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1

Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs for arid land soils and often represent a dominant portion of the soil surface cover in arid lands. Free-living soil nematode communities reflect their environment and have been used as biological indicators of soil condition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nematode communities are successionally more mature

Brian J. Darby; Deborah A. Neher; Jayne Belnap

2007-01-01

2

Macroinvertebrate community structure in created wetlands of different successional stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed biogeochemical characteristics of two temperate constructed wetlands in early and late spring to evaluate the utility of the macroinvertebrate community as an indicator of ecosystem development. The wetlands were similar in area, hydrologic regime, and influent water quality, but one was younger (15 y) and supported an early successional plant community while the older system (45 y) was

Douglas J. Spieles; Jonathan D. Horn

2009-01-01

3

Carbon and nitrogen fixation differ between successional stages of biological soil crusts in the Colorado Plateau and Chihuahuan Desert  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological soil crusts (cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens collectively) perform essential ecosystem services, including carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fixation. Climate and land-use change are converting later successional soil crusts to early successional soil crusts with lower C and N fixation rates. To quantify the effect of such conversions on C and N dynamics in desert ecosystems we seasonally measured diurnal fixation rates in different biological soil crusts. We classified plots on the Colorado Plateau (Canyonlands) and Chihuahuan Desert (Jornada) as early (Microcoleus) or later successional (Nostoc/Scytonema or Placidium/Collema) and measured photosynthesis (Pn), nitrogenase activity (NA), and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) on metabolically active (moist) soil crusts. Later successional crusts typically had greater Pn, averaging 1.2-1.3-fold higher daily C fixation in Canyonlands and 2.4-2.8-fold higher in the Jornada. Later successional crusts also had greater NA, averaging 1.3-7.5-fold higher daily N fixation in Canyonlands and 1.3-25.0-fold higher in the Jornada. Mean daily Fv/Fm was also greater in later successional Canyonlands crusts during winter, and Jornada crusts during all seasons except summer. Together these findings indicate conversion of soil crusts back to early successional stages results in large reductions of C and N inputs into these ecosystems.

Housman, D. C.; Powers, H. H.; Collins, A. D.; Belnap, J.

2006-01-01

4

Chemical variation in Jacobaea vulgaris is influenced by the interaction of season and vegetation successional stage.  

PubMed

Knowledge on spatio-temporal dynamics of plant primary and secondary chemistry under natural conditions is important to assess how plant defence varies in real field conditions. Plant primary and secondary chemistry is known to vary with both season and vegetation successional stage, however, in few studies these two sources of variation have been examined in combination. Here we examine variations in primary and secondary chemistry of Jacobaea vulgaris (Asteraceae) throughout the growing season in early, mid, and late stages of secondary succession following land abandonment using a well-established chronosequence in The Netherlands. We investigated primary and secondary chemistry of both leaves and flowers, in order to determine if patterns during seasonal (phenological) development may differ among successional stages. The chemical concentration of primary and secondary chemistry compounds in J. vulgaris varied throughout the season and was affected by vegetation succession stage. Concentrations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) tertiary-amines were highest in flowers during early Summer and in fields that had been abandoned ten to twenty years ago. PA N-oxide concentrations of both leaves and flowers, on the other hand increased with the progression of both season and succession. In Spring and early Summer chlorophyll concentrations were highest, especially in the oldest fields of the chronosequence. During phenological development, nitrogen concentration increased in flowers and decreased in leaves revealing allocation of nutrients from vegetative to reproductive plant parts throughout the growing season. The highest concentrations of N-oxides and chlorophylls were detected in older fields. Thus, our results suggest that variations in plant patterns of nutritional and defence compounds throughout the growing season are depending on successional context. PMID:24412324

Carvalho, Sabrina; Macel, Mirka; Mulder, Patrick P J; Skidmore, Andrew; van der Putten, Wim H

2014-03-01

5

Phenotypic Plasticity of Early and Late Successional Forbs in Response to Shifts in Resources  

PubMed Central

We compared the phenotypic plasticity of two early successional forbs of nutrient-poor mobile dunes (Agriophyllum squarrosum and Corispermum macrocarpum) and two later successional forbs (weeds) of stabilized, higher nutrient dunes and cropland (Chenopodium acuminatum and Salsola collina) to variations in environmental factors. A controlled (including soil nutrients, water, and population density) greenhouse experiment was conducted in Horqin sandy land, China. Late successional species had high plasticity in growth response to nutrients and water or high performance in high soil nutrients and water, reflecting their higher nutrient habitat. In contrast, the early successional species have low plasticity, reflecting their adaptation to resource-poor early successional soil. Late successional species did not always have higher reproductive effort than early successional species. Plants did not have a uniform strategy of increasing reproductive effort with any environmental stressors. Reproductive effort increased with increasing water availability and decreasing nutrient levels, while density had no effect. Patterns of plasticity traits for late successional species exhibited a complex of Master-of-some and Jack-of-all-trades. Late successional species had higher performance or higher plasticity than early successional species.

Huang, Yingxin; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Daowei; Zhang, Hongxiang; Zheng, Wei

2012-01-01

6

Determining successional stage of temperate coniferous forests with Landsat satellite data  

SciTech Connect

Thematic Mapper (TM) digital imagery was used to map forest successional stages and to evaluate spectral differences between old-growth and mature forests in the central Cascade Range of Oregon. Relative sun incidence values were incorporated into the successional stage classification to compensate for topographic induced variation. Relative sun incidence improved the classification accuracy of young successional stages, but did not improve the classification accuracy of older, closed canopy forest classes or overall accuracy. TM bands 1, 2, and 4; the normalized difference vegetation index; and TM 4/3, 4/5, and 4/7 band ratio values for od-growth forests were found to be significantly lower than the values of mature forests. The Tasseled Cap features of brightness, greenness, and wetness also had significantly lower old-growth values as compared to mature forest values. 35 refs.

Fiorella, M.; Ripple, W.J. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

1993-02-01

7

Determining successional stage of temperate coniferous forests with Landsat satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper (TM) digital imagery was used to map forest successional stages and to evaluate spectral differences between old-growth and mature forests in the central Cascade Range of Oregon. Relative sun incidence values were incorporated into the successional stage classification to compensate for topographic induced variation. Relative sun incidence improved the classification accuracy of young successional stages, but did not improve the classification accuracy of older, closed canopy forest classes or overall accuracy. TM bands 1, 2, and 4; the normalized difference vegetation index; and TM 4/3, 4/5, and 4/7 band ratio values for o|d-growth forests were found to be significantly lower than the values of mature forests. The Tasseled Cap features of brightness, greenness, and wetness also had significantly lower old-growth values as compared to mature forest values .

Fiorella, Maria; Ripple, William J.

1993-01-01

8

Management of Early-Successional Communities in Central Hardwood Forests, with Special Emphasis on the Ecology and Management of Oaks, Ruffed Grouse, and Forest Songbirds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we describe the ecology and management of young forest communities in the Central Hardwood Region. We refer to these young forest communities as early-successional forest because they are in the early stages of forest regeneration or growth ...

F. R. Thompson D. R. Dessecker

1997-01-01

9

Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional wildlife habitat in Southern New England.  

PubMed

Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional habitat is a high priority for wildlife conservation agencies in the northeastern USA, where most forest land is privately owned. Many studies have linked regional declines in wildlife populations to the loss of early successional habitat. The government provides financial incentives to create early successional habitat, but the number of family forest owners who actively manage their forests remains low. Several studies have analyzed participation of family forest owners in federal forestry programs, but no study to date has focused specifically on creation of wildlife habitat. The objective of our study was to analyze the experience of a group of wildlife-oriented family forest owners who were trained to create early successional habitat. This type of family forest owners represents a small portion of the total population of family forest owners, but we believe they can play an important role in creating wildlife habitat, so it is important to understand how outreach programs can best reach them. The respondents shared some characteristics but differed in terms of forest holdings, forestry experience and interest in earning forestry income. Despite their strong interest in wildlife, awareness about the importance of early successional habitat was low. Financial support from the federal government appeared to be important in motivating respondents to follow up after the training with activities on their own properties: 84% of respondents who had implemented activities received federal financial support and 47% would not have implemented the activities without financial assistance. In order to mobilize greater numbers of wildlife-oriented family forest owners to create early successional habitat we recommend focusing outreach efforts on increasing awareness about the importance of early successional habitat and the availability of technical and financial assistance. PMID:24587160

Buffum, Bill; Modisette, Christopher; McWilliams, Scott R

2014-01-01

10

Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril. PMID:20231962

Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

2010-02-01

11

Some autecological characteristics of early to late successional tree species in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The breadth of the continuum concept of strategy with respect to succession was tested on 21 tree and shrub species common in either unlogged or logged stands, respectively, in the Forest Reserve of Caparo, Venezuela, by examining morphological, physiological and population characteristics. Based on a preliminary abundance analysis, `early', `mid' and `late' successional species as well as `generalists' were distinguished. Early successional species, i.e. Ochroma lagopus, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Cecropia peltata were similar in many autecological aspects, e.g. monolayered leaf arrangement, orthotropic architectural models, no adaptive reiteration, clumped distribution, but differed in gap association and distribution along a drainage gradient. Mid-successional species established themselves both in large and small gaps (> 300 m[sup2 ]; 80-300 m[sup2 ]) and showed a clumped to regular distribution pattern in logged areas; they exhibited more diverse crown and leaf characteristics than early successional species. Late successional species established themselves only in small gaps and understorey, and showed a regular spatial pattern in undisturbed areas. All late successional species displayed architectural models with plagiotropic lateral axes and showed a multilayered leaf arrangement. Adaptive reiteration was a common feature of late successional species which could be further subdivided into large, medium-sized and small trees, indicating different light requirements at maturity. Generalists were common treelet and shrub species in both disturbed and undisturbed sites where they are also capable of completing their life cycle. The light compensation point (LCP) of an individual plant was strongly influenced by its crown illuminance. Large late successional species showed the widest range of LCP values, reflecting the increasing light availability with increasing height in mature forest. On the basis of many autecological characteristics, it was found (i) that there is in fact a continuum of species strategies with respect to succession even among early and mid-successional species and (ii) that the latter group of species showed the widest breadth of autecological traits, reflecting the heterogeneous environment in which they establish and mature.

Kammesheidt, Ludwig

2000-01-01

12

Determining successional stage of temperate coniferous forests with Landsat satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper (TM) digital imagery was used to map forest successional stages and to evaluate spectral differences between old-growth and mature forests in the central Cascade Range of Oregon. Relative sun incidence values were incorporated into the successional stage classification to compensate for topographic induced variation. Relative sun incidence improved the classification accuracy of young successional stages, but did not improve the classification accuracy of older, closed canopy forest classes or overall accuracy. TM bands 1, 2, and 4; the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); and TM 4/3, 4/5, and 4/7 band ratio values for old-growth forests were found to be significantly lower than the values of mature forests (P less than or equal to 0.010). Wetness and the TM 4/5 and 4/7 band ratios all had low correlations to relative sun incidence (r(exp 2) less than or equal to 0.16). The TM 4/5 band ratio was named the 'structural index' (SI) because of its ability to distinguish between mature and old-growth forests and its simplicity.

Fiorella, Maria; Ripple, William J.

1995-01-01

13

Successional stage, fragmentation and exposure to extraction influence the population structure of Euterpe precatoria (Arecaeae).  

PubMed

The neotropical palm Euterpeprecatoria is subject to extraction for its valuable palm heart. The development of management and conservation practices for this species requires understanding of its population structure, dynamics, and traditional use across the range of environments it inhabits, from different successional stages in continuous forest to forest fragments. Here, we analyzed how the population structure of E. precatoria varies with successional stage, fragmentation, and exposure to extraction, Since E. precatoria recruitment increases with disturbance, we expected seedling density to be higher in secondary forests and fragments relative to primary forests. The study was conducted from 2007-2008 in the Caribbean Slope of Costa Rica at Braulio Carrillo National Park (BCNP), La Selva Biological Station (LSBS), Manú Center, and Finca El Progreso (FEP). The first two sites had continuous primary and secondary forests (BCNP had one extracted primary forest); the last two consisted of primary forest fragments. Population structure was variable, with greater densities in the extracted primary forest, and in the secondary forests, as compared to primary forests and fragments. Palms < 5 m across all sites represented 50-90% of the total number of individuals. In sites that suffered historical over-extraction, local communities have lost the tradition of consuming this species. Understanding how population dynamics is affected by extraction and succession is essential to the design of sustainable management programs rooted in community participation. PMID:24027932

Avalos, Gerardo; Otárola, Mauricio Fernández; Engeln, James Theodore

2013-09-01

14

Sensitivity of understorey bird species in two different successional stages of the lowland Atlantic Forest, Brazil.  

PubMed

The Atlantic Forest has a high destruction rate and there is little information available on some aspects of the neotropical bird biology. Changes in environment are important factors that affect the resources available to birds. We compared the species sensitivity level of understorey birds in two areas in distinct successional stages (primary and secondary sections). Two 100 ha plots of lowland Atlantic Forest were analysed between August and December 2006. Among 25 bird species recorded, thirteen had lower abundance in secondary forest, two in primary forest, and ten had not clear tendency. According to the criteria used, the percentages for species with low, and medium and high sensitivity to habitat change were 44% and 56%, respectively. The number of species was not associated with the endemism level or foraging strata. Results show the importance of knowing bird species' sensitivity level with regard to habitat modification, and not only forest fragmentation. PMID:21969964

Loures-Ribeiro, Alan; Manhães, Marco A; Dias, Manoel M

2011-09-01

15

Projected Effects of CO2 Enrichment on Community Dynamics and Carbon Cycling in an Early-successional Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early-successional forests are strong carbon (C) sinks that play an important role in the global C cycle. Elevated CO2 may alter C cycling in regenerating forests both directly through ecophysiological mechanisms and indirectly through altered community dynamics, which may be particularly important in early successional forests with high community turnover. Thus, to discriminate impacts of CO2 enrichment on C cycles in regenerating forests it is necessary to characterize how the physiological and successional mechanisms that regulate the C cycle are altered by climate change. Because species are known to display differential growth stimulus under CO2 enrichment, and these species-specific effects are grouped by classic plant functional type, we hypothesize that successional trajectories will be altered in high CO2 forests, compared to forests regenerating under historic climatic conditions. To test this hypothesis, we use the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2), a height- and successional-structured terrestrial biosphere model to predict possible effects of elevated CO2 on forest succession. Using data from the Duke Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment and a nearby chronosequence of pine forests to parameterize and evaluate the model, we use ED2 to project how plant demography and competition will react to elevated CO2 over a 50-100 year time frame. We evaluate the sensitivity of model results to a variety of model configurations, and demonstrate that the outcomes are largely robust to structural uncertainty regarding assumptions about nitrogen limitation and water availability. The model predicts that elevated CO2 will alter C cycling directly through ecophysiological effect and indirectly through altered community dynamics, which in turn affect C cycling. For instance, late-successional hardwood species will receive more benefit on average from elevated CO2, than early-successional hardwoods. After 50 years of 550 ppm CO2, late-successional hardwoods experience a significant increase in maximum summer NPP, while early successional species experience decreases in summer NPP, due to increased resource competition with late-successional functional types. These results illustrate that differential responses to elevated CO2 across functional groups alter community dynamics and thereby ecosystem-level C cycling.

Miller, A. D.; Dietze, M.; DeLucia, E. H.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.

2013-12-01

16

An Interregional Comparison of Channel Structure, Transient Storage and Riparian Canopy With Metabolism in Streams Draining Watersheds in Different Successional Stages.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We related channel structure, transient storage and riparian canopy with net daily metabolism (NDM) in 32 first- through fourth-order streams in the southeastern and northwestern United States. Management histories of the watersheds resulted in a variety of forest successional stages. Channel structure and riparian canopy estimates were collected at 10 points along each 40-100m study reach. Transient storage was calculated as differences in areas under the curves for predicted and actual Cl- transport through the study reaches. NDM was estimated from single-station oxygen changes using the surface renewal model. Channel slope was significantly related to NDM in both the northwestern and southeastern streams, and we classified streams into high (>3%) and low gradient groups. NDM ranged from -150 mg O2 m-2 d-1 in the early successional, high gradient streams to -1590 mg O2 m-2 d-1 in the mid-successional, low gradient streams. NDM in the high gradient streams was significantly correlated with percent of the stream having fast moving water (r=-0.53), transient storage (r=0.38), riparian canopy (r=-0.36) and percent coarse substrates (r=0.29). NDM in the low gradient streams was significantly correlated with stream velocity (r=-0.39) and percent coarse substrates (r=0.32).

Hill, B. H.; McCormick, F. H.; Harvey, B. C.; Johnson, S. L.; Warren, M. L.

2005-05-01

17

Fungal importance extends beyond litter decomposition in experimental early-successional streams.  

PubMed

Fungi are important decomposers of leaf litter in streams and may have knock-on effects on other microbes and carbon cycling. To elucidate such potential effects, we designed an experiment in outdoor experimental channels simulating sand-bottom streams in an early-successional state. We hypothesized that the presence of fungi would enhance overall microbial activity, accompanied by shifts in the microbial communities associated not only with leaf litter but also with sediments. Fifteen experimental channels received sterile sandy sediment, minimal amounts of leaf litter, and one of four inocula containing either (i) fungi and bacteria, or (ii) bacteria only, or (iii) no microorganisms, or (iv) killed microorganisms. Subsequently, we let water from an early-successional catchment circulate through the channels for 5 weeks. Whole-stream metabolism and microbial respiration associated with leaf litter were higher in the channels inoculated with fungi, reflecting higher fungal activity on leaves. Bacterial communities on leaves were also significantly affected. Similarly, increases in net primary production, sediment microbial respiration and chlorophyll a content on the sediment surface were greatest in the channels receiving a fungal inoculum. These results point to a major role of fungal communities in stream ecosystems beyond the well-established direct involvement in leaf litter decomposition. PMID:22958100

Frossard, Aline; Gerull, Linda; Mutz, Michael; Gessner, Mark O

2012-11-01

18

Forest successional stage affects the cortical secondary chemistry of three old forest lichens.  

PubMed

Three epiphytic old forest lichens (Usnea longissima, Pseudocyphellaria crocata, and Lobaria pulmonaria) were transplanted along a natural shade-sun gradient comprising three successional stages in boreal spruce forests (dense young forest, open old forest, and clear-cut) for one summer. After harvest, extractable secondary compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the brown pigmentation in melanic species was quantified by reflectance measurements. Cortical compounds in all species increased from shady young forests to exposed clear-cuts. Usnic acid, the major cortical, secondary compound in U. longissima, showed consistently higher concentration in the clear-cut than in the two forested stands. Pseudocyphellaria crocata and L. pulmonaria, lacking extractable secondary compounds in the cortex, significantly increased their amounts of cortical melanins in well-lit stands. The medullary compounds showed more complex responses. Many were not influenced by environmental conditions during the transplantation, whereas the majority of those that responded showed the lowest concentration in clear-cut transplants. Only a few medullary compounds showed the highest concentration in the clear-cut, and at a low level of significance. The synthesis of UV-B-absorbing usnic acid and melanins seems to be part of an acclimation to increased light exposure. The medullary compounds in studied species barely function as solar screens despite their strong UV-B absorbance. PMID:17636451

Nybakken, Line; Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Gauslaa, Yngvar

2007-08-01

19

Identifying terrestrial carbon sinks: Classification of successional stages in regenerating tropical forest from Landsat TM data  

SciTech Connect

Remote sensing has generally been used to study the role of tropical forest as a source of atmospheric carbon, primarily through land-use change, such as deforestation, and biomass burning. Regeneration of forest on previously cleared areas, however, is a significant carbon sink. The strength of this carbon sink is dependent on the age and composition of the regenerating forest. The ability to identify regenerating forest classes that may differ in terms of carbon sink strength was investigated with Landsat TM data of a test site near Manaus, Brazil. A number of forest age classes were defined from a time series of Landsat sensor data, and their separability in Landsat TM data was assessed by maximum likelihood classifications. A high level of class separability was observed with a weighted kappa coefficient of 0.8569 obtained for a classification of six forest regeneration classes. Of the classification errors observed most were found to be associated with the youngest forest age class. At the test site, however, two main successional pathways were followed and the differences between areas of forest of the same age but on different pathways was most apparent with the youngest forests. Splitting the regenerating forests by the successional pathway was found to increase classification accuracy, with a weighted kappa coefficient of 0.9315 observed for an 11 class classification. A range of tropical forest classes that vary in strength as a carbon sink could therefore be identified accurately from Landsat TM data.

Foody, G.M. [Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography; Palubinskas, G. [Inst. of Mathematics and Informatics, Vilnius (Lithuania). Dept. of Data Analysis] [Inst. of Mathematics and Informatics, Vilnius (Lithuania). Dept. of Data Analysis; Lucas, R.M.; Curran, P.J. [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography; Honzak, M. [Univ. of Wales Swansea (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Wales Swansea (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography

1996-03-01

20

Supplemental planting of early successional tree species during bottomland hardwood afforestation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reforestation of former bottom land hardwood forests that have been cleared for agriculture (i.e., afforestation) has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya spp.). These species are slow to develop vertical forest structure. However, vertical forest structure is key to colonization of afforested sites by forest birds. Although early-successional tree species often enhance vertical structure, few of these species invade afforested sites that are distant from seed sources. Furthermore, many land mangers are reluctant to establish and maintain stands of fast-growing plantation trees. Therefore, on 40 afforested bottomland sites, we supplemented heavy-seeded seedlings with 8 patches of fast-growing trees: 4 patches of 12 eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stem cuttings and 4 patches of 12 American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) seedlings. To enhance survival and growth, tree patches were subjected to 4 weed control treatments: (1) physical weed barriers, (2) chemical herbicide, (3) both physical and chemical weed control, or (4) no weed control. Overall, first-year survival of cottonwood and sycamore was 25 percent and 47 percent, respectively. Second-year survival of extant trees was 52 percent for cottonwood and 77 percent for sycamore. Physical weed barriers increased survival of cottonwoods to 30 percent versus 18 percent survival with no weed control. Similarly, sycamore survival was increased from 49 percent without weed control to 64 percent with physical weed barriers. Chemical weed control adversely impacted sycamore and reduced survival to 35 percent. Tree heights did not differ between species or among weed control treatments. Girdling of trees by deer often destroyed saplings. Thus, little increase in vertical structure was detected between growing seasons. Application of fertilizer and protection via tree shelters did not improve survival or vertical development of sycamore or cottonwood.

Twedt, D. J.; Wilson, R.R.

2002-01-01

21

Use of early-successional managed northern forest by matu reforest species during the post-fledging period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In eastern North America, after the young fledge, both adult and juvenile mature-forest birds may use regenerating clearcuts, although which species frequent early-successional forest and during which life stages is not well documented. To assess whether birds nesting in mature forest in north-central Minnesota use regenerating clearcuts 2-10 years old, we netted after birds fledged (2006-2009) and during the breeding season (2009). In addition, we monitored Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) nests and banded nestlings in adjacent mature forest and estimated the age at which juveniles used regenerating clearcuts. While banding, we also recorded nests of any species encountered opportunistically in regenerating clearcuts as evidence of breeding in this cover type. During July and August, we captured 4556 birds of 62 species, of which 1746 (38%) were of 28 mature-forest species. As reported elsewhere, most (76%) mature-forest birds we captured were of only a few species: Ovenbird, American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus), and Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia). In 2009, 21% of captures during the nesting period were of mature-forest birds. Comparing dates of fledging from monitored nests to dates of capture in clearcuts implies that nearly all (95%) hatch-year Ovenbirds using clearcuts were independent of adult care. Capture dates of juveniles of other mature-forest species were similar. Although we captured 340 hatch-year Ovenbirds in regenerating clearcuts, we captured only one of 424 Ovenbirds we had banded as nestlings in adjacent mature forest. Within the clearcuts, we encountered nests of five species that typically nest in mature forest. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

Streby, H. M.; Peterson, S. M.; McAllister, T. L.; Andersen, D. E.

2011-01-01

22

Interaction of top down and bottom up factors in intertidal rockpools: Effects on early successional macroalgal community composition, abundance and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing levels of eutrophication in coastal waters and recognition of natural variation in supply of nutrients, through for example variations in upwelling intensity, have led to an increasing demand to understand the role of bottom up forcing in coastal communities. Rocky intertidal habitats are highly disturbed and are composed of a patchy mosaic of assemblages in different successional stages. The

P. Masterson; F. A. Arenas; R. C. Thompson; S. R. Jenkins

2008-01-01

23

Remote sensing-based predictors improve distribution models of rare, early successional and broadleaf tree species in Utah  

PubMed Central

Compared to bioclimatic variables, remote sensing predictors are rarely used for predictive species modelling. When used, the predictors represent typically habitat classifications or filters rather than gradual spectral, surface or biophysical properties. Consequently, the full potential of remotely sensed predictors for modelling the spatial distribution of species remains unexplored. Here we analysed the partial contributions of remotely sensed and climatic predictor sets to explain and predict the distribution of 19 tree species in Utah. We also tested how these partial contributions were related to characteristics such as successional types or species traits. We developed two spatial predictor sets of remotely sensed and topo-climatic variables to explain the distribution of tree species. We used variation partitioning techniques applied to generalized linear models to explore the combined and partial predictive powers of the two predictor sets. Non-parametric tests were used to explore the relationships between the partial model contributions of both predictor sets and species characteristics. More than 60% of the variation explained by the models represented contributions by one of the two partial predictor sets alone, with topo-climatic variables outperforming the remotely sensed predictors. However, the partial models derived from only remotely sensed predictors still provided high model accuracies, indicating a significant correlation between climate and remote sensing variables. The overall accuracy of the models was high, but small sample sizes had a strong effect on cross-validated accuracies for rare species. Models of early successional and broadleaf species benefited significantly more from adding remotely sensed predictors than did late seral and needleleaf species. The core-satellite species types differed significantly with respect to overall model accuracies. Models of satellite and urban species, both with low prevalence, benefited more from use of remotely sensed predictors than did the more frequent core species. Synthesis and applications. If carefully prepared, remotely sensed variables are useful additional predictors for the spatial distribution of trees. Major improvements resulted for deciduous, early successional, satellite and rare species. The ability to improve model accuracy for species having markedly different life history strategies is a crucial step for assessing effects of global change.

ZIMMERMANN, N E; EDWARDS, T C; MOISEN, G G; FRESCINO, T S; BLACKARD, J A

2007-01-01

24

Remote sensing-based predictors improve distribution models of rare, early successional and broadleaf tree species in Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Compared to bioclimatic variables, remote sensing predictors are rarely used for predictive species modelling. When used, the predictors represent typically habitat classifications or filters rather than gradual spectral, surface or biophysical properties. Consequently, the full potential of remotely sensed predictors for modelling the spatial distribution of species remains unexplored. Here we analysed the partial contributions of remotely sensed and climatic predictor sets to explain and predict the distribution of 19 tree species in Utah. We also tested how these partial contributions were related to characteristics such as successional types or species traits. 2. We developed two spatial predictor sets of remotely sensed and topo-climatic variables to explain the distribution of tree species. We used variation partitioning techniques applied to generalized linear models to explore the combined and partial predictive powers of the two predictor sets. Non-parametric tests were used to explore the relationships between the partial model contributions of both predictor sets and species characteristics. 3. More than 60% of the variation explained by the models represented contributions by one of the two partial predictor sets alone, with topo-climatic variables outperforming the remotely sensed predictors. However, the partial models derived from only remotely sensed predictors still provided high model accuracies, indicating a significant correlation between climate and remote sensing variables. The overall accuracy of the models was high, but small sample sizes had a strong effect on cross-validated accuracies for rare species. 4. Models of early successional and broadleaf species benefited significantly more from adding remotely sensed predictors than did late seral and needleleaf species. The core-satellite species types differed significantly with respect to overall model accuracies. Models of satellite and urban species, both with low prevalence, benefited more from use of remotely sensed predictors than did the more frequent core species. 5. Synthesis and applications. If carefully prepared, remotely sensed variables are useful additional predictors for the spatial distribution of trees. Major improvements resulted for deciduous, early successional, satellite and rare species. The ability to improve model accuracy for species having markedly different life history strategies is a crucial step for assessing effects of global change. ?? 2007 The Authors.

Zimmermann, N. E.; Edwards, Jr. , T. C.; Moisen, G. G.; Frescino, T. S.; Blackard, J. A.

2007-01-01

25

Response of Tridens flavus (L.) A. S. Hitchc. to soil nutrients and disturbance in an early successional old field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil nutrients and disturbance are two of the main abiotic factors that influence plant dominance (canopy cover), density, and fecundity in early successional old field plant communities. The manner in which the dominant species in old field successional systems respond to the interaction of nutrients and disturbance is poorly known. We examined the dominance, density of flowering tillers, and reproductive output of Tridens flavus, a perennial, warm-season bunchgrass that is important in old field succession, to varying soil nutrient and disturbance regimes. We tested the hypothesis that the interaction between nutrients and disturbance would influence the performance (cover, density, fecundity) of T. flavus. To test this hypothesis, we subjected 25 m2 experimental plots to various combinations of fertilizer and mowing treatments for eight years after initially plowing the field. The performance of T. flavus was measured by estimating percent cover for 8 years (1996-2003) and both density of flowering tillers and reproductive output (panicle length and number of branches per panicle) for three years (2001-2003). The pattern of canopy cover of T. flavus over the first eight years of succession varied over time depending on mowing regime. Dominance was significantly higher in plots that were fertilized only in years one and five than in annually fertilized and unfertilized control plots. The length of panicles and density of flowering tillers were both significantly greater in annually mowed plots than in unmowed plots. In the absence of mowing in particular, T. flavus became overtopped by woody species and declined in this old field community. Therefore, disturbances such as mowing and fertilization may be important in maintaining grasses such as Tridens flavus in old fields.

Honu, Y. A. K.; Gibson, D. J.; Middleton, B. A.

2006-01-01

26

Identifying genomic and metabolic features that can underlie early successional and opportunistic lifestyles of human gut symbionts  

PubMed Central

We lack a deep understanding of genetic and metabolic attributes specializing in microbial consortia for initial and subsequent waves of colonization of our body habitats. Here we show that phylogenetically interspersed bacteria in Clostridium cluster XIVa, an abundant group of bacteria in the adult human gut also known as the Clostridium coccoides or Eubacterium rectale group, contains species that have evolved distribution patterns consistent with either early successional or stable gut communities. The species that specialize to the infant gut are more likely to associate with systemic infections and can reach high abundances in individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), indicating that a subset of the microbiota that have adapted to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles may do well in both early development and with disease. We identified genes likely selected during adaptation to pioneer/opportunistic lifestyles as those for which early succession association and not phylogenetic relationships explain genomic abundance. These genes reveal potential mechanisms by which opportunistic gut bacteria tolerate osmotic and oxidative stress and potentially important aspects of their metabolism. These genes may not only be biomarkers of properties associated with adaptation to early succession and disturbance, but also leads for developing therapies aimed at promoting reestablishment of stable gut communities following physiologic or pathologic disturbances.

Lozupone, Catherine; Faust, Karoline; Raes, Jeroen; Faith, Jeremiah J.; Frank, Daniel N.; Zaneveld, Jesse; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Knight, Rob

2012-01-01

27

Population structure and inbreeding vary with successional stage in created Spartina alterniflora marshes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recruitment patterns in clonal plant populations are predicted to vary with seed dispersal capability and disturbance regime, such that species with small, widely dispersed seeds will become increasingly dominated by vegetative recruitment on disturbed areas following early colonization. Subsequent mortality due to competitive or stochastic effects is then predicted to cause a gradual decline in both clonal diversity and the ability of surviving clones to avoid geitonogamous mating and possible inbreeding depression. We tested predictions of these hypotheses by comparing four adjacent populations of the salt marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, ranging in age from 2 to ???50 yr, by measuring fine-scale genetic structure at the level of both ramets and genets, and the rate of inbreeding. For this purpose, we sampled maternal tissue and seeds from discrete patches in the field and then genotyped both maternal and seedling tissue (germinated in a growth chamber) using standard molecular protocols. As predicted, we observed an increase in clonal diversity (measured as the complement of the Simpson Index corrected for finite sample sizes, 1-D) up to a maximum of 0.71 within 3-m2 patches at 16 yr, declining to 0.55 by ???50 yr. Local recruitment of seedlings was evident as genetic structure occurring at the level of patches, as measured by the fixation index, ??, which was inversely correlated with diversity (R2 > 0.90 at all patch scales). Outcrossing rates were positively associated with clonal diversity, with the highest level (89%) at an intermediate level of 1-D. The greatest selfing (32%) occurred in young (2-yr-old) patches with low diversity. Biparental inbreeding was minimal in all populations, never exceeding 1%. Inbreeding depression was inferred to be severe, as evidenced by near-zero adult inbreeding coefficients. These results suggest a possible fitness trade-off between clonal growth and the opportunity for outcrossing. We recommend that restoration plantings of clonal species with limited sexual recruitment capabilities should be designed to ensure adequate clonal diversity for the avoidance of inbreeding and the ability to adapt to subsequent environmental disturbances.

Travis, S. E.; Proffitt, C. E.; Ritland, K.

2004-01-01

28

Characterizing Growth Patterns of Early-successional Forests Using Phenological Parameters Derived from Near-daily Satellite Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite-based remote sensing data has proven to be useful for monitoring regrowth trajectories of early-successional forest stands after disturbance. Traditionally, forest recovery has been monitored with annual images acquired during the peak of the growing season. Our research will expand upon these previous research efforts through the use of near-daily imagery to track regrowth trajectories in young stands (disturbed between 1985 and 1990) in the Blue River watershed in Oregon's western Cascade mountains. To monitor forest regrowth with high temporal frequency at the fine scales required of the fragmented and heterogeneous landscape of the study region, the STARFM fusion algorithm will be used to blend frequent, coarse-scale MODIS images (near-daily at 500m) with infrequent, fine-scale Landsat images (16-day interval at 30m) to produce near-daily, 30m resolution images. Our goal is to determine how the additional information provided by high frequency synthetic Landsat data can improve the monitoring of changes in vegetation type and forest structure during forest regrowth. The changes in the annual spectral signatures of forest stands, due to phenology, will provide a basis for which variability in vegetation type and structure will be analyzed. Furthermore, this research will also allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of using STARFM in the heterogeneous forests and complex topography of Oregon's western Cascades.

Briggs, K. M.; Cohen, W. B.; Gao, F.

2011-12-01

29

Limited toxicity of NH(x) pulses on an early and late successional tropical seagrass species: interactions with pH and light level.  

PubMed

Seagrasses have declined at a global scale due to light reduction and toxicity events, caused by eutrophication and increased sediment loading. Although several studies have tested effects of light reduction and toxicants on seagrasses, there is at present no information available on their interacting effects. In a full-factorial 5-day laboratory experiment, we studied short-term interactive effects of light conditions, pH and reduced nitrogen (NH(x)) in the water layer, mimicking pulses of river discharge, on the tropical early successional species Halodule uninervis and the late successional species Thalassia hemprichii. In contrast to recent results reported for the temperate species Zostera marina, increased NH(x) supply did not affect leaf mortality or photochemical efficiency in H. uninervis and in 7 out of 8 treatments for T. hemprichii. However, both tropical species demonstrated striking differences in nitrogen accumulation, free amino acid composition and free NH? accumulation. The increase in tissue nitrogen content was two times higher for H. uninervis than for T. hemprichii. Nitrogen stored as free amino acids (especially asparagine) only increased in H. uninervis. High pH only affected T. hemprichii, but only when not shaded, by doubling its free NH? concentrations, concomitantly decreasing its photosynthetic efficiency. Our results indicate that the early successional H. uninervis has higher tolerance to high NH(x) loads as compared to the late successional T. hemprichii. H. uninervis was better able to avoid toxic internal NH(x) levels by further assimilating glutamine into asparagine in contrast to T. hemprichii. Moreover, both tropical species seem to cope much better with high NH(x) than the temperate Z. marina. The implications for the distribution and succession of seagrass species under high nutrient loads are discussed. PMID:21536012

Christianen, M J A; van der Heide, T; Bouma, T J; Roelofs, J G M; van Katwijk, M M; Lamers, L P M

2011-07-01

30

Interannual Variations in Ecosystem Oxidative Ratio in Croplands, Deciduous Forest, Coniferous Forest, and Early Successional Forest Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP) can vary significantly with annual variations in precipitation and temperature. These climate variations can also drive changes in plant carbon allocation patterns. Shifting allocation patterns can lead to variation in net ecosystem biochemical stocks (e.g. kg cellulose, lignin, protein, and lipid/ha), which can in turn lead to shifts in ecosystem oxidative ratio (OR). OR is the molar ratio of O2 released : CO2 fixed during biosynthesis. Major plant biochemicals vary substantially in oxidative ratio, ranging from average organic acid OR values of 0.75 to average lipid OR values of 1.37 (Masiello et al., 2008). OR is a basic property of ecosystem biochemistry, and is also an essential variable needed to constrain the size of the terrestrial biospheric carbon sink (Keeling et al., 1996). OR is commonly assumed to be 1.10 (e.g. Prentice et al., 2001), but small variations in net ecosystem OR can drive large errors in estimates of the size of the terrestrial carbon sink (Randerson et al., 2006). We hypothesized that interannual changes in climate may drive interannual variation in ecosystem OR values. Working at Kellogg Biological Station NSF LTER, we measured the annual average OR of coniferous and deciduous forests, an early successional forest, and croplands under both corn and soy. There are clear distinctions between individual ecosystems (e.g., the soy crops have a higher OR than the corn crops, and the coniferous forests have a higher OR than the deciduous forests), but the ecosystems themselves retained remarkably constant annual OR values between 1998 and 2008.

Masiello, C. A.; Hockaday, W. C.; Gallagher, M. E.; Calligan, L.

2009-12-01

31

Comparison of throughfall chemistry in a mature hemlock forest and an early-successional deciduous forest resulting from salvage logging in Whately, Massachusetts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of foundation species as a result of disturbance events such as exotic species invasions can alter community composition and ecosystem function. The current hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) infestation in eastern North America that threatens the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), a foundation species, has motivated salvage logging efforts. Ecological succession resulting from salvage logging of hemlock would eventually produce a deciduous hardwood forest. The chemistry of throughfall beneath a mature hemlock forest canopy is expected to be more acidic than throughfall from a mature deciduous forest canopy because hemlock foliage releases more organic acids and fewer base cations. The chemical composition of throughfall during the early successional transition from hemlock to deciduous is less understood. We hypothesize that throughfall chemistry in a deciduous forest consisting primarily of juvenile trees may be more similar to direct precipitation because leaf area index is smaller. Differences between hemlock throughfall and direct precipitation may be larger due to the denser canopy of these mature trees. We compared the chemical composition of precipitation, hemlock throughfall, and black birch throughfall for 26 precipitation events from 4 March to 30 July 2012. The black birch (Betula lenta) forest patch resulted from salvage logging of hemlocks twenty years ago at the MacLeish Field Station in Whately, MA. From the three plots we measured the volume of water collected and pH, acid neutralizing capacity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and concentrations of cations (Ca2+, K+, Na+, Mg2+, NH4+), anions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), and dissolved silica. Precipitation totaled 405 mm during the course of the study. Throughfall totaled 347 mm in the black birch plot and 315 mm in the hemlock plot. The proportion of precipitation passing through the forest canopy was smaller in hemlock throughfall than black birch throughfall during small precipitation events (depth < 10 mm), but appeared comparable in larger events. Before leaf emergence, differences between base cation and DOC deposition were not significant (p>0.05, n = 5) for throughfall and direct precipitation. After leaf emergence, base cation and DOC deposition was significantly (p<0.05, n = 21) greater in throughfall than direct precipitation. Additionally, K+, Mg2+, and DOC deposition were significantly greater in hemlock throughfall than black birch throughfall. Black birch throughfall had significantly less H+ deposition than direct precipitation, which suggests that the black birch canopy appears to neutralize the acidity of the precipitation. H+ deposition in hemlock throughfall, however, was not significantly different than precipitation, which could be due to its higher DOC. These results suggest that the successional stage of a deciduous forest canopy has an effect on throughfall chemistry. Lower deposition of base cations prior to and during this juvenile stage could affect soil chemistry by increasing soil acidity and lowering base saturation.

Zukswert, J. M.; Rhodes, A. L.; Dwyer, C. H.; Sweezy, T.

2012-12-01

32

Early stage of nanocrystal growth  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

None

2012-01-01

33

Early stages of Ostwald ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Becker-Döring (BD) nucleation equation is known to predict a narrow double-exponential front (DEF) in the distribution of growing particles over sizes, which is due to early transient effects. When mass conservation is included, nucleation is eventually exhausted while independent growth is replaced by ripening. Despite the enormous difference in the associated time scales, and the resulting demand on numerics, within the generalized BD model the early DEF is shown to be crucial for the selection of the unique self-similar Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner asymptotic regime. Being preserved till the latest stages of growth, the DEF provides a universal part of the initial conditions for the ripening problem, regardless of the mass exchange mechanism between the nucleus and the matrix.

Shneidman, Vitaly A.

2013-07-01

34

Structural and functional changes in early successional stages of a semiarid ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

The objective of our research was to study structural and functional changes that occur within and between ecosystem compartments during secondary succession in disturbed semiarid environments. First year data clearly showed an increase in resource abundance after disturbance which produced not only alteration of the soil surface but a decrease in available organic matter. In addition, marked increases in NO3 and soil water potentials were evident at all depths in the disturbed sites as compared to the undisturbed community. Soil disturbance as well as manipulation of the microflora compartment by fumigation had a significant impact on microflora structure and function. The mycorrhizal population was also drastically reduced by disturbance and fumigation. The floristic composition of the primary producers on the disturbed site was highly correlated with the propagule supply, with composition of the seed bank being the main driving force. Competition studies between bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron inerme), western wheatgrass, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and winterfat (Ceratoides lanata) showed that these four species were able to coexist under a wide range of water availability conditions. The final phase of an experiment designed to determine the effects of retorted shale recarbonation on plant uptake of toxic trace elements was completed. These initial studies indicate that both plant community characteristics and the presence of a functioning belowground community will be important in secondary succession processes which occur in disturbed semiarid environments. 36 figs., 41 tabs.

Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W. (eds.)

1986-02-01

35

Do natural disturbances or the forestry practices that follow them convert forests to early-successional communities?  

PubMed

Stand-replacing natural disturbances in mature forests are traditionally seen as events that cause forests to revert to early stages of succession and maintain species diversity. In some cases, however, such transitions could be an artifact of salvage logging and may increase biotic homogenization. We present initial (two-year) results of a study of the effects of tornado damage and the combined effects of tornado damage and salvage logging on environmental conditions and ground cover plant communities in mixed oak-pine forests in north central Mississippi. Plots were established in salvage-logged areas, adjacent to plots established before the storm in unlogged areas, spanning a gradient of storm damage intensity. Vegetation change directly attributable to tornado damage was driven primarily by a reduction in canopy cover but was not consistent with a transition to an early stage of succession. Although we observed post-storm increases of several disturbance indicators (ruderals), we also observed significant increases in the abundance of a few species indicative of upland forests. Increases in flowering were just as likely to occur in species indicative of forests as in species indicative of open woodlands. Few species declined as a result of the tornado, resulting in a net increase in species richness. Ruderals were very abundant in salvage-logged areas, which contained significantly higher amounts of bare ground and greater variance in soil penetrability than did damaged areas that were not logged. In contrast to unlogged areas severely damaged by the tornado, most upland forest indicators were not abundant in logged areas. Several of the forest and open-woodland indicators that showed increased flowering in damaged areas were absent or sparse in logged areas. Species richness was lower in salvage-logged areas than in adjacent damaged areas but similar to that in undamaged areas. These results suggest that salvage logging prevented positive responses of several forest and open-woodland species to tornado damage. Anthropogenic disturbances such as salvage logging appear to differ fundamentally from stand-level canopy-reducing disturbances in their effects on ground cover vegetation in the forests studied here and are perhaps more appropriately viewed as contributing to biotic homogenization than as events that maintain diversity. PMID:22611846

Brewer, J Stephen; Bertz, Christine A; Cannon, Jeffery B; Chesser, Jason D; Maynard, Erynn E

2012-03-01

36

Short-Term responses of breeding birds of grassland and early successional habitat to timing of haying in Northwestern Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2003, we evaluated nest survival and density of the Dickcissel (Spiza americana), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) in four unhayed, two early-hayed (26-31 May) and three late-hayed (17-25 June) fields in northwestern Arkansas. Rope dragging and observations revealed 89 nests. Daily nest-survival rates (SE) prior to haying ranged from 0.94 (0.03) to 0.97 (0.02). Early haying affected both nest-survival rates and bird densities negatively, whereas late haying had minimal effects. Fifteen nests in hayed portions of early-hayed fields were destroyed, whereas only 2 of 52 nests were affected by late haying. Density was at least 0.98 birds ha-1 higher in unhayed than in early-hayed fields and 1.03 birds ha-1 higher in late-hayed than in early-hayed fields. In northwestern Arkansas, postponing haying until mid- to late June would allow time for nestlings to fledge, would have little effect on bird densities, and would affect hay nutrition and regrowth minimally. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society, 2009.

