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1

The persistent and pernicious myth of the early CO2-N2 atmospheres of terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accepted model for early atmospheres of terrestrial planets has settled on a CO2-N2 composition. Unfortunately, while it is largely based on a brilliant geological analysis by Rubey, there is no compelling evidence whatsoever for such a composition as the first “permanent” atmosphere for Earth or any other planet. In fact, geological discoveries of the past 50+ years reveal several problems with a CO2-N2 atmosphere, some of which Rubey recognized in his own analysis. He clearly addressed the problem of timing of degassing, concluding that early massive degassing of CO2 would produce readily observed and profound effects, which are not evident. Modeling and constraints on the timing of planetary accretion and core formation indicate massive early degassing. If early degassing emitted CO2-N2, the effects are concealed. Plate tectonic recycling is not a solution, as conditions would have persisted beyond the time of the earliest rocks, which do not show the effects. Attempts to return degassed CO2 to the mantle are not only ad hoc, but inconsistent with early thermal structure of the Earth. Second, production of prebiotic organic compounds from a CO2-N2 atmosphere has been a nagging problem. At best this has been addressed by invoking hydrogen production from the mantle to provide reducing capacity. While hydrogen may be emitted in volcanic eruptions, it is exceedingly difficult to imagine this process generating enough organics to yield high concentrations in a global ocean. The recent fashion of invoking organic synthesis at deep-sea vents suffers from the same problem: how to achieve sufficient concentrations of organics in a global ocean by abiotic synthesis when hydrothermal activity stirs the solution and carries the prebiotic products off to great dilution? Suggesting life began at deep-sea vents, and continues to carry on chemosynthesis there, begs the question. Unless you get high enough concentrations of prebiotics by abiotic processes, you simply don’t get life. Third, solutions invoking high atmospheric CO2 as the answer to the faint young sun problem encounter exactly the same problems associated with prompt degassing of CO2. Fourth, the carbon isotope record, in which early carbonaceous deposits show signs of photosynthetic fractionation of carbon are problematical if most of the primary surface and near-surface carbon was CO2. Finally, the delay in oxidation of Earth’s surface following oxygenic photosynthesis is problematical if early photosynthesizers had a vast CO2 source from early degassing. Given an abundant food supply, what prevented early cyanobacteria from rapidly oxidizing the surface? Although discovery of CO2-rich atmospheres on Venus and Mars seem to support CO2 as the primary surface carbon reservoir, these atmospheres are the result of atmospheric evolution, particularly loss of H to space. ALL of these problems disappear with early degassing of reduced gases such as CH4 and NH3. Considerations of meteoritic compositions, accretionary processes, and early atmosphere/hydrosphere chemical processing all support reduced gases as dominant in the early atmospheres of the terrestrial planets. The time has come to revert to any earlier idea of strongly reducing conditions on early terrestrial planet surfaces, followed by long-term evolutionary trends toward oxidation.

Shaw, G. H.

2009-12-01

2

On the relationship between early solar activity and the evolution of terrestrial planet atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass fractionation during hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen-rich primordial atmospheres form Venus, earth, and Mars can account for most of the salient features of mass distributions in their present-day atmospheres. The principal assumptions and results of an escape-fractionation model for the evolution of terrestrial planet atmospheres from primary to final states are qualitatively described, with emphasis on the astrophysical conditions needed to enable the loss process. A substantial and rapidly declining flux of energetic solar radiation into atmospheric exospheres is required, initially (at solar ages of about 1-10 million years) two to three orders of magnitude more intense than that supplied by extreme-ultraviolet emission from the contemporary sun. The solar accretion disk must have dissipated if such radiation is to penetrate the system midplane to planetray distances. On both criteria, hydrodynamic escape from planets appears plausible in the astrophysical environment of the naked T-Tauri stars.

Repin, Robert O.

1989-01-01

3

Evidence in pre 2.2 Ga paleosols for the early evolution of atmospheric oxygen and terrestrial biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loss of Fe from some pre 2.2 Ga paleosols has been considered by previous investigators as the best evidence for a reduced atmosphere prior to 2.2 Ga. I have examined the behavior of Fe in both pre and post 2.2 Ga paleosols from depth profiles of Fe3+Ti, Fe2+Ti, and ?Fe/Ti ratios, and Fe3+Ti vs. Fe2+Ti plots. This new approach reveals a previously unrecognized history of paleosols. Essentially all paleosols, regardless of age, retain some characteristics of soils formed under an oxic atmosphere, such as increased Fe3+Ti ratios from their parental rocks. The minimum oxygen pressure (PO2) for the 3.0 2.2 Ga atmosphere is calculated to be about 1.5% of the present atmospheric level, which is the same as that for the post 1.9 Ga atmosphere. The loss of ?Fe, common in paleosol sections of all ages, was not due to a reducing atmosphere, but to reductive dissolution of ferric hydroxides formed under an oxic atmosphere. This reductive dissolution of ferric hydroxides occurred either (1) after soil formation by hydrothermal fluids or (2) during and/or after soil formation by organic acids generated from the decay of terrestrial organic matter. Terrestrial biomass on the early continents may have been more extensive than previously recognized.

Ohmoto, Hiroshi

1996-12-01

4

Evolution of the Terrestrial Atmospheres  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lecture compares terrestrial atmospheres and discusses atmospheric processes, atmospheric equilibrium, and the atmospheric development of Mars, Venus, and Earth. It ends with a discussion of natural and unnatural climate changes.

O'Connell, Robert

2005-06-28

5

Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres and Biosignatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for terrestrial exoplanets - rocky worlds in orbit around stars other than the Sun - is one of humanity's most exciting science goals. The discovery of super Earths, terrestrial planets more massive than Earth, has opened a new era in exoplanet science, confirming the basic idea that our solar system is not the only planetary system to harbor terrestrial planets. Terrestrial exoplanets will expand planetary diversity, with masses and compositions likely very different from those found in our solar system. Most significantly, terrestrial exoplanets have the potential to host habitable environments on or below their solid surfaces, and are the most likely places beyond our solar system to search for signs of life. In the coming decades, instrumentation will be developed to expand our census of terrestrial exoplanets and directly characterize the atmospheres and biosignatures of these worlds. In the meantime, scientific progress in this field is made via extensive photochemical, climate, and radiative transfer modeling of terrestrial planetary environments together with remote sensing studies of solar system terrestrial planets, including Earth. This chapter provides an overview of terrestrial exoplanet atmosphere modeling techniques, a review of the scientific advances to date, and a discussion of outstanding questions and future directions.

Meadows, V.; Seager, S.

6

Atmospheric Circulation of Terrestrial Exoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of planets around other stars began with the study of gas giants, but is now extending to the discovery and characterization of super-Earths and terrestrial planets. Motivated by this observational tide, we survey the basic dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation of terrestrial exoplanets, and discuss the interaction of their circulation with the hydrological cycle and global-scale climate feedbacks. Terrestrial exoplanets occupy a wide range of physical and dynamical conditions, only a small fraction of which have yet been explored in detail. Our approach is to lay out the fundamental dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation on terrestrial planets — broadly defined — and show how they can provide a foundation for understanding the atmospheric behavior of these worlds. We first survey basic atmospheric dynamics, including the role of geostrophy, baroclinic instabilities, and jets in the strongly rotating regime (the "extratropics") and the role of the Hadley circulation, wave adjustment of the thermal structure, and the tendency toward equatorial superrotation in the slowly rotating regime (the "tropics"). We then survey key elements of the hydrological cycle, including the factors that control precipitation, humidity, and cloudiness. Next, we summarize key mechanisms by which the circulation affects the global-mean climate, and hence planetary habitability. In particular, we discuss the runaway greenhouse, transitions to snowball states, atmospheric collapse, and the links between atmospheric circulation and CO2 weathering rates. We finish by summarizing the key questions and challenges for this emerging field in the future.

Showman, A. P.; Wordsworth, R. D.; Merlis, T. M.; Kaspi, Y.

7

Synthetic spectra of simulated terrestrial atmospheres containing possible biomarker gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's proposed Terrestrial Planet Finder, a space-based interferometer, will eventually allow spectroscopic analyses of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Such analyses would provide information about the existence of life on these planets. One strategy in the search for life is to look for evidence of O3 (and hence O2) in a planet's atmosphere; another is to look for gases that might be present in an atmosphere analogous to that of the inhabited early Earth. In order to investigate these possibilities, we have calculated synthetic spectra for several hypothetical terrestrial-type atmospheres. The model atmospheres represent four different scenarios. The first two, representing inhabited terrestrial planets, are an Earth-like atmosphere containing variable amounts of oxygen and an early Earth-type atmosphere containing methane. In addition, two cases representing Mars-like and early Venus-like atmospheres were evaluated, to provide possible "false positive" spectra. The calculated spectra suggest that ozone could be detected by an instrument like Terrestrial Planet Finder if the O2 concentration in the planet's atmosphere is > or = 200 ppm, or 10(-3) times the present atmospheric level. Methane should be observable on an early-Earth type planet if it is present in concentrations of 100 ppm or more. Methane has both biogenic and abiogenic sources, but concentrations exceeding 1000 ppm, or 0.1% by volume, would be difficult to produce from abiogenic sources alone. High methane concentrations in a planet's atmosphere are therefore another potential indicator for extraterrestrial life.

Schindler, T. L.; Kasting, J. F.

2000-01-01

8

Impact erosion of terrestrial planetary atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I review current ideas about the nature of the planetesimals - composition, size distribution, and the planetary encounter velocity. Previous papers on accretion and erosion of planetary atmospheres as a result of multiple impacts are reviewed. Finally, the effects of blowing off a substantial fraction of the atmosphere from a terrestrial planet due to a single giant body impact are discussed.

Ahrens, Thomas J.

1992-01-01

9

Fair weather terrestrial atmospheric electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric electricity is one of the oldest experimental topics in atmospheric science. The fair weather aspects, although having less dramatic effects than thunderstorm electrification, link the microscale behaviour of ion clusters to currents flowing on the global scale. This talk will include a survey of some past measurements and measurement methods, as atmospheric electrical data from a variety of sites and eras are now being used to understand changes in atmospheric composition. Potential Gradient data was the original source of information on the global atmospheric electrical circuit, and similar measurements can now be used to reconstruct past air pollution concentrations, and black carbon loading.

Harrison, G.

10

Linkages between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary research issue in understanding the role of terrestrial ecosystems in global change is analyzing the coupling between processes with vastly differing rates of change, from photosynthesis to community change. Representing this coupling in models is the central challenge to modeling the terrestrial biosphere as part of the earth system. Terrestrial ecosystems participate in climate and in the biogeochemical cycles on several temporal scales. Some of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis is incorporated into plant tissue and is delayed from returning to the atmosphere until it is oxidized by decomposition or fire. This slower (i.e., days to months) carbon loop through the terrestrial component of the carbon cycle, which is matched by cycles of nutrients required by plants and decomposers, affects the increasing trend in atmospheric CO2 concentration and imposes a seasonal cycle on that trend. Moreover, this cycle includes key controls over biogenic trace gas production. The structure of terrestrial ecosystems, which responds on even longer time scales (annual to century), is the integrated response to the biogeochemical and environmental constraints that develop over the intermediate time scale. The loop is closed back to the climate system since it is the structure of ecosystems, including species composition, that sets the terrestrial boundary condition in the climate system through modification of surface roughness, albedo, and, to a great extent, latent heat exchange. These separate temporal scales contain explicit feedback loops which may modify ecosystem dynamics and linkages between ecosystems and the atmosphere. The long-term change in climate, resulting from increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O)) will further modify the global environment and potentially induce further ecosystem change. Modeling these interactions requires coupling successional models to biogeochemical models to physiological models that describe the exchange of water, energy, and biogenic trace gases between the vegetation and the atmosphere at fine time scales. There does not appear to be any obvious way to allow direct reciprocal coupling of atmospheric general circulation models (GCM's), which inherently run with fine time steps, to ecosystem or successional models, which have coarse temporal resolution, without the interposition of physiological canopy models. This is equally true for biogeochemical models of the exchange of carbon dioxide and trace gases. This coupling across time scales is nontrivial and sets the focus for the modeling strategy.

Bretherton, Francis; Dickinson, Robert E.; Fung, Inez; Moore, Berrien, III; Prather, Michael; Running, Steven W.; Tiessen, Holm

1992-01-01

11

Atmospheric evolution of the terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major atmospheric gases on Earth, Venus, and Mars were probably CO2, H2O, and N2. Most of the Earth's CO2 is tied up in minerals such as limestone, and Venus has lost most of its H2O, leaving the CO2 in the atmosphere. Much of Mars' atmosphere may have been eroded in impacts by large meteoroids early in solar-system history. Noble gases are very underabundant everywhere, and must have been lost during an early period: they were probably dragged along during rapid loss of massive amounts of hydrogen. The tenuous atmospheres of Mercury and the moon have lifetimes of a few days or less and must be continuously replenished from internal or external sources.

Hunten, D. M.

1993-02-01

12

Water Loss from Terrestrial Planets with CO2-rich Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on a range of atmospheric and external parameters. We show that CO2 can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO2 atmospheric partial pressures (0.1-1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but X-ray and ultraviolet/ultravoilet luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on water loss for planets like Earth. In contrast, for a CO2-rich early Venus, diffusion limits on water loss are only important if clouds caused strong cooling, implying that scenarios where the planet never had surface liquid water are indeed plausible. Around M-stars, water loss is primarily a function of orbital distance, with planets that absorb less flux than ~270 W m-2 (global mean) unlikely to lose more than one Earth ocean of H2O over their lifetimes unless they lose all their atmospheric N2/CO2 early on. Because of the variability of H2O delivery during accretion, our results suggest that many "Earth-like" exoplanets in the habitable zone may have ocean-covered surfaces, stable CO2/H2O-rich atmospheres, and high mean surface temperatures.

Wordsworth, R. D.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.

2013-12-01

13

Ions in the Terrestrial Atmosphere and Other Solar System Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charged molecular clusters, traditionally called small ions, carry electric currents in atmospheres. Charged airborne particles, or aerosol ions, play an important role in generation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols. Growth of ions depends on the trace gas content, which is highly variable in the time and space. Even at sub-ppb concentrations, electrically active organic compounds ( e.g. pyridine derivatives) can affect the ion composition and size. The size and mobility are closely related, although the form of the relationship varies depending on the critical diameter, which, at 273 K, is about 1.6 nm. For ions smaller than this the separation of quantum levels exceeds the average thermal energy, allowing use of a molecular aggregate model for the size-mobility relation. For larger ions the size-mobility relation approaches the Stokes-Cunningham-Millikan law. The lifetime of a cluster ion in the terrestrial lower atmosphere is about one minute, determined by the balance between ion production rate, ion-ion recombination, and ion-aerosol attachment.

Harrison, R. Giles; Tammet, Hannes

2008-06-01

14

Ions in the Terrestrial Atmosphere and Other Solar System Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charged molecular clusters, traditionally called small ions, carry electric currents in atmospheres. Charged airborne particles, or aerosol ions, play an important role in generation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols. Growth of ions depends on the trace gas content, which is highly variable in the time and space. Even at sub-ppb concentrations, electrically active organic compounds (e.g. pyridine derivatives) can affect the ion composition and size. The size and mobility are closely related, although the form of the relationship varies depending on the critical diameter, which, at 273 K, is about 1.6 nm. For ions smaller than this the separation of quantum levels exceeds the average thermal energy, allowing use of a molecular aggregate model for the size-mobility relation. For larger ions the size-mobility relation approaches the Stokes-Cunningham-Millikan law. The lifetime of a cluster ion in the terrestrial lower atmosphere is about one minute, determined by the balance between ion production rate, ion-ion recombination, and ion-aerosol attachment.

Harrison, R. Giles; Tammet, Hannes

15

Energetic Metastable Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms in the Terrestrial Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated the energy distributions of the metastable oxygen atoms in the terrestrial thermosphere. Nascent O(lD) atoms play a fundamental role in the energy balance and chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere, because they are produced by photo-chemical reactions in the excited electronic states and carry significant translational energies.

Kharchenko, Vasili

2003-01-01

16

Morphological Biosignatures in Early Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosignatures in early terrestrial rocks are highly relevant in the search for traces of life on Mars because the early geological\\u000a environments of the two planets were, in many respects, similar and, thus, the potential habitats for early life forms were\\u000a similar. However, the identification and interpretation of biosignatures in ancient terrestrial rocks has proven contentious\\u000a over the last few

Frances Westall

2008-01-01

17

Space, atmospheric, and terrestrial radiation environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress on developing models of the radiation environment since the 1960s is reviewed with emphasis on models that can be applied to predicting the performance of microelectronics used in spacecraft and instruments. Space, atmospheric, and ground environments are included. It is shown that models must be adapted continually to account for increased understanding of the dynamics of the radiation

J. L. Barth; C. S. Dyer; E. G. Stassinopoulos

2003-01-01

18

The global lens-effect of the terrestrial atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focusing of solar radiation by the terrestrial atmosphere is considered taking into account many factors which weaken the lens-effect. It is possible to evaluate the amplification factor of the lens and the effect of screening by clouds during a lunar eclipse.

P. V. Bliokh; A. A. Minakov

1998-01-01

19

Early Atmosphere Teaching Ideas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These teaching ideas were submitted during the April 2007 workshop on Teaching About the Early Earth. They represent collaborative brainstorming rather than finished products, but they are a useful starting point ...

20

Terrestrial nitrous oxide cycles and atmospheric effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic processes that cause N2O emission from soils are briefly discussed, and the rate of the processes is shown to vary widely in space and time, depending on soil, climate, and agrotechnical conditions. Although significant amounts of N2O are indeed emitted from the land, the complexity of the soil processes involved and the wide variation of measured rates still prevents the quantitative evaluation, global budgeting, and reliable prediction of atmospheric N2O. Increased atmospheric N2O abundance increases the levels of odd-nitrogen in the stratosphere, which, in turn, decreases the stratospheric ozone density via a catalytic cycle. Using appropriate atmospheric models and current chemical kinetic data, it has been found that the dependence of ozone reduction on N2O increase is nearly linear; a simulated doubling of N2O leads to a predicted decrease of about 14 percent in total ozone column density. A 10 percent increase in N2O yields a predicted increase in nonmelanoma skin cancer of several percent, and a possible raising of surface temperature of 0.03 K.

Whitten, R. C.; Lawless, J. G.; Banin, A.

1984-01-01

21

Space, Atmospheric, and Terrestrial Radiation Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress on developing models of the radiation environment since the 1960s is reviewed with emphasis on models that can be applied to predicting the performance of microelectronics used in spacecraft and instruments. Space, atmospheric, and ground environments are included. It is shown that models must be adapted continually to account for increased understanding of the dynamics of the radiation environment and the changes in microelectronics technology. The IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference is a vital forum to report model progress to the radiation effects research community.

Barth, Janet L.; Dyer, C. S.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.

2003-01-01

22

The Atmospheric and Terrestrial Mobile Laboratory (ATML).  

SciTech Connect

The ionospheric disturbance dynamo signature in geomagnetic variations is investigated using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. The model results are tested against reference magnetically quiet time observations on 21 June 1993, and disturbance effects were observed on 11 June 1993. The model qualitatively reproduces the observed diurnal and latitude variations of the geomagnetic horizontal intensity and declination for the reference quiet day in midlatitude and low-latitude regions but underestimates their amplitudes. The patterns of the disturbance dynamo signature and its source 'anti-Sq' current system are well reproduced in the Northern Hemisphere. However, the model significantly underestimates the amplitude of disturbance dynamo effects when compared with observations. Furthermore, the largest simulated disturbances occur at different local times than the observations. The discrepancies suggest that the assumed high-latitude storm time energy inputs in the model were not quantitatively accurate for this storm.

Zak, Bernard Daniel; Rahn, Thom (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Nitschke, Kim (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Ivey, Mark D.; Mora, Claudia (Los Alamos National Laboratory); McDowell, Nate (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Love, Steve (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Dubey, M. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Michelsen, Hope A.; Guilderson, Tom (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Schubert, William Kent; Costigan, Keeley (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Chylek, Petr (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Bambha, Ray P.; Roskovensky, John K.

2010-04-01

23

Sulphur cycling between terrestrial agroecosystem and atmosphere.  

PubMed

Central gas station of the natural gas borehole system Podravina is located near the village Molve. It delivers more than a quarter of total energy used in Croatia to its consumers. Over the years, adapting technology to increasingly demanding and rigorous standards in environmental protection has become paramount. Yet, despite all the industry has undertaken to address the risk of harmful substances entering the food chain, a multidisciplinary research team of independent scientists monitors the content of specific substances in all components of the ecosystem. This paper presents measurements of total sulphur contents in soil surface [(0 to 3) cm] and subsurface [(3 to 8) cm] layers (study period: autumn 2006 - spring 2010) and in plants (study period: spring 2000 - spring 2010), and the concentration of gaseous sulphur compounds in the air. Concentrations of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and mercaptans (RSH) were measured from the summer of 2002 until the autumn of 2010, while concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2) were measured from the spring of 2008 until the autumn of 2010. The paper also shows total annual atmospheric sulphur (S-SO4) deposition at Bilogora measuring station (study period: 2001 - 2010). Average monthly concentrations of H2S in air varied between 0.2 ?g m-3 and 2.0 ?g m-3, RSH between 0.1 ?g m-3 and 24.5 ?g m-3, and SO2 between 0.4 ?g m-3 and 2.8 ?g m-3 depending on the location and the season of sampling. Mean values of total sulphur in soil and in Plantago lanceolata plant ranged between 610 mg kg-1 and 1,599 mg kg-1 and between 3,614 mg kg-1 and 4,342 mg kg-1, respectively, depending on the soil type, location, and sampling depth. Average values of total sulphur mass ratio for all examined single soil samples (n=80) were 1,080 mg kg-1 for both studied layers, and 4,108 mg kg-1 for all analysed plant samples (n=85). Average total annual atmospheric sulphur deposition at Bilogora measuring station was 6.3 kg of S-SO4 per hectare. PMID:23152380

Zgorelec, Zeljka; Pehnec, Gordana; Baši?, Ferdo; Kisi?, Ivica; Mesi?, Milan; Zužul, Silva; Juriši?, Aleksandra; Sestak, Ivana; Va?i?, Vladimira; Ca?kovi?, Mirjana

2012-09-01

24

Kinetics of Fast Atoms in the Terrestrial Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes our investigations performed under NASA Grant NAG5-8058. The three-year research supported by the Geospace Sciences SR&T program (Ionospheric, Thermospheric, and Mesospheric Physics) has been designed to investigate fluxes of energetic oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the terrestrial thermosphere. Fast atoms are produced due to absorption of the solar radiation and due to coupling between the ionosphere and the neutral thermospheric gas. We have investigated the impact of hot oxygen and nitrogen atoms on the thermal balance, chemistry and radiation properties of the terrestrial thermosphere. Our calculations have been focused on the accurate quantitative description of the thermalization of O and N energetic atoms in collisions with atom and molecules of the ambient neutral gas. Upward fluxes of oxygen and nitrogen atoms, the rate of atmospheric heating by hot oxygen atoms, and the energy input into translational and rotational-vibrational degrees of atmospheric molecules have been evaluated. Altitude profiles of hot oxygen and nitrogen atoms have been analyzed and compared with available observational data. Energetic oxygen atoms in the terrestrial atmosphere have been investigated for decades, but insufficient information on the kinetics of fast atmospheric atoms has been a main obstacle for the interpretation of observational data and modeling of the hot geocorona. The recent development of accurate computational methods of the collisional kinetics is seen as an important step in the quantitative description of hot atoms in the thermosphere. Modeling of relaxation processes in the terrestrial atmosphere has incorporated data of recent observations, and theoretical predictions have been tested by new laboratory measurements.

Kharchenko, Vasili A.; Dalgarno, A.; Mellott, Mary (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

25

Atmospheric Escape and Evolution of Terrestrial Planets and Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin and evolution of Venus', Earth's, Mars' and Titan's atmospheres are discussed from the time when the active young Sun arrived at the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence. We show that the high EUV flux of the young Sun, depending on the thermospheric composition, the amount of IR-coolers and the mass and size of the planet, could have been responsible that hydrostatic equilibrium was not always maintained and hydrodynamic flow and expansion of the upper atmosphere resulting in adiabatic cooling of the exobase temperature could develop. Furthermore, thermal and various nonthermal atmospheric escape processes influenced the evolution and isotope fractionation of the atmospheres and water inventories of the terrestrial planets and Saturn's large satellite Titan efficiently.

Lammer, Helmut; Kasting, James F.; Chassefière, Eric; Johnson, Robert E.; Kulikov, Yuri N.; Tian, Feng

26

Atmospheric Escape and Evolution of Terrestrial Planets and Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin and evolution of Venus’, Earth’s, Mars’ and Titan’s atmospheres are discussed from the time when the active young Sun arrived at the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence. We show that the high EUV flux of the young Sun, depending on the thermospheric composition, the amount of IR-coolers and the mass and size of the planet, could have been responsible that hydrostatic equilibrium was not always maintained and hydrodynamic flow and expansion of the upper atmosphere resulting in adiabatic cooling of the exobase temperature could develop. Furthermore, thermal and various nonthermal atmospheric escape processes influenced the evolution and isotope fractionation of the atmospheres and water inventories of the terrestrial planets and Saturn’s large satellite Titan efficiently.

Lammer, Helmut; Kasting, James F.; Chassefière, Eric; Johnson, Robert E.; Kulikov, Yuri N.; Tian, Feng

2008-08-01

27

Energetic Metastable Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms in the Terrestrial Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated the impact of hot metastable oxygen atoms on the product yields and rate coefficients of atmospheric reactions involving O( (sup 1)D). The contribution of the metastable oxygen atoms to the thermal balance of the terrestrial atmosphere between 50 and 200 km has been determined. We found that the presence of hot O((sup l)D) atoms in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere significantly increases the production rate of the rotationally-vibrationally excited NO molecules. The computed yield of the NO molecules in N2O+ O((sup 1)D) atmospheric collisions, involving non-Maxwellian distributions of the metastable oxygen atoms, is more than two times larger than the NO-yield at a thermal equilibrium. The calculated non-equilibrium rate and yield functions are important for ozone and nitrous oxide modeling in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

Kharchenko, Vasili

2004-01-01

28

Energetic Metastable Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms in the Terrestrial Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes our research performed under NASA Grant NAG5-11857. The three-year grant have been supported by the Geospace Sciences SR&T program. We have investigated the energetic metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the terrestrial stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. Hot atoms in the atmosphere are produced by solar radiation, the solar wind and various ionic reactions. Nascent hot atoms arise in ground and excited electronic states, and their translational energies are larger by two - three orders of magnitude than the thermal energies of the ambient gas. The relaxation kinetics of hot atoms determines the rate of atmospheric heating, the intensities of aeronomic reactions, and the rate of atom escape from the planet. Modeling of the non-Maxwellian energy distributions of metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms have been focused on the determination of their impact on the energetics and chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere between 25 and 250 km . At this altitudes, we have calculated the energy distribution functions of metastable O and N atoms and computed non-equilibrium rates of important aeronomic reactions, such as destruction of the water molecules by O(1D) atoms and production of highly excited nitric oxide molecules. In the upper atmosphere, the metastable O(lD) and N(2D) play important role in formation of the upward atomic fluxes. We have computed the upward fluxes of the metastable and ground state oxygen atoms in the upper atmosphere above 250 km. The accurate distributions of the metastable atoms have been evaluated for the day and night-time conditions.

Kharchenko, Vasili; Dalgarno, A.

2005-01-01

29

Habitability of Terrestrial Planets in the Early Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Protoearth, Mars, Venus, and the Moon-forming impactor were potentially habitable in the early solar system. The interiors of larger asteroids had habitable circulating water. To see when the inner solar system became continuously habitable, one needs to consider the most dangerous events and the safest refugia from them. Early geochemical and accretionary processes set the subsequent silicate planet reservoirs and hence hydrospheric and atmospheric masses. The moon-forming impact made the Moon and the Earth sterile bodies. Following the impact, the Earth passed through a rock-vapor atmosphere on the scale of 1000s of years and an internally heated steam greenhouse on the scale of 2 m.y. Minerals bearing the principle volatiles (water, Cl, and CO2) were stable at the Earth's surface by the time it cooled to 800K. The mass of reactable shallow material was insufficient to contain the available water and CO2. Habitable conditions were established after CO2 could be deeply subducted into the mantle. Vast quantities of H2 were vented during accretion and after the moon-forming impact and eventually lost to space. It is unknown whether significant amounts of this gas were present when the Earth's surface cooled into the habitable range. The moon remained sterile because its interior is essentially devoid of water. The mantle of the Earth, in contrast, cannot hold the available water, leaving the excess to form oceans. Nitrogen may behave similarly with the excess going into the air. Impacts of large asteroids (and comets) were an ever-present danger on otherwise habitable planets. The safest niche on planets was kilometer or deeper crustal rocks habitable by thermophiles. It is inevitable that several objects, which would have left only thermophile survivors, struck the Earth. Such events were so infrequent that the conditions of such a bottleneck should not be confused with conditions for the origin of life. An alternative refugium involves ejection of life within rock fragments and return of such fragments to the surface of the home planet or transfer to another habitable planet. Mars and the larger asteroids were habitable first and provide likely sources of seed and also testable places to look for preserved evidence. Extant terrestrial life appears to have passed through thermophile bottlenecks. There are subtle hints of space transfer. The need of extant life for Ni may be a vestige of life on a young planet covered with ultramafic rocks.

SLEEP, N. H.

2001-12-01

30

Photochemistry in Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres. II. H2S and SO2 Photochemistry in Anoxic Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H2S and SO2) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H2S and SO2 are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H2, N2, and CO2 atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere, which would condense to form aerosols if saturated. For terrestrial exoplanets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars or M stars, Earth-like sulfur emission rates result in optically thick haze composed of elemental sulfur in reducing H2-dominated atmospheres for a wide range of particle diameters (0.1-1 ?m), which is assumed as a free parameter in our simulations. In oxidized atmospheres composed of N2 and CO2, optically thick haze, composed of elemental sulfur aerosols (S8) or sulfuric acid aerosols (H2SO4), will form if the surface sulfur emission is two orders of magnitude more than the volcanic sulfur emission of Earth. Although direct detection of H2S and SO2 by their spectral features is unlikely, their emission might be inferred by observing aerosol-related features in reflected light with future generation space telescopes.

Hu, Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William

2013-05-01

31

Early Martian environments - The antarctic and other terrestrial analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The comparability of the early environments of Mars and earth, and the biological evolution which occurred on early earth, motivates serious consideration of the possibility of an early Martian biota. Environments which could have contained this early Martian life and which may presently contain evidence of this former life include aquatic, ice, soil, and rock habitats. Several analogs of these potential early Martian environments, which can provide useful information in searching for extinct life on Mars, are currently available for study on earth. These terrestrial analogs include the perennially ice-covered lakes and sandstone rocks in the polar deserts of Antarctica, surface of snowfields and glaciers, desert soils, geothermal springs, and deep subsurface environments.

Wharton, R. A., Jr.; Mckay, C. P.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Simmons, G. M., Jr.

1989-01-01

32

Terrestrial ecosystem regulation of interannual variability in atmospheric CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linking interannual variability in the global carbon dioxide, CO2, growth rate to its ecological and physical drivers may provide a means to improve predictions of long-term carbon-climate feedbacks. Many studies have attributed variability in the global CO2 record to a single factor, such as temperature, drought, or fire, or have asserted a combination of controls using complex ecosystem models. The evolving temporal and spatial structure of atmospheric CO2 may enable a more effective attribution of these processes, but has not been used systematically for this purpose. Here we simulated the fingerprints that terrestrial fluxes of carbon originating from temperature and drought stress and biomass burning imprint on the latitudinal and temporal distribution atmospheric CO2 for the 1997-2009 period using the GEOS-Chem atmospheric model. In general, temperature, precipitation, and drought signatures were highly correlated across different latitude bands, indicating that no single factor was the dominant mechanism explaining most of the CO2 variability. Fires had a unique signature, particularly in the northern hemisphere as a consequence of large events in the boreal forest during 1998, 2004, and 2008. Statistical models that combined these factors were able to explain between 20% and 40% of the CO2 variability in the northern hemisphere and 40-50% in the southern hemisphere. Net ecosystem exchange fluxes from the tropics, temperature, precipitation, and drought time series explained a considerable amount of flux variability in the NH and SH extra-tropics. Fires accounted for 25% to 30% of the total modeled variability in the NH (north of 23N) with this amount decreasing to about 20% in the SH (south of 23S). We also examined results from CMIP5 coupled Earth System Models to quantify patterns of variability in atmospheric CO2 originating from terrestrial ecosystems. We compared the variations correlated with temperature and precipitation variability to estimate the apparent climate sensitivity over the historical period, and examined the implications for long term carbon storage as climate changes. The results from these generalized simulations show that accounting for the latitudinal variability in atmospheric CO2 as well as the time-lag from transport facilitates a better relationship between fluxes and observed variations.

Keppel-Aleks, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Mu, M.; Doney, S. C.; van der Werf, G.; Collatz, G. J.; Morton, D. C.

2013-12-01

33

Atmospheric Escape and Climate Evolution of Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate of a planet is primarily determined by its orbital distance from its star, the luminosity of the star, the existence of oceans, the pressure of its atmosphere, and the composition of its atmosphere. The last two components are what could be impacted by atmosphere escape. The Sun, as the dominant energy source driving the climate of terrestrial planets, was not always as bright as it is today. Stellar evolution theory predicts that the luminosity of the young Sun was 75% of its present luminosity, at approximately 4 b.y. ago (4 Ga) (Gough, 1981). Although the Sun could have lost some of its mass, thus making the very young Sun somewhat more massive than it is now and therefore could have emitted more energy, most of this mass loss was completed prior to 4 Ga (Wood et al., 2005). Thus the Sun has provided increasingly more energy to solar system planets during the past 4 b.y. Contrary to the evolutionary trend of the total luminosity increasing with time, the young Sun should have emitted much stronger EUV, soft X-ray, and far-UV photons than at present. These photons are from the upper atmosphere of the Sun and are linked to solar magnetic activity. Generally speaking, a young star rotates much faster and thus has stronger magnetic activity. Observations of solar-type stars with different ages show that the EUV energy flux from a 0.5-b.y.-old solar-type star could be as much as 20 times that of the present Sun (Ribas et al., 2005). Accompanying this much-enhanced solar extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation is a much stronger solar wind, with mass flux up to 1000 times more intense than the present solar wind flux (Wood et al., 2005). It can be expected that many more energetic-particle events were caused by the young Sun. The fate of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets in such an environment and the consequences for their climates are the focus of this chapter.

Tian, F.; Chassefière, E.; Leblanc, F.; Brain, D.

34

Terrestrial atmospheric effects induced by counterstreaming dense interstellar cloud material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar System during its life has encountered more than 10 times with dense interstellar clouds with particle concentrations about 10(8)-10(9) m(-3) and more suppressing the heliopause to dimensions smaller than 1 AU and bringing the Earth in immediate contact with the interstellar matter. For cloud's concentration greater than of 10(8) m(-3), the flow material at the Earth, completely shielded from solar wind protons would be only subject to solar photoionization processes. Previously published results were limited to consideration of processes outside of the accretion radius and have not been taken into account the photoionization. We have developed a 2D-2-fluid gasdynamical numerical code to describe the behavior of the incoming neutral matter near the Earth, taken into account both the photoionization and the gravity of the Sun. Increased neutral hydrogen fluxes ranging from 10(13) to 10(16) m(-2)s(-1) would cause an alteration of the terrestrial atmosphere. During immersion in the cloud the total incident flux of neutral hydrogen onto the terrestrial atmosphere in the steady state would be balanced by the upward escape flux of hydrogen and the downward flux of water, which is the product of hydrogen-oxygen chemistry via even-odd reaction schemes. In that case hydrogen acts as a catalyst for the destruction of oxygen atoms and causes the ozone concentration to diminish pronouncedly above 50 km from a factor of 1.5 at the stratopause to about a factor of 1000 and more at the mesopause. Thus, depending on the encounter parameters the large mixing ratio of hydrogen decreases the ozon concentration in the mesosphere and triggers an ice age of relatively long duration.

Yeghikyan, A.; Fahr, H.

35

Exploring terrestrial and atmospheric constraints in land surface model validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulating land surface processes is important both for applied hydrological forecasting, e.g., of floods and droughts, and for representation of land-atmosphere energy exchanges in numerical weather prediction and climate models. Evaluation of model estimates of terrestrial surface fluxes, such as runoff, as well as fluxes to the atmosphere, such as evapotranspiration, are also needed to ensure the realistic prediction of both moisture and energy fluxes. To this end, we evaluate the performance of a unified land model, ULM, which is a merger of the Noah land surface scheme used in NOAA’s weather prediction and climate models with the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model, used by the National Weather Service for operational streamflow prediction. Parameter estimation uses multiple objective functions that include minimization of the residual between modeled fluxes and both (i) observed streamflow and (ii) multiple observation-based estimates of evapotranspiration (ET). We describe the selection of a set of reference or benchmarking river basins taken in large part from the MOPEX (Model Parameter Estimation Experiment) and FLUXNET stations, supplemented by surface flux products from the North American Regional Reanalysis.

Livneh, B.; Restrepo, P. J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2010-12-01

36

The early atmosphere - A new picture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last few years, discoveries in astronomy, geochemistry, and atmospheric chemistry have resulted in a new picture of how our planet and its atmosphere formed. The traditional view held that the early atmosphere was composed of methane, ammonia, and molecular hydrogen, but the actual composition may have been nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. The history leading to the present understanding is discussed and topics covered include: chemical evolution, origin of the atmosphere, atmospheric evolution on earth, Venus, and Mars, and prebiological atmospheric oxygen and the early sun.

Levine, Joel S.

1986-01-01

37

Atmospheric dynamics of terrestrial exoplanets over a wide range of orbital and atmospheric parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters, suggests that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone--including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks--depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, pattern of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, planetary mass, surface gravity, heat flux from a parent star, atmospheric mass and optical thickness affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley cells, and the equator-to-pole temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global-scale climate feedbacks that control the width of the habitable zone.

Kaspi, Yohai; Showman, Adam

2014-05-01

38

Seven years of recent European net terrestrial carbon dioxide exchange constrained by atmospheric observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an estimate of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 in Europe for the years 2001–2007. It is derived with a data assimilation that uses a large set of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction observations (?70 000) to guide relatively simple descriptions of terrestrial and oceanic net exchange, while fossil fuel and fire emissions are prescribed. Weekly terrestrial sources and

W. Peters; M. C. Krol; G. R. van der Werf; S. Houweling; C. D. Jones; J. Hughes; K. Schaefer; K. A. Masarie; A. R. Jacobson; J. B. Miller; C. H. Cho; M. Ramonet; M. Schmidt; L. Ciattaglia; F. Apadula; D. Heltai; F. Meinhardt; A. G. di Sarra; S. Piacentino; D. Sferlazzo; T. Aalto; J. Hatakka; J. Ström; L. Haszpra; H. A. J. Meijer; S. van der Laan; R. E. M. Neubert; A. Jordan; X. Rodó; J.-A. Morguí; A. T. Vermeulen; E. Popa; K. Rozanski; M. Zimnoch; A. C. Manning; M. Leuenberger; C. Uglietti; A. J. Dolman; P. Ciais; M. Heimann; P. P. Tans

2010-01-01

39

A massive early atmosphere on Triton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The idea of an early greenhouse atmosphere for Triton is presented and the conditions under which it may have been sustained are quantified. The volatile content of primordial Triton is modeled, and tidal heating rates are assessed to set bounds on the available energy. The atmospheric model formalism is presented, and it is shown how a massive atmosphere could have been raised by modest tidal heating fluxes. The implications of the model atmospheres for the atmospheric escape rates, the chemical evolution, and the cratering record are addressed.

Lunine, Jonathan I.; Nolan, Michael C.

1992-01-01

40

Large impact events and atmospheric evolution on the terrestrial planets  

SciTech Connect

The first task undertaken is the characterization of the impact rates in the inner solar system during the present time, and during the first billion years of Solar System history when the flux was changing rapidly. Once defined, these fluxes are used to model the long term cumulative effect of multiple impacts on planetary atmospheres. The implications of cometary impacts on evolution of the water and deuterium abundances on Venus are examined. The short lifetime of water on Venus suggests that the water abundance is in quasi-steady-state balance between loss by escape and replenishment by infall. In addition, the observed deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio on Venus is consistent with a steady state and does not necessarily imply a past water excess. Results are presented of a model incorporating a stochastic cometary source and nonthermal escape of hydrogen that produces the observed water abundance and D/H ratio. The stochastic variability of each of these quantities is shown to be large. Water on Venus is likely to be in a near steady state mediated by large comet impacts. The early history of water on the planet has been obscured by a history of random impacts. A study of the effects of impact-generated dust clouds on the primitive Earth leads to the conclusion that such clouds were significant perturbers of the early climate. The Earth was shrouded by an optically-thick dust cloud for {approx}150-250 m.y.. During this time the surface temperature was equal to the planetary equilibrium temperature unless significant heating by impacts or surface heat flow existed beneath the dust cloud. The epoch of continuous dust shrouding was followed by a period of stochastically intermittent dust clouds occurring at greater intervals as the early intense bombardment subsided towards the present day flux.

Grinspoon, D.H.

1989-01-01

41

Photochemistry in Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres. I. Photochemistry Model and Benchmark Cases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive photochemistry model for exploration of the chemical composition of terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. The photochemistry model is designed from the ground up to have the capacity to treat all types of terrestrial planet atmospheres, ranging from oxidizing through reducing, which makes the code suitable for applications for the wide range of anticipated terrestrial exoplanet compositions. The one-dimensional chemical transport model treats up to 800 chemical reactions, photochemical processes, dry and wet deposition, surface emission, and thermal escape of O, H, C, N, and S bearing species, as well as formation and deposition of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid aerosols. We validate the model by computing the atmospheric composition of current Earth and Mars and find agreement with observations of major trace gases in Earth's and Mars' atmospheres. We simulate several plausible atmospheric scenarios of terrestrial exoplanets and choose three benchmark cases for atmospheres from reducing to oxidizing. The most interesting finding is that atomic hydrogen is always a more abundant reactive radical than the hydroxyl radical in anoxic atmospheres. Whether atomic hydrogen is the most important removal path for a molecule of interest also depends on the relevant reaction rates. We also find that volcanic carbon compounds (i.e., CH4 and CO2) are chemically long-lived and tend to be well mixed in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and their dry deposition velocities to the surface control the atmospheric oxidation states. Furthermore, we revisit whether photochemically produced oxygen can cause false positives for detecting oxygenic photosynthesis, and find that in 1 bar CO2-rich atmospheres oxygen and ozone may build up to levels that have conventionally been accepted as signatures of life, if there is no surface emission of reducing gases. The atmospheric scenarios presented in this paper can serve as the benchmark atmospheres for quickly assessing the lifetime of trace gases in reducing, weakly oxidizing, and highly oxidizing atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets for the exploration of possible biosignature gases.

Hu, Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William

2012-12-01

42

The Atmospheric Supply of Terrestrial Authigenic Phosphate Minerals to Open Marine Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authigenic P-bearing minerals (Pauth), such as carbonate fluorapatite, form within shallow marine sediments as biological processes degrade organic matter and release associated phosphate to the dissolved pool during early diagenesis. Thus, Pauth is commonly used as a proxy for productivity in modern and ancient marine depositional environments. To help refine this proxy and further improve understanding of the marine P cycle, we investigated if dust deposition could supply terrestrially derived Pauth and other P-bearing phases to modern marine sediments. We used the SEDEX sequential extraction procedure to quantify the occurrence of P in ten samples of loess from the Chinese Loess Plateau, a major source of dust to the North Pacific Ocean (NPO). On average, 40% of the total P within Chinese Loess occurs as Pauth, 33% as detrital apatite (Pdet), 17% in organic matter (Porg), and 10% bound to Fe-Al oxides (Pox). Using eolian dust and total P accumulation rates reported for core LL44-GC3 taken from the central NPO, we find that ~86% of the total P accumulation within the central NPO could originate from the atmospheric deposition of Pauth and Pdet. Hence, productivity estimates based upon total P accumulation for this site are likely lower than previously estimated. Our findings suggest that marine productivity studies predicated on the measurement of Pauth need to quantify the fraction of Pauth supplied from terrestrial sources. This may be even more significant along continental margins where rivers can supply sediments with high concentrations of Pauth minerals.

Flaum, J. A.; Jacobson, A. D.; Sageman, B. B.

2007-12-01

43

Effects of atmospheric ammonia (NH 3) on terrestrial vegetation: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the global scale, among all N (nitrogen) species in the atmosphere and their deposition on to terrestrial vegetation and other receptors, NH3 (ammonia) is considered to be the foremost. The major sources for atmospheric NH3 are agricultural activities and animal feedlot operations, followed by biomass burning (including forest fires) and to a lesser extent fossil fuel combustion. Close to

S. V Krupa

2003-01-01

44

The Center for the Study of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Atmospheres (CSTEA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Center for the Study of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Atmospheres (CSTEA) was established in 1992. The center began with 14 active Principal Investigators (PI's). The research of the Center's PIs has, for the most part, continued in the same four areas as presented in the original proposal: Remote Sensing, Atmospheric Chemistry, Sensors and Detectors, and Spacecraft Dynamics.

Thorpe, Arthur N.; Morris, Vernon R.

1997-01-01

45

Atmospheric transport of persistent pollutants governs uptake by holarctic terrestrial biota  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric deposition of PCBs, DDT, and lindane, governed uptake in terrestrial biota in the Scandinavian peninsula. Mammalian herbivores and predators as well as predatory insects contained higher levels of pollutants at locations where the fallout load was high than at stations where atmospheric deposition was lower, and the two variables were significantly correlated.

