) and tubular cells did not stain. In the maturing stage, VEC gradually lost their staining for R-cadherin. E-cadherin was detected in ureteric buds and the upper limb of S-shaped bodies. From the capillary loop to the maturing stage, anti-E-cadherin stained epithelial cells in all tubule segments, but no label was seen in VEC or PEC. P-cadherin was also stained in the ureteric buds and in the upper limb of S-shaped bodies. N-Cadherin was weakly stained in cells at the vesicle stage, but thereafter staining of N-cadherin was not detected at any stage of glomerular formation. Immunoelectron microscopy of differentiating VEC was performed using antibodies specific to alpha-catenin, which is associated with cadherin. Subsequently, immunogold particles identifying alpha-catenin were localized on junctions between primary processes of VEC. These findings indicate that R-cadherin is uniquely expressed in differentiating VEC, suggesting an important role in the early stages of glomerulogenesis. PMID:9644633

Goto, S; Yaoita, E; Matsunami, H; Kondo, D; Yamamoto, T; Kawasaki, K; Arakawa, M; Kihara, I

1998-07-01

343

Psycholinguistics discovers the operant: a review of Roger Brown's A first language: the early stages1  

PubMed Central

Brown's book is selectively reviewed with the aim of noting points of similarity between Brown's psycholinguistic analysis of language acquisition and a functional analysis of verbal behavior. Brown divides early language acquisition into five stages, based on mean length of utterance in samples of child speech. His book concentrates on Stage I, when mean length of utterance first rises above 1.0, indicating that children are beginning to speak in multi-morphemic utterances, and Stage II, when mean length of utterance in morphemes is about 2.25. Multi-morphemic utterances in Stage I consist mainly of ordered sequences of uninflected nouns and verbs, the order being that of the simple declarative sentence (agent-action-indirect object-direct object-locative). The review attempts a theoretical analysis of the functional stimulus control of Stage I syntactic order, concluding that the control must originate partly in relations among events in the environment and partly in covert autoclitic verbal behavior. Increases in mean length of utterance in Stage II are mainly due to the appearance of several “grammatical morphemes” such as the progressive -ing inflection on verbs and the plural -s inflection on nouns. The review attempts a behavioral paraphrase, again in terms of tacts and autoclitics, of Brown's psycholinguistic analysis of grammatical morphemes, concluding that Stage II displays the further development, building on Stage I, of the combined control of verbal behavior by relations in the environment and covert self-generated verbal stimuli. Similarities between Brown's psycholinguistic analysis and a functional analysis of language acquisition suggest that the two viewpoints are converging on a common concern with the stimulus control of verbal behavior.

Segal, Evalyn F.

1975-01-01

344

Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.  

PubMed

For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

Rankin, Tauna L; Sponaugle, Su

2011-05-02

345

Temperature Influences Selective Mortality during the Early Life Stages of a Coral Reef Fish  

PubMed Central

For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

Rankin, Tauna L.; Sponaugle, Su

2011-01-01

346

MACC1 Is Related to Colorectal Cancer Initiation and Early-Stage Invasive Growth.  

PubMed

Objectives: To investigate metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) and MET expression in colorectal adenoma, Tis, early-stage invasive (T1 and T2), and advanced adenocarcinoma with liver metastasis using immunohistochemistry. Methods: Ninety-three paraffin-embedded colorectal tumor specimens were immunohistochemically analyzed for MACC1 and MET protein expression. Results: MACC1 expression was upregulated in the transition from adenoma to Tis; its expression was further elevated during tumor progression from Tis to early invasive carcinoma. MET expression was constant from adenoma to Tis and to T1 but significantly increased as tumor progression to T2. Both MACC1 and MET expression were enhanced in advanced carcinoma with liver metastasis. Conclusions: Stepwise elevation of MACC1 expression in key points of colorectal cancer development suggests that MACC1 may contribute to cancer initiation and early invasive growth. High expression of both MACC1 and MET may relate to distant metastasis. PMID:24124150

Ren, Bing; Zakharov, Vladislav; Yang, Qi; McMahon, Loralee; Yu, Jiangzhou; Cao, Wenqing

2013-11-01

347

Circulating Micro-RNAs as Potential Blood-Based Markers for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules with relevance as regulators of gene expression thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. MiRNAs offer great potential as biomarkers for cancer detection due to their remarkable stability in blood and their characteristic expression in many different diseases. We investigated whether microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood could discriminate between early stage breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Methods We performed microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood of 48 early stage breast cancer patients at diagnosis along with 57 healthy individuals as controls. This was followed by a real-time semi-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) validation in a separate cohort of 24 early stage breast cancer patients from a breast cancer screening unit and 24 age matched controls using two differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-202, miR-718). Results Using the significance level of p<0.05, we found that 59 miRNAs were differentially expressed in whole blood of early stage breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. 13 significantly up-regulated miRNAs and 46 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in our microarray panel of 1100 miRNAs and miRNA star sequences could be detected. A set of 240 miRNAs that was evaluated by radial basis function kernel support vector machines and 10-fold cross validation yielded a specificity of 78.8%, and a sensitivity of 92.5%, as well as an accuracy of 85.6%. Two miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort. The relative fold changes of the RT-qPCR validation were in line with the microarray data for both miRNAs, and statistically significant differences in miRNA-expression were found for miR-202. Conclusions MiRNA profiling in whole blood has potential as a novel method for early stage breast cancer detection, but there are still challenges that need to be addressed to establish these new biomarkers in clinical use.

Schulz-Wendtland, Rudiger; Strissel, Pamela L.; Kahmann, Laura; Loehberg, Christian R.; Lux, Michael P.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Alexander; Bayer, Christian M.; Bani, Mayada R.; Richter, Swetlana; Adamietz, Boris R.; Wenkel, Evelyn; Rauh, Claudia; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.

2012-01-01

348

Properties of large scale plasma flow during the early stage of the plasmaspheric refilling  

SciTech Connect

Ion continuity, momentum and energy equations were solved for the plasma flow along the closed magnetic field lines. During the initial stage of the supersonic outflow in the equatorial region, the ions cool substantially. Using the hydrodynamic model for the large-scale plasma flow, the dynamics of shocks was examined which form in the geomagnetic flux tubes during the early stages of refilling. These shocks are more like those forming in neutral gases than the electrostatic shocks driven by microinstabilities involving ion-ion interaction. Therefore, the shocks seen in the hydrodynamic model are termed as hydrodynamic shocks. Such shocks are generally unsteady and therefore the usual shock jump conditions given by Rankine-Hugoniot relations are not strictly applicable to them. The density, flow velocity and temperature structures associated with the shocks are examined for both asymmetrical and symmetrical flows. In the asymmetrical flow the outflow from one of two conjugate ionospheres is dominant. On the other hand, in the symmetrical case outflows from the two ionospheric sources are identical. Both cases are treated by a two-stream model. In the late type of flow, the early-time refilling shows a relaxation type of oscillation, which is driven by the large-scale interactions between the two identical streams. After this early stage, the resulting temperature structure shows some interesting features. In the equatorial region the streams are isothermal, but in the off-equatorial regions the streams have quite different temperatures, and also densities and flow velocities. The dense and slow stream is found to be warmer than the low-density fast stream. In the late stage of refilling, the temperature is found to steadily increase from the c

Singh, N.; Craven, P.; Torr, D.G.; Richards, P.G.

1990-01-01

349

Global analysis of DNA methylation in early-stage liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background Liver fibrosis is caused by chemicals or viral infection. The progression of liver fibrosis results in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in later stages. Recent studies have revealed the importance of DNA hypermethylation in the progression of liver fibrosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the importance of DNA methylation in the early-stage liver fibrosis remains unclear. Methods To address this issue, we used a pathological mouse model of early-stage liver fibrosis that was induced by treatment with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 2 weeks and performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation status. This global analysis of DNA methylation was performed using a combination of methyl-binding protein (MBP)-based high throughput sequencing (MBP-seq) and bioinformatic tools, IPA and Oncomine. To confirm functional aspect of MBP-seq data, we complementary used biochemical methods, such as bisulfite modification and in-vitro-methylation assays. Results The genome-wide analysis revealed that DNA methylation status was reduced throughout the genome because of CCl4 treatment in the early-stage liver fibrosis. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses revealed that a gene associated with fibrosis, secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1), which induces inflammation, was hypomethylated and its expression was up-regulated. These results suggest that DNA hypomethylation of the genes responsible for fibrosis may precede the onset of liver fibrosis. Moreover, Spp1 is also known to enhance tumor development. Using the web-based database, we revealed that Spp1 expression is increased in HCC. Conclusions Our study suggests that hypomethylation is crucial for the onset of and in the progression of liver fibrosis to HCC. The elucidation of this change in methylation status from the onset of fibrosis and subsequent progression to HCC may lead to a new clinical diagnosis.

2012-01-01

350

Circadian profiles in young people during the early stages of affective disorder.  

PubMed

Although disturbances of the circadian system are strongly linked to affective disorders, no known studies have examined melatonin profiles in young people in early stages of illness. In this study, 44 patients with an affective disorder underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessments. They were then rated by a psychiatrist according to a clinical staging model and were categorized as having an 'attenuated syndrome' or an 'established disorder'. During the evening, salivary melatonin was sampled under dim light conditions over an 8-h interval and for each patient, the time of melatonin onset, total area under the curve and phase angle (difference between time of melatonin onset and time of habitual sleep onset) were computed. Results showed that there was no difference in the timing of melatonin onset across illness stages. However, area under the curve analyses showed that those patients with 'established disorders' had markedly reduced levels of melatonin secretion, and shorter phase angles, relative to those with 'attenuated syndromes'. These lower levels, in turn, were related to lower subjective sleepiness, and poorer performance on neuropsychological tests of verbal memory. Overall, these results suggest that for patients with established illness, dysfunction of the circadian system relates clearly to functional features and markers of underlying neurobiological change. Although the interpretation of these results would be greatly enhanced by control data, this work has important implications for the early delivery of chronobiological interventions in young people with affective disorders. PMID:22832967

Naismith, S L; Hermens, D F; Ip, T K C; Bolitho, S; Scott, E; Rogers, N L; Hickie, I B

2012-05-29

351

Diversity and dynamics of bacterial communities in early life stages of the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides.  