Luscier, J. D.; Thompson, W. L.

2009-01-01

37

Effects of above-ground browsing by mammals on mycorrhizal infection in an early successional taiga ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an exclosure experiment in the willow stage of primary succession on the floodplain of the Tanana River, we tested\\u000a the hypothesis that browsing can reduce mycorrhizal infection. We measured the effects winter browsing by moose (Alcesalces) and snowshoe hare (Lepusamericanus) had on mycorrhizal infection and fine root biomass of willow (Salix spp.) and balsam poplar (Populusbalsamifera). We found that

Loni J. Rossow; John P. Bryant; Knut Kielland

1997-01-01

38

Favorable early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

The category of favorable early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) includes patients with Ann Arbor stages I or II disease with no bulky disease or B symptoms. The precise definition of favorable versus unfavorable early-stage disease may vary among American and European cooperative groups. The overall 10-year survival rate of patients with favorable early-stage HL exceeds 90%. Indeed, effective treatments for this group of patients have been available for more than 4 decades. However, treatment strategies have radically changed over the past 15 years and focus now on maintaining the high cure rate while reducing the risk of treatment-related long-term morbidity. The optimal treatment is still evolving, and more recently, reduction in the total amount of chemotherapy and in radiation field and dose has shown excellent results. Combined modality therapy is the preferred treatment for patients with classical favorable early-stage HL (nodular sclerosis or mixed cellularity histology). Patients with early-stage lymphocyte predominance HL are highly curable using involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) alone and do not require chemotherapy. Classical favorable HL is also curable with radiotherapy alone or with chemotherapy alone, but larger fields and higher-dose radiation or longer chemotherapy is required compared with combined modality. The freedom from treatment failure rate is significantly better with a combination of short chemotherapy and IFRT than with either chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone. Although combined modality is the standard preferred treatment for favorable disease, radiation therapy alone or chemotherapy alone could be considered under special circumstances or as part of an investigational protocol. PMID:16507270

Yahalom, Joachim

2006-03-01

39

Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In addition, the toxicity profiles are quite favorable. In addition to stereotactic radiation, advances in brachytherapy techniques have enabled high local control rates in operable patients who receive sublobar resections due to compromised pulmonary function. Isotopes that have been used include iodine-125, palladium-103, and cesium-131. In this review article, the role of radiation therapy in treatment of lung cancer, patient selection, outcomes, toxicity and recent technological advancements are discussed. The radiation therapy techniques described in this article are also being used in the management of locally advanced lung cancers.

Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

2013-01-01

40

Treatment Choices for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Treatment Choices for Men With Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Posted: 02/11/2011 Treatment Choices for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer About This Booklet Facts about Prostate Cancer Thinking About Treatment Choices ...

41

Is the degree of clonality of forest herbs dependent on gap age? Using fingerprinting approaches to assess optimum successional stages for montane forest herbs  

PubMed Central

Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability. Mean patch sizes of V. myrtillus, T. europaea, and C. villosa formed were 3.7 m2, 27.9 m2, and 40.6 m2, respectively. Trientalis europaea and C. villosa patches consisted mostly of more than one genet. Largest clone sizes of T. europaea were encountered in gaps of intermediate successional age (15–60 years, averaged minimum estimation of clone sizes: 6.56 m2) whereas clone size of C. villosa was found to be independent from gap age and had a mean minimum clone size of 0.49 m2. In both species, clone size was positively related to light availability. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between clone size and ramet density for T. europaea and C. villosa. Genetic variation was higher within populations of T. europaea and C. villosa than among populations. Trientalis europaea was the only species with a clear genetic isolation by distance, pointing at an equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift. In conclusion, we showed that forest canopy gap dynamics clearly affect the small-scale structure of populations of understorey plants. Species with high lateral growth rates, such as T. europaea offer the possibility to serve as “ecological clock” for dating ecological processes.

Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

2011-01-01

42

Pancreatic Perfusion CT in Early Stage of Severe Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Early intensive care for severe acute pancreatitis is essential for improving SAP mortality rates. However, intensive therapies for SAP are often delayed because there is no ideal way to accurately evaluate severity in the early stages. Currently, perfusion CT has been shown useful to predict prognosis of SAP in the early stage. In this presented paper, we would like to review the clinical usefulness and limitations of perfusion CT for evaluation of local and systemic complications in early stage of SAP.

Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Naoki; Tsutomu, Chiba

2012-01-01

43

Scaling relationships among twig size, leaf size and leafing intensity in a successional series of subtropical forests.  

PubMed

Scaling relationships among twig size, leaf size and leafing intensity fundamentally influence the twig-leaf deployment pattern, a property that affects the architecture and functioning of plants. However, our understanding of how these relationships change within a species or between species as a function of forest succession is unclear. We determined log-log scaling relationships between twig cross-sectional area (twig size) and each of total and individual leaf area, and leafing intensity (the number of leaves per twig volume) for 78 woody species along a successional series in subtropical evergreen forests in eastern China. The series included four stages: secondary shrub (S1), young (S2), sub-climax (S3) and climax evergreen broadleaved forests (S4). The scaling slopes in each of the three relationships did not differ among the four stages. The y-intercept did not shift among the successional stages in the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and total leaf area; however, the y-intercept was greatest in S4, intermediate in S3 and lowest in S2 and S1 for the relationship between twig size and individual leaf area, while the opposite pattern was found for the twig size-leafing intensity relationship. This indicates that late successional trees have few but large leaves while early successional trees have more small leaves per unit twig size. For the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and total leaf area, there was no difference in the regression slope between recurrent (appear in more than one stages) and non-recurrent species (appear in only one stage) for each of the S1-S2, S2-S3 and S3-S4 pairs. A significant difference in the y-intercept was found in the S2-S3 pair only. In the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and individual leaf area, the regression slope between recurrent and non-recurrent species was homogeneous in the S1-S2 and S3-S4 pairs, but heterogeneous in the S2-S3 pair. We conclude that forest succession caused the shift in the intercept, but did not affect scaling slopes for relationships among twig size, leaf size and leaf intensity. For recurrent species, the invariant scaling slope in the twig-leaf size relationship between adjacent pairs of successional stages may be related to their phenotypic plasticity by adjusting their twig and leaf deployment strategy to similar to what the non-recurrent species display. PMID:23824241

Yan, En-Rong; Wang, Xi-Hua; Chang, Scott X; He, Fangliang

2013-06-01

44

Interactive sketching for the early stages of user interface design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current interactive user interface construction tools are often more of a hindrance than a benefit during the early stages of user interface design. These tools take too much time to use and force designers to specify more of the design details than they wish at this early stage. Most interface designers, especially those who have a background in graphic design,

James A. Landay; Brad A. Myers

1995-01-01

45

Imaging of early stages of osteonecrosis of the knee.  

PubMed

Osteonecrosis of the knee can present as a spontaneous and primary or a secondary clinical entity. The natural history of osteonecrosis follows a course of several sequential stages, and the later stages of both entities seem to be irreversible. Early diagnosis of osteonecrosis is crucial: the earlier the stage of the lesion at the time of diagnosis, the better the prognosis.Clinically, early diagnosis and treatment of osteonecrosis might prevent unnecessary surgery in cases with a concomitant degenerative meniscal tear. Early-stage osteonecrosis should be ruled out before surgery, because arthroscopy has lately been associated with osteonecrosis. Not every imaging method is equally suitable for detecting pathognomonic changes in each stage of osteonecrosis. Early-stage osteonecrosis is difficult to diagnose,because various differential diagnoses must be kept in mind. Moreover, there is a diagnostic window between the onset of symptoms and the appearance of pathognomonic changes on plain radiographs and MRI. PMID:15271537

Pape, Dietrich; Seil, Romain; Kohn, Dieter; Schneider, Gunther

2004-07-01

46

Increasing experience in laparoscopic staging of early ovarian cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effect of increasing experience of a single surgeon (learning curve) in the laparoscopic staging procedure\\u000a for women with early ovarian cancer and compared the results with the literature. We retrospectively analysed a total of 25\\u000a women with apparent early-stage ovarian cancer who underwent a laparoscopic staging procedure by the same surgeon. Three time\\u000a periods, based on date

Henk W. R. Schreuder; Thyrza O. S. Pattij; Ronald P. Zweemer; Marchien W. van Baal; René H. M. Verheijen

47

Growth Stages 1: Infancy and Early Childhood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the first of a two-part series aimed at introducing students to the different stages of physical growth and development in human beings from birth to 18 years of age. Through the use of student interactives, this lesson helps students become better aware of all the natural physical stages of growth children experience in the first five years of life.

Science Netlinks;

2003-03-29

48

Stages and stage distribution in early oogenesis in the Annelid, Platynereis dumerilii  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The coelomic stages of oogenesis up to early vitellogenesis are described in Platynereis dumerilii.2.Early stages up to 26—27 µm in diameter are attached to each other in variable numbers thus forming clusters of variable size. Sheath cells cover the oocyte clusters initially and in later stages wrap up the clustered oocytes individually.3.Thereafter, the oocytes fall apart and loose their sheath

Albrecht Fischer

1974-01-01

49

Thalidomide as initial therapy for early-stage myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with early-stage myeloma are typically observed without therapy until symptomatic disease occurs. However, they are at high risk of progression to symptomatic myeloma, with a median time to progression of approximately 1–2 years. We report the final results of a phase II trial of thalidomide as initial therapy for early-stage multiple myeloma in an attempt to delay progression to

S V Rajkumar; M A Gertz; M Q Lacy; A Dispenzieri; R Fonseca; S M Geyer; N Iturria; S Kumar; J A Lust; R A Kyle; P R Greipp; T E Witzig

2003-01-01

50

Using early stage project data to predict change-proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several previous studies have suggested methods for predicting change-proneness based on software complexity metrics. We hypothesise that data from the early stages of a development project such as requirements and design could also be used to make such predictions. We define here a set of new metrics to capture data from the requirements and\\/or design stages, and derive values for

Claire Ingram; Steve Riddle

2012-01-01

51

Modeling the early stages of reactive wetting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experimental studies of molten metal droplets wetting high-temperature reactive substrates have established that the majority of triple-line motion occurs when inertial effects are dominant. In light of these studies, this paper investigates wetting and spreading on reactive substrates when inertial effects are dominant using a thermodynamically derived diffuse interface model of a binary three-phase material. The liquid-vapor transition is modeled using a van der Waals diffuse interface approach, while the solid-fluid transition is modeled using a phase field approach. The results from the simulations demonstrate an O(t-1/2) spreading rate during the inertial regime and oscillations in the triple-line position when the metal droplet transitions from inertial to diffusive spreading. It is found that the spreading extent is reduced by enhancing dissolution by manipulating the initial liquid composition. The results from the model exhibit good qualitative and quantitative agreement with a number of recent experimental studies of high-temperature droplet spreading, particularly experiments of copper droplets spreading on silicon substrates. Analysis of the numerical data from the model suggests that the extent and rate of spreading are regulated by the spreading coefficient calculated from a force balance based on a plausible definition of the instantaneous interface energies. A number of contemporary publications have discussed the likely dissipation mechanism in spreading droplets. Thus, we examine the dissipation mechanism using the entropy-production field and determine that dissipation primarily occurs in the locality of the triple-line region during the inertial stage but extends along the solid-liquid interface region during the diffusive stage.

Wheeler, Daniel; Warren, James A.; Boettinger, William J.

2010-11-01

52

Discovering colorons at the early stage LHC  

SciTech Connect

Prospects are investigated for the discovery of massive hypergluons using data from the early runs of the Large Hadron Collider. A center of mass energy of 7 TeV and an integrated luminosity of 1 fb{sup -1} or 5 fb{sup -1} are assumed. A phenomenological Lagrangian is adopted to evaluate the cross section of a pair of colored vector bosons (colorons, {rho}-tilde) decaying into four colored scalar resonances (hyperpions, {pi}-tilde), which then decay into eight gluons. The dominant eight-jet background from the production of 8g, 7g1q, 6g2q, and 5g3q is included. We find an abundance of signal events and that realistic cuts reduce the background enough to establish a 5{sigma} signal for the coloron mass of up to 733 GeV with 1 fb{sup -1} or 833 GeV with 5 fb{sup -1}.

Dicus, Duane A. [Center for Particles and Fields and Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Kao, Chung; Sayre, Joshua [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy and Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Nandi, S. [Department of Physics and Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

2011-05-01

53

Using Spirituality to Cope with Early Stage Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) robs persons living with this disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early stage AD cope is a critical step to enhance their adaptive abilities and ultimately improve their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnography study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability for people with early stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with Alzheimer’s.

Grando, Victoria T.

2010-01-01

54

Radiofrequency Ablation for Early-Stage Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

This review examines studies of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and discusses the role of RFA in treatment of early-stage NSCLC. RFA is usually performed under local anesthesia with computed tomography guidance. RFA-associated mortality, while being rare, can result from pulmonary events. RFA causes pneumothorax in up to 63% of cases, although pneumothorax requiring chest drainage occurs in less than 15% of procedures. Other severe complications are rare. After RFA of stage I NSCLC, 31–42% of patients show local progression. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates after RFA of stage I NSCLC were 78% to 100%, 53% to 86%, 36% to 88%, and 25% to 61%, respectively. The median survival time ranged from 29 to 67 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year cancer-specific survival rates after RFA of stage I NSCLC were 89% to 100%, 92% to 93%, and 59% to 88%, respectively. RFA has a higher local failure rate than sublobar resection and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Therefore, RFA may currently be reserved for early-stage NSCLC patients who are unfit for sublobar resection or SBRT. Various technologies are being developed to improve clinical outcomes of RFA for early-stage NSCLC.

Hiraki, Takao; Gobara, Hideo; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Matsui, Yusuke; Kanazawa, Susumu

2014-01-01

55

A collaborative approach to health promotion in early stage dementia.  

PubMed

Dementia affects all aspects of a person's life, including memory, functioning, emotions and social relationships. Dementia care is a national priority because of an increasingly older population and the effect of the condition on individuals, families and communities. Early recognition, and appropriate care and treatment improve the experiences of people with dementia, particularly in hospital or care settings. Nurses can work collaboratively with pharmacists to promote health and maintain the wellbeing of people in the early stages of dementia. PMID:23821990

Jenkins, Catharine; McKay, Ailsa

56

Vitrification of early-stage bovine and equine embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine an optimal method and stage of development for vitrification of bovine zygotes or early embryos; and (2) use the optimal procedure for bovine embryos to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of early embryos. Initially, bovine embryos produced by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) were frozen and vitrified in 0.25mL straws with

L. F. Campos-Chillòn; T. K. Suh; M. Barcelo-Fimbres; G SEIDELJR; E. M. Carnevale

2009-01-01

57

Responses of Reactive Oxygen Scavenging Enzymes, Proline and Malondialdehyde to Water Deficits among Six Secondary Successional Seral Species in Loess Plateau.  

PubMed

Drought can impact local vegetation dynamics in a long term. In order to predict the possible successional pathway of local community under drought, the responses of some drought resistance indices of six successional seral species in the semi-arid Loss Hilly Region of China were illustrated and compared on three levels of soil water deficits along three growing months (7, 8 and 9). The results showed that: 1) the six species had significant differences in SOD, POD activities and MDA content. The rank correlations between SOD, POD activities and the successional niche positions of the six species were positive, and the correlation between MDA content and the niche positions was negative; 2) activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and content of proline and MDA had significant differences among the three months; 3) there existed significant interactions of SOD, CAT, POD activities and MDA content between months and species. With an exception, no interaction of proline was found. Proline in leaves had a general decline in reproductive month; 4) SOD, CAT, POD activities and proline content had negative correlations with MDA content. Among which, the correlation between SOD activity and MDA content was significant. The results implied that, in arid or semiarid region, the species at later successional stage tend to have strong drought resistance than those at early stage. Anti-drought indices can partially interpret the pathway of community succession in the drought impacted area. SOD activity is more distinct and important on the scope of protecting membrane damage through the scavenging of ROS on exposure to drought. PMID:24914928

Du, Feng; Shi, Huijun; Zhang, Xingchang; Xu, Xuexuan

2014-01-01

58

Responses of Reactive Oxygen Scavenging Enzymes, Proline and Malondialdehyde to Water Deficits among Six Secondary Successional Seral Species in Loess Plateau  

PubMed Central

Drought can impact local vegetation dynamics in a long term. In order to predict the possible successional pathway of local community under drought, the responses of some drought resistance indices of six successional seral species in the semi-arid Loss Hilly Region of China were illustrated and compared on three levels of soil water deficits along three growing months (7, 8 and 9). The results showed that: 1) the six species had significant differences in SOD, POD activities and MDA content. The rank correlations between SOD, POD activities and the successional niche positions of the six species were positive, and the correlation between MDA content and the niche positions was negative; 2) activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and content of proline and MDA had significant differences among the three months; 3) there existed significant interactions of SOD, CAT, POD activities and MDA content between months and species. With an exception, no interaction of proline was found. Proline in leaves had a general decline in reproductive month; 4) SOD, CAT, POD activities and proline content had negative correlations with MDA content. Among which, the correlation between SOD activity and MDA content was significant. The results implied that, in arid or semiarid region, the species at later successional stage tend to have strong drought resistance than those at early stage. Anti-drought indices can partially interpret the pathway of community succession in the drought impacted area. SOD activity is more distinct and important on the scope of protecting membrane damage through the scavenging of ROS on exposure to drought.

Du, Feng; Shi, Huijun; Zhang, Xingchang; Xu, Xuexuan

2014-01-01

59

TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

60

Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

2008-08-01

61

Metformin to Treat Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, nondiabetic women or men younger than age 75 who have been diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer within the previous 12 months and who have undergone surgery to remove their tumor will be randomly assigned to take metformin or placebo pills twice a day for 5 years.

62

Clinical MR Evaluation of Early Stage Articular Cartilage Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early stages of articular cartilage disease, the most prevalent of which is osteoarthritis (OA), changes occur in the cartilage matrix, where a loss of proteoglycans and changes to the network of collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix are observed (1). This occurs before any morphological changes to the cartilage, and therefore both thickness and volume measurements are insensitive

Peter Del-Manso; Martin Fry; Andrew Todd-Pokropek

63

Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in Southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of P supply to ecosystems. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment of precipitation treatments (no precipitation, natural precipitation and doubled precipitation) in three forests of early-, mid- and advanced-successional stages in Southern China was carried out. Results showed that driven by seasonality of precipitation, changes in soil acid phosphatase activities coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with significantly higher values in the wet season than in the dry season. Soil acid phosphatase activities were closely linked to forest successional stages, with enhanced values in the later stages of forest succession. In the dry season, soil acid phosphatase activities in the three forests showed a rising trend with increasing precipitation treatments. In the wet season, no precipitation treatment depressed soil acid phosphatase activity, while doubled precipitation treatment exerted no positive effects on it, and even significantly lowered it in the advanced forest. These indicate the potential transformation rate of organic P might be more dependent on water in the dry season than in the wet season. The negative responses of soil acid phosphatase activity to precipitation suggest that P supply in subtropical ecosystems might be reduced if there was a drought in a whole year or more rainfall in the wet season in the future. NP, no precipitation; Control, natural precipitation; DP, double precipitation.

Huang, W.; Liu, J.; Zhou, G.; Zhang, D.; Deng, Q.

2011-01-01

64

Benchmarking successional progress in a quantitative food web.  

PubMed

Central to ecology and ecosystem management, succession theory aims to mechanistically explain and predict the assembly and development of ecological communities. Yet processes at lower hierarchical levels, e.g. at the species and functional group level, are rarely mechanistically linked to the under-investigated system-level processes which drive changes in ecosystem properties and functioning and are comparable across ecosystems. As a model system for secondary succession, seasonal plankton succession during the growing season is readily observable and largely driven autogenically. We used a long-term dataset from large, deep Lake Constance comprising biomasses, auto- and heterotrophic production, food quality, functional diversity, and mass-balanced food webs of the energy and nutrient flows between functional guilds of plankton and partly fish. Extracting population- and system-level indices from this dataset, we tested current hypotheses about the directionality of successional progress which are rooted in ecosystem theory, the metabolic theory of ecology, quantitative food web theory, thermodynamics, and information theory. Our results indicate that successional progress in Lake Constance is quantifiable, passing through predictable stages. Mean body mass, functional diversity, predator-prey weight ratios, trophic positions, system residence times of carbon and nutrients, and the complexity of the energy flow patterns increased during succession. In contrast, both the mass-specific metabolic activity and the system export decreased, while the succession rate exhibited a bimodal pattern. The weighted connectance introduced here represents a suitable index for assessing the evenness and interconnectedness of energy flows during succession. Diverging from earlier predictions, ascendency and eco-exergy did not increase during succession. Linking aspects of functional diversity to metabolic theory and food web complexity, we reconcile previously disjoint bodies of ecological theory to form a complete picture of successional progress within a pelagic food web. This comprehensive synthesis may be used as a benchmark for quantifying successional progress in other ecosystems. PMID:24587353

Boit, Alice; Gaedke, Ursula

2014-01-01

65

Benchmarking Successional Progress in a Quantitative Food Web  

PubMed Central

Central to ecology and ecosystem management, succession theory aims to mechanistically explain and predict the assembly and development of ecological communities. Yet processes at lower hierarchical levels, e.g. at the species and functional group level, are rarely mechanistically linked to the under-investigated system-level processes which drive changes in ecosystem properties and functioning and are comparable across ecosystems. As a model system for secondary succession, seasonal plankton succession during the growing season is readily observable and largely driven autogenically. We used a long-term dataset from large, deep Lake Constance comprising biomasses, auto- and heterotrophic production, food quality, functional diversity, and mass-balanced food webs of the energy and nutrient flows between functional guilds of plankton and partly fish. Extracting population- and system-level indices from this dataset, we tested current hypotheses about the directionality of successional progress which are rooted in ecosystem theory, the metabolic theory of ecology, quantitative food web theory, thermodynamics, and information theory. Our results indicate that successional progress in Lake Constance is quantifiable, passing through predictable stages. Mean body mass, functional diversity, predator-prey weight ratios, trophic positions, system residence times of carbon and nutrients, and the complexity of the energy flow patterns increased during succession. In contrast, both the mass-specific metabolic activity and the system export decreased, while the succession rate exhibited a bimodal pattern. The weighted connectance introduced here represents a suitable index for assessing the evenness and interconnectedness of energy flows during succession. Diverging from earlier predictions, ascendency and eco-exergy did not increase during succession. Linking aspects of functional diversity to metabolic theory and food web complexity, we reconcile previously disjoint bodies of ecological theory to form a complete picture of successional progress within a pelagic food web. This comprehensive synthesis may be used as a benchmark for quantifying successional progress in other ecosystems.

Boit, Alice; Gaedke, Ursula

2014-01-01

66

Narrow band imaging: application for early-stage gastrointestinal neoplasia.  

PubMed

Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is an imaging technique for endoscopy using optical filters to narrow the bandwidth of spectral transmittance. Through this narrow spectrum, NBI contrasts surface structure and microvascular architecture of various lesions. In this article we focus on the application of NBI for early-stage neoplasia in the esophagus, stomach and colon with a three-step strategy of endoscopic diagnosis: (i) the detection of abnormality; (ii) the differentiation between non-neoplasia and neoplasia; and (iii) staging for tumor extension and depth of invasion. PMID:24868598

Zhu, Ling Yin; Li, Xiao Bo

2014-05-01

67

Taxanes: optimizing adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxanes are among the most widely used chemotherapy agents for advanced breast cancer. Results are now available from 21 trials that randomly allocated nearly 36,000 women with early-stage breast cancer to receive first-generation taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy versus non-taxane-based adjuvant regimens. Three recent meta-analyses suggest that taxanes are beneficial in the adjuvant setting, irrespective of the patient's age, lymph-node involvement, hormone-receptor

Philippe L. Bedard; Angelo Di Leo; Martine J. Piccart-Gebhart

2009-01-01

68

Cognitive impairment in early stages of multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive dysfunction involves 40–65% of multiple sclerosis patients and can have a great functional impact. It can be detected\\u000a in all the disease phenotypes since the early stages of the disease, and tends to progress over time. Memory, complex attention,\\u000a information-processing speed and executive functions are most commonly involved. The relationship between cognitive changes\\u000a and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings

Maria Pia AmatoE; E. Portaccio; B. Goretti; V. Zipoli; B. Hakiki; M. Giannini; L. Pastò; L. Razzolini

2010-01-01

69

The Development of Children's Early Numeracy through Key Stage 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a limited longitudinal study of young children's early numeracy development within three testing cycles, at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-of-age), located within the broader context of progress through to Key Stage 1 SAT…

Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray

2003-01-01

70

Growth Stages 2: Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lesson plans from Science NetLinks form a two-part series designed to introduce students (grades 3-5) to human growth and development from infancy through puberty. Each lesson contains detailed background information, discussion questions, and other resources that help students learn about the "key physical stages or milestones, which are research and science-supported indicators that help to track the progress of a child's physical development at different stages of life." Using these lesson plans in the classroom could prove a popular choice, as "research shows that children are fascinated by films and stories about early stages of human development and they are particularly intrigued by comparisons of themselves now and earlier." Each lesson plans comes with a comprehensive teaching guide.

71

Motor-cortical oscillations in early stages of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Pathophysiological changes in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits are well established in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it remains open whether such alterations already occur at early stages representing a characteristic neurophysiological marker of PD. Therefore, the present study aims at elucidating changes of synchronised oscillatory activity in early PD patients. In this study, we performed whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a resting condition and during steady state contraction of the more severely affected forearm in 10 drug–naive, de novo patients, in 10 early-stage patients with chronic medication and in 10 age-matched control subjects. While cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) did not differ between groups, patients showed increased sensori-motor cortical power at beta frequency (13–30 Hz) during rest as well as during isometric contraction compared to controls. In healthy control subjects the power of the contralateral hemisphere was significantly suppressed during isometric contraction. By contrast, both hemispheres were activated equally strongly in de novo patients. In medicated patients, the pattern was found to be reversed. Contralateral beta power was significantly correlated with motor impairment during isometric contraction but not during rest. The present results suggest that the reduced ability of the primary motor cortex to disengage from increased beta band oscillations during the execution of movements is an early marker of PD.

Pollok, B; Krause, V; Martsch, W; Wach, C; Schnitzler, A; Sudmeyer, M

2012-01-01

72

Usefulness of sentinel lymph node detection in early stages of cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in combination with surgical biopsy is an emerging tech- nique for use in the early stages of cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technique in a series of 40 consecutive women with early stage cervical cancer. Methods: Forty patients with early stage cervical cancer (FIGO stage IA2 (2), IB1

I. Roca; A. P. Caresia; A. Gil-Moreno; P. Pifarre; S. Aguade-Bruix; J. Castell-Conesa; J. M. Martínez-Palones; J. Xercavins

2005-01-01

73

Rate of Belowground Carbon Allocation Differs with Successional Habit of Two Afromontane Trees  

PubMed Central

Background Anthropogenic disturbance of old-growth tropical forests increases the abundance of early successional tree species at the cost of late successional ones. Quantifying differences in terms of carbon allocation and the proportion of recently fixed carbon in soil CO2 efflux is crucial for addressing the carbon footprint of creeping degradation. Methodology We compared the carbon allocation pattern of the late successional gymnosperm Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) Mirb. and the early successional (gap filling) angiosperm Croton macrostachyus Hochst. es Del. in an Ethiopian Afromontane forest by whole tree 13CO2 pulse labeling. Over a one-year period we monitored the temporal resolution of the label in the foliage, the phloem sap, the arbuscular mycorrhiza, and in soil-derived CO2. Further, we quantified the overall losses of assimilated 13C with soil CO2 efflux. Principal Findings 13C in leaves of C. macrostachyus declined more rapidly with a larger size of a fast pool (64% vs. 50% of the assimilated carbon), having a shorter mean residence time (14 h vs. 55 h) as in leaves of P. falcatus. Phloem sap velocity was about 4 times higher for C. macrostachyus. Likewise, the label appeared earlier in the arbuscular mycorrhiza of C. macrostachyus and in the soil CO2 efflux as in case of P. falcatus (24 h vs. 72 h). Within one year soil CO2 efflux amounted to a loss of 32% of assimilated carbon for the gap filling tree and to 15% for the late successional one. Conclusions Our results showed clear differences in carbon allocation patterns between tree species, although we caution that this experiment was unreplicated. A shift in tree species composition of tropical montane forests (e.g., by degradation) accelerates carbon allocation belowground and increases respiratory carbon losses by the autotrophic community. If ongoing disturbance keeps early successional species in dominance, the larger allocation to fast cycling compartments may deplete soil organic carbon in the long run.

Shibistova, Olga; Yohannes, Yonas; Boy, Jens; Richter, Andreas; Wild, Birgit; Watzka, Margarethe; Guggenberger, Georg

2012-01-01

74

Visual perception in prediagnostic and early stage Huntington's disease  

PubMed Central

Disturbances of visual perception frequently accompany neurodegenerative disorders but have been little studied in Huntington’s disease (HD) gene carriers. We used psychophysical tests to assess visual perception among individuals in the prediagnostic and early stages of HD. The sample comprised four groups, which included 201 nongene carriers (NG), 32 prediagnostic gene carriers with minimal neurological abnormalities (PD1); 20 prediagnostic gene carriers with moderate neurological abnormalities (PD2), and 36 gene carriers with diagnosed HD. Contrast sensitivity for stationary and moving sinusoidal gratings, and tests of form and motion discrimination, were used to probe different visual pathways. Patients with HD showed impaired contrast sensitivity for moving gratings. For one of the three contrast sensitivity tests, the prediagnostic gene carriers with greater neurological abnormality (PD2) also had impaired performance as compared with NG. These findings suggest that early stage HD disrupts visual functions associated with the magnocellular pathway. However, these changes are only observed in individuals diagnosed with HD or who are in the more symptomatic stages of prediagnostic HD.

O'DONNELL, BRIAN F.; BLEKHER, TANYA M.; WEAVER, MARJORIE; WHITE, KERRY M.; MARSHALL, JEANINE; BERISTAIN, XABIER; STOUT, JULIE C.; GRAY, JACQUELINE; WOJCIESZEK, JOANNE M.; FOROUD, TATIANA M.

2009-01-01

75

Stand structure and successional trends in virgin boreal forest reserves in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire history and stand structure was examined in twelve virgin forest stands situated within forest reserves in northern Sweden. The selected stands represented fire refuges as well as different successional stages after fire. Six of the stands were dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), three were dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and three were dominated by

Per Linder; Björn Elfving; Olle Zackrisson

1997-01-01

76

Early-stage Hodgkin's disease: current approaches to treatment.  

PubMed Central

Most patients with early-stage Hodgkin's disease can now be cured by one of several therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the developments in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease that have led to long-term survival rates greater than 90%. Past and present radio-therapy (RT) planning and treatment practices are discussed in the context of both clinical and pathological staging. The role of initial bimodal therapy (RT and chemotherapy [CT]) and the use of CT in patients who suffer relapse after initial treatment with RT alone are reviewed. On the basis of prognostic factors, subgroups of patients for whom bimodal therapy is recommended, including those with a bulky mediastinal mass, have now been identified. Although treatment is highly successful, debilitating consequences of RT and CT, such as infertility, infection and second malignant diseases, remain. Newer treatment regimens may reduce morbidity and have similar or better long-term results with respect to survival and quality of life.

Rusthoven, J J; MacKenzie, R

1985-01-01

77

Early intensification treatment approach in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

The key question in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma for many years now has been, should intensified chemotherapy be applied upfront or be reserved for relapsing patients. The early intensification approach with BEACOPP(escalated) (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone) aims at curing patients with first-line chemotherapy definitely. The added toxicity of this approach as compared to less intensive regimens as ABDV (doxorubicin, bleomycin, dacarbazine, vinblastine) is mainly restricted to acute haematotoxicity and gonadal damage. However, regarding efficacy, there is a meaningful survival-benefit over ABVD (10% at 5years) and the intensified first-line treatment strategy is thus rightly regarded as standard of care. PMID:24287068

Borchmann, Peter

2014-02-01

78

Inflammation in the early stages of neurodegenerative pathology  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is secondary to protein accumulation in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Emerging evidence indicate sustained inflammatory responses, involving microglia and astrocytes in animal models of neurodegeneration. It is unknown whether inflammation is beneficial or detrimental to disease progression and how inflammatory responses are induced within the CNS. Persistence of an inflammatory stimulus or failure to resolve sustained inflammation can result in pathology, thus, mechanisms that counteract inflammation are indispensable. Here we review studies on inflammation mediated by innate and adaptive immunity in the early stages of neurodegeneration and highlight important areas for future investigation.

Khandelwal, Preeti J.; Herman, Alexander M.; Moussa, Charbel E-H

2011-01-01

79

Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

Bruno, D. W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D. G.

2006-01-01

80

USANS investigation of early stages of metal foam formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic foams are on the verge of being used in industrial applications. However, the mechanism of foam creation, especially the early stages, are still unexplored. Ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), performed with the double-crystal diffractometer (DCD) at the Geesthacht Neutron Facility (GeNF), is a promising method for obtaining a three-dimensional average of a pore size distribution in a wide size range from about 100 nm to about 20 ?m. Analysis of the neutron scattering curves yielded pore size distributions which conformed with the results obtained by microscopy.

Bellmann, D.; Clemens, H.; Banhart, J.

81

The Evolving Role of Radiotherapy in Early Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy has a key role in the combined modality treatment of early-stage Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL). Nevertheless, late toxicity still remains an issue. A modern approach in HL radiotherapy includes lower doses and smaller fields, together with the implementation of sophisticated and dedicated delivery techniques. Aim of the present review is to discuss the current role of radiotherapy and its potential future developments, with a focus on major clinical trials, technological advances and their repercussion in the clinical management of HL patients.

Ricardi, Umberto; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Piva, Cristina; Franco, Pierfrancesco

2014-01-01

82

Late stages of accumulation and early evolution of the planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently developed solutions of problems are discussed that were traditionally considered fundamental in classical solar system cosmogony: determination of planetary orbit distribution patterns, values for mean eccentricity and orbital inclinations of the planets, and rotation periods and rotation axis inclinations of the planets. Two important cosmochemical aspects of accumulation are examined: the time scale for gas loss from the terrestrial planet zone, and the composition of the planets in terms of isotope data. It was concluded that the early beginning of planet differentiation is a function of the heating of protoplanets during collisions with large (thousands of kilometers) bodies. Energetics, heat mass transfer processes, and characteristic time scales of these processes at the early stages of planet evolution are considered.

Vityazev, Andrey V.; Perchernikova, G. V.

1991-01-01

83

Sentinel Node Biopsy for Early-Stage Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate, in an international multicenter phase III trial, the accuracy, use, and morbidity of intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy (LM/SNB) for staging the regional nodal basin of patients with early-stage melanoma. Summary Background Data: Since our introduction of LM/SNB in 1990, this technique has been widely adopted and has become part of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Eleven years ago, the authors began the international Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (MSLT-I) to compare 2 treatment approaches: wide excision (WE) plus LM/SNB with immediate complete lymphadenectomy (CLND) for sentinel node (SN) metastases, and WE plus postoperative observation with CLND delayed until the subsequent development of clinically evident nodal metastases. Methods: After each center achieved 85% accuracy of SN identification during a 30-case learning phase, patients with primary cutaneous melanoma (?1 mm with Clark level ?III, or any thickness with Clark level ?IV) were randomly assigned in a 4:6 ratio to WE plus observation (WEO) with delayed CLND for nodal recurrence, or to WE plus LM/SNB with immediate CLND for SN metastasis. The accuracy of LM/SNB was determined by comparing the rates of SN identification and the incidence of SN metastases in the LM/SNB group versus the subsequent development of nodal metastases in the regional nodal basin of those patients with tumor-negative SNs. Early morbidity of LM/SNB was evaluated by comparing complication rates between the 2 treatment groups. Trial accrual was completed on March 31, 2002, after enrollment of 2001 patients. Results: Initial SN identification rate was 95.3% overall: 99.3% for the groin, 95.3% for the axilla, and 84.5% for the neck basins. The rate of false-negative LM/SNB during the trial phase, as measured by nodal recurrence in a tumor-negative dissected SN basin, decreased with increasing case volume at each center: 10.3% for the first 25 cases versus 5.2% after 25 cases. There were no operative mortalities. The low (10.1%) complication rate after LM/SNB increased to 37.2% with the addition of CLND; CLND also increased the severity of complications. Conclusions: LM/SNB is a safe, low-morbidity procedure for staging the regional nodal basin in early melanoma. Even after a 30-case learning phase and 25 additional LM/SNB cases, the accuracy of LM/SNB continues to increase with a center's experience. LM/SNB should become standard care for staging the regional lymph nodes of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma.

Morton, Donald L.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Thompson, John F.; Elashoff, Robert; Essner, Richard; Glass, Edwin C.; Mozzillo, Nicola; Nieweg, Omgo E.; Roses, Daniel F.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Karakousis, Constantine P.; Reintgen, Douglas S.; Coventry, Brendon J.; Wang, He-jing

2005-01-01

84

Development in an estuarine fouling community: The influence of early colonists on later arrivals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed to determine if earlier colonists inhibited, enhanced, or were necessary for establishment of later colonists during development of an estuarine fouling community at Lewes, Delaware. We determined the significance of earlier stages on the successional process by functionally removing early colonizing species. Since settlement of sessile invertebrates onto our experimental test plates was seasonal, we were able

T. A. Dean; L. E. Hurd

1980-01-01

85

Cryoablation of Early-Stage Primary Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, and lobectomy is the gold-standard treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, many patients are poor surgical candidates for various reasons. Recently, image-guided ablation is being used for lung tumors. Cryoablation has been applied for the treatment of cancer in various nonaerated organs; recently it has been adapted to the treatment of lung tumors. Since an ice ball can be detected by computed tomography (CT), cryoablation of lung tumors is performed under CT guidance. Its first clinical application was reported in 2005, and it has been reported to be feasible in a few studies. Minor complications occurred at a high frequency (up to 70.5%), but major complications were rare (up to 1%). The most common complication is pneumothorax, and most cases need no further intervention. Local efficacy depends on tumor size and presence of a thick vessel close to the tumor. Midterm survival after cryoablation is 77%–88% at 3 years in patients with early-stage NSCLC. Although surgery is the gold-standard treatment for such patients, the initial results of cryoablation are promising. In this paper, the current status of cryoablation for primary lung tumors is reviewed.

Nakatsuka, Seishi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

2014-01-01

86

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

SciTech Connect

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Cada, G.F.

1991-01-01

87

Metamorphic density controls on early-stage subduction dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subduction is primarily driven by the densification of the downgoing oceanic slab, due to dynamic P-T-fields in subduction zones. It is crucial to unravel slab densification induced by metamorphic reactions to understand the influence on plate dynamics. By analyzing the density and metamorphic structure of subduction zones, we may gain knowledge about the driving, metamorphic processes in a subduction zone like the eclogitization (i.e., the transformation of a MORB to an eclogite), the breakdown of hydrous minerals and the release of fluid or the generation of partial melts. We have therefore developed a 2D subduction zone model down to 250 km that is based on thermodynamic equilibrium assemblage computations. Our model computes the "metamorphic density" of rocks as a function of pressure, temperature and chemical composition using the Theriak-Domino software package at different time stages. We have used this model to investigate how the hydration, dehydration, partial melting and fractionation processes of rocks all influence the metamorphic density and greatly depend on the temperature field within subduction systems. These processes are commonly neglected by other approaches (e.g., gravitational or thermomechanical in nature) reproducing the density distribution within this tectonic setting. The process of eclogitization is assumed as being important to subduction dynamics, based on the very high density (3.6 g/cm3) of eclogitic rocks. The eclogitization in a MORB-type crust is possible only if the rock reaches the garnet phase stability field. This process is primarily temperature driven. Our model demonstrates that the initiation of eclogitization of the slab is not the only significant process that makes the descending slab denser and is responsible for the slab pull force. Indeed, our results show that the densification of the downgoing lithospheric mantle (due to an increase of pressure) starts in the early subduction stage and makes a significant contribution to the slab pull, where eclogitization does not occur. Thus, the lithospheric mantle acts as additional ballast below the sinking slab shortly after the initiation of subduction. Our calculation shows that the dogma of eclogitized basaltic, oceanic crust as the driving force of slab pull is overestimated during the early stage of subduction. These results improve our understanding of the force budget for slab pull during the intial and early stage of subduction. Therefore, the complex metamorphic structure of a slab and mantle wedge has an important impact on the development and dynamics of subduction zones. Further Reading: Duesterhoeft, Oberhänsli & Bousquet (2013), submitted to Earth and Planetary Science Letters

Duesterhoeft, Erik; Oberhänsli, Roland; Bousquet, Romain

2013-04-01

88

Characteristics of the Light Response in Seedlings and Saplings of Two Mid-Successional Species, Ash and Kalopanax, During the Early Stage of Regeneration in a Mature Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth characteristics of ash (Fraxinus mandshuricavar. japonicd)and kalopanax (Kalopanax pictus), two mid-succcs-sional species, were monitored in relation to seasonal light in a deciduous broadleaf forest. During the growing, relative light intensity of the gap was 4 to 6 times higher than that under the closed canopy. Seedlings could be found on the mixed hardwood forest floor where relative light intensity

Takayoshi Koike; Ryuichi Tabuchi; Kunihide Takahashi; Shigeta Mori; Thomas T. Lei

1997-01-01

89

Model atmospheres for novae during the early stages  

SciTech Connect

Continuum and line blanketing models for the photospheres of novae in the early stages of their outbursts are presented. The expanding envelopes are characterized by a very slow increase of density with decreasing radius which leads to very large geometrical extensions and large temperature differences between the inner and outer parts. The spectra show a large IR excess and a small Balmer jump which may be either in absorption or in emission. For the parameters considered (T{sub eff} = 10{sup 4}, 1.5 {times} 10{sup 4}, 2 {times} 10{sup 4}K, R = 10{sup 11} cm, solar composition), most lines are in absorption. The effects of both modifications in the temperature structure (e.g. by heating from shock fronts) and changes in the abundances of the heavy elements on the emergent spectra are briefly discussed. 13 refs., 11 figs.

Wehrse, R.; Hauschildt, P.H. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Astrophysik); Shaviv, G. (Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Physics); Starrfield, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1989-01-01

90

Research on the early planet formation stages with IPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stages of planet formation are characterized by growth of fractal aggregates, starting from (sub-)micrometer-sized grains to (fractal) aggregates of roughly mm size. In the last 20 years a number of experiments on the behaviour and growth mechanisms of aggregates has been carried out. Laboratory experiments are limited due to sedimentation (e.g. Heim and Blum 1998, Wurm et al 2001). Previous long-term microgravity experiments CODAG (Blum et al 2000) and CODAG-SRE (Krause and Blum 2004) were mainly limited by the diffusion of particles, a fact which IPE tries to overcome by means of a particle trap. We present how IPE will help to extend these experimental boundaries and how we plan to utilize IPE. Finally we outline the expectations on the facility from a planet formation point of view in the domain of the mutual interactions, evolution, growth and morphology of fractal aggregates.

Ingo von Borstel, Olaf; Blum, Jurgen; Schraepler, Rainer

91

Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Dupuytren’s Contracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Background and Purpose:\\u000a   In early-stage Dupuytren’s contracture, radiotherapy is applied to prevent disease progression. Long-term outcome and late\\u000a toxicity of the treatment were evaluated in a retrospective analysis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:\\u000a   Between 12\\/1982 and 02\\/2006, 135 patients (208 hands) were irradiated with orthovoltage (120 kV; 20 mA; 4-mm Al filter), in\\u000a two courses with five daily fractions of 3.0 Gy

Nicolas Betz; Oliver J. Ott; Boris Adamietz; Rolf Sauer; Rainer Fietkau; Ludwig Keilholz

2010-01-01

92

Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation.

Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2014-01-01

93

Generic Difference Between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Litvak, Maxim L.; Anfimov, Dimitrij S.; Sanin, Anton B.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Preece, Robert D.; Meegan, Charles A.