Larsson, P.; Okla, L.; Woin, Per (Limnology, Lund (Sweden))

1990-10-01

46

Origin of the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The monotonic decrease in the atmospheric abundance of per gram of planet in the sequence, Venus, earth, and Mars has been assumed to reflect some conditions in the primitive solar nebula at the time of formation of the planetary atmospheres, having to do either with the composition of the nebula itself or the composition of the trapped gases in small solid bodies in the nebula. Behind such hypotheses lies the assumption that planetary atmospheres steadily gain components. However, not only can gases enter atmospheres; they may also be lost from atmospheres both by adsorption into the planetary interior and by loss into space as a result of collisions with minor and major planetesimals. In this paper a necessarily qualitative discussion is given of the problem of collisions with minor planetesimals, a process called atmospheric cratering or atmospheric erosion, and a discussion is given of atmospheric loss accompanying collision of a planet with a major planetesimal, such as may have produced the earth's moon.

Cameron, A. G. W.

1983-01-01

47

On the (anticipated) diversity of terrestrial planet atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On our way toward the characterization of smaller and more temperate planets, missions dedicated to the spectroscopic observation of exoplanets will teach us about the wide diversity of classes of planetary atmospheres, many of them probably having no equivalent in the Solar System. But what kind of atmospheres can we expect? To start answering this question, many theoretical studies have tried to understand and model the various processes controlling the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres, with some success in the Solar System. Here, we shortly review these processes and we try to give an idea of the various type of atmospheres that these processes can create. As will be made clear, current atmosphere evolution models have many shortcomings yet, and need heavy calibrations. With that in mind, we will thus discuss how observations with a mission similar to EChO would help us unravel the link between a planet's environment and its atmosphere.

Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, François; Lammer, Helmut

2014-07-01

48

Mineral Reaction Buffering of Venus' Atmosphere: Constraints for Terrestrial Exoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many years, it has been suggested that the composition of Venus' atmosphere, notably its abundance of CO2, is controlled by gas-solid reactions at its surface. However, the suggested reaction for Venus atmosphere, CaCO3 + SiO2 = CaSiO3 + CO2, cannot act as a buffer - the pressure-temperature trajectory of the reaction and that of the atmosphere (a dry adiabat) do not provide buffering capacity. Instead, perturbations to T or P(CO2) would produce catastrophic expansion or collapse of the atmosphere. This instability can be generalized to all devolatilization reactions that produce a radiatively active gas in a planetary atmosphere dominated by such gases, and gives a simple thermochemical criterion for whether a reaction could buffer such an atmosphere. Simple decarbonation reactions fail this criterion, implying that the abundance of CO2 in a CO2-dominated atmosphere cannot be buffered by chemical reactions with the surface. The same inference holds for the abundance of H2O in an H2O-dominated (steam) atmosphere (e.g., exoplanet GJ 1214b), and for the abundance of methane above a methane-hydrate ice surface (e.g., a Titan-like exoplanet). Buffering of minor gases is more likely; the proposed mineral buffer reaction for SO2 in the Venus atmosphere (FeS2 + CO2 = Fe3O4 + SO2 + CO) passes the thermochemical criterion, as does a reaction involving Ca sulfate (CaSO4 + CO = CaCO3 + SO2). These inferences can be generalized to extrasolar Venus-like planets - those with surfaces hot enough to permit rapid chemical reactions between solids and gas, yet cool enough that their atmospheres contain (are dominated by) gases active in thermal radiative equilibria. On the other hand, it seems likely that abundances of minor atmospheric gas species can be buffered by crust-atmosphere chemical reactions. So, minor species in exoplanet atmospheres may be particularly important for constraining the chemical characteristics of their surfaces.

Treiman, A. H.; Bullock, M. A.

2011-12-01

49

Production of OH Molecules by Hot Oxygen Atoms in the Upper Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodissociation of CO2 and O2 molecules and dissociative recombination of oxygen molecular ions are among the most important sources of suprathermal oxygen atoms in the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets. The produced hot oxygen atoms can transfer energy in collisions with thermal atmospheric gases and perturb local equilibrium conditions or induce non-thermal chemical reactions. One such process is the reaction of hot O atoms with hydrogen molecules, leading to production of highly rotationally-vibrationally excited OH molecules. We report the results of extensive reactive quantum scattering calculations of O + H2(v, j) ? H + OH(v', j') and corresponding non-thermal rate coefficients at the atmospheric conditions found on Earth and Mars for different solar conditions. Possible implications of this comparative study on the physics of upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets are discussed.

Gacesa, M.; Kharchenko, V.

2012-12-01

50

Superrotation in terrestrial atmospheres and tropical wave-mean flow interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two out of the four terrestrial bodies in the Solar System with thick atmospheres, Titan and Venus, have superrotating atmospheres that spin faster than the underlying surface. Superrotating equatorial jets are also common to Jupiter and Saturn, but their formation and maintenance may involve a different mechanism. Earth develops a transient superrotating jet during the westward phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation, which may have been a persistent feature during past climates, for example the Eocene. We use a hierarchy of numerical and analytical tools to isolate and describe the mechanism by which spontaneous superrotation of terrestrial atmospheres occur. Numerical simulations of high-Rossby-number atmospheres started from a state of rest robustly form superrotation provided thermal and frictional damping are sufficiently weak. Motivated by these numerical results, we demonstrate a linear instability of the shallow water system that resembles the spinup phase of the numerical simulations, and draw comparisons with phenomena on Titan, Venus and Earth.

Mitchell, J.; Vallis, G. K.; Wang, P.; Dias Pinto, J. R.; Biello, J. A.

2012-12-01

51

Whole atmosphere modeling: Connecting terrestrial and space weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the turn of the century R. G. Roble advanced an ambitious program of developing an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) extending from the surface to the exosphere. He outlined several areas of research and application to potentially benefit from what is now commonly called whole atmosphere modeling. The purpose of this article is to introduce this new field to a broader geophysical community and document its progress over the last decade. Vertically extended models are commonly built from existing weather and climate GCM codes incorporating a number of approximations, which may no longer be valid. Promising directions of further model development, potential applications, and challenges are outlined. One application is space weather or day-to-day and seasonal variability in the ionosphere and thermosphere driven by meteorological processes from below. Various modes of connection between the lower and upper atmosphere had been known before, but new and sometimes unexpected observational evidence has emerged over the last decade. Persistent “nonmigrating” wavy structures in plasma and neutral densities and a dramatic response of the equatorial ionosphere to sudden warmings in the polar winter stratosphere are just two examples. Because large-scale meteorological processes are predictable several days in advance, whole atmosphere weather prediction models open an opportunity for developing a real forecast capability for space weather.

Akmaev, R. A.

2011-11-01

52

Chinguetti: Terrestrial Age and Pre-Atmospheric Radius  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chinguetti mesosiderite was found in the Adrar region of Mauretania in 1916. The finder claimed it be only a small fragment of a much larger mass, on the order of 10's of meters across. Our data indicate that, in fact, the pre-atmospheric size of the meteorite was < 1m.

Welten, K. C.; Bland, P. A.; Caffee, M. W.; Masarik, J.; Russell, S. S.; Jull, A. J. T.; Denyer, I.; Grady, M. M.; Lloyd, J.

2000-01-01

53

The Martian atmospheric water cycle as viewed from a terrestrial perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is noted that the conditions of temperature and pressure that characterize the atmosphere of Mars are similar to those found in the Earth's stratosphere. Of particular significance is the fact that liquid water is unstable in both environments. Thus, it is expected that terrestrial studies of the dynamical behavior of stratospheric water should benefit the understanding of water transport on Mars as well.

Zurek, Richard W.

1988-01-01

54

Net Exchange Between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere as a Result of Changes in Land Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general purpose of this research was to improve and update (to 1990) estimates of the net flux of carbon between the world's terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from changes in land use (e.g., deforestation and reforestation). The estimates are ...

R. A. Houghton

1998-01-01

55

The Upper Valanginian (Early Cretaceous) positive carbon–isotope event recorded in terrestrial plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the ancient ocean-atmosphere system has focused on oceanic proxies. However, the study of terrestrial proxies is equally necessary to constrain our understanding of ancient climates and linkages between the terrestrial and oceanic carbon reservoirs. We have analyzed carbon–isotope ratios from fossil plant material through the Valanginian and Lower Hauterivian from a shallow-marine, ammonite-constrained succession in the Crimean

Darren R. Gröcke; Gregory D. Price; Stuart A. Robinson; Evgenij Y. Baraboshkin; Jörg Mutterlose; Alastair H. Ruffell

2005-01-01

56

An impact-induced terrestrial atmosphere and iron-water reactions during accretion of the Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shock wave data and theoretical calculations were used to derive models of an impact-generated terrestrial atmosphere during accretion of the Earth. The models showed that impacts of infalling planetesimals not only provided the entire budget of terrestrial water but also led to a continuous depletion of near-surface layers of water-bearing minerals of their structural water. This resulted in a final atmospheric water reservoir comparable to the present day total water budget of the Earth. The interaction of metallic iron with free water at the surface of the accreting Earth is considered. We carried out model calcualtions simulating these processes during accretion. It is assumed that these processes are the prime source of the terrestrial FeO component of silicates and oxides. It is demonstrated that the iron-water reaction would result in the absence of atmospheric/hydrospheric water, if homogeneous accretion is assumed. In order to obtain the necessary amount of terrestrial water, slightly heterogeneous accretion with initially 36 wt% iron planetesimals, as compared with a homogeneous value of 34 wt% is required.

Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

1985-01-01

57

Radiative transfer code SHARM for atmospheric and terrestrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the publicly available radiative transfer Spherical Harmonics code (SHARM) is presented. SHARM is a rigorous code, as accurate as the Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (DISORT) code, yet faster. It performs simultaneous calculations for different solar zenith angles, view zenith angles, and view azimuths and allows the user to make multiwavelength calculations in one run. The ?-M method is implemented for calculations with highly anisotropic phase functions. Rayleigh scattering is automatically included as a function of wavelength, surface elevation, and the selected vertical profile of one of the standard atmospheric models. The current version of the SHARM code does not explicitly include atmospheric gaseous absorption, which should be provided by the user. The SHARM code has several built-in models of the bidirectional reflectance of land and wind-ruffled water surfaces that are most widely used in research and satellite data processing. A modification of the SHARM code with the built-in Mie algorithm designed for calculations with spherical aerosols is also described.

Lyapustin, A. I.

2005-12-01

58

Time-Dependent Simulations of the Formation and Evolution of Disk-Accreted Atmospheres Around Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early, embedded phase of evolution of terrestrial planets, the planetary core accumulates gas from the circumstellar disk into a planetary envelope. This atmosphere is very significant for the further thermal evolution of the planet by forming an insulation around the rocky core. The disk-captured envelope is also the staring point for the atmospheric evolution where the atmosphere is modified by outgassing from the planetary core and atmospheric mass loss once the planet is exposed to the radiation field of the host star. The final amount of persistent atmosphere around the evolved planet very much characterizes the planet and is a key criterion for habitability. The established way to study disk accumulated atmospheres are hydrostatic models, even though in many cases the assumption of stationarity is unlikely to be fulfilled. We present, for the first time, time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the accumulation process and the interaction between the disk-nebula gas and the planetary core. The calculations were performed with the TAPIR-Code (short for The adaptive, implicit RHD-Code) in spherical symmetry solving the equations of hydrodynamics, gray radiative transport, and convective energy transport. The models range from the surface of the solid core up to the Hill radius where the planetary envelope merges into the surrounding protoplanetary disk. Our results show that the time-scale of gas capturing and atmospheric growth strongly depends on the mass of the solid core. The amount of atmosphere accumulated during the lifetime of the protoplanetary disk (typically a few Myr) varies accordingly with the mass of the planet. Thus, a core with Mars-mass will end up with about 10 bar of atmosphere while for an Earth-mass core, the surface pressure reaches several 1000 bar. Even larger planets with several Earth masses quickly capture massive envelopes which in turn become gravitationally unstable leading to runaway accretion and the eventual formation of a gas planet.

Stoekl, Alexander; Dorfi, Ernst

2014-05-01

59

Mercury in terrestrial biomass and soils and factors determining atmospheric mercury sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial carbon (C) pools play an important role in uptake, deposition, sequestration, and emission of atmospheric mercury (Hg). The objective of this study is to assess atmospheric Hg sequestration associated with vegetation and soil C pools in forest ecosystems. As part of an ongoing EPA STAR project, we are systematically evaluating Hg pools and fluxes associated with terrestrial C pools in all major ecosystem compartments (i.e., leaves, branches, bole, litter, soils) across selected US forest ecosystems. Results from the first five sites located in the remote western United States show that the dominant above-ground pool of mercury is associated with surface litter with smaller pools associated with leaves and branches. Mass concentrations greatly increase in the following order: green leaves, dry leaves, initial litter, partially decomposed litter, humus. Based on detailed comparison of stochiometric relationships (e.g., Hg/C and Hg/N ratios) we conclude that these concentration increases are dominated by additional atmospheric deposition retained in the decomposing plant material while exposed to the environment rather than by organic C losses during decomposition. The large majority of total ecosystem mercury, up to 98 percent, however, is sequestered belowground in the soils. Soil Hg accumulation across all sites is greatly determined by the availability of organic matter in these systems, with soil C and soil N explaining more than 90 percent of the variability in observed soil Hg stocks. Our results suggest that the availability of soil organic matter is the main determinant for retention of atmospheric inputs in soils and hence in terrestrial ecosystems. Ecosystem structure and soil organic accumulation hence determine the resilience of Hg in terrestrial ecosystems with important implication for the stability and runoff of atmospheric Hg deposition to surrounding waterbodies.

Obrist, D.; Johnson, D. W.; Lindberg, S.; Luo, Y.

2008-12-01

60

Synchronized terrestrial-atmospheric deglacial records around the North Atlantic  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of synchronization of three carbon-14 ({sup 14}C)-dated lacustrine sequences from Sweden with tree ring and ice core records, the absolute age of the Younger Dryas-Preboreal climatic shift was determined to be 11,450 to 11,390 {plus_minus} 80 years before the present. A 150-year-long cooling in the early Preboreal, associated with rising {Delta} {sup 14}C values, is evident in all records and indicates an ocean ventilation change. This cooling is similar to earlier deglacial coolings, and box-model calculations suggest that they all may have been the result of increased freshwater forcing that inhibited the strength of the North Atlantic heat conveyor, although the Younger Dryas may have been begun as an anomalous meltwater event. 53 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Bjoerck, S.; Rasmussen, T.L. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark); Kromer, B. [Heidelberg Academy of Sciences (Germany)] [and others

1996-11-15

61

Carbon Fluxes Between the Atmosphere, Terrestrial, and River Systems Across a Glacier-Dominated Landscape in Southcentral Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal Gulf of Alaska region is experiencing rapid and accelerating changes due to local and regional warming. Predicted high latitude warming may result in rapid recession of glaciers with subsequent changes in river discharge, nutrient fluxes into the rivers, shifts in landscape vegetation cover, and altered CO2 fluxes affecting the regional carbon balance. As glaciers recede an increase in glacier-dominated river discharge and a change in seasonality of the river discharge are expected. Recently deglaciated landscapes will, over time, be occupied by a succession of vegetation cover that are likely to alter the fluxes of carbon both between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, and between terrestrial ecosystems and stream and river systems. As the landscape evolves from deglaciated forelands it is expected that there is low to no CO2 fluxes between the atmosphere and the recently deglaciated landscape, as well as dissolved organic and inorganic carbon inputs into rivers and streams. These recently deglaciated landscapes will transition to early successional plant species and on towards mature spruce forests. Each transitional terrestrial ecosystem will have different carbon cycling between the atmosphere, terrestrial, and aquatic systems until the mature spruce forests which is expected to have high carbon uptake and sequestration as well as increased inputs of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon into the rivers and streams. A new research project was initiated in the summer of 2011 focusing on glacier-dominated landscapes within the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve in southcentral Alaska with the objective to quantify how the transition from deglaciated forelands to mature spruce forests (a successional sequence) alters the patterns and magnitudes of CO2 exchange, the dissolved carbon inputs from terrestrial to aquatic systems and the extent to which these are manifested due to changes in glacier coverage. We seek to examine present-day carbon cycling along a vegetation successional sequence and plan to use a space-for-time substitution to make predictions about the future evolution of carbon cycling between the atmosphere, terrestrial landscape, and the river and stream systems This year we have established a 30m eddy covariance tower in a mature spruce forest to investigate the magnitude and patterns of carbon exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem as well as water sampling from adjacent rivers and streams to analyze for dissolved organic and inorganic carbon fluxes from the forested ecosystem into the river and stream systems. High rates of carbon sequestration into the mature spruce forests indicate that these forests along the glacier-dominated Copper River watershed are important sinks for carbon and may be contributing large amounts of inorganic carbon to the rivers which are transported downstream to and eventually into the marine ecosystem of the Gulf of Alaska.

Zulueta, R. C.; Welker, J. M.; Tomco, P. L.

2011-12-01

62

Global and Regional Constraints on Exchanges of CO2 Between the Atmosphere and Terrestrial Biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vigorous atmospheric circulation rapidly mixes CO2 that is exchanged with the terrestrial biosphere and oceans. Therefore, at time scales greater than 1 year, the approximate interhemispheric exchange time of the atmosphere, an average of CO2 measurements from a network of surface stations can be used to accurately determine the global net change in atmospheric CO2. By subtracting CO2 produced by fossil fuel combustion, which is well characterized by national statistics, the global the sum of terrestrial biospheric and oceanic net fluxes, here termed the "nonfossil" CO2 flux, can also be accurately determined. The nonfossil CO2 flux averaged -2.1+/-0.3 PgC/yr and -3.2+/-0.4 PgC/yr in the 1980s and 1990s respectively (negative denotes out of the atmosphere), and varied in annual average from about 0 to -4 PgC/yr over these two decades. Two primary methods have been used to further partition the nonfossil CO2 flux between land and oceans: the O2 and 13C/12C methods, which rely, respectively, on measurements of atmospheric O2 (actually O2/N2 for technical reasons) and of the 13C/12C ratio of CO2. Burning of fossil fuel consumes atmospheric O2 and releases CO2 with a 13C/12C ratio lower than that of atmospheric CO2 whereas uptake of CO2 by terrestrial plants releases O2, and increases the atmospheric 13C/12C ratio owing to the preferential assimilation of 12CO2 relative to 13CO2. In contrast, the uptake of CO2 by the oceans has little effect on either the atmospheric O2 or 13C/12C ratio. Therefore, the net CO2 uptake or release from the terrestrial biosphere can be calculated in either method by subtracting the change owing to fossil fuel emissions from the measured change in the atmosphere, utilizing known stoichiometric ratios of O2 and CO2 in the O2 method, and isotopic fractionation factors in the 13C/12C method. Currently, the O2 method gives a net global terrestrial biospheric CO2 flux of -0.2+/-0.7 PgC/yr and -1.4+/-0.7 PgC/yr for the 1980s and the 1990s, respectively. Both the O2 and 13C/12C methods have complications and limitations that will be discussed. To partition the global biospheric flux further to zonal or regional detail or to shorter time steps, atmospheric models are required to simulate the transport of tracer from source regions to individual stations where air is sampled. An ongoing collaborative project to compare atmospheric models has highlighted significant differences in transport characteristics, mainly owing to differences in how the boundary layer is modeled. Accordingly, a recent compilation of model calculations showed a wide range of estimates for the tropical biosphere, from a significant release of CO2 to an uptake over recent decades; however, the calculations showed reasonable agreement on a significant northern biospheric sink. Fluxes of biospheric CO2 can be determined accurately at the global scale as well as at individual sites. An ingenious blend of observations and models will be required to bridge the gap between these two extreme spatial scales, and thereby gain an understanding sufficient to predict the influence of the terrestrial biosphere on variations in atmospheric CO2.

Piper, S. C.

2001-12-01

63

Habitability of Terrestrial Planets in the Early Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Protoearth, Mars, Venus, and the Moon-forming impactor were potentially habitable in the early solar system. The interiors of larger asteroids had habitable circulating water. To see when the inner solar system became continuously habitable, one needs to consider the most dangerous events and the safest refugia from them. Early geochemical and accretionary processes set the subsequent silicate planet reservoirs

N. H. SLEEP

2001-01-01

64

The impact of Miocene atmospheric carbon dioxide fluctuations on climate and the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems  

PubMed Central

The Miocene is characterized by a series of key climatic events that led to the founding of the late Cenozoic icehouse mode and the dawn of modern biota. The processes that caused these developments, and particularly the role of atmospheric CO2 as a forcing factor, are poorly understood. Here we present a CO2 record based on stomatal frequency data from multiple tree species. Our data show striking CO2 fluctuations of ?600–300 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Periods of low CO2 are contemporaneous with major glaciations, whereas elevated CO2 of 500 ppmv coincides with the climatic optimum in the Miocene. Our data point to a long-term coupling between atmospheric CO2 and climate. Major changes in Miocene terrestrial ecosystems, such as the expansion of grasslands and radiations among terrestrial herbivores such as horses, can be linked to these marked fluctuations in CO2.

Kurschner, Wolfram M.; Kvacek, Zlatko; Dilcher, David L.

2008-01-01

65

Atmospheric circulation modeling of super Earths and terrestrial extrasolar planets using the SPARC/MITgcm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of exoplanets continues to be a booming field of research in astronomy and planetary science, with numerous ground-based (e.g., SuperWASP, HARPS-N and S) and space-based surveys (e.g., Kepler) that detect and characterize planets ranging from hot Jupiters, Jovian-sized planets orbiting less than 0.1 AU from their star, to super Earths and terrestrial exoplanets, planets that have masses equal to or less than 10 times that of Earth with a range of orbital distances. Atmospheric circulation modeling plays an important role in the characterization of these planets, helping to constrain observations that probe their atmospheres. These models have proven successful in understanding observations of transiting exoplanets (when the planet passes in front of the star along our line of sight) particularly when the planet is passing through secondary eclipse (when the planet's dayside is visible). In modeling super Earths and terrestrial exoplanets, we must consider not only planets with thick fluid envelopes, but also traditional terrestrial planets with solid surfaces and thinner atmospheres. To that end, we present results from studies investigating the atmospheric circulation of these classes of planets using the SPARC/MITgcm, a state-of-the-art model which couples the MIT General Circulation Model with a plane-parallel, two-stream, non-gray radiative transfer model. We will present results from two studies, the first focusing on the circulation of GJ 1214b, a super-Earth detected by the MEarth ground-based survey, and a second study which explores the circulation of terrestrial exoplanets orbiting M-dwarfs.

Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Haberle, R. M.; Marley, M. S.; Fortney, J. J.; Freedman, R. S.

2013-12-01

66

Evaluation of atmospheric aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing human activities have produced large amounts of air pollutants ejected into the atmosphere, in which atmospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered to be especially important because of their negative impacts on human health and their impacts on global climate through either their direct radiative effect or indirect effect on land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. This dissertation dedicates to quantifying and evaluating the aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem dynamics using a modeling approach. An ecosystem model, the integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (iTem), is developed to simulate biophysical and biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems. A two-broad-band atmospheric radiative transfer model together with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measured atmospheric parameters are used to well estimate global downward solar radiation and the direct and diffuse components in comparison with observations. The atmospheric radiative transfer modeling framework were used to quantify the aerosol direct radiative effect, showing that aerosol loadings cause 18.7 and 12.8 W m -2 decrease of direct-beam Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) and Near Infrared Radiation (NIR) respectively, and 5.2 and 4.4 W m -2 increase of diffuse PAR and NIR, respectively, leading to a total 21.9 W m-2 decrease of total downward solar radiation over the global land surface during the period of 2003-2010. The results also suggested that the aerosol effect may be overwhelmed by clouds because of the stronger extinction and scattering ability of clouds. Applications of the iTem with solar radiation data and with or without considering the aerosol loadings shows that aerosol loading enhances the terrestrial productions [Gross Primary Production (GPP), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)] and carbon emissions through plant respiration (RA) in global terrestrial ecosystems over the period of 2003-2010. Ecosystem heterotrophic respiration (RH) was negatively affected by the aerosol loading. These results support previous conclusions of the advantage of aerosol light scattering effect on plant productions in other studies but suggest there is strong spatial variation. This study finds indirect aerosol effects on terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics through affecting plant phenology, thermal and hydrological environments. All these evidences suggested that the aerosol direct radiative effect on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics should be considered to better understand the global carbon cycle and climate change. An ozone sub-model is developed in this dissertation and fully coupled with iTem. The coupled model, named iTemO3 considers the processes of ozone stomatal deposition, plant defense to ozone influx, ozone damage and plant repairing mechanism. By using a global atmospheric chemical transport model (GACTM) estimated ground-level ozone concentration data, the model estimated global annual stomatal ozone deposition is 234.0 Tg O3 yr-1 and indicates which regions have high ozone damage risk. Different plant functional types, sunlit and shaded leaves are shown to have different responses to ozone. The model predictions suggest that ozone has caused considerable change on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage and carbon exchanges over the study period 2004-2008. The study suggests that uncertainty of the key parameters in iTemO3 could result in large errors in model predictions. Thus more experimental data for better model parameterization is highly needed.

Chen, Min

67

New Data for Early Earth Atmospheric Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of the oxygenation of the Earth’s atmosphere is a central issue in understanding the Earth’s paleoclimate. The discovery of mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of sulphur isotopes deposited within Archean and Paleoproterozoic rock samples (> 2.4 Gyrs) and the transition to mass-dependent fractionation found in younger samples, could provide a marker for the rise in oxygen concentrations in the Earth’s atmosphere [1]. Laboratory experiments [2; 3] suggest isotopic self shielding during gas phase photolysis of SO2 present at wavelengths shorter than 220 nm as the dominant mechanism for MIF. The UV absorption of SO2 is dominated by the C1B2-X1A1 electronic system which comprises strong vibrational bands extending from 170 - 230 nm. Within an atmosphere consisting of low O2 and O3 concentrations, such as that predicted for the early Earth, UV radiation would penetrate deep into the ancient Earth’s atmosphere in the 180 - 220 nm range driving the photolysis of SO2. We have conducted the first ever high resolution measurements of the photo absorption cross sections of several isotopologues of SO2, namely 32SO2, 33SO2, 34SO2 and 36SO2, using the Imperial College UV Fourier transform spectrometer [4] which is ideal for high resolution, broad-band, VIS/UV measurements. The cross sections are being measured at Imperial College at initial resolutions of 1.0 cm-1 which will be increased to resolutions < 0.5 cm-1 for inclusion in photochemical models of the early Earth’s atmosphere in order to more reliably interpret the sulphur isotope ratios found in ancient rock samples [5]. For discussion and interpretation of the photochemical models see the abstract by Lyons et al.(this meeting). References [1] J. Farquhar and B.A. Wing. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 213:1-13, 2003. [2] J. Farquhar, J. Savarino, S. Airieau, and M.H Thiemens. Journal of Geophysical Research,106:32829-32839, 2001. [3] A. Pen and R. N. Clayton.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Supplement,72:734, 2008. [4] J.C. Pickering. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 29(1-2):27 - 43, 2002. [5] J.R. Lyons. Geophys.Res. Lett, 34:L22811, 2007. Initial 1.0 cm-1 resolution photoabsorption cross sections of the 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 isotopologues recorded at Imperial College.

Blackie, D.; Stark, G.; Lyons, J. R.; Pickering, J.; Smith, P. L.; Thorne, A.

2010-12-01

68

Historical space psychology: Early terrestrial explorations as Mars analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation and analogue environments used by psychologists to circumvent the difficulties of conducting research in space lack many of the unique characteristics of future explorations, especially the mission to Mars. This paper suggests that appropriate additional analogues would be the multi-year maritime and terrestrial explorations that mapped the surface of the Earth in previous centuries. These, like Mars, often involved a hazardous trek through unknown territory, flanked by extended, dangerous voyages to and from the exploration sites. Characteristic issues included interpersonal relationships under prolonged stress, stretches of boredom interspersed with intense work demands, the impossibility of rescue, resupply, or other help from home, chronic danger, physical discomfort and lack of privacy, and the crucial role of the leader. Illustrative examples of one important factor, leadership style, are discussed. The examination of such expeditions can help to identify the psychological stressors that are likely to be experienced by Mars explorers, and can also indicate countermeasures to reduce the damaging impact of those stressors.

Suedfeld, Peter

2010-03-01

69

Three-dimensional Atmospheric Circulation and Climate of Terrestrial Exoplanets and Super Earths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of super Earths and terrestrial exoplanets extending over a broad region of orbital and physical parameter space suggests that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone--including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks--depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, pattern of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. In this presentation we will review how the planetary rotation rate, planetary mass, heat flux from a parent star and atmospheric mass affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. We will elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley cells, and the equator-to-pole temperature differences. Finally, we will discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global-scale climate feedbacks that control the width of the habitable zone.

Kaspi, Yohai; Showman, A. P.

2012-10-01

70

Global Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen enrichment on carbon fluxes and storage in terrestrial biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric nitrogen (N) enrichment has been recognized as one of most important global changes and largely affected terrestrial carbon (C) dynamics over the past century. A wide range of scientific studies have focused on estimation of carbon sink resulting from N deposition at global scale, and confirmed that atmospheric N input has substantially stimulated terrestrial CO2 uptake, particularly in part of North America, western Europe, and East and Southeast Asia. However, ecosystem models have distinct strategies in partitioning and describing the pools/fluxes and C-N interactions, as well as in simulating 'N-saturated status'. Whether a model's representation of C-N coupling can truly reflect the C and N cycling in the real world is a hard nut to crack for most models involving C-N interactions. Little is known on how various C-N coupling processes represented by models have led to divergence in the estimated magnitude of N-induced C sink. Here we combine field observations and model ensembles from the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) to examine how enhanced N deposition affected global C fluxes and storage during the period 1860-2010, and what explore the major sources of uncertainty responsible for various modeling estimates. Model behavior in simulating key C-N coupling processes has been evaluated through data-model and model-model intercomparison. Future research needs for filling our knowledge gaps and for reducing uncertainties are discussed as well.

Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Yang, J.; Tao, B.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C. R.; Wei, Y.; Michalak, A. M.

2013-12-01

71

Reconciling atmospheric temperatures in the early Archean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Average surface temperatures of Earth in the Archean remain unresolved despite decades of diverse approaches to the problem. As in the present, early Earth climates were complex systems dependent on many variables. With few constraints on such variables, climate models must be relatively simplistic, and consider only one or two factors that drive Archean climate (e.g. a fainter young sun, a low albedo, the extent and effect of cloud cover, or the presence and abundance of a wide array of greenhouse and icehouse gasses). Compounded on the limitations of modeling is the sparse and often ambiguous Archean rock record. The goal of this study is to compile and reconcile Archean geologic and geochemical features that are in some way controlled by surface temperature and/or atmospheric composition, so that at the very least paleoclimate models can be checked by physical limits. Data used to this end include the oxygen isotope record of chemical sediments and ancient ocean crust, chemical equilibria amongst primary phases in banded iron formations (BIFs), sedimentary features indicative of temperate or glacial environments, and paleosol indicators of atmospheric CO2. Further, we explore the extent to which hydrogen isotopes contribute to the geologic record as a signal for glaciations, continental growth and atmospheric methane levels. Oceanic serpentinites and subduction-related volcanic and hydrothermal environments obtain their hydrogen isotope signature from seawater, and thus may be used to calculate secular variation in ?DSEAWATER which may fluctuate significantly due to hydrogen escape, continental growth and large-scale glaciation events. Further, ancient records of low-?D meteoric fluids signal both cooler temperatures and the emergence of large continents (increasing the effects of continental weathering on climate). Selective alteration of ?D in Isua rocks to values of -130 to -100‰ post-dates ca. 3.55Ga Ameralik dikes, but may be associated with a poorly defined 2.6-2.8Ga metamorphic event that is coincident with the amalgamation of the "Kenorland supercontinent."

Pope, E. C.; Rosing, M.; Bird, D. K.; Albarede, F.

2012-12-01

72

Nested atmospheric inversion for the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we establish a nested atmospheric inversion system with a focus on China using the Bayesian method. The global surface is separated into 43 regions based on the 22 TransCom large regions, with 13 small regions in China. Monthly CO2 concentrations from 130 GlobalView sites and 3 additional China sites are used in this system. The core component of this system is an atmospheric transport matrix, which is created using the TM5 model with a horizontal resolution of 3° × 2°. The net carbon fluxes over the 43 global land and ocean regions are inverted for the period from 2002 to 2008. The inverted global terrestrial carbon sinks mainly occur in boreal Asia, South and Southeast Asia, eastern America and southern South America. Most China areas appear to be carbon sinks, with strongest carbon sinks located in Northeast China. From 2002 to 2008, the global terrestrial carbon sink has an increasing trend, with the lowest carbon sink in 2002. The inter-annual variation (IAV) of the land sinks shows remarkable correlation with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The terrestrial carbon sinks in China also show an increasing trend. However, the IAV in China is not the same as that of the globe. There is relatively stronger land sink in 2002, lowest sink in 2006, and strongest sink in 2007 in China. This IAV could be reasonably explained with the IAVs of temperature and precipitation in China. The mean global and China terrestrial carbon sinks over the period 2002-2008 are -3.20 ± 0.63 and -0.28 ± 0.18 PgC yr-1, respectively. Considering the carbon emissions in the form of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and from the import of wood and food, we further estimate that China's land sink is about -0.31 PgC yr-1.

Jiang, F.; Wang, H. W.; Chen, J. M.; Zhou, L. X.; Ju, W. M.; Ding, A. J.; Liu, L. X.; Peters, W.

2013-08-01

73

Nested atmospheric inversion for the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we establish a~nested atmospheric inversion system with a focus on China using the Bayes theory. The global surface is separated into 43 regions based on the 22 TransCom large regions, with 13 small regions in China. Monthly CO2 concentrations from 130 GlobalView sites and a Hong Kong site are used in this system. The core component of this system is atmospheric transport matrix, which is created using the TM5 model with a horizontal resolution of 3° × 2°. The net carbon fluxes over the 43 global land and ocean regions are inverted for the period from 2002 to 2009. The inverted global terrestrial carbon sinks mainly occur in Boreal Asia, South and Southeast Asia, eastern US and southern South America (SA). Most China areas appear to be carbon sinks, with strongest carbon sinks located in Northeast China. From 2002 to 2009, the global terrestrial carbon sink has an increasing trend, with the lowest carbon sink in 2002. The inter-annual variation (IAV) of the land sinks shows remarkable correlation with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, no obvious trend is found for the terrestrial carbon sinks in China. The IAVs of carbon sinks in China show strong relationship with drought and temperature. The mean global and China terrestrial carbon sinks over the period 2002-2009 are -3.15 ± 1.48 and -0.21 ± 0.23 Pg C yr-1, respectively. The uncertainties in the posterior carbon flux of China are still very large, mostly due to the lack of CO2 measurement data in China.

Jiang, F.; Wang, H.; Chen, J. M.; Ju, W.; Ding, A.

2013-01-01

74

Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities  

PubMed Central

Studies of the end-Permian mass extinction have emphasized potential abiotic causes and their direct biotic effects. Less attention has been devoted to secondary extinctions resulting from ecological crises and the effect of community structure on such extinctions. Here we use a trophic network model that combines topological and dynamic approaches to simulate disruptions of primary productivity in palaeocommunities. We apply the model to Permian and Triassic communities of the Karoo Basin, South Africa, and show that while Permian communities bear no evidence of being especially susceptible to extinction, Early Triassic communities appear to have been inherently less stable. Much of the instability results from the faster post-extinction diversification of amphibian guilds relative to amniotes. The resulting communities differed fundamentally in structure from their Permian predecessors. Additionally, our results imply that changing community structures over time may explain long-term trends like declining rates of Phanerozoic background extinction

Roopnarine, Peter D; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Wang, Steve C; Hertog, Rachel

2007-01-01

75

Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities.  

PubMed

Studies of the end-Permian mass extinction have emphasized potential abiotic causes and their direct biotic effects. Less attention has been devoted to secondary extinctions resulting from ecological crises and the effect of community structure on such extinctions. Here we use a trophic network model that combines topological and dynamic approaches to simulate disruptions of primary productivity in palaeocommunities. We apply the model to Permian and Triassic communities of the Karoo Basin, South Africa, and show that while Permian communities bear no evidence of being especially susceptible to extinction, Early Triassic communities appear to have been inherently less stable. Much of the instability results from the faster post-extinction diversification of amphibian guilds relative to amniotes. The resulting communities differed fundamentally in structure from their Permian predecessors. Additionally, our results imply that changing community structures over time may explain long-term trends like declining rates of Phanerozoic background extinction. PMID:17609191

Roopnarine, Peter D; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Wang, Steve C; Hertog, Rachel

2007-09-01

76

Venus as illustration of the importance of atmospheric evolution when modeling terrestrial planets and their surface conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The best way we can study what determines habitability is by comparing the one planet we know shelters life to other bodies. As extrasolar super-Earths will be found, we'll have access to more planetary samples, starting with their atmosphere. Taking our solar system as pattern, CO2 atmospheres might be common. Therefore, we use Venus to test our numerical modeling of the evolution of the atmosphere of terrestrial planets, as an intermediary between life-sustaining Earth and yet to be discovered exoplanets. We propose to investigate the evolution of the atmosphere and surface conditions on Venus. Here, we focus on mechanisms that deplete or replenish the atmosphere: volcanic degassing and atmospheric escape. These processes are linked together to obtain a coupled model, using retroaction of the atmosphere on the mantle. We study potential divergent evolutions this could cause. Two aspects of the atmospheric escape are taken into account. During early evolution, hydrodynamic escape is dominant. We use a model developed to take into account the linked escape of Hydrogen and Oxygen (Gillmann et al., 2009). A significant portion of the early atmosphere can be removed this way. For later evolution, we focus on non-thermal escape, as observed by the ASPERA instrument and modeled in various recent numerical studies. Post 4 Ga escape is low. Water escapes moderately, while we are not able to detect the present-day escape of CO2. The atmosphere is replenished by volcanic degassing, bringing volatiles from the mantle to the surface. Volcanic activity is obtained by adapting the highly advanced StagYY mantle dynamics model (Tackley, 2008) for Venus. Volatile fluxes are estimated for different mantle compositions and partitioning ratios. Surface conditions are estimated by tracking the amount of CO2 and water in the atmosphere and computing the surface temperature with a gray radiative-convective atmosphere model. These surface conditions in turn act as a boundary condition for the mantle dynamic model and have an influence on convection, volcanism and subsequent degassing. Our results show that we are able to obtain a Venus-like behavior for the solid planet, with resurfacing events which constitute an efficient way of losing Venus' internal heat. The atmosphere shows several interesting features. We are able to create evolution leading to present conditions. CO2 pressure seems unlikely to vary much over the history of the planet, only slightly increasing due to degassing. A late build-up of the atmosphere with several resurfacing events seems unlikely. On the other hand, water pressure is strongly sensitive to volcanic activity and varies rapidly. This leads to variations in surface temperatures of up to 200K, which have been identified to have an effect on volcanic activity. While a positive feedback (increasing atmosphere temperature leading to increasing mantle temperatures and melting) is not immediately apparent, we observe a clear link between temperature changes and volcanic spikes, in particular a strong correlation between large temperature drops and increased volcanism. Mobilization of the upper layers occurs, which imply that our coupling is not complete without taking into account rehydratation of the mantle. This depends on the surface alteration processes and could have important effects.

Gillmann, C.; Tackley, P. J.; Golabek, G.

2012-12-01

77

Modeling the terrestrial hydrology for the global atmosphere - The future role of satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A global terrestrial hydrology model has been developed for the transport and storage of moisture and heat in the ground surface layer where the hydrological parameters react to diurnal and seasonal changes in the atmosphere. The spatial and temporal variability of land surface features is considered in the model by means of large scale parameterizations. The model can be either forced by the atmosphere using conventional meteorological data or coupled to an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) for interactive studies. The global surface is divided into 4 deg longitude by 5 deg latitude cells while the ground is represented by a thin surface layer, a bulk layer (the root zone), and a deep layer (the ground water zone). Results are presented from a seven-day global experiment which was conducted utilizing the GLAS GCM (NASA Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences). The model has demonstrated its capability to predict, over a large region, the overall soil moisture storage and major flux exchanges with the atmosphere above and the ground water below.

Lin, J. D.; Bock, P.; Alfano, J. J.

1981-01-01

78

Updating the SPARC/MITgcm to model the atmospheric circulation of super Earths and terrestrial exoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While many of the exoplanets detected thus far have been hot Jupiters and hot Neptunes (Jovian- and Neptunian-sized planets within 0.1 AU of their host stars), ground- and space-based surveys will continue to see a growth in the detection of so-called super Earths, that is, exoplanets with masses less than 10 times that of Earth. This class of objects will include not only planets with thick fluid envelopes but also traditional terrestrial planets with solid surfaces and thinner atmospheres. To that end, we present results from studies investigating the atmospheric circulation of these latter classes of planets using the SPARC/MITgcm, a state-of-the-art model which couples the MIT General Circulation Model with a plane-parallel, two-stream, non-gray radiative transfer model. We will describe the many updates that have been included to investigate these classes of planets. We will also present select results from these studies, focusing on the circulation of GJ 1214b, a super-Earth detected by the MEarth survey, and on general terrestrial exoplanets orbiting M-dwarfs.

Kataria, Tiffany; Showman, A. P.; Haberle, R. M.; Marley, M. S.; Fortney, J. J.; Freedman, R. S.

2013-10-01

79

Detection of oxygen isotopic anomaly in terrestrial atmospheric carbonates and its implications to Mars.  

PubMed

The debate of life on Mars centers around the source of the globular, micrometer-sized mineral carbonates in the ALH84001 meteorite; consequently, the identification of Martian processes that form carbonates is critical. This paper reports a previously undescribed carbonate formation process that occurs on Earth and, likely, on Mars. We identified micrometer-sized carbonates in terrestrial aerosols that possess excess (17)O (0.4-3.9‰). The unique O-isotopic composition mechanistically describes the atmospheric heterogeneous chemical reaction on aerosol surfaces. Concomitant laboratory experiments define the transfer of ozone isotopic anomaly to carbonates via hydrogen peroxide formation when O(3) reacts with surface adsorbed water. This previously unidentified chemical reaction scenario provides an explanation for production of the isotopically anomalous carbonates found in the SNC (shergottites, nakhlaites, chassignites) Martian meteorites and terrestrial atmospheric carbonates. The anomalous hydrogen peroxide formed on the aerosol surfaces may transfer its O-isotopic signature to the water reservoir, thus producing mass independently fractionated secondary mineral evaporites. The formation of peroxide via heterogeneous chemistry on aerosol surfaces also reveals a previously undescribed oxidative process of utility in understanding ozone and oxygen chemistry, both on Mars and Earth. PMID:21059939

Shaheen, R; Abramian, A; Horn, J; Dominguez, G; Sullivan, R; Thiemens, Mark H

2010-11-23

80

Detection of oxygen isotopic anomaly in terrestrial atmospheric carbonates and its implications to Mars  

PubMed Central

The debate of life on Mars centers around the source of the globular, micrometer-sized mineral carbonates in the ALH84001 meteorite; consequently, the identification of Martian processes that form carbonates is critical. This paper reports a previously undescribed carbonate formation process that occurs on Earth and, likely, on Mars. We identified micrometer-sized carbonates in terrestrial aerosols that possess excess 17O (0.4–3.9‰). The unique O-isotopic composition mechanistically describes the atmospheric heterogeneous chemical reaction on aerosol surfaces. Concomitant laboratory experiments define the transfer of ozone isotopic anomaly to carbonates via hydrogen peroxide formation when O3 reacts with surface adsorbed water. This previously unidentified chemical reaction scenario provides an explanation for production of the isotopically anomalous carbonates found in the SNC (shergottites, nakhlaites, chassignites) Martian meteorites and terrestrial atmospheric carbonates. The anomalous hydrogen peroxide formed on the aerosol surfaces may transfer its O-isotopic signature to the water reservoir, thus producing mass independently fractionated secondary mineral evaporites. The formation of peroxide via heterogeneous chemistry on aerosol surfaces also reveals a previously undescribed oxidative process of utility in understanding ozone and oxygen chemistry, both on Mars and Earth.

Shaheen, R.; Abramian, A.; Horn, J.; Dominguez, G.; Sullivan, R.; Thiemens, Mark H.

2010-01-01

81

Nested Atmospheric Inversion for the Terrestrial Carbon Sources and Sinks in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we establish a nested atmospheric inversion system with focus on East Asia using the Bayes theory. The global surface is separated into 39 regions based on the 22 TransCom large regions, with 17 small regions in East Asia. Monthly CO2 concentrations from 238 GlobalView sites are used in this system. The core component of this system is atmospheric transport matrix, which is created by using the TM5 model. The net carbon flux over the 39 global land and ocean regions is inverted for the period from 2001 to 2007. The inverted global terrestrial carbon sinks mainly occur in North American, most Asia, and Europe. Except for east Inner Mongolia and southern China, most areas in China appear to be carbon sinks. From 2001 to 2007, the global terrestrial carbon sink has an increasing trend, with the lowest carbon sink in 2001, which is related to the strong El Nino event in the same year. For the same reason, China also has a lowest carbon sink in 2001. In 2005, the carbon sink in China is very small as well, due to the severe springtime drought in southern and southwest China. The mean global and China terrestrial carbon sinks over the period 2001-2007 are -2.98±1.0 and -0.28±0.28 Gt C yr-1, respectively. The uncertainties in the posterior carbon flux of China are still very large, mostly due to the lack of CO2 measurement data in China. In order to reduce these uncertainties, we plan to include the CONTRAIL data of Japan in this system.

Jiang, F.; Wang, H.; Chen, J.; Ju, W.