PubMed

In this study, we examine microbial communities of early developmental stages of the coral Porites astreoides by sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging. Bacteria are associated with the ectoderm layer in newly released planula larvae, in 4-day-old planulae, and on the newly forming mesenteries surrounding developing septa in juvenile polyps after settlement. Roseobacter clade-associated (RCA) bacteria and Marinobacter sp. are consistently detected in specimens of P. astreoides spanning three early developmental stages, two locations in the Caribbean and 3 years of collection. Multi-response permutation procedures analysis on the TRFLP results do not support significant variation in the bacterial communities associated with P. astreoides larvae across collection location, collection year or developmental stage. The results are the first evidence of vertical transmission (from parent to offspring) of bacteria in corals. The results also show that at least two groups of bacterial taxa, the RCA bacteria and Marinobacter, are consistently associated with juvenile P. astreoides against a complex background of microbial associations, indicating that some components of the microbial community are long-term associates of the corals and may impact host health and survival. PMID:22113375

Sharp, Koty H; Distel, Dan; Paul, Valerie J

2011-11-24

352

Early-Stage Comparative Sustainability Assessment of New Bio-based Processes.  

PubMed

Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analyze eight new bio-based process alternatives developed within the CatchBio research consortium in the Netherlands. This assessment relies on a multi-criteria approach, integrating the performance of chemical conversions based on five indicators into an index value. These indicators encompass economics, environmental impact, hazards and risks thereby incorporating elements of green chemistry principles, and techno-economic and life cycle assessments. The analyzed bio-based options target the production of fuels and chemicals through chemical catalysis. For each bio-based process, two R&D stages (current laboratory and expected future) are assessed against a comparable conventional process. The multi-criteria assessment in combination with the uncertainty and scenario analysis shows that the chemical production processes using biomass as feedstock can provide potential sustainability benefits over conventional alternatives. However, further development is necessary to realize the potential benefits from biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes for fuel production. This early stage assessment is intended as an input for R&D decision making to support optimal allocation and utilization of resources to further develop promising bio-based processes. PMID:24078179

Patel, Akshay D; Meesters, Koen; den Uil, Herman; de Jong, Ed; Worrell, Ernst; Patel, Martin K

2013-09-01

353

Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report  

SciTech Connect

American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

Not Available

1991-10-01

354

Diversity and dynamics of bacterial communities in early life stages of the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examine microbial communities of early developmental stages of the coral Porites astreoides by sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging. Bacteria are associated with the ectoderm layer in newly released planula larvae, in 4-day-old planulae, and on the newly forming mesenteries surrounding developing septa in juvenile polyps after settlement. Roseobacter clade-associated (RCA) bacteria and Marinobacter sp. are consistently detected in specimens of P. astreoides spanning three early developmental stages, two locations in the Caribbean and 3 years of collection. Multi-response permutation procedures analysis on the TRFLP results do not support significant variation in the bacterial communities associated with P. astreoides larvae across collection location, collection year or developmental stage. The results are the first evidence of vertical transmission (from parent to offspring) of bacteria in corals. The results also show that at least two groups of bacterial taxa, the RCA bacteria and Marinobacter, are consistently associated with juvenile P. astreoides against a complex background of microbial associations, indicating that some components of the microbial community are long-term associates of the corals and may impact host health and survival.

Sharp, Koty H; Distel, Dan; Paul, Valerie J

2012-01-01

355

Usefulness of the recombinant liver stage antigen-3 for an early serodiagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection.  

PubMed

In order to develop tools for an early serodiagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection, we evaluated the usefulness of P. falciparum liver stage antigen-3 (LSA-3) as a serodiagnostic antigen. A portion of LSA-3 gene was cloned, and its recombinant protein (rLSA-3) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. The purified rLSA-3 and 120 test blood/serum samples collected from inhabitants in malaria-endemic areas of Mandalay, Myanmar were used for this study. In microscopic examinations of blood samples, P. falciparum positive rate was 39.1% (47/120) in thin smear trials, and 33.3% (40/120) in thick smear trials. Although the positive rate associated with the rLSA-3 (30.8%) was lower than that of the blood stage antigens (70.8%), rLSA-3 based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay could detect 12 seropositive cases (10.0%), in which blood stage antigens were not detected. These results indicate that the LSA-3 is a useful antigen for an early serodiagnosis of P. falciparum infection. PMID:16514282

Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Moon, Sung-Ung; Ryu, Hye-Sun; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Chung, Gyung-Tae; Lin, Khin; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kong, Yoon; Chung, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Tong-Soo

2006-03-01

356

Usefulness of the recombinant liver stage antigen-3 for an early serodiagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection  

PubMed Central

In order to develop tools for an early serodiagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection, we evaluated the usefulness of P. falciparum liver stage antigen-3 (LSA-3) as a serodiagnostic antigen. A portion of LSA-3 gene was cloned, and its recombinant protein (rLSA-3) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. The purified rLSA-3 and 120 test blood/serum samples collected from inhabitants in malaria-endemic areas of Mandalay, Myanmar were used for this study. In microscopic examinations of blood samples, P. falciparum positive rate was 39.1% (47/120) in thin smear trials, and 33.3% (40/120) in thick smear trials. Although the positive rate associated with the rLSA-3 (30.8%) was lower than that of the blood stage antigens (70.8%), rLSA-3 based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay could detect 12 seropositive cases (10.0%), in which blood stage antigens were not detected. These results indicate that the LSA-3 is a useful antigen for an early serodiagnosis of P. falciparum infection.

Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Moon, Sung-Ung; Ryu, Hye-Sun; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Chung, Gyung-Tae; Lin, Khin; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kong, Yoon; Chung, Kyung-Suk

2006-01-01

357

Efficient and rapid isolation of early-stage embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.  

PubMed

In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays. PMID:23770918

Raissig, Michael T; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

2013-06-07

358

The MADS domain protein AGL15 localizes to the nucleus during early stages of seed development.  

PubMed Central

Little is known about regulatory factors that act during the earliest stages of plant embryogenesis. The MADS domain protein AGL15 (for AGAMOUS-like) is expressed preferentially during embryogenesis and accumulates during early seed development in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous flowering plants. AGL15-specific antibodies and immunohistochemistry were used to demonstrate that AGL15 accumulates before fertilization in the cytoplasm in the cells of the egg apparatus and moves into the nucleus during early stages of development in the suspensor, embryo, and endosperms. Relatively high levels of AGL15 are present in the nuclei during embryo morphogenesis and until the seeds start to dry in Brassica, maize, and Arabidopsis. AGL15 is associated with the chromosomes during mitosis, and gel mobility shift assays were used to demonstrate that AGL15 binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner. To assess whether AGL15 is likely to play a role in specifying the seed or embryonic phase of development, AGL15 accumulation was examined in Arabidopsis mutants that prematurely exit embryogenesis. lec1-2 mutants show an embryo-specific loss of AGL15 at the transition stage, suggesting that AGL15 interacts with regulators in the leafy cotyledons pathway.

Perry, S E; Nichols, K W; Fernandez, D E

1996-01-01

359

Pesticides in urban streams and early life stages of Pacific coho salmon.  

PubMed

Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams and are believed to be primarily the result of homeowner use. Although concentrations in most cases are low (<1?µg/L), there is concern that pesticide inputs threaten efforts to restore and enhance salmon habitat. The authors exposed early life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of those pesticides most frequently reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Life stages were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail simulating those in urban streams in fall and winter when coho salmon eggs and sac fry are present. Nominal concentrations of eight herbicides, two insecticides, a fungicide, and a breakdown product were the maximum detected. Fertilization, hatching success, survival, deformities, and growth of fry were not significantly affected. A reduction in fertilization success (19-25%) was not reproducible even when gametes were exposed to 100 times the maximum concentrations detected. Based on the end points examined in the present study, the results suggest that direct exposure to the pesticides most frequently detected in urban streams in western Washington does not impair early life stages of coho salmon and is not a major factor governing the recovery of salmon populations. The extent to which pesticide exposure would affect smoltification, outmigration, and ocean survival needs to be determined. PMID:23297254

King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J

2013-02-21

360

Experimental early-stage coalification of a peat sample and a peatified wood sample from Indonesia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experimental coalification of a peat sample and a buried wood sample from domed peat deposits in Indonesia was carried out to examine chemical structural changes in organic matter during early-stage coalification. The experiment (125 C, 408 atm lithostatic pressure, and 177 atm fluid pressure for 75 days) was designed to maintain both lithostatic and fluid pressure on the sample, but allow by-products that may retard coalification to escape. We refer to this design as a geologically open system. Changes in the elemental composition, and 13C NMR and FTIR spectra of the peat and wood after experimental coalification suggest preferential thermal decomposition of O-containing aliphatic organic compounds (probably cellulose) during early-stage coalification. The elemental compositions and 13C NMR spectra of the experimentally coalified peat and wood were generally similar to those of Miocene coal and coalified wood samples from Indonesia. Yields of lignin phenols in the peat and wood samples decreased following experimental coalification; the wood sample exhibited a larger change. Lignin phenol yields from the experimentally coalified peat and wood were comparable to yields of lignin phenols from Miocene Indonesian lignite and coalified wood. Changes in syringyl/vanillyl and p-hydroxy/vanillyl ratios suggest direct demethoxylation as a secondary process to demethylation of methoxyl groups during early coalification, and changes in lignin phenol yields and acid/aldehyde ratios point to a coupling between demethoxylation processes and reactions in the alkyl side chain bonds of the ??-carbon in lignin phenols.

Orem, W. H.; Neuzil, S. G.; Lerch, H. E.; Cecil, C. B.

1996-01-01

361

Organophosphorus pesticides effect on early stages of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Caudata).  