2001-01-01

94

Vitrification of early-stage bovine and equine embryos.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine an optimal method and stage of development for vitrification of bovine zygotes or early embryos; and (2) use the optimal procedure for bovine embryos to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of early embryos. Initially, bovine embryos produced by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) were frozen and vitrified in 0.25mL straws with minimal success. A subsequent experiment was done using two vitrification methods and super open pulled straws (OPS) with 1- or 8-cell bovine embryos. In Method 1 (EG-O), embryos were exposed to 1.5M ethylene glycol (EG) for 5min, 7M ethylene glycol and 0.6M galactose for 30s, loaded in an OPS, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. In Method 2 (EG-DMSO), embryos were exposed to 1.1M ethylene glycol and 1.1M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 3min, 2.5M ethylene glycol, 2.5M DMSO and 0.5M galactose for 30s, and loaded and plunged as for EG-O. Cryoprotectants were removed after warming in three steps. One- and eight-cell bovine embryos were cultured for 7 and 4.5 d, respectively, after warming, and control embryos were cultured without vitrification. Cleavage rates of 1-cell embryos were similar (P>0.05) for vitrified and control embryos, although the blastocyst rates for EG-O and control embryos were similar and higher (P<0.05) than for EG-DMSO. The blastocyst rate of 8-cell embryos was higher (P<0.05) for EG-O than EG-DMSO. Therefore, EG-O was used to cryopreserve equine embryos. Equine oocytes were obtained from preovulatory follicles. After ICSI, injected oocytes were cultured for 1-3 d. Two- to eight-cell embryos were vitrified, warmed and transferred into recipient's oviducts. The pregnancy rate on Day 20 was 62% (5/8) for equine embryos after vitrification and warming. In summary, a successful method was established for vitrification of early-stage bovine embryos, and this method was used to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of 2- to 8-cell embryos produced by ICSI. PMID:18789516

Campos-Chillòn, L F; Suh, T K; Barcelo-Fimbres, M; Seidel, G E; Carnevale, E M

2009-01-15

95

Exome Sequencing Identifies Early Gastric Carcinoma as an Early Stage of Advanced Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric carcinoma is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment leads to an excellent prognosis in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC), whereas the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains poor. It is unclear whether EGCs and AGCs are distinct entities or whether EGCs are the beginning stages of AGCs. We performed whole exome sequencing of four samples from patients with EGC and compared the results with those from AGCs. In both EGCs and AGCs, a total of 268 genes were commonly mutated and independent mutations were additionally found in EGCs (516 genes) and AGCs (3104 genes). A higher frequency of C>G transitions was observed in intestinal-type compared to diffuse-type carcinomas (P?=?0.010). The DYRK3, GPR116, MCM10, PCDH17, PCDHB1, RDH5 and UNC5C genes are recurrently mutated in EGCs and may be involved in early carcinogenesis.

Do, In-Gu; Wang, Kai; Kang, So Young; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Kang, Won Ki; Jang, Jiryeon; Choi, Min-Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Seonwoo; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

2013-01-01

96

Decision Making about Surgery for Early Stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Practice variation in breast cancer surgery has raised concerns about the quality of treatment decisions. We sought to evaluate the quality of decisions about surgery for early stage breast cancer by measuring patient knowledge, concordance between goals and treatments, and involvement in decisions. Study Design A mailed survey of Stage I/II breast cancer survivors was conducted at four sites. The Decision Quality Instrument measured knowledge, goals, and involvement in decisions. A multivariable logistic regression model of treatment was developed. The model-predicted probability of mastectomy was compared to treatment received for each patient. Concordance was defined as having mastectomy and predicted probability >=0.5 or partial mastectomy and predicted probability <0.5. Frequency of discussion about partial mastectomy was compared to discussion about mastectomy using chi-squared tests. Results 440 patients participated (59% response rate). Mean overall knowledge was 52.7%. 45.9% knew that local recurrence risk is higher after breast conservation. 55.7% knew that survival is equivalent for the two options. Most participants (89.0%) had treatment concordant with their goals. Participants preferring mastectomy had lower concordance (80.5%) than those preferring partial mastectomy (92.6%, p=0.001). Participants reported more frequent discussion of partial mastectomy and its advantages than of mastectomy. 48.6% reported being asked their preference. Conclusions Breast cancer survivors had major knowledge deficits, and those preferring mastectomy were less likely to have treatment concordant with goals. Patients perceived that discussions focused on partial mastectomy, and many were not asked their preference. Improvements in the quality of decisions about breast cancer surgery are needed.

Lee, Clara N; Chang, Yuchiao; Adimorah, Nesochi; Belkora, Jeff; Moy, Beverly; Partridge, Ann; Ollila, David W.; Sepucha, Karen

2011-01-01

97

METHOD FOR EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TESTS USING THREE ATHERINID FISHES AND RESULTS WITH CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed methods for obtaining embryos and conducting early life-stage toxicity tests (continuous exposure from the embryonic stage to approximately three weeks or more into the exogenous feeding stage) with three estuarine species of atherinid fishes. Early lif...

98

Endorectal ultrasonography and treatment of early stage rectal cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative staging by endorectal ultrasonography (EUS) and its contribution to treatment of early stage rectal cancer (ESRC). The results of EUS for 154 consecutive patients with ESRC (pTis to pT2) were compared prospectively with histologic findings, assessed according to the TNM classification. Results of treatment selection and long-term outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. There were 35 patients histologically staged as pTis, 8 as pT1-slight (invasion confined to the superficial one-third of the submucosa), 37 as pT1-massive (invasion extending to the deeper submucosa), and 74 as pT2. The equipment used was an echoendoscope GF-UM2 or GF-UM3 (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan). Sensitivity/specificity/overall accuracy rates for detection of slight submucosal invasion, massive submucosal invasion, and muscularis propria invasion were 99%/74%/96%, 98%/88%/97%, and 97%/93%/96%, respectively. Incidences of lymph node metastasis in pTis, pTis to pT1-slight, pT1, pT1-massive, and pT2 cases were 0%, 0%, 18%, 22%, and 30%, respectively. Incidences of lymph node metastasis in ESRCs staged by EUS (u) as uTis, uT1-slight, uT1-massive, uT2, and uT3 by EUS were 0%, 0%, 26%, 36%, and 64%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy rates for detection of positive nodes in overall ESRCs were 53%, 77%, and 72%, respectively. Of the 43 patients with pTis to pT1-slight tumors, 22 underwent endoscopic polypectomy or local excision, 20 radical surgery, and 1 radical surgery after endoscopic polypectomy due to vascular invasion. All these patients are alive and all but one (who refused radical surgery due to vascular invasion after local excision and developed liver and lung metastases) are disease-free. Of the 37 patients with pT1-massive tumors, 34 underwent radical surgery and 3 transcoccygeal segmental resection. All these patients are alive disease-free except for one who died of peritoneal carcinomatosis after radical surgery. All patients with pT2 tumors underwent radical surgery. The overall 5-year survival rates for pTis, pT1, and pT2 cases were 100%, 98%, and 97%, respectively. EUS is an accurate method for evaluating invasion depth in ESRC. Patients with uTis or uT1-slight tumors staged by EUS are at low risk of positive nodes and good candidates for endoscopic polypectomy or local excision. Those with uT1-massive or uT2 lesions should be treated with a radical operation because of the high incidence of positive nodes. PMID:11036283

Akasu, T; Kondo, H; Moriya, Y; Sugihara, K; Gotoda, T; Fujita, S; Muto, T; Kakizoe, T

2000-09-01

99

Clinical therapeutic strategies for early stage of diabetic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease, leading to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. The overall number of patients with DKD will continue to increase in parallel with the increasing global pandemic of type 2 diabetes. Based on landmark clinical trials, DKD has become preventable by controlling conventional factors, including hyperglycemia and hypertension, with multifactorial therapy; however, the remaining risk of DKD progression is still high. In this review, we show the importance of targeting remission/regression of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients, which may protect against the progression of DKD and cardiovascular events. To achieve remission/regression of microalbuminuria, several steps are important, including the early detection of microalbuminuria with continuous screening, targeting HbA1c < 7.0% for glucose control, the use of renin angiotensin system inhibitors to control blood pressure, the use of statins or fibrates to control dyslipidemia, and multifactorial treatment. Reducing microalbuminuria is therefore an important therapeutic goal, and the absence of microalbuminuria could be a pivotal biomarker of therapeutic success in diabetic patients. Other therapies, including vitamin D receptor activation, uric acid-lowering drugs, and incretin-related drugs, may also be promising for the prevention of DKD progression. PMID:24936255

Kitada, Munehiro; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

2014-06-15

100

High resolution MRI of early-stage mouse embryos  

PubMed Central

Both the availability of methods to manipulate genes and the completion of the mouse genome sequence have led to the generation of thousands of genetically modified mouse lines that provide a new platform for studying mammalian development and developmental diseases. Phenotyping of mouse embryos has traditionally been performed on fixed embryos by the use of ex vivo histological, optical and high-resolution MRI techniques. Although potentially powerful, longitudinal imaging of individual animals is difficult or impossible with conventional optical methods due to the inaccessibility of mouse embryos inside the maternal uterus. To address this problem we present a method of imaging the mouse embryo from stages as early as embryonic date (E) 10.5, close to the onset of organogenesis in most physiological systems. This method uses a self-gated MRI protocol combined with image registration to obtain whole-embryo high resolution (100 ?m isotropic) three-dimensional images. Using this approach, we demonstrate high-contrast in the cerebral vasculature, limbs, spine and central nervous system without the use of contrast agents. These results indicate the potential of MRI for longitudinal imaging of developing mouse embryos, in utero, and for future applications in analyzing mutant mouse phenotypes.

Parasoglou, Prodromos; Berrios-Otero, Cesar A; Nieman, Brian J; Turnbull, Daniel H

2012-01-01

101

Clinical therapeutic strategies for early stage of diabetic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease, leading to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. The overall number of patients with DKD will continue to increase in parallel with the increasing global pandemic of type 2 diabetes. Based on landmark clinical trials, DKD has become preventable by controlling conventional factors, including hyperglycemia and hypertension, with multifactorial therapy; however, the remaining risk of DKD progression is still high. In this review, we show the importance of targeting remission/regression of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients, which may protect against the progression of DKD and cardiovascular events. To achieve remission/regression of microalbuminuria, several steps are important, including the early detection of microalbuminuria with continuous screening, targeting HbA1c < 7.0% for glucose control, the use of renin angiotensin system inhibitors to control blood pressure, the use of statins or fibrates to control dyslipidemia, and multifactorial treatment. Reducing microalbuminuria is therefore an important therapeutic goal, and the absence of microalbuminuria could be a pivotal biomarker of therapeutic success in diabetic patients. Other therapies, including vitamin D receptor activation, uric acid-lowering drugs, and incretin-related drugs, may also be promising for the prevention of DKD progression.

Kitada, Munehiro; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

2014-01-01

102

Germacrone inhibits early stages of influenza virus infection.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic influenza viruses pose a serious public health threat to humans. Although vaccines are available, antivirals are needed to efficiently control disease progression and virus transmission due to the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. In this study, germacrone, which is a major component of the essential oils extracted from Rhizoma Curcuma, was found to inhibit influenza virus replication. Germacrone showed antiviral activity against the H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses and the influenza B virus in a dose-dependent manner. The viral protein expression, RNA synthesis and the production of infectious progeny viruses were decreased both in MDCK and A549 cells treated with germacrone. In a time-of-addition study, germacrone was found to exhibit an inhibitory effect on both the attachment/entry step and the early stages of the viral replication cycle. Germacrone also exhibited an effective protection of mice from lethal infection and reduced the virus titres in the lung. Furthermore, the combination of germacrone and oseltamivir exhibited an additive effect on the inhibition of influenza virus infection, both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that germacrone may have the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent alone or in combination with other agents for the treatment of influenza virus infection. PMID:24095670

Liao, Qingjiao; Qian, Zhengxu; Liu, Rui; An, Liwei; Chen, Xulin

2013-12-01

103

Antibody Profiling with Protein Antigen Microarrays in Early Stage Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Proteins not present in normal cells, i.e., cancer cells, may elicit a host immune response that leads to the generation of antibodies that might react with these tumor-associated proteins. In recent years, a growing number of reports have showed that autoantibody profiling may provide an alternative approach for the detection of cancer. However, most studies of antigen-autoantibody reactivity have relied on recombinant proteins. Recombinant proteins lack the proper post-translational modifications present in native proteins. Because of this limitation, native or natural protein antigen microarrays are gaining popularity for profiling antibody responses. Areas covered 1) to illustrate some examples of autoantibodies as signatures for early stage cancer; 2) to briefly outline the various protein antigen microarray platforms; 3) to illustrate the use of native or natural protein microarrays in the discovery of potential biomarkers; and, 4) to discuss the advantages of native protein antigen microarrays over other approaches. Expert opinion The nature of protein microarray platforms is conducive to multiplexing, which amplifies the potential for uncovering effective biomarkers for many significant diseases. However, the major challenge will be in integrating microarray platforms into multiplexed clinical diagnostic tools, as the main drawback is the reproducibility and coefficient of variation of the results from array to array, and the transportability of the array platform to a more automatable platform.

Liu, Brian C.-S.; DiJohnson, Daniel A.; O'Rourke, Dennis J.

2012-01-01

104

Estimated Soil Respiration Rates Decreased with Long-Term Soil Microclimate Changes in Successional Forests in Southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of soil respiration to short-term environmental factors changes has been well studied, whereas the influences of long-term soil microclimate changes on soil respiration are still highly unclear, especially in tropical ecosystems. We hypothesized that soil carbon accumulation in southern China, especially in mature forest during recent years, partly resulted from reducing soil respiration rates. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the temporal trends and variations of air temperature, soil temperature and soil water content (hereafter referred to as SWC), and then estimated soil respiration rates in the 1980s and 2000s with soil temperature and SWC by regression model in three subtropical forests which are at early-, mid-, and advanced-successional stages, respectively, in Dinghushan Nature Reserve (hereafter referred to as DNR) in southern China. The annual mean ambient air temperature increased by 1.03 ± 0.15°C in the last 50 years (1954-2007) in DNR. Rainfall amount in the corresponding period did not change significantly, but rainfall pattern changed remarkably in the last three decades (1978-2007). Soil temperature is correlated with ambient air temperature. The average SWC was 36.8 ± 8.4%, 34.7 ± 8.1% and 29.6 ± 8.1% in the 1980s, and then dropped sharply to 23.6 ± 2.9%, 20.5 ± 4.2% and 17.6 ± 3.9% in the 2000s, for the advanced, mid- and early-successional forests, respectively. Concurrent changes of soil temperature and SWC may have a negative effect on soil respiration rates for all three forests, implicated that soil respiration may have a negative feedback to regional climate change and carbon could be sequestered in subtropical forests in southern China.

Huang, Yuhui; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhang, Qianmei

2011-12-01

105

Intraspecific divergence and evolution of a life-history trade-off along a successional gradient in Hawaii's Metrosideros polymorpha.  

PubMed

The importance of environmental gradients in the diversification of long-lived tree species is poorly understood. Two morphologically distinct varieties of the endemic Hawaiian tree, '?hi'a lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), are the canopy dominants at alternate extremes of a successional gradient formed by the recurring disturbance of lava flows on east Hawai'i Island. The maintenance of these varieties despite hybridization may be due to disruptive selection at either end of the successional gradient. To test this hypothesis, seeds from three, replicate monotypic stands of each variety on east Hawai'i Island were germinated and the resulting seedlings grown under four combinations of light and nitrogen levels in a greenhouse, and at early- and late-successional field sites. Growth and survivorship measures revealed differential fitness of these varieties in high- and low-light environments in the greenhouse with corresponding differential fitness in early- and late-successional field sites. Unique light-by-nitrogen interaction effects on growth were observed in each variety, and only the late-successional variety appeared to be nitrogen limited. These two varieties exhibit the classic plant life-history trade-off between fast growth in high light and high survivorship in shade, but notably within a single tree species. These findings strongly implicate a role for Hawaii's striking environmental heterogeneity in the emergence of at least two endemic forms of this woody genus. PMID:24848688

Morrison, K R; Stacy, E A

2014-06-01

106

A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol Among Aboriginal Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to investigate associations between personality risk factors and risky drinking motives. Stage 3

Christopher J. Mushquash; M. Nancy Comeau; Brian D. McLeod; Sherry H. Stewart

2009-01-01

107

Gas exchange, leaf structure and nitrogen in contrasting successional tree species growing in open and understory sites during a drought.  

PubMed

Seasonal ecophysiology, leaf structure and nitrogen were measured in saplings of early (Populus grandidentata Michx. and Prunus serotina J.F. Ehrh.), middle (Fraxinus americana L. and Carya tomentosa Nutt.) and late (Acer rubrum L. and Cornus florida L.) successional tree species during severe drought on adjacent open and understory sites in central Pennsylvania, USA. Area-based net photosynthesis (A) and leaf conductance to water vapor diffusion (g(wv)) varied by site and species and were highest in open growing plants and early successional species at both the open and understory sites. In response to the period of maximum drought, both sunfleck and sun leaves of the early successional species exhibited smaller decreases in A than leaves of the other species. Shaded understory leaves of all species were more susceptible to drought than sun leaves and had negative midday A values during the middle and later growing season. Shaded understory leaves also displayed a reduced photosynthetic light response during the peak drought period. Sun leaves were thicker and had a greater mass per area (LMA) and nitrogen (N) content than shaded leaves, and early and middle successional species had higher N contents and concentrations than late successional species. In both sunfleck and sun leaves, seasonal A was positively related to predawn leaf Psi, g(wv), LMA and N, and was negatively related to vapor pressure deficit, midday leaf Psi and internal CO(2). Although a significant amount of plasticity occurred in all species for most gas exchange and leaf structural parameters, middle successional species exhibited the largest degree of phenotypic plasticity between open and understory plants. PMID:14965944

Abrams, M D; Mostoller, S A

1995-06-01

108

Aromatase inhibitors and calcium absorption in early stage breast cancer.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of aromatase inhibitors (AI) on intestinal calcium absorption, measured using the gold-standard dual stable calcium isotope method. In this pilot study, we recruited 10 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who planned to initiate AI therapy; women receiving chemotherapy were excluded. Women completed two 24 h inpatient calcium absorption study visits, the first prior to AI therapy and the second at least 6 weeks following onset of AI therapy. We calculated total fractional calcium absorption (TFCA) using the dose-corrected fractional recovery of two stable isotopes from 24 h urine collections. Ten postmenopausal women (mean±SD age, 66±7 years; 25(OH)D 40±7 ng/mL, and total calcium intake of 1,714±640 mg/day) exhibited no change in TFCA related to AI therapy (0.155±0.042 prior to and 0.160±0.064 following AI therapy, p=1.0). Subjects exhibited a surprisingly small decline in serum estradiol levels with AI therapy that was not statistically significant. However, there was a significant correlation between duration of AI therapy and the decline in serum estradiol levels (r=-0.65, p=0.040). In this pilot study, AI therapy did not decrease TFCA. Women with early stage breast cancer exhibited an unexpectedly low TFCA, most likely due to their high calcium intake. The null effect of AI therapy on TFCA might relate to the brief duration of AI therapy, the minimal effect of AI therapy on estradiol levels, subjects' high calcium intake or excellent vitamin D status. PMID:22350731

Tevaarwerk, Amye; Burkard, Mark E; Wisinski, Kari B; Shafer, Martin M; Davis, Lisa A; Gogineni, Jyothi; Crone, Elizabeth; Hansen, Karen E

2012-07-01

109

Aromatase inhibitors and calcium absorption in early stage breast cancer  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effect of aromatase inhibitors (AI) on intestinal calcium absorption, measured using the gold-standard dual stable calcium isotope method. In this pilot study, we recruited 10 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who planned to initiate AI therapy; women receiving chemotherapy were excluded. Women completed two 24 h inpatient calcium absorption study visits, the first prior to AI therapy and the second at least 6 weeks following onset of AI therapy. We calculated total fractional calcium absorption (TFCA) using the dose-corrected fractional recovery of two stable isotopes from 24 h urine collections. Ten postmenopausal women (mean ± SD age, 66 ± 7 years; 25(OH)D 40 ± 7 ng/mL, and total calcium intake of 1,714 ± 640 mg/day) exhibited no change in TFCA related to AI therapy (0.155 ± 0.042 prior to and 0.160 ± 0.064 following AI therapy, p = 1.0). Subjects exhibited a surprisingly small decline in serum estradiol levels with AI therapy that was not statistically significant. However, there was a significant correlation between duration of AI therapy and the decline in serum estradiol levels (r = ?0.65, p = 0.040). In this pilot study, AI therapy did not decrease TFCA. Women with early stage breast cancer exhibited an unexpectedly low TFCA, most likely due to their high calcium intake. The null effect of AI therapy on TFCA might relate to the brief duration of AI therapy, the minimal effect of AI therapy on estradiol levels, subjects’ high calcium intake or excellent vitamin D status.

Tevaarwerk, Amye; Burkard, Mark E.; Wisinski, Kari B.; Shafer, Martin M.; Davis, Lisa A.; Gogineni, Jyothi; Crone, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

110

Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements.

Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

2013-01-01

111

Experimental constrain of hydrogen production during early serpentinization stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks along axial valleys at low spread oceanic ridges lead to the production of hydrogen, hydrocarbons and organic molecules in presence of CO2. The natural production of these compounds is of fundamental interest for the understanding of the emergence of life, and it has a potential economic interest for the production of natural hydrogen. In order to improve our knowledge of the processes involved in the hydrogen production, different sets of experiments have been conducted using powder of natural peridotite as starting material. The experiments were performed at 300°C / 300 bars using autoclaves with a sampling gas system that allows measurement of the amount of produced hydrogen. The exposure times range from 7 to 90 days until the complete reaction is reached. The starting material has been characterized as thin section using SEM, EMPA and µ-XRF maps. Then, the characterization of the altered powders was mainly based on XRD, RAMAN and XANES spectroscopy at the Fe K-edge. XANES measurements on the polycrystalline altered powders were carried out at the SuperXAS beamline of the SLS. Because iron is present in each phase of the altered assemblages, the mineral amount could be determined from linear combination of the XANES spectra, taking into account the Fe-concentration of each phase. Moreover, the averaged oxidation state of iron was accurately derived from the pre-peak features based on a specific calibration curve. Two processes of iron oxidation and hydrogen production were identified from our results. In the experiments shorter than two months, serpentine shows a significant incorporation of ferric iron (up to 60%) and the amount of newly formed iron oxide and/or hydroxide is negligible. In contrast, we show that iron oxides are produced in significant proportions over two months. It follows that, during early serpentinization stages, H2 degassing is not related to the crystallization of iron oxide and/or hydroxide, but is actually related to the bulk Fe3+ content of the sample, contained here exclusively in the serpentine (i.e., lizardite) mineral. Base on these results, we define a non linear model of “Fe3+ in serpentine vs hydrogen production” as a function of time, which can be used to estimate the amount of hydrogen produced in natural rocks.

Marcaillou, C.; Muñoz, M.; Vidal, O.; Parra, T.; Harfouche, M.

2009-12-01

112

Experimental constrain of hydrogen production during early serpentinization stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks along axial valleys at low spread oceanic ridges lead to the production of hydrogen, as well as hydrocarbons and organic molecules in presence of CO2. The natural production of these compounds is of fundamental interest for the understanding of the formation of prebiotic molecules, and has a potential economical interest for the production of natural hydrogen. In order to improve our knowledge of the processes involved in the hydrogen production, different sets of experiments have been conducted using either powder or centimetric fragments of natural peridotites as starting material. Powder samples were altered at 300 bar and different temperatures (50, 150, 250, 300, 350 and 450°C) for different durations from 0 to 170 days.. Rock fragments were altered at 300°C/300 bar, between 0 and 84 days. The characterization of the alteration products was first carried out using SEM, EMPA, XRF and XRD. Then, XANES investigations were used to study the evolution of the oxidation state and structural environment of iron. For each alteration time, the relative amount of phases was determined from linear combinations of the XANES spectra. On the other hand, high resolution µ-XANES maps were collected at the iron K-edge for the characterization of the centrimetric fragments. These maps give information on the speciation of iron from the core to the border of the alteration zones. The results allow us to constrain the kinetics of alteration in natural context. Kinetics of serpentinization is more efficient between 250 and 450°C and is maximized around 300°C. At this temperature, two processes of iron oxidation and hydrogen production were identified from the experimental results. In the experiments shorter than two months, serpentine shows a significant incorporation of ferric iron (up to 60%) and the amount of newly formed iron oxide and hydroxide is less than XXX%. In contrast, iron oxides and hydroxides are produced in significant quantities above XXX months. It follows that the production of hydrogen is not directly related to the amount of iron oxide and hydroxide in the early serpentinization stages, but is related to the bulk Fe3+ content of the sample, included either in oxides or in phyllosilicates. Our results allow us to define a model of "Fe3+ in serpentine vs hydrogen production" as a function of time, which can be used to estimate the amount of hydrogen produced in natural rocks. The evolutions of the Fe3+/Fetotal ratio for both powders and rock fragments allow us to discuss in terms of kinetics of fluid-rock interactions and associated hydrogen production.

Marcaillou, Clément; Muñoz, Manuel; Vidal, Olivier; Parra, Teddy; Harfouche, Messaoud

2010-05-01

113

Chemotherapy alone in the treatment of patients with early stage Hodgkin's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Studies employing chemotherapy in early stage Hodgkin's disease suggest that this approach is at least comparable to radiation therapy in treatment outcome. Since the long-term disease-free survival in early stages approaches 90%, it is unlikely to further improve these results substantially. Thus, the major goal is the reduction of toxicity. The future choice of therapy will be influenced by

D. L. Longo

114

40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...followed by random assignment of a second group of equal number to each...analysis of data derived from early life stage toxicity tests; however...versus each concentration. A second technique is to identify treatment...criteria. (A) An early life stage toxicity test is...

2009-07-01

115

40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...followed by random assignment of a second group of equal number to each...analysis of data derived from early life stage toxicity tests; however...versus each concentration. A second technique is to identify treatment...criteria. (A) An early life stage toxicity test is...

2010-07-01

116

Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surface ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.

Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S. [Inst. de Ciencias Ambientales y Salud, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Programa Seguridad Quimica; Cardellini, P.; Pavanati, C. [Univ. degli Studi di Padova Via Trieste (Italy). Dept. di Biologia

1997-02-01

117

Setting the Stage for Lifetime Physical Activity in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale and suggestions for emphasizing health-related physical education in preschool settings. In order to accomplish this, it will examine what is currently known about early childhood physical activity, as well as the existing professional preparation and accreditation standards for early childhood…

Schneider, Holly; Lounsbery, Monica

2008-01-01

118

Attending breast cancer screening alone does not explain the detection of tumours at an early stage.  

PubMed

The goal of a screening programme is to allow tumour detection at an early stage when treatments are more effective and less invasive. We examined whether attending breast cancer (BC) screening alone can explain the discovery of tumours at an early stage. Women aged 50-74 years, with a first BC diagnosed from January 2006 to December 2008, were eligible. Patients' personal and family characteristics before their BC diagnosis were collected through a questionnaire. Their tumour characteristics were provided by the Côte d'Or BC registry and staging was performed according to the criteria of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) to provide early-stage (AJCC 0/1) and advanced-stage (AJCC 2/3/4) BC. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the predictive factors for the discovery of BC at an early stage. Data from 533 patients with a BC diagnosed from January 2006 to December 2008 were used. Among them, 353 patients (66.2%) had early-stage BC whereas 175 patients (32.8%) had advanced-stage BC. Patients attending mammography screening were more likely to have had early-stage BC (P=0.0003). Multivariate analyses showed that being aged 63-74 years (P=0.008) and having had a previous regular medical follow-up (P=0.02) were independent predictors for the discovery of an early-stage BC. Mammography screening certainly allowed the discovery of BC at an early stage when performed according to the recommended 2-year interval. The regular use of health services could also contribute towards the early detection of tumours and thus towards a reduction in BC mortality. PMID:22751208

Ouédraogo, Samiratou; Dabakuyo, Tienhan Sandrine; Gentil, Julie; Poillot, Marie-Laure; Dancourt, Vincent; Arveux, Patrick

2013-03-01

119

EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST WITH TIDEWATER SILVERSIDES (MENIDIA PENINSULAE) AND CHLORINE-PRODUCED OXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Early life-stage toxicity tests (continuous exposure from embryonic stage to approximately three weeks or more into the exogenous feeding stage) with North American marine fishes have been conducted almost exclusively with cyprinodontids. In this paper, the authors present method...

120

Was Breast Conserving Surgery Underutilized for Early Stage Breast Cancer? Instrumental Variables Evidence for Stage II Patients from Iowa  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the average survival effects of breast conserving surgery plus irradiation relative to mastectomy for marginal stage II breast cancer patients in Iowa from 1989–1994. Data Sources/Data Setting Secondary linked Iowa SEER Cancer Registry—Iowa Hospital Association discharge abstract data for women in Iowa with stage II breast cancer from 1989–1994. Study Design Observational instrumental variables (IV) analysis. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Women with stage II breast cancer from the Iowa SEER Cancer Registry 1989–1994 who received all of their inpatient care in Iowa were linked with their respective hospital discharge abstracts. Principal Findings Breast conserving surgery plus irradiation decreased survival relative to mastectomy for marginal stage II breast cancer patients in Iowa during the early 1990s. In this study marginal patients were those whose surgery choices were affected by differences in area treatment rates and access to radiation facilities. Conclusions If marginal patients are representative of patients whose treatment choices would be affected by changes in treatment rates, an increase in the breast conserving surgery plus irradiation rate for stage II early stage breast cancer patients would have decreased survival in Iowa during the early 1990s. Further research with newer data and broader samples is needed to make more current and specific assessments.

Brooks, John M; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Scott, Shane D; Chen-Hardee, Shari S

2003-01-01

121

Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia  

PubMed Central

Background Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Results Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low seed set in R. pseudoacacia.

2014-01-01

122

A large herbivore triggers alternative successional trajectories in the boreal forest.  

PubMed

Alternative successional trajectories (AST) may result in multiple climax states within an ecosystem when disturbances affect colonization history. In the boreal forest, ungulates have been proposed to drive AST because, under herbivore pressure, preferred species may go extinct and apparent competition may benefit browsing-resistant species. Over a 15-year period following logging, we tested whether deer herbivory altered plant species composition and whether the competitive advantage of resistant species was maintained following herbivore removal. We compared exclosures built immediately after logging with delayed exclosures built eight years later on Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada. Although the palatable tree Betula papyrifera (paper birch) and some palatable herbs recovered in delayed exclosures, we observed legacies in both tree and herb cover. Woody regeneration in delayed exclosures was dominated by Picea glauca (white spruce), and Poaceae (grasses) were abundant in the field layer. Given that only early-successional species recovered, whereas late-successional broadleaf species and Abies balsamea (balsam fir) remained rare, succession may follow an AST after a limited browsing period during early succession. PMID:24597230

Hidding, Bert; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D

2013-12-01

123

A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol Among Aboriginal Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage\\u000a 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships\\u000a to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to investigate associations between personality\\u000a risk factors and risky drinking motives. Stage 3

Christopher J. Mushquash; M. Nancy Comeau; Brian D. McLeod; Sherry H. Stewart

2010-01-01

124

Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS. PMID:23126275

Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

2013-03-01

125

Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.  

PubMed

Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. PMID:22044898

Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

2011-01-01

126

Early Years Foundation Stage: How Much Does It Count?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report of the Williams committee (DCSF, 2008: 68) argues that the revised mathematics Framework (DfES, 2006) "should be reconsidered to achieve a more suitable, user-friendly form." It might also have added that there is not much help and support in it for early years teachers. A much more useful document is the "Practice guidance for…

Thompson, Ian

2008-01-01

127

Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in early stage Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

A multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors was carried out with a Cox model on 1,139 patients with clinical Stage I + II Hodgkin's disease included in three controlled clinical trials. The following indicators had been prospectively registered: aged, sex, systemic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation, results of staging laparotomy when performed, as well as the date and type of treatment. A linear logistic analysis showed that most of the indicators are interrelated. This emphasizes the necessity of a multivariate analysis in order to assess the independent influence of each of them. The two main prognostic indicators for relapse-free survival are systemic symptoms and/or ESR and number of involved areas. The only significant factor for survival after relapse is age. Sex has a small but significant influence on relapse-free survival. The relative influence of each indicator varies with the type of treatment and these variations may help in understanding the biologic significance of the indicators.

Tubiana, M.; Henry-Amar, M.; van der Werf-Messing, B.; Henry, J.; Abbatucci, J.; Burgers, M.; Hayat, M.; Somers, R.; Laugier, A.; Carde, P.

1985-01-01

128

Growth Stages 2: Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the second of a two-part series aimed at introducing students to the different stages of growth and development in human beings from birth to 18 years of age. In this lesson, student interactives are used to help students focus on the kinds of physical changes that children of their age range begin to undergo during puberty.

Science Netlinks;

2003-03-29

129

RESPONSES OF EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF THE STRIPED BASS, 'MORONE SAXATILIS' TO CHLORINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of total residual chlorination (TRC) to early life stages of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, was determined using percent embryo hatchability, incipient LC50 bioassays, histopathology, and avoidance responses. Beginning 8 to 9 hours after fertilization, developin...

130

Managing Technical Risk: Understanding Private Sector Decision Making on Early Stage, Technology-Based Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Decades of theoretic and empirical work on the process of innovation suggest that commercial firms have inadequate incentives to undertake some varieties of early-stage, high-risk technology development projects that have potential to generate radically n...

K. P. Morse L. M. Branscomb M. J. Roberts

2000-01-01

131

NCI Begins Validation Study of New Test to Detect Early-Stage Liver Cancer  

Cancer.gov

A two-year study to validate a test to detect early-stage liver cancer has been initiated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, at six centers* across the United States.

132

Early Stage Expansion and Time-Resolved Spectral Emission of Laser- Induced Plasma from Polymer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the nanosecond laser ablation regime, absorption of laser energy by the plasma during its early stage expansion critically influences the properties of the plasma and thus its interaction with ambient air. These influences can significantly alter spect...

J. Yu M. Baudelet M. Boueri S. S. Mao X. Mao

2009-01-01

133

Shorter Course of Radiation Effective and Safe for Some Women with Early-stage Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Giving radiation therapy in fewer but larger doses may be an alternative to standard radiation therapy for some women with early-stage breast cancer, according to a study published in the February 11, 2010, New England Journal of Medicine.

134

77 FR 25042 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...eligibility, distributions, and capital impairment. In addition, the final rule makes...the existing limitations. Capital Impairment. SBA did not propose any exceptions to the existing Capital Impairment regulations for Early Stage...

2012-04-27

135

Emerging role of thiamine therapy for prevention and treatment of early-stage diabetic nephropathy.  

PubMed

Thiamine supplementation may prevent and reverse early-stage diabetic nephropathy. This probably occurs by correcting diabetes-linked increased clearance of thiamine, maintaining activity and expression of thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes that help counter the adverse effects of high glucose concentrations-particularly transketolase. Evidence from experimental and clinical studies suggests that metabolism and clearance of thiamine is disturbed in diabetes leading to tissue-specific thiamine deficiency in the kidney and other sites of development of vascular complications. Thiamine supplementation prevented the development of early-stage nephropathy in diabetic rats and reversed increased urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria in two recent clinical trials. The thiamine monophosphate prodrug, Benfotiamine, whilst preventing early-stage development of diabetic nephropathy experimentally, has failed to produce similar clinical effect. The probable explanations for this are discussed. Further definitive trials for prevention of progression of early-stage diabetic nephropathy by thiamine are now required. PMID:21342411

Rabbani, N; Thornalley, P J

2011-07-01

136

New NIA Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents ... you have a family member or friends with Alzheimer's disease? Are you wondering what they're going ...

137

Litterfall production along successional and altitudinal gradients of subtropical monsoon evergreen broadleaved forests in Guangdong, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of litterfall production is important for understanding nutrient cycling, forest growth, successional pathways, and interactions with environmental variables in forest ecosystems. Litterfall was intensively studied during the period of 1982-2001 in two subtropical monsoon vegetation gradients in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, Guangdong Province, China. The two gradients include: (1) a successional gradient composed of pine forest (PF), mixed pine and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (BF), and (2) an altitudinal gradient composed of Baiyunci ravine rain forest (BRF), Qingyunci ravine rain forest (QRF), BF and mountainous evergreen broadleaved forest (MMF). Mean annual litterfall production was 356, 861 and 849 g m-2 for PF, MF and BF of the successional gradient, and 1016, 1061, 849 and 489 g m-2 for BRF, QRF, BF and MMF of the altitudinal gradient, respectively. As expected, mean annual litterfall of the pioneer forest PF was the lowest, but rapidly increased over the observation period while those in other forests were relatively stable, confirming that forest litterfall production is closely related to successional stages and growth patterns. Leaf proportions of total litterfall in PF, MF, BF, BRF, QRF and MMF were 76.4%, 68.4%, 56.8%, 55.7%, 57.6% and 69.2%, respectively, which were consistent with the results from studies in other evergreen broadleaved forests. Our analysis on litterfall monthly distributions indicated that litterfall production was much higher during the period of April to September compared to other months for all studied forest types. Although there were significant impacts of some climate variables (maximum and effective temperatures) on litterfall production in some of the studied forests, the mechanisms of how climate factors (temperature and rainfall) interactively affect litterfall await further study. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Zhou, G.; Guan, L.; Wei, X.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, Q.; Yan, J.; Wen, D.; Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Huang, Z.; Kong, G.; Mo, J.; Yu, Q.

2007-01-01

138

Verbal Fluency and Awareness of Functional Deficits in Early-Stage Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of activities of daily living is an important element in the diagnosis of dementia, with research suggesting a link between functional ability and cognition. We investigated the relationship between self- and informant ratings of instrumental activities of daily living (iADL) and verbal executive functioning in early-stage dementia. A total of 96 people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease or vascular or

Anthony Martyr; Linda Clare; Sharon M. Nelis; Ivana S. Marková; Ilona Roth; Robert T. Woods; Christopher J. Whitaker; Robin G. Morris

2012-01-01

139

Can some patients avoid adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the risk of relapse and mortality for women with early-stage breast cancer. However, many women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer experience the toxic effects associated with adjuvant chemotherapy without any meaningful benefit. There are a variety of clinicopathological factors—including hormone receptor expression, histology, and proliferation markers such as Ki-67—that can be used to try to identify patients

Fatima Cardoso; Philippe L. Bedard

2011-01-01

140

[Influence of early stage of chronic renal disease on risk of cardiac diseases and stroke].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death among people with kidney diseases. The early stage of chronic kidney disease, with mild decrease of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and small increase of creatinine concentration in serum and/or occurrence of microalbuminuria, is related to the increase of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Kidney insufficiency is also independently connected with the risk of stroke. Patients with early stage of kidney insufficiency should be qualified as those in a cardiovascular high risk group. PMID:16969907

Szkó?ka, Tomasz; My?liwiec, Michal

2006-01-01

141

Formal Verification Toolkit for Requirements and Early Design Stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient flight software development from natural language requirements needs an effective way to test designs earlier in the software design cycle. A method to automatically derive logical safety constraints and the design state space from natural language requirements is described. The constraints can then be checked using a logical consistency checker and also be used in a symbolic model checker to verify the early design of the system. This method was used to verify a hybrid control design for the suit ports on NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Exploration Vehicle against safety requirements.

Badger, Julia M.; Miller, Sheena Judson

2011-01-01

142

Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

2011-01-01

143

OLD FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING CESSATION OF CHRONIC DISTURBANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

In grasslands dominated by warm-season grasses, community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of a chronic disturbance (heavy grazing by cattle) in...

144

Early experience of laparoscopically assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy (Coelio-Schauta) versus abdominal radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare outcomes of laparoscopically assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy (LARVH) vs.\\u000a abdominal radical hysterectomy (RH) for early-stage cervical cancer. This is a retrospective study of all LARVH and RH procedures\\u000a between January 2003 and June 2006 in our tertiary referral centre. Demographic, intraoperative and postoperative parameters\\u000a in both groups were compared. Fourteen women (stage

Evangelos Papacharalabous; Anil Tailor; Thumuluru Madhuri; Theo Giannopoulos; Simon Butler-Manuel

2009-01-01

145

Geomechanical and geochemical changes during early stages of weathering of Karamu Basalt, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in geochemical and geomechanical characteristics were measured through a basalt weathering sequence exposed at an abandoned quarry at Karamu, near Hamilton, New Zealand. Geochemical measurements show that at the early stages of weathering (fresh to slightly weathered) reductions in the concentrations CaO and MgO are rapid, although they are not accompanied by major mineralogical change; during later stages of

Vicki Moon; Jayanthi Jayawardane

2004-01-01

146

Myocardial expression of atrial natriuretic factor gene in early stages of hamster cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventricular cardiomyocytes represent the most important source of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in pathological conditions such as congestive heart failure (CHF). It has been suggested that in cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster ventricles the ANF gene can be reactivated during the hypertrophic stage occurring before heart failure. The present study was undertaken to investigate ANF gene expression during early stages of myocardial

Paolo Di Nardo; Marilena Minieri; Arnaldo Carbone; Nicola Maggiano; Rosella Micheletti; Giuseppe Peruzzi; Giuseppe Tallarida

1993-01-01

147

Renal cell carcinoma in long-term survivors of advanced stage neuroblastoma in early childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare in children and comprises only 1–3% of all pediatric primary renal tumors. Recently, several case reports have described RCC developing in patients previously treated for advanced stage neuroblastoma (NB). Methods and results Our experience with four patients treated for advanced stage NB during early childhood who developed RCC later in life are added

Julie M. Fleitz; Sandra L. Wootton-Gorges; Josephine Wyatt-Ashmead; Loris McGavran; Martin Koyle; Daniel C. West; Eric A. Kurzrock; Kenneth W. Martin; Lorrie F. Odom

2003-01-01

148

Blood and Rumen Changes in Cows in Early Stages of Ketosis[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to de- termine blood and rumen changes in cows in the early stages o£ ketosis. Blood sugars and plasma triglycerides were sig- nificantly depressed, whereas plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and blood ketones were significantly elevated during this stage of ketosis. There was no apparent abnormality in total concentration of ru- minal volatile fatty acids (VFA)

H. D. Radloff; L. H. Schultz

1967-01-01

149

Early solitary small bowel metastasis from stage I cutaneous melanoma  

PubMed Central

Patient Male, 63 Final Diagnosis: Melanoma Symptoms: Gastrointesinal haemorrhage Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Enterectomy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: It is reported that the time interval between the initial diagnosis of malignant melanoma and the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal metastases is 43.8±11.3 months. Case Report: We present the case of a 63-year-old Caucasian man who was operated on for superficial spreading Stage IB melanoma and 8 months later was diagnosed with solitary small bowel metastasis without other systemic metastases. Conclusions: Small bowel melanoma metastasis should be suspected in any patient with previous history of malignant melanoma who develops symptoms of anemia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and non-specific abdominal pain.

Gavriilidis, Paschalis; Efthimiopoulos, Georgios; Zafiriou, Georgios

2013-01-01

150

Preoperative staging and early postoperative complications in radical prostatectomy. Experiences in 35 cases.  

PubMed

It is already a textbook item that in patients with prostatic cancer stage T1-T2 N0M0 radical prostatectomy is the only curative treatment. Radical prostatectomy is indicated also for patients in stage T3 N0M0 who underwent antiandrogenic (Fugerel) treatment for 3 months with the aim of reducing tumour volume. In the following 35 cases will be scrutinized, with special regard to preoperative staging and early postoperative complications. PMID:8026924

Romics, I; Bach, D; Widmann, T

1994-01-01

151

Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time course bleeds coinciding with early worm development. Seventeen positive clones were isolated using serum obtained at 20 days post infection (dpi). All clones corresponded to one gene that exhibited high sequence identity with the T. spiralis ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX19B which is involved in parasite growth and development. In addition, nine additional positive clones representing 5 unique genes were identified when the library was screened with 30 dpi serum; four of these five genes displayed high similarity with members of a putative T. spiralis serine protease family known to be involved in host invasion and host-parasite interactions. The remaining gene aligned with the T. spiralis hypothetical ORF 11.30. The identification of these antigens provides potential candidates for the early diagnosis of trichinellosis and for the development of a vaccine against this parasite. PMID:23485437

Liu, P; Wu, X P; Bai, X; Wang, X L; Yu, L; Rosenthal, B; Blaga, R; Lacour, S; Vallee, I; Boireau, P; Gherman, C; Oltean, M; Zhou, X N; Wang, F; Zhao, Y; Liu, M Y

2013-05-20

152

Root development in simple and complex tropical successional ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine and coarse root mass and fine root surface area were studied during 5 yr following the felling and burning of a tropical\\u000a forest near Turrialba, Costa Rica. Five experimental ecosystems were established: 1) natural successional vegetation, 2) successional\\u000a vegetation enriched by seed applications, 3) imitation of succession (built by substituting investigator-selected species\\u000a for natural colonizers), 4) monocultures (two maize

C. W. Berish; J. J. Ewel

1988-01-01

153

Avian Community Structure Along a Mountain Big Sagebrush Successional Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared vegetative structure and bird communities among 4 successional states in central Oregon representing a continuum from 1) postburn grassland, 2) mountain big sagebrush-Idaho fescue (Artemisia tridentata-Festuca idahoensis) shrub-steppe, 3) sagebrush-steppe-juniper (Juniperus occidentalis), to 4) old-growth western juniper. Species richness, evenness, and diversity of bird communities were highest in old-growth and mid-successional juniper (22.9 species\\/transect and 23.6 species\\/transect, respectively)

DANIEL P. REINKENSMEYER; RICHARD F. MILLER; ROBERT G. ANTHONY; VERN E. MARR

2007-01-01

154

Building on the Early Years Foundation Stage: Developing Good Practice for Transition into Key Stage 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum and the independent Cambridge Primary Review both highlight the need to re-think children's educational experiences in English classrooms between the ages of five and seven. Recent government initiatives have led to experiences in these early primary years being adult-directed and often in…

Fisher, Julie

2011-01-01

155

Src Kinase: A Novel Target of Early-Stage ER-Negative Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the last 50 years, the number of cancer related deaths has decreased by only 2%. To achieve reduced breast cancer mortality, it is critical to develop early detection and intervention of breast cancer development at early stages of cancer initiation....