2011-12-01

82

The Upper Valanginian (Early Cretaceous) positive carbon-isotope event recorded in terrestrial plants [rapid communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of the ancient ocean-atmosphere system has focused on oceanic proxies. However, the study of terrestrial proxies is equally necessary to constrain our understanding of ancient climates and linkages between the terrestrial and oceanic carbon reservoirs. We have analyzed carbon-isotope ratios from fossil plant material through the Valanginian and Lower Hauterivian from a shallow-marine, ammonite-constrained succession in the Crimean Peninsula of the southern Ukraine in order to determine if the Upper Valanginian positive carbon-isotope excursion is expressed in the atmosphere. ?13C plant values fluctuate around - 23‰ to - 22‰ for the Valanginian-Hauterivian, except during the Upper Valanginian where ?13C plant values record a positive excursion to ˜- 18‰. Based upon ammonite biostratigraphy from Crimea, and in conjunction with a composite Tethyan marine ?13C carb curve, several conclusions can be drawn: (1) the ?13C plant record indicates that the atmospheric carbon reservoir was affected; (2) the defined ammonite correlations between Europe and Crimea are synchronous; and (3) a change in photosynthetic carbon-isotope fractionation, caused by a decrease in atmospheric pCO 2, occurred during the Upper Valanginian positive ?13C excursion. Our new data, combined with other paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic information, indicate that the Upper Valanginian was a cool period (icehouse) and highlights that the Cretaceous period was interrupted by periods of cooling and was not an equable climate as previously thought.

Gröcke, Darren R.; Price, Gregory D.; Robinson, Stuart A.; Baraboshkin, Evgenij Y.; Mutterlose, Jörg; Ruffell, Alastair H.

2005-12-01

83

Stability of CO2 Atmospheres on Terrestrial Exoplanets in the Proximity of M Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M dwarfs are promising targets for the search and characterization of terrestrial exoplanets that might be habitable, as the habitable planets around M dwarfs are in much more close-in orbits compared to their counterparts around Sun-like stars. CO2, one of the most important greenhouse gases on our planet, is conventionally adopted as a major greenhouse gas in studying the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets around M dwarfs. However, the stability of CO2 in terrestrial atmospheres has been called into question due to the high FUV/NUV flux ratio of some M dwarfs in comparison to that of Sun-like stars. While CO2 is photolyzed into CO and O by photons in the FUV, with O2 forming from the O atoms through third body catalytic reactions, NUV photons are able to photolyze water, producing HOx radicals which go on to catalytically recombine the relatively stable CO and O2 molecules back into CO2. The comparatively low NUV flux of some M dwarfs leads to a significantly reduced efficiency of catalytic recombination of CO and O2 and the possible net destruction of CO2 and the build up of CO and O2. In this work we test the above hypothesis using a 1D photochemical kinetics model for a Mars-sized planet with an initial atmospheric composition similar to that of Mars and the incoming stellar flux of a weakly active M dwarf, assuming the exoplanet is 0.1 AU away from its parent star, in proximity of its habitable zone. We show that a CO2-dominated atmosphere can be converted into a CO2/CO/O2-dominated atmosphere in 10^3-10^4 years by CO2 photolysis. This process is kept from running away by a combination of O2 photolysis, three body reactions of O, O2, and another species to form O3, and reactions of CO with OH to form CO2 and H. However, such a large amount of O2 and CO, combined with some amount of H and H2, may be susceptible to spontaneous combustion or detonation, and thus could prove to be an especially unstable state in itself. Thus there could arise a situation whereby a CO2 atmosphere dissociating into CO and O2 would be periodically and violently converted back into mostly CO2 due to some "spark". Our simulation results suggest that it is unlikely that CO2 atmospheres can remain stable on terrestrial planets around M dwarfs with high FUV/NUV flux ratios unless it is extremely quiescent. Furthermore, any detection of O2 and O3 in such atmospheres is far more likely to be due to photochemical processes rather than as a result of biology.

Gao, P.; Hu, R.; Yung, Y. L.

2013-12-01

84

CO2 greenhouse in the early martian atmosphere: SO2 inhibits condensation.  

PubMed

Many investigators of the early martian climate have suggested that a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere was present and warmed the surface above the melting point of water (J.B. Pollack, J.F. Kasting, S.M. Richardson, and K. Poliakoff 1987. Icarus 71, 203-224). However, J.F. Kasting (1991. Icarus 94, 1-13) pointed out that previous thermal models of the primitive martian atmosphere had not considered the condensation of CO2. When this effect was incorporated, Kasting found that CO2 by itself is inadequate to warm the surface. SO2 absorbs strongly in the near UV region of the solar spectrum. While a small amount of SO2 may have a negligible effect by itself on the surface temperature, it may have significantly warmed the middle atmosphere of early Mars, much as ozone warms the terrestrial stratosphere today. If this region is kept warm enough to inhibit the condensation of CO2, then CO2 remains a viable greenhouse gas. Our preliminary radiative modeling shows that the addition of 0.1 ppmv of SO2 in a 2 bar CO2 atmosphere raises the temperature of the middle atmosphere by approximately 10 degrees, so that the upper atmosphere in a 1 D model remains above the condensation temperature of CO2. In addition, this amount of SO2 in the atmosphere provides an effective UV shield for a hypothetical biosphere on the martian surface. PMID:11541436

Yung, Y L; Nair, H; Gerstell, M F

1997-01-01

85

On the Climatic Impact of CO2 Ice Particles in Atmospheres of Terrestrial Exoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds play a significant role for the energy budget in planetary atmospheres. They can scatter incident stellar radiation back to space, effectively cooling the surface of terrestrial planets. On the other hand, they may contribute to the atmospheric greenhouse effect by trapping outgoing thermal radiation. For exoplanets near the outer boundary of the habitable zone, condensation of CO2 can occur due to the low atmospheric temperatures. These CO2 ice clouds may play an important role for the surface temperature and, therefore, for the question of habitability of those planets. However, the optical properties of CO2 ice crystals differ significantly from those of water droplets or water ice particles. Except for a small number of strong absorption bands, they are almost transparent with respect to absorption. Instead, they are highly effective scatterers at long and short wavelengths. Therefore, the climatic effect of a CO2 ice cloud will depend on how much incident stellar radiation is scattered to space in comparison to the amount of thermal radiation scattered back towards the planetary surface. This contribution aims at the potential greenhouse effect of CO2 ice particles. Their scattering and absorption properties are calculated for assumed particle size distributions with different effective radii and particle densities. An accurate radiative transfer model is used to determine the atmospheric radiation field affected by such CO2 particles. These results are compared to less detailed radiative transfer schemes employed in previous studies.

Kitzmann, D.; Patzer, A. B. C.; Rauer, H.

2014-04-01

86

Understanding the early Mesozoic world: New geochronological data from terrestrial and marine strata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first ~50 Ma of the Mesozoic (the Triassic Period) are marked by two major mass extinctions at the end-Permian and end-Triassic, extensive flood volcanic events (the Siberian Traps and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province), perturbations of the ocean chemistry, paleoenvironmental changes in a greenhouse world and the origin of modern terrestrial ecosystems. Marine records of events leading to the end-Permian extinction as well as subsequent recovery during the Early and Middle Triassic are now well understood in terms of their relative and absolute timing, mainly due to significant advances in both the quantity and quality of geochronological data. This includes a detailed understanding of the Middle and end-Permian extinction events and their potential causes, their aftermath, and also the timing of large scale perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the Early Triassic. For the remaining ~30 Ma of the Triassic, however, there was until recently virtually no chronostratigraphic framework, and hence there is a major lag in our understanding of major events such as the origin and early diversification of dinosaurs, major reef building episodes in marine ecosystems, paleoenvironmental changes (e.g., the Carnian Pluvial Event), and a large extraterrestrial bolide impact (the Manicouagan impact). In absence of high-resolution radioisotopic ages, assumptions about causal inference and the role of these events, remain poorly constrained. We have therefore started to build a chronostratigraphic framework by applying U-Pb CA-TIMS analyses to zircon from primary and redeposited volcanic strata within both marine and terrestrial sequences of Late Triassic age. In particular, the potential of geochronological techniques applied to redeposited volcanic layers has long been ignored because the time lag between zircon crystallization and deposition is unknown; however, our initial results calibrating terrestrial sequences in North and South America are very promising and many of the obtained maximum ages are in agreement with stratigraphic order. Our new marine ages support the hypothesis of a long Norian Stage (~20 Ma), and new data suggest a wholly Norian age for the fossiliferous terrestrial Chinle Formation in the southwestern US. Thus, previous correlations based on terrestrial biostratigraphy with deposits in South American sequences are now thought to be flawed, suggesting that the rise of dinosaurs was diachronous, and occurred later in North America than in South America. Further complementary geochronological analyses from marine sequences are currently underway and are aimed at correlating and understanding key events and processes that are recorded both marine and terrestrial sedimentary archives of Late Triassic age.

Mundil, Roland; Irmis, Randall B.; Ickert, Ryan B.

2013-04-01

87

Impacts and the early environment and evolution of the terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now admitted that very large impacts may have played an important role in the accretion of the terrestrial planets. The size-frequency distribution of these impacts fits the formal definition of a catastrophic process: the mass and momentum added by a rare large impact is larger than that added by all the more frequent small impacts combined. The effects of such large impacts on the thermal states of growing planets is discussed. At a later stage of planetary evolution, the smaller impacts during late heavy bombardment may have played an important role in stripping the original gaseous atmospheres of the planets and in segregating condensible substances from volatile ones.

Melosh, H. J.; Vickery, A. M.

1991-06-01

88

Impacts and the early environment and evolution of the terrestrial planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is now admitted that very large impacts may have played an important role in the accretion of the terrestrial planets. The size-frequency distribution of these impacts fits the formal definition of a catastrophic process: the mass and momentum added by a rare large impact is larger than that added by all the more frequent small impacts combined. The effects of such large impacts on the thermal states of growing planets is discussed. At a later stage of planetary evolution, the smaller impacts during late heavy bombardment may have played an important role in stripping the original gaseous atmospheres of the planets and in segregating condensible substances from volatile ones.

Melosh, H. J.; Vickery, A. M.

1991-01-01

89

Paleolimnological archives of environmental change in aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric systems  

SciTech Connect

Lake sediments accumulate material derived from the atmosphere, the lake catchment, and the lake itself, and these materials can be used to infer the history of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, the climate system, and global biogeochemical cycling. Several case-studies will be presented to discuss the reconstruction of environmental variability from the paleolimnological record including studies of (1) Climate history: Closed-basin lakes are sensitive recorders of changes in the hydrologic budget and are used in and semi-arid regions to assess patterns of long- and short-term variability in moisture availability; (2) Biogeochemical cycling/pollution history: Basin-wide measurement of mercury accumulation in lake sediments is used to estimate modem and pre-industrial rates of mercury deposition and the contribution of global vs regional sources; and (3) Acidification history: Lake-pH is reconstructed from aquatic microfossils and correlated with changes in pollutant deposition and terrestrial vegetation to evaluate the extent, timing, and causes of acidification.

Fritz, S.C.; Engstrom, D.R. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States))

1993-06-01

90

Terrestrial microorganisms at an altitude of 20,000 m in Earth's atmosphere  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A joint effort between the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Desert Dust and NASA's Stratospheric and Cosmic Dust Programs identified culturable microbes from an air sample collected at an altitude of 20,000 m. A total of 4 fungal (Penicillium sp.) and 71 bacteria colonyforming units (70 colonies of Bacillus luciferensis believed to have originated from a single cell collected at altitude and one colony of Bacillus sphaericus) were enumerated, isolated and identified using a morphological key and 16S rDNA sequencing respectively. All of the isolates identified were sporeforming pigmented fungi or bacteria of terrestrial origin and demonstrate that the presence of viable microorganisms in Earth's upper atmosphere may not be uncommon.

Griffin, D. W.

2004-01-01

91

Soil-zone adsorption of atmospheric CO2 as a terrestrial carbon sink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying and quantifying sources and sinks of CO2 is integral to developing global carbon budgets and effectively modeling climate change. Adsorption of CO2 onto mineral and soil surfaces has generally been regarded as an insignificant sink, though few studies have investigated adsorption on natural materials at temperatures and CO2 concentrations relevant to atmospheric or soil zone conditions. In this study, annual adsorption at the scale of North America was modeled for the upper 3 m of the Earth's surface (the root zone) based on our own and published adsorption data, and results compared with reported estimates for the North American terrestrial carbon sink during 2000-2005. Our results suggest that adsorption can account for 1-3% of the average annual sink during these years. At smaller regional scales where more adsorptive deposits are present, such as volcanic ash or high-organic soils, the sink may be significantly larger.

Davidson, Gregg R.; Phillips-Housley, Ashley; Stevens, Maria T.

2013-04-01

92

Do meteoroids of sedimentary origin survive terrestrial atmospheric entry? The ESA artificial meteorite experiment STONE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18 SNC meteorites identified to date are all igneous rocks, being basalts or basaltic cumulates. The lack of sedimentary rocks in this inventory is therefore surprising, in view of the collisional history of Mars and the likelihood that Mars experienced warmer conditions, possibly with a significant hydrosphere, earlier in its history. To address the possibility that sedimentary rocks ejected by impact from the surface of Mars may have reached the Earth, but did not survive terrestrial atmospheric entry, an experiment was performed in which samples of dolomite, a simulated Martian regolith (consisting of basalt fragments in a gypsum matrix) and a basalt were fixed to the heat shield of a recoverable capsule and flown in low Earth orbit. Temperatures attained during re-entry were high enough to melt basalt and the silica fibres of the heat shield and were therefore comparable to those experienced by meteorites. The dolomite sample survived space flight and atmospheric re-entry, in part, as did fragments of the simulated Martian regolith, allowing detailed examinations of these 'artificial meteorites' to be conducted for chemical, mineralogical and isotopic modifications associated with atmospheric re-entry. Oxygen three-isotope measurements of the silica 'fusion crust' formed on the sample holder during atmospheric re-entry fit on a mixing line, with tropospheric O 2 and the interior of the sample holder as end members. Because much of the surface of Mars is covered by clastic sediments, meteorites of Martian provenance might be expected to be mostly sedimentary rocks rather than igneous ones. However, in the absence of a readily identifiable fusion crust, the extraterrestrial origin of such sedimentary rocks on Earth would most probably not be recognised without detailed petrological-geochemical examination and, ultimately, isotope measurements.

Brack, A.; Baglioni, P.; Borruat, G.; Brandstätter, F.; Demets, R.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Genge, M.; Kurat, G.; Miller, M. F.; Newton, E. M.; Pillinger, C. T.; Roten, C.-A.; Wäsch, E.

2002-06-01

93

Modeling Soil Climate Controls on the Exchange of Trace Gases Between the Terrestrial Biosphere and the Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil temperature and moisture profiles (soil climate) have a strong influence on the rate of trace gas exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere through the controls exerted on microbial processes and the physical exchange of gases. Principal controls of biological denitrification in mineral soils are the availability of carbon and nitrogen substrates and the soil anaerobic status. A

Stephen Edward Frolking

1993-01-01

94

Three-dimensional tracer model study of atmospheric CO2 - Response to seasonal exchanges with the terrestrial biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional tracer transport model is used to investigate the annual cycle of atmospheric CO2 concentration produced by seasonal exchanges with the terrestrial biosphere. The tracer model uses winds generated by a global general circulation model to advect and convect CO2; no explicit diffusion coefficients are employed. A biospheric exchange function constructed from a map of net primary productivity, and

I. Fung; K. Prentice; E. Matthews; J. Lerner; G. Russell

1983-01-01

95

A model simulation of carbon dioxide and stable carbon isotope exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere: Is the terrestrial d13C discrimination effect decreasing?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial ecosystems exchange a huge amount of carbon with the atmosphere, causing seasonal, interannual, and even long-term variability in atmospheric CO2 concentration. They also affect stable carbon isotope composition of atmospheric CO2, because of photosynthetic discrimination against heavier stable carbon isotope (13C). In this study, atmosphere-biosphere exchange of CO2 was simulated with a process-based terrestrial carbon cycle model (Sim-CYCLE), including stable carbon isotopic features. The fractionation factor is affected by a couple of factors: photosynthetic pathway (C3/C4), stomatal gas diffusion, and recycling of respired CO2 within canopy. A long-term simulation from AD 1901 to 2000 suggested that average discrimination effect would be -16.5 per mill, including -1.8 per mil by canopy recycling. Apparently, C3 species had larger (more negative) discrimination effects than C4 species. It was remarkable that the discrimination factor became gradually small (less negative), from -16.65 per mill in 1900s to -16.40 per mill in 1990s. The decline of the discrimination effect was mainly attributable to stomatal response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, reducing the ratio of intercellular (Ci) to ambient CO2 concentration (Ca). This stomatal response exceeded the competitive responses of C3/C4 composition and canopy recycling, both of which lead to larger discrimination effects. Importantly, the temporal change in the discrimination factor could induce an isotopic disequilibrium of the atmosphere-biosphere CO2 exchange, in addition to the disequilibrium induced by fossil fuel combustion (13C Suess effect). Including this factor, isotope-based analyses of the global carbon budget would be more or less amended.

Ito, A.

2003-12-01

96

Preservation of terrestrial organic carbon in marine sediments offshore Taiwan: mountain building and atmospheric carbon dioxide sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can be achieved by the erosion of organic carbon (OC) from the terrestrial biosphere and its burial in long-lived marine sediments. Rivers on mountain islands of Oceania in the western Pacific have very high rates of OC export to the ocean, yet its preservation offshore remains poorly constrained. Here we use the OC content (Corg, %), radiocarbon (? 14Corg) and stable isotope (?13Corg) composition of sediments offshore Taiwan to assess the fate of terrestrial OC, using surface, sub-surface and Holocene sediments. We account for rock-derived OC to assess the preservation of OC eroded from the terrestrial biosphere and the associated CO2 sink during flood discharges (hyperpycnal river plumes) and when river inputs are dispersed more widely (hypopycnal). The Corg, ?14Corg and ? 13Corg of marine sediment traps and cores indicate that during flood discharges, terrestrial OC can be transferred efficiently down submarine canyons to the deep ocean and accumulates offshore with little evidence for terrestrial OC loss. In marine sediments fed by dispersive river inputs, the Corg, ?14Corg and ? 13Corg are consistent with mixing of terrestrial OC with marine OC and suggest that efficient preservation of terrestrial OC (>70%) is also associated with hypopycnal delivery. Sub-surface and Holocene sediments indicate that this preservation is long-lived on millennial timescales. Re-burial of rock-derived OC is pervasive. Our findings from Taiwan suggest that erosion and offshore burial of OC from the terrestrial biosphere may sequester >8 TgC yr-1 across Oceania, a significant geological CO2 sink which requires better constraint. We postulate that mountain islands of Oceania provide a strong link between tectonic uplift and the carbon cycle, one moderated by the climatic variability which controls terrestrial OC delivery to the ocean.

Kao, S.-J.; Hilton, R. G.; Selvaraj, K.; Dai, M.; Zehetner, F.; Huang, J.-C.; Hsu, S.-C.; Sparkes, R.; Liu, J. T.; Lee, T.-Y.; Yang, J.-Y. T.; Galy, A.; Xu, X.; Hovius, N.

2014-03-01

97

Preservation of terrestrial organic carbon in marine sediments off shore Taiwan: mountain building and atmospheric carbon dioxide sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can be achieved by the erosion of organic carbon (OC) from the terrestrial biosphere and its burial in long-lived marine sediments. Rivers on mountain islands of Oceania in the western Pacific have very high rates of OC export to the ocean, yet its preservation offshore remains poorly constrained. Here we use the OC content (Corg, %), radiocarbon (?14Corg) and stable isotope (?13Corg) composition of sediments offshore Taiwan to assess the fate of terrestrial OC. We account for rock-derived fossil OC to assess the preservation of OC eroded from the terrestrial biosphere (non-fossil OC) during flood discharges (hyperpycnal river plumes) and when river inputs are dispersed more widely (hypopycnal). The Corg, ?14Corg and ?13Corg of marine sediment traps and cores indicate that during flood discharges, terrestrial OC is transferred efficiently to the deep ocean and accumulates offshore with little evidence for terrestrial OC loss. In marine sediments fed by dispersive river inputs, the Corg, ?14Corg and ?13Corg are consistent with mixing of marine OC and terrestrial OC and suggest that efficient preservation of terrestrial OC (> 70%) is also associated with hypopycnal delivery. Re-burial of fossil OC is pervasive. Our findings from Taiwan suggest that erosion and marine burial of terrestrial non-fossil OC may sequester > 8 TgC yr-1 across Oceania, a significant geological CO2 sink which requires better constraint. We postulate that mountain islands of Oceania provide strong link between tectonic uplift and the carbon cycle, one moderated by the climatic variability that controls terrestrial OC delivery to the ocean.

Kao, S.-J.; Hilton, R. G.; Selvaraj, K.; Dai, M.; Zehetner, F.; Huang, J.-C.; Hsu, S.-C.; Sparkes, R.; Liu, J. T.; Lee, T.-Y.; Yang, J.-Y. T.; Galy, A.; Xu, X.; Hovius, N.

2013-07-01

98

A terrestrial vegetation turnover in the middle of the Early Triassic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-plant productivity was greatly reduced after the end-Permian mass extinction, causing a pronounced "coal gap" worldwide during the Early Triassic. Newly obtained organic geochemistry data from the Chaohu area, south China, indicated an abrupt and profound terrestrial vegetation change over the middle part of the Early Triassic Smithian-Spathian (S-S) interval. Herbaceous lycopsids and/or bryophytes dominated terrestrial vegetation from Griesbachian to Smithian times. The terrestrial ecosystem underwent an abrupt change, and woody conifers became dominant over the S-S interval. Several important biomarkers, namely retene, simonellite, and dehydroabietane (with multiple sources: conifer, lycopsid, and/or herbaceous bryophyte), were relatively abundant during Griesbachian, Dienerian, and Smithian times. The relatively low C/N ratio values during the Griesbachian-Smithian interval indicate that these biomarkers were likely sourced from herbaceous lycopsids and/or bryophytes. The extremely abundant conifer-sourced pimanthrene, combined with relatively high C/N ratio values, suggested the recovery of woody conifers after the S-S boundary. The new data revealed that the switch from herbaceous vegetation to woody coniferous vegetation marked a terrestrial plant recovery, which occurred globally within 3 million years after the end-Permian crisis rather than at a later date estimated in previous studies. In Chaohu, the S-S terrestrial event was marked by a reappearance of woody vegetation, while the S-S marine event was marked by an increase in ichnodiversity, trace complexity, burrow size, infaunal tiering level, and bioturbation level, and a possible intense upwelling event indicated by the extended tricyclic terpane ratios (ETR). Coeval vegetation changes with comparable patterns have also been documented in Europe and Pakistan based on palynologic studies. The S-S boundaries in Asia and Europe are associated with a positive ?13C excursion, the rebound of woody vegetation, a turnover of ammonoid faunas, and possible global climate cooling. This is the first study to document the S-S event using biomarkers and C/N ratios.

Saito, Ryosuke; Kaiho, Kunio; Oba, Masahiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Tong, Jinnan

2013-06-01

99

Terrestrial influence on atmospheric carbon dioxide, a mechanistic study using oxygen-18  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present carbon budget is unbalanced due to anthropogenic influences. Atmospheric warming might have resulted from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Sequestration of this CO2 is observed in oceans and land vegetation, though questions arise regarding the magnitude of the terrestrial biosphere sink. These questions can be addressed by measuring the abundance of the light stable isotopes of oxygen (16O, and 18O in CO2) in the biological and chemical processes which produce and consume CO2. This work applies known methods of CO2 isolation and mass spectrometric analysis to address questions regarding the mechanisms of isotopic fractionation during land-atmosphere exchange where global, regional, local, and point-spot studies are researched. Atmospheric CO2 exchange with land masses influences about 80% of the delta18O signature yielding exchange fluxes on the order of 200 GtC yr-1. Land biosphere controls the seasonal cycle of CO2 and the offsets observed in the seasonal swing of the isotopic ratios, 13C/12C and 18O/16O (4--6 month shifts). When we looked closer at magnitudes of land-atmosphere exchanges, we saw that the respiratory flux was 100 times greater than the photosynthetic flux during the summer on the day of measurement in a coniferous forest system (3612 mumol m-2 s-1). Therefore, this regional isotopic signature was thought to be dominated by the delta 18O of soil respired CO2. Further inspection of the controlling mechanisms of soil respired CO 2 was then addressed where offsets (20‰) from soil water were observed in moisture limited ridge-top soils. Also, kinetic fractionation due to molecular diffusion through the soil column (thought to be 8.8‰) was not observed within the moisture limited, unsaturated, or saturated conditions within a grassland or forest ecosystem. On a localized scale, we conducted experiments on isotopically tracing water movement in a rooting zone. The results showed increased production of trace gases leading to increased emission rates (shown in CO2). In conclusion, plant ecosystems have a strong influence on isotopic compositions of atmospheric CO2, where fluxes can be monitored with delta 18O.

Fessenden, Julianna Eileen

100

Greening the terrestrial biosphere: simulated feedbacks on atmospheric heat and energy circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much research focuses on how the terrestrial biosphere influences climate through changes in surface albedo (reflectivity), stomatal conductance and leaf area index (LAI). By using a fully-coupled GCM (HadCM3LC), our research objective was to induce an increase in the growth of global vegetation to isolate the effect of increased LAI on atmospheric exchange of heat and moisture. Our C ontrol simulation had a mean global net primary production (NPP) of 56.3 GtCyr-1 which is half that of our scenario value of 115.1 GtCyr-1. LAI and latent energy ( Q E) were simulated to increase globally, except in areas around Antarctica. A highly productive biosphere promotes mid-latitude mean surface cooling of ~2.5°C in the summer, and surface warming of ~1.0°C in the winter. The former response is primarily the result of reduced Bowen ratio (i.e. increased production of Q E) in combination with small increases in planetary albedo. Response in winter temperature is likely due to decreased planetary albedo that in turn permits a greater amount of solar radiation to reach the Earth’s surface. Energy balance calculations show that between 75° and 90°N latitude, an additional 2.4 Wm-2 of surface heat must be advected into the region to maintain energy balance, and ultimately causes high northern latitudes to warm by up to 3°C. We postulate that large increases in Q E promoted by increased growth of terrestrial vegetation could contribute to greater surface-to-atmosphere exchange and convection. Our high growth simulation shows that convective rainfall substantially increases across three latitudinal bands relative to C ontrol; in the tropics, across the monsoonal belt, and in mid-latitude temperate regions. Our theoretical research has implications for applied climatology; in the modeling of past “hot-house” climates, in explaining the greening of northern latitudes in modern-day times, and for predicting future changes in surface temperature with continued increases in atmospheric CO2.

Cowling, S. A.; Jones, C. D.; Cox, P. M.

2009-02-01

101

Earliest laterites and possible evidence for terrestrial vegetation in the Early Proterozoic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleosols preserve information about the composition of the atmosphere and paleoclimatic conditions. Here we report the discovery of the first pisolitic laterites of Precambrian age. The laterites are immediately above the regional unconformity at the base of the Early Proterozoic Gamagara Formation in paleokarst depressions on the Campbellrand dolomite, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. The paleosol profiles are very well preserved

Jens Gutzmer; Nicolas J. Beukes

1998-01-01

102

Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homer Newell's book, Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science, provides the reader with an excellent history of space science and the intricate governmental as well as personal travails that brought the U.S. space program from its beginnings in the early V-2 days to its enviable state (in today's terms) in the early seventies.The account is developed and well

N. W. Spencer

1982-01-01

103

Estimating Terrestrial Wood Biomass from Observed Concentrations of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate terrestrial disequilibrium state and wood biomass from observed concentrations of atmospheric CO2 using the CarbonTracker system coupled to the SiBCASA biophysical model. Starting with a priori estimates of carbon flux from the land, ocean, and fossil fuels, CarbonTracker estimates net carbon sources and sinks from 2000 to 2007 that are optimally consistent with observed CO2 concentrations. The a priori terrestrial Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from SiBCASA assume steady state conditions for initial biomass, implying mature ecosystems with no disturbances where growth balances decay and the long-term, net carbon flux is zero. In reality, harvest, fires, and other disturbances reduce available biomass for decay, thus reducing Rh and resulting in a long-term carbon sink. The disequilibrium state is the ratio of Rh estimated from CarbonTracker to the steady state Rh from SiBCASA. Wood is the largest carbon pool in forest ecosystems and the dominant source of dead organic matter to the soil and litter pools. With much faster turnover times, the soil and litter pools reach equilibrium relative to the wood pool long before the wood pool itself reaches equilibrium. We take advantage of this quasi-steady state to estimate the size of the wood pool that will produce an Rh that corresponds to the net carbon sink from CarbonTracker. We then compare this estimated wood biomass to regional maps of observed above ground wood biomass from the US Forest Inventory Analysis.

Schaefer, K. M.; Peters, W.; Carvalhais, N.; van der Werf, G.; Miller, J.

2008-12-01

104

Dermal bone in early tetrapods: a palaeophysiological hypothesis of adaptation for terrestrial acidosis.  

PubMed

The dermal bone sculpture of early, basal tetrapods of the Permo-Carboniferous is unlike the bone surface of any living vertebrate, and its function has long been obscure. Drawing from physiological studies of extant tetrapods, where dermal bone or other calcified tissues aid in regulating acid-base balance relating to hypercapnia (excess blood carbon dioxide) and/or lactate acidosis, we propose a similar function for these sculptured dermal bones in early tetrapods. Unlike the condition in modern reptiles, which experience hypercapnia when submerged in water, these animals would have experienced hypercapnia on land, owing to likely inefficient means of eliminating carbon dioxide. The different patterns of dermal bone sculpture in these tetrapods largely correlates with levels of terrestriality: sculpture is reduced or lost in stem amniotes that likely had the more efficient lung ventilation mode of costal aspiration, and in small-sized stem amphibians that would have been able to use the skin for gas exchange. PMID:22535781

Janis, Christine M; Devlin, Kelly; Warren, Daniel E; Witzmann, Florian

2012-08-01

105

Using Dimers to Measure Biosignatures and Atmospheric Pressure for Terrestrial Exoplanets  

PubMed Central

Abstract We present a new method to probe atmospheric pressure on Earth-like planets using (O2-O2) dimers in the near-infrared. We also show that dimer features could be the most readily detectable biosignatures for Earth-like atmospheres and may even be detectable in transit transmission with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The absorption by dimers changes more rapidly with pressure and density than that of monomers and can therefore provide additional information about atmospheric pressures. By comparing the absorption strengths of rotational and vibrational features to the absorption strengths of dimer features, we show that in some cases it may be possible to estimate the pressure at the reflecting surface of a planet. This method is demonstrated by using the O2 A band and the 1.06 ?m dimer feature, either in transmission or reflected spectra. It works best for planets around M dwarfs with atmospheric pressures between 0.1 and 10 bar and for O2 volume mixing ratios above 50% of Earth's present-day level. Furthermore, unlike observations of Rayleigh scattering, this method can be used at wavelengths longer than 0.6 ?m and is therefore potentially applicable, although challenging, to near-term planet characterization missions such as JWST. We also performed detectability studies for JWST transit transmission spectroscopy and found that the 1.06 and 1.27??m dimer features could be detectable (SNR>3) for an Earth analogue orbiting an M5V star at a distance of 5 pc. The detection of these features could provide a constraint on the atmospheric pressure of an exoplanet and serve as biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. We calculated the required signal-to-noise ratios to detect and characterize O2 monomer and dimer features in direct imaging–reflected spectra and found that signal-to-noise ratios greater than 10 at a spectral resolving power of R=100 would be required. Key Words: Remote sensing—Extrasolar terrestrial planets—Habitability—Radiative transfer—Biosignatures. Astrobiology 14, 67–86.

Meadows, Victoria; Claire, Mark; Crisp, Dave

2014-01-01

106

142Nd-182W record of terrestrial samples: Implications for Early Earth evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence for rapid differentiation of the planet Earth comes from studies of short-lived chronometers, in particular 182Hf-182W (T1/2=9Ma) and 146Sm-142Nd (T1/2=103Ma) used to constrain the age of core formation and the silicate differentiation, respectively. Although the major fractionation between Hf and W occurred during the core formation, differentiation within the silicate earth is expected to create Hf/W fractionation, W being more incompatible than Hf. Boyet and Carlson (Science 309, 2005) showed that all terrestrial samples present 20 ppm excess of 142Nd relative to chondrites. Assuming that the Earth formed by accretion of material similar in refractory element concentrations to chondrites, they connect this signature to a global differentiation of the silicate earth during the first 30 Ma of the solar system history. Old mafic rocks from Isua, Greenland have a 142Nd excess 15 ppm higher than found in most other terrestrial rocks suggesting that the early-Earth's mantle was even more depleted than the post-3.8 Ga mantle. These anomalies provided the first indisputable evidence that differentiation of the Earth occurred while 146Sm was present and even when 182Hf was extant. W isotopic composition has been measured by MC-ICPMS at UC Davis in Isua samples for which excess in 142Nd were reported. No 182W deviation has been measured outside the error of 30 ppm (external precision). We will use these data to bring more constraints on the timing of the silicate Earth differentiation. Using a 3-stage model, if the core/mantle differentiation occurred before 25 Ma, the decoupling between 142Nd and 182W anomalies provides evidence of an early mantle differentiation (40 Ma) produced probably before the Moon's formation. Finally, we will discuss the importance of early events for the Earth's mantle evolution, trying to reconcile the modern view we have of the mantle with its long-term evolution.

Boyet, M.; Moynier, F.; Yin, Q.; Irisawa, K.; Carlson, R. W.

2007-12-01

107

3D-radiative transfer in terrestrial atmosphere: An efficient parallel numerical procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light propagation and scattering in terrestrial atmosphere is usually studied in the framework of the 1D radiative transfer theory [1]. However, in reality particles (e.g., ice crystals, solid and liquid aerosols, cloud droplets) are randomly distributed in 3D space. In particular, their concentrations vary both in vertical and horizontal directions. Therefore, 3D effects influence modern cloud and aerosol retrieval procedures, which are currently based on the 1D radiative transfer theory. It should be pointed out that the standard radiative transfer equation allows to study these more complex situations as well [2]. In recent year the parallel version of the 2D and 3D RADUGA code has been developed. This version is successfully used in gammas and neutrons transport problems [3]. Applications of this code to radiative transfer in atmosphere problems are contained in [4]. Possibilities of code RADUGA are presented in [5]. The RADUGA code system is an universal solver of radiative transfer problems for complicated models, including 2D and 3D aerosol and cloud fields with arbitrary scattering anisotropy, light absorption, inhomogeneous underlying surface and topography. Both delta type and distributed light sources can be accounted for in the framework of the algorithm developed. The accurate numerical procedure is based on the new discrete ordinate SWDD scheme [6]. The algorithm is specifically designed for parallel supercomputers. The version RADUGA 5.1(P) can run on MBC1000M [7] (768 processors with 10 Gb of hard disc memory for each processor). The peak productivity is equal 1 Tfl. Corresponding scalar version RADUGA 5.1 is working on PC. As a first example of application of the algorithm developed, we have studied the shadowing effects of clouds on neighboring cloudless atmosphere, depending on the cloud optical thickness, surface albedo, and illumination conditions. This is of importance for modern satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms development. [1] Sobolev, V. V., 1972: Light scattering in planetary atmosphere, M.:Nauka. [2] Evans, K. F., 1998: The spherical harmonic discrete ordinate method for three dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer, J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 429 446. [3] L.P. Bass, T.A. Germogenova, V.S. Kuznetsov, O.V. Nikolaeva. RADUGA 5.1 and RADUGA 5.1(P) codes for stationary transport equation solution in 2D and 3D geometries on one and multiprocessors computers. Report on seminar “Algorithms and Codes for neutron physical of nuclear reactor calculations” (Neutronica 2001), Obninsk, Russia, 30 October 2 November 2001. [4] T.A. Germogenova, L.P. Bass, V.S. Kuznetsov, O.V. Nikolaeva. Mathematical modeling on parallel computers solar and laser radiation transport in 3D atmosphere. Report on International Symposium CIS countries “Atmosphere radiation”, 18 21 June 2002, St. Peterburg, Russia, p. 15 16. [5] L.P. Bass, T.A. Germogenova, O.V. Nikolaeva, V.S. Kuznetsov. Radiative Transfer Universal 2D 3D Code RADUGA 5.1(P) for Multiprocessor Computer. Abstract. Poster report on this Meeting. [6] L.P. Bass, O.V. Nikolaeva. Correct calculation of Angular Flux Distribution in Strongly Heterogeneous Media and Voids. Proc. of Joint International Conference on Mathematical Methods and Supercomputing for Nuclear Applications, Saratoga Springs, New York, October 5 9, 1997, p. 995 1004. [7] http://www/jscc.ru

Bass, L. P.; Germogenova, T. A.; Nikolaeva, O. V.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Kuznetsov, V. S.

2003-04-01

108

Mobile sampler for use in acquiring samples of terrestrial atmospheric gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Samples of terrestrial atmospheric gasses from a free body of such gasses using a device characterized by a plurality of tubular bodies adapted to be mounted in side by side relation on a motorized highway vehicle in mutual parallelism with the axis of the normal path of travel for the vehicles. Each of the bodies is of a cylindrical configuration and has an axial opening at each of its opposite ends through which a linear flow path is defined. A pair of pivotally supported, spring-biased sealing caps is mounted adjacent to the ends of the body and continuously urged into a hermetic sealing relationship. A restraint for securing the caps against spring-urged pivotal displacement, includes a separable, normally tensioned line interconnecting the caps and an operable release mechanism for simultaneously releasing the caps for spring-urged displacement. A hot wire cutter is included for separating the line, whereby samples of air are trapped in the body as the caps are spring-driven to assume an hermetically sealed relation with the openings defined in each of the opposite ends of the body.

Tucker, C. E.; Holway, H. P. (inventors)

1981-01-01

109

Photochemical model for NH3 in an early Martian atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A warm and wet climate scenario for early Mars has been explained by invoking a 5-bar CO2 atmosphere; however, Kasting has shown that CO2 will condense in the Martian atmosphere at these pressures. The formation of CO2 clouds will reduce the convection lapse rate and reduce the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. It is possible that additional greenhouse gases such as methane and ammonia were present in the early Mars atmosphere. We are using a one dimensional photochemical model to estimate the magnitude of the ammonia source required to maintain a given ammonia concentration in a dense CO2 atmosphere. Because CO2 is 2.5 times more efficient at Rayleigh scattering than Earth's N2 atmosphere, we anticipate increased scattering opacities and decreased photolytic destruction rates of ammonia on early Mars. The reduced gravity on Mars means that a 1 bar atmosphere will be approximately 3 times as thick as on Earth. It is possible that ammonia could have been shielded from photolysis by hydrocarbon aerosols which form as a product of methane photolysis.

Brown, L. L.; Kasting, J. F.

1992-01-01

110

Increased delivery of condensation nuclei during the Late Heavy Bombardment to the terrestrial and martian atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the period of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), between 4.1 and 3.8 Ga, the impact rate within the entire Solar System was up to a few thousand times higher than the current value (Ryder 2002, Bottke et al. 2012, Fassett and Minton 2013). Multiple basin-forming events on inner planets that occurred during this time had a strong but short-lasting (up to few thousands of years) effect on atmospheres of Earth and Mars (Sleep et al. 1989, Segura et al. 2002, 2012). However, the role of the continuous flux of smaller impactors has not been assessed so far. We calculated the amount of meteoric material in the 10^-3 kg to 106 kg size range delivered to Earth and Mars during the LHB based on the impact flux at the top of the Earth's atmosphere based on results from Bland and Artemieva (2006). Those values were recalculated for Mars based on Ivanov and Hartmann (2009) and then recalculated to the LHB peak based on estimates from Ryder (2002), Bottke et al. (2012), Fassett and Minton (2013). During the LHB, the amount of meteoritic material within this size range delivered to Earth was up to ~1.7*10^10 kg/year and 1.4*10^10 kg/year for Mars. The impactors that ablate and are disrupted during atmospheric entry can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (Rosen 1968, Hunten et al. 1980, Ogurtsov and Raspopov 2011). The amount of material delivered during LHB to the upper stratosphere and lower mezosphere (Hunten et al. 1980, Bland and Artemieva 2006) is comparable to the current terrestrial annual emission of mineral cloud condensation nuclei of 0.5-8*10^12 kg/year (Tegen 2003). On Mars, the availability of condensation nuclei is one of the main factors guiding water-ice cloud formation (Montmessin et al. 2004), which is in turn one of the main climatic factors influencing the hydrological cycle (Michaels et al. 2006) and radiative balance of the planet (Haberle et al. 1999, Wordsworth et al. 2013, Urata and Toon 2013). Increased delivery of condensation nuclei during the LHB should be taken into account when constructing models of terrestrial and Martian climates around 4 Ga. Bland P.A., Artemieva N.A. (2006) Meteorit.Planet.Sci. 41:607-631. Bottke W.F. et al. (2012) Nature 485: 78-81. Fassett C.I., Minton D.A. (2013) Nat.Geosci. 6:520-524 (2013). Hunten D.M. et al. (1980) J.Atmos.Sci. 37:1342-1357. Haberle R.M. et al. (1999) J.Geophys.Res. 104:8957-8974. Ivanov B.A., Hartmann W.K. (2009) Planets and Moons: Treatise on Geophysics (eds. Spohn T.): 207-243. Michaels T.I. et al. (2006) Geophys.Res.Lett. 33:L16201. Montmessin F. et al. (2004) J.Geophys.Res. 109:E10004. Ogurtsov M.G., Raspopov O.M. (2011) Geomagnetism&Aeronomy 51:275-283. Rosen J.M. (1968) Space Sci.Rev. 9:58-89. Ryder G. (2002) J.Geophys.Res. 107: doi:10.1029/2001JE001583. Segura T.L. et al. (2002) Science 298:1977-1980. Segura T.L. et al. (2012) Icarus 220:144-148. Sleep N.S. et al. (1989) Nature 342:139-142. Tegen I. (2003) Quat.Sci.Rev. 22:1821-1834. Urata R.A., Toon O.B. (2013) Icarus 226:229-250. Wordsworth R. et al. (2012) Icarus 222:1-19.

Losiak, Anna

2014-05-01

111

An approach to balancing the positive and negative effects of elevated nitrogen oxides in the lower atmosphere on terrestrial plants.  

PubMed

Elevated NOx in the lower atmosphere has three major effects on terrestrial plants. On the one hand, it causes an increase in surface ozone concentration. This reduces plant growth rate. On the other hand, elevated NOx causes an increase in the flux of oxidized N compounds from the atmosphere to the land surface. This plays a dual role in the life of terrestrial plants. Additional N in soils stimulates plant growth (N-fertilization effect), whereas soil acidification may negatively affect plants. A simple empirical model for calculating the overall effect of anthropogenic increase in NOx level has been developed. The model is based on experimental "cause-response" data presented in world scientific literature. Calculations showed that at the large scale, among the above-mentioned changes, elevated O3 plays a major and negative role in plant life. Its negative effect on plants is partly compensated by N fertilization in unmanaged ecosystems. Such compensation appears to be negligible in agricultural lands. There are vast territories in Euro--Asia--for instance, a territory of Russia--in which acid atmospheric deposition has no significant effect on terrestrial plants. PMID:12806067

Semenov, S

2001-09-24

112

Land Use Effects on Atmospheric C-13 Imply a Sizable Terrestrial CO2 Sink in Tropical Latitudes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Records of atmospheric CO2 and 13-CO2, can be used to distinguish terrestrial vs. oceanic exchanges of CO2 with the atmosphere. However, this approach has proven difficult in the tropics, partly due to extensive land conversion from C-3 to C-4 vegetation. We estimated the effects of such conversion on biosphere-atmosphere C-13 exchange for 1991 through 1999, and then explored how this 'land-use disequilibrium' altered the partitioning of net atmospheric CO2 exchanges between ocean and land using NOAA-CMDL data and a 2D, zonally averaged atmospheric transport model. Our results show sizable CO2 uptake in C-3-dominated tropical regions in seven of the nine years; 1997 and 1998, which included a strong ENSO event, are near neutral. Since these fluxes include any deforestation source, our findings imply either that such sources are smaller than previously estimated, and/or the existence of a large terrestrial CO2 sink in equatorial latitudes.

Townsend, Alan R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Tans, Pieter P.; White, James W. C.

2000-01-01

113

Carbon Dioxide/Methane Greenhouse Atmosphere on Early Mars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One explanation for the formation of fluvial surface features on early Mars is that the global average surface temperature was maintained at or above the freezing point of water by the greenhouse warming of a dense CO2 atmosphere; however, Kasting has sho...

L. L. Brown J. F. Kasting

1993-01-01

114

Requirements for the early atmosphere of Mars from nitrogen isotope ratios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The N escape models of Fox and Dalgarno and Fox required the presence of a dense, early CO2 atmosphere to inhibit fractionation of the N isotopes N-15 and N-14. The computed photochemical escape fluxes are so large at the present that the isotope ratio measured by Viking (about 1.62x terrestrial) can be produced in about 1.5 b.y. This model was refined in several ways. It was updated to incorporate the variation of the escape fluxes with increases in the solar fluxes at earlier times according to the model of Zahnle and Walker. As expected, this exacerbates the problem with overfractionation, but not greatly. Most of the escape and fractionation of the N occurs in the last 1.5 b.y., when the solar flux was only slightly different from the present. The dense early atmosphere must persist only a bit longer in order to reproduce the measured isotope ratio. The model was also modified to take into account changes in the O mixing ratio with time in the past, assuming that the O abundance is proportional to the square root of the solar flux. Although the production rate of O from photodissociation of CO2 scales as the solar flux, the strength of the winds and other mixing processes also increases with the solar flux, resulting in possibly more effective transport of O to the lower atmosphere where it is destroyed by catalytic and three-body recombination mechanisms.

Fox, J. L.