PubMed

Ambystoma mexicanum is an endemic salamander of Xochimilco, a wetland of the basin of Mexico valley. Nowadays, axolotl populations are decreasing due environmental stressors. Particularly, studies about organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs; i.e. chlorpyrifos and malathion) toxicity are of great importance due to their intensive use in agricultural activities in Xochimilco. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate under controlled conditions the toxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and malathion (MLT) on embryos and larvae (stage 44 and 54) of A. mexicanum. Embryos and larvae were exposure 96h from 0.5 to 3mg CPFL(-1) and from 10 to 30mg MLTL(-1) in independent tests. Embryos at the end of this period were maintained 9d without pesticide in order to identify possible recuperation. Differences obtained in mortality, hatching success, development, morphological abnormalities, behaviour and activity, suggest that toxicity of CPF and MLT differs in embryos and larval stages. Embryos were less sensitive to OPPs acute exposure than axolotl larvae; additionally, toxicity of CPF in larval stages was greater than MLT. On the other hand, data obtained in axolotl embryos during the period of recuperation to CPF in particular as delay and inhibition of development, malformations and success of hatching, indicated that these responses turned out more sensitive than mortality. This study allowed to identify the toxicological potential of OPPs on early developmental stages of A. mexicanum and it is a valuable contribution for the future management of the axolotl wild population. PMID:19012946

Robles-Mendoza, C; García-Basilio, C; Cram-Heydrich, S; Hernández-Quiroz, M; Vanegas-Pérez, C

2008-11-13

362

Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR) over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.

Brooks, John M.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Landrum, Mary Beth; Wright, Kara B.; Fang, Gang; Winer, Eric P.; Keating, Nancy L.

2012-01-01

363

Miniprobe Endoscopic Ultrasonography Has Limitations in Determining the T Stage in Early Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Mini-probe endoscopic ultrasonography (mEUS) is a useful diagnostic tool for accurate assessment of tumor invasion. The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of mEUS in patients with early colorectal cancer (ECC). Methods Ninety lesions of ECC underwent mEUS for pre-treatment staging. We divided the lesions into either the mucosal group or the submucosal group according to the mEUS findings. The histological results of the specimens were compared with the mEUS findings. Results The overall accuracy for assessing the depth of tumor invasion (T stage) was 84.4% (76/90). The accuracy of mEUS was significantly lower for submucosal lesions compared to mucosal lesions (p=0.003) and it was lower for large tumors (?2 cm) (p=0.034). The odds ratios of large tumors and submucosal tumors affecting the accuracy of T staging were 3.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 11.39) and 6.25 (95% CI, 1.85 to 25.14), respectively. When submucosal tumors were combined with large size, the odds ratio was 14.67 (95% CI, 1.46 to 146.96). Conclusions The overall accuracy of T stage determination with mEUS was considerably high in patients with ECC; however, the accuracy decreased when tumor size was >2 cm or the tumor had invaded the submucosal layer.

Tsung, Pei Chuan; Park, Jong Hyeok; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Won Wo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, Jin Nam; Kang, Yun Kyung; Moon, Jeong Seop

2013-01-01

364

Blood Rheology and Platelet Function in Untreated Early-Stage Essential Hypertensives Complicated with Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

We examined whether hemorheology and platelet function are affected in essential hypertensives (EHTs) of the World Health Organization stage I when complicated with metabolic syndrome (Mets). In 156 untreated EHTs, blood viscosity and platelet surface markers were determined. Blood viscosity was significantly elevated in 54 subjects with Mets compared with 102 subjects without Mets. Hematocrit and plasma viscosity increased in the group with Mets, although red blood cell rigidity index “k” did not differ between groups. As a whole group, blood viscosity correlated positively with hematocrit and plasma viscosity. Additionally, plasma viscosity correlated positively with plasma leptin, triglyceride, homeostasis model assessment index, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen, but negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In contrast, no differences were seen in platelet surface markers between groups. In conclusion, EHTs of the early stage complicated with Mets are characterized by increased blood viscosity due to hemoconcentration and increased plasma viscosity.

Sugimori, Hiroko; Tomoda, Fumihiro; Koike, Tsutomu; Kinuno, Hiroyuki; Kurosaki, Hiroko; Masutani, Toshitaka; Inoue, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

365

Reactive molecular dynamic simulations of early stage of wet oxidation of Si (001) surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the initial stage of oxidation of Si (001) surface by water (H2O) molecules using reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at 300 K and 1200 K without any external constraint on the water molecules. Previously, reported water reaction behaviors on silicon surface by ab initio calculations or experimental observations were reproduced by the present MD simulation. The present simulation further revealed that the hydrogen atom in H2O is more attractive than oxygen atom in O2 to bond with Si, such that it accelerates the dissociation process of H2O. It was also observed that the oxidation reaction was enhanced with increased number of the supplied water molecules. It was suggested that the repulsion between water molecules and their fragments facilitates the dissociation of both water molecules and hydroxyl decomposition on the Si surface. Therefore, the wet oxidation behavior appeared to have more temperature dependence even in the early stage of oxidation.

Pamungkas, Mauludi Ariesto; Kim, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol

2013-08-01

366

Early stages of reduction of nickel oxide single crystals: An investigation by transmission electron microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the practical importance of the reaction, a great deal of work has been done on the reduction of metallic oxides to metals. In this laboratory all stages of the reduction of nickel oxide to nickel are being studied using a transmission electron microscope. Small, pre-thinned single crystals of nickel oxide have been reduced outside the microscope in a hydrogen atmosphere and the reduction temperatures and times were varied. The resulting foils were then examined in a Phillips 301 100 kV electron microscope and the relationships between the nickel metal particles and the nickel oxide single crystal matrix were established. During the early stages of the reduction both epitaxial and non-epitaxial nuclei were observed, the latter becoming predominant as reduction time progressed. The nuclei were frequently separated from the nickel oxide matrix by a fissure and as they impinged and coalesced, a large scale structure resulted with internal porosity as often seen by optical microscopy.

Little, J. A.; Evans, J. W.; Westmacott, K. H.

1980-09-01

367

Large scale surface migration of P. aeruginosa at early stages of biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a commonly-studied bacterium which can form biofilms, surface-bound aggregates which display increased resistance to various forms of stress, including a greatly enhanced antibiotic resistance. In the early stages of biofilm formation, free-swimming planktonic cells attach to the surface and form microcolonies, expressing a variety of adhesins and transitioning from reversible to irreversible attachment. By using particle tracking algorithms, we can in principle examine the full motility and division history of all cells in a microcolony. Here, we study the effects of the pel polysaccharides in microcolony formation by investigating how pel impacts the initial stages of biofilm formation by the P. aeruginosa PA14 strain. Specifically, we quantify the phenotypic effects of pel on initial attachment, microcolony formation, and biofilm morphology.

Gibiansky, Maxsim; Utada, Andy; Zhao, Kun; Xian, Wujing; Wong, Gerard

2013-03-01

368

Depressive Symptoms are Increased in the Early Perimenopausal Stage in Ethnically Diverse HIV+ and HIV- Women  

PubMed Central

Objective The risk of clinically significant depressive symptoms increases during the perimenopause. With highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), more HIV-infected women survive to transition through the menopause. In a cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated the association of menopausal stage and vasomotor symptoms with depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse, cohort of women with a high prevalence of HIV. Methods Participants included 835 HIV-infected women and 335 HIV-uninfected controls from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS; 63% African-American). The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale was used to screen for elevated depressive symptoms. Menopausal stages were defined according to standard definitions. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of elevated depressive symptoms. Results Compared to premenopausal women, early perimenopausal (OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.17–2.60), but not late perimenopausal or postmenopausal women were more likely to show elevated depressive symptoms in adjusted analyses. The odds were similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Persistent vasomotor symptoms also predicted elevated depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and uninfected women (OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.02–2.06). In HIV-infected women, menopausal stage interacted with antiretroviral use (p=0.02); the likelihood of elevated depressive symptoms in early perimenopause compared with premenopause was especially high in HAART-untreated women (OR 3.87, 95%CI 1.57–9.55). Conclusions In HIV+ and HIV? women, the odds of elevated depressive symptoms were significantly higher during the early perimenopause. Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with nonadherence to HAART, underscoring the importance of screening and treating depressive symptoms in HIV+ women who have experienced a change in the regularity of their menstrual cycles.

Maki, Pauline M.; Rubin, Leah H.; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Young, Mary; Schwartz, Rebecca M.; Anastos, Kathryn; Cook, Judith A.

2012-01-01

369

Electronic brachytherapy as adjuvant therapy for early stage breast cancer: a retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This multicenter, retrospective study evaluated treatment and clinical outcomes of patients with early stage breast cancer who received adjuvant high-dose rate (HDR) electronic brachytherapy (EBT) treatment post-lumpectomy using the Axxent® EBT system. Dosimetric data from the EBT treatment plans were compared with those based on iridium-192 HDR brachytherapy. Material and methods: Medical records of 63 patients with early stage breast cancer (Tis, T1a, T1b, T1c, and T2) who were treated post-lumpectomy with EBT alone or in combination with external beam radiation therapy were reviewed. The prescribed EBT dose was 34 Gy (10 fractions over 5 days, 3.4 Gy each) to 1 cm from the balloon surface. Dosimetry data from 12 patients were compared with these of treatment plans using an iridium-192 source prepared for the same 12 patients. Results: The majority of patients (90.5%) were older than 50 years and had one or more risk factors for breast cancer (80.6%). Tumor sizes were 0.1 cm to 3.5 cm (mean 1.3 cm). Median follow-up was 7 months (1 to 18 months) post-EBT. Balloon applicators were implanted 0 to 85 days (mean 13.4 days) post-lumpectomy/re-excision. The most common adverse events were erythema, rash dermatitis, and pain or breast tenderness. No recurrences were reported. Dosimetric analyses demonstrated comparable target coverage, increased high-dose regions, and a significantly reduced dose to the ipsilateral breast and lungs as well as the heart with EBT as compared with the iridium-192 treatment plans. Conclusion: This retrospective, multicenter study showed that postsurgical adjuvant radiation therapy for early stage breast cancer can be administered using the EBT system with similar toxicity outcomes to those reported with iridium-192 brachytherapy. EBT offers a convenient, portable, nonisotope alternative to HDR brachytherapy using iridium-192.

Dooley, William C; Wurzer, James C; Megahy, Mohamed; Schreiber, Gary; Roy, Tapan; Proulx, Gary; Laduzinsky, Susan; Lane, Steven; Dalzell, James; Dowlatshahi, Kambiz; Simmons, Dwelvin; Thropay, John P; Ahuja, Harish; Beitsch, Peter; Holt, Randall W; Lee, Charles A

2011-01-01

370

[Retrospective analysis for 104 cases of early-stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma treated with different modality therapies].  