S. Jain

2012-01-01

156

Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early

Burns, Kellie

2006-01-01

157

Neuroinflammation and regeneration in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology in the neocortex show upregulation of cell cycle proteins, adhesion and inflammation related factors, indicating the early involvement of inflammatory and regenerating pathways in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. These brain changes precede the neurofibrillary pathology and the extensive process of neurodestruction and (astro)gliosis. Amyloid ? deposition, inflammation and regenerative mechanisms are also early pathogenic

J. J. M. Hoozemans; R. Veerhuis; J. M. Rozemuller-Kwakkel; P. Eikelenboom

2006-01-01

158

Genomic changes at the early stage of somatic hybridization.  

PubMed

A broad spectrum of genetic and epigenetic changes is induced by wide hybridization and subsequent polyploidization, but the timing of these events remains obscure because early hybrid cells are very difficult to harvest and analyze. Here, we used both cytological and genetic marker approaches to analyze the constitution of very young somatic hybrid cells between japonica rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp japonica) and indica rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp indica) and between japonica rice and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Chromatin elimination, simple sequence repeats, and retrotransposon profile deletions were already apparent within six days of the fusion event. The evidence we have presented suggests that genomic changes induced by genomic shock occur soon after the formation of hybrid cells. PMID:24668681

Sun, Y; Xu, C H; Wang, M Q; Zhi, D Y; Xia, G M

2014-01-01

159

The ?-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the ?-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the ?1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the ?3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the ?1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

160

Early and Late Stage Metals and Sulfides in Diogenites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diogenites are typically highly brecciated orthopyroxenites that contain 84-100 vol.% orthopyroxene. Common accessory minerals include olivine, chromite, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase, silica, troilite and Fe-Ni metal. Metal and sulfides are minor phases in diogenites with an average abundance of < 1 vol.% and 0-2 vol.% respectively. However their presence is important, as they could provide information on T-fO2-fS2 conditions and the evolution of the diogenite parent magma during crystallization and/or later metamorphism. We have examined the occurrence of Fe-Ni metal and sulfides in thin sections of several diogenites including, Johnstown, Manegaon, Roda, Shalka, Bilanga, and Tatahouine using optical microscopy and the electron microprobe. Here, we describe three features of metals and sulfides that are common in most of these diogenites. These are: i) The widespread occurrence of pentlandite associated with copper and copper sulfide minerals; ii) Textural evidence that at least some of the metal and sulfide occurring interstitially between, and as inclusions within, orthopyroxene formed from an early immiscible sulfide-oxide liquid; iii) That this sulfide- oxide liquid subsequently fractionated into assemblages containing either Fe-Ni metal, troilite, and chromite or pentlandite, troilite, and copper-bearing sulfide.

Sideras, L. C.; Domanik, K. J.; Lauretta, D. S.

2004-01-01

161

Effect of anthelmintics on the early stage of Enterobius vermicularis.  

PubMed

In order to determine the susceptible age of Enterobius vermicularis to anthelmintics and to observe the chronologic growth of female E. vermicularis in man, experimental infections were done. About 500 eggs were challenged to 19 volunteers. After 4, 8, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 35 days of infection, each case was treated by either mebendazole or pyrantel pamoate. On the 40th day of infection all cases including control were treated again to terminate the expermental infection and to evaluate the effect of previous treatment. Each case collected 3-day stools to harvest the expelled worms. The results could be summarized as follows: The infection rates of females were in range of 0.6~13.1% in control cases. Because the collected worms showed comparable growth and development by day, the worns were concluded to be derived from experimental infection. Cases that were treated with mebendazole on 4, 8 and 16 days after infection expelled 37.5%, 2.5% and 67.5% of the number expelled by a control case on the 40th day. Cases treated thereafter expelled no worms on the 40 days. Cases that were treated with pyrantel pamoates on 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, 32 and 35 days, expelled 90.7%, 25%, 45.3%, 8%, 2.7%, 5% and 29.3% of the number collected from control cases in respect. All the worms collected were females. The total body length increased consistently and comparably from the 20th day of infection. Those collected on the 20th day were 2.5~3.0 mm long with vigina, sac-like structure and strands of ovaries; 24 day-old worms may have short uterus, 28 day-old worms had long uterus without eggs, 32 day-old worms began to produce eggs, 35 day-old worms showed wide variations in egg deposit in uterus, and 40 day-old worms had uterus filled with eggs from vulva to anal levels. From the above results, it was inferred that the life span of female Enterobius vermicularis was longer than 40 days, and the developmental stages of worms younger than 16 days resisted considerably to both mebendazole and pyrantel pamoate. PMID:12888681

Cho, Seung Yull; Kang, Shin Yong; Kim, Suk Il; Song, Chul Yong

1985-06-01

162

Seismic anisotropy and texture development during early stages of subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wave splitting measurements are frequently used to infer upper mantle flow trajectory, based on the fact that, under strain, olivine develops lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) textures in the convecting mantle. However, such inferences ought to be made carefully, since the relationship between splitting fast polarisation and olivine LPO depends on several factors, one of them being the deformation history of the volume of mantle in question. This is especially the case in regions such as subduction zones, where complex and time-dependent mantle flow occurs. Here, we present an integrated model to simulate strain-history-dependent LPO development and measure the resulting shear wave splitting in a subduction setting. We do this for a subduction model that approximates the geometry of the double-sided Molucca Sea subduction system in eastern Indonesia. We test a single-sided and a double-sided subduction case, and compare the results to shear wave splitting observations of this region. Since the subduction zone is fairly young, early textures from the slab's descent from the near-surface to the bottom of the mantle transition zone - which we simulate in our models - have not yet been overprinted by subsequent continuous flow. It further allows us to test the significance of the double-sided geometry, i.e., the need for a rear barrier to achieve trench-parallel sub-slab mantle flow. We simulate olivine LPO evolution in polycrystalline aggregates as they move and deform along pathlines extracted from a 3-D mantle flow model. Interactions between crystals are described using the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) approach. Unlike previous studies, we consider the entire subduction history from subduction initiation onwards. After calculating elastic properties associated with LPO textures, we estimate the resulting splitting parameters (fast direction ?, delay time ?t) for synthetic SKS phases. Our models demonstrate that complex, backazimuth-dependent behaviour in ? appears in even apparently simple models of subduction zone mantle flow. We also show that although a rear barrier amplifies trench-parallel sub-slab anisotropy due to mantle flow, it is not essential for producing trench-parallel fast directions. In a simple model of one-sided subduction and deformation dominated by the motion of dislocations belonging to the (010)[100] slip system, trench-parallel fast directions result from a combination of simple shear and deformation by axial compression in the sub-slab mantle.

Di Leo, Jeanette; Walker, Andrew; Li, Zhong-Hai; Wookey, James; Ribe, Neil; Kendall, J.-Michael; Tommasi, Andréa

2014-05-01

163

Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion-deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case-control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4-5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7-5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

164

Scrub-successional bird community dynamics in young and mature longleaf pine-wiregrass savannahs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Public agencies are required to manage for threatened and endangered species and for biodiversity. However, at times, management for threatened and endangered species precludes consideration of other species. We investigated how managing for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) and biodiversity at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, affected communities of bird species that use early-successional scrub habitat (hereafter, scrub-successional species). Management for red-cockaded woodpeckers at the SRS involved both (1) manipulating mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Andropogon spp.) stands via canopy thinning, removal of midstory trees, and prescribed burning; and (2) even-aged timber harvesting. The former management practice encouraged red-cockaded woodpeckers to establish new colonies in previously unoccupied stands (hereafter, 'recruitment' stands). The latter management practice is used to remove off-site planted pines and replant with preferred longleaf pines. We conducted a constant-effort mist net study in recruitment and regenerating stands (stands clearcut and planted with longleaf pine) during the breeding seasons of 1995-96. We hypothesized that the scrub-successional bird community in recruitment stands would have greater species richness and higher survival and reproductive rates per species than in regenerating stands. However, recruitment stands always had fewer scrub-successional species (1995:36 species; 1996:31 species) than regenerating stands (1995:54 species; 1996:55 species), and all species that occurred in recruitment stands also occurred in regenerating stands. Species which commonly occurred in both recruitment and regenerating stands had similar adult:juvenile ratios (P > 0.15) and relative proportion of adults in breeding condition (P > 0.05). We detected no difference in survival rates of Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis), indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), and of 'combined' scrub-successional birds between stand types (P > 0.05). We found that even-aged forestry is an important management practice for maintaining and increasing avian biodiversity on public lands, as well as an acceptable management practice for red-cockaded woodpeckers.

Krementz, D. G.; Christie, J.S.

1999-01-01

165

Estimates of the duration of the early and late stage of gambiense sleeping sickness  

PubMed Central

Background The durations of untreated stage 1 (early stage, haemo-lymphatic) and stage 2 (late stage, meningo-encephalitic) human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are poorly quantified, but key to predicting the impact of screening on transmission. Here, we outline a method to estimate these parameters. Methods We first model the duration of stage 1 through survival analysis of untreated serological suspects detected during Médecins Sans Frontières interventions in Uganda and Sudan. We then deduce the duration of stage 2 based on the stage 1 to stage 2 ratio observed during active case detection in villages within the same sites. Results Survival in stage 1 appears to decay exponentially (daily rate = 0.0019; mean stage 1 duration = 526 days [95%CI 357 to 833]), possibly explaining past reports of abnormally long duration. Assuming epidemiological equilibrium, we estimate a similar duration of stage 2 (500 days [95%CI 345 to 769]), for a total of nearly three years in the absence of treatment. Conclusion Robust estimates of these basic epidemiological parameters are essential to formulating a quantitative understanding of sleeping sickness dynamics, and will facilitate the evaluation of different possible control strategies.

Checchi, Francesco; Filipe, Joao AN; Haydon, Daniel T; Chandramohan, Daniel; Chappuis, Francois

2008-01-01

166

Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Castellanos, A. E.; Martinez, M. J.; Llano, J. M.; Halvorson, W. L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

2005-01-01

167

Leaves of pioneer and later-successional trees have similar lifetime carbon gain in tropical secondary forest.  

PubMed

Different life history strategies among tropical rain forest species are generally related to inherent trade-offs in leaf and crown traits, with early-successional species having traits that facilitate high productivity but a relatively wasteful use of resources and shade-tolerant later-successional species exhibiting the opposite strategy. But the degree to which these trait differences contribute to short- and long-term carbon gain of different species that coexist in natural forest has not been quantitatively scaled. We applied a canopy model in combination with measurements of canopy structure, mass distribution, and leaf photosynthesis to determine whole-plant daily photosynthesis (P(pl)) of individuals of three short-lived pioneers (SLP), four later-successional species, and three lianas growing together in a 0.5-, 2-, and 3-yr-old secondary tropical forest stand. Whole-plant daily photosynthesis per unit leaf mass (P(lfm)) and aboveground mass (P(m)) were assumed to indicate daily returns on investment at the leaf and crown level. By integrating these calculations with measured leaf longevities, we determined the lifetime carbon gain per unit leaf mass. Vegetation height and leaf area index increased with stand age. Two of the SLPs, Trema and Ochroma, increasingly dominated the top of the vegetation. In the 0.5-yr-old stand, these species also had the highest P(m) and P(lfm) values. Whole-plant daily photosynthesis per unit leaf mass tended to decline with stand age but much more strongly so in the later-successional species than in the SLP. Leaf longevity was not significantly correlated with individual leaf traits (e.g., specific leaf area or leaf N content) but was strongly and negatively correlated with P(lfm) in the youngest stand. Later-successional species had considerably greater leaf longevities than SLP. Lifetime carbon gain per unit leaf mass, however, was relatively similar between the different species. Thus due to the strong negative correlation that exists between daily leaf productivity (P(lfm)) and longevity, short-lived pioneers and later-successional species achieve similar lifetime carbon gain per unit leaf mass in natural secondary forest. This could help explain why the slower-growing later-successional species are able to persist during the first years of succession. PMID:20462124

Selaya, N Galia; Anten, Niels P R

2010-04-01

168

Contribution of Early Life Stages to lnterannual Variability in Recruitment of Northern Anchovy (Engradis mordax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested HjoKs and Lasker's hypotheses that the abundance of recruits in fishes is determined at an early life stage. Using 13 yr of data on components of population dynamics of the well-studied northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), we reconstructed the abundance of anchovy in each year at three stages: eggs, 4.5d-old yolk-sac larvae, and 19d-old larvae. No abundance measure was

Randall M. Peterman; Nancy C. H. Lo; Richard D. Methot

169

Characterising a technology development at the stage of early emerging applications: nanomaterial-enhanced biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We devise future-oriented technology analyses tools to investigate a technology at an interesting development stage of early emerging applications. At this stage, technologies show great potential with little established commercialisation. Future development pathways are highly uncertain and heavily dependent on contextual interactions. We apply R&D profiling, R&D-to-applications cross-charting, and technology delivery system modelling to help understand the phenomena that bear

Lu Huang; Ying Guo; Zhengchun Peng; Alan L. Porter

2011-01-01

170

Effects of acidified seawater on early life stages of scleractinian corals (Genus Acropora )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification, caused by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, is currently an important environmental problem. It is therefore necessary to investigate the effects of\\u000a ocean acidification on all life stages of a wide range of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the effects\\u000a of increased CO2 on early life stages of organisms, including corals. Using a range of

Ryota Suwa; Masako Nakamura; Masaya Morita; Kazuaki Shimada; Akira Iguchi; Kazuhiko Sakai; Atsushi Suzuki

2010-01-01

171

Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat  

SciTech Connect

It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko (Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

1989-09-01

172

Treatment options in early stages of Hodgkin's Lymphoma, high cure rate with lower short and long-term toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of early stages in HL varied among cooperative groups and clinical trials. Most of them considered early stages; stage I, II, and IIIA without bulky disease. Bulky disease has been defined at the Costwolds Meeting as those tumors with more than 10 cm or a mediastinal involvement of more than one-third of the chest wall diameter. Other factors

Santiago Pavlovsky

2005-01-01

173

Prevalence and characteristics of pain in early and late stages of ALS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare pain frequency in early and late stages of ALS and to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status. Sixty-four patients in different stages of ALS were asked to complete the Neuropathic Pain Scale and to draw the localization of their pain on a body cartoon. The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) values were obtained from the medical record. A ?(2) correlation was used to compare the proportion of patients with pain in different stages of ALS. Correlation coefficient was used to describe the relationship between pain intensity and functional status (ALSFRS-R). Pain was reported by about half the patients. Using FVC values, patients were subdivided into early, intermediate and late stage of the disease. There was a negative correlation between pain intensity and functional status. There was no statistically significant difference in the presence of pain among patients in the different stages of ALS. In conclusion, our study showed that pain is common in ALS patients. Although pain intensity did correlate negatively with functional status, as expected, we were surprised to find that pain was also present in the early stages of the disease. PMID:23286754

Rivera, Itza; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Casey, Pat; Heller, Scott; Allen, Jeffrey; Siddique, Teepu; Sufit, Robert

2013-09-01

174

Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

Meeuwig, M. H.; Bayer, J. M.; Seelye, J. G.

2005-01-01

175

Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.  

PubMed

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 ?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 ?-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. PMID:24713117

Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

2014-07-01

176

Impact of [ 18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Staging and Management of Early-Stage Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Accurate staging is critical to select patients with early-stage (I-II) follicular lymphoma (ESFL) suitable for involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) and to define the radiotherapy portal. We evaluated the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET on staging, treatment, and outcome for patients with ESFL on conventional staging. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with untreated ESFL (World Health Organization Grade I-IIIa, or 'low

Andrew Wirth; Marcus Foo; John F. Seymour; Michael P. MacManus; Rodney J. Hicks

2008-01-01

177

Additional data on the distribution and early stages of Chrysoesthia verrucosa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently described gelechiid moth Chrysoesthia verrucosa Tokár, 1999 is recorded for the first time for Italy, where it was found in the Aosta region on 3 August 2002. Larvae were found mining the leaves of goosefoot (Chenopodium sp.) and the adults were reared; the early stages and foodplant(s) of this species were still unknown. Identification, bionomics and geographical distribution

J. H. Kuchlein

178

Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including actinic keratosis (AK) is in- creasing all over the world. The detection and diagnosis of NMSC is not optimal in clinical practice. Complementary methods for detection and accurate demarcation of NMSC at an early stage are needed in order to limit the damage caused by tumours. Objective: The purpose of the

Jaap de Leeuw; Nick van der Beek; W. Dieter Neugebauer; Peter Bjerring; H. A. Martino Neumann

2009-01-01

179

Early-stage plasma dynamics with air ionization during ultrashort laser ablation of metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the early-stage plasma evolution generated by an ultrashort laser pulse is investigated through pump-probe shadowgraph measurements and simulations. The measurements are performed to show the evolution of the plasma front, while the simulation model is used to further investigate the evolution process and mechanism. Specifically, the laser pulse propagation in air is simulated using the beam propagation

Wenqian Hu; Yung C. Shin; Galen King

2011-01-01

180

Effects of potassium deficiency on tomato growth and mineral nutrition at the early production stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of potassium deficiency on hydroponically grown tomato were investigated at the early production stage (23 leaves, 3 trusses). Two types of potassium deficiency were applied : the permanent deficiency lasted for 23 days whereas the 10-day temporary deficiency was followed by a 7-day period of potassium supply resumption.

A. Pujos; P. Morard

1997-01-01

181

Acoustic emission technique used for detecting early stages of precipitation during aging of Inconel 625  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging behavior of Inconel 625 has been studied at 540 °C. The Ni2(Cr,Mo) phase, found in this material only after a long service life, has been detected along with the ?? phase after a short aging. Acoustic emission technique has been found sensitive enough to detect early stages of precipitation.

J. Mittra; J. S. Dubey; S. Banerjee

2003-01-01

182

Treatment of Early-Stage Pressure Ulcers by Using Autologous Adipose Tissue Grafts  

PubMed Central

Assessing pressure ulcers (PUs) in early stages allows patients to receive safer treatment. Up to now, in addition to clinical evaluation, ultrasonography seems to be the most suitable technique to achieve this goal. Several treatments are applied to prevent ulcer progression but none of them is totally effective. Furthermore, the in-depth knowledge of fat regenerative properties has led to a wide use of it. With this study the authors aim at introducing a new approach to cure and prevent the worsening of early-stage PUs by using fat grafts. The authors selected 42 patients who showed clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of early-stage PUs. Values of skin thickness, fascial integrity, and subcutaneous vascularity were recorded both on the PU area and the healthy trochanteric one, used as control region. Fat grafting was performed on all patients. At three months, abnormal ultrasonographic findings, such as reduction of cutaneous and subcutaneous thickness, discontinuous fascia, and decrease in subcutaneous vascularity, all were modified with respect to almost all the corresponding parameters of the control region. Results highlight that the use of fat grafts proved to be an effective treatment for early-stage PUs, especially in the care of neurological and chronic bedridden patients.

Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Pallara, Tiziano; Cagli, Barbara; Schena, Emiliano; Giurazza, Francesco; Faiella, Elio; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Persichetti, Paolo

2014-01-01

183

Communication in the Early Stage of Language Development in Children with CHARGE Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CHARGE syndrome is characterized by multiple physical abnormalities, and impaired vision and hearing. In this pilot study, communication in the early stage of language development in three one- to eight-year-old children with CHARGE syndrome was explored using video recorded free-play interaction sessions and a parental questionnaire. The children…

Peltokorpi, Sini; Huttunen, Kerttu

2008-01-01

184

Aldosterone receptor blockade inhibits degenerative processes in the early stage of calcific aortic stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcific aortic valve disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly. To date, pharmacological therapies have not proven as effective as surgical intervention. Here, we used a hyperlipidemic rabbit model to investigate the potential effects of selective aldosterone inhibition on the early stages of aortic valve calcification, a pharmacological strategy that has not yet been tested.

Spyridon Gkizas; Dimitra Koumoundourou; Xara Sirinian; Stamatina Rokidi; Dimosthenis Mavrilas; Petros Koutsoukos; Apostolos Papalois; Efstratios Apostolakis; Dimitrios Alexopoulos; Helen Papadaki

2010-01-01

185

The significance of lipids at early stages of marine fish: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work reviews the significance of lipids at different early stages of marine fish larvae. Lipids in broodstock nutrition are considered to be important for the quality of the larvae. Lipids affect the spawning and the egg quality of many fish species and a deficiency in (n?3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in broodstock negatively affects fecundity, fertilization rate

Jose R. Rainuzzo; Kjell I. Reitan; Yngvar Olsen

1997-01-01

186

Proliferative Activity, Apoptosis, and Histogenesis in the Early Stages of Rat Tooth Extraction Wound Healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the proliferative activity, apoptosis, and histogenesis in the early stages of the rat healing socket from just after extraction until new bone formation occurs. Thirty 11-week-old male Wistar rats underwent bilateral maxillary first molar tooth extraction. Five craniomaxillary tissue specimens were dissected at the following time points: at 12 h, days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after

Hirotaka Sato; Yasunori Takeda

2007-01-01

187

Toxicity of Acenaphthene and Isophorone to Early Life Stages of Fathead Minnows (Journal Version).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flow-through 96-hr and early-life stage toxicity tests were conducted with acenaphthene and isophorone, using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test animals. The 96-hr LC50's were 608 micro/L for acenaphthene and 145 and 255 micro/L for isophorone,...

M. A. Cairns A. V. Nebeker

1982-01-01

188

TOXICITY OF ACENAPHTHENE AND ISOPHORONE TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF FATHEAD MINNOWS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through 96-hr and early-life stage toxicity tests were conducted with acenaphthene and isophorone, using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test animals. The 96-hr LC50's were 608 micro/L for acenaphthene and 145 and 255 micro/L for isophorone, depending on fish age. N...

189

EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST METHODS FOR GULF TOADFISH, 'OPSANUS BETA', AND RESULTS USING CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) were continuously exposed as embryos, sac fry and juveniles to technical chlorpyrifos in two 49-day early life-stage toxicity tests. Survival was significantly (alpha = 0.05) reduced only in 150 micrograms/l). However, toadfish exposed to chlorpyrifos...

190

Early Gamma Interferon Responses in Lethal and Nonlethal Murine Blood-Stage Malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to explore early differences in cytokine production during nonlethal and lethal blood-stage murine malaria infections. Cytokine analysis of spleens during these infections showed that the principal difference between two nonlethal and two lethal Plasmodium species was the production of gamma interferon 24 h after infection with nonlethal parasites. In contrast, no increases in interleukin-4 production were

J. BRIAN DE SOUZA; KATE H. WILLIAMSON; TSUYOSHI OTANI; H. L. PLAYFAIR

1997-01-01

191

Early Nonspecific Immune Responses and Immunity to Blood-Stage Nonlethal Plasmodium yoelii Malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early role of natural killer cells and gamma delta T cells in the development of protective immunity to the blood stage of nonlethal Plasmodium yoelii infection was studied. Splenic cytokine levels were measured 24 h after infection of natural killer cell-depleted immunodeficient and littermate mice or transiently T-cell- depleted normal mice. Splenic gamma interferon levels were significantly increased above

HASIB R. CHOUDHURY; NADEEM A. SHEIKH; GREGORY J. BANCROFT; DAVID R. KATZ; J. BRIAN DE SOUZA

2000-01-01

192

A Functional Account of Verb Use in the Early Stages of English Multiword Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates flexibility of verb use in the early stages of English multiword development, and its relationship with patterns attested in the input. The data is taken from a case study of a monolingual English-speaking boy aged 2; 5-2; 9 and his mother while engaged in daily activities in the home. Data were coded according to…

Cameron-Faulkner, Thea

2012-01-01

193

Defining Early Human NK Cell Developmental Stages in Primary and Secondary Lymphoid Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A better understanding of human NK cell development in vivo is crucial to exploit NK cells for immunotherapy. Here, we identified seven distinctive NK cell developmental stages in bone marrow of single donors using 10-color flow cytometry and found that NK cell development is accompanied by early expression of stimulatory co-receptor CD244 in vivo. Further analysis of cord blood (CB),

Diana N. Eissens; Jan Spanholtz; Arnold van der Meer; Bram van Cranenbroek; Harry Dolstra; Jaap Kwekkeboom; Frank W. M. B. Preijers; Irma Joosten

2012-01-01

194

Investigation of the early stages of deformation of two phase copper-aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of the early stages of deformation of a series of two phase (? + ??) Cu-Al alloys in terms of the behavior of the constituent phases. The two phase structures of constant martensite and? phase composition with varying amount of martensite phase are obtained by quenching from the two phase field. By being able\\u000a to

A. H. Yegneswaran; K. Tangri

1983-01-01

195

Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease

F. P. H. Gazeau; J.-P. Gattuso; C. Dawber; A. E. Pronker; F. Peene; J. Peene; C. H. R. Heip; J. J. Middelburg

2010-01-01

196

Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

2014-01-01

197

Serum Lipids and Outcome of Early-stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The prognosis of women with early-stage breast cancer is influenced by insulin and body mass index (BMI). High levels of serum insulin and obesity often coexist with dyslipidemia in the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), but the contribution of lipids to breast cancer outcome is unclear. Here, we examine whether serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) influence

Mala Bahl; Marguerite Ennis; Ian F. Tannock; Jan E. Hux; Kathleen I. Pritchard; Jarley Koo; Pamela J. Goodwin

2005-01-01

198

Adding Radiation to Chemotherapy May Improve Outcomes in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not known.

199

Grain growth during the early stage of sintering of nanosized WC–Co powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid grain growth during the early stage of sintering has been found in many nano material systems including cemented tungsten carbide WC–Co. To date, however, there have been few reported studies in the literature that deal directly with the kinetics or the mechanisms of this part of grain growth. In this work, the grain growth of nanosized WC during the

Xu Wang; Zhigang Zak Fang; Hong Yong Sohn

2008-01-01

200

Effects of Temperature on Survival and Development of Early Life Stage Pacific and Western Brook Lampreys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22°C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the

Michael H. Meeuwig; Jennifer M. Bayer; James G. Seelye

2005-01-01

201

A Comparison of Item Selection Rules at the Early Stages of Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared five item selection rules with respect to the efficiency and precision of trait (theta) estimation at the early stages of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The Fisher interval information, Fisher information with a posterior distribution, Kullback-Leibler information, and Kullback-Leibler information with a posterior distribution…

Chen, Shu-Ying; Ankenmann, Robert D.; Chang, Hua-Hua

2000-01-01

202

"It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

Roberts-Holmes, Guy

2012-01-01

203

The Night before the LHC -thoughts about expectations in the early stage and beyond-  

SciTech Connect

I review recent developments on the use of m{sub T2} variables for SUSY parameter study, which might be useful for analyses of the data in the early stage of the LHC experiments. I will also mention some of recent interesting studies relevant to the SUSY analysis.

Nojiri, Mihoko M. [IPNS, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan) and IPMU, Tokyo University, Kashiwano-ha, Kashiwa, 277-8568 (Japan)

2008-11-23

204

Toxicity of Aldicarb and Fonofos to the Early-Life-Stage of the Fathead Minnow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flow-through early-life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with the pesticides aldicarb (Temik) and fonofos (Dyfonate) to determine their effect on the survival and growth of fathead minnows. Concentrations of 78 micrograms/L of aldicarb and 16 mic...

Q. H. Pickering, W. T. Gilliam

1982-01-01

205

TOXICITY OF ALDICARB AND FONOFOS TO THE EARLY-LIFE-STAGE OF THE FATHEAD MINNOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through early-life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with the pesticides aldicarb (Temik) and fonofos (Dyfonate) to determine their effect on the survival and growth of fathead minnows. Concentrations of 78 micrograms/L of aldicarb and 16 micrograms/L of fonofos did ...

206

A Duplex Theory of Spike Coding in the Early Stages of the Auditory System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a duplex theory of spike coding in the early stages of the auditory system based on the intensity and noise levels of the acoustic stimuli. According to this concept, at low intensity levels, where auditory nerve firings cannot generate a high enough synchrony among neuron ensembles, rate coding is more likely favored against phase-locking via synchrony coding. To

Ismail Uysal; Harsha Sathyendra; John G. Harris

2007-01-01

207

Effects of Fenvalerate on the Early Life Stages of Topsmelt ('Atherinops affinis').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flow-through acute and early-life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. The 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 micrograms/L. In ...

L. R. Goodman M. J. Hemmer D. P. Middaugh J. C. Moore

1992-01-01

208

Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a phase III clinical trial.

209

Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Our current knowledge of the neurobiology of romantic love remains scanty. In view of the complexity of a sentiment like love, it would not be surprising that a diversity of biochemical mechanisms could be involved in the mood changes of the initial stage of a romance. In the present study, we have examined whether the early romantic phase of

Enzo Emanuele; Pierluigi Politi; Marika Bianchi; Piercarlo Minoretti; Marco Bertona; Diego Geroldi

2006-01-01

210

Effects of hydrazine and other toxicants on early life stages of California brown algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity of hydrazine to early life stages of several species of California brown algae was demonstrated to occur at environmentally relevant concentrations. Effects of hydrazine on benthic organisms had not been previously studied. A reliable bioassay technique was developed using digital image analysis to measure vegetative growth inhibition of brown algal gametophytes. Hydrazine toxicity threshold of Macrocystis pyrifera gametophytes was

1989-01-01

211

Do reaction time measures enhance diagnosis of early-stage dementia of the Alzheimer type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction times (RT) typically are slower in demented individuals than in healthy older people, but it is unclear if this deficit is useful in diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease, particularly in its early stages. In this study we compared 131 nondemented, 73 very mildly demented, and 45 mildly demented individuals on simple, choice, and choice with distraction RT tasks. Less than half

Martha Storandt; Sherry Beaudreau

2004-01-01

212

Simple tool to evaluate energy demand and indoor environment in the early stages of building design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified building simulation tool to evaluate energy demand and thermal indoor environment in the early stages of building design is presented. Simulation is performed based on few input data describing the building design, HVAC systems and control strategies. Hourly values for energy demand and indoor temperature are calculated based on hourly weather data. Calculation of the solar energy transmitted

Toke Rammer Nielsen

2005-01-01

213

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

214

ECT2 amplification and overexpression as a new prognostic biomarker for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Genetic abnormality in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma was examined to search for new prognostic biomarkers. Six in situ lung adenocarcinomas and nine small but invasive adenocarcinomas were examined by array-comparative genomic hybridization, and candidate genes of interest were screened. To examine gene abnormalities, 83 cases of various types of lung carcinoma were examined by quantitative real-time genomic PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results were then verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas. Array-comparative genomic hybridization indicated frequent amplification at chromosome 3q26. Of the seven genes located in this region, we focused on the epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (ECT2) oncogene, as ECT2 amplification was detected only in invasive adenocarcinoma, and not in in situ carcinoma. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses also detected overexpression of ECT2 in invasive adenocarcinoma, and this was correlated with both the Ki-67 labeling index and mitotic index. In addition, it was associated with disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. These results were verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas resected at another hospital. Abnormality of the ECT2 gene occurs at a relatively early stage of lung adenocarcinogenesis and would be applicable as a new biomarker for prognostication of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24484057

Murata, Yoshihiko; Minami, Yuko; Iwakawa, Reika; Yokota, Jun; Usui, Shingo; Tsuta, Koji; Shiraishi, Kouya; Sakashita, Shingo; Satomi, Kaishi; Iijima, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Masayuki

2014-04-01

215

MACC1 as a Prognostic Biomarker for Early-Stage and AFP-Normal Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 gene (MACC1) has been found to be associated with cancer development and progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of MACC1 in early-stage and AFP-normal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods mRNA and protein levels of MACC1 expression in one normal liver epithelial cells THLE3 and 15 HCC cell lines were examined using reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. MACC1 expression was also comparatively studied in 6 paired HCC lesions and the adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry was employed to analyze MACC1 expression in 308 clinicopathologically characterized HCC cases. Statistical analyses were applied to derive association between MACC1 expression scores and clinical staging as well as patient survival. Results Levels of MACC1 mRNA and protein were higher in HCC cell lines and HCC lesions than in normal liver epithelial cells and the paired adjacent noncancerous tissues. Significant difference in MACC1 expression was found in patients of different TNM stages (P<0.001). Overall survival analysis showed that high MACC1 expression level correlated with lower survival rate (P?=?0.001). Importantly, an inverse correlation between MACC1 level and patient survival remained significant in subjects with early-stage HCC or with normal serum AFP level. Conclusions MACC1 protein may represent a promising biomarker for predicting the prognosis of HCC, including in early-stage and AFP-normal patients.

Xie, Chan; Wu, Jueheng; Yun, Jingping; Lai, Jiaming; Yuan, Yunfei; Gao, Zhiliang; Li, Mengfeng; Li, Jun; Song, Libing

2013-01-01

216

Analysis of Turbulent flow in early stages of atherosclerosis of coronary artery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the early stages of atherosclerotic heart disease, fatty material accumulates in the coronary artery resulting in development of streaks of plaque and creating high levels of turbulence, and with significantly modified flow parameters. Diagnostic measures performed during this early stage may not show any evidence of coronary artery disease, because the lumen of the coronary artery has not decreased in caliber. These streaks do not obstruct the flow of blood but alter the flow characteristics, even at this preclinical stage. This talk presents the preliminary results for the analysis of turbulent flow characteristics for a range of atherosclerotic plaque configurations in the left main coronary artery. For this purpose a CAD/medical imaging based direct-simulation (DNS) tool has been developed. The Navier-stokes equations are solved in the vertical vorticity-velocity formulation. The plaque is introduced using immersed body technique. The geometric acquisition of the artery geometry and plaque morphology is obtained using CAD based commercial software.

Bhaganagar, Kiran

2005-11-01

217

Evidence of the early stage of porphyrin aggregation by enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stage of fractal porphyrin diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), induced by addition of a polyamine, is observed in aqueous solution by enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence quenching. The enhancement of Raman scattering is due to nonlinear optical properties typical of fractal composites. Although this early stage (reaction-limited aggregation) has been theoretically predicted (by mean-field theory and molecular dynamics simulation), it is experimentally difficult to observe. During this initial stage, fluorescence quenching gives direct information on the decrease of the concentration of monomeric porphyrins, whereas Raman scattering (through characteristic vibrational modes of the aggregate) reports on the concentration of porphyrins in the aggregated form. These small clusters constitute the seeds for the DLA aggregation process leading to micrometric-sized fractals.

Micali, Norberto; Villari, Valentina; Romeo, Andrea; Castriciano, Maria Angela; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù

2007-07-01

218

Exploration of novel predictive markers in rat plasma of the early stages of chronic renal failure.  

PubMed

To identify blood markers for early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), blood samples were collected from rats with adenine-induced CKD over 28 days. Plasma samples were subjected to metabolomic profiling by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by multivariate analyses. In addition to already-identified uremic toxins, we found that plasma concentrations of N6-succinyl adenosine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine 20:4, and glycocholic acid were altered, and that these changes during early CKD were more sensitive markers than creatinine concentration, a universal indicator of renal dysfunction. Moreover, the increase in plasma indoxyl sulfate concentration occurred earlier than increases in phenyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate. These novel metabolites may serve as biomarkers in identifying early stage CKD. PMID:24232639

Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Yuriko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Kouichi; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kohno, Masahiro

2014-02-01

219

Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Early-Stage Lung Cancer Based on Longitudinal and Balanced Data  

PubMed Central

Background Lung cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer resulting in over a million deaths per year worldwide. Typically, the problem can be approached by developing more discriminative diagnosis methods. In this paper, computer-aided diagnosis was used to facilitate the prediction of characteristics of solitary pulmonary nodules in CT of lungs to diagnose early-stage lung cancer. Methods The synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) was used to account for raw data in order to balance the original training data set. Curvelet-transformation textural features, together with 3 patient demographic characteristics, and 9 morphological features were used to establish a support vector machine (SVM) prediction model. Longitudinal data as the test data set was used to evaluate the classification performance of predicting early-stage lung cancer. Results Using the SMOTE as a pre-processing procedure, the original training data was balanced with a ratio of malignant to benign cases of 1?1. Accuracy based on cross-evaluation for the original unbalanced data and balanced data was 80% and 97%, respectively. Based on Curvelet-transformation textural features and other features, the SVM prediction model had good classification performance for early-stage lung cancer, with an area under the curve of the SVMs of 0.949 (P<0.001). Textural feature (standard deviation) showed benign cases had a higher change in the follow-up period than malignant cases. Conclusions With textural features extracted from a Curvelet transformation and other parameters, a sensitive support vector machine prediction model can increase the rate of diagnosis for early-stage lung cancer. This scheme can be used as an auxiliary tool to differentiate between benign and malignant early-stage lung cancers in CT images.

Sun, Tao; Zhang, Regina; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Xia; Guo, Xiuhua

2013-01-01

220

Segmentectomy or lobectomy for early stage lung cancer: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Early stage lung cancer is routinely treated by lobectomy whenever clinically feasible, whereas the role of segmentectomy is controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of segmentectomy vs lobectomy for early stage lung cancer through a meta-analysis of published data. Eligible studies were identified from MEDLINE through February 2013. The manual selection of relevant studies was based on the summary analysis. We used published hazard ratios (HRs) if available or estimates from the published survival data. Lobectomy was chosen as the reference in all HR calculations. We compared the effect of segmentectomy and lobectomy for Stage I, Stage IA, Stage IA with tumours larger than 2?cm but smaller than 3?cm in size and Stage IA with tumours of 2?cm or smaller in 22 observational studies. The HRs of overall and cancer-specific survival indicated significant benefits of lobectomy for Stage I, Stage IA and Stage IA with tumours larger than 2?cm but smaller than 3?cm at 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.38; P?=?0.011), 1.24 (95% CI 1.08-1.42; P?=?0.002) and 1.41 (95% CI 1.14-1.71; P?=?0.001), respectively. For tumours 2?cm or smaller, segmentectomy provided an effect equivalent to that of lobectomy (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.89-1.24; P?=?0.550). No significant publication bias was detected in any part of the analysis. These findings should be interpreted in the context of the inherent limitations of meta-analyses of retrospective studies, including the heterogeneity of patient characteristics. PMID:24321996

Bao, Feichao; Ye, Peng; Yang, Yunhai; Wang, Luming; Zhang, Chong; Lv, Xiayi; Hu, Jian

2014-07-01

221

Poor prognosis of uterine serous carcinoma compared with grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma in early stage patients.  

PubMed

Difference in prognosis between grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma (G3EC) of the endometrium and uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is controversial. In this study, we further evaluated the difference in prognosis, if any, between G3EC (n?=?61) and USC (n?=?47) on a total of 565 patients with endometrial cancer. In addition, meta-analysis was performed using data from seven previous publications (n?=?8,637) and from the Asan Medical Center (n?=?108). Regarding the cases from our institution, USC tended to occur in older patients (?65 years) than G3EC (P?=?0.011). Deep myometrial invasion (more than or equal to half) was more frequently identified in G3EC (36/61, 59.0 %) than in USC (17/47, 36.2 %) (P?=?0.021). Between patients with early stage G3EC and USC (stages I and II), there were no significant differences in any clinicopathological parameter, but there was a significant difference in overall survival (P?=?0.017) that was not found in advanced stage (P?=?0.588). USC was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 6.125; P?=?0.030) in early stage patients. In the meta-analysis on 5-year survival in patients with early stage cancers, which also included our study results, a higher relative risk (1.92, 95 % CI 1.62-2.27) was demonstrated in USC than in G3EC (P?early stage carcinoma, suggesting that different treatment strategies should be considered according to the histologic type in order to improve treatment outcome. PMID:23417747

Park, Ji Young; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tak; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Sohn, Insuk; Lee, Shin-Wha; Sung, Chang Ohk; Kim, Kyu-Rae

2013-03-01

222

Selecting optimal eggs and embryonic developmental stages of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for early life-stage toxicity tests.  

PubMed

Aquaculture research has indicated that fish embryo hatching success and larval survival can sometimes be predicted by embryo characteristics, such as blastomere cleavage patterns. An analogous strategy of individual assessment of spawned eggs could also be used to improve the quality of toxicity tests using early life-stages of fish where control-group survival determines experimental validity. Here we explored whether a simple method of assessing fathead minnow eggs and embryos for abnormalities could predict hatch success, and larval size at hatch, as indicators of embryo larval quality. Embryos were classified according to both their developmental stage and the presence of any abnormalities: uneven blastomere cleavage, atypical embryo size or shape, and the presence of inclusions in the yolk. Clutch size and fertilization rate did not predict embryo larval quality. Fewer abnormalities in embryos with ?32 cells correlated with longer larvae at hatch. Normal embryos were more likely to hatch successfully than abnormal embryos of the same clutch, but because abnormality rates were generally low, much of the variation in hatch success could not be attributed to visible embryo malformations. Blastomere symmetry may be a useful selection criterion in embryos <3 h postfertilization. Where toxicant exposures early in embryonic development are not required or possible, hatch success could be increased by using older embryos that have survived gastrulation. Purposeful selection of embryos with at least two blastomeres, blastomere symmetry, and few inclusions can improve control survival and improve the quality of any generated (sub)lethality data. In our laboratory, application of the egg-selection criteria significantly improved control group hatch success increasing it from a mean of 84.4 to 94.2%. PMID:24346244

Marentette, Julie R; Chiorean, Sorina; Lavalle, Christine; Sullivan, Cheryl; Parrott, Joanne L

2014-02-01

223

Prognostic role of FGFR1 amplification in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Background:Recently, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) was discovered in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the lung with FGFR1 amplification described as a promising predictive marker for anti-FGFR inhibitor treatment. Only few data are available regarding prevalence, prognostic significance and clinico-pathological characteristics of FGFR1-amplified and early-stage non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). We therefore investigated the FGFR1 gene status in a large number of well-characterised early-stage NSCLC.Methods:FGFR1 gene status was evaluated using a commercially available fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) probe on a tissue microarray (TMA). This TMA harbours 329 resected, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, nodal-negative NSCLC with a UICC stage I-II. The FISH results were correlated with clinico-pathological features and overall survival (OS).Results:The prevalence of an FGFR1 amplification was 12.5% (41/329) and was significantly (P<0.0001) higher in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (20.7%) than in adenocarcinoma (2.2%) and large cell carcinoma (13%). Multivariate analysis revealed significantly (P=0.0367) worse 5-year OS in patients with an FGFR1-amplified NSCLC.Conclusions:FGFR1 amplification is common in early-stage SCC of the lung and is an independent and adverse prognostic marker. Its potential role as a predictive marker for targeted therapies or adjuvant treatment needs further investigation. PMID:24853178

Cihoric, N; Savic, S; Schneider, S; Ackermann, I; Bichsel-Naef, M; Schmid, R A; Lardinois, D; Gugger, M; Bubendorf, L; Zlobec, I; Tapia, C

2014-06-10

224

Malignant pleural mesothelioma: clinicopathology of 16 extrapleural pneumonectomy patients with special reference to early stage features.  