1993-01-01

115

Contrasting roles of interception and transpiration in the hydrological cycle - Part 1: Simple Terrestrial Evaporation to Atmosphere Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial evaporation consists of biophysical (i.e., transpiration) and physical fluxes (i.e., interception, soil moisture, and open water). The partitioning between them depends on both climate and the land surface, and determines the time scale of evaporation. However, few land-surface models have analysed and evaluated evaporative partitioning based on land use, and no studies have examined their subsequent paths in the atmosphere. This paper constitutes the first of two companion papers that investigate the contrasting effects of interception and transpiration in the hydrological cycle. Here, we present STEAM (Simple Terrestrial Evaporation to Atmosphere Model) used to produce partitioned evaporation and analyse the characteristics of different evaporation fluxes on land. STEAM represents 19 land-use types (including irrigated land) at sub-grid level with a limited set of parameters, and includes phenology and stress functions to respond to changes in climate conditions. Using ERA-Interim reanalysis forcing for the years 1999-2008, STEAM estimates a mean global terrestrial evaporation of 73 800 km3 year-1, with a transpiration ratio of 59%. We show that the terrestrial residence time scale of transpiration (days to months) has larger inter-seasonal variation and is substantially longer than that of interception (hours). Furthermore, results from an offline land-use change experiment illustrate that land-use change may lead to significant changes in evaporative partitioning even when total evaporation remains similar. In agreement with previous research, our simulations suggest that the vegetation's ability to transpire by retaining and accessing soil moisture at greater depth is critical for sustained evaporation during the dry season. Despite a relatively simple model structure, validation shows that STEAM produces realistic evaporative partitioning and hydrological fluxes that compare well with other global estimates over different locations, seasons and land-use types. We conclude that the simulated evaporation partitioning by STEAM is useful for understanding the links between land use and water resources, and can with benefit be employed for atmospheric moisture tracking.

Wang-Erlandsson, L.; van der Ent, R. J.; Gordon, L. J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2014-03-01

116

A carbon dioxide/methane greenhouse atmosphere on early Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One explanation for the formation of fluvial surface features on early Mars is that the global average surface temperature was maintained at or above the freezing point of water by the greenhouse warming of a dense CO2 atmosphere; however, Kasting has shown that CO2 alone is insufficient because the formation of CO2 clouds reduces the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. It is possible that other gases, such as NH3 and CH4, were present in the early atmosphere of Mars and contributed to the greenhouse effect. Kasting et al. investigated the effect of NH3 in a CO2 atmosphere and calculated that an NH3 mixing ratio of approximately 5 x 10 (exp -4) by volume, combined with a CO2 partial pressure of 4-5 bar, could generate a global average surface temperature of 273 K near 3.8 b.y. ago when the fluvial features are believed to have formed. Atmospheric NH3 is photochemically converted to N2 by ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths shortward of 230 nm; maintenance of sufficient NH3 concentrations would therefore require a source of NH3 to balance the photolytic destruction. We have used a one-dimensional photochemical model to estimate the magnitude of the NH3 source required to maintain a given NH3 concentration in a dense CO2 atmosphere. We calculate that an NH3 mixing ratio of 10(exp -4) requires a flux of NH3 on the order of 10(exp 12) molecules /cm-s. This figure is several orders of magnitude greater than estimates of the NH3 flux on early Mars; thus it appears that NH3 with CO2 is not enough to keep early Mars warm.

Brown, L. L.; Kasting, J. F.

1993-01-01

117

Simultaneous Assimilation of FAPAR and Atmospheric CO2 into a Terrestrial Vegetation Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tackling the possible severe impacts of climate change on the carbon cycle and land water resources requires further development of simulation models and monitoring capabilities. Carbon cycle impacts can lead to further climate change through releases of CO2, and impacts on water resources are critical for human survival. A rapidly increasing monitoring capability is Earth Observation (EO) by satellites. Usually, EO by its very nature focuses on diagnosing the current state of the planet. However, it is possible to use EO products in data assimilation systems to improve not only the diagnostics of the current state, but also the accuracy of future predictions. This study investigates the simultaneous assimilation of ground-based atmospheric CO2 concentration data and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from measurements made by the MERIS sensor on-board ENVISAT and to what extent these data can be used to improve models of terrestrial ecosystems, carbon cycling and hydrology. Further development of the Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS, see http://CCDAS.org) for the purpose of simultaneous assimilation of FAPAR and atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements showed that the design of the ecosystem model is critical for successful implementation of highly efficient variational data assimilation schemes. This is important, because each newly added data stream will typically require a separate observational operator. In the case of this study, it was the leaf development (phenology) sub-model that needed to be developed. As a variational data assimilation scheme, CCDAS relies on first and second derivatives of the underlying model for estimating process parameters with uncertainty ranges. In a subsequent step these parameter uncertainties are mapped forward onto uncertainty ranges for predicted carbon and water fluxes. We present assimilation experiments of MERIS FAPAR at the global scale together with in situ observations of atmospheric CO2 in a coarse-resolution setup of CCDAS. We also present a set of mission benefit analyses, which explore design options for future space mission through quantitative network design (QND) techniques. The benefit is quantified by the reduction in uncertainty on simulated carbon and water fluxes. We analyse the effects of FAPAR and carbon dioxide observations individually as well as the effects of mission length and sensor resolution. The reduction of uncertainties from assimilating FAPAR is modest for carbon fluxes, but considerable for hydrological quantities, in particular evapotranspiration. Sensor resolution is less critical for successful data assimilation, and with even relatively short time series of only a few years, significant uncertainty reduction can be achieved. Regionally, the highest constraint for both carbon fluxes and hydrological quantities is found for Australia and Africa (in that order). This can be explained by the fact that most of the vegetation on these continents grows in tropical or sub-tropical semi-arid environments, where observation conditions are especially favourable, as already noted. Here, vegetation is water limited, which underlines the usefulness of FAPAR assimilation for hydrological studies. The study demonstrates how QND techniques can be applied to assess the complementarity of multiple data streams and the value of multi-data synergies.

Kaminski, T.; Knorr, W.; Scholze, M.; Gobron, N.; Pinty, B.; Giering, R.; Mathieu, P. P.

2012-04-01

118

Quantitative Hydraulic Models Of Early Land Plants Provide Insight Into Middle Paleozoic Terrestrial Paleoenvironmental Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil plants provide useful proxies of Earth’s climate because plants are closely connected, through physiology and morphology, to the environments in which they lived. Recent advances in quantitative hydraulic models of plant water transport provide new insight into the history of climate by allowing fossils to speak directly to environmental conditions based on preserved internal anatomy. We report results of a quantitative hydraulic model applied to one of the earliest terrestrial plants preserved in three dimensions, the ~396 million-year-old vascular plant Asteroxylon mackei. This model combines equations describing the rate of fluid flow through plant tissues with detailed observations of plant anatomy; this allows quantitative estimates of two critical aspects of plant function. First and foremost, results from these models quantify the supply of water to evaporative surfaces; second, results describe the ability of plant vascular systems to resist tensile damage from extreme environmental events, such as drought or frost. This approach permits quantitative comparisons of functional aspects of Asteroxylon with other extinct and extant plants, informs the quality of plant-based environmental proxies, and provides concrete data that can be input into climate models. Results indicate that despite their small size, water transport cells in Asteroxylon could supply a large volume of water to the plant's leaves--even greater than cells from some later-evolved seed plants. The smallest Asteroxylon tracheids have conductivities exceeding 0.015 m^2 / MPa * s, whereas Paleozoic conifer tracheids do not reach this threshold until they are three times wider. However, this increase in conductivity came at the cost of little to no adaptations for transport safety, placing the plant’s vegetative organs in jeopardy during drought events. Analysis of the thickness-to-span ratio of Asteroxylon’s tracheids suggests that environmental conditions of reduced relative humidity (<20%) combined with elevated temperatures (>25°C) could cause sufficient cavitation to reduce hydraulic conductivity by 50%. This suggests that the Early Devonian environments that supported the earliest vascular plants were not subject to prolonged midseason droughts, or, alternatively, that the growing season was short. This places minimum constraints on water availability (e.g., groundwater hydration, relative humidity) in locations where Asteroxylon fossils are found; these environments must have had high relative humidities, comparable to tropical riparian environments. Given these constraints, biome-scale paleovegetation models that place early vascular plants distal to water sources can be revised to account for reduced drought tolerance. Paleoclimate proxies that treat early terrestrial plants as functionally interchangeable can incorporate physiological differences in a quantitatively meaningful way. Application of hydraulic models to fossil plants provides an additional perspective on the 475 million-year history of terrestrial photosynthetic environments and has potential to corroborate other plant-based paleoclimate proxies.

Wilson, J. P.; Fischer, W. W.

2010-12-01

119

Minor components of the terrestrial atmosphere during the 2nd campaign of IHY\\/CIP 57  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the occasion of the International Heliophysical Year the Italian Solar-Terrestrial community performed two coordinated campaigns (May 31-June 14 and November 30 - December 14, 2007) to characterize the solar-terrestrial environment during the current solar activity minimum phase (transition from sunspot cycle 23 to 24) in the period in which the sub-Earth point on the Sun is null. Ground based

A. Gardini; A. Damiani; M. Storini

2009-01-01

120

Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) and Earth's Moon display similar compositions, interior structures, and geologic histories. The terrestrial planets formed by accretion ˜ 4.5 Ga ago out of the solar nebula, whereas the Moon formed through accretion of material ejected off Earth during a giant impact event shortly after Earth formed. Geophysical investigations (gravity anomalies, seismic analysis, heat flow measurements, and magnetic field studies) reveal that all five bodies have differentiated into a low-density silicate crust, an intermediate density silicate mantle, and an iron-rich core. Seismic and heat flow measurements are only available for Earth and its Moon, and only Earth and Mercury currently exhibit actively produced magnetic fields (although Mars and the Moon retain remanent fields). Surface evolutions of all five bodies have been influenced by impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, and mass wasting. Aeolian activity only occurs on bodies with a substantial atmosphere (Venus, Earth, and Mars) and only Earth and Mars display evidence of fluvial and glacial processes. Earth's volcanic and tectonic activity is largely driven by plate tectonics, whereas those processes on Venus result from vertical motions associated with hotspots and mantle upwellings. Mercury displays a unique tectonic regime of global contraction caused by gradual solidification of its large iron core. Early large impact events stripped away much of Mercury's crust and mantle, produced Venus' slow retrograde rotation, ejected material off Earth that became the Moon, and may have created the Martian hemispheric dichotomy. The similarities and differences between the interiors and surfaces of these five bodies provide scientists with a better understanding of terrestrial planet evolutionary paths.

Barlow, Nadine G.

121

Atmospheric composition and climate on the early Earth.  

PubMed

Oxygen isotope data from ancient sedimentary rocks appear to suggest that the early Earth was significantly warmer than today, with estimates of surface temperatures between 45 and 85 degrees C. We argue, following others, that this interpretation is incorrect-the same data can be explained via a change in isotopic composition of seawater with time. These changes in the isotopic composition could result from an increase in mean depth of the mid-ocean ridges caused by a decrease in geothermal heat flow with time. All this implies that the early Earth was warm, not hot.A more temperate early Earth is also easier to reconcile with the long-term glacial record. However, what triggered these early glaciations is still under debate. The Paleoproterozoic glaciations at approximately 2.4Ga were probably caused by the rise of atmospheric O2 and a concomitant decrease in greenhouse warming by CH4. Glaciation might have occurred in the Mid-Archaean as well, at approximately 2.9Ga, perhaps as a consequence of anti-greenhouse cooling by hydrocarbon haze. Both glaciations are linked to decreases in the magnitude of mass-independent sulphur isotope fractionation in ancient rocks. Studying both the oxygen and sulphur isotopic records has thus proved useful in probing the composition of the early atmosphere. PMID:17008214

Kasting, James F; Howard, M Tazewell

2006-10-29

122

Atmospheric composition and climate on the early Earth  

PubMed Central

Oxygen isotope data from ancient sedimentary rocks appear to suggest that the early Earth was significantly warmer than today, with estimates of surface temperatures between 45 and 85°C. We argue, following others, that this interpretation is incorrect—the same data can be explained via a change in isotopic composition of seawater with time. These changes in the isotopic composition could result from an increase in mean depth of the mid-ocean ridges caused by a decrease in geothermal heat flow with time. All this implies that the early Earth was warm, not hot. A more temperate early Earth is also easier to reconcile with the long-term glacial record. However, what triggered these early glaciations is still under debate. The Paleoproterozoic glaciations at approximately 2.4?Ga were probably caused by the rise of atmospheric O2 and a concomitant decrease in greenhouse warming by CH4. Glaciation might have occurred in the Mid-Archaean as well, at approximately 2.9?Ga, perhaps as a consequence of anti-greenhouse cooling by hydrocarbon haze. Both glaciations are linked to decreases in the magnitude of mass-independent sulphur isotope fractionation in ancient rocks. Studying both the oxygen and sulphur isotopic records has thus proved useful in probing the composition of the early atmosphere.

Kasting, James F; Howard, M. Tazewell

2006-01-01

123

The "terminal Triassic catastrophic extinction event" in perspective: a review of carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate extinction patterns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A catastrophic terminal Triassic extinction event among terrestrial vertebrates is not supported by available evidence. The current model for such an extinction is based on at least eight weak or untenable assumptions: (1) a terminal Triassic extinction-inducing asteroid impact occurred, (2) a terminal Triassic synchronous mass extinction of terrestrial vertebrates occurred, (3) a concurrent terminal Triassic marine extinction occurred, (4) all terrestrial vertebrate families have similar diversities and ecologies, (5) changes in familial diversity can be gauged accurately from the known fossil record, (6) extinction of families can be compared through time without normalizing for changes in familial diversity through time, (7) extinction rates can be compared without normalizing for differing lengths of geologic stages, and (8) catastrophic mass extinctions do not select for small size. These assumptions have resulted in unsupportable and (or) erroneous conclusions. Carboniferous through Early Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate families mostly have evolution and extinction patterns unlike the vertebrate evolution and extinction patterns during the terminal Cretaceous event. Only the Serpukhovian (mid Carboniferous) extinction event shows strong analogy to the terminal Cretaceous event. Available data suggest no terminal Triassic extinction anomaly, but rather a prolonged and nearly steady decline in the global terrestrial vertebrate extinction rate throughout the Triassic and earliest Jurassic. ?? 1992.

Weems, R. E.

1992-01-01

124

Multiple Tectonic Regimes and Diverging Geologic Histories of Terrestrial Planets: The Importance of the Early Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use 3D mantle convection and planetary tectonics simulations to explore the links between tectonic regimes, the age of a planet, and its surface evolution. We demonstrate that the tectonic regime of a planet is dependant on its thermal and climatic evolution. A young planet with a high degree of internal heating has a strong susceptibility to climate-induced transitions in tectonic styles. The amplitude of a long lived surface temperature perturbation needed to initiate a transition from a mobile- to a stagnant-lid mode of tectonics decreases with increasing degrees of internal heating. As surface temperatures increase, episodic convection occurs over a larger range of lid strengths, suggesting that young and high temperature planetary bodies have a higher potential to exist in a long-lived mode of episodic tectonics. Once the system transitions into a stagnant-lid, the reverse transition is not attainable by a return to the original surface temperature, which indicates that the climate-tectonic system is bi-stable [multiple tectonic states are possible for the same parameter values]. As a planet ages, the system becomes increasingly insensitive to surface temperature induced transitions after ~30 - 50% of the original radiogenics decay. For a planet to transition from mobile- into episodic-, or stagnant-lid modes through the mechanism of increasing surface temperatures, the implication is that the change would have to occur early in its evolution, within the first 1-2 giga years. While the sensitivity to climatic perturbations decreases with the age of the planet, decreasing internal heat production can usher in a transition in tectonic regimes from a stagnant-lid state, into an episodic- and finally mobile-/sluggish-lid regimes. The implications are that terrestrial worlds can alternate between multiple tectonic states over giga-year timescales. The implications for the early Earth and Earth-Venus differences will be discussed.

Weller, M. B.; Lenardic, A.

2013-12-01

125

Terrestrial carbon sink observed from space: Sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 growth rates and seasonal cycle amplitudes to surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial biosphere is currently acting as a net carbon sink on the global scale, exhibiting significant interannual variability in strength. To reliably predict the future strength of the land sink and its role in atmospheric CO2 growth, the underlying biogeochemical processes and their response to a changing climate need to be well understood. In particular, better knowledge of the impact of key climate variables such as temperature on the biospheric carbon reservoir is essential. Global satellite measurements of column-averaged mole fractions of atmospheric CO2, which offer complementary information to the accurate and precise but inevitably sparse ground-based measurements, can contribute to determine characteristics of the terrestrial carbon sink. It is demonstrated using nearly a decade of SCIAMACHY nadir measurements that years with higher temperatures during the growing season can be robustly associated with larger growth rates in atmospheric CO2 and smaller seasonal cycle amplitudes for northern mid-latitudes. We find linear relationships between warming and CO2 growth as well as seasonal cycle amplitude at the 98 % significance level. The quantitative estimates of the corresponding covariations are consistent with those from the CarbonTracker data assimilated CO2 product, indicating that the temperature dependence of the model surface fluxes is realistic. The derived results suggest that the terrestrial carbon sink is less efficient at higher temperatures during the analysed time period. Unless the biosphere has the ability to adapt its carbon storage under warming conditions in the longer term, such a temperature response entails the risk of potential future sink saturation via a positive carbon-climate feedback.

Schneising, Oliver; Reuter, Maximilian; Buchwitz, Michael; Heymann, Jens; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.

2014-05-01

126

Sea surface temperatures and terrestrial water storage provide early warning information about fire season severity in the Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires in South America cause forest degradation and contribute to carbon emissions associated with land use change. We investigated the relationship between year-to-year changes in satellite observations of active fires in South America and sea surface temperatures. We found that the Oceanic Niño Index was correlated with interannual fire activity in the eastern Amazon whereas the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation index was more closely linked with fires in the southern and southwestern Amazon. Combining these two climate indices, we developed an empirical model that predicted regional fire season severity with 3-5 month lead times. We further examined the hypothesis that year-to-year variations in soil water recharge during the wet season modifies atmospheric water vapor and fire behavior during the following dry season. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing terrestrial water storage (TWS) observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), active fires from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and other satellite and climate data during 2002-2011. We found that TWS anomalies at the end of the wet season were negatively correlated with the number of active fires during the dry season for three regions across the southern Amazon. The most significant relationships (p < 0.02) were observed for TWS anomalies during April-August, several months before the peak month of burning (September). Analysis of other datasets provided evidence for a cascade of processes during drought events, with lower cumulative precipitation (and higher cumulative evapotranspiration) in the wet season substantially reducing TWS, and subsequently surface and column water vapor. Our results indicate that TWS from GRACE also has the potential to provide early warning information about fire season severity in the Amazon.

Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Morton, D. C.; DeFries, R. S.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Giglio, L.; Jin, Y.; Marlier, M. E.; Velicogna, I.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2012-12-01

127

Speciation of C-O-H volatiles in reduced magmas applicable to early terrestrial and planetary deep volatile cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speciation and solubility of C-O-H volatiles in reduced magmas are of great importance for volatile behavior in the early Earth and other planets determining partitioning between Earth's earliest atmospheres, mantle, and cores, as well as influencing volcanogenic degassing on reduced planetary bodies such as Mars and the Moon. In mafic and ultramafic magmas, C is soluble chiefly as carbonate under oxidizing conditions, but when fO2 is below that required for graphite (or diamond) saturation, carbonate solubility diminishes severely. This has left the question as to what, if any, species may host dissolved C in magmas under reducing conditions. Initial results suggested that the principle species may be CH4 (Mysen et al. 2009), but experiments at well-defined thermodynamic conditions have shown that CH4 solubility is very small except under conditions of very high H2 fugacity (Ardia et al. 2012). More recent experiments (Wetzel et al. 2013; Stanley et al. 2014) have identified Fe-carbonyl-like species as possibly the most stable. To clarify the relative stability of these species, we have conducted additional high pressure experiments at 1.2 GPa and 1400°C with graphite-saturated martian and terrestrial (MORB) basalt compositions, over a range of oxygen fugacities, paying careful attention to the availability of H2O. FTIR and Raman analyses reveal a range of distinct species that predominate as a function of fO2 and availability of H2O. At comparatively oxidizing conditions, carbonate is the most abundant species but within 1 log unit of iron wustite (IW), carbonyl-like species predominate, provided that conditions are comparatively dry. At yet more reducing conditions, carbonyl is absent and instead N-H associated species (perhaps amides?) are more important. Methane is observed only when quenched glasses have appreciable H2O (approaching ~ 1 wt.%). In all cases, solubilities are small when conditions are reduced, with <100 ppm C at IW or below.

Armstrong, Lora; Hirschmann, Marc

2014-05-01

128

Effects of the upper atmosphere on terrestrial and space communications: the new cost 271 action of the European scientific community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade important results have been obtained by the two COST Actions (Co-operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research) promoted by the European Union: the PRIME (Prediction and Retrospective Ionospheric Modelling over Europe) and the IITS (Improved Quality of Service in Ionospheric Telecommunication Systems Planning and Operation). The European scientific community involved in the ionospheric physics, radio propagation and space science has then proposed a new 4 years Action on the effects of the upper atmosphere on terrestrial and Earth space communications. The objectives and the most important directions of this recently accepted COST271 project are here shortly outlined.

Zolesi, B.; Cander, Lj. R.

129

The armoured dissorophid Cacops from the Early Permian of Oklahoma and the exploitation of the terrestrial realm by amphibians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cacops, one of the most distinctive Paleozoic amphibians, is part of a clade of dissorophoid temnospondyls that diversified in the equatorial region of Pangea during the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, persisting into the Late Permian in Central Russia and China. Dissorophids were a successful group of fully terrestrial, often spectacularly armoured predators, the only amphibians apparently able to coexist with amniotes when the latter started to dominate terrestrial ecosystems. In this paper, we describe excellent new skulls from the Early Permian of Oklahoma attributed to Cacops, Cacops morrisi sp. nov. and provide for the first time detailed information about this iconic dissorophid. These specimens show anatomical and ontogenetic features that will impact on future studies on the evolution of terrestriality in tetrapods. For example, the large, posteriorly closed tympanic embayment has fine striations on an otherwise smooth surface, documenting the oldest known clear evidence for the presence of a tympanic membrane in the fossil record, a structure that is used for hearing airborne sound in extant tetrapods. The skull of C. morrisi also has several features associated with predatory behaviour, indicating that this dissorophid may have been one of the top terrestrial predators of its time.

Reisz, Robert R.; Schoch, Rainer R.; Anderson, Jason S.

2009-07-01

130

The armoured dissorophid Cacops from the Early Permian of Oklahoma and the exploitation of the terrestrial realm by amphibians.  

PubMed

Cacops, one of the most distinctive Paleozoic amphibians, is part of a clade of dissorophoid temnospondyls that diversified in the equatorial region of Pangea during the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, persisting into the Late Permian in Central Russia and China. Dissorophids were a successful group of fully terrestrial, often spectacularly armoured predators, the only amphibians apparently able to coexist with amniotes when the latter started to dominate terrestrial ecosystems. In this paper, we describe excellent new skulls from the Early Permian of Oklahoma attributed to Cacops, Cacops morrisi sp. nov. and provide for the first time detailed information about this iconic dissorophid. These specimens show anatomical and ontogenetic features that will impact on future studies on the evolution of terrestriality in tetrapods. For example, the large, posteriorly closed tympanic embayment has fine striations on an otherwise smooth surface, documenting the oldest known clear evidence for the presence of a tympanic membrane in the fossil record, a structure that is used for hearing airborne sound in extant tetrapods. The skull of C. morrisi also has several features associated with predatory behaviour, indicating that this dissorophid may have been one of the top terrestrial predators of its time. PMID:19347261

Reisz, Robert R; Schoch, Rainer R; Anderson, Jason S

2009-07-01

131

Climatological features of atmospheric and terrestrial water cycles in the three great Siberian rivers based on six atmospheric reanalyses and observed river discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three great Siberian rivers: Lena, Yenisei and Ob Rivers, are top three discharges (R) among all rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean and play a role as a large source of freshwater inflow. This study revealed the regional differences in some climatological features of the atmospheric and terrestrial water cycles in the Siberian rivers on the basis of the Rs observed at the mouth of the rivers and net precipitations (precipitation minus evapotranspiration, P-E) estimated from six atmospheric reanalyses. As pointed out in previous studies, it is obvious that the precipitation is a key player in the water cycles, but also the east-west contrast of evapotranspicarion over Siberia affects the climatological mean and seasonal cycle of P-E and R in each of the Siberian river basins. The moisture transports associated with the P-E are also different among the rivers. The transient (stationary) flux associated with cyclone activity (mean atmospheric flow) dominates over the Lena (Ob) River basin in the east (west). In addition to the climatological distributions of SAT, humidity and atmospheric circulation over Siberia, the geographical and terrestrial conditions of this region such as topography, distance from the ocean, mainstream of the river, permafrost and vegetation type make the unique features of the water cycles in the individual Siberian rivers. Comparison of the six atmospheric reanalyses indicated that the estimations of P-E by using the reanalyses are reasonable compared to the observed R, and that is an effective way to evaluate and quantify the water cycles in the Lena, Yenisei and Ob Rivers.

Oshima, K.; Tachibana, Y.; Hiyama, T.

2013-12-01

132

Solar wind induced atmospheric erosion from a EUV heated and expanded early Earth atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Higher EUV fluxes of the young Sun led to a warmer and expanded thermosphere at early Earth than today. Under conditions, depending on the thermospheric composition and the amount of IR-coolers, hydrostatic equilibrium was not always maintained and hydrodynamic flow and expansion of the upper atmosphere resulting in adiabatic cooling of the exobase temperature could develop. Depending on the atmospheric protection by the Earth's magnetosphere, the current atmospheric composition was determined by atmospheric escape processes, volcanic outgassing and the appearance of life. Recent model results indicate that depending on the higher solar EUV flux of the young Sun, the exosphere could expand beyond the magnetopause. The constituents above the magnetopause could be ionized and picked up by the solar wind plasma flow. By applying a numerical test particle model and expected magnetosphere configurations, we study the non-thermal loss rates of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen ions which are eroded from extended exospheres by the solar wind of the young Sun during the period where life appeared on Earth. Thermal and non-thermal loss rates are compared and the relevance of the results related to early Earth atmosphere studies will be discussed. [1] Lammer, H., Kasting, J. F., Chassefíere, E., Johnson, R. E., Kulikov, Yu. N., Tian, F., (2008) Space Sci. Rev., submitted.

Lichtenegger, Herbert I. M.; Lammer, Helmut; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Tian, Feng; Kulikov, Yuri N.; Kasting, James F.

2008-09-01

133

Observed and Modeled Tritium Concentrations in the Terrestrial Food Chain near a Continuous Atmospheric Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tritium concentrations were measured in a large number of environmental and biological samples collected during 2002 at two dairy farms and a hobby farm near Pickering Nuclear Generating Station in Ontario, Canada. The data cover most compartments of the terrestrial food chain in an agricultural setting and include detailed information on the diets of the local farm animals. Ratios of

P. A. Davis; S. B. Kim; S. L. Chouhan; W. J. G. Workman

2005-01-01

134

Changes in the terrestrial atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system due to ion propulsion for solar power satellite placement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary estimates of the effects massive Ar(+) injections on the ionosphere-plasmasphere system with specific emphasis on potential communications disruptions are given. The effects stem from direct Ar(+) precipitation into the atmosphere and from Ar(+) beam induced precipitation of MeV radiation belt protons. These injections result from the construction of Solar Power Satellites using earth-based materials in which sections of a satellite must be lifted from low earth to geosynchronous orbit by means of ion propulsion based on the relatively abundant terrestrial atmospheric component, Ar. The total amount of Ar(+) injected in transporting the components for each Solar Power Satellite is comparable to the total ion content of the ionosphere-plasmasphere system while the total energy injected is larger than that of this system. It is suggested that such effects may be largely eliminated by using lunar-based rather than earth-based satellite construction materials.

Curtis, S. A.; Grebowsky, J. M.

1979-01-01

135

Mentors, networks, and resources for early career female atmospheric scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric Science Collaborations and Enriching NeTworks (ASCENT) is a workshop series designed to bring together early career female scientists in the field of atmospheric science and related disciplines. ASCENT is a multi-faceted approach to retaining these junior scientists through the challenges in their research and teaching career paths. During the workshop, senior women scientists discuss their career and life paths. They also lead seminars on tools, resources and methods that can help early career scientists to be successful. Networking is a significant aspect of ASCENT, and many opportunities for both formal and informal interactions among the participants (of both personal and professional nature) are blended in the schedule. The workshops are held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, home of a high-altitude atmospheric science laboratory - Storm Peak Laboratory, which also allows for nearby casual outings and a pleasant environment for participants. Near the conclusion of each workshop, junior and senior scientists are matched in mentee-mentor ratios of two junior scientists per senior scientist. An external evaluation of the three workshop cohorts concludes that the workshops have been successful in establishing and expanding personal and research-related networks, and that seminars have been useful in creating confidence and sharing resources for such things as preparing promotion and tenure packages, interviewing and negotiating job offers, and writing successful grant proposals.

Hallar, A. G.; Avallone, L. M.; Edwards, L. M.; Thiry, H.; Ascent

2011-12-01

136

Mutli-Scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - A Systematic Approach for Evaluating Land-Atmosphere Flux Estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of how carbon is exchanged between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is gained from direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle research is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. The multi-scale synthesis and intercomparison project (MsTMIP) has an overall goal of providing feedback to the TBM community to improve the diagnosis and attribution of carbon fluxes at regional and global scales. This project builds upon current and past synthesis activities by developing an integrative framework that all TBMs can use as a tool to continually evaluate overall model performance against a consistent set of observational constraints. The ability of the models to partition changes in estimated carbon flux among drivers such as climate variability, nutrient limitation, land management, and recovery from historical land use and disturbance is fundamental to understanding the terrestrial carbon cycle and improving terrestrial biospheric models. Therefore, in combination with baseline simulations, or a model's best estimate of carbon flux, the MsTMIP activity includes a series of sensitivity simulations that are designed to isolate the impact of specific drivers on model results. Over 18 different TBMs are participating in the study and will be submitting simulation results for the time period 1980 to 2010. A key component of the MsTMIP activity is to evaluate model performance against observations, inversions, and other model estimates through a set of quantitative performance measures and metrics based on inventory and flux tower-based observations. By prescribing standard spin-up procedures, input data sets, and output parameter formats, we quantify and diagnose any biases and uncertainties in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in model formulation and parameterization. This information will ultimately aid in improving model predictions of land-atmosphere carbon exchange.

Huntzinger, D. N.; Post, W. M.; Schaefer, K. M.; Jacobson, A. R.; Schwalm, C. R.; Cook, R. B.; Michalak, A. M.; MsTMIP Participants

2011-12-01

137

Reproducing Experiment in the Shock-Induced Removal of CO2 From the Atmosphere on the Early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the Mars is one of the most important problems on the environmental issues of terrestrial planets. The early Martian atmosphere was formed by degassing and it consisted thick CO2. Most of the CO2 must have been removed from the early Martian atmosphere in order to change to the present thin atmosphere. Heavy bombardment of planetesimals had been one of the important high energy processes on the primitive Mars. In this study, we experiment to reproduce the reaction between the early Martian atmosphere and the minerals in the high temperature condition caused by the shock-induced heating and discuss its effect of CO2 removal from the atmosphere. Reaction experiments were carried out with CO2 or CO2- H2O fluid at the pressure of 100MPa or 50MPa. A range of the temperature is 200-650°C and run duration is 7 days. Starting materials was the mixture of olivine, orthopyroxene, diopside, and plagioclase represented the main mineral phases of the early Mars. After the experiment, the reacted CO2 was weighed by CO2 mass remained in the experimental capsule. CO2 reactivity increased with decreasing temperature. If removed CO2 fixed as carbonate minerals in the run products, abundance of the carbonate minerals may be as much as 10% of the run products. Presence of H2O has no remarkable effect on CO2 reactivity. A Martian meteorite, ALH84001 includes approximately 1% of carbonate. Large-scale impact on the Martian surface brought shock-induced heating up to several hundred degrees C at several kilometers in depth. Accessory carbonate minerals in Martian rocks may be formed by reactions of CO2 atmosphere and brecciated rocks under craters. A layer of 1% carbonate-bearing rocks with 5km in thickness at Martian surface can settle 0.5MPa of CO2 (1MPa equivalent at the terrestrial gravity) from the Martian atmosphere. Carbonate formation by the shock-induced heating may have played a significant role in the evolution of the primitive Martian atmosphere.

Ikeda, K.; Isobe, H.

2005-12-01

138

The Net Exchange Between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere as a Result of Changes in Land Use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general purpose of this research was to improve and update (to 1990) estimates of the net flux of carbon between the world's terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from changes in land use (e.g., deforestation and reforestation). The estimates are important for understanding the global carbon cycle, and for predicting future concentrations of atmospheric CO2 that will result from emissions. The emphasis of the first year's research was on the northern temperate zone and boreal forests, where the greatest discrepancy exists between estimates of flux. Forest inventories suggest net sinks of 0.6 PgC/yr; inversion analyses based on atmospheric data and models suggest much larger sinks 2-3.6 PgC/yr (e.g., Tans et al. 1990, Ciais et al. 1995). The work carried out with this grant calculated the flux attributable to changes in land use. The estimated flux was somewhat smaller than the flux calculated from inventory data suggesting that environmental changes have led to a small accumulation of carbon in forests that exceeds the accumulation expected from past rates of harvest. Two publications have described these results (Houghton 1996, 1998). The large difference between these estimates and those obtained with atmospheric data and models remains unexplained. The recent estimate of a 1.7 PgC/yr sink in North America, alone (Fan et al. 1998), is particularly difficult to explain. That part of the sink attributable to land-use change, however, is defined as a result of this grant.

Houghton, R. A.

1998-01-01

139

A Comparative Study of the Influence of the Active Young Sun on the Early Atmospheres of Earth, Venus, and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the solar radiation and particle environment plays a major role in all atmospheric processes such as ionization, dissociation, heating of the upper atmospheres, and thermal and non-thermal atmospheric loss processes, the long-time evolution of planetary atmospheres and their water inventories can only be understood within the context of the evolving Sun. We compare the effect of solar induced X-ray and EUV (XUV) heating on the upper atmospheres of Earth, Venus and Mars since the time when the Sun arrived at the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence (ZAMS) about 4.6 Gyr ago. We apply a diffusive-gravitational equilibrium and thermal balance model for studying heating of the early thermospheres by photodissociation and ionization processes, due to exothermic chemical reactions and cooling by IR-radiating molecules like CO2, NO, OH, etc. Our model simulations result in extended thermospheres for early Earth, Venus and Mars. The exospheric temperatures obtained for all the three planets during this time period lead to diffusion-limited hydrodynamic escape of atomic hydrogen and high Jeans’ escape rates for heavier species like H2, He, C, N, O, etc. The duration of this blow-off phase for atomic hydrogen depends essentially on the mixing ratios of CO2, N2 and H2O in the atmospheres and could last from ˜100 to several hundred million years. Furthermore, we study the efficiency of various non-thermal atmospheric loss processes on Venus and Mars and investigate the possible protecting effect of the early martian magnetosphere against solar wind induced ion pick up erosion. We find that the early martian magnetic field could decrease the ion-related non-thermal escape rates by a great amount. It is possible that non-magnetized early Mars could have lost its whole atmosphere due to the combined effect of its extended upper atmosphere and a dense solar wind plasma flow of the young Sun during about 200 Myr after the Sun arrived at the ZAMS. Depending on the solar wind parameters, our model simulations for early Venus show that ion pick up by strong solar wind from a non-magnetized planet could erode up to an equivalent amount of ˜250 bar of O+ ions during the first several hundred million years. This accumulated loss corresponds to an equivalent mass of ˜1 terrestrial ocean (TO (1 TO ˜1.39×1024 g or expressed as partial pressure, about 265 bar, which corresponds to ˜2900 m average depth)). Finally, we discuss and compare our findings with the results of preceding studies.

Kulikov, Yuri N.; Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert I. M.; Penz, Thomas; Breuer, Doris; Spohn, Tilman; Lundin, Rickard; Biernat, Helfried K.

2007-03-01

140

A Comparative Study of the Influence of the Active Young Sun on the Early Atmospheres of Earth, Venus, and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the solar radiation and particle environment plays a major role in all atmospheric processes such as ionization, dissociation, heating of the upper atmospheres, and thermal and non-thermal atmospheric loss processes, the long-time evolution of planetary atmospheres and their water inventories can only be understood within the context of the evolving Sun. We compare the effect of solar induced X-ray and EUV (XUV) heating on the upper atmospheres of Earth, Venus and Mars since the time when the Sun arrived at the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence (ZAMS) about 4.6 Gyr ago. We apply a diffusive-gravitational equilibrium and thermal balance model for studying heating of the early thermospheres by photodissociation and ionization processes, due to exothermic chemical reactions and cooling by IR-radiating molecules like CO2, NO, OH, etc. Our model simulations result in extended thermospheres for early Earth, Venus and Mars. The exospheric temperatures obtained for all the three planets during this time period lead to diffusion-limited hydrodynamic escape of atomic hydrogen and high Jeans' escape rates for heavier species like H2, He, C, N, O, etc. The duration of this blow-off phase for atomic hydrogen depends essentially on the mixing ratios of CO2, N2 and H2O in the atmospheres and could last from ˜100 to several hundred million years. Furthermore, we study the efficiency of various non-thermal atmospheric loss processes on Venus and Mars and investigate the possible protecting effect of the early martian magnetosphere against solar wind induced ion pick up erosion. We find that the early martian magnetic field could decrease the ion-related non-thermal escape rates by a great amount. It is possible that non-magnetized early Mars could have lost its whole atmosphere due to the combined effect of its extended upper atmosphere and a dense solar wind plasma flow of the young Sun during about 200 Myr after the Sun arrived at the ZAMS. Depending on the solar wind parameters, our model simulations for early Venus show that ion pick up by strong solar wind from a non-magnetized planet could erode up to an equivalent amount of ˜250 bar of O+ ions during the first several hundred million years. This accumulated loss corresponds to an equivalent mass of ˜1 terrestrial ocean (TO (1 TO ˜1.39×1024 g or expressed as partial pressure, about 265 bar, which corresponds to ˜2900 m average depth)). Finally, we discuss and compare our findings with the results of preceding studies.

Kulikov, Yuri N.; Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert I. M.; Penz, Thomas; Breuer, Doris; Spohn, Tilman; Lundin, Rickard; Biernat, Helfried K.

141

Argon isotopic composition of Archaean atmosphere probes early Earth geodynamics.  

PubMed

Understanding the growth rate of the continental crust through time is a fundamental issue in Earth sciences. The isotopic signatures of noble gases in the silicate Earth (mantle, crust) and in the atmosphere afford exceptional insight into the evolution through time of these geochemical reservoirs. However, no data for the compositions of these reservoirs exists for the distant past, and temporal exchange rates between Earth's interior and its surface are severely under-constrained owing to a lack of samples preserving the original signature of the atmosphere at the time of their formation. Here, we report the analysis of argon in Archaean (3.5-billion-year-old) hydrothermal quartz. Noble gases are hosted in primary fluid inclusions containing a mixture of Archaean freshwater and hydrothermal fluid. Our analysis reveals Archaean atmospheric argon with a (40)Ar/(36)Ar value of 143?±?24, lower than the present-day value of 298.6 (for which (40)Ar has been produced by the radioactive decay of the potassium isotope (40)K, with a half-life of 1.25 billion years; (36)Ar is primordial in origin). This ratio is consistent with an early development of the felsic crust, which might have had an important role in climate variability during the first half of Earth's history. PMID:23739427

Pujol, Magali; Marty, Bernard; Burgess, Ray; Turner, Grenville; Philippot, Pascal

2013-06-01

142

Increasing retention of early career female atmospheric scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric Science Collaborations and Enriching NeTworks (ASCENT) is a workshop series designed to bring together early career female scientists in the field of atmospheric science and related disciplines. ASCENT uses a multi-faceted approach to provide junior scientists with tools that will help them meet the challenges in their research and teaching career paths and will promote their retention in the field. During the workshop, senior women scientists discuss their career and life paths. They also lead seminars on tools, resources and methods that can help early career scientists to be successful and prepared to fill vacancies created by the “baby boomer” retirees. Networking is a significant aspect of ASCENT, and many opportunities for both formal and informal interactions among the participants (of both personal and professional nature) are blended in the schedule. The workshops are held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, home of a high-altitude atmospheric science laboratory, Storm Peak Laboratory, which also allows for nearby casual outings and a pleasant environment for participants. Near the conclusion of each workshop, junior and senior scientists are matched in mentee-mentor ratios of two junior scientists per senior scientist. Post-workshop reunion events are held at national scientific meetings to maintain connectivity among each year’s participants, and for collaborating among participants of all workshops held to date. Evaluations of the two workshop cohorts thus far conclude that the workshops have been successful in achieving the goals of establishing and expanding personal and research-related networks, and that seminars have been useful in creating confidence and sharing resources for such things as preparing promotion and tenure packages, interviewing and negotiating job offers, and writing successful grant proposals.

Edwards, L. M.; Hallar, A. G.; Avallone, L. M.; Thiry, H.

2010-12-01

143

Fractionation of terrestrial neon by hydrodynamic hydrogen escape from ancient steam atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric neon is isotopically heavier than mantle neon. By contrast, nonradiogenic mantle Ar, Kr, and Xe are not known to differ from the atmosphere. These observations are most easily explained by selective neon loss to space; however, neon is much too massive to escape from the modern atmosphere. Steam atmospheres are a likely, if intermittent, feature of the accreting Earth. They occur because, on average, the energy liberated during accretion places Earth above the runaway greenhouse threshold, so that liquid water is not stable at the surface. It is found that steam atmospheres should have lasted some ten to fifty million years. Hydrogen escape would have been vigorous, but abundant heavy constituents would have been retained. There is no lack of plausible candidates; CO2, N2, or CO could all suffice. Neon can escape because it is less massive than any of the likely pollutants. Neon fractionation would have been a natural byproduct. Assuming that the initial Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio was solar, it was found that it would have taken some ten million years to effect the observed neon fractionation in a 30 bar steam atmosphere fouled with 10 bars of CO. Thicker atmospheres would have taken longer; less CO, shorter. This mechanism for fractionating neon has about the right level of efficiency. Because the lighter isotope escapes much more readily, total neon loss is pretty minimal; less than half of the initial neon endowment escapes.

Zahnle, K.

1991-01-01

144

Using atmospheric observations to evaluate the spatiotemporal variability of CO2 fluxes simulated by terrestrial biospheric models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are used to extrapolate local observations and process-level understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions, and serve as a predictive tool for examining carbon-climate interactions. Understanding the performance of TBMs is thus crucial to the carbon cycle and climate science. In this study, we propose a statistical model selection approach for evaluating the spatiotemporal patterns of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) simulated by TBMs using atmospheric CO2 measurements. We find that current atmospheric observations are sensitive to the underlying spatiotemporal flux variability at sub-biome scales for a large portion of the North American continent, and that atmospheric observations can therefore be used to evaluate simulated spatiotemporal flux patterns, rather than focusing solely on flux magnitudes at aggregated scales. Results show that the proposed approach can be used to assess whether a TBM represents a substantial portion of the underlying flux variability as well as to differentiate among multiple competing TBMs. When applying the proposed approach to four prototypical TBMs, we find that the performance of TBMs varies substantially across seasons, with best performance during the growing season and limited skill during transition seasons. This seasonal difference in the ability of TBMs to represent the spatiotemporal flux variability may reflect the models' capability to represent the seasonally-varying influence of environmental drivers on fluxes. While none of the TBMs consistently outperforms the others, differences among the examined models are at least partially attributable to their internal structures. Overall, the proposed approach provides a new avenue for evaluating TBM performance based on sub-biome scale flux patterns, presenting an opportunity for assessing and informing model development using atmospheric observations.

Fang, Y.; Michalak, A. M.; Shiga, Y. P.; Yadav, V.

2014-06-01

145

Sub-millimeter observations of the terrestrial atmosphere during an Earth flyby of the MIRO sounder on the Rosetta spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sub-millimeter spectra recorded by the MIRO sounder aboard the Rosetta spacecraft have been used at the time of an Earth flyby (November 2007) to check the consistency and validity of the instrumental data. High-resolution spectroscopic data were recorded in 8 channels in the vicinity of the strong water line at 557 GHz, and in a broad band continuum channel at 570 GHz. An atmospheric radiative transfer code (ARTS) and standard terrestrial atmospheres have been used to simulate the expected observational results. Differences with the MIRO spectra suggest an anomaly in the behavior of four spectroscopic channels. Further technical investigations have shown that a large part of the anomalies are associated with an instability of one of the amplifiers. The quality of the MIRO data has been further tested by inverting the spectra with an atmospheric inversion tool (Qpack) in order to derive a mesospheric temperature profile. The retrieved profile is in good agreement with the one inferred from the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS-MLS). This work illustrates the interest of validating instruments aboard planetary or cometary spacecraft by using data acquired during Earth flybys.

Jiménez, C.; Gulkis, S.; Beaudin, G.; Encrenaz, T.; Eriksson, P.; Kamp, L.; Lee, S.; Buehler, S. A.