PubMed

This paper explored the curative effect of combined modality therapy and extended field radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma. 104 cases of early-stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma from Jan 1987 to Dec 2010 in PLA Hospital 307 were retrospectively analyzed, including 76 cases in combined modality therapy group and 28 cases in extended field radiotherapy group, and the long-term efficacy and toxicity of two therapy modalities were evaluated. The results showed that the median survival time of 104 cases was 85.42 months, the complete remission rates of combined modality therapy and extended field radiotherapy groups were 72.4 and 71.4 respectively (P = 0.924); the overall response rates of combined modality therapy and extended field radiotherapy groups were 97.4 and 96.4 respectively (P = 0.779); the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates in the 2 groups were 89.5 and 89.1 respectively, and the 8-year OS rates of the 2 groups were 81.3 and 70.6. No statistical difference was found in above-mentioned 2 groups. Moreover, the 5-year progression free survival (PFS) rates of these 2 groups were 84.2 and 69.0 (P = 0.04), and 8-year PFS rates of these 2 groups were 80.0 and 55.5 (P = 0.04) respectively, the 5-year relapse rates of these 2 groups were 28.1 and 45.6 (P = 0.023) respectively. It is concluded that the combined modality therapy can raise the PFS rate and reduce the relapse rate as compared with extended field radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma, but there is no difference in the overall survival rate between the 2 groups. PMID:22541090

Du, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Xiu-Bin; Su, Hang; Da, Yong; Chen, Xin-Lin; Zhong, Kai-Li; Zhao, Shi-Hua; Lu, Yun; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Wei-Jing

2012-04-01

371

The Effects of Blocking Angiotensin Receptors on Early Stages of Diabetic Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Background: This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on markers of endothelial function in patients with early stage of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 32 participants with IDDM from January 2010 until May 2011 in Isfahan, Iran. The participants were candidate for receiving ARBs or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) to decrease microalbuminuria. The inclusion criteria were as follows: the age of onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)less than 15 years; normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR); normal blood pressure; normal cardiovascular examination; negative urine culture, receiving no medications except insulin. Microalbuminuria was measured in two fasting urine samples with a sampling interval of at least 1–2 months by ELISA method. Patients with two abnormal results were included. Microalbumin to creatinin ratio equal to or more than 30 mg/gm was considered abnormal. The fasting blood samples to determine serum nitric oxide (NO) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) were obtained at the time 0 (before starting the study), and after 2 months of receiving ARBmedication. Valsartan tablet (Diovan, Novartis Company) with a dose of 1 mg/kg/day up to 80 mg/day in a single dose was administered. Results: Urine microalbumin to creatinin ratio after valsartan consumption was lower than microalbumin level before the medication, P < 0.05. After valsartan consumption, serum VCAM-1 level reduced and NO level increased significantly, P < 0.05. Conclusion: Angiotensin receptor blockers may reduce VCAM-1 and microalbuminuria and may increase NO levels in early stages of DN. Thus administration of ARBs might be considered even in early stages of DN.

Gheissari, Alaleh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh H; Shirzadi, Roohollah; Amini, Masood; Khalili, Nooshin

2012-01-01

372

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 ?atm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 ?atm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which could lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

2011-12-01

373

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on the early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in the life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 ?atm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 ?atm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which consequently should lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival and could affect the ecosystem and fisheries. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

2011-07-01

374

A Novel Low Dose Fractionation Regimen for Adjuvant Vaginal Brachytherapy in Early Stage Endometrial Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate local control, survival and toxicity in patients with early-stage endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus treated with adjuvant high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal brachytherapy (VB) alone using a novel low dose regimen Methods We reviewed records of 414 patients with stage IA to stage II endometrial adenocarcinoma treated with VB alone from 2005 to 2011. Of these, 157 patients with endometrioid histology received 24 Gy in 6 fractions of HDR vaginal cylinder brachytherapy and constitute the study population. Dose was prescribed at the cylinder surface and delivered twice weekly in the post-operative setting. Local control and survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results All 157 patients completed the prescribed course of VB. Median follow-up time was 22.8 months (range, 1.5–76.5). Two patients developed vaginal recurrence, one in the periurethral region below the field and one in the fornix after treatment with a 2.5-cm cylinder. Three patients developed regional recurrence in the para-aortic region. Two patients developed distant metastasis (lung and carcinomatosis). The 2-year rate of vaginal control was 98.6%, locoregional control was 97.9% and disease-free survival was 96.8%. The 2-year overall survival rate was 98.7%. No Grade 2 or higher vaginal, gastrointestinal, genitourinary or skin long-term toxicity was reported for any patient. Conclusion Vaginal brachytherapy alone in early-stage endometrial cancer provides excellent results in terms of locoregional control and disease-free survival. The fractionation scheme of 24 Gy in 6 fractions prescribed to the cylinder surface was well-tolerated with minimal late toxicity.

Townamchai, Kanokpis; Lee, Larissa; Viswanathan, Akila N.

2012-01-01

375

Biopsy Findings After Breast Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the patterns and factors predictive of positive ipsilateral breast biopsy after conservation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of Stage I-II breast cancer patients initially treated with lumpectomy and radiotherapy between 1977 and 1996, who later underwent post-treatment ipsilateral breast biopsies. Results: A total of 223 biopsies were performed in 193 treated breasts: 171 single and 22 multiple biopsies. Of the 223 biopsies, 56% were positive and 44% were negative for recurrence. The positive biopsy rate (PBR) was 59% for the first and 32% for subsequent biopsies. The median time to the first post-treatment biopsy was 49 months. Of the patients with negative initial biopsy findings, 11% later developed local recurrence. The PBR was 40% among patients with physical examination findings only, 65% with mammographic abnormalities only, and 79% with both findings (p = 0.001). Analysis of the procedure type revealed a PBR of 86% for core and 58% for excisional biopsies compared with 28% for aspiration cytology alone (p = 0.025). The PBR varied inversely with age at the original diagnosis: 49% if {>=}51 years, 57% if 36-50 years, and 83% if {<=}35 years (p = 0.05). The PBR correlated directly with the interval after radiotherapy: 49% if {<=}60 months, 59% if 60.1-120 months, 77% if 120.1-180 months, and 100% if >180 months after completing postlumpectomy radiotherapy (p = 0.01). The PBR was not linked with recurrence location, initial pathologic T or N stage, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or final pathologic margins (all p {>=} 0.15). Conclusion: After definitive radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, a greater PBR was associated with the presence of both mammographic and clinical abnormalities, excisional or core biopsies, younger age at the initial diagnosis, and longer intervals after radiotherapy completion.

Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: vapiwala@xrt.upenn.edu; Starzyk, Jill; Harris, Eleanor E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tchou, Julia C.; Boraas, Marcia C.; Czerniecki, Brian J.; Rosato, Ernest F. [Department of Surgery, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Orel, Susan G. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Solin, Lawrence J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2007-10-01

376

Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy for treatment of early stage laryngeal malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficacy of PHOTOFRIN-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of Tis-T1N0M0 squamous cell carcinoma\\u000a (SqCCa) of the larynx in patients not amenable to or who failed conventional head and neck treatment. This is a retrospective\\u000a study of 26 patients with early stage Tis-T1 SqCCa of the larynx treated with PHOTOFRIN-mediated PDT. Intravenous PHOTOFRIN\\u000a (porfimer-sodium) (dose 2.0 mg\\/kg) was

Vanessa Gayl Schweitzer; Melissa L. Somers

2010-01-01

377

Nanoscale duplex oxide growth during early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100)  

SciTech Connect

A combination of real-time in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and ex situ transmission electron microscopy is utilized to investigate the early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100). Sequential formation of NiO and Cu{sub 2}O oxides was observed by increasing oxygen partial pressure, and the Cu{sub 2}O phase was identified to form preferentially on top of NiO nanoislands. The origin of this unexpected phenomenon is attributed to localized enrichment of Cu atoms accompanied with NiO growth, which thermodynamically drives the nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O/NiO duplex oxide growth.

Zhou Guangwen [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Multidisciplinary Program in Materials Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Fong, Dillon D.; Fuoss, Paul H.; Baldo, Peter M.; Thompson, Loren J.; Eastman, Jeffrey A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wang Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2009-10-01

378

Transient growth of solid nuclei in the liquid - A numerical study on early stages of solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sharp interface model describing transient non-equilibrium solidification processes for planar interfaces is extended to describe early stages of nucleus growth in an undercooled melt. Interface velocity and interface concentrations are calculated until full equilibrium is reached. Curvature pressure and latent heat release are considered. Realistic Gibbs free energies and concentration gradients in both phases are included in the simulation calculations. The calculations bridge the gap between the length scales of Molecular Dynamics simulations and conventional continuum models that assume local equilibrium at the solid/liquid interface.

Fink, Marcel; Rettenmayr, Markus

2013-11-01

379

Early stage formation of graphene on the C face of 6H-SiC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the early stage formation of graphene on the C face of 6H-silicon carbide (SiC) is presented. We show that the sublimation of few atomic layers of Si out of the SiC substrate is not homogeneous. In good agreement with the results of theoretical calculations it starts from defective sites, mainly dislocations that define nearly circular graphene layers, which have a pyramidal, volcanolike shape with a center chimney where the original defect was located. At higher temperatures, complete conversion occurs but, again, it is not homogeneous. Within the sample surface, the intensity of the Raman bands evidences inhomogeneous thickness.

Camara, N.; Rius, G.; Huntzinger, J.-R.; Tiberj, A.; Magaud, L.; Mestres, N.; Godignon, P.; Camassel, J.