PubMed

The earliest pathological events in the development of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are not understood. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the early histopathological features of MPM. A total of 16 extrapleural MPM pneumonectomy patients were investigated. Early stage mesothelioma was arbitrarily defined as a tumor < or =5 mm in thickness regardless of the nodal status or other organ involvement. Eight of these patients (six with epithelioid, two with biphasic) had early stage mesothelioma by this definition. Macroscopically there was no visible tumor, but the parietal and visceral pleura were thickened and there was focal adhesion between them. Microscopically, the mesothelioma lesions were multifocal and discontinuous on the pleura. In extremely early cases of epithelioid mesothelioma, tumor cells were generally arrayed in a single layer, but papillary proliferation was observed elsewhere. In sarcomatoid mesothelioma, mesothelioma cells proliferated, forming multiple small polypoid nodules on the pleura. Epithelial membrane antigen was helpful to distinguish reactive from neoplastic mesothelium, but glucose transporter-1 was not. Mesothelioma cells disseminate diffusely throughout the parietal and visceral pleura and mediastinal fat tissue before becoming visible. Stage Ia mesothelioma (neoplasm limited to the parietal pleura) would not be observed in daily practice. PMID:19627537

Hiroshima, Kenzo; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kameya, Toru; Ito, Ichiro; Kaneko, Kou; Kadoyama, Chikabumi; Kishi, Hirohisa; Saitoh, Yukio; Ozaki, Daisuke; Itami, Makiko; Iwata, Takekazu; Iyoda, Akira; Kawai, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Ichiro; Nakatani, Yukio

2009-08-01

225

The Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine in Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Model  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted to elucidate neuroprotective effect of carnosine in early stage of stroke. Methods Early stage of rodent stroke model and neuroblastoma chemical hypoxia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and antimycin A. Neuroprotective effect of carnosine was investigated with 100, 250, and 500 mg of carnosine treatment. And antioxidant expression was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in brain and blood. Results Intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg carnosine induced significant decrease of infarct volume and expansion of penumbra (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant increase than in saline group in blood and brain (p<0.05). In the analysis of chemical hypoxia, carnosine induced increase of neuronal cell viability and decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Conclusion Carnosine has neuroprotective property which was related to antioxidant capacity in early stage of stroke. And, the oxidative stress should be considered one of major factor in early ischemic stroke.

Park, Hui-Seung; Han, Kyung-Hoon; Shin, Jeoung-A; Park, Joo-Hyun; Song, Kwan-Young

2014-01-01

226

Successional status, seed size, and responses of tree seedlings to CO[sub 2], light, and nutrients  

SciTech Connect

We studied how an enriched CO[sub 2] atmosphere, in a fully crossed design of light and nutrients, influenced 1 st-yr seedling growth in six New England deciduous forest tree species. The species, in the order of increasing shade tolerance, were gray birch (Betula populifolia), ash (Fraxinus ainericana L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red oak (Carcass rubra L.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), and striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum). Elevated CO[sub 2] environments significantly stimulated the seedling growth of all six species. Generally this was more pronounced in low light. The greatest stimulation was found under the condition of low light and high nutrients. However, individual species responded differently to elevated CO[sub 2] levels. Among the three early-successional species, gray birch, ash, and red maple, a significant increase in seedling growth under elevated CO[sub 2] conditions was found only with high nutrients. The three late-successional species grown under elevated CO[sub 2] conditions (red oak, yellow birch, and striped maple) showed a greater percentage increase in seedling growth in low light than in high light. Thus, for the early-successional species, the degree of enhancement of seedling growth by elevated CO[sub 2] levels was more sensitive to nutrient levels, while in the late-successional species the enhancement was more sensitive to the level of light. Moreover, species with large seeds (e.g., red oak) exhibited a greater response to elevated CO[sub 2] levels under low light than species with small seeds (e.g., gray birch). The results emphasize the importance of plant species as well as other environmental resources in modifying the response of plants to elevated CO[sub 2]. Considering the light and nutrient environment observed in forest gaps of various sizes, the results of the present experiment suggest seedling regeneration in New England deciduous forests may be altered in a future high CO[sub 2] environment.

Bazzaz, F.A.; Miao, S.L. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-01-01

227

Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 Sigma Factor K in Early-Stage Sporulation  

PubMed Central

A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that ?K is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods.

Kirk, David G.; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu

2012-01-01

228

Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 sigma factor K in early-stage sporulation.  

PubMed

A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that ?(K) is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods. PMID:22544236

Kirk, David G; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

2012-07-01

229

Chemokines and neurodegeneration in the early stage of experimental ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Neurodegeneration is a hallmark of most of the central nervous system (CNS) disorders including stroke. Recently inflammation has been implicated in pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was analysis of expression of several inflammatory markers and its correlation with development of neurodegeneration during the early stage of experimental stroke. Ischemic stroke model was induced by stereotaxic intracerebral injection of vasoconstricting agent endothelin-1 (ET-1). It was observed that neurodegeneration appears very early in that model and correlates well with migration of inflammatory lymphocytes and macrophages to the brain. Although the expression of several studied chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) was significantly increased at the early phase of ET-1 induced stroke model, no clear correlation of this expression with neurodegeneration was observed. These data may indicate that chemokines do not induce neurodegeneration directly. Upregulated in the ischemic brain chemokines may be a potential target for future therapies reducing inflammatory cell migration to the brain in early stroke. Inhibition of inflammatory cell accumulation in the brain at the early stage of stroke may lead to amelioration of ischemic neurodegeneration. PMID:24324296

Wolinski, Pawel; Glabinski, Andrzej

2013-01-01

230

Neuropsychological detection of the early stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment without objective memory impairment.  

PubMed

Aim: We investigate the assessment method to detect the early stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III). Methods: Three groups (normal group, aMCI group, and early aMCI group), controlled for age and years of education, underwent brain (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET), WAIS-III, WMS-R, and other tests. The early aMCI group does not fulfill the clinical diagnostic criteria of aMCI because patients do not have objective memory impairment, but their clinical symptoms and results of (18)F-FDG PET indicate that they should be included in the category of aMCI. Results: The discrepancy of scores between Verbal IQ and General Memory had the highest accuracy in discriminating between normal and early aMCI groups. Conclusion: The cutoff point determined in this study is useful to detect an early stage of aMCI, which may be distinguished from aMCI using the current criteria. PMID:23392179

Murayama, Norio; Tagaya, Hirokuni; Ota, Kazumi; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Manabe, Yuta; Sato, Kiyoshi; Isek, Eizo

2013-01-01

231

The Early Stages of Taxol Biosynthesis: An Interim Report on the Synthesis and Identification of Early Pathway Metabolites  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of the anti-cancer drug taxol (paclitaxel) has required the collaborative efforts of several research groups to tackle the synthesis and labeling of putative biosynthetic intermediates, in concert with the identification, cloning and functional expression of the biosynthetic genes responsible for the construction of this complex natural product. Based on a combination of precursor labeling and incorporation experiments, and metabolite isolation from Taxus spp., a picture of the complex matrix of pathway oxygenation reactions following formation of the first committed intermediate, taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene, is beginning to emerge. An overview of the current state of knowledge on the early-stages of taxol biosynthesis is presented.

Guerra-Bubb, Jennifer; Croteau, Rodney; Williams, Robert M.

2012-01-01

232

Attribute-invariant orientation discrimination at an early stage of processing in the human visual system.  

PubMed

This study investigated event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during selective attention to the orientation of a bar comprised of two squares, which were defined by only color or motion (intra-attribute conditions) or both (interattribute condition). An early positive potential in association with orientation selection was elicited for all conditions in similar latency ranges but with different scalp distributions. These results suggest that attribute-invariant orientations can be discriminated at an early stage of processing in the human brain, which fills a gap between monkey electrophysiology and human psychophysics, while attribute-specific orientations are also available in a given context. PMID:17092533

Kasai, Tetsuko; Morita, Hiromi; Kumada, Takatsune

2007-01-01

233

Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation. PMID:20483354

Hong, Dun; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Qiang; Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie; Lian, Qing-Quan; Deng, Hai-Teng; Ge, Ren-Shan

2010-08-15

234

Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells  

SciTech Connect

Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.

Hong, Dun [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China); Chen, Hai-Xiao, E-mail: Hxchen-1@163.net [Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China)] [Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China); Yu, Hai-Qiang [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)] [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)] [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Lian, Qing-Quan [The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China)] [The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China); Deng, Hai-Teng, E-mail: dengh@mail.rockefeller.edu [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)] [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Ge, Ren-Shan, E-mail: rge@popcbr.rockefeller.edu [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China)

2010-08-15

235

The D-Optimality Item Selection Criterion in the Early Stage of CAT: A Study with the Graded Response Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), item selection criteria based on Fisher"s information often produce less stable latent trait estimates than the Kullback-Leibler global information criterion. Robustness against early stage instability has been reported for the D-optimality criterion in a polytomous CAT with the…

Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E. S.

2008-01-01

236

Fronto-temporal-lobe atrophy in early-stage Alzheimer's disease identified using an improved detection methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with widespread brain atrophy including structures subserving memory. We applied an improved structural detection methodology to examine the less well known progression of atrophy in early-stage AD. We sought to i) longitudinally study volumetric differences in patients with early-stage AD and healthy volunteers; and ii) test the hypothesis that hippocampal volumes would be correlated with

Tom F. D. Farrow; Subha N. Thiyagesh; Iain D. Wilkinson; Randolph W. Parks; Leanne Ingram; Peter W. R. Woodruff

2007-01-01

237

Investigation of the early stages in laser-induced ignition by Schlieren photography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser ignition has been discussed widely as a potentially superior ignition source for technical appliances such as internal combustion engines. Ignition strongly affects overall combustion, and its early stages in particular have strong implications on subsequent pollutant formation, flame quenching, and extinction. Our research here is devoted to the experimental investigation of the early stages of laser-induced ignition of CH4\\/air

Maximilian Lackner; S. Charareh; F. Winter; K. F. Iskra; D. Rüdisser; T. Neger; H. Kopecek; E. Wintner

2004-01-01

238

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil developmental stages on herbaceous plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mount Fuji  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot culture experiment was conducted to examine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and soil developmental stages on the growth and nutrient absorption of pioneer plants growing in the early stage of primary succession on Mt. Fuji. Four herbaceous plants, Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae), Miscanthus oligostachyus (Gramineae), Aster ageratoides var. ovatus (Compositae), and Hedysarum vicioides (Leguminosae), were grown from

Masaaki Fujiyoshi; Atsushi Kagawa; Takayuki Nakatsubo; Takehiro Masuzawa

2006-01-01

239

Toxic Effects of Bisphenol A on Early Life Stages of Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed

The toxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) in aquatic organisms have attracted global attention. However, few studies have investigated its effects at the gene transcription level. In this study, we measured the transcriptional response of a set of genes associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis following BPA exposure during the early life stage of Japanese medaka. Transcription of vitellogenin genes was induced in both sexes, indicating estrogenic disruption. However, changes in transcription of the steroid hormone receptor gene and steroidogenesis-regulating genes suggest that BPA also acts as an androgen receptor antagonist. BPA exposure also decreased the hatchability of medaka embryos and increased the growth of female larvae. These pronounced gender-specific effects observed in this study demonstrate that it is important to identify the sex of fish in the early life stage. PMID:24849714

Sun, Liwei; Lin, Xia; Jin, Rong; Peng, Tao; Peng, Zuhua; Fu, Zhengwei

2014-08-01

240

Defective skeletogenesis and oversized otoliths in fish early stages in a changing ocean.  

PubMed

Early life stages of many marine organisms are being challenged by rising seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations, but their physiological responses to these environmental changes still remain unclear. In the present study, we show that future predictions of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (?pH=0.5 units) may compromise the development of early life stages of a highly commercial teleost fish, Solea senegalensis. Exposure to future conditions caused a decline in hatching success and larval survival. Growth, metabolic rates and thermal tolerance increased with temperature but decreased under acidified conditions. Hypercapnia and warming amplified the incidence of deformities by 31.5% (including severe deformities such as lordosis, scoliosis and kyphosis), while promoting the occurrence of oversized otoliths (109.3% increase). Smaller larvae with greater skeletal deformities and larger otoliths may face major ecophysiological challenges, which might potentiate substantial declines in adult fish populations, putting in jeopardy the species' fitness under a changing ocean. PMID:24625652

Pimentel, Marta S; Faleiro, Filipa; Dionísio, Gisela; Repolho, Tiago; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Machado, Jorge; Rosa, Rui

2014-06-15

241

Modern Risk Assessment for Individualizing Treatment Concepts in Early-stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Validated prognostic and predictive factors currently play an important role in treatment planning for patients with early-stage breast cancer. The role of personalized medicine has led to the search for markers that can be applied to individual patients to optimize treatment regimens. In addition to traditional clinicopathologic measures, scores and gene tests have been developed to independently predict risk of patients in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. The discovery of these markers provides the opportunity to identify patients at such low risk of recurrence that toxic therapy side effects are not justified. Selection and management of patients with early-stage, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who are appropriately treated with endocrine therapy alone after receiving locoregional therapy but do not necessarily require adjuvant chemotherapy is currently problematic. This article reviews the current state-of-theart biomarker assessment methods and discusses the potential role for the prediction of chemotherapy benefit focusing on endocrine sensitive disease.

Farr, Alex; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Heiduschka, Annika; Singer, Christian F; Harbeck, Nadia

2013-01-01

242

Imaging capability of an early stage breast tumor by CP-MCT.  

PubMed

Capability of diagnostic imaging of an early stage breast tumor using microwaves has been investigated by means of FDTD-based numerical simulations. More than ten years ago, we developed chirp pulse microwave computed tomography (CP-MCT) for microwave imaging of a human body. In this study, we'll show that CP-MCT provides useful information on the tumor region in the breast. To specify the exact location of an early stage tumor inside the breast, image restoration has been attempted by computing the point spread function (PSF) of CP-MCT in two- or three-dimensional ways by assuming the function is linear. Another solution is given by using radar imaging system simultaneously with CP-MCT. PMID:17271962

Miyakawa, M; Ishida, T; Watanabe, M

2004-01-01

243

Molecular Imaging Insights into Early Inflammatory Stages of Arterial and Aortic Valve Calcification  

PubMed Central

Traditional imaging modalities such as computed tomography, although perfectly adept at identifying and quantifying advanced calcification, cannot detect the early stages of this disorder and offer limited insight into the mechanisms of mineral dysregulation. This review presents optical molecular imaging as a promising tool that simultaneously detects pathobiological processes associated with inflammation and early stages of calcification in vivo at the (sub)cellular levels. Research into treatment of cardiovascular calcification is lacking, as shown by clinical trials that have failed to demonstrate the reduction of calcific aortic stenosis. Hence the need to elucidate the pathways that contribute to cardiovascular calcification and to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse calcification has driven investigations into the use of molecular imaging. This review discusses studies that have used molecular imaging methods to advance knowledge of cardiovascular calcification, focusing in particular on the inflammation-dependent mechanisms of arterial and aortic valve calcification.

New, Sophie E. P.; Aikawa, Elena

2011-01-01

244

Deep Brain Stimulation in Early Stage Parkinson's Disease: Operative Experience from a Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence suggests that STN-DBS may have a disease-modifying effect in early PD. A randomized, prospective study is underway to determine whether STN-DBS in early PD is safe and tolerable. Objectives / Methods Fifteen of thirty early PD patients were randomized to receive STN-DBS implants in an IRB-approved protocol. Operative technique, location of DBS leads, and perioperative adverse events are reported. Active contact used for stimulation in these patients were compared with 47 advanced PD patients undergoing an identical procedure by the same surgeon. Results Fourteen of the 15 patients did not sustain any long-term (> 3 months) complications from the surgery. One subject suffered a stroke resulting in mild cognitive changes and slight right arm and face weakness. The average optimal contact used in symptomatic treatment of early PD patients was: anterior ?1.1±1.7mm, lateral 10.7±1.7mm, superior ?3.3±2.5mm (AC-PC coordinates). This location is statistically no different (0.77mm, p> 0.05) than the optimal contact used in treatment of 47 advanced PD patients. Conclusions The perioperative adverse events in this trial of subjects with early stage PD are comparable to that reported for STN-DBS in advanced PD. The active contact position used in early PD is not significantly different from that used in late stage disease. This is the first report of the operative experience from a randomized, surgical-versus-best-medical-therapy trial for the early treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

Kahn, Elyne; D'Haese, Pierre-Francois; Dawant, Benoit; Allen, Laura; Kao, Chris; Charles, P. David; Konrad, Peter

2013-01-01

245

Prognostic analysis of early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to analyze prognostic factors of early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 35 patients who were treated for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from January 1980 to December 2005. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to compare the different strategies of operation and to analyze the prognostic factors. Results Thirty-five patients had early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Of these cases, 26 were well differentiated, seven were moderately differentiated, and two were poorly differentiated. The five-year survival rate was 77.1%. Five cases were in FIGO stage 1a and 30 cases were in stage 1b; median survival times were 182.3 months and 152.5 months, and the five-year survival rates were 100% and 81.5% (P >0.05), respectively. The five-year survival of the patients who underwent local excision; radical vulvectomy and en bloc resection of inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy; orradical vulvectomyen bloc resection of inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, and pelvic lymph nodes was 50%, 81.8%, and 83.9%, respectively. For these cases, 74.3% of the tumors were medial while 25.7% were lateral, and the five-year survival rates of patients according to tumor location were 87.0% and 64.8% (P <0.05), respectively. The inguinal lymph node not increased and active were 16 cases (45.7%), and increased, active and hard were 17 cases (48.6%), and syncretic were two cases (5.7%), five-year survival rates were 73.3%, 92.9% and 50% (P <0.05), respectively. Of these cases, 74.3% of the tumors were cauliflower-like and 25.7% were nodular; five-year survival rates by tumor type were 91.3% and 66.7% (P <0.05), respectively. Conclusions For patients with early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, surgical operation is the primary, yet the best, treatment. The related prognostic factors were tumor location (lateral/medial), stage, gross morphology, and clinical state of the inguinal lymph node.

2013-01-01

246

Production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in early stage B-CLL: suppression by interferons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play critical roles in angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. Increased angiogenesis is observed in chronic B lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and published data reported VEGF and bFGF production in this disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate MMP expression in early stage B-CLL. Elevated

B Bauvois; J Dumont; C Mathiot; J-P Kolb

2002-01-01

247

High-dose-rate brachytherapy as sole modality for early-stage endobronchial carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate exclusive high-dose-rate brachytherapy for localized early-stage non–small-cell bronchial carcinoma; to develop new insights in treatment-catheter positioning and tumor-volume assessment by computed tomography (CT) scan.Methods and Materials: Between 1992 and 1996, 34 patients with non–small-cell bronchial carcinoma were treated by brachytherapy alone. All patients were medically inoperable and had contraindications for external beam irradiation. The treatment protocol was

Hugo Marsiglia; Pierre Baldeyrou; Eric Lartigau; Edith Briot; Christine Haie-Meder; Thierry Le Chevalier; Giuseppe Sasso; Alain Gerbaulet

2000-01-01

248

Comparative toxicity of Corexit® 7664 to the early life stages of four marine species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of the oil dispersing agent Corexit® 7664 was evaluated using the early life stages of four California marine species: the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), the topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a mysid (Holmesimysis costata), and the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Spiked-exposure, continuous-flow toxicity tests of 48–96 h were performed in triplicate in closed test chambers. Dispersant concentrations were measured by

M. M. Singer; S. George; S. Jacobson; I. Lee; R. S. Tjeerdema; M. L. Sowby

1994-01-01

249

Controlling the Early Stages of Pentacene Growth by Supersonic Molecular Beam Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key role of the pentacene kinetic energy (Ek) in the early stages of growth on SiOx\\/Si is demonstrated: islands with smooth borders and increased coalescence differ remarkably from fractal-like thermal growth. Increasing Ek to 6.4 eV, the morphology evolves towards higher density of smaller islands. At higher coverage, coalescence grows with Ek up to a much more uniform, less

Yu Wu; Tullio Toccoli; Norbert Koch; Erica Iacob; Alessia Pallaoro; Petra Rudolf; Salvatore Iannotta

2007-01-01

250

Posttreatment biopsy results following interstitial brachytherapy in early-stage prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess pathologic control rates for prostatic carcinoma as determined by postimplant prostate biopsy in a large series of consecutive patients who have received permanent interstitial brachytherapy using a contemporary transrectal ultrasound-directed, transperineal, computer generated, volume technique.Methods and Materials: Four hundred and two patients received permanent 125I or 103Pd interstitial brachytherapy as primary treatment for early stage prostatic carcinoma

Bradley R. Prestidge; David C. Hoak; Peter D. Grimm; Haakon Ragde; William Cavanagh; John C. Blasko

1997-01-01

251

Stability of Early-Stage Amyloid-?(1-42) Aggregation Species  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of aggregated amyloid-? protein (A?) is an important feature of Alzheimer’s disease. There is significant interest in understanding the initial steps of A? aggregation due to the recent focus on soluble A? oligomers. In vitro studies of A? aggregation have been aided by the use of conformation-specific antibodies which recognize shape rather than sequence. One of these, OC antiserum, recognizes certain elements of fibrillar A? across a broad range of sizes. We have observed the presence of these fibrillar elements at very early stages of A? incubation. Using a dot blot assay, OC-reactivity was found in size exclusion chromatography (SEC)-purified A?(1-42) monomer fractions immediately after isolation (early-stage). The OC-reactivity was not initially observed in the same fractions for A?(1-40) or the aggregation-restricted A?(1-42) L34P but was detected within 1–2 weeks of incubation. Stability studies demonstrated that early-stage OC-positive A?(1-42) aggregates were resistant to 4M urea or guanidine hydrochloride but sensitive to 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Interestingly, the sensitivity to SDS diminished over time upon incubation of the SEC-purified A?(1-42) solution at 4° C. Within 6–8 days the OC-positive A?42 aggregates were resistance to SDS denaturation. The progression to, and development of, SDS resistance for A?(1-42) occurred prior to thioflavin T fluorescence. In contrast, A?(1-40) aggregates formed after 6 days of incubation were sensitive to both urea and SDS. These findings reveal information on some of the earliest events in A? aggregation and suggest that it may be possible to target early-stage aggregates before they develop significant stability.

Coalier, Kelley A.; Paranjape, Geeta S.; Karki, Sanjib; Nichols, Michael R.

2012-01-01

252

Calreticulin enriched as an early-stage encapsulation protein in wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the molecular mechanism of the early-stage encapsulation reaction in insects, we purified a 47kDa protein from injected beads into Galleria mellonella larvae. When a cDNA clone was isolated, the 47kDa protein showed high homology with Drosophila and human calreticulin. Western blotting analysis showed that the 47kDa protein was present in the hemocytes, but not in the plasma. When

J. Y. Choi; M. M. A. Whitten; M. Y. Cho; K. Y. Lee; M. S. Kim; N. A. Ratcliffe; B. L. Lee

2002-01-01

253

Abnormal amino acid metabolism in patients with early stage Alzheimer dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Plasma levels of several amino acids were studied in 14 patients with early stage probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 17\\u000a age-matched controls. In the AD patients a possible relationship between amino acid levels and behavioural symptomatology\\u000a was also investigated. We found significantly reduced levels of tryptophan and methionine in plasma samples from the AD patients\\u000a compared to the control

D. Fekkes; T. J. M. van der Cammen; C. P. M. van Loon; C. Verschoor; F. van Harskamp; I. de Koning; W. J. Schudel; L. Pepplinkhuizen

1998-01-01

254

New methodology for early-stage, microarchitecture-level power-performance analysis of microprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PowerTimer toolset has been developed for use in early-stage, microarchitecture-level power-performance analysis of microprocessors. The key component of the toolset is a parameterized set of energy functions that can be used in conjunction with any given cycle-accurate microarchitectural simulator. The energy functions model the power consumption of primitive and hierarchically composed building blocks which are used in microarchitecture-level performance

David Brooks; Pradip Bose; Viji Srinivasan; Michael Gschwind; Philip G. Emma; Michael G. Rosenfield

2003-01-01

255

Less invasive treatment associated with improved survival in early stage breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Patients with early stage breast cancer who were treated with lumpectomy plus radiation may have a better chance of survival compared with those who underwent mastectomy, according to a study from Duke Medicine and the Duke Cancer Institute. The study, which appears online Jan. 28, 2013, in the journal CANCER, raises new questions as to the comparative effectiveness of breast-conserving therapies such as lumpectomy, where only the tumor and surrounding tissue is surgically removed.

256

Outcomes following local therapy for early-stage breast cancer in non-trial populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest trends toward more mastectomies for primary breast cancer treatment. We assessed survival after mastectomy\\u000a and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with radiation for early-stage breast cancer among non-selected populations of women and\\u000a among women similar to those in clinical trials. Using population-based data from Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results\\u000a cancer registries linked with Medicare administrative data from 1992 to

Nancy L. KeatingMary; Mary Beth Landrum; John M. Brooks; Elizabeth A. Chrischilles; Eric P. Winer; Kara Wright; Rita Volya

2011-01-01

257

Comparison of Favorable Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatments: A Single-Institution Review  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained. Results: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL (49% men, 51% women, median age 33 [range 17-82] years). Treatment was as follows: extended-field radiotherapy alone (EFRT) 49%; chemotherapy alone (CTA) 13%; and CMT 38%. Among CMT patients, 36% received abbreviated doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy (three to four cycles) followed by involved-field radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 8.3 years, the estimated 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for the entire cohort were 78% and 85%, respectively. The 10-year RFS and OS rates for the various groups were as follows: 69% and 81% for EFRT; 78% and 84% for CTA; and 87% and 89% for CMT. The 10-year RFS rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) among CMT patients. The use of EFRT has diminished from approximately 90% in the 1980s to virtually no use at present, whereas the use of CTA and CMT has increased significantly (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Early-stage HL treatment has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, and our results support the superiority and continued use of CMT, specifically abbreviated-course chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy, as an appropriate treatment approach.

Samant, Rajiv, E-mail: rsamant@ottawahospital.on.c [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Alomary, Ibraheem [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Alsaeed, Eyad [King Faisal Specialty Hospital, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-jasir, Badr [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region (Saudi Arabia); Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cross, Peter; Genest, Paul [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Huebsch, Lothar [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Division of Hematology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

2010-03-15

258

Pregnancies after radical vaginal trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of fertility-preserving surgery in the treatment of early-stage cervical cancer. Study Design: We retrospectively reviewed our first 30 patients treated by laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy, followed by radical vaginal trachelectomy, from October 1991 to April 1998. Results: The median age of the patients was 32 years (range 22-42 years); 15

Michel Roy; Marie Plante

1998-01-01

259

First-Year Recruitment of Largemouth Bass: The Interdependency of Early Life Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four early life events (i.e., hatching, the ontogenetic diet shift to piscivory, fall lipid accumulation, and the first winter) are conceptualized as being critical to 1st-yr recruitment success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) via cause-and-effect as- sociations among them. Toward this end, we conducted a multiple life-stage investigation of largemouth bass to examine the functional dependency and significance to recruitment

Stuart A. Ludsin; Dennis R. DeVries

1997-01-01

260

Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with osseous metaplasia: a rare occurrence possibly associated with early stage?  

PubMed Central

Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of malignant pulmonary tumor, but osseous metaplasia of this tumor is extremely rare. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature worldwide. Here, we report a case of primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma with benign osseous stromal metaplasia in a 60-year-old woman and discuss the pathogenesis of intratumoral ossification and review the relevant literature. We found that pulmonary adenocarcinoma with osseous metaplasia may be more likely to occur in early tumor stages.

Zhang, Qingfu; Yin, Liying; Li, Bo; Meng, Rui; Dao, Runa; Hu, Suxiang; Qiu, Xueshan

2013-01-01

261

Diversity and dynamics of bacterial communities in early life stages of the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examine microbial communities of early developmental stages of the coral Porites astreoides by sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging. Bacteria are associated with the ectoderm layer in newly released planula larvae, in 4-day-old planulae, and on the newly forming mesenteries surrounding developing

Koty H Sharp; Dan Distel; Valerie J Paul

2012-01-01

262

Background and Rationale for Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has undergone substantial transformation over the last several decades,\\u000a from being the sole treatment modality using large treatment fields to adjuvant local therapy directed to limited site(s)\\u000a after systemic therapy. Radiation doses and field sizes have decreased, leading to dramatic reductions in risks of long-term\\u000a complications from radiotherapy compared with the treatments of the

Lena Specht; Andrea K. Ng

263

Nerve growth factor regulates axial rotation during early stages of chick embryo development  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor (NGF) was discovered because of its neurotrophic actions on sympathetic and sensory neurons in the developing chicken embryo. NGF was subsequently found to influence and regulate the function of many neuronal and non neuronal cells in adult organisms. Little is known, however, about the possible actions of NGF during early embryonic stages. However, mRNAs encoding for NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75NTR are expressed at very early stages of avian embryo development, before the nervous system is formed. The question, therefore, arises as to what might be the functions of NGF in early chicken embryo development, before its well-established actions on the developing sympathetic and sensory neurons. To investigate possible roles of NGF in the earliest stages of development, stage HH 11–12 chicken embryos were injected with an anti-NGF antibody (mAb ?D11) that binds mature NGF with high affinity. Treatment with anti-NGF, but not with a control antibody, led to a dose-dependent inversion of the direction of axial rotation. This effect of altered rotation after anti NGF injection was associated with an increased cell death in somites. Concurrently, a microarray mRNA expression analysis revealed that NGF neutralization affects the expression of genes linked to the regulation of development or cell proliferation. These results reveal a role for NGF in early chicken embryo development and, in particular, in the regulation of somite survival and axial rotation, a crucial developmental process linked to left–right asymmetry specification.

Manca, Annalisa; Capsoni, Simona; Di Luzio, Anna; Vignone, Domenico; Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Brandi, Rossella; Arisi, Ivan; Cattaneo, Antonino; Levi-Montalcini, Rita

2012-01-01

264

Diagnosis of second breast cancer events after initial diagnosis of early stage breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether there are any characteristics of women or their initial tumors that might be useful for tailoring surveillance\\u000a recommendations to optimize outcomes. We followed 17,286 women for up to 5 years after an initial diagnosis of ductal carcinoma\\u000a in situ (DCIS) or early stage (I\\/II) invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 1996 and 2006. We calculated rates per 1,000\\u000a women

Diana S. M. Buist; Linn A. Abraham; William E. Barlow; Arun Krishnaraj; Regan C. Holdridge; Edward A. Sickles; Patricia A. Carney; Karla Kerlikowske; Berta M. Geller

2010-01-01

265

Early Stage of Silicon Oxidation Studied by in situ X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a clean silicon surface is oxidized in a UHV chamber and the surface suboxide compositions are analyzed using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that the predominant suboxides are Si2O3 and SiO irrespective of crystallographic orientations in the early stages of oxidation. This is interpreted in terms of a significant number of atomic steps existing

Masaru Takakura; Tsuyoshi Ogura; Tsukasa Hayashi; Masataka Hirose

1988-01-01

266

Environmental aspects of VOCs evolved in the early stages of human decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the time profile, measured as “accumulation”, of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during the early stages of human decomposition was investigated. A human cadaver was placed in a sealed bag at approximately the 4th day after death. Evolved VOCs were monitored for 24 h by sampling at different time intervals. VOCs produced were analyzed by thermal desorption\\/gas chromatography\\/mass

M. Statheropoulos; A. Agapiou; C. Spiliopoulou; G. C. Pallis; E. Sianos

2007-01-01

267

Can wood density be efficiently selected at early stage in maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster Ait.)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and stem straightness are the two main selection criteria in the French maritime pine breeding programme. In this contribution,\\u000a our objective was to study the possibility of selecting for wood density assessed at an early stage. We measured X-ray wood\\u000a density, in three progeny tests, on more than 1 900 breast high increment cores. High relative expected genetic gain

Laurent Bouffier; Céline Charlot; Annie Raffin; Philippe Rozenberg; Antoine Kremer

2008-01-01

268

Detecting physiological and pesticide-induced apoptosis in early developmental stages of invasive bivalves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, embryos and early larval stages of two invasive bivalves, the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), were assayed for physiological apoptosis and stress-induced apoptosis post-exposure to a molluscicide, Bayluscide®. Physiological apoptosis was measured at 4-h intervals and Bayluscide® exposures were 4 h and 24 h beginning at both 30 min post-fertilization and at 24 h post-fertilization. Apoptosis was

Karen Perry; John Lynn

2009-01-01

269

Resource availability shapes microbial motility and mediates early-stage formation of microbial clusters in biological wastewater treatment processes.  

PubMed

Microbial cluster functions as a key unit in biological wastewater treatment. Mechanistic understanding of early-stage microbial clustering, including kinetics of microbial cluster formation and the driving forces, remains largely unclear. We report an experimental observation of resource availability, in terms of dissolved oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen sources, mediating early-stage formation of microbial clusters. We proposed a simple model for quantifying the role of microbial motility mediated by resources availability in early-stage microbial clustering processes. Simulation results reflected that limited resource availability promotes early-stage microbial cluster formation through enhanced microbial motility essential for sufficient foraging. The results indicate that microorganisms prefer a relative clustering growth pattern to disperse mode in resource-limited environment for survival. It provides new insights on early-stage microbial cluster formation and its dynamics that may improve future design and operations in biological wastewater treatment. PMID:23907257

Chen, Guowei; Zhu, Ning; Tang, Zebing; Ye, Peng; Hu, Zhenhu; Liu, Li

2014-02-01

270

Endonasal resection of early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule.  

PubMed

The squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule (SCCNV) is a comparatively rare malignant disease. It occurs in the transition zone at the limen nasi. The choice of treatment for small tumors is a matter of controversy. Due to better cosmetic results, radiation therapy is usually recommended, however some recent reports have suggested that early stage tumors are equally or even more effectively managed by surgery. There was no standardized surgical procedure applied in these studies, though. The goal of our investigation was the retrospective evaluation of patients with a T1 or T2 carcinoma of the nasal vestibule who were treated surgically with an endonasal, endoscope-controlled approach at our ENT clinic between 2008 and 2010. Given the rarity of SCCNV, the 10 included cases represent the largest group of patients with early stage SCCNV treated primarily surgically by an endonasal approach so far. Our study shows that the endonasal resection of an early stage vestibular carcinoma seems adequate as a possible therapy. In the follow-up observation period no local or loco-regional recurrence was observed. The external cosmetic damage and endonasal scarring do not appear to be pronounced even following cartilage resection and were regarded as not seriously disadvantageous. PMID:23974332

Ledderose, Georg J; Reu, Simone; Englhard, Anna S; Krause, Eike

2014-05-01

271

Proapoptotic and survival signaling in the neuroretina at early stages of diabetic retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been classically considered a microcirculatory disease of the retina. However, before any microcirculatory abnormalities can be detected in ophthalmoscopic examination, retinal neurodegeneration is already present. The aim of the study was to analyze proapoptotic and survival signaling in the neuroretinas of diabetic patients at early stages of DR. Methods The retinas from five diabetic donors at early stages of DR were compared with the retinas from five nondiabetic donors matched by age. Glial activation was evaluated by assessing glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) with western blot and immunofluorescence. Proapoptotic molecules (FasL, procaspase-8, active caspase-8, total Bid, truncated Bid, Bim, and active caspase-3), as well as antiapoptotic markers (FLIP, BclxL, and cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2]) were assessed with western blot. Results GFAP and proapoptotic molecules (FasL, active caspase-8, truncated Bid (t-Bid), Bim, and active caspase-3) were significantly increased in the neuroretinas from diabetic patients compared to the control neuroretinas. In contrast, no significant differences in the expression of the antiapoptotic markers were found. Conclusions An imbalance between proapoptotic and survival signaling was found in diabetic neuroretinas. Our results reveal key mechanistic pathways involved in the neurodegenerative process that occurs in the early stages of DR.

Valverde, Angela M.; Miranda, Soledad; Garcia-Ramirez, Marta; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Agueda; Hernandez, Cristina

2013-01-01

272

Characterization of early stage intermediates in the nucleation phase of A? aggregation.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common form of dementia, which is characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques comprising the amyloid ? peptide (A?). Although the mechanism underlying AD pathogenesis remains elusive, accumulating evidence suggests that the process of amyloid fibril formation is a surface-mediated event, which plays an important role in AD onset and progression. In this study, the mechanism of A? aggregation on hydrophobic surfaces was investigated with dual polarization interferometry (DPI), which provides real-time information on early stages of the aggregation process. Aggregation was monitored on a hydrophobic C18 surface and a polar silicon oxynitride surface. The DPI results showed a characteristic A? aggregation pattern involving a decrease in the density of A? at the surface followed by an increase in the thickness on the hydrophobic C18 chip. Most importantly, the DPI measurements provided unique information on the early stages of A? aggregation, which is characterized by the presence of initially slow nucleus formation process followed by exponential fibril elongation. The dimensions of the putative nucleus corresponded to a thickness of ?5 nm for both A?40 and A?42, which may represent about 10-15 molecules. The results thus support the nucleation-dependent polymerization model as indicated by the presence of a nucleation phase followed by an exponential growth phase. These results are the first reported measurements of the real-time changes in A? molecular structure during the early stages of amyloid formation at the nanometer level. PMID:22283417

Zhai, Jiali; Lee, Tzong-Hsien; Small, David H; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel

2012-02-14

273

Promoting Quality and Evidence-Based Care in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Follow-up.  

PubMed

Evidence-based guidelines for long-term follow-up of early-stage breast cancer patients developed by oncology societies in the United States and Europe recommend that breast cancer survivors undergo regular evaluation with history and physical examination, as well as annual mammography. Routine blood tests, circulating tumor markers, and/or surveillance imaging studies beyond mammography are not recommended in the absence of concerning symptoms or physical examination findings because of lack of supportive clinical evidence. Despite these guidelines, studies have shown that 20% to 40% of oncologists assess serum tumor markers as part of routine monitoring of early-stage breast cancer patients. As part of efforts to both address the financial challenges confronting the health-care system and optimize patient outcomes, the American Society of Clinical Oncology's Cost of Care Task Force identified adherence to breast cancer surveillance guidelines as an opportunity to improve care and reduce cost. However, these recommendations are based on trials done in an era of outdated technology and limited therapeutic options. It is possible that recent improvements in diagnostics and treatments could make earlier detection of recurrent disease important for improving both survival and quality of life outcomes. Research is necessary to further inform optimal breast cancer follow-up strategies, which could impact these recommendations. At this time, outside of well-conducted clinical trials, there is no role for ordering routine serial blood or imaging tests in monitoring for recurrence in early-stage breast cancer patients. PMID:24627271

Henry, Lynn N; Hayes, Daniel F; Ramsey, Scott D; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Barlow, William E; Gralow, Julie R

2014-04-01

274

Ontogenetic development in the morphology and behavior of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) during early life stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) are a commercially important fish in China and an ideal aquaculture species. However, culturists experience high larval and juvenile mortality during mass production. To provide insight into ways to improve larviculture techniques, we describe the morphological characteristics and behavior of loach during the larval and early juvenile stages. Yolksac larvae ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 mm body length (BL) between days 0 to 4; preflexion larvae ranged from 3.6 to 5.5 mm BL between days 4 to 6; flexion larvae ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 mm BL between days 5 and 14; and postflexion larvae ranged from 7.1 to 15.7 mm BL between days 11 to 27; the minimum length and age of juveniles was 14.1 mm BL and 23 d, respectively. Loach are demersal from hatch through to the early juvenile stages. A suite of morphological characteristics (e.g., external gill filament and ventral mouth opening) and behavioral traits have developed to adapt to demersal living. We observed positive allometric growth in eye diameter, head length, head height, and pectoral fin length during the early larval stages, reflecting the priorities in the development of the organs essential for survival. Our results provide a basis for developing techniques to improve the survival of larval and juvenile loach during mass production.

Gao, Lei; Duan, Ming; Cheng, Fei; Xie, Songguang

2014-05-01

275

Effects of Losartan on expression of connexins at the early stage of atherosclerosis in rabbits  

PubMed Central

Aim: to investigate effects of Losartan on expression of connexin 40 and 43 (Cx40 and Cx43), in arteries at the early stage of atherosclerosis in a rabbit model. Methods: A total of 28 male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into following groups: control group, high fat diet group, and Losartan group (10 mg/kg/day). Losartan was administrated in food for two weeks. Iliac arteries were obtained for immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, Western blot, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Transmission electron microscopy revealed abundant gap junctions between neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which were markedly reduced by treatment. RT-PCR and Western blot assay showed that the mRNA and protein expression of Cx40 and Cx43 were elevated in the neointimal area at the early stage of atherosclerosis. The mRNA and protein expression of Cx43 were significantly down-regulated by losartan treatment but those of Cx40 were not markedly changed. Conclusion: Cx40 and Cx43 in the neointimal SMCs were up-regulated at the early stage of atherosclerosis. Losartan (an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) could reduce neointima proliferation and down-regulate the elevated protein expression of Cx43, suggesting the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the remodeling of gap junction between ventricular myocytes under pathological conditions.

Ruan, Li-ming; Cai, Wei; Chen, Jun-zhu; Duan, Jin-feng

2010-01-01

276

Early stage expansion and time-resolved spectral emission of laser-induced plasma from polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the nanosecond laser ablation regime, absorption of laser energy by the plasma during its early stage expansion critically influences the properties of the plasma and thus its interaction with ambient air. These influences can significantly alter spectral emission of the plasma. For organic samples especially, recombination of the plasma with the ambient air leads to interfering emissions with respect to emissions due to native species evaporated from the sample. Distinguishing interfering emissions due to ambient air represents a critical issue for the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the analysis of organic materials. In this paper, we report observations of early stage expansion and interaction with ambient air of the plasma induced on a typical organic sample (nylon) using time-resolved shadowgraph. We compare, in the nanosecond ablation regime, plasmas induced by infrared (IR) laser pulses (1064 nm) and ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses (266 nm). Nanosecond ablation is compared with femtosecond ablation where the post-ablation interaction is absent. Subsequent to the early stage expansion, we observe for each studied ablation regime, spectral emission from CN, a typical radical for organic and biological samples. Time-resolved LIBS allows identifying emissions from native molecular species and those due to recombination with ambient air through their different time evolution behaviors.

Boueri, Myriam; Baudelet, Matthieu; Yu, Jin; Mao, Xianglei; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard

2009-09-01

277

Recurrence of Early Stage Colon Cancer Predicted by Expression Pattern of Circulating microRNAs  

PubMed Central

Systemic treatment of patients with early-stage cancers attempts to eradicate occult metastatic disease to prevent recurrence and increased morbidity. However, prediction of recurrence from an analysis of the primary tumor is limited because disseminated cancer cells only represent a small subset of the primary lesion. Here we analyze the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRs) in serum obtained pre-surgically from patients with early stage colorectal cancers. Groups of five patients with and without disease recurrence were used to identify an informative panel of circulating miRs using quantitative PCR of genome-wide miR expression as well as a set of published candidate miRs. A panel of six informative miRs (miR-15a, mir-103, miR-148a, miR-320a, miR-451, miR-596) was derived from this analysis and evaluated in a separate validation set of thirty patients. Hierarchical clustering of the expression levels of these six circulating miRs and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the risk of disease recurrence of early stage colon cancer can be predicted by this panel of miRs that are measurable in the circulation at the time of diagnosis (P?=?0.0026; Hazard Ratio 5.4; 95% CI of 1.9 to 15).

Shivapurkar, Narayan; Weiner, Louis M.; Marshall, John L.; Madhavan, Subha; Deslattes Mays, Anne; Juhl, Hartmut; Wellstein, Anton

2014-01-01

278

Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).  

PubMed

The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae. PMID:24507122

Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

2014-03-01

279

Sentinel node biopsy as an indicator for pelvic nodes dissection in early stage cervical cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of sentinel node frozen biopsy to minimize the extensive pelvic lymph nodes dissection in early stage cervical cancer patients on the basis that the risk of skip metastasis to the paraaortic area is negligible. Twenty-six patients with early stage cervical cancer were enrolled in this study. Technetium-99m colloid albumin (Tc(99m)) was injected intradermally around the tumor for allowing preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative hand-held gama probe detection of seninel nodes. For visual detection, isosulfan blue dye was injected into the peritumoral sites before peritoneal opening. Postoperative morbidity and negative predictive value were the endpoints of this study. The 26 patients, ranging in age from 32 to 71 yr, underwent intraoperative sentinel nodes mapping. All the patients underwent complete pelvic lymph nodes dissection including para-aortic nodes. There was one case with positive non-sentinel nodes despite the negative sentinel node by frozen biopsy (negative predictive value, 95.2%). This new technique of sentinel node mapping is safe and simple to perform. Further clinical trials using the combination of Tc(99m) and isosulfan blue dye are warranted and this technique will make a true advance for less aggressive management of patients with early stage cervical cancer. PMID:12172047

Rhim, Chae-Chun; Park, Jong-Sup; Bae, Seog-Nyeon; Namkoong, Sung-Eun

2002-08-01

280

Toxicity of chlorine dioxide to early life stages of marine organisms  

SciTech Connect

With increasing interest in minimizing exposure to chlorine, many electric generating and water treatment plants are exploring the use of alternative biocides such as chlorine dioxide. Unlike chlorine, chlorine dioxide does not react with ambient organic compounds to form potentially carcinogenic trihalomethanes such as chloroform. However, the toxicity of chlorine dioxide to aquatic organisms has received little study. No information exists on chlorine toxicity to marine organisms. Furthermore, West Coast electric power stations usually discharge chlorine intermittently once or twice daily and substantial mixing of receiving water occurs between treatments. Therefore, this study sought to obtain information on chlorine dioxide toxicity using an exposure schedule typical of generating stations which discharge into the marine environment. Early life history stages of a plant, invertebrate and fish were tested since these stages are generally acknowledged to be most sensitive to toxicants and are the stages that are most likely to be exposed to the effluent.