2013-07-01

146

Dynamic oxygenation of the early atmosphere and oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional view of the oxygenation of the early atmosphere and oceans depicts irreversibly rising abundances in two large steps: one at the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) ca. 2.3-2.4 billion years ago (Ga) and another near the end of the Neoproterozoic. This talk will explore how the latest data challenge this paradigm. Recent results reveal a far more dynamic history of early oxygenation, one with both rising and falling levels, long periods of sustained low concentrations even after the GOE, complex feedback relationships that likely coupled nutrients and ocean redox, and dramatic changes tied through still-emerging cause-and-effect relationships to first-order tectonic, climatic, and evolutionary events. In the face of increasing doubt about the robustness of organic biomarker records from the Archean, researchers are increasingly reliant on inorganic geochemical proxies for the earliest records of oxygenic photosynthesis. Proxy data now suggest oxygenesis at ca. 3.0 Ga with a likelihood of local oxygen build up in the surface ocean long before the GOE, as well as low (and perhaps transient) accumulation in the atmosphere against a backdrop of mostly less than ca. 0.001% of the present atmospheric concentration. By the GOE, the balance between oxygen sources and sinks shifted in favor of persistent accumulation, although sedimentary recycling of non-mass-dependent sulfur isotope signatures allows for the possibility of rising and falling atmospheric oxygen before the GOE as traditionally defined by the sulfur isotope record. Recycling may also hinder our ability to precisely date the transition to permanent oxygen accumulation beyond trace levels. Diverse data point to a dramatic increase in biospheric oxygen following the GOE, coincident with the largest positive carbon isotope excursion in Earth history, followed by an equally dramatic drop. This decline in Earth surface redox potential ushered in more than a billion years of dominantly low oxygen levels in the atmosphere—at perhaps much less than 1% of modern levels, as suggested by new chromium isotope data—and persistent anoxia in the deep ocean with euxinia limited to productive ocean margins. Under conditions of ca. 1-10% euxinic seafloor, bioessential trace metals would have been drawn down to levels that may have deleteriously impacted the availability of fixed nitrogen in the oceans and, through associated redox-dependent feedbacks, sustained comparatively low global levels of primary production and corresponding deficiencies in biospheric oxygen. This episode of intermediate redox gave way to increases in ocean-atmosphere oxygen that appear to predate the Sturtian glaciation. Although the causes behind this transition are not well understood, they are certain to reflect relationships among large-scale tectonic, climatic, and biotic drivers of nutrient availability and organic carbon production and burial. Oxygen during the Ediacaran, following the Marinoan glaciation, likely rose and fell episodically in ways that must have impacted the diversity and ecological relationships among early animals. Also, the low oxygen concentrations purported for the mid-Proterozoic are consistent with the long-held, but recently challenged, suggestion that the rise of animals was ultimately coincident with, and likely causally related to, a Neoproterozoic rise in oxygen.

Lyons, Timothy W.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Reinhard, Christopher T.

2014-05-01

147

Early Giant Planet Migration in the Solar System: Geochemical and Cosmochemical Implications for Terrestrial Planet Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new terrestrial planet formation model (Walsh et al., this meeting) explores the effects of a two-stage, inward-then-outward migration of Jupiter and Saturn, as found in numerous hydrodynamical simulations of giant planet formation (Masset & Snellgrove 2001, Morbidelli & Crida 2007, Pierens & Nelson 2008). Walsh et al. show that the inward migration of Jupiter truncates the disk of planetesimals

David P. O'Brien; K. J. Walsh; A. Morbidelli; S. N. Raymond; A. M. Mandell; J. C. Bond

2010-01-01

148

The early development of Gastrotheca riobambae and Colostethus machalilla, frogs with terrestrial reproductive modes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Lecture (in English) on using two local (Equador) terrestrial frogs to learn about development; from the Model Organisms and Innovative Approaches in Developmental Biology Short Course in Sao Paolo, Brazil, April 2005. These are the PPT slides only, no associated audio or text is available.

Eugenia del Pino (Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador Biology)

2005-04-27

149

Early Giant Planet Migration in the Solar System: Geochemical and Cosmochemical Implications for Terrestrial Planet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new terrestrial planet formation model (Walsh et al., this meeting) explores the effects of a two-stage, inward-then-outward migration of Jupiter and Saturn, as found in numerous hydrodynamical simulations of giant planet formation (Masset & Snellgrove 2001, Morbidelli & Crida 2007, Pierens & Nelson 2008). Walsh et al. show that the inward migration of Jupiter truncates the disk of planetesimals and embryos in the terrestrial planet region. Subsequent accretion in that region then forms a realistic system of terrestrial planets, in particular giving a low-mass Mars, which has been difficult to reproduce in simulations with a self-consistent set of initial conditions (see, eg. Raymond et al. 2009). Additionally, the outward migration of the giant planets populates the asteroid belt with distinct populations of bodies, with the inner belt filled by bodies originating inside of 3 AU, and the outer belt filled with bodies originating from beyond the giant planets. From a geochemical and cosmochemical point of view, this scenario differs significantly from the "standard model" in which essentially all of the material in the inner Solar System initially formed there. Specifically, the assumption that the current radial distribution of material in the inner Solar System is reflective of the primordial distribution of material in that region is no longer necessary. This is important for understanding the chemical and isotopic diversity of the inner Solar System as inferred from studies of the terrestrial planets, asteroids, and meteorites, as well as for understanding the origin of Earth's water. We will discuss the geochemical and cosmochemical implications of this model in relation to available constraints, as well as to previous models of terrestrial planet formation. Masset & Snellgrove (2001), MNRAS 320, L55. Morbidelli & Crida (2007), Icarus 191, 158. Pierens & Nelson (2008), A&A 482, 333. Raymond et al. (2009), Icarus 203, 644.

O'Brien, David P.; Walsh, K. J.; Morbidelli, A.; Raymond, S. N.; Mandell, A. M.; Bond, J. C.

2010-10-01

150

The development of GPS TroWav tool for atmosphericterrestrial studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an efficient tool to process dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) signals and the surface meteorological data, called the Tropospheric Water Vapor (TroWav) program. TroWav is a stand-alone program to compute atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV). The source of the program is developed using MatlabTM and the graphical user interface for the system was developed using a Visual Basic. The algorithms of the program capable to compute satellite elevation angle, Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD), Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD), Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD) and mapping function. The tool is very practical and useful for sustainable atmospheric management.

Suparta, W.

2014-04-01

151

Development of a model of atmospheric oxygen variations to estimate terrestrial carbon storage and release  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two years of work has been completed towards the development of a model of atmospheric oxygen variations on seasonal to decadal timescales. During the first year we (1) constructed a preliminary monthly-mean climatology of surface ocean oxygen anomalies, (2) began modeling studies to assess the importance of short term variability on the monthly-mean oxygen flux, and (3) conducted preliminary simulations of the annual mean cycle of oxygen in the atmosphere. Most of the second year was devoted to improving the monthly mean climatology of oxygen in the surface ocean.

Najjar, Raymond G.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Erickson, David J., III

1995-01-01

152

The seasonal exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere: Extrapolation from site-specific models to regional models  

SciTech Connect

Ecological models of the seasonal exchange of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere are needed in the study of changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. In response to this need, a set of site-specific models of seasonal terrestrial carbon dynamics was assembled from open-literature sources. The collection was chosen as a base for the development of biome-level models for each of the earth's principal terrestrial biomes or vegetation complexes. The primary disadvantage of this approach is the problem of extrapolating the site-specific models across large regions having considerable biotic, climatic, and edaphic heterogeneity. Two methods of extrapolation were tested. 142 refs., 59 figs., 47 tabs

King, A.W.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Post, W.M.

1987-12-01

153

Volcanic source for fixed nitrogen in the early Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot volcanic vents promote the thermal fixation of atmospheric N2 into biologically available forms. The importance of this process for the global nitrogen cycle is poorly understood. At Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, NO and NO2 are intimately associated with volcanic aerosol, such that NOx levels reach as much as an order of magnitude above local background. In-plume HNO3 concentrations are elevated above background to an even greater extent (?50 ?mol·m-3). We estimate the production efficiency of fixed nitrogen at hot vents to be ˜3 × 10-8 mol·J-1, implying present-day global production of ˜109 mol of fixed N per year. Although conversion efficiency would have been lower in a preoxygenated atmosphere, we suggest that subaerial volcanoes potentially constituted an important source of fixed nitrogen in the early Earth, producing as much as ˜1011 mol·yr-1 of fixed N during major episodes of volcanism. These fluxes are comparable to estimated nitrogen-fixation rates in the prebiotic Earth from other major sources such as bolide impacts and thunderstorm and volcanic lightning.

Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Allen, Andrew G.

2004-10-01

154

The Calculation of Infrared Limb Emission by Ozone in the Terrestrial Middle Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculation of infrared limb emission from the middle atmosphere to space by ozone in the 9 mum to 11mum spectral region is discussed. The departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in the vibration-rotation bands of ozone is investigated, considering the processes of collisional excitation, collisional quenching, chemical pumping, photochemical reaction loss, radiative emission and radiative absorption. As the database

Martin Gerard Mlynczak

1989-01-01

155

Features of the ocean-atmosphere exchange and its effect on terrestrial climate conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climatic changes on Earth are to a large extent influenced by the intensity of ocean-atmosphere-land interactions Energy exchange in the atmosphere-ocean system depends on the transfer of warm and cold water masses by stream flows Interaction of water masses leads to formation of frontal zones with high temperature gradients Such zones are easily detected by temperature gradients which are calculated according to AVHRR MCSST satellite data for the 1982 -- 1986 average monthly and 1990 -- 2001 average weekly periods The spatial extension and the size of the frontal zone formed by Gulf Stream in North Atlantic affects the evaporation mode Such interaction with atmosphere leads to changes in the cyclonic and anticyclonic activity in the North Atlantic Oscillation NAO zone In this work the seasonal North Atlantic Oscillations are compared with the temperature gradients in North Atlantic for the period of satellite measurements Besides the investigation is made of the connection between the changes of NAO and climatic parameters overland We used the weather stations data concerning the average monthly air temperature and precipitation for the territory of Eurasia for the period of 1900-2004 This work analyses the features of ocean-atmosphere interaction and the effect of such interaction on the climatic conditions We developed software for the analysis of climagrams in graphic form in which the air temperature and amount of precipitation are averaged over the whole observation period and also for separate periods The average seasonal

Kartushinsky, A.; Sashko, L.

156

Net primary production of terrestrial ecosystems in China and its equilibrium responses to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, version 4.0) to estimate net primary production (NPP) in China for contemporary climate and NPP responses to elevated CO 2 and climate changes projected by three atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs): Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) and Oregon State University (OSU). For contemporary climate at 312.5 ppmv

X. Xiao; J. M. Melillo; D. W. Kicklighter; Y. Pan; A. D. McGuire; J. Helfrich

157

Modeling soil climate controls on the exchange of trace gases between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Ph.D. Thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil temperature and moisture profiles (soil climate) have a strong influence on the rate of trace gas exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere through the controls exerted on microbial processes and the physical exchange of gases. Principal controls of biological denitrification in mineral soils are the availability of carbon and nitrogen substrates and the soil anaerobic status. A

Frolking

1993-01-01

158

Verification of Atmospheric Signals Associated with Major Seismicity by Space and Terrestrial Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations from the last twenty years suggest the existence of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena during or preceding some earthquakes [Haykawa et a!, 2004; Pulinets at al, 1999,2004, 2006, Ouzounov et all 2007 and Liu et all 20041. Both our previous studies [Pulinets at al, 2005, 2006, Ouzounov et al, 2006, 20071 and the latest review by the Earthquake Remote Precursor Sensing panel [ERPS; 2003- 20051; have shown that there were precursory atmospheric TIR signals observed on the ground and in space associated with several recent earthquakes. [Tramutoli at al, 2005, 2006, Cervone et al, 2006, Ouzounov et all 2004,2006JT.o study these signals, we applied both multi parameter statistical analysis and data mining methods that require systematic measurements from an Integrated Sensor Web of observations of several physical and environmental parameters. These include long wave earth infra-red radiation, ionospheric electrical and magnetic parameters, temperature and humidity of the boundary layer, seismicity and may be associated with major earthquakes. Our goal is to verify the earthquake atmospheric correlation in two cases: (i) backward analysis - 2000-2008 hindcast monitoring of multi atmospheric parameters over the Kamchatka region, Russia ; and (ii) forward real-time alert analysis over different seismo-tectonic regions for California, Turkey, Taiwan and Japan. Our latest results, from several post-earthquake independent analyses of more then 100 major earthquakes, show that joint satellite and some ground measurements, using an integrated web, could provide a capability for observing pre-earthquake atmospheric signals by combining the information from multiple sensors into a common framework. Using our methodology, we evaluated and compared the observed signals preceding the latest M7.9 Sichuan earthquake (0511212008), M8.0 earthquake in Peru (0811512007), M7.6 Kashmir earthquake (1010812005) and M9.0 Sumatra earthquake (1212812004). We found evidence of the systematic appearance of both atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies preceding most of the major events during the period of our analysis 2001 -2008.

Taylor, Patrick

2008-01-01

159

Using dimers to measure biosignatures and atmospheric pressure for terrestrial exoplanets.  

PubMed

We present a new method to probe atmospheric pressure on Earth-like planets using (O2-O2) dimers in the near-infrared. We also show that dimer features could be the most readily detectable biosignatures for Earth-like atmospheres and may even be detectable in transit transmission with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The absorption by dimers changes more rapidly with pressure and density than that of monomers and can therefore provide additional information about atmospheric pressures. By comparing the absorption strengths of rotational and vibrational features to the absorption strengths of dimer features, we show that in some cases it may be possible to estimate the pressure at the reflecting surface of a planet. This method is demonstrated by using the O2 A band and the 1.06 ?m dimer feature, either in transmission or reflected spectra. It works best for planets around M dwarfs with atmospheric pressures between 0.1 and 10 bar and for O2 volume mixing ratios above 50% of Earth's present-day level. Furthermore, unlike observations of Rayleigh scattering, this method can be used at wavelengths longer than 0.6 ?m and is therefore potentially applicable, although challenging, to near-term planet characterization missions such as JWST. We also performed detectability studies for JWST transit transmission spectroscopy and found that the 1.06 and 1.27??m dimer features could be detectable (SNR>3) for an Earth analogue orbiting an M5V star at a distance of 5 pc. The detection of these features could provide a constraint on the atmospheric pressure of an exoplanet and serve as biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. We calculated the required signal-to-noise ratios to detect and characterize O2 monomer and dimer features in direct imaging-reflected spectra and found that signal-to-noise ratios greater than 10 at a spectral resolving power of R=100 would be required. PMID:24432758

Misra, Amit; Meadows, Victoria; Claire, Mark; Crisp, Dave

2014-02-01

160

Impact of Aquatic and Terrestrial Emissions on Atmospheric N2O Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) have increased by about 20% since the preindustrial era, an increase that has been driven largely by use of anthropogenic nitrogen fertilizers. The N2O source associated with agriculture was historically underestimated by assessments that considered only direct emissions from fertilized fields, but more recently it has been recognized that 'indirect' emissions associated with N leaching and runoff to rivers and may account for as much as half of total agricultural N2O emissions. Meanwhile, recent regional atmospheric N2O inversions have inferred large North American agricultural N2O sources that are difficult to reconcile with global budget constraints. At the same time, it is not clear whether the inversions can detect indirect N2O emissions associated with nitrogen leaching and runoff. Here, we will present forward model simulations aimed at quantifying the relative magnitude, spatial distribution and timing of direct and indirect agricultural N2O emissions. The model simulations will be based on the Community Land Model (CLM), with new agricultural and trace N gas parameterizations, coupled to the River Transport Model (RTM), with a module for estimating river N transport and N2O production associated with in-stream sediment denitrification. The coupled CLM-RTM N2O fluxes will be used to force atmospheric chemistry tracer transport model (ACTM) simulations, with direct and indirect emissions carried as separate tracers. The ACTM results will be used to evaluate the impact of both types of emissions on site-specific variability in atmospheric N2O at United States monitoring sites and to assess the likelihood that current atmospheric monitoring networks can detect these signals. Locations of selected NOAA monitoring sites for atmospheric N2O over the continental United States, showing both aircraft (triangles) and surface flask or tower sites (filled circles). Site locations are superimposed on a map of present-day N fertilizer use, one of the primary drivers of N2O fluxes in our CLM-RTM simulations.

Nevison, C. D.; Riddick, S. N.; Saikawa, E.; Hess, P. G.

2013-12-01

161

Evidence for propagation of aerobic bacteria in particles suspended in gaseous atmospheres. [Terrestrial microorganism contamination of Jupiter atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One factor involved in the possibility that airborne microbes might contaminate the Jovian atmosphere is whether microbes have the capacity to propagate in air. Prior to these studies, the evidence was that the airborne state was lethal to microbes. An aerosol of aerobic bacteria was mixed with another containing C-14-glucose, and the presence of C-14-CO2 was subsequently detected, which indicates that the airborne cells were metabolically active. In the same type of experiment, it was shown that thymidine was incorporated into the acid-insoluble fraction of samples, indicating the formation of DNA. It was also shown, both by an increase in the numbers of viable cells and a parallel increase in particle numbers, that at least two new generations of cells could occur. Evidence for propagation of anaerobic bacteria has so far been negative.

Dimmick, R. L.; Chatigny, M. A.; Wolochow, H.; Straat, P.

1977-01-01

162

Multi-Scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - A Systematic Approach for Evaluating Land-Atmosphere Flux Estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle research is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the spatial and temporal variability in uptake and release across a range of spatial scales (regionally to globally). The Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, but has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and help inform understanding of how differences in process parameterizations among current TBMs impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. By prescribing standard spin-up procedures and forcing data sets, we isolate any biases and uncertainties in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in model formulation and parameterization. More specifically, this activity allows for the isolation and quantification of the inter-model variance in estimates of land-atmosphere carbon exchange due to differences in model structure. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered in the model (e.g., nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g., photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration parameterization) within the model. The impact of model structural differences on estimates is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams or dendrograms, allowing us to test whether models with similar structural attributes produce similar land-atmosphere carbon exchange estimates. Model results are then quantitatively evaluated in the context of these structural model differences, against available observations (e.g., inventory-based estimates, eddy-covariance measurements) and model-data products (e.g., up-scaled gross primary productivity estimates, evapotranspiration). Here we present the initial results from the MsTMIP activity, linking the model-model and model-reference differences we see back to model formulation and parameterization.

Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Michalak, A. M.; Post, W.; Schaefer, K. M.; Jacobson, A. R.; Wei, Y.; Cook, R. B.

2012-12-01

163

The Late Permian herbivore Suminia and the early evolution of arboreality in terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates have repeatedly filled and partitioned the terrestrial ecosystem, and have been able to occupy new, previously unexplored habitats throughout their history on land. The arboreal ecospace is particularly important in vertebrate evolution because it provides new food resources and protection from large ground-dwelling predators. We investigated the skeletal anatomy of the Late Permian (approx. 260 Ma) herbivorous synapsid Suminia getmanovi and performed a morphometric analysis of the phalangeal proportions of a great variety of extant and extinct terrestrial and arboreal tetrapods to discern locomotor function and habitat preference in fossil taxa, with special reference to Suminia. The postcranial anatomy of Suminia provides the earliest skeletal evidence for prehensile abilities and arboreality in vertebrates, as indicated by its elongate limbs, intrinsic phalangeal proportions, a divergent first digit and potentially prehensile tail. The morphometric analysis further suggests a differentiation between grasping and clinging morphotypes among arboreal vertebrates, the former displaying elongated proximal phalanges and the latter showing an elongation of the penultimate phalanges. The fossil assemblage that includes Suminia demonstrates that arboreality and resource partitioning occurred shortly after the initial establishment of the modern type of terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems, with a large number of primary consumers and few top predators.

Frobisch, Jorg; Reisz, Robert R.

2009-01-01

164

Global N2O cycles - Terrestrial emissions, atmospheric accumulation and biospheric effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent findings concerning the budget and cycles of nitrous oxide on earth are summarized, and the sources and sinks for N2O on land, in the ocean, and in the atmosphere are examined in view of the N2O concentration increase of 0.2-0.4 percent per year, observed over the period of 1975-1982. Possible atmospheric and biospheric consequences of the N2O concentration increase are evaluated. N2O emission values are given for several major ecosystem types, such as forest, desert, cultivated land; values from different sources are compared and discussed. Analysis shows an excess of documented sources over sinks by 0-51 Tg N2O-N/yr.

Banin, A.; Lawless, J. G.; Whitten, R. C.

1984-01-01

165

Global N2O cycles - Terrestrial emissions, atmospheric accumulation and biospheric effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent findings concerning the budget and cycles of nitrous oxide on earth are summarized, and the sources and sinks for N2O on land, in the ocean, and in the atmosphere are examined in view of the N2O concentration increase of 0.2-0.4 percent per year, observed over the period of 1975-1982. Possible atmospheric and biospheric consequences of the N2O concentration increase are evaluated. N2O emission values are given for several major ecosystem types, such as forest, desert, cultivated land; values from different sources are compared and discussed. Analysis shows an excess of documented sources over sinks by 0-51 Tg N2O-N/yr.

Banin, A.; Lawless, J. G.; Whitten, R. C.

166

Effects of long-period solar activity fluctuation on temperature and pressure of the terrestrial atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present state of research on the influence of solar sunspot activity on tropospheric temperature and pressure is reviewed. The existence of an 11-year temperature cycle of 5 different types is affirmed. A cyclic change in atmospheric pressure, deducing characteristic changes between 11-year cycles is discussed. The existence of 80-year and 5-to-6-year cycles of temperature is established, and physical causes for birth are suggested.

Rubashev, B. M.

1978-01-01

167

Observed and Modeled Tritium Concentrations in the Terrestrial Food Chain near a Continuous Atmospheric Source  

SciTech Connect

Tritium concentrations were measured in a large number of environmental and biological samples collected during 2002 at two dairy farms and a hobby farm near Pickering Nuclear Generating Station in Ontario, Canada. The data cover most compartments of the terrestrial food chain in an agricultural setting and include detailed information on the diets of the local farm animals. Ratios of plant OBT concentration to air moisture HTO varied between 0.12 and 0.56, and were generally higher for the forage crops collected at the dairy farms than for the garden vegetables sampled at the hobby farm. Animal OBT to air HTO ratios were more uniform, ranging from 0.18 to 0.45, and were generally higher for the milk and beef samples from the dairy farms than for the chicken products from the hobby farm. The observed OBT concentrations in plants and animals were compared with predictions of IMPACT, the model used by the Canadian nuclear industry to calculate annual average doses due to routine releases. The model performed well on average for the animal endpoints but overestimated concentrations in plants by a factor of 2.

Davis, P.A.; Kim, S.B.; Chouhan, S.L.; Workman, W.J.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada)

2005-07-15

168

Verification of Atmospheric Signals Associated with Major Seismicity by Space and Terrestrial Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from the last twenty years suggest the existence of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena during or preceding some earthquakes [Hayakawa et al, 2004; Pulinets at al, 1999,2004, 2006, Ouzounov et al, 2007 and Liu et al, 2004]. Both our previous studies [Pulinets at al, 2005, 2006, Ouzounov et al, 2006, 2007] and the latest review by the Earthquake Remote Precursor Sensing panel [ERPS; 2003-2005]; have shown that there were precursory atmospheric TIR signals observed on the ground and in space associated with several recent earthquakes. [Tramutoli et al, 2005, 2006, Cervone et al, 2006, Ouzounov et al, 2004,2006]. To study these signals, we applied both multi parameter statistical analysis and data mining methods that require systematic measurements from an Integrated Sensor Web of observations of several physical and environmental parameters. These include long wave earth infra-red radiation, ionospheric electrical and magnetic parameters, temperature and humidity of the boundary layer, seismicity and may be associated with major earthquakes. Our goal is to verify the earthquake atmospheric correlation in two cases: (i) backward analysis - 2000-2008 hindcast monitoring of multi atmospheric parameters over the Kamchatka region, Russia ; and (ii) forward real-time alert analysis over different seismo-tectonic regions for California, Turkey, Taiwan and Japan. Our latest results, from several post-earthquake independent analyses of more then 100 major earthquakes, show that joint satellite and some ground measurements, using an integrated web, could provide a capability for observing pre-earthquake atmospheric signals by combining the information from multiple sensors into a common framework. Using our methodology, we evaluated and compared the observed signals preceding the latest M7.9 Sichuan earthquake (05/12/2008), M8.0 earthquake in Peru (08/15/2007), M7.6 Kashmir earthquake (10/08/2005) and M9.0 Sumatra earthquake (12/26/2004). We found evidence of the systematic appearance of both atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies preceding most of the major events during the period of our analysis 2001-2008.

Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Taylor, P.; Bryant, N.; Cervone, G.; Kafatos, M.; Habib, S.

2008-12-01

169

The Atmospheric Supply of Terrestrial Authigenic Phosphate Minerals to Open Marine Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authigenic P-bearing minerals (Pauth), such as carbonate fluorapatite, form within shallow marine sediments as biological processes degrade organic matter and release associated phosphate to the dissolved pool during early diagenesis. Thus, Pauth is commonly used as a proxy for productivity in modern and ancient marine depositional environments. To help refine this proxy and further improve understanding of the marine P

J. A. Flaum; A. D. Jacobson; B. B. Sageman

2007-01-01

170

Oxygen Isotopic Anomaly in Terrestrial Atmospheric Carbonates and its Implications to Understand the Role of Water on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral aerosols produced from wind-blown soils are an important component of the earth system and comprise about 1000-3000 Tg.yr-1 compared to 400 Tg.yr-1 of secondary aerosols (e.g. carbonaceous substances, organics, sulfate and nitrates). Aerosols have important consequences for health, visibility and the hydrological cycle as they provide reactive surfaces for heterogeneous chemical transformation that may influence gas phase chemistry in the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone produced in a cascade of chemical reactions involving NOx and VOC’s, can interact with aerosol surfaces to produce new compounds. Oxygen triple isotopic compositions of atmospheric carbonates have been used for the first time to track heterogeneous chemistry at the aerosol surfaces and to resolve a chemical mechanism that only occurs on particle surfaces. Fine and coarse aerosol samples were collected on filter papers in La Jolla, CA for one week. Aerosol samples were digested with phosphoric acid and released CO2 was purified chromatographically and analyzed for O isotopes after fluorination. Data indicated oxygen isotopic anomaly (?17O = ?17O - 0.524 ?18O) ranging from 0.9 to 3.9 per mill. Laboratory experiments revealed that adsorbed water on particle surfaces facilitates the interaction of the gaseous CO2 and O3 with formation of anomalous hydrogen peroxide and carbonates. This newly identified chemical reaction scenario provides a new explanation for production of the isotopically anomalous carbonates found in the SNC Martian meteorites and terrestrial atmospheric carbonates and it also amplifies understanding of water related processes on the surface of Mars. The formation of peroxide via this heterogeneous reaction on aerosols surface suggests a new oxidative process of utility in understanding ozone and oxygen chemistry both at Mars and Earth.

Thiemens, M. H.; Shaheen, R.

2010-12-01

171

Effects of the upper atmosphere on terrestrial and Earth space communications: Final results of the EU COST 271 Action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project “Effects of the Upper Atmosphere on Terrestrial and Earth Space Communications (EACOSs)” was inaugurated as a four-year 271 Action in the Telecommunications and Information Science and Technology domain of the EU COST (Co-operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research) in October 2000. It followed two previous successful Actions COST 238 on PRIME (Prediction and Retrospective Ionospheric Modelling over Europe) and COST 251 on IITS (Improved Quality of Service in Ionospheric Telecommunication Systems Planning and Operation). The COST 271 Action (EACOS) has been oriented towards: (i) collection of new ionospheric and plasmaspheric data for now-casting and forecasting purposes, (ii) development of methods and algorithms to predict and to minimise the effects of plasmaspheric ionospheric perturbations and variations on communications; (iii) perform studies that influence the technical development and the implementation of new communication services, particularly for the GNSS and other advanced Earth space and satellite-to-satellite applications; and (iv) dissemination and correlation of results, ideas and information which will provide a valuable support to European research centres and industry. This paper reviews the main results achieved in the COST 271 Action concerning in particular a range of the ionospheric space weather issues, specifically: now-casting, forecasting and warning tools, methods and supporting databases for ionospheric propagation prediction; total electron content variations and their use in the reconstruction of plasmaspheric ionospheric structures as a key parameter for navigation error in GNSS applications and effects of planetary and gravity waves and gradients of the electron density on terrestrial and satellite communications.

Zolesi, B.; Cander, Lj. R.

172

Effects of the upper atmosphere on terrestrial and earth-space communications: final results of the eu cost271 action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project ``Effects of the Upper Atmosphere on Terrestrial and Earth-Space Communications (EACOS)'' was inaugurated as a four-year 271 Action in the Telecommunications and Information Science and Technology domain of the EU COST (Co-operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research) in October 2000. It follows two previous successful Actions COST 238 on PRIME (Prediction and Retrospective Ionospheric Modelling over Europe) and COST 251 on IITS (Improved Quality of Service in Ionospheric Telecommunication Systems Planning and Operation). The COST 271 Action (EACOS) has been oriented towards: (i) collection of new ionospheric and plasmaspheric data for now-casting and forecasting purposes, (ii) development methods and algorithms to predict and to minimise the effects of plasmaspheric-ionospheric perturbations and variations on communications; (iii) perform studies that influence the technical development and the implementation of new communication services, particularly for the GNSS and other advanced Earth-space and satellite to satellite applications; and (iv) dissemination and correlation of results, ideas and information which will provide a valuable support to European research centres and industry. This paper reviews the main results achieved in the COST 271 Action concerning in particular a range of the ionospheric space weather issues as: nowcasting, forecasting and warning tools, methods and supporting databases for ionospheric propagation prediction; total electron content variations and their use in the reconstruction of plasmaspheric-ionospheric structures as a key parameter for navigation error in GNSS applications and effects of planetary and gravity waves and gradients of the electron density on terrestrial and satellite communications.

Zolesi, B.; Cander, Lj.

173

The National Ecological Observatory Network's Atmospheric and Terrestrial Instrumentation: Quality Control Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network's Fundamental Instrument Unit (NEON-FIU) is responsible for making automated terrestrial observations at 60 different sites across the continent. FIU will provide data on key local physical, chemical, and climate forcing, as well as associated biotic responses (CO2, H2O, and energy exchanges). The sheer volume of data that will be generated far exceeds that of any other observatory network or agency, (i.e., > 45 Tb/year from 10's of thousands of remotely deployed sensors). We address the question of how to develop and implement a large ecological observatory that can accommodate such a large volume of data while maintaining high quality. Here, we describe our quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) program to produce quality data while leveraging cyber infrastructure tools and optimizing technician time. Results focus on novel approaches that advance the quality control techniques that have been historically employed in other networks (DOE-ARM, AmeriFlux, USDA ARS, OK Mesonet) to new state-of-the-art functionality. These automated and semi-automated approaches are also used to inform automated problem tracking to efficiently deploy field staff. Ultimately, NEON will define its own standards for QA/QC and maintenance by building upon these existing frameworks. The overarching philosophy relies on attaining the highest levels of accuracy, precision, and operational time, while efficiently optimizing the effort needed to produce quality data products. Our preliminary results address the challenges associated with automated implementation of sensor command/control, plausibility testing, despiking, and data verification of FIU observations.

Taylor, J. R.; Luo, H.; Ayres, E.; Metzger, S. R.; Loescher, H. W.

2012-12-01

174

Inter-annual variability of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as simulated with global terrestrial biosphere models and an atmospheric transport model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal and inter-annual variations of atmospheric CO2 for the period from 1961 to 1997 have been simulated using a global tracer transport model driven by a new version of the Biome BioGeochemical Cycle model (Biome-BGC). Biome-BGC was forced by daily temperature and precipitation from the NCEP reanalysis dataset, and the calculated monthly-averaged CO2 fluxes were used as input to the global transport model. Results from an inter-comparison with the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach model (CASA) and the Simulation model of Carbon cYCle in Land Ecosystems (Sim-CYCLE) model are also reported. The phase of the seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere was reproduced generally well by Biome-BGC, although the amplitude was smaller compared to the observations and to the other biosphere models. The CO2 time series simulated by Biome-BGC were compared to the global CO2 concentration anomalies from the observations at Mauna Loa and the South Pole. The modeled concentration anomalies matched the phase of the inter-annual variations in the atmospheric CO2 observations; however, the modeled amplitude was lower than the observed value in several cases. The result suggests that a significant part of the inter-annual variability in the global carbon cycle can be accounted for by the terrestrial biosphere models. Simulations performed with another climate-based model, Sim-CYCLE, produced a larger amplitude of inter-annual variability in atmospheric CO2, making the amplitude closer to the observed range, but with a more visible phase mismatch in a number of time periods. This may indicate the need to increase the Biome-BGC model sensitivity to seasonal and inter-annual changes in temperature and precipitation.

Fujita, Daisuke; Ishizawa, Misa; Maksyutov, Shamil; Thornton, Peter E.; Saeki, Tazu; Nakazawa, Takakiyo

2003-04-01

175

Linelist of HD16O for study of atmosphere of terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus and Mars)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of water vapor in the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Earth by spectroscopic techniques are being made routinely with different instruments on board of interplanetary missions like Mars-Express, Venus-Express and many others as well as with a lot of spacecrafts on the Earth’ orbit. Accessibility of detailed spectroscopic information in a wide range is then of crucial importance to retrieve reliable results with these instruments. Unlike Earth, Mars and Venus have the CO2-rich planetary atmospheres that require line shape parameters for HDO-CO2 broadening. In this paper a new linelist for HD16O is presented. This linelist covers the range of 0.00065-25,660 cm-1 and is significantly more complete than other databases presently available. All lines with intensities (for 100% abundance) greater than 10-30 cm/molecule at 296 K are included. Wavenumbers for 43% (about 300,000) of all lines were evaluated at a level of the best experimental accuracy. For each transition the line shape parameters such as halfwidth and temperature exponent are provided for the case of HDO-air, HDO-HDO, and HDO-CO2 broadening. The final linelist contains more than 700,000 HD16O lines and is presented in HITRAN-compatible format.

Lavrentieva, N. N.; Voronin, B. A.; Naumenko, O. V.; Bykov, A. D.; Fedorova, A. A.

2014-07-01

176

The oxidation state of Hadean magmas and implications for early Earth's atmosphere.  

PubMed

Magmatic outgassing of volatiles from Earth's interior probably played a critical part in determining the composition of the earliest atmosphere, more than 4,000 million years (Myr) ago. Given an elemental inventory of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur, the identity of molecular species in gaseous volcanic emanations depends critically on the pressure (fugacity) of oxygen. Reduced melts having oxygen fugacities close to that defined by the iron-wüstite buffer would yield volatile species such as CH(4), H(2), H(2)S, NH(3) and CO, whereas melts close to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer would be similar to present-day conditions and would be dominated by H(2)O, CO(2), SO(2) and N(2) (refs 1-4). Direct constraints on the oxidation state of terrestrial magmas before 3,850?Myr before present (that is, the Hadean eon) are tenuous because the rock record is sparse or absent. Samples from this earliest period of Earth's history are limited to igneous detrital zircons that pre-date the known rock record, with ages approaching ?4,400?Myr (refs 5-8). Here we report a redox-sensitive calibration to determine the oxidation state of Hadean magmatic melts that is based on the incorporation of cerium into zircon crystals. We find that the melts have average oxygen fugacities that are consistent with an oxidation state defined by the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer, similar to present-day conditions. Moreover, selected Hadean zircons (having chemical characteristics consistent with crystallization specifically from mantle-derived melts) suggest oxygen fugacities similar to those of Archaean and present-day mantle-derived lavas as early as ?4,350?Myr before present. These results suggest that outgassing of Earth's interior later than ?200?Myr into the history of Solar System formation would not have resulted in a reducing atmosphere. PMID:22129728

Trail, Dustin; Watson, E Bruce; Tailby, Nicholas D

2011-12-01

177

Transit Observations of Venus's Atmosphere in 2012 from Terrestrial and Space Telescopes as Exoplanet Analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extensively observed the 8 June 2012 transit of Venus from several sites on Earth; we provide this interim status report about this and about two subsequent ToVs observed from space. From Haleakala Obs., we observed the entire June transit over almost 7 h with a coronagraph of the Venus Twilight Experiment B filter) and with a RED Epic camera to compare with simultaneous data from ESA's Venus Express, to study the Cytherean mesosphere; from Kitt Peak, we have near-IR spectropolarimetry at 1.6 µm from the aureole and during the disk crossing that compare well with carbon dioxide spectral models; from Sac Peak/IBIS we have high-resolution imaging of the Cytherean aureole for 22 min, starting even before 1st contact; from Big Bear, we have high-resolution imaging of Venus's atmosphere and the black-drop effect through 2nd contact; and we had 8 other coronagraphs around the world. For the Sept 21 ToV as seen from Jupiter, we had 14 orbits of HST to use Jupiter's clouds as a reflecting surface to search for an 0.01% diminution in light and a differential drop that would result from Venus's atmosphere by observing in both IR/UV, for which we have 170 HST exposures. As of this writing, preliminary data reduction indicates that variations in Jovian clouds and the two periods of Jupiter's rotation will be too great to allow extraction of the transit signal. For the December 20 ToV as seen from Saturn, we had 22 hours of observing time with VIMS on Cassini, for which we are looking for a signal of the 10-hr transit in total solar irradiance and of Venus's atmosphere in IR as an exoplanet-transit analog. Our Maui & Sac Peak expedition was sponsored by National Geographic Society's Committee for Research and Exploration; HST data reduction by NASA: HST-GO-13067. Some of the funds for the carbon dioxide filter for Sac Peak provided by NASA through AAS's Small Research Grant Program. We thank Rob Ratkowski of Haleakala Amateur Astronomers; Rob Lucas, Aram Friedman, Eric Pilger, Stan Truitt, and Steve Bisque/Software Bisque for Haleakala support/operations; Vasyl Yurchyshyn and Joseph Gangestad '06 of The Aerospace Corp. at Big Bear Solar Obs; LMSAL and Hinode science/operations team.

Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, G.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Penn, M. J.; Jaeggli, S. A.; Galayda, E.; Reardon, K. P.; Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.; Ehrenreich, D.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Nicholson, P. D.; Dantowitz, R.

2013-06-01

178

Can we reconcile atmospheric estimates of the Northern terrestrial carbon sink with land-based accounting?  

SciTech Connect

We estimatethenorthernhemisphere(NH)terrestrialcarbon sink bycomparingfourrecentatmosphericinversionswith land-based Caccountingdataforsixlargenorthernregions. The meanNHterrestrialCO2 sink fromtheinversionmodelsis 1.7 PgCyear1 over theperiod2000 2004. Theuncertaintyof this estimateisbasedonthetypicalindividual(1-sigma) precision ofoneinversion(0.9PgCyear1) andisconsistent with themin max rangeofthefourinversionmeanestimates (0.8 PgCyear1). Inversionsagreewithintheiruncertaintyfor the distributionoftheNHsinkofCO2 in longitude,withRussia being thelargestsink.Theland-basedaccountingestimateof NH carbonsinkis1.7PgCyear1 for thesumofthesixregions studied. The1-sigmauncertaintyoftheland-basedestimate (0.3 PgCyear1) issmallerthanthatofatmosphericinversions, but noindependentland-basedfluxestimateisavailableto derive a betweenaccountingmodel uncertainty. Encouragingly, thetop-downatmosphericandthebottom-up land-based methodsconvergetoconsistentmeanestimates within theirrespectiveerrors,increasingtheconfidenceinthe overall budget.Theseresultsalsoconfirmthecontinuedcritical role ofNHterrestrialecosystemsinslowingdownthe atmospheric accumulationofanthropogenicCO2

Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Chevallier, Fredric [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Poussi, Zegbeu [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Peylin, Philippe [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Breon, Francois-Marie [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Canadell, J.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Shvidenko, Anatoly [IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria; Jonas, Matthias [IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria; King, Anthony Wayne [ORNL; Schulze, E.-D. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Roedenbeck, Christian [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Piao, Shilong [Peking University; Peters, Wouter [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands

2010-10-01

179

ATCOM: accelerated image processing for terrestrial long-range imaging through atmospheric effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-range video surveillance performance is often severely diminished due to atmospheric turbulence. The larger apertures typically used for video-rate operation at long-range are particularly susceptible to scintillation and blurring effects that limit the overall diffraction efficiency and resolution. In this paper, we present research progress made toward a digital signal processing technique which aims to mitigate the effects of turbulence in real-time. Our previous work in this area focused on an embedded implementation for portable applications. Our more recent research has focused on functional enhancements to the same algorithm using general-purpose hardware. We present some techniques that were successfully employed to accelerate processing of high-definition color video streams and study performance under nonideal conditions involving moving objects and panning cameras. Finally, we compare the real-time performance of two implementations using a CPU and a GPU.

Curt, Petersen F.; Paolini, Aaron

2013-05-01

180

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and early Eocene climate: A general circulation modeling sensitivity study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early Eocene was the warmest time interval of the past 65 million years. We have investigated the hypothesis that the warm climate of the early Eocene may have been caused by higher-than-present levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). We have used an atmospheric general circulation model, the NCAR genesis model, coupled to a land surface model and a mixed

L. Cirbus Sloan; D. K. Rea

1996-01-01

181

Impacts and the early environment and evolution of the terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of 'giant' impacts (i.e., impacts by bodies roughly half the diameter of the primary) on the thermal state of a growing planetary embryo are discussed. If the cumulative spectrum of planetesimal sizes is close to a power law of slope -2, then most of the mass and energy added to a growing planet will be deposited by such 'giant' impacts. In this case a simple pattern of temperature vs radius may never develop, as the thermal state at any given era will depend on the time, velocity, and obliquity of the last large collision. Impacts during heavy bombardment probably resulted in some net atmospheric loss from the earth and Venus, but the effect would have been much more pronounced on Mars, consistent with its very thin atmosphere. Such impacts may fractionate a planet's volatile inventory by sweeping away atmospheric gases but leaving condensible phases (such as water) only slightly changed.

Melosh, H. J.; Vickery, A. M.; Tonks, W. B.

182

Effect of the shrinking dipole on solar-terrestrial energy input to the Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global average temperature of the Earth is rising rapidly. This rise is primarily attributed to the release of greenhouse gases as a result of human activity. However, it has been argued that changes in radiation from the Sun might play a role. Most energy input to the Earth is light in the visible spectrum. Our best measurements suggest this power input has been constant for the last 40 years (the space age) apart from a small 11-year variation due to the solar cycle of sunspot activity. Another possible energy input from the Sun is the solar wind. The supersonic solar wind carries the magnetic field of the Sun into the solar system. As it passes the Earth it can connect to the Earth's magnetic field whenever it is antiparallel t the Earth's field. This connection allows mass, momentum, and energy from the solar wind to enter the magnetosphere producing geomagnetic activity. Ultimately much of this energy is deposited at high latitudes in the form of particle precipitation (aurora) and heating by electrical currents. Although the energy input by this process is miniscule compared to that from visible radiation it might alter the absorption of visible radiation. Two other processes affected by the solar cycle are atmospheric entry of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic protons (SEP). A weak solar magnetic field at sunspot minimum facilitates GCR entry which has been implicated in creation of clouds. Large coronal mass ejections and solar flares create SEP at solar maximum. All of these alternative energy inputs and their effects depend on the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently the Earth's field is decreasing rapidly and conceivably might reverse polarity in 1000 years. In this paper we describe the changes in the Earth's magnetic field and how this might affect GCR, SEP, electrical heating, aurora, and radio propagation. Whether these effects are important in global climate change can only be determined by detailed physical models.

McPherron, R. L.

2011-12-01

183

Satellite derived 30-year trends in terrestrial frozen and non-frozen seasons and associated impacts to vegetation and atmospheric CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 66 million km2 (52.5 %) of the global vegetated land area experiences seasonally frozen temperatures as a major constraint to ecosystem processes. The freeze-thaw (F\\/T) status of the landscape as derived from satellite microwave remote sensing is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrological activity, vegetation phenology, terrestrial carbon budgets and land-atmosphere trace gas exchange. We utilized a

Y. Kim; J. S. Kimball; K. C. McDonald; J. M. Glassy

2010-01-01

184

Seasonal exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere: extrapolation from site-specific models to regional models  

SciTech Connect

Ecological models of the seasonal exchange of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere are needed in the study of changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. In response to this need, a set of site-specific models of seasonal terrestrial carbon dynamics was assembled from open-literature sources. The collection was chosen as a base for the development of biome-level models for each of the earth's principal terrestrial biomes or vegetation complexes. The primary disadvantage of this approach is the problem of extrapolating the site-specific models across large regions having considerable biotic, climatic, and edaphic heterogeneity. Two methods of extrapolation were tested. The first approach was a simple extrapolation that assumed relative within-biome homogeneity, and generated CO/sub 2/ source functions that differed dramatically from published estimates of CO/sub 2/ exchange. The second extrapolation explicitly incorporated within-biome variability in the abiotic variables that drive seasonal biosphere-atmosphere CO/sub 2/ exchange.

King, A.W.

1986-01-01

185

Biospheric-atmospheric coupling on the early Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical calculations performed with a one-dimensional photochemical model have been performed to assess the biospheric-atmospheric transfer of gases. Ozone reached levels to shield the Earth from biologically lethal solar ultraviolet radiation (220-300 nm) when atmospheric oxygen reached about 1/10 of its present atmospheric level. In the present atmosphere, about 90 percent of atmospheric nitrous oxide is destroyed via solar photolysis in the stratosphere with about 10 percent destroyed via reaction with excited oxygen atoms. The reaction between nitrous oxide and excited oxygen atoms leads to the production of nitric oxide in the stratosphere, which is responsible for about 70 percent of the global destruction of oxygen in the stratosphere. In the oxygen/ozone deficient atmosphere, solar photolysis destroyed about 100 percent of the atmospheric nitrous oxide, relegating the production of nitric oxide via reaction with excited oxygen to zero. Our laboratory and field measurements indicate that atmospheric oxygen promotes the biogenic production of N2O and NO via denitrification and the biogenic production of methane by methanogenesis.

Levine, J. S.

1991-01-01

186

Impacts and atmospheric erosion on the early Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was suggested that heating and/or vaporization of accreting carbonaceous-chondrite-type planetestimals could result in the release of their volatile components. Modeling of this process strongly suggests that substantial atmospheres/hydrospheres could develop this way. During most of the accretionary process, impact velocities generally differed from the escape velocity of the growing proto-planet because most of the collisions were between bodies in nearly matching orbits. Toward the end of accretion, however, collisions were rarer but more energetic, involving large planetestimals and higher impact velocities. Such impacts result in a net loss of atmosphere from a planet, and the cumulative effect impacts during the period of heavy bombardment might have dramatically depleted the original atmospheres. Models developed to study atmospheric erosion by impacts on Mars and the interaction of the vapor plume produced by KT impactor on Earth are applied to the case of the evolution of Earth's atmosphere.