2008-12-01

380

Quantitative classification of primary progressive aphasia at early and mild impairment stages  

PubMed Central

The characteristics of early and mild disease in primary progressive aphasia are poorly understood. This report is based on 25 patients with aphasia quotients >85%, 13 of whom were within 2 years of symptom onset. Word-finding and spelling deficits were the most frequent initial signs. Diagnostic imaging was frequently negative and initial consultations seldom reached a correct diagnosis. Functionality was preserved, so that the patients fit current criteria for single-domain mild cognitive impairment. One goal was to determine whether recently published classification guidelines could be implemented at these early and mild disease stages. The quantitative testing of the recommended core and ancillary criteria led to the classification of ?80% of the sample into agrammatic, logopenic and semantic variants. Biological validity of the resultant classification at these mild impairment stages was demonstrated by clinically concordant cortical atrophy patterns. A two-dimensional template based on orthogonal mapping of word comprehension and grammaticality provided comparable accuracy and led to a flexible road map that can guide the classification process quantitatively or qualitatively. Longitudinal evaluations of initially unclassifiable patients showed that the semantic variant can be preceded by a prodromal stage of focal left anterior temporal atrophy during which prominent anomia exists without word comprehension or object recognition impairments. Patterns of quantitative tests justified the distinction of grammar from speech abnormalities and the desirability of using the ‘agrammatic’ designation exclusively for loss of grammaticality, regardless of fluency or speech status. Two patients with simultaneous impairments of grammatical sentence production and word comprehension displayed focal atrophy of the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior temporal lobe. These patients represent a fourth variant of ‘mixed’ primary progressive aphasia. Quantitative criteria were least effective in the distinction of the agrammatic from the logopenic variant and left considerable latitude to clinical judgement. The widely followed recommendation to wait for 2 years of relatively isolated and progressive language impairment before making a definitive diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia has promoted diagnostic specificity, but has also diverted attention away from early and mild disease. This study shows that this recommendation is unnecessarily restrictive and that quantitative guidelines can be implemented for the valid root diagnosis and subtyping of mildly impaired patients within 2 years of symptom onset. An emphasis on early diagnosis will promote a better characterization of the disease stages where therapeutic interventions are the most likely to succeed.

Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra

2012-01-01

381

Pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common causes of dementia in the world. Patients with AD frequently complain of vision disturbances that do not manifest as changes in routine ophthalmological examination findings. The main causes of these disturbances are neuropathological changes in the visual cortex, although abnormalities in the retina and optic nerve cannot be excluded. Pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) tests are commonly used in ophthalmology to estimate bioelectrical function of the retina and optic nerve. The aim of this study was to determine whether retinal and optic nerve function, measured by PERG and PVEP tests, is changed in individuals in the early stages of AD with normal routine ophthalmological examination results. Standard PERG and PVEP tests were performed in 30 eyes of 30 patients with the early stages of AD. The results were compared to 30 eyes of 30 normal healthy controls. PERG and PVEP tests were recorded in accordance with the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) standards. Additionally, neural conduction was measured using retinocortical time (RCT)—the difference between P100-wave latency in PVEP and P50-wave implicit time in PERG. In PERG test, PVEP test, and RCT, statistically significant changes were detected. In PERG examination, increased implicit time of P50-wave (P < 0.03) and amplitudes reductions in P50- and N95-waves (P < 0.0001) were observed. In PVEP examination, increased latency of P100-wave (P < 0.0001) was found. A significant increase in RCT (P < 0.0001) was observed. The most prevalent features were amplitude reduction in N95-wave and increased latency of P100-wave which were seen in 56.7% (17/30) of the AD eyes. In patients with the early stages of AD and normal routine ophthalmological examination results, dysfunction of the retinal ganglion cells as well as of the optic nerve is present, as detected by PERG and PVEP tests. These dysfunctions, at least partially, explain the cause of visual disturbances observed in patients with the early stages of AD.

Lubinski, Wojciech; Potemkowski, Andrzej; Honczarenko, Krystyna

2010-01-01

382

Bone scanning in patients with early breast carcinoma: should it be a routine staging procedure  

SciTech Connect

Bone scanning is a sensitive test for the detection of metastatic breast cancer, but not all abnormal findings on bone scan are diagnostic of skeletal metastasis. Recent studies have found a relatively low rate (less than or equal to 5%) of abnormal scans in patients with Stage I and II breast cancers, and only half of those with positive scans subsequently had documented bony metastasis. The overwhelming clinical experiences summarized here question the value of including bone scanning as part of the routine work-up of patients with early breast cancers.

Lee, Y.T.

1981-02-01

383

Composition effects on the early-stage oxidation kinetics of (001) Cu-Au alloys  

SciTech Connect

An in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy study of the nucleation and growth of oxide islands during the early-stage oxidation of (001) Cu{sub 1-x}Au{sub x} alloys (x{<=}38 at. %) was undertaken in order to investigate the effects of alloying on oxide island nucleation behavior and growth kinetics. The kinetic data reveal that Au enhances the nucleation density of oxide islands and suppresses their growth rate. Our results provide insight into reasons for the decreased passivation properties of Cu when alloyed with Au.

Zhou, G.-W.; Eastman, J. A.; Birtcher, R. C.; Baldo, P. M.; Pearson, J. E.; Thompson, L. J.; Wang, L.; Yang, J. C. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)

2007-02-01

384

Influence of secondary structure on recovery from pauses during early stages of RNA transcription  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial stages of transcription by RNA polymerase are frequently marked by pausing and stalling events. These events have been linked to an inactive backtracked state in which the polymerase diffuses along the template DNA. We investigate theoretically the influence of RNA secondary structure in confining this diffusion. The effective confinement length peaks at transcript lengths commensurate with early stalling. This finite-size effect accounts for slow progress at the beginning of transcription, which we illustrate via stochastic hopping models for backtracking polymerases.

Klopper, A. V.; Bois, J. S.; Grill, S. W.

2010-03-01

385

Origin of the Directed Movement of Protocells in the Early Stages of the Evolution of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the directed motion of protocells during the early stages of evolution was discussed. The expenditures for movement, space orientation, and reception of information about the environment were taken into consideration, and it was shown that directed movement is evolutionarily advantageous in the following cases: when opposite gradients of different resources (for example, matter and energy) are great enough and when there is a rapid change in environmental parameters. It was also shown that the advantage of directed movement strategies depends greatly on how information about the environment is obtained by a protocell.

Melkikh, Alexey V.; Chesnokova, Oksana I.

2012-08-01

386

Nucleotide Deficiency Promotes Genomic Instability in Early Stages of Cancer Development  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Chromosomal instability in early cancer stages is caused by stress on DNA replication. The molecular basis for replication perturbation in this context is currently unknown. We studied the replication dynamics in cells in which a regulator of S phase entry and cell proliferation, the Rb-E2F pathway, is aberrantly activated. Aberrant activation of this pathway by HPV-16 E6/E7 or cyclin E oncogenes significantly decreased the cellular nucleotide levels in the newly transformed cells. Exogenously supplied nucleosides rescued the replication stress and DNA damage and dramatically decreased oncogene-induced transformation. Increased transcription of nucleotide biosynthesis genes, mediated by expressing the transcription factor c-myc, increased the nucleotide pool and also rescued the replication-induced DNA damage. Our results suggest a model for early oncogenesis in which uncoordinated activation of factors regulating cell proliferation leads to insufficient nucleotides that fail to support normal replication and genome stability.

Bester, Assaf C.; Roniger, Maayan; Oren, Yifat S.; Im, Michael M.; Sarni, Dan; Chaoat, Malka; Bensimon, Aaron; Zamir, Gideon; Shewach, Donna S.; Kerem, Batsheva

2013-01-01

387

Selective attention to signs of success: social dominance and early stage interpersonal perception.  

PubMed

Results from two experiments suggest that observers selectively attend to male, but not female, targets displaying signs of social dominance. Participants overestimated the frequency of dominant men in rapidly presented stimulus arrays (Study 1) and visually fixated on dominant men in an eyetracking experiment (Study 2). When viewing female targets, participants attended to signs of physical attractiveness rather than social dominance. Findings fit with evolutionary models of mating, which imply that dominance and physical attractiveness sometimes tend to be prioritized preferentially in judgments of men versus women, respectively. Findings suggest that sex differences in human mating are observed not only at the level of overt mating preferences and choices but also at early stages of interpersonal perception. This research demonstrates the utility of examining early-in-the-stream social cognition through the functionalist lens of adaptive thinking. PMID:18192434

Maner, Jon K; DeWall, C Nathan; Gailliot, Matthew T

2008-01-11

388

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF): genetic evidence for participation in early onset and early stage rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream pro-inflammatory cytokine that is associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two polymorphisms in the upstream region exist in the MIF gene and are associated with RA susceptibility or severity in different populations. In this case-control study, we investigated whether MIF polymorphisms are associated with RA susceptibility or activity in a western Mexican population .The relationship of MIF levels with clinical features of disease also was assessed. Genotyping of the -794 CATT5-8 (rs5844572) and the -173 G>C (rs755622) polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP respectively on 226 RA patients and 210 healthy subjects. Serum MIF levels were determined by ELISA. We found a significant association between the -794 CATT5-8 6,7 MIF genotype with RA. Moreover, we detected an association between the -794 CATT7 allele with early onset RA. The -794 CATT7 and -173(*)C alleles, which are in linkage disequilibrium, were associated with high disease activity on RA patients. A positive correlation between circulating MIF levels and C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein/peptides antibodies and TNF? was detected. MIF levels appear to be associated with disease progression rather than disease activity, which is distinct from the established relationship between disease activity and TNF? levels. In conclusion, the MIF gene and protein are associated with RA in a western Mexican population, with a main contribution onto early onset and early stages of disease. PMID:23402792

Llamas-Covarrubias, M A; Valle, Y; Bucala, R; Navarro-Hernández, R E; Palafox-Sánchez, C A; Padilla-Gutiérrez, J R; Parra-Rojas, I; Bernard-Medina, A G; Reyes-Castillo, Z; Muñoz-Valle, J F

2013-02-09

389

Intact relational memory and normal hippocampal structure in the early stage of psychosis  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies indicate the transition to psychosis is associated with dynamic changes of hippocampal integrity. Here we explored hippocampal volume and neural activation during a relational memory task in patients who were in the early stage of a psychotic illness. Methods 41 early psychosis patients and 34 healthy controls completed a transitive inference (TI) task used previously in chronic schizophrenia patients. Participants learned to select the “winner” of two sets of stimulus pairs drawn from an overlapping sequence (A>B>C>D>E) and a non-overlapping set (a>b, c>d, e>f, g>h). During an fMRI scan, participants were tested on the trained pairs and made inferential judgments on novel pairings that could be solved based on training (e.g. B vs. D). Hippocampal volumes were manually segmented and compared between groups. fMRI analyses included 27 early psychosis patients and 30 controls who met memory training criteria. Results Groups did not differ on inference performance or hippocampal volume, and exhibited similar activation of medial temporal regions when judging non-overlapping pairs. However, patients who failed to meet memory training criteria had smaller hippocampal volumes. Neural activity during TI was less widespread in early psychosis patients but between-group differences were not significant. Hippocampal activity during TI was positively correlated with inference performance only in control subjects. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that relational memory impairment and hippocampal abnormalities, well established in chronic schizophrenia, are not fully present in early psychosis patients. This provides a rationale for early intervention, targeting the possible delay, reduction, or prevention of these deficits.