Hose, J.E.; Di Fiore, D.; Parker, H.S.; Sciarrotta, T.

1989-03-01

281

Less Radical Surgery for Patient With Early-Stage Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Surgery in cervical cancer should be used with intention of cure. Radical abdominal trachelectomy is a feasible operation for selected patients with stage I?-1? cervical cancer which fertility can be preserved. Case Report A 30-years-old woman with squamous cell cervical cancer stage (1 A II) diagnosed at September 2011 expressed a wish for fertility-sparing treatment. Radical abdominal hysterectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy were performed which showed no evidence of lymphatic metastasis. Subsequently, at last follow-up (5 months post-surgery), good oncologic outcomes were found after this procedure. This was the first case of fertility-sparing radical trachelectomy procedures performed at our institution. Conclusions Trachelectomy represents a valuable conservative surgical approach for early stage invasive cervical cancer.

Yousefi, Zohreh; Kazemianfar, Zahra; Kadghodayan, Sima; Hasanzade, Malieheh; Kalantari, Mahmoudreza; Mottaghi, Mansoureh

2013-01-01

282

A comparison of seed banks across a sand dune successional gradient at Lake Michigan dunes (Indiana, USA)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In habitats where disturbance is frequent, seed banks are important for the regeneration of vegetation. Sand dune systems are dynamic habitats in which sand movement provides intermittent disturbance. As succession proceeds from bare sand to forest, the disturbance decreases. At Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, we examined the seed banks of three habitat types across a successional gradient: foredunes, secondary dunes, and oak savanna. There were differences among the types of species that germinated from each of the habitats. The mean seed bank density increased across the successional gradient by habitat, from 376 to 433 to 968 seeds m-2, but with foredune and secondary dune seed bank densities being significantly lower than the savanna seed bank density. The number of seeds germinated was significantly correlated with soil organic carbon, demonstrating for this primary successional sequence that seed density increases with stage and age. The seed bank had much lower species richness than that of the aboveground vegetation across all habitats. Among sites within a habitat type, the similarity of species germinated from the seed banks was very low, illustrating the variability of the seed bank even in similar habitat types. These results suggest that restoration of these habitats cannot rely on seed banks alone. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Leicht-Young, S. A.; Pavlovic, N. B.; Grundel, R.; Frohnapple, K. J.

2009-01-01

283

Treatment of early stage breast cancer by limited surgery and radical irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Eighty-five female patients with early stage breast cancer, i.e., Stage I and II were treated by limited surgery followed by radical radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between January, 1956 and December, 1974. Patients included those who were medically inoperable or who refused mastectomy. The 5-year survival rate was 83% and 76% for Stage I and II, respectively. The corresponding disease free survival (absolute) was 67% and 42%. Although the number of patients so treated is small, there was no significant difference in survival from the results of the radical mastectomy series at the same institution. No major complications were encountered. Seventeen of eighty-five patients developed minor problems; mostly fibrosis and minimal arm lymphedema stemmming from older orthovoltage equipment and treatment techniques. With the current availability of megavoltage equipment, improvements in techniques and dosimetry, complications should decrease. Combined limited surgery and radical radiation therapy should be considered in those patients where a radical mastectomy is not feasible because of psychological or medical problems. Since this procedure results in a cosmetically acceptable breast, radical radiation in early stage breast cancer seems a reasonable alternative to radical mastectomy.

Chu, A.M.; Cope, O.; Russo, R.; Wang, C.C.; Schulz, M.D.; Wang, C.; Rodkey, G.

1980-01-01

284

Toxicity of dispersed weathered crude oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).  

PubMed

Reports of the chronic toxicity of dispersed crude oil to early life stages of fish perpetuate uncertainty about dispersant use. However, realistic exposures to dispersed oil in the water column are thought to be much briefer than exposures associated with chronic toxicity testing. To address this issue, the toxicity of dispersed weathered oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) was tested for short exposure durations, ranging from 1 to 144 h. Toxicity was a function of concentration and duration of exposure, as well as of the life stage exposed. Medium South American crude oil dispersed with Corexit 9500 caused blue sac disease in embryos, but not in free-swimming embryos. The age of embryos was negatively correlated with their sensitivity to oil; those freshly fertilized were most sensitive. Sensitivity increased after hatch, with free-swimming embryos showing signs of narcosis. Gametes were also tested; dispersed oil dramatically impaired fertilization success. For exposures of less than 24 h, gametes and free-swimming embryos were the most sensitive life stages. For those of more than 24 h, young embryos (<1 d old) were most sensitive. The results are presented as statistical models that could assist decisions about dispersant use in the vicinity of fish spawning habitats. PMID:20821553

McIntosh, Stephen; King, Tom; Wu, Dongmei; Hodson, Peter V

2010-05-01

285

Fertility-Preserving Surgery in Patients with Early Stage Cervical Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Fertility preservation is an important issue for patients in reproductive age with early stage cervical cancer. In view of recent developments, our purpose was to review and discuss available surgical alternatives. A literature search was conducted using PUBMED, including papers between 1980 and December 2011. In patients with stage IA1 cervical cancer, conization is a valid alternative. Patients with stage IA2-IB1 disease can be conservatively treated by radical trachelectomy. This is as well-established conservative approach and appears to be safe and effective in allowing a high chance of conception. Prematurity is the most serious issue in pregnancies following trachelectomy. Less invasive options such as simple trachelectomy or conization seem to be feasible for stages IA2-IB1, but more and better evidence is needed. Neoadjuvant therapy might allow conservative surgery to be performed also in patients with more extensive lesions. Ovarian transposition is important when adjuvant radiation is needed. In conclusion, available literature shows that there are interesting fertility-sparing treatment alternatives to the “golden standard” for the management of early cervical cancer in young women.

Kardakis, Spyridon

2012-01-01

286

Early stage domain coarsening of the isotropic-nematic phase transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study numerically the early stage domain coarsening dynamics of the temperature driven isotropic-nematic (I-N) liquid crystal phase transition. System of rod like objects which interact via the modified Lebwohl-Lasher pairwise interaction is considered in 3D. The coarsening dynamics is followed using Brownian molecular dynamics. The box-restricted lattice point fluctuations are allowed in order to get rid of lattice geometry enforced phenomena. We analyze order parameter growth and domain coarsening in the early regime of the I-N phase transition as a function of the quench rate. We show that soon after the transition bimodal distribution of domains appears, where the shorter branch gradually vanishes. The behavior of the system is in accordance with predictions of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism which was originally introduced to model conditions in the early universe.

Brada?, Z.; Kralj, Samo; Žumer, S.

2011-07-01

287

Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

2009-01-01

288

Outcomes following local therapy for early-stage breast cancer in non-trial populations  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest trends toward more mastectomies for primary breast cancer treatment. We assessed survival after mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with radiation for early-stage breast cancer among non-selected populations of women and among women similar to those in clinical trials. Using population-based data from Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries linked with Medicare administrative data from 1992 to 2005, we conducted propensity score analysis of survival following primary therapy for early-stage breast cancer, including BCS with radiation, BCS without radiation, mastectomy with radiation, and mastectomy without radiation. Adjusted survival was greatest among women who had BCS with radiation (median survival = 10.98 years). Compared with this group, mortality was higher among women who had mastectomy without radiation (median survival 10.04 years, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14–1.23), mastectomy with radiation (median survival 10.02 years, HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.14–1.27), and BCS without radiation (median survival 7.63 years, HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.70–1.92). Among women representative of those eligible for clinical trials (age ?70 years, Charlson comorbidity score = 0/1, and stage 1 tumors), there were no differences in survival for women who underwent BCS with radiation or mastectomy. In conclusion, after careful adjustment for differences in patient, physician, and hospital characteristics, we found better survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among older early-stage breast cancer patients, with no difference in survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among women representative of those in clinical trials. These findings are reassuring in light of recent trends towards more aggressive primary breast cancer therapy.

Keating, Nancy L.; Landrum, Mary Beth; Brooks, John M.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Winer, Eric P.; Wright, Kara; Volya, Rita

2010-01-01

289

Understanding the management of early-stage chronic kidney disease in primary care: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Primary care is recognised to have an important role in the delivery of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is evidence that CKD management is currently suboptimal, with a range of practitioner concerns about its management. Aim To explore processes underpinning the implementation of CKD management in primary care. Design and setting Qualitative study in general practices participating in a chronic kidney disease collaborative undertaken as part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses (n = 21). Normalisation Process Theory provided a framework for generation and analysis of the data. Results A predominant theme was anxiety about the disclosure of early-stage CKD with patients. The tensions experienced related to identifying and discussing CKD in older people and patients with stage 3A, embedding early-stage CKD within vascular care, and the distribution of work within the practice team. Participants provided accounts of work undertaken to resolve the difficulties encountered, with efforts having tended to focus on reassuring patients. Analysis also highlighted how anxiety surrounding disclosure influenced, and was shaped by, the organisation of care for people with CKD and associated long-term conditions. Conclusion Offering reassurance alone may be of limited benefit, and current management of early-stage CKD in primary care may miss opportunities to address susceptibility to kidney injury, improve self-management of vascular conditions, and improve the management of multimorbidity.

Blakeman, Tom; Protheroe, Joanne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne

2012-01-01

290

Narrowband Ultraviolet B Phototherapy of Early Stage Mycosis Fungoides in Korean Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Narrowband UVB (NBUVB) is currently used to treat early mycosis fungoides (MF). There are a number of reports on the efficacy and safety of NBUVB in Caucasians, but little data is available for Asians. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of NBUVB for early stage MF in Korean patients. Methods We enrolled 14 patients (12 men, 2 women; age range, 10~64 years) with clinically and histologically proven MF. Three patients were stage IA, and the others were stage IB. The patients received NBUVB phototherapy three times a week. The starting dose was 70% of the minimal erythema dose and was increased in 20 percent increments if the previous treatment did not cause erythema. Clinical response, total number of treatments, total cumulative dose, duration of remission and side effects were investigated. Results Eleven of 14 patients (78.6%) achieved complete remission within a mean of 15.36±5.71 weeks (range, 5~27 weeks), 31.0±7.4 treatments (range, 16~39 treatments) and a mean cumulative UVB dose of 31.31±12.16 J/cm2 (range, 11.4~46.8 J/cm2). Three of the 14 patients (21.4%) achieved a partial remission. After discontinuation of treatment, 6 of 11 patients (54.5%) with complete remission relapsed after a mean of 8.5±4.09 months. No serious adverse effects were observed except for hyperpigmentation (7/14, 50%). Conclusion Our data suggest that NBUVB therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of early stage MF in Korean patients.

Jang, Min Soo; Baek, Jae Woo; Park, Jong Bin; Kang, Dong Young; Kang, Jin Seuk; Suh, Kee Suck

2011-01-01

291

Hallux abductus interphalangeus in normal feet, early-stage hallux limitus, and hallux valgus.  

PubMed

Background : Excessive deviation of the distal phalanx in abduction frequently occurs in advanced stages of hallux rigidus but not in hallux valgus. Therefore, theoretically there should be no significant differences in the hallux interphalangeal angle (HIPA) between individuals with normal feet, those with hallux valgus, and those with mild hallux limitus. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if significant differences in HIPA exist in the early stages of hallux valgus or hallux limitus deformities. Methods : The hallux interphalangeal angle was measured in three groups of participants: a control group with normal feet (45 participants), a hallux valgus group (49 participants), and a hallux limitus group (48 participants). Both of the pathologies were at an early stage. A dorsoplantar radiograph under weightbearing conditions was taken for each individual, and measurements (HIPA and hallux abductus angle [HAA]) were taken using AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, California) software. Intergroup comparisons of HIPA, and correlations between HIPA, HAA, and hallux dorsiflexion were calculated. Results : The comparisons revealed no significant differences in the values of HIPA between any of the groups (15.2 ± 5.9 degrees in the control group, 15.5 ± 3.9 degrees in the hallux valgus group, and 16.15 ± 4.3 in the hallux limitus group; P ?=? 0.634). The Pearson correlation coefficients in particular showed no correlation between hallux dorsiflexion, HAA, and HIPA. Conclusions : For the study participants, there were similar deviations of the distal phalanx of the hallux with respect to the proximal phalanx in normal feet and in feet with the early stages of the hallux limitus and hallux valgus deformities. PMID:24725037

Castillo-Lopez, Jose M; Ramos-Ortega, Javier; Reina-Bueno, Maria; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Palomo-Toucedo, Inmaculada C; Munuera, Pedro V

2014-03-01

292

Therapeutic Comparison of Chemotherapy and Surgery for Early Stage Diffuse Large B-cell Gastric Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose The use of surgery versus stomach-preserving treatment for primary gastric lymphoma has caused controversy among doctors. This retrospective, single center study aims to evaluate the efficacy and benefit of stomach-preserving treatment against surgery for early stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of stomach. Materials and Methods From August 1991 to January 2006, 43 cases of early-stage diffuse large B-cell gastric lymphoma were reviewed. Results Eleven cases were treated with chemotherapy or chemotherapy plus radiation (CT ± RT), 17 were treated with surgery alone (OP), and 15 were treated with surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (OP + CT). The complete remission and response rates were 63.6% and 90.9% in those treated with CT ± RT (7 complete responders, 3 partial responders, 1 non-responder), 100% and 100% in those treated with OP, and 100% and 100% in those treated with OP + CT, respectively. Five-year overall survival rates were 85.7%, 87.5%, and 100% in those treated by CT ± RT, OP, and OP + CT, respectively (p = 0.76). The five-year disease free survival rates were 100%, 87.5% and 100% in those treated by CT ± RT, OP, and OP + CT, respectively (p = 0.99). There was no significant difference in overall survival and disease free survival between modalities. Even though there are no definite differences in the number of complications between those treated by CT ± RT or OP, these facts reflect little concern on complications after surgery. Conclusion In preventing morbidity arising from early or late complications from surgery and promoting quality of life, chemotherapy should be a primary consideration for early stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the stomach.

Kim, Soo-Jeong; Cheong, June-Won

2007-01-01

293

Towards Characterizing Early-stage SEP Fluxes with High-Cadence EUV Coronal Shock Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in space-based solar observing have enabled unprecedented access to high-cadence, high-resolution observations of the coronal dynamics. This is extremely important, since transient phenomena in the corona usually cover multiple scales - from the current spatial resolution limit in the case of reconnection, to several solar radii in the case of coronal waves and mass ejections. The latter are also thought to drive shocks in the corona, which in turn have been shown capable of accelerating protons, electrons, and other species up to GeV energies in a matter of tens of minutes. These solar energetic particles (SEPs) are a prime source of space weather. Historically, it has been notoriously difficult to extract information about energetic particle spectra in the corona, due to the lack of in situ measurements. It is possible, however, to use remote observations in order to deduce coronal shock dynamics and related particle spectra, with some reasonable assumptions. We present an effort towards building a framework for estimating coronal SEP spectra in the early stages of real CME events, based on a combination of fast-cadence extreme ultraviolet imaging (from the SDO/AIA instrument), potential coronal magnetic field models, and differential emission measure models. The ultimate goal for this framework is to give predictions for early-stage SEP spectra for various source populations and coronal turbulence levels. It is designed in a modular fashion, and may be adapted for near real time use. This system can be applied for early warning and predicting the severity of the impulsive early stages of SEP events.

Kozarev, Kamen A.; Raymond, John C.; Hammer, Michael

2014-06-01

294

Induction therapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Data from adjuvant trials clearly indicate that one of the most important problems in patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is compliance to chemotherapy. In the postoperative setting, significant comorbidities and incomplete recovery after surgery often make it difficult for patients to tolerate or comply with systemic therapy. Therefore, it may be preferable to deliver chemotherapy before surgery as "neoadjuvant" or "induction" chemotherapy. The rationale for using induction chemotherapy is based on evidence that chemotherapy might reduce tumor burden and possess activity against micrometastases, resulting in improved results by surgery, radiotherapy, or a combination. Moreover, induction therapy facilitates in vivo assessment of tumor response or resistance. Potential drawbacks include the risk of perioperative complications, and the possibility that the tumor mass may become unresectable due to disease progression. During the past decade, four phase III randomized trials evaluated the role of induction chemotherapy in stage IIIA NSCLC. The first three studies consistently showed that induction chemotherapy improves survival compared with surgery alone. More recently, a large phase III trial performed by French investigators suggested a survival benefit in stage I/II patients, but not stage IIIA. The high activity of new platinum-based chemotherapy--based on response rate and 1-year survival in advanced disease--reinforces the rationale for the use of these new combinations in early-stage NSCLC, especially for a subset of patients traditionally treated with surgery alone. Several phase III trials are currently evaluating the role of new doublets as induction chemotherapy; these are discussed in the article. The results of these ongoing phase III trials should help clarify the role of induction chemotherapy in early-stage disease. PMID:15339057

Cappuzzo, Federico; Bartolini, Stefania; Calandri, Cesare; Crinò, Lucio

2004-07-01

295

Treatment Outcomes After Radiotherapy Alone for Patients With Early-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the treatment outcomes of patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy (RT) alone and discuss the effects of different T and N stages on the prognosis. Methods and Materials: The clinical data from 362 early-stage (T1-T2N0-N1M0, 1992 Fuzhou, China staging system) nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who had undergone RT alone between January 1999 and December 2001 and were hospitalized in the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University were collected and reviewed. Results: The median follow-up was 70 months. The 5-year overall survival rate for the whole group was 85%. The 5-year overall survival rate of those with T1N0, T2N0, and T1N1 was 96.6%, 91.3%, and 85.8%, respectively, with no statistically significant difference detected among the three groups (p > .05). However, the 5-year overall survival rate of 73.1% for those with Stage T2N1 was significantly different from that of the former three groups. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival and 5-year regional recurrence-free survival rates among the four groups was not significantly different (p < .05). The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rate of those with Stage T1N0, T2N0, and T1N1 was 94.9%, 97.5%, and 95.6%, respectively, without any significant differences (p > .05); however, the 81.2% rate for those with Stage T2N1 was significantly different (p < .05). Conclusion: RT alone for Stage T1N0, T2N0, and T1N1 yielded satisfactory results. The outcome for those with T2N1 was obviously poorer than that for the other three groups. The main reason for treatment failure in this group was distant metastasis. Patients who have a high risk of distant metastasis in the T2N1 group may need combined treatment instead of RT alone.

Xiao Weiwei; Han Fei [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lu Taixiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: ice_vivi@126.com; Chen, C.-Y.; Huang Ying; Zhao Chong [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

2009-07-15

296

Bcl-2 Expression Identifies an Early Stage of Myogenesis and Promotes Clonal Expansion of Muscle Cells  

PubMed Central

We show that Bcl-2 expression in skeletal muscle cells identifies an early stage of the myogenic pathway, inhibits apoptosis, and promotes clonal expansion. Bcl-2 expression was limited to a small proportion of the mononucleate cells in muscle cell cultures, ranging from ?1–4% of neonatal and adult mouse muscle cells to ?5–15% of the cells from the C2C12 muscle cell line. In rapidly growing cultures, some of the Bcl-2–positive cells coexpressed markers of early stages of myogenesis, including desmin, MyoD, and Myf-5. In contrast, Bcl-2 was not expressed in multinucleate myotubes or in those mononucleate myoblasts that expressed markers of middle or late stages of myogenesis, such as myogenin, muscle regulatory factor 4 (MRF4), and myosin. The small subset of Bcl-2–positive C2C12 cells appeared to resist staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, though myogenic cells from genetically Bcl-2–null mice formed myotubes normally, the muscle colonies produced by cloned Bcl-2–null cells contained only about half as many cells as the colonies produced by cells from wild-type mice. This result suggests that, during clonal expansion from a muscle progenitor cell, the number of progeny obtained is greater when Bcl-2 is expressed.

Dominov, Janice A.; Dunn, Jonathan J.; Miller, Jeffrey Boone

1998-01-01

297

Efficient and rapid isolation of early-stage embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.  

PubMed

In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays. PMID:23770918

Raissig, Michael T; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

2013-01-01

298

Diversity and dynamics of bacterial communities in early life stages of the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides.  

PubMed

In this study, we examine microbial communities of early developmental stages of the coral Porites astreoides by sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging. Bacteria are associated with the ectoderm layer in newly released planula larvae, in 4-day-old planulae, and on the newly forming mesenteries surrounding developing septa in juvenile polyps after settlement. Roseobacter clade-associated (RCA) bacteria and Marinobacter sp. are consistently detected in specimens of P. astreoides spanning three early developmental stages, two locations in the Caribbean and 3 years of collection. Multi-response permutation procedures analysis on the TRFLP results do not support significant variation in the bacterial communities associated with P. astreoides larvae across collection location, collection year or developmental stage. The results are the first evidence of vertical transmission (from parent to offspring) of bacteria in corals. The results also show that at least two groups of bacterial taxa, the RCA bacteria and Marinobacter, are consistently associated with juvenile P. astreoides against a complex background of microbial associations, indicating that some components of the microbial community are long-term associates of the corals and may impact host health and survival. PMID:22113375

Sharp, Koty H; Distel, Dan; Paul, Valerie J

2012-04-01

299

Pesticides in urban streams and early life stages of Pacific coho salmon.  

PubMed

Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams and are believed to be primarily the result of homeowner use. Although concentrations in most cases are low (<1?µg/L), there is concern that pesticide inputs threaten efforts to restore and enhance salmon habitat. The authors exposed early life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of those pesticides most frequently reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Life stages were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail simulating those in urban streams in fall and winter when coho salmon eggs and sac fry are present. Nominal concentrations of eight herbicides, two insecticides, a fungicide, and a breakdown product were the maximum detected. Fertilization, hatching success, survival, deformities, and growth of fry were not significantly affected. A reduction in fertilization success (19-25%) was not reproducible even when gametes were exposed to 100 times the maximum concentrations detected. Based on the end points examined in the present study, the results suggest that direct exposure to the pesticides most frequently detected in urban streams in western Washington does not impair early life stages of coho salmon and is not a major factor governing the recovery of salmon populations. The extent to which pesticide exposure would affect smoltification, outmigration, and ocean survival needs to be determined. PMID:23297254

King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J

2013-04-01

300

Diversity and dynamics of bacterial communities in early life stages of the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examine microbial communities of early developmental stages of the coral Porites astreoides by sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging. Bacteria are associated with the ectoderm layer in newly released planula larvae, in 4-day-old planulae, and on the newly forming mesenteries surrounding developing septa in juvenile polyps after settlement. Roseobacter clade-associated (RCA) bacteria and Marinobacter sp. are consistently detected in specimens of P. astreoides spanning three early developmental stages, two locations in the Caribbean and 3 years of collection. Multi-response permutation procedures analysis on the TRFLP results do not support significant variation in the bacterial communities associated with P. astreoides larvae across collection location, collection year or developmental stage. The results are the first evidence of vertical transmission (from parent to offspring) of bacteria in corals. The results also show that at least two groups of bacterial taxa, the RCA bacteria and Marinobacter, are consistently associated with juvenile P. astreoides against a complex background of microbial associations, indicating that some components of the microbial community are long-term associates of the corals and may impact host health and survival.

Sharp, Koty H; Distel, Dan; Paul, Valerie J

2012-01-01

301

Autonomic function in the early stage of panic disorder: power spectral analysis of heart rate variability.  

PubMed

Previous studies of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in panic disorder (PD) patients have yielded conflicting results. We speculate that these differences might result from the variety of clinical stages of PD. In order to investigate this, we compared ANS activity in untreated patients in the early stage of PD with control subjects using power spectral analysis of electrocardiogram R-R intervals (PSR-R) in supine rest and during head-up tilt, which was performed according to the maximum entropy method (MEM). It recognizes two main components: high-frequency power (HF), which mainly reflects cardiac parasympathetic activity, and low-frequency power (LF), which reflects both cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. The patients with PD had significantly higher values for all components of PSR-R only in tilt position total power (TP), LF, and HF than did the control subjects (P<0.01, <0.01, <0.02, respectively). However, the LF/HF ratio which indicated sympathovagal balance did not differ significantly between the two groups in tilt position. Our findings suggest that patients with PD in the early stage of illness have co-activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which might act to maintain a balance between the two autonomic systems. PMID:10687748

Ito, T; Inoue, Y; Sugihara, T; Yamada, H; Katayama, S; Kawahara, R

1999-12-01

302

Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin.  

PubMed

Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered. PMID:24962806

Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S; Di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A; Bianconi, Antonio

2014-01-01

303

Measurement of the human esophageal cancer in an early stage with Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The esophageal cancer has a tendency to transfer to another part of the body and the surgical operation itself sometimes gives high risk in vital function because many delicate organs exist near the esophagus. So the esophageal cancer is a disease with a high mortality. So, in order to lead a higher survival rate five years after the cancer's treatment, the investigation of the diagnosis methods or techniques of the cancer in an early stage and support the therapy are required. In this study, we performed the ex vivo experiments to obtain the Raman spectra from normal and early-stage tumor (stage-0) human esophageal sample by using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are collected by the homemade Raman spectrometer with the wavelength of 785 nm and Raman probe with 600-um-diameter. The principal component analysis (PCA) is performed after collection of spectra to recognize which materials changed in normal part and cancerous pert. After that, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is performed to predict the tissue type. The result of PCA indicates that the tumor tissue is associated with a decrease in tryptophan concentration. Furthermore, we can predict the tissue type with 80% accuracy by LDA which model is made by tryptophan bands.

Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ishigaki, Mika; Taketani, Akinori; Andriana, Bibin B.; Ishihara, Ryu; Sato, Hidetoshi

2014-02-01

304

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Only Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Background: We report the results of a single-institution, phase II trial of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using a single dose of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) in patients with low-risk early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 226 patients with low-risk, early stage breast cancer were treated with local excision and axillary management (sentinel node biopsy with or without axillary node dissection). After the surgeon temporarily reapproximated the excision cavity, a dose of 21 Gy using IOERT was delivered to the tumor bed, with a margin of 2 cm laterally. Results: With a mean follow-up of 46 months (range, 28-63 months), only 1 case of local recurrence was reported. The observed toxicity was considered acceptable. Conclusions: APBI using a single dose of IOERT can be delivered safely in women with early, low-risk breast cancer in carefully selected patients. A longer follow-up is needed to ascertain its efficacy compared to that of the current standard treatment of whole-breast irradiation.

Maluta, Sergio [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Dall'Oglio, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.dalloglio@ospedaleuniverona.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Marciai, Nadia; Gabbani, Milena [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Franchini, Zeno [Department of Surgery 1, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Surgery 1, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Pietrarota, Paolo [Department of Surgery 2, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Surgery 2, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Meliado, Gabriele; Guariglia, Stefania; Cavedon, Carlo [Department of Health Physics, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)] [Department of Health Physics, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)

2012-10-01

305

Changes in activity of free radical oxidation processes in the early stages of BCG granulomatosis.  

PubMed

We studied the intensity of free radical oxidation in the liver and activity of oxidative metabolism in mouse peritoneal exudate phagocytes at the early stages of chronic generalized BCG-induced granulomatosis (days 3 and 30 after a single intraperitoneal or intravenous administration of 0.5 mg of BCG vaccine). It was found that both methods of injection did not change the intensity of free radical lipid peroxidation in the liver in comparison with the control, but activity of free radical oxidation mediated by production of hydrogen peroxide was increased in the liver and peritoneal exudate at the stages of mature granuloma formation (day 30). At the same time, intraperitoneal injection contributed to more pronounced activation of lipid peroxidation and synthesis of hydrogen peroxide in the liver. PMID:23330128

Shkurupiy, V A; Menshchikova, E B; Tkachev, V O; Zenkov, N K

2012-12-01

306

Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR) over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.

Brooks, John M.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Landrum, Mary Beth; Wright, Kara B.; Fang, Gang; Winer, Eric P.; Keating, Nancy L.

2012-01-01

307

Survival implications associated with variation in mastectomy rates for early-staged breast cancer.  

PubMed

Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR) over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach. PMID:22928097

Brooks, John M; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Landrum, Mary Beth; Wright, Kara B; Fang, Gang; Winer, Eric P; Keating, Nancy L

2012-01-01

308

Early stage endometrial carcinoma--a study of management and outcome.  

PubMed

The surgical management of early stage endometrial carcinoma is controversial. The benefits of pelvic lymphadenectomy and administration of radiotherapy in this group have been disputed. We aimed to document the experience of stage 1 endometrial carcinoma at the National Maternity Hospital during the 10 year period 1989-1998 and to evaluate and compare clinical outcomes between retrospectively-assigned low and high-risk tumour groups. Seventy seven women were diagnosed with Stage 1 endometrial carcinoma in this period. Thirty-nine women had low-risk and 38 had high-risk tumours. Women with high-risk tumours were older and had a higher rate of lymph-vascular space invasion by tumour on histological examination. Three women (3.9%) developed disease recurrence and died of their disease; one low-risk and two high-risk tumour patients. Survival without recurrence did not differ between the two risk groups. No consistent pattern existed in surgical staging between the two risk groups. A prospectively-assigned definition of risk would minimise variations in clinical practice by providing a basis for a more tailored approach to adjuvant treatments. PMID:18277731

Burke, C; Foley, M; Lenehan, P; Kelehan, P; Flannelly, G

2007-01-01

309

Miniprobe Endoscopic Ultrasonography Has Limitations in Determining the T Stage in Early Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Mini-probe endoscopic ultrasonography (mEUS) is a useful diagnostic tool for accurate assessment of tumor invasion. The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of mEUS in patients with early colorectal cancer (ECC). Methods Ninety lesions of ECC underwent mEUS for pre-treatment staging. We divided the lesions into either the mucosal group or the submucosal group according to the mEUS findings. The histological results of the specimens were compared with the mEUS findings. Results The overall accuracy for assessing the depth of tumor invasion (T stage) was 84.4% (76/90). The accuracy of mEUS was significantly lower for submucosal lesions compared to mucosal lesions (p=0.003) and it was lower for large tumors (?2 cm) (p=0.034). The odds ratios of large tumors and submucosal tumors affecting the accuracy of T staging were 3.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 11.39) and 6.25 (95% CI, 1.85 to 25.14), respectively. When submucosal tumors were combined with large size, the odds ratio was 14.67 (95% CI, 1.46 to 146.96). Conclusions The overall accuracy of T stage determination with mEUS was considerably high in patients with ECC; however, the accuracy decreased when tumor size was >2 cm or the tumor had invaded the submucosal layer.

Tsung, Pei Chuan; Park, Jong Hyeok; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Won Wo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, Jin Nam; Kang, Yun Kyung; Moon, Jeong Seop

2013-01-01

310

Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).  

PubMed

Summary The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture. PMID:23534899

Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

2014-08-01

311

Supradiaphragmatic early stage Hodgkin's disease: does mantle radiation therapy still have a role?  

PubMed

Extended field radiation therapy represents the main therapeutic option in early stage Hodgkin's disease with favorable prognostic features. Its role however has recently been criticized, mainly due to the high incidence of late complications in irradiated tissues. Furthermore, surgical staging, which in the opinion of many is mandatory for proper selection of patients for radiotherapy alone, has a well-known morbidity, and splenectomy has been associated with a high risk of secondary leukemias. Lastly, the failure rate after radiotherapy only is not negligible and second-line treatment is not always successful. A review of our experience and of the recent literature has allowed us to refute these objections. The results of radiotherapy, when properly performed, are highly reliable and have been reproducible in many Institutions. Chemotherapy alone cannot yet be regarded as an alternative to radiotherapy in these patients since data reported on this issue are conflicting. Present knowledge regarding the relationship between clinical features and the risk of occult subdiaphragmatic spread allows patients with localized disease to be selected without surgical staging; the results of radiotherapy in clinically staged patients confirm this statement. Concern for the late effects in irradiated tissues is justified, and future efforts should be directed at reducing the toxicity of this treatment. Associating a short chemotherapy course with low-dose radiotherapy to involved sites could help to achieve this goal. PMID:8641642

Frezza, G; Barbieri, E; Zinzani, P L; Babini, L; Tura, S

1996-01-01

312

Defining the Role of PET-CT in Staging Early Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Currently, there is a lack of data on the role of combined positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET–CT) in the staging of early invasive primary breast cancer. We therefore evaluated the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-PET–CT in this patient population. Methods. We prospectively recruited 70 consecutive patients (69 women, one man; mean age, 61.9 ± 8.1 years) with early primary breast cancer for staging with 18F-FDG-PET–CT. All PET–CT images were interpreted by two readers (independently of each other). A third reader adjudicated any discrepancies. All readers had ?5 years of specific experience. Ethics board approval and informed consent were obtained. Results. The mean clinical follow-up was 22.7 ± 12.6 months. The primary tumor was identified with PET–CT in 64 of 70 patients. Of the unidentified lesions, surgical pathology revealed two intraductal carcinomas, one invasive tubular carcinoma, and three invasive lobular carcinomas. Undiagnosed multifocal breast disease was shown in seven of 70 patients. PET–CT identified avid axillary lymph nodes in 19 of 70 patients, compared with 24 of 70 confirmed during surgery. There were four patients who were axillary node positive on PET but had no axillary disease at surgery. Five patients were reported with avid metastases. Two of those patients were treated for metastatic disease (nodal, lung, and liver in one and bone metastases in the other) following further imaging and clinical assessment. In the other three patients, lesions (lung, n = 1; pleural, n = 1; paratrachael node, n = 1) were subsequently diagnosed as benign lesions. Conclusion. Integrated 18F-FDG-PET–CT may have a role in staging patients presenting with early breast cancer.

Shastry, Manu; Ben-Haim, Simona; Kayani, Irfan; Malhotra, Anmol; Davidson, Timothy; Kelleher, Tina; Whittaker, Diane; Meagher, Marie; Holloway, Brian; Warren, Ruth M.; Ell, Peter J.; Keshtgar, Mohammed R.

2012-01-01

313

Depressive Symptoms are Increased in the Early Perimenopausal Stage in Ethnically Diverse HIV+ and HIV- Women  

PubMed Central

Objective The risk of clinically significant depressive symptoms increases during the perimenopause. With highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), more HIV-infected women survive to transition through the menopause. In a cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated the association of menopausal stage and vasomotor symptoms with depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse, cohort of women with a high prevalence of HIV. Methods Participants included 835 HIV-infected women and 335 HIV-uninfected controls from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS; 63% African-American). The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale was used to screen for elevated depressive symptoms. Menopausal stages were defined according to standard definitions. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of elevated depressive symptoms. Results Compared to premenopausal women, early perimenopausal (OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.17–2.60), but not late perimenopausal or postmenopausal women were more likely to show elevated depressive symptoms in adjusted analyses. The odds were similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Persistent vasomotor symptoms also predicted elevated depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and uninfected women (OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.02–2.06). In HIV-infected women, menopausal stage interacted with antiretroviral use (p=0.02); the likelihood of elevated depressive symptoms in early perimenopause compared with premenopause was especially high in HAART-untreated women (OR 3.87, 95%CI 1.57–9.55). Conclusions In HIV+ and HIV? women, the odds of elevated depressive symptoms were significantly higher during the early perimenopause. Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with nonadherence to HAART, underscoring the importance of screening and treating depressive symptoms in HIV+ women who have experienced a change in the regularity of their menstrual cycles.

Maki, Pauline M.; Rubin, Leah H.; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Young, Mary; Schwartz, Rebecca M.; Anastos, Kathryn; Cook, Judith A.

2012-01-01

314

Prognostic Gene-Expression Signature for Patients with Hepatitis C-Related Early-Stage Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Liver cirrhosis affects 1%–2% of population and is the major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis C cirrhosis-related HCC is the most rapidly increasing cause of cancer death in the US. Non-invasive methods have been developed to identify patients with asymptomatic, early-stage cirrhosis, increasing the burden of HCC surveillance, but biomarkers are needed to identify patients with cirrhosis who are most in need of surveillance. We investigated whether a liver-derived 186-gene signature previously associated with outcomes of patients with HCC is prognostic for patients newly diagnosed with cirrhosis but without HCC. Methods We performed gene expression profile analysis of formalin-fixed needle biopsies from the livers of 216 patients with hepatitis C-related early-stage (Child-Pugh class A) cirrhosis who were prospectively followed for a median of 10 years at an Italian center. We evaluated whether the 186-gene signature was associated with death, progression of cirrhosis, and development of HCC. Results Fifty-five (25%), 101 (47%), and 60 (28%) patients were classified as having poor-, intermediate-, and good-prognosis signatures, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression modeling, the poor-prognosis signature was significantly associated with death (P=.004), progression to advanced cirrhosis (P<.001), and development of HCC (P=.009). The 10-year rates of survival were 63%, 74%, and 85% and the annual incidences of HCC were 5.8%, 2.2%, and 1.5% for patients with poor-, intermediate-, and good-prognosis signatures, respectively. Conclusions A 186-gene signature used to predict outcomes of patients with HCC is also associated with outcomes of patients with hepatitis C-related early-stage cirrhosis. This signature might be used to identify patients with cirrhosis in most need of surveillance and strategies to prevent their development of HCC.

Hoshida, Yujin; Villanueva, Augusto; Sangiovanni, Angelo; Sole, Manel; Hur, Chin; Andersson, Karin L.; Chung, Raymond T; Gould, Joshua; Kojima, Kensuke; Gupta, Supriya; Taylor, Bradley; Crenshaw, Andrew; Gabriel, Stacey; Minguez, Beatriz; Iavarone, Massimo; Friedman, Scott L.; Colombo, Massimo; Llovet, Josep M.; Golub, Todd R.

2013-01-01

315

Biopsy Findings After Breast Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the patterns and factors predictive of positive ipsilateral breast biopsy after conservation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of Stage I-II breast cancer patients initially treated with lumpectomy and radiotherapy between 1977 and 1996, who later underwent post-treatment ipsilateral breast biopsies. Results: A total of 223 biopsies were performed in 193 treated breasts: 171 single and 22 multiple biopsies. Of the 223 biopsies, 56% were positive and 44% were negative for recurrence. The positive biopsy rate (PBR) was 59% for the first and 32% for subsequent biopsies. The median time to the first post-treatment biopsy was 49 months. Of the patients with negative initial biopsy findings, 11% later developed local recurrence. The PBR was 40% among patients with physical examination findings only, 65% with mammographic abnormalities only, and 79% with both findings (p = 0.001). Analysis of the procedure type revealed a PBR of 86% for core and 58% for excisional biopsies compared with 28% for aspiration cytology alone (p = 0.025). The PBR varied inversely with age at the original diagnosis: 49% if {>=}51 years, 57% if 36-50 years, and 83% if {<=}35 years (p = 0.05). The PBR correlated directly with the interval after radiotherapy: 49% if {<=}60 months, 59% if 60.1-120 months, 77% if 120.1-180 months, and 100% if >180 months after completing postlumpectomy radiotherapy (p = 0.01). The PBR was not linked with recurrence location, initial pathologic T or N stage, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or final pathologic margins (all p {>=} 0.15). Conclusion: After definitive radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, a greater PBR was associated with the presence of both mammographic and clinical abnormalities, excisional or core biopsies, younger age at the initial diagnosis, and longer intervals after radiotherapy completion.

Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: vapiwala@xrt.upenn.edu; Starzyk, Jill; Harris, Eleanor E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tchou, Julia C.; Boraas, Marcia C.; Czerniecki, Brian J.; Rosato, Ernest F. [Department of Surgery, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Orel, Susan G. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Solin, Lawrence J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2007-10-01

316

Aortic endothelial and sub-endothelial lesions in early stages of experimental atherogenesis and in scurvy.  

PubMed

The endothelial and sub-endothelial lesions during early stages of experimental atherogenesis and scurvy have been studied by means of scanning EM and transmission EM, making use also of the Con-A reaction. The surface coat modifications were accompanied by formation of vacuoles in the endothelial cells and by sub-endothelial 'oedema', not only in rabbits fed a hypercholesterolic diet but also in scorbutic guinea pigs. The endothelial lesions were sometimes found even before clear modifications of the Con-A surface reactive layer were apparent. PMID:1026918

Weber, G; Fabbrini, P; Resi, L; Pierli, C; Tanganelli, P

1976-01-01

317

Microstructural evolution of 7012 alloy during the early stages of artificial ageing  

SciTech Connect

A study of the microstructural evolution of a commercial 7012 (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) age-hardenable alloy following artificial ageing by high resolution and conventional transmission electron microscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is presented. At the early stages of decomposition, the microstructure included precipitation of either pre-precipitate solute clusters or Guinier-Preston zones and semi-coherent {eta}{prime} precipitates, with typical sizes between 1 and 10 nm. Quantitative information on the size, number density and morphology of the particles present in the microstructure was obtained. The results were correlated with those obtained using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

Ferragut, R.; Somoza, A.; Tolley, A.

1999-11-26

318

Free energy and structure of calcium carbonate nanoparticles during early stages of crystallization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a metadynamics based scheme for computing the free energy of nanoparticles as a function of their crystalline order. The method is applied to small nanoparticles of the biomineral calcium carbonate to determine the preferred structure during early stages of crystal growth. For particles 2 nm in diameter, we establish a large energetic preference for amorphous particle morphologies. Particles with partial crystalline order consistent with vaterite are also observed with substantially lower probability. The absence of the stable calcite phase and stability of the amorphous state support recent conjectures that calcite formation starts via the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate.

Quigley, D.; Rodger, P. M.

2008-06-01

319

Clean Energy Finance: Challenges and Opportunities of Early-Stage Energy Investing (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Characterized by a changing landscape and new opportunities, today's increasingly complex energy decision space will need innovative financing and investment models to appropriately assess risk and profitability. This report provides an overview of the current state of clean energy finance across the entire spectrum but with a focus on early stage investing, and it includes insights from investors across all investment classes. Further, this report aims to provide a roadmap with the mechanisms, limitations, and considerations involved in making successful investments by identifying risks, challenges, and opportunities in the clean energy sector.

Heap, D.; Pless, J.; Aieta, N.

2013-12-01

320

Assessment of uptake and toxicity of fluorescent silica nanoparticles in zebrafish ( Danio rerio) early life stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we determined uptake and toxicity of fluorescent core-shell silica nanoparticles (FSNP) in early life stages of zebrafish. For this purpose fluorescent Ru@SiO2 nanoparticles with average size of ?200nm encapsulating [Ru(bpy)3]2+Cl2 dye (excitation wavelength ?exci=488nm), and Cy5.5@SiO2 with average size of ?60nm (?exci=700nm) were synthesized. The FSNP were highly luminescent. Field emission SEM analysis showed monodispersed dual-shell Ru@SiO2

Karl Fent; Christin J. Weisbrod; Amina Wirth-Heller; Uwe Pieles

2010-01-01

321

Nanoscale duplex oxide growth during early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100)  

SciTech Connect

A combination of real-time in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and ex situ transmission electron microscopy is utilized to investigate the early stages of oxidation of Cu-Ni(100). Sequential formation of NiO and Cu{sub 2}O oxides was observed by increasing oxygen partial pressure, and the Cu{sub 2}O phase was identified to form preferentially on top of NiO nanoislands. The origin of this unexpected phenomenon is attributed to localized enrichment of Cu atoms accompanied with NiO growth, which thermodynamically drives the nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O/NiO duplex oxide growth.

Zhou Guangwen [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Multidisciplinary Program in Materials Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Fong, Dillon D.; Fuoss, Paul H.; Baldo, Peter M.; Thompson, Loren J.; Eastman, Jeffrey A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wang Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2009-10-01

322

Molecular cloning of a novel chemokine receptor-like gene from early stage chick embryos.  

PubMed

Proliferation, differentiation and regulated trafficking of cells are the hallmarks of development and embryogenesis. This led us to speculate a role for chemokines and their receptors in this process. Here, we report the molecular cloning of AvCRL1, a novel member of the G-protein coupled receptor family from early stage 3 days old chick embryos. While the function and ligand for this receptor remain unknown, its sequence and gene structure indicates that it is most related to the family of chemokine receptors, with highest homology to the virally induced human BLR-1 and the CXCR3 or gammaIP-10/Mig-1 receptors. PMID:9584981

Gupta, S K; Pillarisetti, K; Gray, S L; Stadel, J M

1998-04-01

323

Lumpectomy with and without radiation for early-stage breast cancer and DCIS.  