Vickery, A. M.

1991-06-01

187

Impacts and atmospheric erosion on the early Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was suggested that heating and/or vaporization of accreting carbonaceous-chondrite-type planetestimals could result in the release of their volatile components. Modeling of this process strongly suggests that substantial atmospheres/hydrospheres could develop this way. During most of the accretionary process, impact velocities generally differed from the escape velocity of the growing proto-planet because most of the collisions were between bodies in nearly matching orbits. Toward the end of accretion, however, collisions were rarer but more energetic, involving large planetestimals and higher impact velocities. Such impacts result in a net loss of atmosphere from a planet, and the cumulative effect impacts during the period of heavy bombardment might have dramatically depleted the original atmospheres. Models developed to study atmospheric erosion by impacts on Mars and the interaction of the vapor plume produced by KT impactor on Earth are applied to the case of the evolution of Earth's atmosphere.

Vickery, A. M.

1991-01-01

188

Arctic Climate and Terrestrial Vegetation Responses During the Middle to Late Eocene and Early Oligocene: Colder Winters Preceded Cool-Down  

Microsoft Academic Search

The late Eocene to early Oligocene is recognized as an interval of substantial change in the global climate, with isotopic proxies of climate indicating a significant drop in sea surface temperatures. Other studies have shown, however that at middle latitudes that terrestrial mean annual temperature did not change significantly over this interval, and that the major change was likely a

D. R. Greenwood; J. Eldrett

2006-01-01

189

Differentiating pedogenesis from diagenesis in early terrestrial paleoweathering surfaces formed on granitic composition parent materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unconformable surfaces separating Precambrian crystalline basement and overlying Proterozoic to Cambrian sedimentary rocks provide an exceptional opportunity to examine the role of primitive soil ecosystems in weathering and resultant formation of saprolite (weathered rock retaining rock structure) and regolith (weathered rock without rock structure), but many appear to have been affected by burial diagenesis and hydrothermal fluid flow, leading some researchers to discount their suitability for such studies. We examine one modern weathering profile (Cecil series), four Cambrian paleoweathering profiles from the North American craton (Squaw Creek, Franklin Mountains, Core SQ-8, and Core 4), one Neoproterozoic profile (Sheigra), and one late Paleoproterozoic profile (Baraboo), to test the hypothesis that these paleoweathering profiles do provide evidence of primitive terrestrial weathering despite their diagenetic and hydrothermal overprinting, especially additions of potassium. We employ an integrated approach using (1) detailed thin-section investigations to identify characteristic pedogenic features associated with saprolitization and formation of well-drained regoliths, (2) electron microprobe analysis to identify specific weathered and new mineral phases, and (3) geochemical mass balance techniques to characterize volume changes during weathering and elemental gains and losses of major and minor elements relative to the inferred parent materials. There is strong pedogenic evidence of paleoweathering, such as clay illuviation, sepic-plasmic fabrics, redoximorphic features, and dissolution and alteration of feldspars and mafic minerals to kaolinite, gibbsite, and Fe oxides, as well as geochemical evidence, such as whole-rock losses of Na, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, Fe, and Mn greater than in modern profiles. Evidence of diagenesis includes net additions of K, Ba, and Rb determined through geochemical mass balance, K-feldspar overgrowths in overlying sandstone sections, and K-feldspars with reaction rims in weathered basement. The sub-Cambrian paleoweathering profiles formed on granite are remarkably similar to modern weathering profiles formed on granite, in spite of overprinting by potassium diagenesis. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

Driese, S. G.; Medaris, Jr. , L. G.; Ren, M.; Runkel, A. C.; Langford, R. P.

2007-01-01

190

Early results from a terrestrial-marine BGC coupling study in Southeast Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2010 we began a long-term comparative study of watershed contributions to coastal marine nutrients in the northeast Pacific from a modest deployment of sensors combined with sample analysis. The preliminary results presented here establish a baseline for defining and subsequently tracking physical system parameters relevant to marine productivity over two decades, in two contexts: First in the context of research by Hood and others: Comparing glacier-covered to un-glaciated watershed output in a Lagrangian sense of particle and parcel transport. Second, in a more Eulerian sense: How will impact on coastal marine ecosystems from changing terrestrial freshwater input compare over decades to that of changes in physical parameters like pH, upwelling nutrient supply along the continental shelf and temperature? In our initial efforts we trolled two estuary plumes pulling samples for laboratory analysis and operating in situ sensors in tandem with GPS while other in situ sensors collected data from within source rivers (Eagle River and Peterson Creek near Juneau, AK, in respectively glaciated and forested watersheds). The strategy is to produce comparable synoptic datasets across the freshwater-marine mixing regime of the plume using salinity as a mixing proxy. Initial datasets include CDOM, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll-A, and (from samples) total organic carbon, total nitrogen, absorption spectra and excitation-emission matrices. Future work will expand this list to include mass spectrometer and NMR data. In working with this synoptic dataset we are faced with both curation and interpretation challenges; hence a primary objective of the project is to use the trans-disciplinary and data-intensive nature of the research problem set to motivate technology adoption. We have in mind here the notion of electronic publication (exemplified in this AGU poster) that permits collaborators and readers to reach back into source data and trace the origins and processes—normally obscured—that lead to the paper’s conclusions.

Fatland, D. R.; Vermilyea, A.; Spencer, R. G.; Hood, E. W.; Stubbins, A.

2010-12-01

191

Net terrestrial CO2 exchange over China during 2001-2010 estimated with an ensemble data assimilation system for atmospheric CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

this paper we present an estimate of net ecosystem CO2 exchange over China for the years 2001-2010 using the CarbonTracker Data Assimilation System for CO2 (CTDAS). Additional Chinese and Asian CO2 observations are used in CTDAS to improve our estimate. We found that the combined terrestrial ecosystems in China absorbed about -0.33 Pg C yr-1 during 2001-2010. The uncertainty on Chinese terrestrial carbon exchange estimates as derived from a set of sensitivity experiments suggests a range of -0.29 to -0.64 Pg C yr-1. This total Chinese terrestrial CO2 sink is attributed to the three major biomes (forests, croplands, and grass/shrublands) with estimated CO2 fluxes of -0.12 Pg C yr-1 (range from -0.09 to -0.19 Pg C yr-1), -0.12 Pg C yr-1 (range from -0.09 to -0.26 Pg C yr-1), and -0.09 Pg C yr-1 (range from -0.09 to -0.17 Pg C yr-1), respectively. The peak-to-peak amplitude of interannual variability of the Chinese terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux is 0.21 Pg C yr-1 (~64% of mean annual average), with the smallest CO2 sink (-0.19 Pg C yr-1) in 2003 and the largest CO2 sink (-0.40 Pg C yr-1) in 2007. We stress that our estimate of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 uptake based on inverse modeling strongly depends on a limited number of atmospheric CO2 observations used. More observations in China specifically and in Asia in general are needed to improve the accuracy of terrestrial carbon budgeting for this region.

Zhang, H. F.; Chen, B. Z.; Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; Chen, J.; Xu, G.; Yan, J. W.; Zhou, L. X.; Fukuyama, Y.; Tans, P. P.; Peters, W.

2014-03-01

192

A global-scale simulation of the CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere with a mechanistic model including stable carbon isotopes, 1953 1999  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a simulation with a mechanistic terrestrial ecosystem model, focusing on the atmosphere-biosphere exchange and stable isotope composition of carbon. The simulation was performed from 1953 to 1999 on the basis of observed climate data and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio (?13C). The model, termed Sim-CYCLE, captures carbon dynamics from photosynthetic assimilation to microbial decomposition, including seasonal and interannual variability. Photosynthetic discrimination effect on ?13C was considered at three levels: (1) leaf-level fractionation, (2) canopy-level CO2 recycling and (3) continent-level C3/C4 pattern. The 47-yr simulation estimated that the average gross CO2 flux was 121 Pg C yr-1, and that the average photosynthetic ?13C discrimination coefficient (?) was 18.2%. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the estimated ? depends heavily on the parameterization of stomatal conductance and C3/C4 composition. In spite of their small biomass, C4 plants contributed considerably to the biospheric productivity and belowground carbon supply. The estimated net CO2 and isotopic exchange of the terrestrial ecosystems corresponded, at least qualitatively, with observed atmospheric CO2 and its ?13C seasonal patterns in the Northern Hemisphere. The gross CO2 fluxes of photosynthesis and respiration indicated a wide range of interannual variability, which was in a sufficient magnitude to induce anomalies in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate. The estimated ? showed a wide range of latitudinal and longitudinal variations and seasonal oscillation, but little interannual change. However, during the 47-yr period, the estimated ?13C of carbon pools decreased by 0.3%, while the ?13C of atmospheric CO2 decreased by 0.7%. These results carry implications for the application of a top-down approach, i.e. the double-deconvolution method, to inferring the global terrestrial CO2 budget.

Ito, Akihiko

2003-04-01

193

Thermal expansion and thermal stress in the moon and terrestrial planets - Clues to early thermal history  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses how features of the surface geology of the moon and also Mars and Mercury impose constraints on the volumetric expansion or contraction of a planet and consequently provide a test of thermal history models. The moon has changed very little in volume over the last 3.8 b.y. Thermal models satisfying this constraint involve early heating and perhaps melting of the outer 200 km of the moon and an initially cold interior. Mercury has contracted by about 2 km in radius since emplacement of its present surface, so core formation must predate that surface. A hot initial temperature distribution is implied.

Solomon, S. C.; Chaiken, J.

1976-01-01

194

Early public impressions of terrestrial carbon capture and storage in a coal-intensive state.  

PubMed

While carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered to be critical to achieving long-term climate-protection goals, public concerns about the CCS practice could pose significant obstacles to its deployment. This study reports findings from the first state-wide survey of public perceptions of CCS in a coal-intensive state, with an analysis of which factors predict early attitudes toward CCS. Nearly three-quarters of an Indiana sample (N = 1001) agree that storing carbon underground is a good approach to protecting the environment, despite 80% of the sample being unaware of CCS prior to participation in the two-wave survey. The majority of respondents do not hold strong opinions about CCS technology. Multivariate analyses indicate that support for CCS is predicted by a belief that humankind contributes to climate change, a preference for increased use of renewable energy, and egalitarian and individualistic worldviews, while opposition to CCS is predicted by self-identified political conservatism and by selective attitudes regarding energy and climate change. Knowledge about early impressions of CCS can help inform near-term technology decisions at state regulatory agencies, utilities, and pipeline companies, but follow-up surveys are necessary to assess how public sentiments evolve in response to image-building efforts with different positions on coal and CCS. PMID:22681614

Carley, Sanya R; Krause, Rachel M; Warren, David C; Rupp, John A; Graham, John D

2012-07-01

195

Early Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia based on food-web and energy-flow models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent years, there has been global interest in the environments and ecosystems around the world. It is helpful to reconstruct past environments and ecosystems to help understand them in the present and the future. The present environments and ecosystems are an evolving continuum with those of the past and the future. This paper demonstrates the contribution of geology and paleontology to such continua. Using fossils, we can make an estimation of past population density as an ecosystem index based on food-web and energy-flow models. Late Mesozoic nonmarine deposits are distributed widely on the eastern Asian continent and contain various kinds of fossils such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, dinosaurs, mammals, bivalves, gastropods, insects, ostracodes, conchostracans, terrestrial plants, and others. These fossil organisms are useful for late Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystem reconstruction using food-web and energy-flow models. We chose Early Cretaceous fluvio-lacustrine basins in the Choyr area, southeastern Mongolia, and the Tetori area, Japan, for these analyses and as a potential model for reconstruction of other similar basins in East Asia. The food-web models are restored based on taxa that occurred in these basins. They form four or five trophic levels in an energy pyramid consisting of rich primary producers at its base and smaller biotas higher in the food web. This is the general energy pyramid of a typical ecosystem. Concerning the population densities of vertebrate taxa in 1 km2 in these basins, some differences are recognized between Early Cretaceous and the present. For example, Cretaceous estimates suggest 2.3 to 4.8 times as many herbivores and 26.0 to 105.5 times the carnivore population. These differences are useful for the evaluation of past population densities of vertebrate taxa. Such differences may also be caused by the different metabolism of different taxa. Preservation may also be a factor, and we recognize that various problems occur in past ecosystem reconstructions. Counts of small numbers of confirmed species and estimates of maximum numbers of species present in the basin are used for the analysis and estimation of energy flow. This approach applies the methods of modern ecosystem analysis. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Matsukawa, M.; Saiki, K.; Ito, M.; Obata, I.; Nichols, D. J.; Lockley, M. G.; Kukihara, R.; Shibata, K.

2006-01-01

196

Terrestrial Planets: Comparative Planetology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers were presented at the 47th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting on the Comparative planetology of Terrestrial Planets. Subject matter explored concerning terrestrial planets includes: interrelationships among planets; plaentary evolution; planetary structure; planetary composition; planetary Atmospheres; noble gases in meteorites; and planetary magnetic fields.

1985-01-01

197

Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons to a future volume. Our authors have taken on the task to look at climate on the terrestrial planets in the broadest sense possible — by comparing the atmospheric processes at work on the four terrestrial bodies, Earth, Venus, Mars, and Titan (Titan is included because it hosts many of the common processes), and on terrestrial planets around other stars. These processes include the interactions of shortwave and thermal radiation with the atmosphere, condensation and vaporization of volatiles, atmospheric dynamics, chemistry and aerosol formation, and the role of the surface and interior in the long-term evolution of climate. Chapters herein compare the scientific questions, analysis methods, numerical models, and spacecraft remote sensing experiments of Earth and the other terrestrial planets, emphasizing the underlying commonality of physical processes. We look to the future by identifying objectives for ongoing research and new missions. Through these pages we challenge practicing planetary scientists, and most importantly new students of any age, to find pathways and synergies for advancing the field. In Part I, Foundations, we introduce the fundamental physics of climate on terrestrial planets. Starting with the best studied planet by far, Earth, the first chapters discuss what is known and what is not known about the atmospheres and climates of the terrestrial planets of the solar system and beyond. In Part II, Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Dynamics, we focus on the processes that govern atmospheric motion and the role that general circulation models play in our current understanding. In Part III, Clouds and Hazes, we provide an in-depth look at the many effects of clouds and aerosols on planetary climate. Although this is a vigorous area of research in the Earth sciences, and very strongly influences climate modeling, the important role that aerosols and clouds play in the climate of all planets is not yet well constrained. This section is intended to stimulate further research on this critical subject. The study of climate involves much more than

Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

198

Biological modulation of planetary atmospheres: The early Earth scenario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The establishment and subsequent evolution of life on Earth had a profound impact on the chemical regime at the planet's surface and its atmosphere. A thermodynamic gradient was imposed on near-surface environments that served as the driving force for a number on important geochemical transformations. An example is the redox imbalance between the modern atmosphere and the material of the Earth's crust. Current photochemical models predict extremely low partial pressures of oxygen in the Earth's prebiological atmosphere. There is widespread consensus that any large-scale oxygenation of the primitive atmosphere was contingent on the advent of biological (autotrophic) carbon fixation. It is suggested that photoautotrophy existed both as a biochemical process and as a geochemical agent since at least 3.8 Ga ago. Combining the stoichiometry of the photosynthesis reaction with a carbon isotope mass balance and current concepts for the evolution of the stationary sedimentary mass as a funion of time, it is possible to quantify, the accumulation of oxygen and its photosynthetic oxidation equivalents through Earth history.

Schidlowski, M.

1985-01-01

199

Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya  

PubMed Central

The manufacture of stone tools and their use to access animal tissues by Pliocene hominins marks the origin of a key adaptation in human evolutionary history. Here we report an in situ archaeological assemblage from the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya that provides a unique combination of faunal remains, some with direct evidence of butchery, and Oldowan artifacts, which are well dated to 1.95 Ma. This site provides the oldest in situ evidence that hominins, predating Homo erectus, enjoyed access to carcasses of terrestrial and aquatic animals that they butchered in a well-watered habitat. It also provides the earliest definitive evidence of the incorporation into the hominin diet of various aquatic animals including turtles, crocodiles, and fish, which are rich sources of specific nutrients needed in human brain growth. The evidence here shows that these critical brain-growth compounds were part of the diets of hominins before the appearance of Homo ergaster/erectus and could have played an important role in the evolution of larger brains in the early history of our lineage.

Braun, David R.; Harris, John W. K.; Levin, Naomi E.; McCoy, Jack T.; Herries, Andy I. R.; Bamford, Marion K.; Bishop, Laura C.; Richmond, Brian G.; Kibunjia, Mzalendo

2010-01-01

200

Water loss from Venus: Implications for the Earth's early atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmosphere of Venus outgassed rapidly as a result of planetary heating during accretion, resulting in massive water loss. The processes affecting atmospheric chemistry following accretion have consisted largely of hydrogen escape and internal re-equilibrium. The initial bulk composition of Venus and Earth are assumed to have been roughly similar. Chemical speciation on Venus was controlled by the temperature and oxygen buffering capacity of the surface magma. It is also assumed that the surfaces of planetary bodies of the inner solar system were partly or wholly molten during accretion with a temperature estimated at 1273 to 1573 K. To investigate the range of reasonable initial atmospheric compositions on Venus, limits have to be set for the proportion of total hydrogen and the buffered fugacity of oxygen. Using the C/H ratio of 0.033 set for Earth, virtually all of the water generated during outgassing must later have been lost in order to bring the current CO2/H2O ratio for Venus up to its observed value of 10 sup 4 to 10 sup 5. The proportion of H2O decreases in model atmospheres with successfully higher C/H values, ultimately approaching the depleted values currently observed on Venus. Increasing C/H also results in a rapid increase in CO/H2O and provides an efficient mechanism for water loss by the reaction CO+H2O = CO2 + H2. This reaction, plus water loss mechanisms involving crustal iron, could have removed a very large volume of water from the Venusian atmosphere, even at a low C/H value.

Richardson, S. M.; Pollack, J. B.; Reynolds, R. T.

1985-01-01

201

Contributions of icy planetesimals to the Earth's early atmosphere.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments on the trapping of gases by ice forming at low temperatures implicate comets as major carriers of the heavy noble gases to the inner planets. These icy planetesimals may also have brought the nitrogen compounds that ultimately produced atmospheric N2. However, if the sample of three comets analyzed so far is typical, the Earth's oceans cannot have been produced by comets alone, they require an additional source of water with low D/H. The highly fractionated neon in the Earth's atmosphere may also indicate the importance of non-icy carriers of volatiles. The most important additional carrier is probably the rocky material comprising the bulk of the mass of these planets. Venus may require a contribution from icy planetesimals formed at the low temperatures characteristic of the Kuiper Belt. PMID:11599179

Owen, T C; Bar-Nun, A

2001-01-01

202

The Micrometeoritic Purity of the Atmosphere and Early Earth's Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic time frame of EMMA is the formation time interval of the Earth, ?(Earth) ~ 100 Myr. This value has been estimated from both the 129I 129Xe radioactive chronometer (Pepin and Phinney, 1975; Staudacher and Allègre 1982) and modern theories about the formation of the Earth initiated by Wetherill (1994) for a recent summary see Canup and Agnor (2000). In this scenario, the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere reported in Table 1 would give the average composition of about 1000 billions of billions of billions (e.g., ~1030) of juvenile IDPs captured by the Earth after the formation of the Moon, and representing a total mass of material of ~5.1024 g. Amazingly, this composition turns to be quite similar to that of an aliquot of about 500 AMMs with sizes of around 100.200 ?m, amounting to a few milligrams of material, that we used to infer the composition of a “micrometeoritic” atmosphere.

Maurette, Michel

203

Seasonal exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere: extrapolation from site-specific models to regional models  

SciTech Connect

Ecological models of the seasonal exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere are needed in the study of changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. In response to this need, a set of site-specific models of seasonal terrestrial carbon dynamics was assembled from open-literature sources. The collection was chosen as a base for the development of biome-level models for each of the earth's principal terrestrial biomes or vegetation complexes. Two methods of extrapolation were tested. The first approach was a simple extrapolation that assumed relative within-biome homogeneity, and generated CO/sub 2/ source functions that differed dramatically from published estimates of CO/sub 2/ exchange. The differences were so great that the simple extrapolation was rejected as a means of incorporating site-specific models in a global CO/sub 2/ source function. The second extrapolation explicitly incorporated within-biome variability in the abiotic variables that drive seasonal biosphere-atmosphere CO/sub 2/ exchange. Simulated site-specific CO/sub 2/ dynamics were treated as a function of multiple random variables. The predicated regional CO/sub 2/ exchange is the computed expected value of simulated site-specific exchanges for that region times the area of the region. The test involved the regional extrapolation of tundra and a coniferous forest carbon exchange model. Comparisons between the CO/sub 2/ exchange estimated by extrapolation and published estimates of regional exchange for the latitude belt support the appropriateness of extrapolation by expected value.

King, A.W.

1986-01-01

204

TERENO ("Terrestrial Environmental Observatories"): Establishment and Upgrading of a Terrestrial Observatory "Alpine upland" for Long Term Observations of the Impact of Global Change Factors on Biosphere-Hydrosphere-Atmosphere Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term observations are an indispensable pre-requisite to improve our knowledge of the complex biosphere- hydrosphere-atmosphere (BHA)-interactions and to detect and analyze the impact of Global Change parameters on these interactions as well as to develop, improve and validate BHA model systems. As an integral part of the Helmholtz initiative TERENO to establish/upgrade and equip terrestrial observatories for long term observations (> 10 years) on the effects of Global Change on complex terrestrial ecosystems, an observatory "Alpine Upland", operated jointly by the research centers FZK (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe) and GSF (National Research Center for Environment and Health) is established. The central objectives of the scientific work performed by Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe within this observatory are: Characterization and quantification of changes of the (a) coupled C-/N-cycles and C-/N-storage (b)biosphere-atmosphere exchange (trace gases/energy flux/albedo) (c)vegetation and microbial biodiversity and of the temporal dynamics of matter- turnover and -exchange coupled to this change in biodiversity (d)terrestrial hydrology (alpine water budget, precipitation variability, extreme hydrometeorological events, seapage water quality/quantity, water retention capacity) in important climate- and use-sensitive ecosystem types within the pre-alpine region (e.g. alpine meadows, forests) under changing conditions of climate, management and nutrient deposition (atmospheric N-input). Besides upgrading of the already existing long term observation stations in the pre-alpine region ("The Höglwald Forest" (FZK) and the agricultural long term observation station "Scheyern" (for details see separate contribution of GSF) FZK will establish a "Climate-Feedback Observatory" at which the effects of predicted future changes in temperature and precipitation amount/distribution within the pre-alpine region on the complex BHA interactions will be studied applying a long term in-situ simulation experiment. For this a lysimeter network will be realized in which soil monoliths are transplanted along the existing natural gradient in temperature and precipitation within the alpine region. Details of this experimental approach will be presented.

Kunstmann, H.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Kiese, R.; Marx, A.; Schmid, H.

2007-12-01

205

The UV-B stimulon of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune comprises early shock proteins and late acclimation proteins.  

PubMed

The UV-B and desiccation-tolerant terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune was grown under defined UV irradiation. Proteome changes were monitored in the membrane and the cytosolic and the extracellular fractions. Tools were developed to separate stress-triggered from growth stage-dependent changes. UV-B changed the relative cellular concentration of 493 out of 1,350 protein spots at least by a factor of three, rendering the UV-B stimulon of N. commune the most complex one described so far. It comprises two different parts: an early shock response influencing 214 proteins and a late acclimation response involving 279 proteins. The shock response comprised many membrane or membrane-associated proteins, whereas the acclimation response mainly changed cytosolic proteins. Most of the shock-induced changes were transient and did not overlap with the acclimation response. In the extracellular fraction, UV irradiation induced superoxide dismutase and the water stress protein. In total, 27 intracellular, UV-B-induced proteins were partially sequenced by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Three functional classes were identified: proteins involved in lipid metabolism, in carbohydrate metabolism and in regulatory pathways. About 50% of the sequenced proteins were homologous to cyanobacterial database entries with un-known function. Interestingly, all of these proteins belong to the UV-B acclimation response. We conclude that the UV-B shock response and the UV-B acclimation response represent two completely different and remarkably complex strategies of N. commune to protect itself against UV-B radiation in its natural environment. PMID:12410839

Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Schulz, Stefan; Wait, Robin; Görg, Angelika; Scherer, Siegfried

2002-11-01

206

Influence of aerosol source regions and transport pathway on ?D of terrestrial biomarkers in atmospheric aerosols from the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured stable hydrogen isotope ratios (?D) of terrestrial biomarkers (n-alkanes and n-fatty acids) in atmospheric total suspended particles collected at Jeju Island in the East China Sea, from April 2001 to March 2002, to better understand the influence of long-range atmospheric transport on their seasonal variations. The ?D values of the C27, C29 and C31n-alkanes (?DALK) show a significant negative correlation with the CPI values of n-alkanes (r2 = 0.26, p < 0.01), suggesting that the ?DALK variations are partly attributed to a superimposed contribution from fossil fuel hydrocarbons. Seasonal variations in the concentrations of the C22-C28 even-carbon numbered n-fatty acids revealed relatively high concentrations in spring, autumn and winter seasons, in which the air masses are transported from northeast Asia. In contrast, the concentrations are low in summer when the air masses are transported from Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Relatively high C26/FA and low C24/FA ratios in spring, autumn and winter samples suggest that the C26n-fatty acids are more abundantly transported from the Asian continent during these seasons. Seasonal variations in the ?D of the C22-C26 even-carbon numbered n-fatty acids exhibit significant enrichment with D (by ˜40‰) in May and June to August samples, whereas the ?D of the C28n-fatty acids gradually decrease during summer. The magnitude of the ?D offsets (˜45‰) between the C28n-fatty acid and the other homologues are much larger than those observed in East Asia spanning 18°N-50°N latitude (ca. 30‰), suggesting that the decoupling is likely attributed to the mixing of distinct source vegetation with different ?D ratios. Comparison of the weighted-mean ?D values of n-fatty acids (?DFA) between air mass source categories revealed relatively low values (˜-170‰) in samples with trajectories from the northeastern part of the Asian continent, supporting that the ?D analyses may be a powerful tool in deciphering the source regions of terrestrial biomarkers in atmospheric aerosols from the Asian continent. The results of this study provides important implications for paleoclimate studies that the ?D variations of long-range transported terrestrial biomarkers in remote ocean sediments may have recorded past changes in source strengths of the biomarkers and therefore have a potential to reconstruct paleo-wind patterns and transport of terrestrial carbon over the Pacific.

Yamamoto, Shinya; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Seki, Osamu; Kariya, Tadashi; Lee, Meehye

2013-04-01

207

Study of the Role of Terrestrial Processes in the Carbon Cycle Based on Measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project was to continue research to develop carbon cycle relationships related to the land biosphere based on remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its isotopic ratios 13C/12C, 18O/16O, and 14C/12C. The project continued time-series observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic composition begun by Charles D. Keeling at remote sites, including Mauna Loa, the South Pole, and eight other sites. Using models of varying complexity, the concentration and isotopic measurements were used to study long-term change in the interhemispheric gradients in CO2 and 13C/12C to assess the magnitude and evolution of the northern terrestrial carbon sink, to study the increase in amplitude of the seasonal cycle of CO2, to use isotopic data to refine constraints on large scale changes in isotopic fractionation which may be related to changes in stomatal conductance, and to motivate improvements in terrestrial carbon cycle models. The original proposal called for a continuation of the new time series of 14C measurements but subsequent descoping to meet budgetary constraints required termination of measurements in 2007.

Stephen C. Piper; Ralph F. Keeling

2012-01-03

208

Greenhouse gases balances in the terrestrial ecosystems of North America: patterns and contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial ecosystem in North America has been identified as a sink of atmospheric CO2 though there is no consensus on the carbon sink strength. However, changes in non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) (i.e., CH4 and N2O) emissions may offset or even turnover this trend. We first simultaneously estimated the contemporary CO2, CH4, N2O balances and their overall global warming potential. Then we identified the contributions of multiple environmental factors to the changes of global warming potential. Finally, we presented an uncertainty range for contemporary global warming potential based on data compilation from inventory, forward modeling, and inverse modeling approaches. Overall, the terrestrial ecosystem in North America reduced global warming potential by -0.50 Pg CO2 eq/yr in terms of combined CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes during 2000-2010. This region could also increase warming potential during some years (e.g., 1994 and 2002) with extreme drought events. CH4 and N2O emissions could offset 73% (57~138%) of the carbon sinks. All the biome types except wetland had the potential to reduce climate warming potential in North America. Climate change and elevated tropospheric O3 concentration contributed the most to the increased global warming potential, while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration contributed the most to decreased global warming potential during 1979-2010. Combining the predicted increasing CH4 emission in the high-latitude permafrost zone and elevated N2O emission due to increasing nitrogen fertilizer amounts in intensive managed forests, climate warming could be greatly accelerated by the environmental changes in the terrestrial ecosystems of North America in the future.

Tian, H.; Chen, G.; Lu, C.; Ren, W.; Tao, B.; Pan, S.; Yang, J.; Hayes, D. J.; Wei, Y.

2012-12-01

209

Climatic effects of enhanced CO2 levels in Mars early atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of one-dimensional radiation convection modeling of the early Mars atmosphere. Up to 5 bars of CO2 would have been required to raise the surface temperature (orbitally and globally averaged) above the freezing point, although at the equator at perihelion, 1 bar would have sufficed. Such an atmospheric CO2 invertory, the author argued, is not inconsistent with any known constraint on Mars' degassed volatile inventory.

Kasting, James F.

1987-01-01

210

Coupled Nd-142, Nd-143 and Hf-176 Isotopic Data from 3.6-3.9 Ga Rocks: New Constraints on the Timing of Early Terrestrial Chemical Reservoirs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increasingly precise data from a range of isotopic decay schemes, including now extinct parent isotopes, from samples of the Earth, Mars, Moon and meteorites are rapidly revising our views of early planetary differentiation. Recognising Nd-142 isotopic variations in terrestrial rocks (which can only arise from events occurring during the lifetime of now extinct Sm-146 [t(sub 1/2)=103 myr]) has been an on-going quest starting with Harper and Jacobsen. The significance of Nd-142 variations is that they unequivocally reflect early silicate differentiation processes operating in the first 500 myr of Earth history, the key time period between accretion and the beginning of the rock record. The recent establishment of the existence of Nd-142 variations in ancient Earth materials has opened a new range of questions including, how widespread is the evidence of early differentiation, how do Nd-142 compositions vary with time, rock type and geographic setting, and, combined with other types of isotopic and geochemical data, what can Nd-142 isotopic variations reveal about the timing and mechanisms of early terrestrial differentiation? To explore these questions we are determining high precision Nd-142, Nd-143 and Hf-176 isotopic compositions from the oldest well preserved (3.63- 3.87 Ga), rock suites from the extensive early Archean terranes of southwest Greenland and western Australia.

Bennett, Vickie C.; Brandon, alan D.; Hiess, Joe; Nutman, Allen P.

2007-01-01

211

Model atmospheres for novae during the early stages  

SciTech Connect

Continuum and line blanketing models for the photospheres of novae in the early stages of their outbursts are presented. The expanding envelopes are characterized by a very slow increase of density with decreasing radius which leads to very large geometrical extensions and large temperature differences between the inner and outer parts. The spectra show a large IR excess and a small Balmer jump which may be either in absorption or in emission. For the parameters considered (T{sub eff} = 10{sup 4}, 1.5 {times} 10{sup 4}, 2 {times} 10{sup 4}K, R = 10{sup 11} cm, solar composition), most lines are in absorption. The effects of both modifications in the temperature structure (e.g. by heating from shock fronts) and changes in the abundances of the heavy elements on the emergent spectra are briefly discussed. 13 refs., 11 figs.

Wehrse, R.; Hauschildt, P.H. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Astrophysik); Shaviv, G. (Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Physics); Starrfield, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1989-01-01

212

Arctic Carbon Storage and Gas Exchange Within and Between a Complex of Terrestrial, Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems and Their Interactions with the Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of this presentation is to provide a measurement-based analysis of the complex relationships relating to the exchange of radiative active trace gases, carbon dioxide and methane, between different arctic landscape components and between the integrated result of these and the atmosphere. Focus will be on typical Arctic landscapes in Greenland starting at glacier forefields and downslope terrestrial permafrost environments to the limnic ecosystems and ultimately the near coastal environment. The terrestrial ecosystems become gradually more productive towards the coast and the transport of organic material towards the riverine and lake ecosystems gets to be more intensive and also increasingly sensitive to permafrost dynamics. A part of this organic material will be stored in sediments but a part of it will continue out to the coastal systems (Figure 1). A fundamental question is how much of this organic carbon is produced and where along this sequence of linked ecosystem processes the most important interactions with the atmosphere takes place. The answer will vary in time and the temporal aspects of the atmospheric exchanges are an important feature needed for a coherent understanding of arctic ecosystem interactions with climate. Hence, it puts pressure on the time-resolution and continuity of measurements in this complex set of different ecosystems and the degree of challenge this represents also vary between systems. With their upstream catchments Greenlandic terrestrial catchment-fjord ecosystems may form good micro- or mesocosm systems to study as model areas that are relevant for large scale understanding also. Some systems in Greenland such as the Nuuk and Zackenberg areas are at the same time some of the areas in the circumpolar North where the most elaborate relevant data are already being gathered on a continues basis as part of the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) activities. Here we provide a mass-balance approach to the storage, transport and atmospheric exchanges of carbon in sub- and high-arctic Greenlandic fjord ecosystem areas respectively. We review the availability of data to provide such mass balances and also the sensitivity of the individual components to changing climatic conditions.igure 1. Budgeting of the integrated storage and transport of organic carbon and the associated greenhouse gas exchange is essentially about quantifying the pools and arrows in this schematic figure. The objective of this presentation is to assess the spatial dynamics in two Greenlandic fjord systems mainly with the use of monitoring data obtained by GEM (see text).

Christensen, T. R.

2012-12-01

213

An upper limit on Early Mars atmospheric pressure from small ancient craters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary atmospheres brake, ablate, and disrupt small asteroids and comets, filtering out small hypervelocity surface impacts and causing fireballs, airblasts, meteors, and meteorites. Hypervelocity craters <1 km diameter on Earth are typically caused by irons (because stones are more likely to break up), and the smallest hypervelocity craters near sea-level on Earth are ~20 m in diameter. 'Zap pits' as small as 30 microns are known from the airless moon, but the other airy worlds show the effects of progressively thicker atmospheres:- the modern Mars atmosphere is marginally capable of removing >90% of the kinetic energy of >240 kg iron impactors; Titan's paucity of small craters is consistent with a model predicting atmospheric filtering of craters smaller than 6-8km; and on Venus, craters below ~20 km diameter are substantially depleted. Changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration are believed to be the single most important control on Mars climate evolution and habitability. Existing data requires an early epoch of massive atmospheric loss to space; suggests that the present-day rate of escape to space is small; and offers only limited evidence for carbonate formation. Existing evidence has not led to convergence of atmosphere-evolution models, which must balance poorly understood fluxes from volcanic degassing, surface weathering, and escape to space. More direct measurements are required in order to determine the history of CO2 concentrations. Wind erosion and tectonics exposes ancient surfaces on Mars, and the size-frequency distribution of impacts on these surfaces has been previously suggested as a proxy time series of Mars atmospheric thickness. We will present a new upper limit on Early Mars atmospheric pressure using the size-frequency distribution of 20-100m diameter ancient craters in Aeolis Dorsa, validated using HiRISE DTMs, in combination with Monte Carlo simulations of the effect of paleo-atmospheres of varying thickness on the crater flux. These craters are interbedded with river deposits, and so the atmospheric state they record corresponds to an era when Mars was substantially wetter than the present, probably >3.7 Ga. An important caveat is that our technique cannot exclude atmospheric collapse-reinflation cycles on timescales much shorter than the sedimentary basin-filling time, so it sets an upper limit on the density of a thick stable paleoatmosphere. We will discuss our results in relation to previous estimates of ancient atmospheric pressure, and place new constraints on models of Early Mars climate.

Kite, E. S.; Williams, J.; Lucas, A.; Aharonson, O.

2012-12-01

214

Early Eocene carbon isotope excursions: Evidence from the terrestrial coal seam in the Fushun Basin, Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

series of transient global warming events between 56 and 50 Ma are characterized by a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). However, the documents of these hyperthermals, such as Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 and H2 events, have come chiefly from marine sediments, and their expression in terrestrial organic carbon is still poorly constrained. Here we yield a high-resolution carbon isotope record of terrestrial organic material from the Fushun Basin, which displays four prominent CIEs with magnitudes larger than 2.5‰. Based on age constraint and comparisons with deep-sea records, our data provide the first evidence of the four hyperthermals in coal seams and suggest a global significance of these events. Moreover, the difference of CIE magnitudes between marine and terrestrial records shows a significant linear correlation with the marine carbonate CIE, implying that these events are likely attributable to recurring injections of 13C-depleted carbon from submarine methane hydrates and/or permafrost.

Chen, Zuoling; Ding, Zhongli; Tang, Zihua; Wang, Xu; Yang, Shiling

2014-05-01

215

Fair weather atmospheric electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in "fair weather" regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

Harrison, R. G.

2011-06-01

216

Ecological research in the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: early results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Amazon region. Early results from ecological studies within LBA emphasize the var- iability

Michael Keller; Ane Alencar; Gregory P. Asner; Bobby Braswell; Mercedes Bustamante; Eric Davidson; Ted Feldpausch; Erick Fernandes; Michael Goulden; Pavel Kabat; Bart Kruijt; F. Luizão; Scott Miller; Daniel Markewitz; Antonio D. Nobre; Carlos A. Nobre; Nicolau Priante Filho; Humberto da Rocha; Pedro Silva Dias; Celso von Randow; George L. Vourlitis

2004-01-01

217

Shock-induced CO2 loss from CaCO3 - Implications for early planetary atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovered samples from shock recovery experiments on single crystal calcite were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis to determine the amount of post-shock CO2, the decarbonization interval and the activation energy, for the removal of remaining CO2 in shock-loaded calcite. Comparison of post-shock CO2 with that initially present determines shock-induced CO2 loss as a function of shock pressure. Incipient to complete CO2 loss occurs over a pressure range of approximately 10 to approximately 70 GPa. Optical and scanning electron microscopy reveal structural changes which are related to the shock-loading. The occurrence of dark, diffuse areas, which can be resolved as highly vesticular areas as observed with a scanning electron microscope are interpreted as representing quenched partial melts, into which shock-released CO2 was injected. The experimental results are used to constrain models of shock-produced, primary CO2 atmospheres on the accreting terrestrial planets.

Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

1986-01-01

218

Shock-induced CO2 loss from CaCO3: Implications for early planetary atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovered samples from shock recovery experiments on single crystal calcite were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis to determine the amount of post-shock CO2, the decarbonization interval and the activation energy, for the removal of remaining CO2 in shock-loaded calcite. Comparison of post-shock CO2 with that initially present determines shock-induced CO2 loss as a function of shock pressure. Incipient to complete CO2 loss occurs over a pressure range of approximately 10 to approximately 70 GPa. Optical and scanning electron microscopy reveal structural changes, which are related to the shock-loading. The occurrence of dark, diffuse areas, which can be resolved as highly vesicular areas as observed with a scanning electron microscope are interpreted as representing quenched partial melts, into which shock-released CO2 was injected. The experimental results are used to constrain models of shock-produced, primary CO2 atmospheres on the accreting terrestrial planets.

Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

1984-01-01

219

Studies of the airglow, the aurora, the ion and neutral composition, and the chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results obtained by rocket-borne optical spectrometry are presented. Composition measurements and auroral studies are reported. The production of N (D-2) atoms by photo-absorption processes, and by electron impact excitation of N2 are discussed along with vibrationally excited CO2(+) ions in planetary atmospheres.

Zipf, E. C., Jr.

1974-01-01

220

The Diamagnetic Layer of the Earth's Atmosphere and Its Relation to The Diurnal Variation of Terrestrial Magnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anisotropic conductivity of upper atmosphere due to presence of earth's magnetic field.-An investigation of the motion of ions and electrons in the region of long free paths shows that the electrical conductivity in the direction of the earth's magnetic field is that predicted by simple theory. The conductivity in a direction at right angles to the magnetic field and in

Ross Gunn

1928-01-01

221

Evidence for ancient atmospheric xenon in Archean rocks and implications for the early evolution of the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial atmospheric xenon isotopic composition has been much debated over the last 4 decades. A Non radiogenic Earth Atmospheric xenon (NEA-Xe) composition has been proposed to be the best estimate of the initial signature ([1]). NEA-Xe consists of modern atmospheric Xe without fission (131-136Xe) or radioactive decay (129Xe) products. However, the isotope composition of such non-radiogenic xenon is very different to that of potential cosmochemical precursors such as solar or meteoritic Xe, as it is mass-fractionated by up to 3-4 % per amu relative to the potential precursors, and it is also elementally depleted relative to other noble gases. Because the Xe isotopic composition of the Archean appears to be intermediate between that of these cosmochemical end-members and that of the modern atmosphere, we argued that isotopic fractionation of atmospheric xenon did not occur early in Earth's history by hydrodynamic escape, as postulated by all other models ([1], [2], [3]), but instead was a continuous, long term process that lasted during at least the Hadean and Archean eons. Taken at face value, the decrease of the Xe isotopic fractionation from 1.6-2.1 % amu-1 3.5 Ga ago ([4]) to 1 % amu-1 3.0 Ga ago (Ar-Ar age in fluid inclusions trapped in quartz from the same Dresser Formation, [5]) could reflect a secular variation of the atmospheric Xe signature. Nevertheless, up until now, all data showing an isotopic mass fractionation have been measured in rocks and fluids from the same formation (Dresser Formation, Western Australia, aged 3.5 Ga), and have yet to be confirmed in rocks from different locations. In order to better constrain xenon isotopic fractionation of the atmosphere through time, we decided to analyze barites from different ages, geological environments and metamorphism grade. We started this study with barite from the Fig Tree Formation (South Africa, aged 3.26 Ga). This barite was sampled in old mines so have negligible modern exposure time. It is well preserved (no apparent metamorphism) and was deposited in a shallow submarine environment ("Finger type" barites) associated with hydrothermal circulation (white smokers). Compared to barite from the Dresser formation, Fig Tree barite had a long ancient exposure time in the subsurface (under shallow water for example) resulting in huge excesses of 131Xe (131Xe/130Xe ratio ~38 compared to 5.213 for the modern atmosphere one) due to 130Ba(n,?) reactions. Fissiogenic products (132 to 136Xe) are also more present than in barites from the Dresser Formation and are compatible with the age of the Fig Tree formation. Despite corrections for secondary productions that are hard to constrain, the Fig Tree barite still shows an isotopic mass fractionation of about 1% amu-1, consistent with our expected atmospheric fractionation evolution. [1] Pepin R. O. (1991) Icarus 92(1), 2-79. [2] Dauphas N. (2003) Icarus 165, 326-339. [3] Tolstikhin I. and O'Nions R.K. (1994) Chem. Geol. 115, 1-6. [4] Pujol M., Marty B., Burnard P. and Philippot P. (2009) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 6834-46. [5] Pujol M., Marty B. and Burgess R. (2011) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 308, 298-306

Pujol, M.; Marty, B.; Burnard, P.; Hofmann, A.

2012-12-01

222

Isotopic and anatomical evidence of an herbivorous diet in the Early Tertiary giant bird Gastornis. Implications for the structure of Paleocene terrestrial ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mode of life of the early Tertiary giant bird Gastornis has long been a matter of controversy. Although it has often been reconstructed as an apex predator feeding on small mammals, according to other interpretations, it was in fact a large herbivore. To determine the diet of this bird, we analyze here the carbon isotope composition of the bone apatite from Gastornis and contemporaneous herbivorous mammals. Based on 13C-enrichment measured between carbonate and diet of carnivorous and herbivorous modern birds, the carbonate ?13C values of Gastornis bone remains, recovered from four Paleocene and Eocene French localities, indicate that this bird fed on plants. This is confirmed by a morphofunctional study showing that the reconstructed jaw musculature of Gastornis was similar to that of living herbivorous birds and unlike that of carnivorous forms. The herbivorous Gastornis was the largest terrestrial tetrapod in the Paleocene biota of Europe, unlike the situation in North America and Asia, where Gastornis is first recorded in the early Eocene, and the largest Paleocene animals were herbivorous mammals. The structure of the Paleocene terrestrial ecosystems of Europe may have been similar to that of some large islands, notably Madagascar, prior to the arrival of humans.

Angst, D.; Lécuyer, C.; Amiot, R.; Buffetaut, E.; Fourel, F.; Martineau, F.; Legendre, S.; Abourachid, A.; Herrel, A.

2014-04-01

223

Isotopic and anatomical evidence of an herbivorous diet in the Early Tertiary giant bird Gastornis. implications for the structure of Paleocene terrestrial ecosystems.  