Williams, Lisa E.; Avery, Suzanne N.; Woolard, Austin A.; Heckers, Stephan

2012-01-01

390

The relationship between cortisol and verbal memory in the early stages of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity has been linked to learning and memory difficulties in a range of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions. In Huntington's disease (HD), both declines in learning and memory and HPA axis dysfunction are present early in the disease. However, the relationship between specific learning and memory deficits and HPA axis functioning in HD has not been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate cortisol levels in relation to verbal learning and memory in pre-diagnosed (pre-HD) participants and patients at the early stages of diagnosed HD (early-HD). Cortisol concentration was assayed in saliva samples from 57 participants (17 early-HD, 20 pre-HD, and 20 controls) at four time-points across a 24-h period. Verbal memory was assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II). We focused statistical analyses on the late evening cortisol concentration, and examined cortisol levels and verbal memory function in relation to diagnostic group (control, pre-HD, early-HD), and in a separate set of analyses combining pre-HD and early-HD (and excluding controls) we also examined cortisol and verbal memory performance in relation to the severity of HD-related motor signs. Of these two classification approaches, HD motor sign severity was more strongly associated with high evening cortisol levels and both reduced information encoding and memory retrieval. Separately, there was also a trend of higher cortisol levels in pre-HD. The findings suggest hypercortisolism and the underlying pathological changes may begin many years before a clinical diagnosis is made, but the memory decline associated with HPA axis disturbance may only become detectable once motor signs become pronounced. PMID:23180175

Shirbin, Christopher A; Chua, Phyllis; Churchyard, Andrew; Hannan, Anthony J; Lowndes, Georgia; Stout, Julie C

2012-11-20

391

Impact of [{sup 18}F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Staging and Management of Early-Stage Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Accurate staging is critical to select patients with early-stage (I-II) follicular lymphoma (ESFL) suitable for involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) and to define the radiotherapy portal. We evaluated the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET on staging, treatment, and outcome for patients with ESFL on conventional staging. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with untreated ESFL (World Health Organization Grade I-IIIa, or 'low grade') following a minimum of physical examination, computerized tomography, and bone marrow examination (conventional assessment) and who had staging PET from June 1997 to June 2006 were studied retrospectively. Stage allocation was based on routine imaging reports. Disease sites, stage, and management plan were recorded based on conventional assessment or conventional assessment plus PET. Results: FDG avidity was demonstrated in 97% of patients in whom disease was evident on conventional assessment after biopsy. PET findings suggested a change of stage or management in 19 patients: 13 (31%) who were upstaged to Stage III-IV, altering ideal management from IFRT to systemic therapy, and 6 (14%) who had the involved field enlarged, including 4 upstaged from Stage I to II. Of these 19 cases, PET findings were considered true positive in 8 patients, indeterminate in 10, and false positive in only 1 patient. Conclusions: Our data confirm that ESFL is usually FDG-avid. In routine practice, PET has the potential to upstage and thereby alter management in a high proportion of patients with apparent ESFL.

Wirth, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)], E-mail: andrew.wirth@petermac.org; Foo, Marcus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Seymour, John F. [Department of Hematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); MacManus, Michael P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Department of Metabolic Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

2008-05-01

392

AESTHETIC AND BIOLOGICAL PERCEPTIONS OF SUCCESSIONAL FOREST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five Alberta Communities were chosen to represent five separate community types—agricultural, oil extraction, two forestry and urban professional. Each participant in the research was exposed to a reasoned argument supporting either forest harvest or forest preservation. Afterwards, each participant inspected 8 large numbered colour prints showing forest landscapes in different stages of development. Ratings were made on two scales. One

THOMAS M. NELSON; MICHAEL J. STRONG; THOMAS JOHNSON

2006-01-01

393

Developing an Instrument to Measure Socioeconomic Disparities in Quality of Care for Men with Early Stage Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Patients with early stage prostate cancer have excellent cause specific survival after definitive local therapy with radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. However, regardless of race, men of lower socioeconomic status are less likely to receive defi...

T. Koppie

2010-01-01

394

Effects of Kelthane and Pydrin on Early Life Stages of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Amphipods (Hyalella azteca).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Embryonic, larval and early juvenile stages of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and juvenile amphipods (Hyalella azteca) were exposed to Kelthane, and fathead minnows were exposed to Pydrin in a small self-contained continuous-flow diluter system for...

R. L. Spehar D. K. Tanner J. H. Gibson

1982-01-01

395

Effects of Diet Quantity on Sheepshead Minnows 'Cyprinodon variegatus' during Early Life-Stage Exposures to Chlorpyrifos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of food quantity on the effects of chlorpyrifos was determined in six early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests with estuarine sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus. Three ELS tests were conducted simultaneously, each with a different feedin...

G. M. Cripe D. J. Hansen S. F. Macauley J. Forester

1985-01-01

396

Clearcut stand size and scrub-successional bird assemblages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the effects of clearcut stand size on species richness, reproductive effort, and relative abundance of scrub-successional birds and the entire bird assemblage at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. We used standardized mist-net grids to mark and recapture birds in clearcuts replanted with longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) in stands of 2 to 57 ha that were two to six years old. Species richness for the entire bird assemblage was not explained by stand size (P = 0.67), stand age (P = 0.95), or the interaction of these two variables (P = 0.90). Similarly, species richness of scrub-successional birds was not explained by stand size (P = 0.63), stand age (P = 0.55), or the interaction of stand size and stand age (P = 0.35). Regressing species richness on clearcut stand size, we found a significant negative relationship between these variables for the entire bird assemblage (P = 0.01) and for scrub-successional birds (P = 0.02). The ratio of juveniles to adults in mist-net samples varied by year (P = 0.04), but neither clearcut size (P = 0.23) nor the interaction of clearcut size and year (P = 0.25) was related to the ratio of juveniles to adults in the sample. We found no relationship between the frequency of capture of any category of birds and stand size (scrub-successional, P = 0.52; woodland, P = 0.77; combined sample, P = 0.55). Neither bird-species richness, reproductive effort, nor relative abundance differed across clearcut stand sizes. Clearcut stand size does not appear to be an important management variable if variation in species richness, reproductive effort, or relative abundance are objectives. We suggest that even-aged forestry is a useful tool for managing birds in the southeastern United States.

Krementz, D. G.; Christie, J. S.

2000-01-01

397

Polygonum viviparum mycobionts on an alpine primary successional glacier forefront  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygonum viviparum is one of the first ectomycorrhizal (EM) plant species colonising primary successional sites at the Rotmoos glacier forefront\\u000a (Tyrolean Alps, Austria). On a site with soil development of about 150 years (2,400 m above sea level), mycobionts of P. viviparum were identified by morphotyping and fungal ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid internal transcribed spacer sequencing. For studying\\u000a seasonal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity,

Oliver Mühlmann; Margit Bacher; Ursula Peintner

2008-01-01

398

Plant-fungus mutualism affects spider composition in successional fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualistic symbionts are widespread in plants and may have strong, bottom-up influences on community structure. Here we show that a grass-endophyte mutualism shifts the composition of a generalist predator assemblage. In replicated, successional fields we manipulated endophyte infection by Neotyphodium coenophialum in a dominant, non-native plant (Lolium arundinaceum). We compared the magnitude of the endophyte effect with manipulations of thatch

Laura K. Finkes; Alan B. Cady; Juliana C. Mulroy; Keith Clay; Jennifer A. Rudgers

2006-01-01

399

Partial-Breast Irradiation Versus Whole-Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation (PBI) is a new treatment paradigm for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Although PBI may lead to greater local recurrence rates, it may be cost-effective because of better tolerability and lower cost. We aim to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of PBI compared with whole-breast radiation therapy (WBRT) for estrogen receptor-positive postmenopausal women treated for early-stage breast

David J. Sher; Eve Wittenberg; W. Warren Suh; Alphonse G. Taghian; Rinaa S. Punglia

2009-01-01

400

Description of the early stage of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Germany, 27 April-16 June 2009.  

PubMed

We report characteristics of the early stage of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Germany. Until 16 June 2009, 198 confirmed cases were notified. Almost half of the cases (47%) were imported, mostly from Mexico and the United States. About two third of indigenous cases were outbreak-related (with two large school-associated outbreaks, n=74). According to our results Germany is still in the early stage of the pandemic with limited domestic transmission. PMID:19660249

2009-08-06

401

Homogeneity-based feature extraction for classification of early-stage alzheimer's disease from functional magnetic resonance images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of age-related dementia. Early-stage diagnosis of Alzheimer is of major importance for the following reasons: Also easily curable conditions like depression, poor nutrition and drug side effects may cause symptoms like early-stage Alzheimer. Moreover, recently some medications have been developed which successfully attenuate the symptoms and delay the progression of Alzheimer, but to

Claudia Plant; Christian Sorg; Valentin Riedl; Afra Wohlschläger

2011-01-01

402

Emotional curiosity: modulation of visuospatial attention by arousal is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that Alzheimer’s disease, even in its early stages, decreases novelty-seeking behaviors (curiosity) and impairs the shifting of spatial attention to extrapersonal targets. In this study, early-stage probable Alzheimer’s disease patients (PRAD) and young and aging controls were shown pairs of visual scenes, some of which contained emotionally-arousing material, while eye movements were recorded under free viewing

Kevin S. LaBar; M.-Marsel Mesulam; Darren R. Gitelman; Sandra Weintraub

2000-01-01

403

The Early Stages of Native Enamel Dissolution Studied with Atomic Force Microscopy.  

PubMed

Food-induced demineralization (erosion) is one of the key factors in surface structural changes of tooth enamel, with soft drinks being a significant etiological agent. The objective of this study was to measure early stages of enamel loss with high accuracy on native enamel surfaces combined with qualitative observations of changes in the surface morphology using the atomic force microscope (AFM). Native unerupted third molar surfaces were partly covered with a gold reference layer. Samples were imaged with the AFM before dissolution (at baseline) and after exposure to three different drinks (mineral water, a "toothkind" blackcurrant drink, and a lemon and lime juice drink) at five different exposure times (15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h). The changes in the surface morphology were investigated qualitatively as well as quantitatively. This study showed that the maximum material loss occurred at the aprismatic parts of the enamel close to the perikymata. The maximum enamel loss was greatest for the lemon and lime juice drink and lowest for water. A two-way ANOVA of the transformed data, employing the natural logarithm, showed a statistically significant difference between both the drinks and the exposure time at a 95% confidence level (P=0.000). This demonstrates that the AFM is a suitable tool for measuring early stages of enamel demineralization. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:11071745

Finke; Jandt; Parker

2000-12-01

404

Immunohistochemical approach to the pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in its early stages.  