PubMed

Breast-conserving therapy with lumpectomy and breast irradiation is an accepted standard treatment for patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). For both diseases, investigators have tried to identify subgroups of patients who can be "safely" treated with lumpectomy without radiation. Some data suggest that it may be reasonable to omit radiation therapy in patients with small, low-grade invasive or noninvasive tumors and/or in "elderly" patients. Additional studies are needed to better identify criteria to prospectively select appropriate patients for treatment with lumpectomy alone. PMID:9306425

Marks, L B; Prosnitz, L R

1997-09-01

324

[A differentiated approach to Parkinson's disease treatment in early stage of the disease].  

PubMed

A conception of the approach to Parkinson's disease treatment at early stage, which could be realized in practice is suggested. The conception is based on the results of dopaminergic drugs treatment of 149 patients, aged 33-87 years. The patient's state was assessed by neurological examination and clinical scales with regard to different disease types, tremor and rigid, and levodopa doses--from moderate (up to 500 mg) to high (above 500 mg). A general treatment policy, including therapy directed to activation of regulatory and compensatory influences and differentiated usage of levodopa and combined therapy with levodopa and dopamine agonists, is presented. PMID:15270296

Selikhova, M V; Piatnitski?, A N; Aristova, R A; Belikova, L P; Vialkova, A B; Gusev, E I

2004-01-01

325

Quantitative classification of primary progressive aphasia at early and mild impairment stages  

PubMed Central

The characteristics of early and mild disease in primary progressive aphasia are poorly understood. This report is based on 25 patients with aphasia quotients >85%, 13 of whom were within 2 years of symptom onset. Word-finding and spelling deficits were the most frequent initial signs. Diagnostic imaging was frequently negative and initial consultations seldom reached a correct diagnosis. Functionality was preserved, so that the patients fit current criteria for single-domain mild cognitive impairment. One goal was to determine whether recently published classification guidelines could be implemented at these early and mild disease stages. The quantitative testing of the recommended core and ancillary criteria led to the classification of ?80% of the sample into agrammatic, logopenic and semantic variants. Biological validity of the resultant classification at these mild impairment stages was demonstrated by clinically concordant cortical atrophy patterns. A two-dimensional template based on orthogonal mapping of word comprehension and grammaticality provided comparable accuracy and led to a flexible road map that can guide the classification process quantitatively or qualitatively. Longitudinal evaluations of initially unclassifiable patients showed that the semantic variant can be preceded by a prodromal stage of focal left anterior temporal atrophy during which prominent anomia exists without word comprehension or object recognition impairments. Patterns of quantitative tests justified the distinction of grammar from speech abnormalities and the desirability of using the ‘agrammatic’ designation exclusively for loss of grammaticality, regardless of fluency or speech status. Two patients with simultaneous impairments of grammatical sentence production and word comprehension displayed focal atrophy of the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior temporal lobe. These patients represent a fourth variant of ‘mixed’ primary progressive aphasia. Quantitative criteria were least effective in the distinction of the agrammatic from the logopenic variant and left considerable latitude to clinical judgement. The widely followed recommendation to wait for 2 years of relatively isolated and progressive language impairment before making a definitive diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia has promoted diagnostic specificity, but has also diverted attention away from early and mild disease. This study shows that this recommendation is unnecessarily restrictive and that quantitative guidelines can be implemented for the valid root diagnosis and subtyping of mildly impaired patients within 2 years of symptom onset. An emphasis on early diagnosis will promote a better characterization of the disease stages where therapeutic interventions are the most likely to succeed.

Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra

2012-01-01

326

Scintigraphic appearance of the tibia in the early stages following fracture  

SciTech Connect

A scintigraphic study of the human tibia in the early stages following fracture of the shaft was carried out to investigate the condition of the blood supply of the main fracture fragments. Using a gamma camera and 99mTc-MDP, scintigraphs were obtained from less than 24 hours to 21 days after injury. A generalized increase in tracer uptake was found in the tibia in all cases. In some cases very early after injury there was an additional local increase at the fracture site. In 10% of cases ''cold spots'' were observed, which may indicate an impaired blood supply to bone tissue adjacent to the fracture. Neither the presence of a ''cold spot'' nor any other scintigraphic feature could be correlated with the progress or time to fracture union.

Gregg, P.J.; Barsoum, M.K.; Clayton, C.B.

1983-05-01

327

True Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Since its inception, minimally invasive surgery has made a dramatic impact on all branches of surgery. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was first described in the early 1990s and has since become popular in a number of tertiary referral centers. Proponents of this relatively new procedure cite a number of potentially favorable perioperative outcomes, possibly due to reduced surgical trauma and stress. However, a significant proportion of the cardiothoracic community remains skeptical, as there is still a paucity of robust clinical data on long-term survival and recurrence rates. The definition of ‘true’ VATS has also been under scrutiny, with a number of previous studies being considered ‘mini-thoracotomy lobectomy’ rather than VATS lobectomy. We hereby examine the literature on true VATS lobectomy, with a particular focus on comparative studies that directly compared VATS lobectomy with conventional open lobectomy.

Cao, Christopher Q.; Stine, Munkholm-Larsen; Yan, Tristan D.

2009-01-01

328

Spatial patterns of overstory trees in late-successional conifer forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed spatial patterns of overstory trees in late-successional Abies amabilis (Dougl. ex Loud.) Dougl. ex J. Forbes forests and late-successional Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco forests to establish reference spatial patterns for restoration thinning treatments, and to determine whether thinning treatments with minimum intertree spacing rules re- sult in spatial patterns characteristic of late-successional forests. On average, 32.7% of overstory

Andrew J. Larson; Derek Churchill

2008-01-01

329

Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of organic P mineralization potential in soils. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment with precipitation treatments (no precipitation, natural precipitation and doubled precipitation) in three successional forests in southern China was carried out. The three forests include Masson pine forest (MPF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that driven by seasonality of precipitation, changes in soil acid phosphatase activities coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with significantly higher values in the wet season than in the dry season. Soil acid phosphatase activities were closely linked to forest successional stages, with enhanced values in the later stages of forest succession. In the dry season, soil acid phosphatase activities in the three forests showed a rising trend with increasing precipitation treatments. In the wet season, soil acid phosphatase activity was depressed by no precipitation treatment in the three forests. However, doubled precipitation treatment exerted a significantly negative effect on it only in MEBF. These results indicate that the potential transformation rate of organic P might be more dependent on water in the dry season than in the wet season. A decrease in organic P turnover would occur in the three forests if there was a drought in a whole year in the future. More rainfall in the wet season would also be adverse to organic P turnover in MEBF due to its high soil moisture.

Huang, W.; Liu, J.; Zhou, G.; Zhang, D.; Deng, Q.

2011-07-01

330

Impact of [{sup 18}F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Staging and Management of Early-Stage Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Accurate staging is critical to select patients with early-stage (I-II) follicular lymphoma (ESFL) suitable for involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) and to define the radiotherapy portal. We evaluated the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET on staging, treatment, and outcome for patients with ESFL on conventional staging. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with untreated ESFL (World Health Organization Grade I-IIIa, or 'low grade') following a minimum of physical examination, computerized tomography, and bone marrow examination (conventional assessment) and who had staging PET from June 1997 to June 2006 were studied retrospectively. Stage allocation was based on routine imaging reports. Disease sites, stage, and management plan were recorded based on conventional assessment or conventional assessment plus PET. Results: FDG avidity was demonstrated in 97% of patients in whom disease was evident on conventional assessment after biopsy. PET findings suggested a change of stage or management in 19 patients: 13 (31%) who were upstaged to Stage III-IV, altering ideal management from IFRT to systemic therapy, and 6 (14%) who had the involved field enlarged, including 4 upstaged from Stage I to II. Of these 19 cases, PET findings were considered true positive in 8 patients, indeterminate in 10, and false positive in only 1 patient. Conclusions: Our data confirm that ESFL is usually FDG-avid. In routine practice, PET has the potential to upstage and thereby alter management in a high proportion of patients with apparent ESFL.

Wirth, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)], E-mail: andrew.wirth@petermac.org; Foo, Marcus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Seymour, John F. [Department of Hematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); MacManus, Michael P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Department of Metabolic Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

2008-05-01

331

Effects of Diet Quantity on Sheepshead Minnows 'Cyprinodon variegatus' during Early Life-Stage Exposures to Chlorpyrifos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of food quantity on the effects of chlorpyrifos was determined in six early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests with estuarine sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus. Three ELS tests were conducted simultaneously, each with a different feedin...

G. M. Cripe D. J. Hansen S. F. Macauley J. Forester

1985-01-01

332

Early Stage Treatment of Compartment Syndrome Using Polymer Sol-Gel Composite Growth Factor Delivery Wound Dressings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Compartment syndrome (CS) as a result of blast or traumatic injury is a devastating problem in the battlefield. The ultimate goal of this study is to develop an integrated toolkit of novel, biodegradable wound dressing composites for early stage treatment...

C. Knabe H. Qu J. Kim P. Ducheyne S. Radin

2008-01-01

333

Medicines for Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults with Kidney Disease and Diabetes ....  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Pressure" /> Consumer Summary – Oct. 11, 2012 Medicines for Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review ... and blood vessel diseases. About Your Options What medicines may help? There are four types of medicine ...

334

Description of the early stage of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Germany, 27 April-16 June 2009.  

PubMed

We report characteristics of the early stage of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Germany. Until 16 June 2009, 198 confirmed cases were notified. Almost half of the cases (47%) were imported, mostly from Mexico and the United States. About two third of indigenous cases were outbreak-related (with two large school-associated outbreaks, n=74). According to our results Germany is still in the early stage of the pandemic with limited domestic transmission. PMID:19660249

2009-08-01

335

MD Anderson study finds majority of older, early-stage breast cancer patients benefit from radiation after lumpectomy  

Cancer.gov

For the majority of older, early-stage breast cancer patients, radiation therapy following breast conserving surgery may help prevent the need for a later mastectomy, according to research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The findings, published in the journal Cancer, are contrary to current national treatment guidelines, which recommend that older women with early stage, estrogen-positive disease be treated with lumpectomy followed by estrogen blocker therapy alone -- and forgo radiation therapy post-surgery.

336

Effects of marine toxins on the reproduction and early stages development of aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. PMID:20161971

Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

2010-01-01

337

Stress development and relaxation during early stages of oxidation of metals and alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been long recognized that oxidation of metals results in the generation of stresses and these stresses play an important role in shaping the microstructure of oxide films. However, the mechanism governing the stress development and relaxation during early stages of oxidation of metals and alloys is still to a significant degree unclear. Using a combination of in-situ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finite element method, we show how oxidation-induced stresses can be used to tailor the initial oxide formation during early-stage oxidation of Cu(100) and Cu-Au(100). From analysis of the observed morphological evolution of Cu2O nanoislands, we establish a close relationship between the stresses generated from the oxide growth and the thermodynamic selection of nanoscale morphology of the oxide film. We expect that our results have implications for controlled production of novel oxide nano structures through controlling the oxidation-induced stresses via oxidation temperature or alloying.

Zhou, Guangwen; Ke, Changhong; Yang, Judith; Eastman, Jeffrey; Pearson, John

2009-03-01

338

Early life-stage toxicity test methods for gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) and results using chlorpyrifos  

SciTech Connect

Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) were continuously exposed as embryos, sac fry, and juveniles to technical chlorpyrifos in two 49-day early life-stage toxicity tests. Survival was significantly (alpha = 0.05) reduced only in 150 micrograms/liter. However, toadfish exposed to chlorpyrifos concentrations from 3.7 to 150 micrograms/liter weighted significantly less than control fish: 9% lower in 3.7 micrograms/liter to 62% lower in 150 micrograms/liter. The 96-hr LC50 for juvenile fish was 520 micrograms/liter. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in toadfish and bioconcentration factors increased with increasing exposure concentration, a condition not generally observed with other marine fishes and other test chemicals. These results demonstrated the procedures for, and the practicality of, early life-stage tests with this marine species. We recommend the use of the gulf toadfish for comparative toxicity testing and for evaluating the toxicity of substances in conjunction with ontogenetical, physiological, and histological investigations of this considerably studied genus. We do not recommend it for routine effects testing.

Hansen, D.J.; Goodman, L.R.; Cripe, G.M.; Macauley, S.F.

1986-02-01

339

Feasibility and efficacy of intensive cognitive training in early-stage Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Cognitive training may be beneficial for individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the effects are modest with little evidence of carryover. Prior studies included limited hours and low intensity of training. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and efficacy of many hours of intensive cognitive training with adults in the early stages of AD. Twenty-one adults with very mild or mild AD participated in cognitive training for 10 days over 2 weeks with 4 to 5 hours of training each day. Participants significantly improved in practiced computer-based tasks including those involving working memory, sustained attention, and switching attention. Outcome measures that improved included the Mini-Mental State Examination, letter fluency, and 3 of 5 Trail-Making Tests. Gains in outcome measures were maintained at 2- and 4-month follow-up. Adults in early-stage AD can participate in intensive cognitive training and make modest gains in both practiced and unpracticed cognitive tasks. PMID:24667905

Kanaan, Saddam F; McDowd, Joan M; Colgrove, Yvonne; Burns, Jeffery M; Gajewski, Byron; Pohl, Patricia S

2014-03-01

340

Genetic identification of female Cannabis sativa plants at early developmental stage.  

PubMed

Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were used to identify female plants at an early developmental stage in four different varieties of Cannabis sativa. Using the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method, DNA was isolated from two-week-old plants of three drug-type varieties (Terbag W1, Terbag K2, and Terbag MX) and one fiber-type variety (Terbag Fedora A7) of C. sativa grown under controlled environmental conditions through seeds. Attempts to use MADC2 (male-associated DNA from Cannabis sativa) primers as a marker to identify the sex of Cannabis sativa plants were successful. Amplification of genomic DNA using MADC2-F and MADC2-R primers produced two distinct fragments, one with a size of approximately 450 bp for female plants and one for male plants with a size of approximately 300 bp. After harvesting the tissues for DNA extraction, plants were subjected to a flowering photoperiod (i.e., 12-h light cycle), and the appearance of flowers was compared with the DNA analysis. The results of the molecular analysis were found to be concordant with the appearance of male or female flowers. The results of this study represent a quick and reliable technique for the identification of sex in Cannabis plants using SCAR markers at a very early developmental stage. PMID:20533168

Techen, Natascha; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

2010-11-01

341

Molecular Mechanism of the Early Stage of Amyloidogenic Hexapeptides (NFGAIL) Aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peptides/proteins aggregation can give rise to pathological conditions of many human diseases. Small partially ordered oligomers formed in the early stage of aggregation, rather than mature fibrils, are thought to be the main toxicity agent for the living cell. Thus, understanding the pathway and the underlying physical mechanism in the early stage of aggregation is very important for prevention and treatment of these protein functional diseases. Herein we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the aggregation of four NFGAIL hexapeptides (NFGAIL peptide is a core segment of human islet amyloid polypeptide and exhibits similar aggregation kinetics as the full-length polypeptide). We observe that the peptide monomers in water mainly adopt non-structural coil configurations; the four peptides which are randomly placed in water aggregate spontaneously to partially ordered oligomer (?-sheets) through dimerization or trimerization, with the dimerization predominated. Both parallel and anti-parallel ?-sheets are observed. The hydrophobic interactions drive the initial peptides associations, and the subsequent conformational fluctuations promote the formation of more hydrogen bonds between the dangling hydrogen sites in the main chains of peptides.

Shi, Bi-Yun; Zhou, Bo; Cai, Zhuo-Wei; Xiu, Peng; Yang, Zai-Xing

2013-10-01

342

BRI2-BRICHOS is increased in human amyloid plaques in early stages of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

BRI2 protein binds amyloid precursor protein to halt amyloid-? production and inhibits amyloid-? aggregation via its BRICHOS-domain suggesting a link between BRI2 and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigate the possible involvement of BRI2 in human AD pathogenesis. BRI2 containing BRICHOS-domain was increased up to 3-fold in AD hippocampus (p = 0.003, n = 14/group). Immunohistochemistry showed BRI2 deposits associated with amyloid-? plaques in early pathologic stages (Braak-III; Thal-2/3). We observed a decrease in the protein levels of ADAM10 (p = 0.02) and furin (p = 0.066), as well as an increase in SPPL2b (p < 0.0001) in AD hippocampus. Because these enzymes are involved in BRI2 processing, their changes may lead to aberrant processing of BRI2 promoting its deposition and likely affecting BRI2 function. Loss of BRI2 function in AD was supported by the decreased presence of BRI2-amyloid precursor protein complexes in the hippocampus of AD patients compared with control subjects. In conclusion, our data obtained from human samples indicate that in early stages of AD there is an increased deposition of BRI2, which likely leads to impaired BRI2 function thereby influencing AD pathophysiology. PMID:24524963

Del Campo, Marta; Hoozemans, Jeroen J M; Dekkers, Lois-Lee; Rozemuller, Annemieke J; Korth, Carsten; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Scheltens, Philip; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Jimenez, Connie R; Veerhuis, Robert; Teunissen, Charlotte E

2014-07-01

343

Quantitative proteomics reveals the role of protein phosphorylation in rice embryos during early stages of germination.  

PubMed

Seed germination begins with water uptake and ends with radicle emergence. A gel-free phosphoproteomic technique was used to investigate the role of protein phosphorylation events in the early stages of rice seed germination. Both seed weight and ATP content increased gradually during the first 24 h following imbibition. Proteomic analysis indicated that carbohydrate metabolism- and protein synthesis/degradation-related proteins were predominantly increased and displayed temporal patterns of expression. Analyses of cluster and protein-protein interactions indicated that the regulation of sucrose synthases and alpha-amylases was the central event controlling germination. Phosphoproteomic analysis identified several proteins involved in protein modification and transcriptional regulation that exhibited significantly temporal changes in phosphorylation levels during germination. Cluster analysis indicated that 12 protein modification-related proteins had a peak abundance of phosphoproteins at 12 h after imbibition. These results suggest that the first 12 h following imbibition is a potentially important signal transduction phase for the initiation of rice seed germination. Three core components involved in brassinosteroid signal transduction displayed significant increases in phosphoprotein abundance during the early stages of germination. Brassinolide treatment increased the rice seed germination rate but not the rate of embryonic axis elongation. These findings suggest that brassinosteroid signal transduction likely triggers seed germination. PMID:24460219

Han, Chao; Yang, Pingfang; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

2014-03-01

344

Early Stage Oropharyngeal Carcinomas: Comparing Quality of Life for Different Treatment Modalities  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare long-term quality of life outcomes after treating early stage oropharyngeal carcinoma either with surgery, surgery combined with radiotherapy, or surgery combined with chemoradiotherapy. Methods. Questionnaire based method: 111 eligible patients agreed to fill out a quality of life questionnaire. Results. Of the 32 scales contained in the EORTC's combined QLQ-C30 and HN35, 11 scales show significantly better results for the surgery-only treatment group when compared to either surgery combined with radiotherapy or surgery combined with any type of adjuvant therapy. These eleven scales are role function (P = 0.019/0.008), social function (P = 0.01/0.034), nausea (P = 0.017/0.025), pain (P = 0.014/0.023), financial problems (P = 0.030/0.012), speech (P = 0.02/0.015), social eating (P = 0.003/<0.001), mouth opening (P = 0.033/0.016), sticky saliva (P = 0.001/<0.001), swallowing (P < 0.001/<0.001), and dry mouth (P < 0.001/0.001). Conclusion. Treatment of early stage oropharyngeal carcinoma with surgery alone has definite advantages over treatments including any form of adjuvant therapy when considering quality of life. Advantages manifest themselves especially in functional aspects of the head and neck realm; however general health aspects as well as psychosocial aspects show improvements as well. This study does not show any indication of QOL-related drawbacks of surgery-only treatment approaches.

Ryzek, Don-Felix; Mantsopoulos, Konstantinos; Kunzel, Julian; Grundtner, Philipp; Zenk, Johannes; Iro, Heinrich

2014-01-01

345

Curcumin Inhibits Mitochondrial Injury and Apoptosis from the Early Stage in EAE Mice  

PubMed Central

The exact pathophysiological change concerning mitochondrial injury and oligodendrocyte apoptosis in MS and EAE model is still unknown. Whether curcumin is able to inhibit mitochondrial injury and suppress the apoptosis in the early stages of MS/EAE is still unclear. We first explored mitochondrial injury and apoptosis at different time points p.i. in C57 BL/6 EAE mice. We then explored the effects of curcumin on mitochondria and apoptosis. Results showed that mitochondrial injury can be observed 3 days p.i. Apoptosis in the spinal cord occurred 3 days p.i. and the apoptotic cells were shown to be oligodendrocytes and neuronal cells. Curcumin significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells and inhibited the upregulation of cyt-c, caspase-9, and caspase-3 at 7 days p.i. in the EAE mice. These observations demonstrate that mitochondrial injury and oligodendrocyte/neuronal apoptosis occur in the early stages of EAE. Curcumin can inhibit apoptosis in EAE mice which maybe act through protection of mitochondrial injury and inhibition of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

Feng, Jinzhou; Tao, Tao; Yan, Weiping; Chen, Cindy Si; Qin, Xinyue

2014-01-01

346

Efficacy of low-dose ultraviolet a-1 phototherapy for parapsoriasis/early-stage mycosis fungoides.  

PubMed

Mycosis fungoides (MF) and parapsoriasis (PP) are major dermatologic conditions for which phototherapy continues to be a successful and valuable treatment option. UVA-1 phototherapy is effective in the management of cutaneous T-cell mediated diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose UVA-1 phototherapy for the management of PP/early-stage MF. A total of 30 patients, diagnosed with MF (n:19) or PP (n:11) were enrolled to the study. All patients were managed with low-dose UVA-1 (20 or 30 J cm(-2) ). Response was assessed clinically and immunohistochemically. UVA-1 treatment led to clinical and histological complete remission (CR) in 11 of 19 MF patients (57.9%), partial remission (PR) in three of 19 (15.8%), after a mean cumulative dose of 1665 (range, 860-3120) J cm(-2) and mean number of 73 exposure (range, 43-107) sessions. Five patients with PP (45.5%) showed CR, and PR was observed in six patients with PP (54.5%) after a mean cumulative dose of 1723 (range, 1060-3030) J cm(-2) and mean number of 74 exposure (range, 53-101) sessions. We conclude that low-dose UVA-1 therapy seems to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment option for patients with PP/early-stage MF. PMID:24502428

Aydogan, Kenan; Yazici, Serkan; Balaban Adim, Saduman; Tilki Gunay, Isil; Budak, Ferah; Saricaoglu, Hayriye; Tunali, Sukran; Bulbul Baskan, Emel

2014-07-01

347

Clinical outcomes of radiation therapy for early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) for early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma). METHODS: The records of 64 patients treated between 1998 and 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. For Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive patients (n = 31), chemotherapy or H. pylori eradication therapy was the initial treatment. In patients with failure after H. pylori eradication, RT was performed. For H. pylori-negative patients (n = 33), chemotherapy or RT was the first-line treatment. The median RT dose was 36 Gy. The target volume included the entire stomach and the perigastric lymph node area. RESULTS: All of the patients completed RT without interruption and showed complete remission on endoscopic biopsy after treatment. Over a median follow-up period of 39 mo, the 5-year local control rate was 89%. Salvage therapy was successful in all relapsed patients. Secondary malignancies developed in three patients. The 5-year overall survival rate was 94%. No patient presented symptoms of moderate-to-severe treatment-related toxicities during or after RT. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy results in favorable clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage gastric MALToma who experience failure of H. pylori eradication therapy and those who are H. pylori negative.

Kim, Sang-Won; Lim, Do Hoon; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Hyeh; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

2013-01-01

348

Neck circumference and early stage atherosclerosis: the cardiometabolic risk in Chinese (CRC) study  

PubMed Central

Background Neck circumference (NC) has been previously related to cardiometabolic risk factors. In this study we examined the association between NC and early stage atherosclerosis in Chinese adults. Methods The study samples were from a community-based health examination survey in central China. In total 2,318 men and women (18-64 y) were included in the final analyses. Carotid radial pulse wave velocity (crPWV), carotid femoral PWV (cfPWV), carotid artery dorsalis pedis PWV (cdPWV) and NC were measured. Results After adjustment for age, sex, lipids, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index (BMI), high NC was significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV, cdPWV and crPWV (P = 0.001, 0.049, and 0.038; respectively). In addition, we found significant interaction between hypertension status and NC level in relation to cfPWV, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, lipids and heart rate(P for interaction?=?0.034). The associations between NC and cfPWV were significant (P?=?0.02) among those with hypertension, but not significant among those without hypertension. Conclusions Our data showed that high NC was associated with an increased risk of early stage atherosclerosis in Chinese adults, independent of other metabolic risk factors. Hypertension might modify the association between NC and cfPWV.

2014-01-01

349

Brain Event-Related Potentials: Diagnosing Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

A pattern of components from brain Event-Related Potentials (ERP) (cognitive non-invasive electrical brain measures) performed well in separating early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD) subjects from normal-aging control subjects and shows promise for developing a clinical diagnostic for Probable AD. A Number-Letter task elicited brain activity related to cognitive processes. In response to the task stimuli, brain activity was recorded as ERPs, whose components were measured by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The ERP component scores to relevant and irrelevant stimuli were used in Discriminant Analyses to develop functions that successfully classified individuals as belonging to an early-stage Alzheimer’s disease group or a like-aged Control group, with probabilities of an individual belonging to each group. Applying the discriminant function to the developmental half of the data showed 92% of the subjects were correctly classified into either the AD group or the Control group with a sensitivity of 1.00. The two crossvalidation results were good with sensitivities of 0.83 and classification accuracies of 0.75–0.79. P3 and CNV components, as well as other, earlier ERP components, e.g. C145 and the memory “Storage” component, were useful in the discriminant functions.

Chapman, Robert M.; Nowlis, Geoffrey H.; McCrary, John W.; Chapman, John A.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Guillily, Maria D.; Gardner, Margaret N.; Reilly, Lindsey A.

2009-01-01

350

Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage air-liquid interface biofilm formation in Mycobacterium smegmatis.  

PubMed

We studied the early stages of pellicle formation by Mycobacterium smegmatis on the surface of a liquid medium [air-liquid interface (A-L)]. Using optical and scanning electron microscopy, we showed the formation of a compact biofilm pellicle from micro-colonies over a period of 8-30 h. The cells in the pellicle changed size and cell division pattern during this period. Based on our findings, we created a model of M. smegmatis A-L early pellicle formation showing the coordinate growth of cells in the micro-colonies and in the homogeneous film between them, where the accessibility to oxygen and nutrients is different. A proteomic approach utilizing high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, in combination with mass spectrometry-based protein identification, was used to analyse the protein expression profiles of the different morphological stages of the pellicle. The proteins identified formed four expression groups; the most interesting of these groups contained the proteins with highest expression in the biofilm development phase, when the floating micro-colonies containing long and more robust cells associate into flocs and start to form a compact pellicle. The majority of these proteins, including GroEL1, are involved in cell wall synthesis or modification, mostly through the involvement of mycolic acid biosynthesis, and their expression maxima correlated with the changes in cell size and the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall observed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:24760966

Sochorová, Zuzana; Petrá?ková, Denisa; Sita?ová, Barbora; Buriánková, Karolína; Bezoušková, Silvia; Benada, Old?ich; Kofro?ová, Olga; Jane?ek, Ji?í; Halada, Petr; Weiser, Jaroslav

2014-07-01

351

Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms  

PubMed Central

Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms.

Vasconcelos, Vitor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vitor

2010-01-01

352

Behavior of homologous chromosomes in early meiotic stages of human spermatocytes as revealed by FISH  

SciTech Connect

The process by which homologous chromosomes recognize each other at the beginning of meiosis, prior to synapsis, is poorly understood. To gain a better understanding as to when, where and how a given chromosome approaches its pairing partner, chromosome behavior at early stages of meiosis in human spermatocytes was studied. Using multi-color FISH with centromeric- and telomeric-specific probes, as well as with whole chromosome DNA libraries, it was clearly aligned. Rather, similarly to non-homologous chromosomes, they were well separated from each other. At the commencement of synapsis, during the process of homology search, homologues underwent a drastic conformational change, elongating into strands that approached each other by their telomeres. Just preceding the co-alignment of the homologous centromeres, telomeres changed their interphase random distribution and occupied a confined region of the nuclear periphery. Following synapsis, telomeres spread over the whole nuclear periphery. These dynamics in the telomeres distribution, which are unique to early stages of meiosis, are presumably related to the role that telomeres play in the process of homology search and the commencement of synapsis.

Bar-Am, I.; Avivi, L. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel); Mukame, E. [Hasharon Hospital, Petah-Tikva (Israel)

1994-09-01

353

Polyamines stimulate hyphal branching and infection in the early stage of Glomus etunicatum colonization.  

PubMed

Polyamines are known to strongly stimulate hyphal growth in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The effect of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine on spore germination, hyphal elongation and branching by the AM fungus Glomus etunicatum was investigated in this study. The effect of spermine on infection and the development of the host and of daughter spores was further investigated using the dual monoaxenic culture system comprised of Gl. etunicatum fungal cultures in Ri T-DNA transformed carrot hairy roots. Spermidine and spermine showed positive effects on germination and all three polyamines significantly promoted hyphal growth. Hyphal branching was also strongly stimulated by treatment with polyamines, such as an increase in the number of branches. Infection during the early stages of the in vitro co-culture life cycle was enhanced in the presence of spermine, and daughter spores appeared at earlier timepoints compared to the control. Our results demonstrate that polyamines stimulate germination and hyphal branching in the early stage of AM fungal colonization. Moreover, results from the investigations conducted in the fungus-root co-culture suggest that polyamines may be involved in establishing the symbiotic relationship between root and fungus. PMID:22805943

Cheng, Ying; Ma, Wei; Li, Xiaoyu; Miao, Weiyun; Zheng, Lili; Cheng, Beijiu

2012-04-01

354

Does tonal information affect the early stages of visual-word processing in Thai?  

PubMed

Thai offers a unique opportunity to investigate the role of lexical tone processing during visual-word recognition, as tone is explicitly expressed in its script. In order to investigate the contribution of tone at the orthographic/phonological level during the early stages of word processing in Thai, we conducted a masked priming experiment-using both lexical decision and word naming tasks. For a given target word (e.g., ????/h?:?2/, room), five priming conditions were created: (a) identity (e.g., ????/h?:?2/), (b) same initial consonant, but with a different tone marker (e.g., ????/h?:?1/), (c) different initial consonant, but with the same tone marker (e.g., ????/s?:?2/), (d) orthographic control (different initial consonant, different tone marker; e.g., ????/s?:?1/), and (e) same tone homophony, but with a different initial consonant and different tone marker (e.g., ????/t(h)?:?2/). Results of the critical comparisons revealed that segmental information (i.e., consonantal information) appears to be more important than tone information (i.e., tone marker) in the early stages of visual-word processing in alphabetic, tonal languages like Thai. Thus, these findings may help constrain models of visual-word recognition and reading in tonal languages. PMID:24456408

Winskel, Heather; Perea, Manuel

2014-02-01

355

Transcriptional signatures mediated by acetylation overlap with early-stage Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which environmental influences lead to the development of complex neurode-generative diseases are largely unknown. It is known, however, that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate alterations in transcription due to environmental influences. In order to identify genes susceptible to regulation in the adult cortex by one type of epigenetic mechanism, histone, and protein acetylation, we treated mice with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA). After 1 week of treatment with TSA, RNA was extracted from the brain cortices of mice and gene expression differences were analyzed by microarray profiling. The altered genes were then compared with genes differentially expressed in microarray studies of disease by database and literature searches. Genes regulated by TSA were found to significantly overlap with differentially expressed genes in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain. Several TSA-regulated genes involved in chromatin remodeling and epigenetic reprogramming including histone cluster 1, H4 h (Hist1H4 h), methionine adenosyltransferase II, alpha (Mat2a), and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine reductase (Mtrr) overlapped with genes altered in early-stage AD in gray matter. We also show that the expression of hemoglobin, which has been shown to be altered in neurons in the AD brain, is regulated by TSA treatment. This analysis suggests involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in neurons in early stages of AD.

Vadnal, J.; Houston, S.; Bhatta, S.; Freeman, E.

2013-01-01

356

Phenotypic and fitness consequences of maternal nest-site choice across multiple early life stages.  

PubMed

Identifying the relative contributions of genetic, maternal, and environmental factors to phenotypic variation is critical for evaluating the evolutionary potential of fitness-related traits. We employed a novel two-step cross-fostering experiment to quantify the relative contributions of clutch (i.e., maternal identity) and maternally chosen nest sites to phenotypic variation during three early life stages (incubation, hibernation, dispersal) of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). By translocating eggs between nests in the field, we demonstrated that both clutch and nest site contribute to phenotypic variation at hatching. Because hatchling C. picta hibernate inside nests, we performed a second cross-foster to decouple the effects of the incubation nest with that of the hibernation nest. Incubation nest explained little variation in phenotypes at spring emergence, but winter nest site was important. We found no evidence that mothers select nest sites specific to reaction norms of their own offspring, suggesting that females may select nest sites with microhabitats that broadly meet similar requirements across the population. After hibernation, we released hatchlings to assess performance and phenotypic selection during dispersal. Hibernation nest site influenced physiological performance during dispersal, and we detected nonlinear selection on hatchling carapace length. Our experiment demonstrates that nest-site choice has substantial effects on phenotypic variation and fitness across multiple early life stages. PMID:23691653

Mitchell, Timothy S; Warner, Daniel A; Janzen, Fredric J

2013-02-01

357

Properties of large scale plasma flow during the early stage of the plasmaspheric refilling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to better characterize the macroscopic properties of the interhemisphere plasma flow by solving a more complete set of hydrodynamic equations than that solved previously. Specifically, the ion continuity, momentum and energy equations were solved for the plasma flow along the closed magnetic field lines. During the initial stage of the supersonic outflow in the equatorial region, the ions cool substantially. Using the hydrodynamic model for the large-scale plasma flow, the dynamics of shocks was examined which form in the geomagnetic flux tubes during the early stages of refilling. These shocks are more like those forming in neutral gases than the electrostatic shocks driven by microinstabilities involving ion-ion interaction. Therefore, the shocks seen in the hydrodynamic model are termed as hydrodynamic shocks. Such shocks are generally unsteady and therefore the usual shock jump conditions given by Rankine-Hugoniot relations are not strictly applicable to them. The density, flow velocity and temperature structures associated with the shocks are examined for both asymmetrical and symmetrical flows. In the asymmetrical flow the outflow from one of two conjugate ionospheres is dominant. On the other hand, in the symmetrical case outflows from the two ionospheric sources are identical. Both cases are treated by a two-stream model. In the late type of flow, the early-time refilling shows a relaxation type of oscillation, which is driven by the large-scale interactions between the two identical streams. After this early stage, the resulting temperature structure shows some interesting features. In the equatorial region the streams are isothermal, but in the off-equatorial regions the streams have quite different temperatures, and also densities and flow velocities. The dense and slow stream is found to be warmer than the low-density fast stream. In the late stage of refilling, the temperature is found to steadily increase from the conjugate ionospheres towards the equator; the equatorial temperature is found to be as high as about 8000 K compared to the ionospheric temperature of 3600 K.

Singh, Nagendra; Craven, P.; Torr, D. G.; Richards, P. G.

1990-01-01

358

On the relative fitness of early and late stage Simian Immunodeficiency Virus isolates  

PubMed Central

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has been shown to evolve from a relatively slowly replicating and mildly cytopathic virus early in the infection (SIVMneCL8) to a faster replicating and more cytopathic virus at later stages of the infection (SIVMne170). It has recently been demonstrated that the early and mildly cytopathic variant SIVMneCL8 out-competed the late and highly cytopathic strain SIVMne170 in cell culture experiments, because the fitness disadvantage derived from the higher cytopathicity was not matched by a sufficient increase in the viral replication rate. However, in another set of experiments where the life span of cells in culture was artificially limited, the late and more cytopathic virus won the competition, because under this condition cytopahticity was not an important determinant of viral fitness. It was hypothesized that the limited life span experiment reflected the immune-mediated high turnover environment in vivo more accurately, and that the presence of immune responses accounts for the selection of the cytopathic strain SIVmne170 during later stages of the infection. This paper investigates the effect of immune responses, in particular cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, on the competition dynamics between these two SIV strains with the help of mathematical models. Model analysis and parameter estimates derived from previously published data on SIV growth kinetics suggest that the SIV-specific CTL response might not be the driving force that leads to the selection of the cytopathic strain SIVMne170 during later stages of the infection. This implies that more complex evolutionary mechanisms might have to be invoked in order to explain the emergence of these strains in vivo. One possibility is that the ability of multiple virus particles to infect the same cell (coinfection) might be a prerequisite for the emergence of the cytopathic strain SIVMne170 as the disease progresses.

2009-01-01

359

Effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on gene expression of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) early life stages.  

PubMed

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are known to contaminate aquatic environments and alter the growth and reproduction of organisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and utility of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) early life-stages as a model to measure effects of estrogenic and antiestrogenic EDCs on physiological and gene expression endpoints relative to growth and reproduction. Embryos (<24-h postfertilization, hpf) were exposed to a potent estrogen (17?-ethinyl estradiol, EE(2) , 2, 10, and 50 ng L(-1)); a weak estrogen (mycotoxin zearalenone, ZEAR, same concentrations as above); an antiestrogen (ZM 189, 154; 40, 250, and 1000 ng L(-1)); and to mixtures of EE(2) and ZM until swim-up stage (?170 hpf). Exposure to all concentrations of ZEAR and to the lowest concentration of ZM resulted in increased body sizes, whereas high concentrations of EE(2) decreased body sizes. There was a significant increase in the frequency of abnormalities (mostly edema) in larvae exposed to all concentrations of EE(2), and high ZEAR, and EE(2) + ZM mixture groups. Expression of growth hormone was upregulated by most of the conditions tested. Exposure to 50 ng L(-1) ZEAR caused an induction of insulin-like growth factor 1, whereas exposure to 40 ng L(-1) ZM caused a downregulation of this gene. Expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene was significantly upregulated after exposure to all concentrations of EE(2) and luteinizing hormone expression increased significantly in response to all treatments tested. As expected, EE(2) induced vitellogenin expression; however, ZEAR also induced expression of this gene to similar levels compared to EE(2). Overall, exposure to EE(2) + ZM mixture resulted in a different expression pattern compared to single exposures. The results of this study suggest that an early life stage 7-day exposure is sufficient to recognize and evaluate effects of estrogenic compounds on gene expression in this fish model. PMID:19890895

Johns, Sonia M; Denslow, Nancy D; Kane, Michael D; Watanabe, Karen H; Orlando, Edward F; Sepúlveda, Maria S

2011-04-01

360

Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: jwong@lroc.harvard.edu; Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Keshaviah, Aparna [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Winer, Eric P. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-11-01

361

Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6). There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases) were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years) that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123), with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p < 0.05). External causes of injury changed substantially by developmental stage. This lead to the identification of four prevention priorities surrounding 1) the optimization of supervision; 2) limiting access to hazards; 3) protection from heights; and 4) anticipation of risks. Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

Flavin, Michael P; Dostaler, Suzanne M; Simpson, Kelly; Brison, Robert J; Pickett, William

2006-01-01

362

Early-Stage Young Breast Cancer Patients: Impact of Local Treatment on Survival  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In young women, breast-conserving therapy (BCT), i.e., lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy, has been associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. Still, there is insufficient evidence that BCT impairs survival. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of BCT with mastectomy on overall survival (OS) in young women with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: From two Dutch regional population-based cancer registries (covering 6.2 million inhabitants) 1,453 women <40 years with pathologically T1N0-1M0 breast cancer were selected. Cox regression survival analysis was used to study the effect of local treatment (BCT vs. mastectomy) stratified for nodal stage on survival and corrected for tumor size, age, period of diagnosis, and use of adjuvant systemic therapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 10-year OS was 83% after BCT and 78% after mastectomy, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.72). In N0-patients, 10-year OS was 84% after BCT and 81% after mastectomy and local treatment was not associated with differences in OS (HR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89-1.58; p = 0.25). Within the N1-patient group, OS was better after BCT compared with mastectomy, 79% vs. 71% at 10 years (HR 1.91; 95% CI, 1.28-2.84; p = 0.001) and in patients treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy (HR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.66; p = 0.001). Conclusions: In this large population-based cohort of early-stage young breast cancer patients, 10-year OS was not impaired after BCT compared with mastectomy. Patients with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes had better prognosis after BCT than after mastectomy.

Bantema-Joppe, Enja J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Munck, Linda de [Comprehensive Cancer Center North East, Groningen/Enschede (Netherlands); Visser, Otto [Comprehensive Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Willemse, Pax H.B. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Siesling, Sabine [Comprehensive Cancer Center North East, Groningen/Enschede (Netherlands); Department of Health Technology and Services Research, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Maduro, John H., E-mail: j.h.maduro@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2011-11-15

363

Lack of miRNA Misregulation at Early Pathological Stages in Drosophila Neurodegenerative Disease Models  

PubMed Central

Late onset neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health concern as the population in many countries ages. Both frequent diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD, 14% incidence for 80–84?year-old Europeans) or Parkinson disease (PD, 1.4% prevalence for >55?years old) share, with other low-incidence neurodegenerative pathologies such as spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs, 0.01% prevalence) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, 0.02% prevalence), a lack of efficient treatment in spite of important research efforts. Besides significant progress, studies with animal models have revealed unexpected complexities in the degenerative process, emphasizing a need to better understand the underlying pathological mechanisms. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs, have been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases. The current data supporting a role of miRNAs in PD, tauopathies, dominant ataxias, and FTLD will first be discussed to emphasize the different levels of the pathological processes which may be affected by miRNAs. To investigate a potential involvement of miRNA dysregulation in the early stages of these neurodegenerative diseases we have used Drosophila models for seven diseases (PD, 3 FTLD, 3 dominant ataxias) that recapitulate many features of the human diseases. We performed deep sequencing of head small RNAs after 3?days of pathological protein expression in the fly head neurons. We found no evidence for a statistically significant difference in miRNA expression in this early stage of the pathological process. In addition, we could not identify small non-coding CAG repeat RNAs (sCAG) in polyQ disease models. Thus our data suggest that transcriptional deregulation of miRNAs or sCAG is unlikely to play a significant role in the initial stages of neurodegenerative diseases.

Reinhardt, Anita; Feuillette, Sebastien; Cassar, Marlene; Callens, Celine; Thomassin, Helene; Birman, Serge; Lecourtois, Magalie; Antoniewski, Christophe; Tricoire, Herve

2012-01-01

364

The role of norepinephrine and insulin resistance in an early stage of hypertension.  

PubMed

The interrelationship between activity of sympathetic nervous system and metabolic risk factors in youth with hypertension (HT) has been poorly studied. The aim of our present study was to assess the interrelationship between metabolic risk factors, such as insulin resistance, concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and catecholamines in an early stage of HT onset. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 17 young males with early-diagnosed nontreated HT grade 1 and 16 gender-, age-, and BMI-matched normotensive controls. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, PAI-1, and plasma renin activity (PRA) were determined in venous plasma. Insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) proposed by Cederholm, Matsuda, and Gutt were calculated. HT had higher baseline levels of norepinephrine, insulin (P= 0.02), and PAI-1 (P= 0.04). ISIs were lower in HT subjects (P < 0.001). Baseline concentrations of epinephrine were negatively associated with HDL cholesterol (r=-0.415, P= 0.02), ISI Matsuda (r=-0.361, P= 0.04), ISI Cederholm (r=-0.354, P= 0.04), and ISI Gutt (r=-0.429, P= 0.01), and positively with PRA (r= 0.609, P < 0.0001). Positive association was found between baseline concentrations of norepinephrine and PAI-1 (r= 0.418, P= 0.02). The sympathetic overactivity, which occurs in the early stage of HT may contribute to reduced insulin sensitivity even in young patients and intensify the undesirable development of metabolic cardiovascular risk factors and progress of the disease. PMID:19120146

Penesova, Adela; Radikova, Zofia; Cizmarova, Eva; Kvetnanský, Richard; Blazicek, Pavel; Vlcek, Miroslav; Koska, Juraj; Vigas, Milan

2008-12-01

365

A Unique Metastasis Gene Signature Enables Prediction of Tumor Relapse in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients  

PubMed Central

Metastasis-related recurrence often occurs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who receive curative therapies. At present, it is challenging to identify patients with high risk of recurrence, which would warrant additional therapies. In this study, we sought to analyze a recently developed metastasis-related gene signature for its utility in predicting HCC survival using two independent cohorts consisting of a total of 386 patients who received radical resection. Cohort-1 contained 247 predominantly HBV-positive cases analyzed with an Affymetrix platform, while cohort-2 contained 139 cases with mixed etiology analyzed with the NCI Oligo Set microarray platform. We employed a survival risk prediction algorithm with training, test, and independent cross-validation strategies and found that the gene signature is predictive of overall and disease-free survival. Importantly, risk was significantly predicted independently of clinical characteristics and microarray platform. In addition, survival prediction was successful in patients with early disease, such as small (<5 cm in diameter) and solitary tumors, and the signature predicted particularly well for early recurrence risk (<2 years), especially when combined with serum alpha fetoprotein or tumor staging. In conclusion, we have demonstrated in two independent cohorts with mixed etiologies and ethnicity that the metastasis gene signature is a useful tool to predict HCC outcome, suggesting the general utility of this classifier. We recommend the use of this classifier as a molecular diagnostic test to assess the risk that an HCC patient will develop tumor relaps within 2 years after surgical resection, particularly for those with early stage tumors and solitary presentation.