PubMed

The mode of life of the early Tertiary giant bird Gastornis has long been a matter of controversy. Although it has often been reconstructed as an apex predator feeding on small mammals, according to other interpretations, it was in fact a large herbivore. To determine the diet of this bird, we analyze here the carbon isotope composition of the bone apatite from Gastornis and contemporaneous herbivorous mammals. Based on (13)C-enrichment measured between carbonate and diet of carnivorous and herbivorous modern birds, the carbonate ?(13)C values of Gastornis bone remains, recovered from four Paleocene and Eocene French localities, indicate that this bird fed on plants. This is confirmed by a morphofunctional study showing that the reconstructed jaw musculature of Gastornis was similar to that of living herbivorous birds and unlike that of carnivorous forms. The herbivorous Gastornis was the largest terrestrial tetrapod in the Paleocene biota of Europe, unlike the situation in North America and Asia, where Gastornis is first recorded in the early Eocene, and the largest Paleocene animals were herbivorous mammals. The structure of the Paleocene terrestrial ecosystems of Europe may have been similar to that of some large islands, notably Madagascar, prior to the arrival of humans. PMID:24563098

Angst, D; Lécuyer, C; Amiot, R; Buffetaut, E; Fourel, F; Martineau, F; Legendre, S; Abourachid, A; Herrel, A

2014-04-01

224

The young sun and the atmosphere and photochemistry of the early earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin and evolution of the earth's early atmosphere depend crucially on the dissipation time of the primitive solar nebula (SN). Using different theories of turbulence, the dissipation time of an SN of 0.1 solar mass is estimated as 2.5-8.3 Myr. Because accretion times are usually much longer, it is concluded that most planetary accretion must have occurred in a gas-free environment. Using new IUE data, a wavelength-dependent UV flux is constructed for the young sun which is then used to study the photochemistry and concentrations of O, O2, O3, OH, H, HCO and formaldehyde H2CO in the earth's early prebiological atmosphere.

Canuto, V. M.; Levine, J. S.; Augustsson, T. R.; Imhoff, C. L.; Giampapa, M. S.

1983-01-01

225

Atmosphere and Water Loss from Early Mars Under Extreme Solar Wind and Extreme Ultraviolet Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper limits of the ion pickup and cold ion outflow loss rates from the early martian atmosphere shortly after the Sun arrived at the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence (ZAMS) were investigated. We applied a comprehensive 3-D multi-species magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model to an early martian CO2-rich atmosphere, which was assumed to have been exposed to a solar XUV [X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)] flux that was 100 times higher than today and a solar wind that was about 300 times denser. We also assumed the late onset of a planetary magnetic dynamo, so that Mars had no strong intrinsic magnetic field at that early period. We found that, due to such extreme solar wind-atmosphere interaction, a strong magnetic field of about ˜4000 nT was induced in the entire dayside ionosphere, which could efficiently protect the upper atmosphere from sputtering loss. A planetary obstacle (˜ ionopause) was formed at an altitude of about 1000 km above the surface due to the drag force and the mass loading by newly created ions in the highly extended upper atmosphere. We obtained an O+ loss rate by the ion pickup process, which takes place above the ionopause, of about 1.5 × 1028 ions/s during the first ?150 million years, which is about 104 times greater than today and corresponds to a water loss equivalent to a global martian ocean with a depth of ˜8 m. Consequently, even if the magnetic protection due to the expected early martian magnetis, which is about 104 times greater than today and corresponds to a water loss equivalent to a global martian ocean with a depth of ˜8 m. Consequently, even if the magnetic protection due to the expected early martian magnetic dynamo is neglected, ion pickup and sputtering were most likely not the dominant loss processes for the planet's initial atmosphere and water inventory. However, it appears that the cold ion outflow into the martian tail, due to the transfer of momentum from the solar wind to the ionospheric plasma, could have removed a global ocean with a depth of 10-70 m during the first ?150 million years after the Sun arrived at the ZAMS.

Terada, Naoki; Kulikov, Yuri N.; Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert I. M.; Tanaka, Takashi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Tielong

2009-02-01

226

A process-level evaluation of the spatiotemporal variability of CO2 fluxes predicted by terrestrial biosphere models using atmospheric data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) are used to extrapolate local observations and process-level understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions, and can serve as a predictive tool for examining carbon-climate interactions and global change. Understanding and improving the performance of TBMs is thus crucial to the carbon cycle research community. In this work, we evaluate the spatiotemporal patterns of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) simulated by TBMs using atmospheric CO2 observations and a Geostatistical Inverse Modeling (GIM) framework. The evaluation methodology is based on the ability (or inability) of the spatiotemporal patterns in NEE estimates to explain the variability observed in atmospheric CO2 distribution. More simply, we examine whether the spatiotemporal patterns of NEE simulated by TBMs (including CASA-GFED, ORCHIDEE, VEGAS2 and SiB3) are consistent with the variations observed in the atmosphere. A similar GIM methodology is also applied using environmental variables (such as water availability, temperature, radiation, etc.) rather than TBMs, to explore the environmental processes associated with the variability of NEE, and determine which processes are associated with good/poor performance in TBMs. We find that NEE simulated by TBMs is consistent with that seen by atmospheric measurements more often during growing season months (Apr-Sept) than during the non-growing season. Over Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests, Temperate Coniferous Forests and Temperate Grasslands, Savannas and Shrublands, atmospheric measurements are sufficiently sensitive to NEE fluxes to constrain the evaluation of model performance during the majority of the year (about 7-8 months in a year, mostly in growing season). For these regions and months, at least one of the TBMs is found to be able to reproduce the observed variability, but the most representative TBM varies by region and month. For the remaining months, none of the TBMs are able to reproduce the observed variability, whereas a linear combination of environmental variables is able to do so. By further comparing environmental processes associated with the spatiotemporal variability of NEE from the observations and from each TBM, we find that TBMs perform well when radiation-related processes are dominant; however, TBMs perform less well when water-availability (and temperature) are more important. It thus appears that the representation of water availability and its impact on fluxes within TBMs are areas of opportunity for improving TBM predictions, for example, in the seasonal transition. Further exploration of the processes associated with water availability in state-of-the-art TBMs, such as soil respiration, could therefore lead to improvements in their ability to represent the spatiotemporal variability of fluxes during the dormant season and their ability to represent phenology and carbon exchange during transition months.

Fang, Y.; Michalak, A. M.; Shiga, Y. P.; Yadav, V.

2013-12-01

227

The young sun and the atmosphere and photochemistry of the early earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and evolution of the earth's early atmosphere depend crucially on the dissipation time of the primitive solar nebula (SN). Using different theories of turbulence, the dissipation time of an SN of 0.1 solar mass is estimated as 2.5-8.3 Myr. Because accretion times are usually much longer, it is concluded that most planetary accretion must have occurred in a

V. M. Canuto; J. S. Levine; T. R. Augustsson; C. L. Imhoff; M. S. Giampapa

1983-01-01

228

Diagnosing atmosphere-ocean general circulation model errors relevant to the terrestrial biosphere using the Köppen climate classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-sea ice climate models (AOGCMs) are often tuned using physical variables like temperature and precipitation with the goal of minimizing properties such as the root-mean-square error. As the community moves towards modeling the earth system, it is important to note that not all biases have equivalent impacts on biology. Bioclimatic classification systems provide means of filtering model errors so

Anand Gnanadesikan; Ronald J. Stouffer

2006-01-01

229

The National Ecological Observatory Network's Atmospheric and Terrestrial Instrumentation: Data Quality Assurance/Control of First Release Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network's Fundamental Instrument Unit (NEON-FIU) is responsible for making automated terrestrial observations at 60 different sites across the continent. FIU will provide data on key local physical, chemical, and climate forcing, as well as associated biotic responses (CO2, H2O, and energy exchanges). The sheer volume of data that will be generated far exceeds that of any other observatory network or agency, (i.e., > 45 Tb/year from 10's of thousands of remotely deployed sensors). We address the question of how to develop and implement a large ecological observatory that can accommodate such a large volume of data while maintaining high quality. Here, we illustrate preliminary results of our quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) program applied to NEON's first deployed site in Sterling, CO. These initial results demonstrate NEON's dynamic approach to building upon existing QA/QC frameworks in an effort to attain the highest levels of accuracy, precision, and operational time, while efficiently optimizing the effort needed to produce quality data products. Results will focus on quality control checks of Temperature, Barometric Pressure, and Photosynthetically Active Radiation.

Streett, S.; Roberti, J. A.; Smith, D.; Taylor, J. R.

2013-12-01

230

Solar terrestrial observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight basic solar-terrestrial scientific objectives that benefit from the Shuttle/Platform approach and a program of measurements for each are discussed. The objectives are to understand: (1) solar variability, (2) wave-particle processes, (3) magnetosphere-ionosphere mass transport, (4) the global electric circuit, (5) upper atmospheric dynamics, (6) middle atmospheric chemistry and energetics, (7) lower atmospheric turbidity, and (8) planetary atmospheric waves. A two stage approach to a multidisciplinary payload is developed: an initial STO, that uses a single platform in a low-Earth orbit, and an advanced STO that uses two platforms in differing orbits.

1981-01-01

231

Atmospheric 14C variations derived from tree rings during the early Younger Dryas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric radiocarbon variations over the Younger Dryas interval, from ˜13,000 to 11,600 cal yr BP, are of immense scientific interest because they reveal crucial information about the linkages between climate, ocean circulation and the carbon cycle. However, no direct and reliable atmospheric 14C records based on tree rings for the entire Younger Dryas have been available. In this paper, we present (1) high-precision 14C measurements on the extension of absolute tree-ring chronology from 12,400 to 12,560 cal yr BP and (2) high-precision, high-resolution atmospheric 14C record derived from a 617-yr-long tree-ring chronology of Huon pine from Tasmania, Australia, spanning the early Younger Dryas. The new tree-ring 14C records bridge the current gap in European tree-ring radiocarbon chronologies during the early Younger Dryas, linking the floating Lateglacial Pine record to the absolute tree-ring timescale. A continuous and reliable atmospheric 14C record for the past 14,000 cal yr BP including the Younger Dryas is now available. The new records indicate that the abrupt rise in atmospheric ? 14C associated with the Younger Dryas onset occurs at ˜12,760 cal yr BP, ˜240 yrs later than that recorded in Cariaco varves, with a smaller magnitude of ˜40‰ followed by several centennial ? 14C variations of 20-25‰. Comparing the tree-ring ? 14C to marine-derived ? 14C and modelled ? 14C based on ice-core 10Be fluxes, we conclude that changes in ocean circulation were mainly responsible for the Younger Dryas onset, while a combination of changes in ocean circulation and 14C production rate were responsible for atmospheric ? 14C variations for the remainder of the Younger Dryas.

Hua, Quan; Barbetti, Mike; Fink, David; Kaiser, Klaus Felix; Friedrich, Michael; Kromer, Bernd; Levchenko, Vladimir A.; Zoppi, Ugo; Smith, Andrew M.; Bertuch, Fiona

2009-12-01

232

Implications of present-day abiogenic methane fluxes for the early Archean atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Earth's early history, greenhouse warming by atmospheric methane helped to maintain elevated surface temperatures. Here, we estimate the present-day abiogenic CH4 flux generated by mineral alteration (serpentinization) at mid-ocean ridges, volcanic emissions, and geothermal sources; in addition, we assess the impact that abiogenic methane may have had on greenhouse warming during the early prebiotic Archean. Based on estimates of the rate of seafloor spreading and the degree of serpentinization within the oceanic crust, the flux of methane generated by serpentinized lithosphere is calculated to be ~1.35 Mt CH4 y-1, while volcanic and geothermal sources are estimated to contribute ~0.1 and ~0.9 Mt CH4 y-1, respectively. Furthermore, it is shown that if atmospheric CO2 partial pressures were above 0.01 bar, the present-day level of abiogenic methane production could have been sufficient to maintain above-freezing surface temperatures during the Archean. The very high temperatures (~70°C) that have been suggested for the early Archean, however, would have required extremely high methane fluxes or, more likely, greatly elevated atmospheric CO2 levels.

Emmanuel, Simon; Ague, Jay J.

2007-08-01

233

Arctic Climate and Terrestrial Vegetation Responses During the Middle to Late Eocene and Early Oligocene: Colder Winters Preceded Cool-Down.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late Eocene to early Oligocene is recognized as an interval of substantial change in the global climate, with isotopic proxies of climate indicating a significant drop in sea surface temperatures. Other studies have shown, however that at middle latitudes that terrestrial mean annual temperature did not change significantly over this interval, and that the major change was likely a shift towards a greater range of seasonal temperatures; colder winters and warmer summers. Previous analyses of high latitude (Arctic) middle Eocene climate using both leaf physiognomic analysis and qualitative analysis of identified nearest living relatives of terrestrial floras indicated upper microthermal environments (mean annual temp. or MAT ca 10°C but perhaps as high as 15°C, coldest month mean temp. or CMMT ca 0°C) for Axel Heiberg Island in the Arctic Archipelago, but did not address precipitation nor provide data on the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the Arctic. Presented here are new estimates of temperature and precipitation (annual and season amounts) for the Arctic based on NLR analysis of terrestrial plant palynomorphs (spores and pollen) from the ODP 913B and 985 cores from near Greenland. The record of climate for the Greenland cores show a similar climate in the middle Eocene to that previously estimated for Axel Heiberg Island further to the west, with MAT 10- 15°C but with CMMT >5°C. Precipitation was high (mean annual precip. or MAP >180 cm/yr), although with large uncertainties attached to the estimate. The climate proxy record for the late Eocene to early Oligocene shows a lack of change in MAT and MAP over the time interval. Consistent with other published records at middle latitudes, however, winter temperatures (as CMMT) show greater variability leading up to the E-O boundary, and consistently cooler values in the early Oligocene (CMMT <5°C) than recorded for most of the middle to late Eocene record (CMMT >5°C). Plant groups sensitive to freezing such as palms and the floating water fern Azolla were present in the warm parts of the record, but are absent from the latest Eocene and early Oligocene record. These data provide further evidence that the primary change in the global climate system in the E-O transition was a shift towards more extreme seasonal temperature ranges, rather than a drop in the mean temperature.

Greenwood, D. R.; Eldrett, J.

2006-12-01

234

Features of the ocean-atmosphere exchange in the North Atlantic and its effect on terrestrial climate conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climatic changes on Earth are to a large extent influenced by the intensity of oceanatmosphere-land interactions. Energy exchange in the atmosphere-ocean system depends on the transfer of warm and cold water masses by stream flows. Interaction of water masses leads to formation of frontal zones with high temperature gradients. Such zones are easily detected by temperature gradients which are calculated according to AVHRR MCSST satellite data for the 1982 - 1986 (average monthly) and 1990 - 2001 (average weekly) periods. The spatial extension and the size of the frontal zone formed by Gulf Stream and Labrador Current in North Atlantic affects the evaporation mode. Such interaction with atmosphere leads to changes in the cyclonic and anticyclonic activity in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) zone. In this work the seasonal North Atlantic Oscillations are compared with the SST gradients in North Atlantic for the period of satellite measurements. Besides, the investigation is made of the connection between the changes of NAO and climatic parameters overland. We used the weather stations data concerning the average monthly air temperature and precipitation for the territory of Eurasia for the period of 1900-2004. This work analyses the features of ocean-atmosphere interaction and the effect of such interaction on the climatic conditions. We developed software for the analysis of climagrams in graphic form, in which the air temperature and amount of precipitation are averaged over the whole observation period, and also for separate periods. The average seasonal and annual climagrams of several parts of land in latitudinal direction are compared with the seasonal and annual indices of NAO. Besides, comparison is made between the variability amplitudes of precipitation and air temperature over a prolonged observation period.

Alexei, Kartushinsky

235

Spectral Characteristic of Tholin Produced from Possible Early Earth Atmospheres and its Role in Antigreenhouse Effect on Early Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have produced organic material simulating a methane photochemical haze in a CO2- rich atmosphere of the early Earth by irradiating gas mixtures in an inductively coupled cold plasma chamber with pressure approx. 0.25 mbar at 100 W total power. The flow rate was 24 cm3 min. We added progressively higher levels of CH, by combining gas mixtures of N2/CH4 (9/1) and N2/CO2 (9/1) to change the ratio of CH4/CO2. Tholin was accumulated for 5 hours in each experiment; the onset of tholin formation is in the range CH4/CO2 = 0.5 to 1. As the mixing ratio of CH, is increased, the production rate of the brownish tholin film increases. IR spectra showed the C-H and N-H bands similar to that of Titan tholin and closely resemble Titan tholin made at 0.13 mbar pressure. A decrease in the CH bonds on decreasing CH4/CO2 is noted. Ether bands (-(2-O-C) were tentatively detected, but no detectable carbonyl (C=O) band was found. The absorption in the UV region for the early Earth tholin is found to be substantially greater than the Titan tholin. Quantitative values of the optical constants of early Earth tholin are currently being measured.

Khare, B. N.; Imanaka, H.; Wilhite, P.; McKay, C.; Bakes, E.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Arakawa, E. T.

2003-01-01

236

GLOBAL TERRESTRIAL CARBON CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

There is great uncertainty with regard to the future role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, arising from both an inadequate understanding of current pools and fluxes as well as the potential effects of rising atmospheric concentrations of CO, on natural eco...

237

Turbulent atmospheric plumes above line sources with an application to volcanic fissure eruptions on the terrestrial planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of turbulent plumes maintained above steady line sources of buoyancy is worked out in detail within the limitations of Taylor's entrainment assumption. It is applied to the structure of a pure plume injected into a stably stratified atmosphere. Volcanic basalt eruptions that develop from long, narrow vents create line source plumes, which rise well above the magmatic fire fountains playing near the ground level. The eruption of Laki in 1783 may provide an example of this style of eruption. Flood basalts are more ancient examples. Evidence of enormous fissure eruptions that occurred in the past on Mars and Venus also exists. Owing to the different properties of the atmospheres on these two planets from those on the earth, heights of line source plumes are expected to vary in the ratios 1:6:0.6 (earth:Mars:Venus). It is very unlikely that the observed increase of sulfur dioxide above the Venusian cloud deck in 1978 could have been due to a line source volcanic eruption, even if it had been a flood basalt eruption.

Stothers, Richard B.

1989-01-01

238

Middle atmosphere electrodynamics: Report of the Workshop on the Role of the Electrodynamics of the Middle Atmosphere on Solar Terrestrial Coupling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The middle atmosphere (MA), which is defined as the region bounded below by the tropopause near 10 km and above by the mesopause near 90 to 100 km, is regarded as a passive medium through which electric fields and currents are transmitted from sources above and below. A scientific background is given for: sources of MA electric fields; MA conductivity and currents; and MA plasma characteristics. Recommendations are given for research in MA electrodynamics in the following areas: (1) MA electrodynamical parameters; (2) models and supportive laboratory measurements; and (3) investigation of specific problems in the coupled systems.

1979-01-01

239

The young sun, the early earth and the photochemistry of oxygen, ozone and formaldehyde in the early atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent work on the evolution of the solar nebula and the subsequent formation of planets is reviewed, and the stages of star formation thought to lead to a protosun and an accompanying solar nebula are considered. Photochemical results suggest that concentrations of O2, O3, and H2CO, and the ratio of CO/CO2 in the prebiological paleoatmosphere are very sensitive to atmospheric levels of H2O and CO2 and to the flux of incident solar ultraviolet. For enhanced levels of CO2 and solar UV, surface levels of O2 may have approached the parts per billion level in the prebiological paleoatmosphere. It is suggested that 10 percent or more of the enhanced H2CO production could have been rained out of the atmosphere into the early oceans where synthesis into more complex organic molecules could have taken place. CO/CO2 values of greater than unity could have been possible for enhanced levels of solar UV flux.

Canuto, V. M.; Levine, J. S.; Augustsson, T. R.; Imhoff, C. L.; Goldman, I.; Hubickyj, O.

1986-01-01

240

Leaf fossil record suggests limited influence of atmospheric CO2 on terrestrial productivity prior to angiosperm evolution  

PubMed Central

Declining CO2 over the Cretaceous has been suggested as an evolutionary driver of the high leaf vein densities (7–28 mm mm?2) that are unique to the angiosperms throughout all of Earth history. Photosynthetic modeling indicated the link between high vein density and productivity documented in the modern low-CO2 regime would be lost as CO2 concentrations increased but also implied that plants with very low vein densities (less than 3 mm mm?2) should experience substantial disadvantages with high CO2. Thus, the hypothesized relationship between CO2 and plant evolution can be tested through analysis of the concurrent histories of alternative lineages, because an extrinsic driver like atmospheric CO2 should affect all plants and not just the flowering plants. No such relationship is seen. Regardless of CO2 concentrations, low vein densities are equally common among nonangiosperms throughout history and common enough to include forest canopies and not just obligate shade species that will always be of limited productivity. Modeling results can be reconciled with the fossil record if maximum assimilation rates of nonflowering plants are capped well below those of flowering plants, capturing biochemical and physiological differences that would be consistent with extant plants but previously unrecognized in the fossil record. Although previous photosynthetic modeling suggested that productivity would double or triple with each Phanerozoic transition from low to high CO2, productivity changes are likely to have been limited before a substantial increase accompanying the evolution of flowering plants.

Boyce, C. Kevin; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

2012-01-01

241

Sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}: Comparisons of model simulation studies to CO{sub 2} effect  

SciTech Connect

In the context of a project to compare terrestrial ecosystem models, the Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP), we have analyzed how three biogeochemistry models link plant growth to doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2}. A common set of input data was used to drive three biogeochemistry models, BIOME-BGC, CENTURY and TEM. For the continental United States the simulation results show that with doubled CO{sub 2}, NPP increased by 8.7%, 5.0% and 10.8% for TEM, CENTURY and BIOME-BGC, respectively. At the biome level the range of NPP estimates varied considerably among models. TEM-simulated enhancement of NPP ranged from 2% to 28%; CENTURY, from 2% to 9%; and BIOME-BGC, from 4% to 27%. A transect analysis across several biomes along a latitude at 41.5 N shows that the TEM-simulated CO{sub 2} enhancement of NPP ranged from 0% to 22%; CENTURY, from 1% to 10% and BIOME-BGC, from 1% to 63%. In this study, we have investigated the underlying mechanisms of the three models to reveal how increased CO{sub 2} affects photosynthesis rate, water using efficiency and nutrient cycles. The relative importance of these mechanisms in each of the three biogeochemistry models will be discussed.

Pan, Y. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

1995-06-01

242

Early Validation Analyses of Atmospheric Profiles from EOS MLS on the Aura Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results of early validation studies using retrieved atmospheric profiles from the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the Aura satellite. 'Global' results are presented for MLS measurements of atmospheric temperature, ozone, water vapor, hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide, with a focus on the January-March 2005 time period. These global comparisons are made using long-standing global satellites and meteorological datasets, as well as some measurements from more recently launched satellites. Comparisons of MLS data with measurements from the Ft. Sumner, NM, September 2004 balloon flights are also presented. Overall, good agreeement is obtained, often within 5% to 10%, but we point out certain issues to resolve and some larger systematic differences; some artifacts in the first publicly released MLS (version 1.5) dataset are noted.We comment briefly on future plans for validation and software improvements.

Froidevaux, Lucien; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Read, William G.; Jiang, Yibo B.; Jimenez, Carlos; Filipiak, Mark J.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Santee, Michelle L.; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wu, Dong L.; Manney, Gloria L.; Drouin, Brian J.; Waters, Joe W.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Bernath, Peter F.; Boone, Chris D.; Walker, Kaley A.; Jucks, Kenneth W.; Geoffrey, C. Toon; Margitan, James J.; Sen, Bhaswar; Webster, Christopher R.; Christensen, Lance E.; Elkins, James W.

2006-01-01

243

Recharge of the early atmosphere of Mars by impact-induced release of CO2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question as to whether high impact rates early in the history of Mars could have aided in maintaining a relatively thick CO2 atmosphere is discussed. Such impacts could have released CO2 into the atmosphere by burial, by shock-induced release during impact events, and by the addition of carbon to Mars from the impacting bolides. On the assumption that cratering rates on Mars were comparable to those of the moon's Nectarial period, burial rates are a result of 'impact gardening' at the end of heavy bombardment are estimated to have ranged from 20 to 45 m/million years; at these rates, 0.1-0.2 bar of CO2 would have been released every 10 million years as a result of burial to depths at which carbonate dissociation temperatures are encountered.

Carr, Michael H.

1989-01-01

244

Recharge of the early atmosphere of Mars by impact-induced release of CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question as to whether high impact rates early in the history of Mars could have aided in maintaining a relatively thick CO2 atmosphere is discussed. Such impacts could have released CO2 into the atmosphere by burial, by shock-induced release during impact events, and by the addition of carbon to Mars from the impacting bolides. On the assumption that cratering rates on Mars were comparable to those of the moon's Nectarial period, burial rates are a result of 'impact gardening' at the end of heavy bombardment are estimated to have ranged from 20 to 45 m/million years; at these rates, 0.1-0.2 bar of CO2 would have been released every 10 million years as a result of burial to depths at which carbonate dissociation temperatures are encountered.

Carr, M. H.

1989-06-01

245

Terrestrial sequestration  

ScienceCinema

Terrestrial sequestration is the enhancement of CO2 uptake by plants that grow on land and in freshwater and, importantly, the enhancement of carbon storage in soils where it may remain more permanently stored. Terrestrial sequestration provides an opportunity for low-cost CO2 emissions offsets.

Charlie Byrer

2010-01-08

246

Impact of improved atmospheric forcing data and soil-vegetation parameters in terrestrial hydrologic modeling over West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies have shown the importance of land surface-atmosphere coupling in the monsoon system of the West Africa. The African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) has provided an opportunity to investigate model deficiencies in land surface processes by providing high-resolution datasets. In participation with the AMMA Land Surface Model Intercomparison Project (ALMIP2), a global land surface model, the Minimal Advanced Treatments of Surface Interaction and Runoff (MATSIRO), is regionalized for conducting a high space-time resolution experiment (0.05°, 30 minutes). Multi-year offline simulations using improved rainfall datasets derived from local rain gauges and radar-based products are compared with relative coarse resolution satellite precipitation products, such as Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; 0.25°, 3 hourly) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP; 0.1°, hourly) to better understand the effect of precipitation on simulated hydrological responses. Sensitivity experiments are also conducted by incorporating more refined distributions of soil-vegetation parameters accounting for natural grid variability to identify how soil properties and interannual vegetation variability are significantly related to water and energy balances in West Africa. Further examination of individual soil parameter and vegetation type is also performed to identify their proper specification in land surface parameterization schemes. Simulations of surface fluxes, soil temperature and soil moisture in dry months and wet months are verified separately by using observations from the AMMA-CATCH observing system as well as several satellite-based products. In general, this study demonstrates that improved forcing and representation of soil-vegetation parameters can improve land surface model simulations from seasonal to interannual time scale.

HE, X.; Kim, H.; Yeh, P. J.; Oki, T.

2012-12-01

247

Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in Lunar Metal Grains: Solar, Lunar or Terrestrial Origin? 22) Isotopic Zoning in the Inner Solar System; 23) Redox Conditions on Small Bodies; 24) Determining the Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses Using Vanadium Valence - An Update; 25) Mantle Redox Evolution and the Rise of Atmospheric O2; 26) Variation of Kd for Fe-Mg Exchange Between Olivine and Melt for Compositions Ranging from Alkaline Basalt to Rhyolite; 27) Determining the Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PO,) in Solutions on Mars; 28) The Influence of Oxygen Environment on Kinetic Properties of Silicate Rocks and Minerals; 29) Redox Evolution of Magmatic Systems; 30) The Constancy of Upper Mantlefo, Through Time Inferred from V/Sc Ratios in Basalts: Implications for the Rise in Atmospheric 0 2; 31) Nitrogen Solubility in Basaltic Melt. Effects of Oxygen Fugacity, Melt Composition and Gas Speciation; 32) Oxygen Isotope Anomalies in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars; 33) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Interdiffusion of Iron and Magnesium in Magnesiowiistite 34) The Calibration of the Pyroxene Eu-Oxybarometer for the Martian Meteorites; 35) The Europium Oxybarometer: Power and Pitfalls; 36) Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from PigeoniteMelt Partitioning of Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium; 37) Oxidation-Reduction Processes on the Moon: Experimental Verification of Graphite Oxidation in the Apollo 17 Orange Glasses; 38) Oxygen and Core Formation in the Earth; 39) Geologic Record of the Atmospheric Sulfur Chemistry Before the Oxygenation of the Early Earth s Atmosphere; 40) Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: V/(CrCAl) Systematics in Chromite as an Indicator of Relative Oxygen Fugacity; 41) How Well do Sulfur Isotopes Constrain Oxygen Abundance in the Ancient Atmospheres? 42) Experimental Constraints on the Oxygen Isotope (O-18/ O-16) Fractionation in the Ice vapor and Adsorbant vapor Systems of CO2 at Conditions Relevant to the Surface of Mars; 43) Micro-XANES Measurements on Experimental Spinels andhe Oxidation State of Vanadium in Spinel-Melt Pairs; 44) Testing the Magma Ocean Hypothesis Using

2004-01-01

248

The Chlorine Abundance of Earth: Evidence for Early Atmospheric Loss and Creation of a Life-Supporting Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth abundance of the heavier halogens, Cl, Br and I, are significantly depleted relative to expected values based on CI chondrites and solar abundances. The cause of these ‘selective’ depletions may be related to 1) far greater volatility than previously assumed; 2) a hidden reservoir on Earth; 3) selective loss of the halogens during planetary accretion. The volatility of an element is related to its temperature of condensation from the cooling solar nebula. The high condensation temperature of Cl is based on sodalite crystallization at ~800 K (10-4 bar), but even if sodalite formation is kinetically impeded at such low pressures, NaCl (g) should condense to NaCl (s) at only slightly lower temperatures. An unreasonably low condensation temperature of ~200 K would be needed to explain Earth’s concentration of halogens. A second possibility for the apparent Earth depletion is that Cl is strongly partitioned into the core. We tested this hypothesis by experimentally measuring Cl partitioning between basalt and Fe (and Fe95.5S4.5) at high pressures and temperatures. Samples were doped with trace FeCl2 as a Cl source. The measured D (Cl) metal-basalt is less than 0.01 under all conditions, ruling out the possibility of a Cl sink in the core. We propose instead that the halogens were lost during the late giant bombardment stage of planetary accretion. The selective loss of the halogens relative to other elements with similar condensation temperatures is explained by their unique hydrophilic character. Early in Earth’s history, halogens were strongly partitioned into the ocean/surficial environment. They were then removed by atmospheric erosion associated with giant impacts towards the end of planetary accretion. Our results provide independent evidence for multiple atmospheric-loss events, a controversial conclusion that is at odds with some geophysical studies. Over 90% of Cl was lost in early Earth history. Today, the oceans host nearly half of Earth’s halogens. Had this massive removal of halogens not occurred, Earth’s oceans would be at halite saturation, roughly equivalent to the Dead Sea. The Earth would have suffered from ‘halogen poisoning’, and life may never have emerged under such conditions. Even if it had, evolution to more complex forms - associated with a drop in salinity and increase in dissolved oxygen (Knauth, Nature, 1998) - would almost certainly never have occurred. Evaporation over a halite-saturated ocean would be one half the modern value, so that precipitation would be drastically reduced or non-existent and terrestrial life would have been severely restricted. Mars, with its higher Cl and lower water contents (Filiberto and Trieman, 2009), would produce oceans with far higher salinities. Atmospheric erosion in chondritic-like star systems may be a necessary condition for life by preventing the formation of halogen-poisoned planets.

Sharp, Z. D.; Draper, D. S.

2009-12-01

249

Coincident High Radiocarbon Reservoir Age of North Atlantic Surface Ocean and Atmospheric ?14C Increase During Early Younger Dryas Cold Period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiocarbon reservoir age of high latitude North Atlantic Ocean surface water is expected to vary according to changes in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production. Here, we present a surface water radiocarbon reservoir age record of the high latitude western North Atlantic for the deglacial period via the use of fossil cold- water corals, and combine these results with published coexisting marine and terrestrial dated deposits, and Vedde ash radiocarbon dates. The reservoir age of high latitude North Atlantic surface waters was computed from the radiocarbon age difference between our atmospheric radiocarbon record (http://radiocarbon.LDEO.columbia.edu) and marine radiocarbon data. The reconstructed high North Atlantic Ocean surface reservoir age record shows modern values (400 ± 150 year, n = 17) during the Bolling and Allerod warm period, but increased reservoir ages (630 ± 80 year, n = 7) during the entire Younger Dryas (YD) cold episode. The reservoir age then decreased to 270 ± 20 year (n = 2) at the Preboreal/YD transition, although the dates are too sparse to be confident in this estimate. We are not able to resolve the timing of the transition in increased reservoir age from the mid-Allerod to the YD due to relatively small change and correspondingly large uncertainty in the estimates. The atmospheric ?14C record derived from our atmospheric radiocarbon record displays a 40 per mil increase from 12800 to 12700 cal year BP, coincident with the high reservoir age in the early YD cold event. Intrusion of 14C depleted Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) to the high latitude North Atlantic and reduction of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation are possible causes for coincidental shifts to high reservoir ages in the North Atlantic surface ocean and increased atmospheric ?14C during the beginning of the YD event.

Cao, L.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Mortlock, R. A.

2006-12-01

250

Paleoceanographic Implications of the Terrestrial Carbon-Isotope Record of the Early Toarcian (Jurassic) Oceanic Anoxic Event  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrofossil wood in two European sections representing the Toarcian (Early Jurassic) Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) have previously been shown to exhibit a large (~ -6 to -7 %) shift in d13C values which has been interpreted as a massive and geologically short-lived perturbation to the global carbon cycle. This interpretation has recently been challenged on the basis of a compilation

S. Hesselbo; H. C. Jenkyns; L. V. Duarte

2005-01-01

251

Late Archean to Early Paleoproterozoic global tectonics, environmental change and the rise of atmospheric oxygen [rapid communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the tectonostratigraphic records of Late Archean to Early Paleoproterozoic terranes indicates linkage between global tectonics, changing sea levels and environmental conditions. A Late Archean tectonic cycle started at ˜2.78 Ga involving the breakup of a pre-existing continent (Vaalbara) and the most prodigious period of generation and preservation of juvenile continental crust recorded in Earth history during a period of plume breakout (˜2.72 to 2.65 Ga) accompanied by high sea levels. During this period, cratons formed by accretion of granitoid-greenstone terranes at convergent margins started to aggregate into larger continents (e.g. Kenorland). Lower sea levels between ˜2.65 and 2.55 Ga were followed by a second (˜2.51 to 2.45 Ga) period of plume breakout resulting in a global peak in magmatism, high sea levels and deposition of banded iron formations (BIF) on the trailing margins of the Pilbara and Kaapvaal cratons. Cratons in South Australia, Antarctica, India, and China record convergent margin magmatism, orogeny and high-grade metamorphism between 2.56 and 2.42 Ga. Continued aggregation of continental fragments (e.g. amalgamation of Indian cratons) may have formed the Earth's first supercontinent by ˜2.4 Ga with a return to low sea levels and relative tectonic quiescence before the supercontinent started to breakup from ˜2.32 Ga. Although oxygenic photosynthesis had evolved by 2.71 Ga, the irreversible rise of atmospheric O 2 to > 10 - 5 PAL appears to have occurred between 2.47 and 2.40 Ga following the second plume breakout and coinciding with a decline in BIF deposition and the maximum extent of the supercontinent suggesting dynamic linkage between tectonics and both the sources and sinks of oxygen. Periods of plume breakout (2.72 to 2.65 Ga and 2.51 to 2.45 Ga) would have limited ocean productivity and the rate of photosynthesis and also enhanced the reduced conditions typical of the Archean biosphere, as well as the greenhouse gas contents of the atmosphere necessary to maintain temperate conditions. This suggests that either an increase in the oxidation state of volcanic gasses during the second plume breakout, or a decreased flux of reduced gasses following plume breakout, coupled with the filling of crustal oxygen sinks and possibly also an increase in ocean productivity and the rate of photosynthesis resulted in the global flux of reduced gasses falling below oxygen production leading to a rise of atmospheric O 2 accompanied by loss of the CH 4-rich greenhouse atmosphere resulting in the Earth's first widespread glaciation. Detrital pyrite and uraninite in 2.45 to 2.40 Ga sediments suggests that terrestrial surface environments were not yet extensively oxidized. The oldest evidence of extensive oxidative weathering is associated with 2.32 to 2.22 Ga glacial deposits and breakup of the supercontinent.

Barley, Mark E.; Bekker, Andrey; Krapež, Bryan

2005-09-01

252

Early Warning of Coastal Earthquakes Using Land, Ocean and Atmospheric Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three Indian coastal earthquakes (Gujarat, Pondicherry and Andaman) have occurred near the western and eastern coasts of India. These earthquakes are known as intraplate earthquakes which occurred far from the plate boundaries. The physics of such earthquakes are still a mystery to the scientific community. These earthquakes at times have proved to be disastrous e.g. 20000 people were killed in the Gujarat earthquake of January 26, 2001. In the present paper, detailed analysis of remote sensing data has been carried out of various land, ocean and atmospheric parameters prior and after the earthquake. The IRS P4 OCM data have shown significant changes in chlorophyll concentration. The MODIS data from these earthquakes have shown significant changes of the land infrared thermal temperature. The surface latent heat flux retrieved from the NOAA satellites over the epicentral region of these earthquakes show anomalous increase prior to the main earthquake. Various parameters deduced from various satellites data have been analysed statistically and also using signal - noise decomposition of time series using the continuous wavelet transform. The detailed analysis of these parameters shows strong interaction between land-ocean-atmosphere prior to the earthquake. Such interaction shows anomalous behavior of land, ocean and atmospheric parameters that can be used in the early warning of impending coastal earthquakes.

Singh, R. P.; Dey, S.; Sarkar, S.; Kafatos, M.

2003-12-01

253

Toward understanding early Earth evolution: Prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils  

PubMed Central

Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset time of the geomagnetic field, the appearance of an oxygen atmosphere, and the secular variation of an Earth–Moon dynamical system.

Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A.; Miura, Yayoi N.

2008-01-01

254

Evaluation of terrestrial carbon cycle models through simulations of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2: First results of a model intercomparison study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of an intercomparison among terrestrial biogeochemical models (TBMs) are reported, in which one diagnostic and five prognostic models have been run with the same long-term climate forcing. Monthly fields of net ecosystem production (NEP), which is the difference between net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration RH, at 0.5° resolution have been generated for the terrestrial biosphere. The monthly

M. Heimann; R. D. Otto; I. C. Prentice; W. Sauf; A. Schloss; S. Sitch; U. Wittenberg; G. Würth; J. Melillo; B. Moore

1998-01-01

255

Evidence for 182Hf in the early Solar System and constraints on the timescale of terrestrial accretion and core formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence from tungsten (W) isotopic measurements consistent with the presence of live 182Hf (T1\\/2 = 9 Ma) in the early solar system. This is based on the observation of a well-resolved deficit of about four parts in ten thousand in the ratio 182W\\/183W in W separated from the Toluca iron meteorite. This deficit is interpreted as an excess

Charles L. Harper; Stein B. Jacobsen

1996-01-01

256

The (146,147)Sm-(142,143)Nd systematics of early terrestrial differentiation and the lost continents of the early Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The very early history of the Earth has been one of the great enduring puzzles in the history of geology. We report evidence which clearly can be described as a vestige of a beginning, because the evidence that we report cannot be interpreted in any other way except as a geochemical signal of processes active in the very early history of the Earth. The evidence itself is a very small anomaly in the abundance of SM-146. The primary aims of this study were to: (1) verify the existence of the 'lost continents' of the Hadean era; and (2) determine their mean age.

Harper, Charles L., Jr.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

1992-01-01

257

Vegetation community structure in a mixed-canopy dynamic global terrestrial ecosystem model: sensitivity of biosphere-atmosphere exchange to canopy vertical stratification and demography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation land plays an active role in the land surface energy and carbon balance and exchange of water vapor and trace gases with the atmosphere, through albedo, stomatal conductance, surface roughness, and carbon and nutrient cycling. One of the major reasons for differences in the performance of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) is in the variety in how they categorize plant functional types and describe vegetation cover, geometry, and biomass allometry. On the one hand, evapotranspiration and albedo may be insensitive to detailed vegetation demography or saturate simply with regard to leaf area index. On the other hand, carbon exchange and storage are highly sensitive to the specification of community structure, and carbon exchange is a coupled constraint on transpiration. What can DGVMs gain from the greater detail of remote characterization of vegetation structure through lidar and radar techniques? What data can global vegetation models not take advantage of? The Ent dynamic global terrestrial ecosystem model is a new DGVM that is designed to represent vegetation communities as mixtures of successional or functional types, rather than as homogeneous mosaicked canopies. This kind of vegetation structure specification allows for simulation of realistic community dynamics through vertical competition for light and water. We present a preliminary global vegetation cover dataset that attempts to capture this vertical and demography heterogeneity in vegetation communities, derived from MODIS observations of cover, leaf area index, and allometric relations. We present initial investigations of the sensitivity of simulated albedo and surface fluxes to this detailed vegetation structure compared to a mosaicked version of vegetation cover.

Kiang, N. Y.; Yang, W.; Ni-Meister, W.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Aleinov, I. D.

2009-12-01

258

Filling-In of Broad Far-Red Solar Lines by Terrestrial Fluorescence and Atmospheric Raman Scattering as Detected by SCIAMACHY Satellite Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global mapping of terrestrial vegetation fluorescence from space has recently been accomplished with high spectral resolution measurements from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). These data are of interest because they can potentially provide global information on the functional status of vegetation including light use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling. Quantifying the impact of fluorescence on the O2-A band is important as this band is used for cloud- and aerosol-characterization for other trace-gas retrievals including CO2. Here, we demonstrate that fluorescence information can be derived from space using potentially lower-cost hyperspectral instrumentation, i.e., more than an order of magnitude less spectral resolution than GOSAT, with a relatively simple algorithm. As a demonstration, we use the filling-in of one of the few wide and deep solar Fraunhofer lines in the red and far-red chlorophylla fluorescence bands, the calcium II line near 866 nm, to retrieve fluorescence with the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) satellite instrument. Although the signal from vegetation fluorescence is extremely weak at 866 nm, our results suggest that useful information may be obtained after adjustments are made to the observed spectra to correct for instrumental artifacts. We compare fluorescence from SCIAMACHY with that retrieved at 758 and 770 nm from similarly-corrected GOSAT data as well with the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also show that filling-in occurs at 866 nm over barren areas, possibly originating from luminescent minerals in rock and soil.

Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Yoshida, Y.; Kuze, A.; Corp, L. A.

2011-01-01

259

Sulfur in the Early Martian Atmosphere Revisited: Experiments with a 3-D Global Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data returned from the surface of Mars during the 1970s revealed intriguing geological evidence for a warmer and wetter early martian climate. Dendritic valley networks were discovered by Mariner 9 on ancient Noachian terrain [1], indicating that liquid water had flowed across the surface in the distant past. Since this time, geological investigations into early Martian history have attempted to ascertain the nature and level of activity of the early Martian hydrological cycle [e.g. 2-5] while atmospheric modeling efforts have focused on how the atmosphere could be warmed to temperatures great enough to sustain such activity [see 6-7 for reviews]. Geological and spectroscopic investigations have refined the history and chronology of Noachian Mars over time, and circulation of liquid water has been invoked to explain several spatially and temporally distinct morphological and chemical signatures found in the geological record. Detections of iron and magnesium-rich clays are widespread in the oldest Martian terrains, suggesting a period of pH-neutral aqueous alteration [e.g., 8]. Valley network incision also took place during the Noachian period [9]. Some chains of river valleys and craters lakes extend for thousands of kilometers, suggesting temperatures at least clement enough for sustained ice-covered flow [3,10]. The commencement of valley network incision is not well constrained, but the period of Mg/Fe clay formation appears to have ended before the termination of valley network formation, as the visible fluvial systems appear to have remobilized existing clays rather than forming them [5,8]. There is also evidence that the cessation of valley network formation was abrupt [11]. Towards the end of the Noachian, erosion rates appear to have been significantly higher than during subsequent periods, a process that has also been attributed to aqueous processes [12]. A period of sulfate formation followed, likely characterized by acidic, evaporitic playa environments [8]. A successful working model for the early Martian atmosphere and hydrosphere must be able not only to produce conditions suitable for liquid water at the surface, but also to explain how the nature of this aqueous activity changed over time and eventually diminished. There are two major end-member hypotheses: first, that early Mars was wet and warm, with a sustained greenhouse that made it possible for liquid water to be stable on the surface for extended periods [e.g., 2, 12-14], and second, that early Mars was generally cold, and that most of the aqueous alteration took place underground [3,5] or during transient warm periods tied to impact cratering [15], or volcanism [16]. In both of these scenarios it is generally agreed that in order to make valley networks and sulfate deposits, a hydrological cycle is needed which is able to recycle water from the lowlands back to the highlands (i.e., the one-time emptying of a regional aquifer would not be sufficient to create the observed features) [4,17]. This would require some precipitation to fall on the southern highlands, either flowing overland or filtering into groundwater aquifers. In both cases, volcanic gases (especially SO2) have been suggested as a possible way of creating either a sustained or transient greenhouse. Several researchers have tested the addition of SO2 to climate models in order to assess whether it would provide an adequate amount of greenhouse warming to allow liquid water to flow across the surface [18-21], with differing results. Postawko and Kuhn [18] found a warming effect of 14 K in a 0.1 bar atmosphere with an SO2 abundance of 1000 ppm. Johnson et al. [20] used a 3-D global circulation model and found a warming of 15-25 K for 245 ppm of SO2 in a dry 0.5 bar atmosphere. Tian et al. [21] used a 1-D model to explore a wide range of SO2 mixing values and CO2 partial pressures, finding a warming of around ~25 K for 100 ppm in a 0.5 bar atmosphere with a fully saturated troposphere (~40 K for a 1 bar atmosphere). These authors also included the effect of sulfate aerosol particles, whi

Kerber, L.; Forget, F.; Wordsworth, R.