PubMed

An immunohistochemical and histochemical study was carried out on the brains of nine cases of BSE-diagnosed cattle as part of the surveillance plan in Catalonia, Spain. The animals had no clinical symptoms reported and were thus at early stages of the disease. The first part of the study consisted of a characterization of PrP(BSE) deposits throughout the encephalon. The behaviour of the different immuno-labelling patterns was analysed and tropism of some patterns towards certain brain areas was described. This tropism is principally directed to the brain stem region; however, an association of the stellate pattern was found with areas where PrP(BSE) is deposited less abundantly, such as the cerebral cortex. Secondly, distinct pathogenesis mechanisms that take place in the early stages of BSE, which would include these cases were investigated. This study describes the glial response to the presence of PrP(BSE) (using antibodies against astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein and lectin from Griffonia simplicifolia to identify microglia), the presence of mild oxidative stress phenomena (antibodies against metallothioneins I and II and against nitrated aminoacidic residues: nitrotyrosine), the apparent absence of apoptotic cellular death (cleaved caspase 3) and the preservation of synaptic proteins synaptophysin and small synaptosome-associated 25 kDa protein immuno-labelling. Finally, no alteration of the extra-cellular matrix was detected with the use of Wisteria floribunda agglutinin, a marker for perineuronal nets. PMID:16406559

Vidal, E; Márquez, M; Tortosa, R; Costa, C; Serafín, A; Pumarola, M

2006-01-09

405

Transcriptional signatures mediated by acetylation overlap with early-stage Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which environmental influences lead to the development of complex neurode-generative diseases are largely unknown. It is known, however, that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate alterations in transcription due to environmental influences. In order to identify genes susceptible to regulation in the adult cortex by one type of epigenetic mechanism, histone, and protein acetylation, we treated mice with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA). After 1 week of treatment with TSA, RNA was extracted from the brain cortices of mice and gene expression differences were analyzed by microarray profiling. The altered genes were then compared with genes differentially expressed in microarray studies of disease by database and literature searches. Genes regulated by TSA were found to significantly overlap with differentially expressed genes in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain. Several TSA-regulated genes involved in chromatin remodeling and epigenetic reprogramming including histone cluster 1, H4 h (Hist1H4 h), methionine adenosyltransferase II, alpha (Mat2a), and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine reductase (Mtrr) overlapped with genes altered in early-stage AD in gray matter. We also show that the expression of hemoglobin, which has been shown to be altered in neurons in the AD brain, is regulated by TSA treatment. This analysis suggests involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in neurons in early stages of AD.

Vadnal, J.; Houston, S.; Bhatta, S.; Freeman, E.

2013-01-01

406

Radiation therapy alone in early stage non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Among the patients with early stage (I/II) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there are those who, due to medical comorbidities, advanced age, or refusal, never undergo surgery. For them, exclusive radiation therapy (RT) has been the treatment of choice, achieving median survival times of 30 months and 5-year survival of up to 42%. Doses of > or =65 Gy with standard fractionation (or its radiobiological equivalent when altered fractionation is used) are necessary for long-lasting local control of the disease, with smaller tumors having a more favorable prognosis. The issue of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) remains controversial, since failure patterns identified local failure as the predominant pattern. None of the potential pretreatment patient- and tumor-related prognostic factors has been shown to clearly influence survival. Toxicity is generally mild to moderate, although high doses (e.g., 80 Gy) may carry a risk for an excessive rate of side effects. Conformal treatment and consideration of comorbidities such as altered lung function may be essential, since simultaneous supportive treatment of acute sequelae (mainly acute esophagitis) is necessary. RT is an effective treatment modality in technically operable, but medically inoperable patients with early stage NSCLC and offers a long-lasting cure. PMID:14508859

Zimmermann, Frank B; Bamberg, Michael; Molls, Michael; Jeremic, Branislav

2003-01-01

407

Early stage spin-state transition in LaCoO3 investigated by first principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal-induced spin-state transition in LaCoO3 has been a highly debated phenomenon. The point in controversy is whether the intermediate-spin (IS) state can stably exist, and whether the intermediate-spin or high-spin (HS) state is the first excited state. In our calculation, we have successfully stabilized isolated HS and IS Co in an array of low-spin (LS) Co in LaCoO3 using the local density approximation + Hubbard U (LDA+U) method. The HS/LS (or IS/LS) Co population ratio is set to 1:7, so that the early stage of spin-state transition is properly approximated. The Hubbard U is self-consistently determined by first principles, so that the equation of state and the energy of Co in each spin state can be determined with better accuracy. We show that at low temperature, isolated IS Co has higher energy than isolated HS Co. We also show that low concentration of isolated IS Co can lead to metallic LaCoO3. Therefore, the early stage spin-state transition in LaCoO3 is LS-to-HS transition. This work was supported primarily by the MRSEC Program of the National Science Foundation under Award Number DMR-0212302 and DMR-0819885. It was also partially supported by NSF grants ITR-0426757 (VLab) and EAR 0757903. Calculations were performed at Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI).

Leighton, C.; Hsu, H.; Cococcioni, M.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

2009-12-01

408

Toxic concentrations in fish early life stages peak at a critical moment.  

PubMed

During the development of an embryo into a juvenile, the physiology and behavior of a fish change greatly, affecting exposure to and uptake of environmental pollutants. Based on experimental data with sole (Solea solea), an existing bioaccumulation model was adapted and validated to calculate the development of concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the tissue of developing fish. Simulation revealed that toxic tissue concentrations of pollutants with log octanol-water partition ratio (K(OW)) > 5 peak at the moment when the larvae become free-feeding, when the lipid reserves are depleted. This may explain the delayed effects observed in fish early-life-stage experiments with exposed eggs. In the field, eggs can be exposed through maternal transfer to adult pollutant tissue concentrations, which will increase in the larva to peak tissue concentrations, exceeding those of the adult fish. The results demonstrate the risk of underestimating the effects of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants with log K(OW) > 5 in short-term, early-life-stage fish tests and underscore the importance of maternal transfer as an exposure route in the field situation. PMID:22505329

Foekema, E M; Fischer, A; Lopez Parron, M; Kwadijk, C; de Vries, P; Murk, A J

2012-04-27

409

Early embryonic development and diapause stage in the band-legged ground cricket Dianemobius nigrofasciatus.  

PubMed

The band-legged ground cricket Dianemobius nigrofasciatus enters diapause at an early embryonic stage when adults are reared under short-day conditions or the eggs are exposed to a low temperature. We examined the morphological features of the embryo during early development and determined the exact stage of entry into diapause. In non-diapause eggs, no periplasmic space was observed in the surface region and a small number of nuclei surrounded by cytoplasm (energids) were found among the yolk granules and lipid droplets 12 h after egg laying (AEL) at 25 degrees C. The energids sparsely but evenly populated the surface region at 40 h AEL, but there were some gaps between these energids. A continuous thin layer of nuclei with cytoplasm had completely covered the egg surface at 56 h AEL, suggesting that the blastoderm is formed between 40 and 56 h AEL. At 72 h AEL, we found a germ band at the posterior pole. Electron microscopy revealed clear cell membranes at 40 h AEL. Staining with rhodamine-dextran dye demonstrated that the cell membrane is formed when the nuclei appear on the egg surface at 12-24 h AEL. These results indicate that cellularization occurs before blastoderm formation. In diapause eggs, neither the embryonic rudiment nor germ band was formed, but a continuous layer of cells covered the egg surface. It is concluded that D. nigrofasciatus enters diapause at the cellular blastoderm. PMID:20195871

Tanigawa, Naoki; Matsumoto, Keiji; Yasuyama, Kouji; Numata, Hideharu; Shiga, Sakiko

2010-03-02

410

Early Stages of Ti-O Cluster Growth on Carbon Nanotubes by ab Initio Calculations.  

PubMed

Ti-O combined with carbon nanotubes are excelled candidates for many technological applications. The early stages of growth comprise octahedral (Oh) anatase or rutile nanoparticles depending on the tetrahedral (Th) precursors. However, the underline mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we present results of a systematic study of Th or Oh clusters on (4,0) and (8,0). We found that although the Th may exist in several conformations, with well localized electronic states, the Oh is unstable. We found that due to charge localization and the emergence of C dangling bonds at the Fermi level, Th could be considered as more active compared to Oh that adopts the tube's C2p-C2p ?-like features. In addition, when parallel to the tubes and along the zigzag chiral direction, the linear rutile-like trimers on zigzag (8,0), armchair (5,5), and (3,0)@(12,0) multiwall were clearly found to be energetically favored, while when vertically aligned, equi-probable rutile or spinal anatase-like growth is expected. At the Fermi level, the charge is localized at the Ti-O trimer, when on (5,5) and (3,0)@(12,0) cases, rendering Ti-O active. These results could enlighten the early stages of Ti-O growth on SWCNT providing useful information in the field of nanoelectronics and nanotechnology. PMID:24044643

Gialampouki, M A; Lekka, Ch E

2013-09-30

411

Cyclin A is a prognostic indicator in early stage breast cancer with and without tamoxifen treatment  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of G1-S regulators cyclin D1 or cyclin A is frequently observed in breast cancer and is also to result in ligand-independent activation of oestrogen receptor in vitro. This might therefore, provide a mechanism for failure of tamoxifen treatment. We examined by immunohistochemical staining the effect of deregulation of these, and other cell cycle regulators on tamoxifen treatment in a group of 394 patients with early stage breast cancer. In univariate analysis, expression of cyclin A, Neu, Ki-67 index, and lack of OR expression were significantly associated with worse prognosis. When adjusted by the clinical model (for lymph node status, age, performance status, T-classification, grade, prior surgery, oestrogen receptor status and tamoxifen use), only overexpression of cyclin A and Neu were significantly associated with worse prognosis with hazard ratios of, respectively, 1.709 (P=0.0195) and 1.884 (P=0.0151). Overexpression of cyclin A was found in 86 out of the 201 OR-positive cases treated with tamoxifen, and was the only independent marker associated with worse prognosis (hazard ratio 2.024, P=0.0462). In conclusion, cyclin A is an independent predictor of recurrence of early stage breast cancer and is as such a marker for response in patients treated with tamoxifen. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 402–408. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600072 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign

Michalides, R; van Tinteren, H; Balkenende, A; Vermorken, J B; Benraadt, J; Huldij, J; van Diest, P

2002-01-01

412

Clinical outcomes of radiation therapy for early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) for early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma). METHODS: The records of 64 patients treated between 1998 and 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. For Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive patients (n = 31), chemotherapy or H. pylori eradication therapy was the initial treatment. In patients with failure after H. pylori eradication, RT was performed. For H. pylori-negative patients (n = 33), chemotherapy or RT was the first-line treatment. The median RT dose was 36 Gy. The target volume included the entire stomach and the perigastric lymph node area. RESULTS: All of the patients completed RT without interruption and showed complete remission on endoscopic biopsy after treatment. Over a median follow-up period of 39 mo, the 5-year local control rate was 89%. Salvage therapy was successful in all relapsed patients. Secondary malignancies developed in three patients. The 5-year overall survival rate was 94%. No patient presented symptoms of moderate-to-severe treatment-related toxicities during or after RT. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy results in favorable clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage gastric MALToma who experience failure of H. pylori eradication therapy and those who are H. pylori negative.