Roessler, Stephanie; Jia, Hu-Liang; Budhu, Anuradha; Forgues, Marshonna; Ye, Qing-Hai; Lee, Ju-Seog; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Sun, Zhongtang; Tang, Zhao-You; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Wang, Xin Wei

2010-01-01

366

Hemostasis during the early stages of trauma: comparison with disseminated intravascular coagulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction We tested two hypotheses that disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and acute coagulopathy of trauma-shock (ACOTS) in the early phase of trauma are similar disease entities and that the DIC score on admission can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with coagulopathy of trauma. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 562 trauma patients, including 338 patients whose data were obtained immediately after admission to the emergency department. We collected serial data for the platelet counts, global markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and antithrombin levels. DIC was diagnosed according to the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) DIC scoring system, and ACOTS was defined as a prothrombin-time ratio of >1.2. Results The higher levels of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer and greater FDP/D-dimer ratios in the DIC patients suggested DIC with the fibrinolytic phenotype. The DIC patients with the fibrinolytic phenotype exhibited persistently lower platelet counts and fibrinogen levels, increased prothrombin time ratios, higher FDP and D-dimer levels, and lower antithrombin levels compared with the non-DIC patients on arrival to the emergency department and during the early stage of trauma. Almost all ACOTS patients met the criteria for a diagnosis of DIC; therefore, the same changes were observed in the platelet counts, global markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and antithrombin levels as noted in the DIC patients. The JAAM DIC score obtained immediately after arrival to the emergency department was an independent predictor of massive transfusion and death due to trauma and correlated with the amount of blood transfused. Conclusions Patients who develop DIC with the fibrinolytic phenotype during the early stage of trauma exhibit consumption coagulopathy associated with increased fibrin(ogen)olysis and lower levels of antithrombin. The same is true in patients with ACOTS. The JAAM DIC score can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with coagulopathy of trauma.

2014-01-01

367

Thermal and chlorophyll-fluorescence imaging distinguish plant-pathogen interactions at an early stage.  

PubMed

Different biotic stresses yield specific symptoms, owing to their distinct influence on a plant's physiological status. To monitor early changes in a plant's physiological status upon pathogen attack, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (Chl-FI) and thermography, which respectively visualize photosynthetic efficiency and transpiration, were carried out in parallel for two fundamentally different plant-pathogen interactions. These non-destructive imaging techniques were able to visualize infections at an early stage, before damage appeared. Under growth-room conditions, a robotized set-up captured time series of visual, thermal and chlorophyll fluorescence images from infected regions on attached leaves. As a first symptom of the plant-virus interaction between resistant tobacco and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), thermal imaging detected a local rise in temperature while Chl-FI monitored a co-localized increase in fluorescence intensity. Chl-FI also revealed pre-symptomatic high-intensity spots for the plant-fungus system sugar beet-Cercospora beticola. Concomitantly, spots of lower temperature were monitored with thermography, in marked contrast with our observations on TMV-infection in tobacco. Knowledge of disease signatures for different plant-pathogen interactions could allow early identification of emerging biotic stresses in crops, facilitating the containment of disease outbreaks. Presymptomatic monitoring clearly opens perspectives for quantitative screening for disease resistance, either on excised leaf pieces or attached leaves. PMID:15295072

Chaerle, Laury; Hagenbeek, Dik; De Bruyne, Erik; Valcke, Roland; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

2004-07-01

368

Proteomic identification of abnormally expressed proteins in early-stage placenta derived from cloned cat embryos.  

PubMed

It is unknown whether gene expression in cloned placenta during pre- and postimplantation is associated with early pregnancy failure in the cat. In this study, protein expression patterns were examined in early-stage (21-day-old) domestic cat placentas of fetuses derived from AI (CP; N = 4) and cloned embryo transfer (CEP; N = 2). Differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 21 proteins were aberrantly expressed (P < 0.05) by >1.5-fold in CEP compared with CP. Compared with CP, 12 proteins were upregulated in CEP (peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A, annexin A2, protein DJ-1, adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1, protein disulfide-isomerase A3, actin cytoplasmic 1, serum albumin, protein disulfide-isomerase A6, and triosephosphate isomerase), and nine proteins were downregulated (triosephosphate isomerase; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H; tropomyosin alpha-4; triosephosphate isomerase 1; 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; serum albumin; calumenin; keratin type 1; and prohibitin). The identities of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF/TOF MS/MS. The abnormally expressed proteins identified in this study might be associated with impaired development and dysfunction of CEP during early pregnancy. Abnormal protein expression might also induce fetal loss and contribute to failure to maintain pregnancy to term. PMID:23146403

Bang, Jae-Il; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Deb, Gautam Kumar; Ha, A-Na; Kwon, Young-Sang; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Byeong-Woo; Cho, Kyu-Woan; Kong, Il-Keun

2013-01-15

369

Genomic Instability: A Stronger Prognostic Marker Than Proliferation for Early Stage Luminal Breast Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Background The accurate prognosis definition to tailor treatment for early luminal invasive breast carcinoma patients remains challenging. Materials and Methods Two hundred fourteen early luminal breast carcinomas were genotyped with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) array to determine the number of chromosomal breakpoints as a marker of genomic instability. Proliferation was assessed by KI67 (immunohistochemistry) and genomic grade index (transcriptomic analysis). IHC3 (IHC4 score for HER2 negative tumors) was also determined. Results In the training set (109 cases), the optimal cut-off was 34 breakpoints with a specificity of 0.94 and a sensitivity of 0.57 (Area under the curve (AUC): 0.81[0.71; 0.91]). In the validation set (105 cases), the outcome of patients with > 34 breakpoints (11 events / 22 patients) was poorer (logrank test p < 0.001; Relative Risk (RR): 3.7 [1.73; 7.92]), than that of patients with < 34 breakpoints (19 events / 83 patients).Whereas genomic grade and KI67 had a significant prognostic value in univariate analysis in contrast to IHC3 that failed to have a statistical significant prognostic value in this series, the number of breakpoints remained the only significant parameter predictive of outcome (RR: 3.47, Confidence Interval (CI [1.29; 9.31], p = 0.014)) in multivariate analysis . Conclusion Genomic instability, defined herein as a high number of chromosomal breakpoints, in early stage luminal breast carcinoma is a stronger prognostic marker than proliferation.

Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Benhamo, Vanessa; Gravier, Eleonore; Rigaill, Guillem; Gruel, Nadege; Robin, Stephane; de Rycke, Yann; Mariani, Odette; Pierron, Gaelle; Gentien, David; Reyal, Fabien; Cottu, Paul; Fourquet, Alain; Rouzier, Roman; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Delattre, Olivier

2013-01-01

370

Deep Brain Stimulation for Early Stage Parkinson's Disease: An Illustrative Case  

PubMed Central

Objectives Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective intervention in advanced Parkinson's Disease (PD), but its efficacy and safety in early PD are unknown. Our team is conducting a randomized pilot trial investigating DBS in early PD. This report describes one participant who received bilateral STN-DBS. Materials/Methods Thirty subjects have been randomized to either optimal drug therapy (ODT) or DBS + ODT. Microelectrode recordings from the STN and substantia nigra (SN) are collected at implantation. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Motor Subscale (UPDRS-III) is administered in the ON and OFF states semi-annually and neuropsychological function and quality of life are assessed annually. We describe a 54-year-old man with a two-year history of PD who was randomized to DBS + ODT and followed for two years. Results The subject showed a lower STN to SN ratio of neuronal activity than advanced PD patients, and higher firing rate than non-PD patients. The subject's ON total UPDRS and UPDRS-III scores improved during the two-year follow-up, while his OFF UPDRS-III score and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) increased. Quality of life, verbal fluency and verbal learning improved. He did not experience any serious adverse events. Conclusions This report details the first successful application of bilateral STN DBS for early stage PD during a clinical trial.

Gill, Chandler E.; Allen, Laura A.; Konrad, Peter E.; Davis, Thomas L.; Bliton, Mark J.; Finder, Stuart G.; Tramontana, Michael G.; Kao, C. Chris; Remple, Michael S.; Bradenham, Courtney H.; Charles, P. David

2011-01-01

371

Subduction-related metamorphism beneath ophiolites (Oman) and during early stages of continental collision (Himalaya)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subduction-related metamorphism occurs beneath ophiolites (Oman), beneath island arcs (Kohistan) and during the early stages of continental collision (Kaghan, Tso Morari; Himalaya). Ophiolite obduction necessarily involves subduction of first oceanic, then continental crust to mantle depths beneath the ophiolite. In Oman an inverted pressure and temperature profile is exposed beneath the Semail ophiolite from garnet+clinopyroxene-bearing granulite to hornblende+plagioclase amphibolite down through epidote amphibolite and a variety of greenschist facies meta-sediments, dominantly cherts, marbles and quartzites. Thermobarometry on Grt+Cpx-bearing amphibolites immediately beneath the contact with mantle sequence harzburgites shows that the upper sole rocks formed at PT conditions of 770-900°C and 11-13 kbar, equivalent to depths of 30-40 km in oceanic lithosphere. Heat for metamorphism can only have been derived from the overlying mantle peridotites. Pressures are higher than can be accounted for by the thickness of the preserved ophiolite (15-20 km). Timing of peak metamorphism was synchronous with formation of the ophiolite gabbroic - trondhjemite crustal sequence and eruption of the pillow lavas (Cenomanian; 96-95 Ma). During the later stages of obduction the continental margin was dragged down to depths of nearly 100 km and basaltic sills within calc-schists were converted to eclogites (20-25 kbar; 500-560oC; 79.1 Ma), then exhumed back up the same subduction channel. Apparent 'extensional' fabrics throughout the HP units are related to upward flow of deeply buried rocks in a wholly compressional environment. Eclogites in a similar structural position occur along the Himalaya in the northernmost exposures of Indian plate rocks. These eclogites formed either during the latest stage of ophiolite obduction or the earliest stage of continental collision.

Searle, Mike; Waters, David; Cowan, Robert; Cherry, Alan; Cooper, Charles

2014-05-01

372

Provider Treatment Intensity and Outcomes for Patients With Early-Stage Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Bladder cancer is among the most prevalent and expensive to treat cancers in the United States. In the absence of high-level evidence to guide the optimal management of bladder cancer, urologists may vary widely in how aggressively they treat early-stage disease. We examined associations between initial treatment intensity and subsequent outcomes. Methods We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare database to identify patients who were diagnosed with early-stage bladder cancer from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 2002 (n = 20 713), and the physician primarily responsible for providing care to each patient (n = 940). We ranked the providers according to the intensity of treatment they delivered to their patients (as measured by their average bladder cancer expenditures reported to Medicare in the first 2 years after a diagnosis) and then grouped them into quartiles that contained approximately equal numbers of patients. We assessed associations between treatment intensity and outcomes, including survival through December 31, 2005, and the need for subsequent major interventions by using Cox proportional hazards models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The average Medicare expenditure per patient for providers in the highest quartile of treatment intensity was more than twice that for providers in the lowest quartile of treatment intensity ($7131 vs $2830, respectively). High–treatment intensity providers more commonly performed endoscopic surveillance and used more intravesical therapy and imaging studies than low–treatment intensity providers. However, the intensity of initial treatment was not associated with a lower risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio of death from any cause for patients of low– vs high–treatment intensity providers = 1.03, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 1.09). Initial intensive management did not obviate the need for later interventions. In fact, a higher proportion of patients treated by high–treatment intensity providers than by low–treatment intensity providers subsequently underwent a major medical intervention (11.0% vs 6.4%, P = .02). Conclusions Providers vary widely in how aggressively they manage early-stage bladder cancer. Patients treated by high–treatment intensity providers do not appear to benefit in terms of survival or in avoidance of subsequent major medical interventions.

Ye, Zaojun; Dunn, Rodney L.; Montie, James E.; Birkmeyer, John D.

2009-01-01

373

What do we know about the initiation and early stages of brittle faulting in crystalline rocks?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The styles of initiation and subsequent growth of faults control fault length-slip scaling, the internal structure of fault zones, and fault-rock properties, influencing seismogenic behavior and fluid flow along the faults. Observations by many researchers over the last several decades have illustrated that faults in the upper crust initiate on pre-existing (inherited) or precursory (early-formed) structures and grow by the mechanical interaction and linkage of these structures. These pre-existing and precursory structures are typically mode I fractures (joints, veins, dikes) but may also be semi-brittle shear zones (such as deformation bands in porous sandstone). Research in the granitic outcrops of the central Sierra Nevada (California) has provided significant insight into the geometry and fundamental mechanics of the early stages of fault development. This work has shown that faults in plutonic rocks initiate on pre-existing or precursory joints or dikes and that the discontinuous nature of early mode I fractures has a strong influence on the subsequent development of the fault zone. In basalt, we have similarly observed the important influence of preexisting joints, and, at a broader scale, precursory, semi-brittle shear zones in the form of fault-tip monoclines. In metamorphic rocks, foliation appears to control the initial development of faults, influencing fault orientation, or enabling precursory structures such as kink bands. Kink bands, like deformation bands in porous sandstone, accommodate only small strains before locking, but then become strong inclusions in the material, serving to localize brittle fractures. The quasi-static mechanics of isotropic, isothermal linear-elastic materials in two and three dimensions provides first order understanding of controls on interaction and linkage of early structures, including the concentration of stresses and local stress reorientation. Fruitful research directions important to faulting in crystalline rock include: the influence of thermal stresses and temperature-dependent mechanical properties; mechanical layering and anisotropic material properties; fluid-assisted deformation; and the geologic signature of dynamic rupture.

Crider, J. G.

2011-12-01

374

Suppression of aversive memories associates with changes in early and late stages of neurocognitive processing.  

PubMed

Unwanted memories, such as emotionally negative, can be intentionally suppressed through voluntary control in humans. Memory suppression is thought to be mediated by the interplay of a chain of neurocognitive processes. However, empirical data in support of this notion is lacking. Using high-temporal resolution event-related potential (ERP) technique, we investigated the time course of ERPs associated with suppression of negative and neutral memories in a Think/No-Think paradigm in young, healthy participants. Results showed that participants had greater difficulty in suppressing emotionally negative memories than neutral ones. ERPs and source analyses demonstrated that memory suppression processing for negative and neutral memories were generally associated with changes during early components of a time window of 70-260 ms, such as P1 and N2, mainly at the right inferior frontal gyrus and occipital lobe; suppression of aversive memories was associated with two major late ERP components between 380 and 800 ms, with significantly smaller later negativity (LN) but larger late parietal positivity (LPP), primarily at the right medial and superior frontal gyri. These results suggest that differences in early components may reflect early stages of suppression processing including visual awareness, attention reallocation, and executive processing. Differences in late components between suppression of aversive and neutral memories may reflect a process of down-regulating conscious recollection of memory representations supported by prefrontal and parietal networks. A less effective control of this process, as evidenced by smaller LN and larger LPP, may explain the fact that emotionally negative memories were harder to be suppressed. Altogether, these findings suggest that suppression of aversive memories requires down-regulation of late conscious recollection, which can be dissociated from early visual and attention processing in memory suppression. PMID:22917568

Chen, Chunping; Liu, Chao; Huang, Ruiwang; Cheng, Dazhi; Wu, Haiyan; Xu, Pengfei; Mai, Xiaoqin; Luo, Yue-Jia

2012-10-01

375

Involving patient in the early stages of health technology assessment (HTA): a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Public and patient involvement in the different stages of the health technology assessment (HTA) process is increasingly encouraged. The selection of topics for assessment, which includes identifying and prioritizing HTA questions, is a constant challenge for HTA agencies because the number of technologies requiring an assessment exceeds the resources available. Public and patient involvement in these early stages of HTA could make assessments more relevant and acceptable to them. Involving them in the development of the assessment plan is also crucial to optimize their influence and impact on HTA research. The project objectives are: 1) setting up interventions to promote patient participation in three stages of the HTA process: identification of HTA topics, prioritization, and development of the assessment plan of the topic prioritized; and 2) assessing the impact of patient participation on the relevance of the topics suggested, the prioritization process, and the assessment plan from the point of view of patients and other groups involved in HTA. Methods Patients and their representatives living in the catchment area of the HTA Roundtable of Université Laval’s Integrated University Health Network (covering six health regions of the Province of Quebec, Canada) will be involved in the following HTA activities: 1) identification of potential HTA topics in the field of cancer; 2) revision of vignettes developed to inform the prioritization of topics; 3) participation in deliberation sessions for prioritizing HTA topics; and 4) development of the assessment plan of the topic prioritized. The research team will coordinate the implementation of these activities and will evaluate the process and outcomes of patient involvement through semi-structured interviews with representatives of the different stakeholder groups, structured observations, and document analysis, mainly involving the comparison of votes and topics suggested by various stakeholder groups. Discussion This project is designed as an integrated approach to knowledge translation and will be conducted through a close collaboration between researchers and knowledge users at all stages of the project. In response to the needs expressed by HTA producers, the knowledge produced will be directly useful in guiding practices regarding patient involvement in the early phases of HTA.

2014-01-01

376

Impact of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide on severe acute pancreatitis in early stage  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide (AGD) in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in early and advanced stage. METHODS: Eighty patients with SAP were randomized and received 100 mL/d of 20% AGD intravenously for 10 d starting either on the day of (early treatment group) or 5 d after (late treatment group) admission. Groups had similar demographics, underlying diseases, Ranson score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and Balthazar’s computed tomography (CT) score at the beginning of the study and underwent similar other medical and nutritional management. RESULTS: The duration of acute respiratory distress syndrome (2.7 ± 3.3 d vs 12.7 ± 21.0 d, P < 0.01), renal failure (1.3 ± 0.5 d vs 5.3 ± 7.3 d, P < 0.01), acute hepatitis (3.2 ± 2.3 d vs 7.0 ± 7.1 d, P < 0.01), shock (1.7 ± 0.4 d vs 4.8 ± 3.1 d, P < 0.05), encephalopathy (2.3 ± 1.9 d vs 9.5 ± 11.0 d, P < 0.01) and enteroparalysis (2.2 ± 1.4 d vs 3.5 ± 2.2 d, P < 0.01) and hospital stay (28.8 ± 9.4 d vs 45.2 ± 27.1 d, P < 0.01) were shorter in the early treatment group than in the late treatment group. The 15-d APACHE II score was lower in the early treatment group than in the late treatment group (5.0 ± 2.4 vs 8.6 ± 3.6, P < 0.01). The infection rate (7.9% vs 26.3%, P < 0.05), operation rate (13.2% vs 34.2%, P < 0.05) and mortality (5.3% vs 21.1%, P < 0.05) in the early treatment group were lower than in the late treatment group. CONCLUSION: Early treatment with AGD achieved a better clinical outcome in SAP patients.

Xue, Ping; Deng, Li-Hui; Xia, Qing; Zhang, Zhao-Da; Hu, Wei-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Nan; Song, Bing; Huang, Zong-Wen

2008-01-01

377

Disruption of Smad-dependent signaling for growth of GST-P-positive lesions from the early stage in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the involvement of signaling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} during the hepatocarcinogenesis, the immunohistochemical distribution of related molecules was analyzed in relation with liver cell lesions expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) during liver tumor promotion by fenbendazole, phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, or thioacetamide, using rats. Our study focused on early-stage promotion (6 weeks after starting promotion) and late-stage promotion (57 weeks after starting promotion). With regard to Smad-dependent signaling, cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated Smad (phospho-Smad)-2/3 - identified as Smad3 by later immunoblot analysis - increased in the subpopulation of GST-P{sup +} foci, while Smad4, a nuclear transporter of Smad2/3, decreased during early-stage promotion. By late-stage promotion, GST-P{sup +} lesions lacking phospho-Smad2/3 had increased in accordance with lesion development from foci to carcinomas, while Smad4 largely disappeared in most proliferative lesions. With regard to Smad-independent mitogen-activated protein kinases, GST-P{sup +} foci that co-expressed phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase increased during early-stage promotion; however, p38-downstream phospho-activating transcriptional factor (ATF)-2, ATF3, and phospho-c-Myc, were inversely downregulated without relation to promotion. By late-stage promotion, proliferative lesions downregulated phospho-ATF2 and phospho-c-Myc along with lesion development, as with downregulation of phospho-p38 in all lesions. These results suggest that from the early stages, carcinogenic processes were facilitated by disruption of tumor suppressor functions of Smad-dependent signaling, while Smad-independent activation of p38 was an early-stage phenomenon. GST-P{sup -} foci induced by promotion with agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} did not change Smad expression, suggesting an aberration in the Smad-dependent signaling prerequisites for induction of GST-P{sup +} proliferative lesions.

Ichimura, Ryohei, E-mail: red0828@hotmail.co.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Mizukami, Sayaka, E-mail: non_sugar_life@hotmail.co.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takahashi, Miwa, E-mail: mtakahashi@nihs.go.j [Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Taniai, Eriko, E-mail: taniaie@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Kemmochi, Sayaka, E-mail: msayaka@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Mitsumori, Kunitoshi, E-mail: mitsumor@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.j [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

2010-08-01

378

Total laparoscopic hysterectomy for early stage endometrial cancer in obese and morbidly obese women.  

PubMed

This is a retrospective observational study, where we have evaluated the role of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) in obese and morbidly obese patients with early stage endometrial cancer. Our study illustrates that low conversion rates are achievable when appropriately trained surgeons undertake this procedure. All the women with high BMI were operated on laparoscopically in preference to laparotomy, unless there was an obvious contraindication such as a very large uterus or disseminated disease. We have also shown low conversation and complication rates for our patients, in particular a low rate of wound infection. This is in contrast to the high rate of wound infection and prolonged hospital stay reported for obese patients in the literature. Our study shows that TLH for endometrial cancer in obese women is feasible, safe and is likely to be cost-effective and adds to the weight of evidence for its use in this condition. PMID:22779967

Farthing, A; Chatterjee, J; Joglekar-Pai, P; Dorney, E; Ghaem-Maghami, S

2012-08-01

379

[Extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer and oligometastases].  

PubMed

Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a new radiation technique that combines improvements in radiotherapy planning, intensity modulation and image guidance. The use of SBRT enables radiotherapy to be delivered instead of in six weeks in only a few days and with ablative total dose. Prospective phase II studies in patients with inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer demonstrate that the use of SBRT results in local control rates of 85-95% with acceptable toxicity. SBRT is also increasingly used for treatment of metastases in the lung, liver, retroperitoneum and in bones. Because SBRT enables a locally curative dose to be delivered in a time efficient manner this technique also opens up new perspectives for the treatment of patients with oligometastases. PMID:24129299

Riesterer, Oliver

2013-10-16

380

Ultrasonic force microscopy for nanomechanical characterization of early and late-stage amyloid-? peptide aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aggregation of amyloid-? peptides into protein fibres is one of the main neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While imaging of amyloid-? aggregate morphology in vitro is extremely important for understanding AD pathology and in the development of aggregation inhibitors, unfortunately, potentially highly toxic, early aggregates are difficult to observe by current electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods, due to low contrast and variability of peptide attachment to the substrate. Here, we use a poly-L-Lysine (PLL) surface that captures all protein components from monomers to fully formed fibres, followed by nanomechanical mapping via ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM), which marries high spatial resolution and nanomechanical contrast with the non-destructive nature of tapping mode AFM. For the main putative AD pathogenic component, A?1-42, the PLL-UFM approach reveals the morphology of oligomers, protofibrils and mature fibres, and finds that a fraction of small oligomers is still present at later stages of fibril assembly.

Tinker-Mill, Claire; Mayes, Jennifer; Allsop, David; Kolosov, Oleg V.

2014-02-01

381

A sequence of distinct dynamic ruptures in the early stage of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake gives us numerous mysteries. One of them is the exceptionally huge shallow slip of up to 30-40 m close to the Japan Trench. This massive slip is inferred from seismic, geodetic, and tsunami slip inversions, and is also implied by ocean bottom GPS observations [Sato et al., 2011] and acoustic exploration by JAMSTEC. The shallow slip started about 40 s after the onset. Such large shallow slip was not found in the 2004 Sumatra and the 2010 Chile earthquakes. What enabled the huge slip in Tohoku? Although there are issues related to how the required strain energy accumulated for hundreds of years, this study attempts only to address the question how the source process evolved around the hypocenter in the first 40 s and its relationship with the shallow slip event. Seismic slip inversions and back-projection studies suggest that the initial slip rate and rupture velocity are small. Two possibilities exist: (1) the slip rate and rupture velocity are actually small, or (2) a sequence of individual subevents is seen as apparently slow continuous rupture due to a lack of resolution. Since these two models have different physical interpretations, we investigate the early stage in some detail. The raw waveforms and the source time function inferred from deconvolution analysis imply separate distinct ruptures. At MYGH04, a station of NIED KiK-net, part of the M9 earthquake waveform is very similar to the waveform of an M 5.5 event that occurred at 22:20 on Dec 4, 2005 (UTC), in terms of both the shape and the amplitude. An iterative back projection (IBP) method [Yao et al., this meeting] detects bursts of high-frequency radiation, which may represent individual subevents or rapid changes in the rupture velocity [e.g., Spudich and Frazer, 1984]. In the first 40 s, many high-frequency radiation sources are found within 30 km of the hypocenter at a variety of azimuths from the hypocenter. Multiscale slip inversion [Uchide and Ide, 2007] reveals the rupture process both in the early stage and the entire rupture process. In the early stage, the rupture propagated westward first, then from 20 s propagated eastward. This is consistent with the IBP result. Both the slip rate of about 1 m/s and the westward propagating rupture velocity are comparable to results from other earthquakes. These results imply that the early stage until 40 s is a sequence of distinct dynamic ruptures, which do not spread linearly from the hypocenter, rather than continuous slip with a low slip rate and a low rupture velocity. The rupture may grow by triggering subevents around the hypocenter by dynamic and static stress transfer. Resolving the details of this process should help in understanding what triggered the large shallow slip event.

Uchide, T.; Yao, H.; Shearer, P. M.

2011-12-01

382

An Analysis of Risk and Function Information in Early Stage Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of function offers a high potential for thinking and reasoning about designs as well as providing a common thread for relating together other design information. This paper focuses specifically on the relation between function and risk by examining how this information is addressed for a design team conducting early stage design for space missions. Risk information is decomposed into a set of key attributes which are then used to scrutinize the risk information using three approaches from the pragmatics sub-field of linguistics: i) Gricean, ii) Relevance Theory, and Functional Analysis. Results of this linguistics-based approach descriptively account for the context of designer communication with respect to function and risk, and offer prescriptive guidelines for improving designer communication.

Barrientos, Francesca; Tumer, Irem; Grantham, Katie; VanWie, Michael; Stone, Robert

2005-01-01

383

Injury to the Endothelial Surface Layer Induces Glomerular Hyperfiltration Rats with Early-Stage Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Glomerular endothelial surface layer (ESL) may play a role in the mechanisms of albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy, which lack evidence in vivo. The effects of high glucose on the passage of albumin across the glomerular ESL were analysed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Albuminuria and glomerular mesangial matrix were significantly increased in diabetic rats. The passage of albumin across the ESL, as measured by albumin-colloid gold particle density in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), was increased significantly in diabetic rats. The thickness of the glomerular ESL, examined indirectly by infusing Intralipid into vessels using an electron microscope, was significantly decreased and the GBM exhibited little change in diabetic rats. In summary, the glomerular ESL may play a role in the pathogenesis of albuminuria in rats with early-stage diabetes.

Zhang, Chunyang; Meng, Yao; Liu, Qi; Xuan, Miao; Zhang, Lanyu; Deng, Bo; Zhang, Keqin; Liu, Zhimin; Lei, Tao

2014-01-01

384

Modulation of electron transfer kinetics by protein conformational fluctuations during early-stage photosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of electron transfer during the early stages of the photosynthetic reaction cycle has recently been shown in transient absorption experiments carried out by Wang et al. [Science 316, 747 (2007)] to be strongly influenced by fluctuations in the conformation of the surrounding protein. A model of electron transfer rates in polar solvents developed by Sumi and Marcus using a reaction-diffusion formalism [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] was found to be successful in fitting the experimental absorption curves over a roughly 200 ps time interval. The fits were achieved using an empirically determined time-dependent function that described protein conformational relaxation. In the present paper, a microscopic model of this function is suggested, and it is shown that the function can be identified with the dynamic autocorrelation function of intersegment distance fluctuations that occur in a harmonic potential of mean force under the action of fractional Gaussian noise.

Chaudhury, Srabanti; Cherayil, Binny J. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2007-10-14

385

Adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Approximately 80% of lung malignancies are non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Patients diagnosed with early-stage disease (about 30% of patients) undergo surgery, but up to 50% develop local or distant recurrence. In an effort to improve survival for patients with resectable NSCLC, chemotherapy has been explored in the adjuvant setting. Several adjuvant trials were launched in the mid 1990s after an individual data-based meta-analysis suggested a 5% survival benefit at 5 years. Among those, the International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial (IALT) study, with 1,867 patients included, confirmed the benefit of postoperative chemotherapy in resected NSCLC. More recently, modern platinum-containing doublets showed a 10% to 15% overall benefit compared to no adjuvant treatment. In this article, the current status of adjuvant chemotherapy is reviewed, and future prospects are discussed. PMID:15988682

Dômont, Julien; Soria, Jean-Charles; Le Chevalier, Thierry

2005-06-01

386

The Utility of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing to Detect and Track Early-Stage Ischemic Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Evidence demonstrating the potential value of noninvasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to accurately detect exercise-induced myocardial ischemia is emerging. This case-based concept report describes CPET abnormalities in an asymptomatic at-risk man with suspected early-stage ischemic heart disease. When CPET was repeated 1 year after baseline assessment, his cardiovascular function had worsened, and an anti-atherosclerotic regimen was initiated. When the patient was retested after 3.3 years, the diminished left ventricular function had reversed with pharmacotherapy directed at decreasing cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Thus, in addition to identifying appropriate patients in need of escalating therapy for atherosclerosis, CPET was useful in monitoring progression and reversal of abnormalities of the coronary circulation in a safe and cost-effective manner without the use of radiation. Serial CPET parameters may be useful to track changes marking the progression and/or regression of the underlying global ischemic burden.

Chaudhry, Sundeep; Arena, Ross A.; Hansen, James E.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Myers, Jonathan N.; Sperling, Laurence S.; LaBudde, Brian D.; Wasserman, Karlman

2010-01-01

387

Early Stage Breast Cancer Treatments for Younger Medicare Beneficiaries with Different Disabilities  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore how underlying disability affects treatments and outcomes of disabled women with breast cancer. Data Sources Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data, linked with Medicare files and Social Security Administration disability group. Study Design Ninety thousand two hundred and forty-three incident cases of early-stage breast cancer under age 65; adjusted relative risks and hazards ratios examined treatments and survival, respectively, for women in four disability groups compared with nondisabled women. Principal Findings Demographic characteristics, treatments, and survival varied among four disability groups. Compared with nondisabled women, those with mental disorders and neurological conditions had significantly lower adjusted rates of breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Survival outcomes also varied by disability type. Conclusions Compared with nondisabled women, certain subgroups of women with disabilities are especially likely to experience disparities in care for breast cancer.

Iezzoni, Lisa I; Ngo, Long H; Li, Donglin; Roetzheim, Richard G; Drews, Reed E; McCarthy, Ellen P

2008-01-01

388

Late-Stage Fluvial Erosion in a Changing Climate on Early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decline of heavy bombardment in the solar system coincided with incision of many branching fluvial valleys in the martian highlands. However, these valley networks are underdeveloped relative to typical terrestrial networks, suggesting that valley incision was geologically brief or slow on Mars. Most previous studies have attributed the end of martian fluvial erosion to a monotonic decline of the atmosphere and climate around the Noachian/Hesperian transition. Identification of fluvial valleys on some younger surfaces, including Hesperian volcanoes, and the occurrence of morphologically pristine and degraded reaches in the same valley networks challenged the simplicity of this model. More recently, fluvial valleys and deposits have been recognized on a variety of Hesperian surfaces, including the plateau around Valles Marineris, certain impact craters, and the crustal dichotomy boundary scarp. The extent to which this late-stage erosion represents localized event floods or more widely distributed precipitation and runoff remains to be determined. To evaluate whether Hesperian resurfacing processes were concurrent with (and may have caused) late-stage fluvial erosion, we are identifying any geologically rare or long-lived events that occurred between significant resurfacing events and fluvial erosion of those surfaces. In a variety of locations, we have identified small primary craters that formed between local resurfacing and fluvial dissection of those surfaces, suggesting a gap in time between resurfacing and dissection. These small, otherwise fresh craters have rims or ejecta that were incised by late-stage flows. In other cases, thick stratified deposits accumulated on Hesperian surfaces, and those deposits were later dissected by running water. We also found that highland intercrater plains generally have Early to mid-Hesperian crater populations at diameters less than about 4 km. All smaller primary and secondary craters from the Noachian Period were eradicated. These observations suggest the following geomorphic history. 1) Crater degradation and intercrater resurfacing extended into the Early Hesperian Epoch, but perhaps at a declining rate relative to the Noachian Period. 2) Most of the relict valleys formed as crater degradation declined and intercrater geomorphic surfaces began to stabilize, late in the Noachian or early in the Hesperian Period. 3) Impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, and wind continued to modify the martian surface during the Hesperian Period. Older valley networks experienced some wall retreat and infilling, forming the classic flat-floored morphology. 4) In one or more intervals during the Late Hesperian or Early Amazonian Epochs, many older valleys reactivated, and some new ones formed on Hesperian surfaces. Late-stage erosion was most effective on steep, high-relief slopes, including Late Noachian and Hesperian crater walls, as well as tectonic scarps. In ongoing work, identifying clear stratigraphic relationships between older valleys, interposed geologic features, and younger valleys is key to determining the number and relative ages of erosional events in the martian highlands.

Irwin, R. P.; Matsubara, Y.

2013-12-01

389

Measuring Physical Activity in Older Adults with and without Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

We compared subjective reports of physical activity with objective measures of physical fitness including cardiorespiratory capacity, body composition, and physical performance in 146 older adults with and without early stage Alzheimer’s disease (ESAD). Respondents reported primarily unstructured and low-intensity activities, including walking and housework. Individuals with ESAD participated in fewer and lower intensity physical activities than those without ESAD. In those without ESAD, housework was related to lower body mass index, leisure walking was related to faster speed on a timed walking test, and participation in sports was related to higher peak oxygen intake. In individuals with ESAD, reported physical activities did not predict any of the physical fitness, body composition, or physical performance measures. We conclude that measures of physical activity require expansion of unstructured and low intensity activities to improve sensitivity in sedentary populations, especially in older adults with ESAD.

Watts, Amber S.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Loskutova, Natalia; Johnson, David K.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

390

Early stages of ?-?' phase separation in Fe-Cr alloys: An atomistic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal aging of Fe-Cr alloys was simulated using atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo techniques. The study was performed varying the Cr content in the range of 12-18at.% Cr and at temperatures within the miscibility gap, where ?-?' phase separation occurs. The evolution of the phase-separation process was characterized in terms of precipitate shape, composition, density, and mean size. The results offer a description of ?-?' phase separation in its early stage, which is hardly accessible to experiments and of key importance in understanding the change in mechanical properties of Fe-Cr alloys under thermal aging. The critical size for a stable precipitate was estimated from the simulation data in the framework of Gibbs's homogeneous nucleation theory. The obtained results are compared, whenever possible, with available experimental data and the reliability, as well as the shortcomings, of the applied method is discussed accordingly. Despite strong oversimplifications, the used model shows good agreement with experimental data.

Bonny, G.; Terentyev, D.; Malerba, L.; van Neck, D.

2009-03-01

391

Quantitative analysis of Al-Zn alloys in the early stage of decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of low-angle x-ray scattering is used to perform a detailed analysis of the early stage of decomposition of Al-Zn alloys with 4.41 and 9.41 at. % Zn quenched at different homogenization temperatures. The parameters that characterize the post-quench state of the alloys are determined. It is found that a reduction in the quenching temperature is accompanied by a reduction in the size of the Guinier-Preston (GP) zones and their content of the dissolved element. Here, the density of the zones also decreases. An attempt is made to establish a connection between the parameters of the GP zones and the regions containing closely-spaced lamina formed in the alloys at the homogenization temperature.

Émirbekov, É. T.; Kleshchev, G. V.

1989-08-01

392

Contributions of Inflammatory Processes to the Development of the Early Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetes causes metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, and these changes suggest a role for inflammation in the development of diabetic retinopathy. These changes include upregulation of iNOS, COX-2, ICAM-1, caspase 1, VEGF, and NF-?B, increased production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, IL-1?, and cytokines, as well as increased permeability and leukostasis. Using selective pharmacologic inhibitors or genetically modified animals, an increasing number of therapeutic approaches have been identified that significantly inhibit development of at least the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, especially occlusion and degeneration of retinal capillaries. A common feature of a number of these therapies is that they inhibit production of inflammatory mediators. The concept that localized inflammatory processes play a role in the development of diabetic retinopathy is relatively new, but evidence that supports the hypothesis is accumulating rapidly. This new hypothesis offers new insight into the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, and offers novel targets to inhibit the ocular disease.

Kern, Timothy S.

2007-01-01

393

SSX2-4 expression in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

The expression of cancer/testis antigens SSX2, SSX3, and SSX4 in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) was examined, since they are considered promising targets for cancer immunotherapy due to their immunogenicity and testis-restricted normal tissue expression. We characterized three SSX antibodies and performed immunohistochemical staining of 25 different normal tissues and 143 NSCLCs. The antibodies differed in binding to two distinctive splice variants of SSX2 that exhibited different subcellular staining patterns, suggesting that the two splice variants display different functions. SSX2-4 expression was only detected in 5 of 143 early-stage NSCLCs, which is rare compared to other cancer/testis antigens (e.g. MAGE-A and GAGE). However, further studies are needed to determine whether SSX can be used as a prognostic or predictive biomarker in NSCLC. PMID:24645645

Greve, K B V; Pøhl, M; Olsen, K E; Nielsen, O; Ditzel, H J; Gjerstorff, M F

2014-05-01

394

Placental transport of lindane during early and late stages of gestation in rats  

SciTech Connect

Lindane (gamma-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane, gamma-HCH), an organochlorine pesticide, is widely used as an agricultural pesticide especially in developing countries. Human exposure is likely because of its use in some pharmaceutical preparations and in public health for pest control purpose. It has been detected in human milk and fat samples in India and in many developed countries. The accumulation of lindane over a long period in fat samples and its presence in milk suggests that the human fetus may be exposed to lindane at some time during gestation from the maternal tissue stores. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the placental transfer of lindane in rats during early and late stages of gestation.

Khanna, R.N.; Kunwar, K.; Gupta, R.; Gupta, G.S.D. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1991-10-01

395

Umbilical metastasis derived from early stage rectal cancer: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Umbilical metastasis, also called Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule (SMJN), is defined as the umbilical nodule associated with advanced metastatic intra-abdominal and pelvic malignancies. A patient with umbilical metastasis has been deemed to have a poor prognosis. Rectal cancer presenting with a SMJN is a rare phenomenon, especially in the early stage and in middle-low rectal cancer. Case presentation We report a case of a 70-year-old male presenting with umbilical metastasis derived from rectal cancer (10 cm from the anal verge, T2N0). Discussion and conclusion For rectal cancer with umbilical metastasis, the exact metastatic routes as well as the criterion of diagnosis and treatments are not very clear. Here we review the literature on rectal cancer and SMJN to deepen the understanding of this disease.

2014-01-01

396

A PROBABILITY SURVEY OF SUCCESSIONAL FOREST COMPOSITION AND CONDITION IN A GREAT RIVER FLOODPLAIN LANDSCAPE  

EPA Science Inventory

Floodplains within the Great River Ecosystems (GREs) of the central U.S. are composed of dynamic mosaics of successional habitat that (when unmodified) are typically dominated by cottonwood forest (Populus ssp.). GRE riparian habitat condition and successional dynamics are linked...

397

Seasonal Dynamics of the Plant Community and Soil Seed Bank along a Successional Gradient in a Subalpine Meadow on the Tibetan Plateau  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge about how change the importance of soil seed bank and relationship between seed mass and abundance during vegetation succession is crucial for understanding vegetation dynamics. Many studies have been conducted, but their ecological mechanisms of community assembly are not fully understood. Methodology We examined the seasonal dynamics of the vegetation and soil seed bank as well as seed size distribution along a successional gradient. We also explored the potential role of the soil seed bank in plant community regeneration, the relationship between seed mass and species abundance, and the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes along a successional gradient. Principal Findings Species richness of seed bank increased (shallow layer and the total) and seed density decreased (each layer and the total) significantly with succession. Species richness and seed density differed significantly between different seasons and among soil depths. Seed mass showed a significant negative relationship with relative abundance in the earliest successional stage, but the relationships were not significant in later stages. Seed mass showed no relationship with relative abundance in the whole successional series in seed bank. Results were similar for both July 2005 and April 2006. Conclusions The seed mass and abundance relationship was determined by a complex interaction between small and larger seeded species and environmental factors. Both stochastic processes and deterministic processes were important determinants of the structure of the earliest stage. The importance of seed bank decreased with succession. The restoration of abandoned farmed and grazed meadows to the species-rich subalpine meadow in Tibetan Plateau can be successfully achieved from the soil seed bank. However, at least 20 years are required to fully restore an abandoned agricultural meadow to a natural mature subalpine meadow.

Ma, Miaojun; Zhou, Xianhui; Qi, Wei; Liu, Kun; Jia, Peng; Du, Guozhen

2013-01-01

398

Redox Protein Expression Predicts Radiotherapeutic Response in Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Early-stage invasive breast cancer patients have commonly undergone breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy. In a large majority of these patients, the treatment is effective; however, a proportion will develop local recurrence. Deregulated redox systems provide cancer cells protection from increased oxidative stress, such as that induced by ionizing radiation. Therefore, the expression of redox proteins was examined in tumor specimens from this defined cohort to determine whether such expression could predict response. Methods and Materials: The nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of nine redox proteins (glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutaredoxin, glutathione peroxidase 1, 3, and 4, and glutathione S-transferase-{theta}, -{pi}, and -{alpha}) was assessed using conventional immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 224 tumors. Results: A high cytoplasmic expression of glutathione S-transferase-{theta} significantly correlated with a greater risk of local recurrence (p = .008) and, when combined with a low nuclear expression (p = .009), became an independent predictive factor (p = .002) for local recurrence. High cytoplasmic expression of glutathione S-transferase-{theta} also correlated with a worse overall survival (p = .009). Low nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of glutathione peroxidase 3 (p = .002) correlated with a greater risk of local recurrence and was an independent predictive factor (p = .005). These proteins did not correlate with tumor grade, suggesting their function might be specific to the regulation of oxidative stress rather than alterations of tumor phenotype. Only nuclear (p = .005) and cytoplasmic (p = .001) expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 correlated with the tumor grade. Conclusions: Our results support the use of redox protein expression, namely glutathione S-transferase-{theta} and glutathione peroxidase 3, to predict the response to radiotherapy in early-stage breast cancer patients. If incorporated into routine diagnostic tests, they have the potential to aid clinicians in their stratification of patients into more tailored treatment regimens. Future targeted therapies to these systems might improve the efficacy of reactive oxygen species-inducing therapies, such as radiotherapy.

Woolston, Caroline M. [Division of Clinical Oncology, University of Nottingham School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Al-Attar, Ahmad [Department of Clinical Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals National Health Service Trust, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Storr, Sarah J. [Division of Clinical Oncology, University of Nottingham School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ellis, Ian O. [Division of Histopathology, University of Nottingham School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Morgan, David A.L. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals National Health Service Trust, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Martin, Stewart G., E-mail: stewart.martin@nottingham.ac.u [Division of Clinical Oncology, University of Nottingham School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

2011-04-01

399

Diagnostic classification of arterial spin labeling and structural MRI in presenile early stage dementia.  

PubMed

Because hypoperfusion of brain tissue precedes atrophy in dementia, th