Kim, Sang-Won; Lim, Do Hoon; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Hyeh; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

2013-01-01

413

LARP1 predict the prognosis for early-stage and AFP-normal hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The La-related protein 1 (LARP1) has been found to be a RNA binding protein and was related to spermatogenesis, embryogenesis and cell-cycle progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of LARP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods LARP1 expression was examined in 15 HCC cell lines and 272 clinical specimens using real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot analysis (WB). LARP1 expression was also studied in 6 paired HCC lesions and the adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples. Statistical analyses were applied to derive association between LARP1 expression scores and clinical characters as well as patient survival. Results mRNA and protein levels of LARP1 were higher in HCC cell lines and HCC lesions than in normal liver epithelial cells and the paired adjacent noncancerous tissues. LARP1 expression was correlated to survival time, vital status, tumor size and Child-Pugh score. Overall survival analysis showed HCC patients with high LARP1 expression level had lower survival rate (P?early-stage HCC or with normal serum AFP level. Conclusions LARP1 protein may represent a promising biomarker for predicting the prognosis of HCC, including in early-stage and AFP-normal patients.

2013-01-01

414

Early stages of oxidation of ion-implanted nickel at high temperature  

SciTech Connect

The early stages of oxidation of nickel implanted with nickel, chromium, or lithium ions in oxygen at 1100/sup 0/C have been studied using various electron-optical techniques. The unimplanted metal develops initially a fine-grained, convoluted scale having a ridged, cellular structure. Subsequently, the oxide grains increase in size significantly and oxidation becomes predominantly controlled by diffusion of Ni /sup 2+/ ions across a compact, columnar scale. Implantation of the surface with nickel ions has no significant effect on the initial oxidation behavior. However, after implantation with chromium or lithium ions, the development of the NiO scale is, in the early stages of oxidation, suppressed by formation of NiCr/sub 2/O/sub 4/ or LiO/sub 2/ nodules, respectively. Subsequently, the implanted species are incorporated into the steady-state NiO scale where they dope the oxide and thus influence the diffusion rate of Ni /sup 2+/ ions through it. As would be predicted, the steady-state oxidation rate of chromium-implanted nickel is increased while that of lithium- implanted nickel is decreased compared with that of the unimplanted metal.

Peide, Z. (Corrosion and Protection Centre, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester M60 1QD (GB)); Grant, W.A.; Procter, R.P.M.

1981-01-01

415

Early life-stage toxicity test methods for gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) and results using chlorpyrifos  

SciTech Connect

Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) were continuously exposed as embryos, sac fry, and juveniles to technical chlorpyrifos in two 49-day early life-stage toxicity tests. Survival was significantly (alpha = 0.05) reduced only in 150 micrograms/liter. However, toadfish exposed to chlorpyrifos concentrations from 3.7 to 150 micrograms/liter weighted significantly less than control fish: 9% lower in 3.7 micrograms/liter to 62% lower in 150 micrograms/liter. The 96-hr LC50 for juvenile fish was 520 micrograms/liter. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in toadfish and bioconcentration factors increased with increasing exposure concentration, a condition not generally observed with other marine fishes and other test chemicals. These results demonstrated the procedures for, and the practicality of, early life-stage tests with this marine species. We recommend the use of the gulf toadfish for comparative toxicity testing and for evaluating the toxicity of substances in conjunction with ontogenetical, physiological, and histological investigations of this considerably studied genus. We do not recommend it for routine effects testing.

Hansen, D.J.; Goodman, L.R.; Cripe, G.M.; Macauley, S.F.

1986-02-01

416

Effect of light Sphagnum peat on odour formation in the early stages of biowaste composting.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the effects of two bulking materials, Sphagnum peat and pine wood chips, on the early stages of biowaste composting in two pilot-scale processes. Emphasis was placed on studying the formation conditions of malodorous compost gases in the initial phases of the processes. The results showed that gas emission leaving an open windrow and a closed drum composting system contained elevated concentrations of fermentative microbial metabolites when acid Sphagnum peat (pH 3.2) was used as a bulking material. Moreover, the gas emission of the peat amended drum composter contained a high concentration of odour (up to 450,000oum(-3) of air). The highest odour values in the outlet gas of peat amended composts coincided with the elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds such as acetoin and buthanedion. We conclude that the acidifying qualities of composting substrates or bulking material may intensify odour emission from biowaste composts and prolong the early stages of the composting process. PMID:20061130

Kurola, Jukka M; Arnold, Mona; Kontro, Merja H; Talves, Matti; Romantschuk, Martin

2010-01-12

417

Cost calculations at early stages of nuclear research facilities in the nordic countries  

SciTech Connect

The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warranted and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with fundamental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones. Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflected in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities. Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for cost calculations. It also implies that this calculation process should include a well adopted learning process. Thus, a Nordic co-operation has been established for the exchange and evaluation of cost-related information on nuclear research facilities. The aim is to identify good practices, accumulate experience, compile data from actual plants and projects, and to derive methodology for cost calculations, especially for early stages. The work includes the following tasks which constitutes the bulk of the present paper: identification of good practice with regard to the following: - strategy and planning; - methodology selection; - radiological surveying; - uncertainty analysis. - descriptions of relevant plants, features and projects: - decommissioning of reactor DR 1 in Denmark; - decommissioning of reactor R 1 in Sweden; - decommissioning of the pilot scale uranium fuel; reprocessing plant in Norway - planning for the future decommissioning of the TRIGA reactor in Finland. - techniques for assessments of costs introduction. (authors)

Iversen, Klaus [Danish Decommissioning (Denmark); Salmenhaara, Seppo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1805 - Kemistintie 3, Espoo, FIN - 02044 VTT (Finland); Backe, Steinar [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Cato, Anna; Lindskog, Staffan [The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Klarabergsviadukten 90, SE-106 58 Stockholm (Sweden); Callander, Clas; Efraimsson, Henrik [The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Inga [Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Spinnarvaegen 10, 611 63 Nykoeping (Sweden)

2007-07-01

418

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin, vincristine, and bleomycin and radical surgery in early-stage bulky cervical carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of 2–3 courses of cisplatin, vincristine, and bleomycin was used in the primary treatment of 36 consecutive patients with locally advanced early-stage cervical carcinoma [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (GIGO) stages I b or IIa; tumor size, =4 cm]. The effectiveness of the preoperative chemotherapy was evaluated in the surgical specimens. Among the 33 evaluable patients,

Horng-Chyi Chang; Chyong-Huey Lai; Paul C. Chou; Chih-Jen Tseng; Ting-Chang Chang; Swei Hsueh; Yat-Sen Ho; Yung-Kuei Soong I

1992-01-01

419

Lack of miRNA Misregulation at Early Pathological Stages in Drosophila Neurodegenerative Disease Models  

PubMed Central

Late onset neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health concern as the population in many countries ages. Both frequent diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD, 14% incidence for 80–84?year-old Europeans) or Parkinson disease (PD, 1.4% prevalence for >55?years old) share, with other low-incidence neurodegenerative pathologies such as spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs, 0.01% prevalence) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, 0.02% prevalence), a lack of efficient treatment in spite of important research efforts. Besides significant progress, studies with animal models have revealed unexpected complexities in the degenerative process, emphasizing a need to better understand the underlying pathological mechanisms. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs, have been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases. The current data supporting a role of miRNAs in PD, tauopathies, dominant ataxias, and FTLD will first be discussed to emphasize the different levels of the pathological processes which may be affected by miRNAs. To investigate a potential involvement of miRNA dysregulation in the early stages of these neurodegenerative diseases we have used Drosophila models for seven diseases (PD, 3 FTLD, 3 dominant ataxias) that recapitulate many features of the human diseases. We performed deep sequencing of head small RNAs after 3?days of pathological protein expression in the fly head neurons. We found no evidence for a statistically significant difference in miRNA expression in this early stage of the pathological process. In addition, we could not identify small non-coding CAG repeat RNAs (sCAG) in polyQ disease models. Thus our data suggest that transcriptional deregulation of miRNAs or sCAG is unlikely to play a significant role in the initial stages of neurodegenerative diseases.

Reinhardt, Anita; Feuillette, Sebastien; Cassar, Marlene; Callens, Celine; Thomassin, Helene; Birman, Serge; Lecourtois, Magalie; Antoniewski, Christophe; Tricoire, Herve

2012-01-01

420

Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: jwong@lroc.harvard.edu; Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Keshaviah, Aparna [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Winer, Eric P. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-11-01

421

Analysis of cerebro-spinal fluid protein composition in early developmental stages in chick embryos.  

PubMed

Foetal cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) has a very high protein concentration when compared to adult CSF, and in many species five major protein fractions have been described. However, the protein concentration and composition in CSF during early developmental stages remains largely unknown. Our results show that in the earliest stages (18 to 30 H.H.) of chick development there is a progressive increase in CSF protein concentration until foetal values are attained. In addition, by performing electrophoretic separation and high-sensitivity silver staining, we were able to identify a total of 21 different protein fractions in the chick embryo CSF. In accordance with the developmental pattern of their c