2013-09-01

260

Application of 34S analysis for elucidating terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems: Evidence of animal movement/husbandry practices in an early Viking community around Lake Mývatn, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?13C and ?15N) have been used widely in archaeology to investigate palaeodiet. Sulphur stable isotope ratios (?34S) have shown great promise in this regard but the potential of this technique within archaeological science has yet to be fully explored. Here we report ?34S, ?13C and ?15N values for 129 samples of animal bone collagen from Skútustaðir, an early Viking age (landnám) settlement in north-east Iceland. This dataset represents the most comprehensive study to date of its kind on archaeological material and the results show a clear offset in ?34S values between animals deriving their dietary resources from terrestrial (mean = +5.6 ± 2.8‰), freshwater (mean = ?2.7 ± 1.4‰) or marine (mean = +15.9 ± 1.5‰) reservoirs (with the three food groups being significantly different at 2?). This offset allows reconstruction of the dietary history of domesticated herbivores and demonstrates differences in husbandry practices and animal movement/trade, which would be otherwise impossible using only ?13C and ?15N values. For example, several terrestrial herbivores displayed enriched bone collagen ?34S values compared to the geology of the Lake Mývatn region, indicating they may have been affected by sea-spray whilst being pastured closer to the coast, before being traded inland. Additionally, the combination of heavy ?15N values coupled with light ?34S values within pig bone collagen suggests that these omnivores were consuming freshwater fish as a significant portion of their diet. Arctic foxes were also found to be consuming large quantities of freshwater resources and radiocarbon dating of both the pigs and foxes confirmed previous studies showing that a large freshwater radiocarbon (14C) reservoir effect exists within the lake. Overall, these stable isotope and 14C data have important implications for obtaining a fuller reconstruction of the diets of the early Viking settlers in Iceland, and may allow a clearer identification of the marine and/or freshwater 14C reservoir effects that are known to exist in human bone collagen.

Sayle, Kerry L.; Cook, Gordon T.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Hastie, Helen R.; Einarsson, Árni; McGovern, Thomas H.; Hicks, Megan T.; Edwald, Ágústa; Friðriksson, Adolf

2013-11-01

261

Fragmentation of metal diapirs in terrestrial magma oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to mechanisms such as impact heating, early atmospheric thermal blanketing or radioactive heating, the presence of at least one global magma ocean stage in the early histories of terrestrial planets seems unavoidable. In such a context, a key question is whether (and how much) iron diapirs provided by differentiated impactors have emulsified during their sinking towards the bottom of an early magma ocean. Addressing this problem allows one to put strong constraints on metal-silicate equilibration processes as well as heat distribution within a young terrestrial planet. Previous theoretical studies have focused on this question, however no dynamic studies have conducted a systematic exploration of the relevant parameter space corresponding to terrestrial magma oceans. We therefore perform a series of numerical experiments where we follow the sinking of iron diapirs until they fragment (or not) into smaller bodies. Metal-silicate thermal and chemical exchanges are also monitored during the sinking process. Our models include an accurate treatment of surface tension, inertial effects, as well as viscous heating and we investigate systematically the effect of rheological properties and diapir sizes on the conditions and on the consequences of metal diapir fragmentation in terrestrial magma oceans.

Samuel, H.; Rubie, D. C.; Melosh, H. J.

2010-12-01

262

Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens.  

PubMed

Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. PMID:23063614

Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A

2013-01-01

263

Earth's early atmosphere as seen from carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of Archean sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin and evolution of the Earth's early atmosphere has long been a topic of great interest but determination of actual compositions over geologic time is a difficult problem. However, recent systematic studies of stromatolite deposits (Precambrian Paleobiology Research Group) has extended our knowledge of Archean ecosystems. It has been shown that many stromatolite deposits have undergone negligible alteration since their time of formation. The discovery of primary fluid inclusions within unaltered 3.5 b.y. old Archiean sediments and the observation that the 3.3 b.y. old Barberton cherts have remained closed to argon loss and have not been subjected to thermal metamorphism suggests that an opportunity exists for the direct measurement of the volatile constituents present at their time of formation. Of primary interest to this study was the possibility that the stromatolites and other Archean sediments might retain a vestige of the atmosphere and thus afford an indication of the variations in carbon dioxide and nitrogen isotopic compositions with time. A suite of essentially unaltered Archean stromatolites and the cherts of different ages and geologic sites have been analyzed for their trapped carbon dioxide and nitrogen compositions by the stepped combustion extraction tech nique utilizing static mass spectrometers for the isotope measurements.

Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Carr, L. P.; Gilmour, I.; Pillinger, C. T.

1986-01-01

264

Clouds and Aerosols on the Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and aerosols are common on the terrestrial planets, highly variable on Earth and Mars, and completely covering Venus. Clouds form by condensation and photochemical processes. Nucleation of cloud droplets by certain aerosols provides an indirect linkage. Earth clouds cover over half of the planet, are composed of mainly liquid water or ice, and are a significant component of Earth's surface and top of atmosphere energy balance. On Venus, H2SO4 is the dominant cloud constituent, produced by chemical cycles operating on SO2, likely produced from geologic activity. Martian water ice clouds generally have smaller particles than on Earth, although they form by the same processes. Mars clouds affect the deposition of radiation, drive photochemical reactions, and couple to the dust cycle. In the past, Mars clouds may have produced a significant greenhouse effect at times of high obliquity and early in its history. Mars atmospheric dust has both a seasonal cycle and great dust storms. Dust significantly influences the thermal and dynamical structure of the martian atmosphere. Mars CO2 clouds provide both latent heat and radiative effects on the atmosphere, possibly more important on the early, wet, and warmer Mars climate.

Esposito, L. W.; Colaprete, A.; English, J. M.; Haberle, R. M.; Kahre, M. A.

265

Arctic sea-ice cover from the early Holocene: the role of atmospheric circulation patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proxy evidence suggests that a mean atmospheric state, reminiscent of the positive phase of the North Atlantic/Arctic Oscillation (NAO), persisted throughout the early Holocene and resulted in a dipole pattern in sea-ice concentration between the north-eastern and north-western North Atlantic. A dynamic thermodynamic coupled sea-ice-ocean model is used to simulate the sea-ice concentration and thickness in the Arctic during the early Holocene. It is forced with winds, ocean currents and surface air temperatures (SAT) from recent years with a positive phase of the NAO in conjunction with altered long and shortwave radiation and surface air/ocean temperatures. The simulation reproduces an east/west dipole in sea-ice cover of the Arctic and is compatible with reconstructed sea-ice conditions in the Chukchi Sea (inferred from dinoflagellate cyst analysis of ocean sediment cores). Sensitivity studies were performed to investigate the individual effects of radiation, ocean forcing, SAT and winds on sea-ice cover. Results show that in the East Siberian Sea, SAT is the dominant forcing for changes in sea-ice thickness, whereas winds and SAT are the dominant factors in sea-ice concentration anomalies. In the Barents Sea, sea-ice anomalies are influenced by air and sea surface temperatures, and ocean currents.

Dyck, Sarah; Tremblay, L. Bruno; de Vernal, Anne

2010-12-01

266

A simplified model for calculating atmospheric radionuclide transport and early health effects from nuclear reactor accidents  

SciTech Connect

During certain hypothetical severe accidents in a nuclear power plant, radionuclides could be released to the environment as a plume. Prediction of the atmospheric dispersion and transport of these radionuclides is important for assessment of the risk to the public from such accidents. A simplified PC-based model was developed that predicts time-integrated air concentration of each radionuclide at any location from release as a function of time integrated source strength using the Gaussian plume model. The solution procedure involves direct analytic integration of air concentration equations over time and position, using simplified meteorology. The formulation allows for dry and wet deposition, radioactive decay and daughter buildup, reactor building wake effects, the inversion lid effect, plume rise due to buoyancy or momentum, release duration, and grass height. Based on air and ground concentrations of the radionuclides, the early dose to an individual is calculated via cloudshine, groundshine, and inhalation. The model also calculates early health effects based on the doses. This paper presents aspects of the model that would be of interest to the prediction of environmental flows and their public consequences.

Madni, I.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Cazzoli, E.G.; Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)

1995-11-01

267

Arctic terrestrial ecosystem contamination.  

PubMed

Limited data have been collected on the presence of contaminants in the Arctic terrestrial ecosystem, with the exception of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. Although southern and temperate biological systems have largely cleansed themselves of radioactive fallout deposited during the 1950s and 1960s, Arctic environments have not. Lichens accumulate radioactivity more than many other plants because of their large surface area and long life span; the presence and persistence of radioisotopes in the Arctic is of concern because of the lichen----reindeer----human ecosystem. Effective biological half-life of cesium 137 is reckoned to be substantially less than its physical half-life. The database on organochlorines in Canadian Arctic terrestrial mammals and birds is very limited, but indications are that the air/plant/animal contaminant pathway is the major route of these compounds into the terrestrial food chain. For terrestrial herbivores, the most abundant organochlorine is usually hexachlorobenzene followed by hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. PCB accumulation favours the hexachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorobiphenyl and heptachlorobiphenyl homologous series. The concentrations of the various classes of organochlorine compounds are substantially lower in terrestrial herbivore tissues than in marine mammal tissues. PCBs and DDT are the most abundant residues in peregrine falcons (a terrestrial carnivore) reaching average levels of 9.2 and 10.4 micrograms.g-1, respectively, more than 10 times higher than other organochlorines and higher than in marine mammals, including the polar bear. Contaminants from local sources include metals from mining activities, hydrocarbons and waste drilling fluids from oil and gas exploration and production, wastes from DEW line sites, naturally occurring radionuclides associated with uranium mineralization, and smoke containing SO2 and H2SO4 aerosol from the Smoking Hills at Cape Bathurst, N.W.T. PMID:1355310

Thomas, D J; Tracey, B; Marshall, H; Norstrom, R J

1992-07-15

268

Phosphorus Redox on the Early Earth: First Identification of Low-Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds in Terrestrial Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is one of the key elements in biochemical systems, playing an important role in metabolism as ATP and other coenzymes, in replication as DNA and RNA, and in cellular structure as phospholipids. The geochemical cycling of phosphorus on the Earth is usually confined to the rock cycle- redox reactions of phosphorus are never considered. However, it has been proposed that redox reactions of phosphorus were important on the early Earth (Pasek, PNAS 2008). Indeed, such a suggestion is buttressed by the discovery of condensed phosphate formation linked to the oxidation of reduced P compounds. However, prior to the present work, there has been no report of these P compounds in geologic samples. Here we report the first occurrence of reduced P in samples of fulgurites, the glassy material resulting from the fusion of sand, soil, or rock during a lightning strike. On average, lightning strikes the Earth's surface at a rate of approximately 65 times per second (Krider et al., J. Geophys. Res.,1968) exposing target areas to extreme energy dissipation and temperatures. Through electron microprobe analyses and NMR we have identified naturally formed metal droplets containing Fe and P within several fulgurite samples and Ca-phosphite compounds. These droplets are highly reduced compared to the original material and are not naturally present in the target area, rather they were formed through the rapid, intense heating and quenching experienced during fulgurite formation. This process provides a natural means to create localized environments with greater than normal abundances of reduced Fe and P, less commonly found on Earth's surface than their oxidized counterparts. In particular, small areas that receive repeated lightning strikes due to topography or local weather patterns (e.g. hilltops) could potentially house unique microhabitats with reduced elements available for biological use.

Block, K. M.; Pasek, M. A.

2008-12-01

269

Filling-in of Far-Red and Near-Infrared Solar Lines by Terrestrial and Atmospheric Effects: Simulations and Space-Based Observations from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mapping of terrestrial vegetation fluorescence from space is of interest because it can potentially provide global information on the functional status of vegetation including light use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling. Space-based measurement of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is challenging, because its signal is small as compared with the much larger reflectance signal. Ground- and aircraft-based approaches have made use of the dark and spectrally-wide O2-A ( approx 760 nm) and O2-B (approx 690 nm) atmospheric features to detect the weak fluorescence signal. More recently, Joiner et al. and Frankenberg et al. focused on longer-wavelength solar Fraunhofer lines that can be observed with space-based instruments such as the currently operational GOSAT. They showed that fluorescence can be detected using Fraunhofer lines away from the far-red chlorophyll-a fluorescence peak even when the surface is relatively bright. Here, we build on that work by developing methodology to correct for instrumental artifacts that produce false filling-in signals that can bias fluorescence retrievals. We also examine other potential sources of filling-in at far-red and NIR wavelengths. Another objective is to explore the possibility of making fluorescence measurements from space with lower spectral resolution instrumentation than the GOSAT interferometer. We focus on the 866nm Ca II solar Fraunhofer line. Very few laboratory and ground-based measurements of vegetation fluorescence have been reported at wavelengths longer than 800 nm. Some results of fluorescence measurements of corn leaves acquired in the laboratory using polychromatic excitation at wavelengths shorter than 665nm show that at 866 nm, the measured signal is of the order of 0.1-0.2 mW/sq m/nm/sr. In this work, we use the following satellite observations: We use SCIAMACHY channel 5 in nadir mode that covers wavelengths between 773 and 1063nm at a spectral resolution of 0.54 nm. GOSAT has two instrument packages: the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI). We use TANSO-FTS band 1, which extends from approximately 758 to 775nm and we use cloud fraction derived from the CAI. We compare satellite-derived fluorescence with the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), an Aqua/MODIS-derived vegetation reflectance-based index that indicates relative greenness and is used to infer photosynthetic function.

Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Yoshida, Y.; Kuse, A.; Corp, L. A.

2012-01-01

270

Filling-in of Far-Red and Near-Infrared Solar Lines by Terrestrial and Atmospheric Effects: Simulations and Space-Based Observations from SCHIAMACHY and GOSAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mapping of terrestrial vegetation fluorescence from space is of interest because it can potentially provide global information on the functional status of vegetation including light use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling. Space-based measurement of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is challenging, because its signal is small as compared with the much larger reflectance signal. Ground- and aircraft-based approaches have made use of the dark and spectrally-wide 02-A (approx 760 nm) and O2-B (approx 690 nm) atmospheric features to detect the weak fluorescence signal. More recently, Joiner et a1. and Frankenberg et a1. focused on longer-wavelength solar Fraunhofer lines that can be observed with space-based instruments such as the currently operational GOSAT. They showed that fluorescence can be detected using Fraunhofer lines away from the far-red chlorophyll-a fluorescence peak even when the surface is relatively bright. Here, we build on that work by developing methodology to correct for instrumental artifacts that produce false filling-in signals that can bias fluorescence retrievals. We also examine other potential sources of filling-in at far-red and NIR wavelengths. Another objective is to explore the possibility of making fluorescence measurements from space with lower spectral resolution instrumentation than the GOSAT interferometer. We focus on the 866 nm Ca II solar Fraunhofer line. Very few laboratory and ground-based measurements of vegetation fluorescence have been reported at wavelengths longer than 800 mn. Some results of fluorescence measurements of corn leaves acquired in the laboratory using polychromatic excitation at wavelengths shorter than 665 nm show that at 866 nm, the measured signal is of the order of 0.1-0.2 mw/sq m/nm/sr. In this work we use the following satellite observations: We use SCIAMACHY channel 5 in nadir mode that covers wavelengths between 773 and 1063 nm at a spectral resolution of 0.54 nm. GOSAT has two instrument packages: the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI). We use TANSO-FTS band 1, which extends from approximately 758 to 775 mn and we use cloud fraction derived from the CAL We compare satellite-derived fluorescence with the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), an Aqua/MODIS-derived vegetation reflectance-based index that indicates relative greenness and is used to infer photosynthetic function.

Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Kuze, A.; Corp, L. A.

2012-01-01

271

Paleoclimatic and paleoecological reconstruction of early Miocene terrestrial equatorial deposits, Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, Lake Victoria, Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological responses to climatic shifts are often studied to inform us on future anthropogenic-driven climate change. However, few of these climatic shifts occur over time scales appropriate to modern change and few occur with biota similar to modern. The Miocene Climatic Optimum is an ideal interval to study because of its rapid duration and because it occurred during the rise and proliferation of apes. The sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, Lake Victoria, Kenya were deposited between 18 and 20 Ma and record a changing equatorial climate just prior to the Miocene Climate Optimum. This location also offers an opportunity to use multiple proxies to constrain climate and landscape, including paleosol geochemistry, paleobotany and paleontology. Additionally, due to the rich fossil preservation on the islands, climatic shifts are framed within the context of early caterrhine evolution. Here, we report a climate shift recorded through three time slices spanning two formations over ~2 myr. The oldest unit, the Wayando Formation, records an arid, probably open ecosystem with pedogenic calcite rhizoliths, a high groundwater table, poorly-formed paleosols and permineralized sedges. The middle time slice, the Grit Member-Fossil Bed Member contact of the Hiwegi Formation, shows evidence of a local saline lake, with desiccation features, satin-spar after gypsum deposits and salt hoppers. Paleobotanical and sedimentological data from roughly contemporaneous strata indicate a warm, highly seasonal environment that supported a mixture of woodland and forested elements across the landscape. The youngest unit, which is within the Kibanga Member of the Hiwegi Formation, displays demonstrable evidence for a closed-canopy multistoried forest with the presence of tree-stump casts and permineralized root systems within a red-brown paleosol. Within the same paleosol horizon, the dental remains of the catarrhines Proconsul and Dendropithecus have been discovered in situ. This stratum is overlain by a sandstone with preserved leaves. Bulk soil geochemistry and paleobotanical proxies suggest the climate was warm (MAT estimates range = 22.6 - 34.5 °C) and relatively wet (MAP estimates range = 700 - 2,620 mm). This study suggests that tropical Africa may have had a much more dynamic climate leading up to the Miocene Climatic Optimum than previously suggested, and underwent considerable ecosystem reorganization both before and after the Miocene Climatic Optimum.

Michel, L. A.; Peppe, D. J.; McNulty, K. P.; Driese, S. G.; Lutz, J.; Nightingale, S.; Maxbauer, D. P.; Horner, W. H.; DiPietro, L. M.; Lehmann, T.; Dunsworth, H. M.; Harcourt-Smith, W. E.; Ogondo, J.

2012-12-01

272

Terrestrial multi-proxy late Miocene to early Pliocene climate reconstruction of Cook Inlet forearc basin, southern Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the climate and depositional systems in south-central Alaska during initial uplift of the central and western Alaska Range has been hampered by conflicting climatic interpretations and poor age control regarding the timing of exhumation and uplift. This study focuses on the late Miocene to early Pliocene climate record preserved in fluvial depositional systems that crop out near the margin of Cook Inlet forearc basin, south-central Alaska. These data, along with newly published exhumation and uplift ages for the central and western Alaska Range, provide new insights into the relationship between climate and uplift. Climate reconstructions are based on a multi-proxy approach that includes stable carbon isotopic analyses of residual pollen concentrates from palynological preparations, allowing direct comparisons with palynological data from the same samples. The pollen-derived stable carbon isotope data are supplemented with isotopic analyses of bulk sediment and coal. The palynological assemblages indicate prolonged warm conditions, as thermophilic taxa are consistently present. The exception is the youngest sample, which reveals a marked decrease in thermophilic taxa such as Podocarpus, Pterocarya/Cyclocarya, and Fagus and may record the initial cooling of south-central Alaska during the Pliocene. Pollen frequencies indicate relatively humid conditions over the interval from ~10 Ma to ~6.5 Ma, with the wettest conditions occurring ~8 Ma. The ?13C data are used to estimate mean annual precipitation (MAP), which provides supporting evidence of wet conditions between ~7.5 Ma and ~8.5 Ma. Considerable variability in MAP, ranging from 3600 to 300 mm, suggests that generally wet conditions were interrupted by periods of below average precipitation. Increases in precipitation due to uplift of the central and western Alaska Range and related orographic effects are probably not responsible for increases in MAP, as these events postdate the humid interval by ~ 2 Ma, as does the opening of the Bering Strait. However, evidence for thermal climatic optima from 11.5 to 10.5 and 7.5 to 6.5 Ma in North Pacific marine paleoclimate records are taken to indicate warm sea surface temperatures, which may be responsible for high MAP and persistence of thermophilic genera in Cook Inlet.

Mongrain, J. R.; Wooller, M.; Fowell, S. J.; Mccarthy, P. J.; LePain, D.

2011-12-01

273

TERRESTRIAL ECOTOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Terrestrial ecotoxicology is the study of how environmental pollutants affect land-dependent organisms and their environment. It requires three elements: (1) a source, (2) a receptor, and (3) an exposure pathway. This article reviews the basic principles of each of each element...

274

A comparison of lyman alpha and He lambda 10830 line structures and variations in early-type star atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Line profiles were first obtained at maximum velocity separation of the spectroscopic binary Spica (alpha Vir), and then high resolution spectrophotometric images of selected features in the 1.1 micron spectrum of Comet Kohoutek were obtained in order to gain insight into the structures and variations in early-type star atmospheres.

Meisel, D. D.

1974-01-01

275

Evidence for ancient atmospheric xenon in Archean quartz and implications for the early evolution of the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric xenon contains isotopic excesses produced by extinct (129I and 244Pu) and extant (238U) radioactivities, which bear important information on mantle-atmosphere exchange through time. For ancient Xe, a Non radiogenic Earth Atmospheric composition (NEA) was proposed ([1]) which consists of the modern atmospheric composition without fission (131-136Xe) and radioactive decay (129Xe) products. However, the isotope composition of such non-radiogenic xenon is very different from that of potential extraterrestrial precursors such as solar or meteoritic Xe, as it is mass-fractionated by up to 2-3 % per amu relative to the latter, and it is elementally depleted relative to other rare gases. To constrain better the possible initial air Xe signature, we have investigated the isotopic composition of Xe trapped in Archean rocks. Drill core of a 3.5 Ga chert-barite unit [2] of the Dresser formation, North Pole, Pilbara craton (Western Australia), permitted sampling of hydrothermal quartz from vacuolar komatiitic basalt sampled 110 m under surface, preserved from surface alteration and modern cosmic ray exposure. The samples contain well preserved primary fluid inclusions which are chemically homogenous and were formed during contemporaneous hydrothermalism. Gases extracted by sequential vacuum crushing and analyzed by static mass spectrometry show Xe isotopic ratios clearly different from modern air Xe. The heavy (131-136Xe) isotopes are indeed depleted relative to 128-130Xe. Such end-member composition could reflect the reminiscence of a solar-like, or meteoritic-like, Xe component in ancient air, although other possibilities are presently explored. 129Xe seemed to be already present in the Archean atmosphere, which requires specific mantle degassing and atmospheric escape processes during the Hadean. [1] Pepin R. O. (1991) Icarus 92(1), 2-79. [2] Van Kranendonk M. J.(2006) Earth Sci. Rev. 74(3-4), 197-240.

Pujol, M.; Marty, B.

2009-12-01

276

Terrestrial planet formation.  

PubMed

Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

2011-11-29

277

Terrestrial planet formation  

PubMed Central

Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (?106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

Righter, K.; O'Brien, D. P.

2011-01-01

278

The Virtual Planetary Laboratory: Towards Characterizing Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual Plantary Laboratory (VPL) is a recently funded 5-yr project which seeks to improve our understanding of the range of plausible environments and the likely signatures for life on extrasolar terrestrial planets. To achieve these goals we are developing a suite of innovative modeling tools to simulate the environments and spectra of extrasolar planets. The core of the VPL is a coupled radiative transfer/climate/chemistry model, which is augmented by interchangeable modules which characterize geological, exogenic, atmospheric escape, and life processes. The VPL is validated using data derived from terrestrial planets within our own solar system. The VPL will be used to explore the plausible range of atmospheric compositions and globally-averaged spectra for extrasolar planets and for early Earth, and will improve our understanding of the effect of life on a planet's atmospheric spectrum and composition. The models will also be used to create a comprehensive spectral catalog to provide recommendations on the optimum wavelength range, spectral resolution, and instrument sensitivity required to characterize extrasolar terrestrial planets. Although developed by our team, the VPL is envisioned to be a comprehensive and flexible tool, which can be collaboratively used by the broader planetary science and astrobiology communities. This presentation will describe the project concept, the tasks involved, and will outline current progress to date. This work is funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute.

Meadows, V. S.; Allen, M.; Brown, L.; Crisp, D.; Fijany, A.; Storrie-Lombardi, M.; Ustinov, E.; Velusamy, T.; Richardson, M.; Yung, Y.; Huntress, W.; DesMarais, D.; Zahnle, K.; Kasting, J.; Morrow, C.; Sleep, N.; Cohen, M.; Nealson, K.; Rye, R.; Coleman, M.

2001-11-01

279

Space Vehicle Terrestrial Environment Design Requirements Guidelines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The terrestrial environment is an important driver of space vehicle structural, control, and thermal system design. NASA is currently in the process of producing an update to an earlier Terrestrial Environment Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicle Design and Development Handbook. This paper addresses the contents of this updated handbook, with special emphasis on new material being included in the areas of atmospheric thermodynamic models, wind dynamics, atmospheric composition, atmospheric electricity, cloud phenomena, atmospheric extremes, and sea state. In addition, the respective engineering design elements are discussed relative to terrestrial environment inputs that require consideration. Specific lessons learned that have contributed to the advancements made in the application and awareness of terrestrial environment inputs for aerospace engineering applications are presented.

Johnson, Dale L.; Keller, Vernon W.; Vaughan, William W.

2006-01-01

280

The geology of the terrestrial planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geologic history of the terrestrial planets is outlined in light of recent exploration and the revolution in geologic thinking. Among the topics considered are planet formation; planetary craters, basins, and general surface characteristics; tectonics; planetary atmospheres; and volcanism.

Carr, M. H. (editor); Saunders, R. S.; Strom, R. G.; Wilhelms, D. E.

1984-01-01

281

Pathways to Earth-like atmospheres. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV)-powered escape of hydrogen-rich protoatmospheres.  

PubMed

We discuss the evolution of the atmosphere of early Earth and of terrestrial exoplanets which may be capable of sustaining liquid water oceans and continents where life may originate. The formation age of a terrestrial planet, its mass and size, as well as the lifetime in the EUV-saturated early phase of its host star play a significant role in its atmosphere evolution. We show that planets even in orbits within the habitable zone of their host stars might not lose nebular- or catastrophically outgassed initial protoatmospheres completely and could end up as water worlds with CO2 and hydrogen- or oxygen-rich upper atmospheres. If an atmosphere of a terrestrial planet evolves to an N2-rich atmosphere too early in its lifetime, the atmosphere may be lost. We show that the initial conditions set up by the formation of a terrestrial planet and by the evolution of the host star's EUV and plasma environment are very important factors owing to which a planet may evolve to a habitable world. Finally we present a method for studying the discussed atmosphere evolution hypotheses by future UV transit observations of terrestrial exoplanets. PMID:22314970

Lammer, Helmut; Kislyakova, K G; Odert, P; Leitzinger, M; Schwarz, R; Pilat-Lohinger, E; Kulikov, Yu N; Khodachenko, M L; Güdel, M; Hanslmeier, M

2011-12-01

282

Forsterite/melt partitioning of argon and iodine: Implications for atmosphere formation by outgassing of an early Martian magma ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Argon and Xe in the Martian atmosphere are radiogenic relative to the Martian mantle if the SNC meteorites are from Mars. Decay of the short lived isotope I-129 to Xe-129 (t sub 1/2 = 16 m.y.) is the most plausible source of the radiogenic Xe. This short half life constrains any process responsible for the elevated Xe-129/Xe-132 ratio of the Martian atmosphere to occur very early in solar system history. Musselwhite et al. proposed that the differential solubility of I and Xe in liquid water played a key role in producing the radiogenic signature in the Martian atmosphere. Here we explore an alternative hypothesis involving purely igneous processes, and motivated in part by new experimental results on the partitioning of I and Xe between minerals and melt.

Musselwhite, Donald S.; Drake, Michael J.; Swindle, Timothy D.

1992-01-01

283

Planetary Magnetic Dynamo Effect on Atmospheric Protection of Early Earth and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In light of assessing the habitability of Mars, we examine the impact of the magnetic field on the atmosphere. When there\\u000a is a magnetic field, the atmosphere is protected from erosion by solar wind. The magnetic field ensures the maintenance of\\u000a a dense atmosphere, necessary for liquid water to exist on the surface of Mars. We also examine the impact

V. Dehant; H. Lammer; Y. N. Kulikov; J.-M. Grießmeier; D. Breuer; O. Verhoeven; Ö. Karatekin; T. Hoolst; O. Korablev; P. Lognonné

284

Planetary Magnetic Dynamo Effect on Atmospheric Protection of Early Earth and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of assessing the habitability of Mars, we examine the impact of the magnetic field on the atmosphere. When there\\u000a is a magnetic field, the atmosphere is protected from erosion by solar wind. The magnetic field ensures the maintenance of\\u000a a dense atmosphere, necessary for liquid water to exist on the surface of Mars. We also examine the impact

V. Dehant; H. Lammer; Y. N. Kulikov; J.-M. Grießmeier; D. Breuer; O. Verhoeven; Ö. Karatekin; T. Van Hoolst; O. Korablev; P. Lognonné

2007-01-01

285

Atmospheric control on ground and space based early warning system for hazard linked to ash injection into the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Violent volcanic eruptions are common in the Southeast Asia which is bordered by active subduction zones with hundreds of active volcanoes. The physical conditions at the eruptive vent are difficult to estimate, especially when there are only a few sensors distributed around the volcano. New methods are therefore required to tackle this problem. Among them, satellite imagery and infrasound may rapidly provide information on strong eruptions triggered at volcanoes which are not closely monitored by on-site instruments. The deployment of an infrasonic array located at Singapore will increase the detection capability of the existing IMS network. In addition, the location of Singapore with respect to those volcanoes makes it the perfect site to identify erupting blasts based on the wavefront characteristics of the recorded signal. There are ~750 active or potentially active volcanoes within 4000 kilometers of Singapore. They have been combined into 23 volcanic zones that have clear azimuth with respect to Singapore. Each of those zones has been assessed for probabilities of eruptive styles, from moderate (Volcanic Explosivity Index of 3) to cataclysmic (VEI 8) based on remote morphologic analysis. Ash dispersal models have been run using wind velocity profiles from 2010 to 2012 and hypothetical eruption scenarios for a range of eruption explosivities. Results can be used to estimate the likelihood of volcanic ash at any location in SE Asia. Seasonal changes in atmospheric conditions will strongly affect the potential to detect small volcanic eruptions with infrasound and clouds can hide eruption plumes from satellites. We use the average cloud cover for each zone to estimate the probability of eruption detection from space, and atmospheric models to estimate the probability of eruption detection with infrasound. Using remote sensing in conjunction with infrasound improves detection capabilities as each method is capable of detecting eruptions when the other is 'blind' or 'defened' by adverse atmospheric conditions. According to its location, each volcanic zone will be associated with a threshold value (minimum VEI detectable) depending on the seasonality of the wind velocity profile in the region and the cloud cover.

Caudron, Corentin; Taisne, Benoit; Whelley, Patrick; Garces, Milton; Le Pichon, Alexis

2014-05-01

286

Modeling the signal transfer of sea water ? 18 O to the ? 18 O of atmospheric oxygen using a diagnostic box model for the terrestrial and marine biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

We make use of a simple diagnostic box model to determine the sensitivities of the influencing parameters for the isotopic signal transfer of seawater oxygen to atmospheric oxy- gen. We calculate the 1580 of atmospheric oxygen from prescribed oxygen fluxes of the living and dead biomes on land and in the ocean, respectively. The model is driven by an assumed

Markus C. Leuenberger

1997-01-01

287

Geochemical and biologic constraints on the Archaean atmosphere and climate - A possible solution to the faint early Sun paradox.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is ample geological evidence that Earth's climate resembled the present during the Archaean, despite a much lower solar luminosity. This was cast as a paradox by Sagan and Mullen in 1972. Several solutions to the paradox have been suggested, mostly focusing on adjustments of the radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere e.g. Kasting (1993), by increasing the mixing ratio of CO2 and/or adding various other greenhouse gasses. We have used banded iron formation (BIF), which are chemical sediments precipitated out of the Archaean ocean to characterize the composition of the atmosphere. The stability relations of magnetite, which is ubiquitous in Archaean BIFs, preclude CO2 mixing ratios much higher than the present atmospheric level. Likewise, magnetite stability is consistent with atmospheric H2 controlled at the lower limit for H2 metabolism by methanogenic phototrophic organisms. In the absence of substantial compensation for the lower solar irradiance by greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, we have examined the factors that controlled Earth's albedo. These are primarily the surface albedo of Earth and the abundance and properties of clouds. We have applied a model that takes into account the apparent growth of Earth continents (Collerson and Kamber 1999) and the absence of land vegetation during the Precambrian for the evolution of the surface albedo, and a model for the abundance and properties of clouds that takes into account the lower abundance of biogenic cloud condensation nuclei in a less productive prokaryotic world. The higher transparency of the atmosphere for short wave incoming solar radiation and the lower surface albedo on an early Earth dominated by oceans, provided sufficient compensation for the lower solar irradiance to allow the presence of liquid oceans, even at greenhouse gas concentrations broadly similar to the present day values. We therefore suggest that the thermostasis during Earth geologic record, is not paradoxical, but is the combined effect of many factors, which are to a large part biologically controlled. References Collerson, K. D. and B. S. Kamber (1999). "Evolution of the continents and the atmosphere inferred from Th-U-Nb systematics of the depleted mantle." Science 283(5407): 1519-1522. Kasting, J. F. (1993). "Earths Early Atmosphere." Science 259(5097): 920-926. Sagan, C. and G. Mullen (1972). "Earth and Mars - Evolution of Atmospheres and Surface Temperatures." Science 177(4043): 52-&.

Rosing, Minik T.; Bird, Dennis K.; Sleep, Norman H.; Bjerrum, Christian J.

2010-05-01

288

The terrestrial impact cratering record.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 130 terrestrial hypervelocity impact craters are currently known. The rate of discovery of new craters is 3 - 5 craters per year. Although modified by erosion, terrestrial impact craters exhibit the range of morphologies observed for craters on other terrestrial planetary bodies. Due to erosion and its effects on form, terrestrial craters are recognized primarily by the occurrence of shock metamorphic effects. Terrestrial craters have a set of geophysical characteristics which are largely the result of the passage of a shock wave and impact-induced fracturing. Much current work is focused on the effects of impact on Earth evolution. Previous work on shock metamorphism and the contamination of impact melt rocks by meteoritic siderophile elements provides a basis for the interpretation of the physical and chemical evidence from Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sites as resulting from a major impact. By analogy with the lunar record and modelling of the effects of very large impacts, it has been proposed that biological and atmospheric evolution of the Earth could not stabilize before the end of the late heavy bombardment ?3.8 Ga ago. The present terrestrial cratering rate is 5.4±2.7×10-15 km-2a-1 for a diameter ?20 km. On a gobal scale, a major impact sufficient to cripple human civilization severely will occur on time scales of ?106a.

Grieve, R. A. F.; Pesonen, L. J.

1992-12-01

289

Atmospheric collapse and transport of carbon dioxide into the subsurface on early Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present climate of Mars is extremely cold and dry, and is characterized by a very thin CO2 atmosphere. On the other hand, geological evidence suggests that the Martian climate in the past might have been warm and wet, suggesting that the atmospheric CO2 pressure would have been several bars higher. However, the fate of the abundant CO2 is still

Takasumi Kurahashi-Nakamura; Eiichi Tajika

2006-01-01

290

Early diagenetic remineralization of sedimentary organic C in the Gulf of Papua deltaic complex (Papua New Guinea): Net loss of terrestrial C and diagenetic fractionation of C isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceania supplies ?40% of the global riverine flux of organic carbon, approximately half of which is injected onto broad continental shelves and processed in shallow deltaic systems. The Gulf of Papua, on the south coast of the large island of New Guinea, is one such deltaic clinoform complex. It receives ?4 Mt yr?1 particulate terrestrial organic carbon with initial particle

Robert C Aller; Neal E Blair

2004-01-01

291

Solar-terrestrial influence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar phenomena are examined to assess the extent of knowledge of the effect of the sun on the earth. The earth is gravitationally coupled to the sun, imbedded in the solar corona and thereby subject to particle bombardment and the influence of the solar magnetic field, and is directly illuminated by the sun at a rate of 1.367 kW/sq m. The coronal density is 10 particles/cu cm at the earth's distance from the sun, and the solar magnetic field is 1/10,000 what it is at the solar surface. Particle bombardment from the sun causes auroral displays, while other particles are diverted by the terrestrial magnetosphere and form a bow shock. Incoming solar protons dissociate NO in the upper atmosphere and form ozone. The ability of the earth's atmosphere at any time to absorb the total incoming solar radiation is a determining factor in the heating of the atmosphere. The heated atmosphere expands and may slow down satellites in LEO, while no precise modelling has yet been accomplished for the relationship between heating and climatic variations.

Bonnet, R. M.

292

Ancient Relatives of Algae Yield New Insights into Role of CO2 in Earth's Early Atmosphere  

NSF Publications Database

... oxygen in the atmosphere. One of the ocean-dwelling organisms producing oxygen during the later ... rock] using hydrofluoric acid, which dissolves the inorganic minerals but not organic matter ...

293

Carbon Dioxide Clouds at High Altitude in the Tropics and in an Early Dense Martian Atmosphere.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We use a time dependent, microphysical cloud model to study the formation of carbon dioxide clouds in the Martian atmosphere. Laboratory studies by Glandor et al. show that high critical supersaturations are required for cloud particle nucleation and that...

A. Colaprete O. B. Toon

2001-01-01

294

Prebiotic organic synthesis in early Earth and Mars atmospheres: Laboratory experiments with quantitative determination of products formed in a cold plasma flow reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to explore prebiotic chemistry in a range of plausible early Earth and Mars atmospheres. To achieve this laboratory continuous flow plasma irradiation experiments were performed on N2\\/H2\\/CO\\/CO2 gas mixtures chosen to represent mildly reducing early Earth and Mars atmospheres derived from a secondary volcanic outgassing of volatiles in chemical equilibrium with magmas near present

Michael N. Heinrich; Bishun N. Khare; Christopher P. McKay

2007-01-01

295

THE EARLY HISTORY OF ATMOSPHERIC OXYGEN: Homage to Robert M. Garrels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the Precambrian history of atmospheric oxygen, beginning with a brief discussion of the possible nature and magnitude of life before the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. This is followed by a summary of the various lines of evidence constraining oxygen levels through time, resulting in a suggested history of atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Also reviewed are the various processes regulating oxygen concentrations, and several models of Precambrian oxygen evolution are presented. A sparse geologic record, combined with uncertainties as to its interpretation, yields only a fragmentary and imprecise reading of atmospheric oxygen evolution. Nevertheless, oxygen levels have increased through time, but not monotonically, with major and fascinating swings to both lower and higher levels.

Canfield, D. E.

2005-01-01

296

Bolide impacts and the oxidation state of carbon in the Earth's early atmosphere.  

PubMed

A one-dimensional photochemical model was used to examine the effect of bolide impacts on the oxidation state of Earth's primitive atmosphere. The impact rate should have been high prior to 3.8 Ga before present, based on evidence derived from the Moon. Impacts of comets or carbonaceous asteroids should have enhanced the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by bringing in CO ice and/or organic carbon that can be oxidized to CO in the impact plume. Ordinary chondritic impactors would contain elemental iron that could have reacted with ambient CO2 to give CO. Nitric oxide (NO) should also have been produced by reaction between ambient CO2 and N2 in the hot impact plumes. High NO concentrations increase the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by increasing the rainout rate of oxidized gases. According to the model, atmospheric CO/CO2 ratios of unity or greater are possible during the first several hundred million years of Earth's history, provided that dissolved CO was not rapidly oxidized to bicarbonate in the ocean. Specifically, high atmospheric CO/CO2 ratios are possible if either: (1) the climate was cool (like today's climate), so that hydration of dissolved CO to formate was slow, or (2) the formate formed from CO was efficiently converted into volatile, reduced carbon compounds, such as methane. A high atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio may have helped to facilitate prebiotic synthesis by enhancing the production rates of hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde may have been produced even more efficiently by photochemical reduction of bicarbonate and formate in Fe(++)-rich surface waters. PMID:11537523

Kasting, J F

1992-01-01

297

Carbon Dioxide Clouds at High Altitude in the Tropics and in an Early Dense Martian Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use a time dependent, microphysical cloud model to study the formation of carbon dioxide clouds in the Martian atmosphere. Laboratory studies by Glandor et al. show that high critical supersaturations are required for cloud particle nucleation and that surface kinetic growth is not limited. These conditions, which are similar to those for cirrus clouds on Earth, lead to the formation of carbon dioxide ice particles with radii greater than 500 micrometers and concentrations of less than 0.1 cm(exp -3) for typical atmospheric conditions. Within the current Martian atmosphere, CO2 cloud formation is possible at the poles during winter and at high altitudes in the tropics during periods of increased atmospheric dust loading. In both cases, temperature perturbations of several degrees below the CO2 saturation temperature are required to nucleate new cloud particles suggesting that dynamical processes are the most common initiators of carbon dioxide clouds rather than diabatic cooling. The microphysical cloud model, coupled to a two-stream radiative transfer model, is used to reexamine the impact of CO2 clouds on the surface temperature within a dense CO2 atmosphere. The formation of carbon dioxide clouds leads to a warmer surface than what would be expected for clear sky conditions. The amount of warming is sensitive to the presence of dust and water vapor in the atmosphere, both of which act to dampen cloud effects. The radiative warming associated with cloud formation, as well as latent heating, work to dissipate the clouds when present. Thus, clouds never last for periods much longer than several days, limiting their overall effectiveness for warming the surface. The time average cloud optical depth is approximately unity leading to a 5-10 K warming, depending on the surface pressure. However, the surface temperature does not rise about the freezing point of liquid water even for pressures as high as 5 bars, at a solar luminosity of 75% the current value.

Colaprete, Anthony; Toon, Owen B.

2001-01-01

298

Nature and evolution of the early Martian atmosphere: Evidence from highland crater populations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Release of water in a CO2 rich atmosphere by precipitation and channel forming processes has led to speculation on the creation of Martian carbonate deposits. On Mars water probably was not on the surface long enough to allow eroded material to concentrate, raise the pH, and induce the formation of carbonates. This suggests that the Martian primordial atmosphere could be thinner (approximately 5 bars) and still allow highland degradation to occur over a long period of time (.45 to 1.2 billion years).

Craddock, Robert A.; Maxwell, Ted A.

1992-01-01

299

Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions in the Caribbean and Tropical East Pacific During the Early Pliocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pliocene planktonic stable isotope records and Mg\\/Ca temperature reconstructions from ODP Sites 999, 1000 and 1241 were used to examine atmospheric and oceanic teleconnections between the Caribbean and tropical eastern Pacific. Our studies focus on the time interval from 5.5 to 3 Ma that is affected by an increase in Caribbean sea surface salinity (SSS) in response to the progressive

S. Steph; R. Tiedemann; J. Groeneveld; D. Nuernberg

2003-01-01

300

Terrestrial carbon cycle responses to drought and climate stress: New insights using atmospheric observations of CO2 and delta13C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) continue to rise well into the second decade of the new millennium, in spite of broad-scale human understanding of the impacts of fossil fuel emissions on the earth's climate. Natural sinks for CO2 that are relevant on human time scales---the world's oceans and land biosphere---appear to have kept pace with emissions. The continuously increasing strength of the land biosphere sink for CO2 is surpassing expectations given our understanding of the CO2 fertilization and warming effects on the balance between photosynthesis and respiration, especially in the face of ongoing forest degradation. The climate and carbon cycle links between the atmosphere and land biosphere are not well understood, especially at regional (100 km to 10,000 km) scales. The climate modulating effects of changing plant stomatal conductance in response to temperature and water availability is a key area of uncertainty. Further, the differential response to climate change of C3 and C4 plant functional types is not well known at regional scales. This work outlines the development of a novel application of atmospheric observations of delta13C of CO2 to investigate the links between climate and water and carbon cycling and the integrated responses of C3 and C4 ecosystems to climate variables. A two-step Bayesian batch inversion for 3-hourly, 1x1º CO2 fluxes (step one), and for 3-hourly 1x1º delta13C of recently assimilated carbon (step two) is created here for the first time, and is used to investigate links between regional climate indicators and changes in delta13C of the biosphere. Results show that predictable responses of regional-scale, integrated plant discrimination to temperature, precipitation and relative humidity anomalies can be recovered from atmospheric signals. Model development, synthetic data simulations to test sensitivity, and results for the year 2010 are presented here. This dissertation also includes two other applications of atmospheric observations of CO2 and delta13C: 1) a state of the art atmospheric CO2 budgeting exercise to show that global net sinks for CO2 have steadily increased over the last 50 years, and 2) a global investigation of the mechanistic drivers of interannual variability in biosphere discrimination against delta13C.

Alden, Caroline B.

301

Assessing the impact of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate change scenarios of two and three dimensional general circulation models on primary production and toatl carbon storage of global terrestrial ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM version 4) was applied to simulate primary production and total carbon storage for two atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations (315ppm and 630ppm) and three climate scenarios (contemporary, 2-dimensional MIT L-O climate model and 3-dimensional GISS). For contemporary climate (Cramer & Leemans dataset) at 315ppm CO{sub 2}, global annual NPP was 47.9 Pg C.yr{sup {minus}1} and total carbon storage was 1658.2 Pg C. Under atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration of 630ppm and projected double CO{sub 2} climate by the MIT L-O climate model, global annual NPP increased by 12%, and total carbon storage increased by 11%. Global annual NPP and total carbon storage under the GISS were about 1% to 2% higher than those under the MIT L-O model. The difference in annual NPP and total carbon storage between the GISS and MIT L-O models varied among the 18 biomes, in the range of 0% to 20%. The differences were greatest in the high latitude ecosystems.

Xiao, X.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Melillo, J.M. [Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

302

Ontong Java volcanism initiated long-term climate warming that caused substantial changes in terrestrial vegetation several tens of thousand years before the onset of OAE1a (Early Aptian, Cretaceous)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Cretaceous times, several intense volcanic episodes are proposed as trigger for episodic climate warming, for changes in marine circulation patterns and for elevated marine productivity, which resulted in the widespread black shale deposits of the Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE). In the sediments underlying the early Aptian OAE1a black shales, a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion is recorded. Its origin had long been controversial (e.g. Arthur, 2000; Jahren et al., 2001) before recent studies attributed it to the Ontong Java volcanism (Méhay et al., 2009; Tejada et al., 2009). Volcanic outgassing results in an increased pCO2 and should lead to a rise in global temperatures. We therefore investigated if the volcanically-induced increase in pCO2 at the onset of OAE1a in the early Aptian led to a temperature rise that was sufficient to affect terrestrial vegetation assemblages. In order to analyse changes in terrestrial palynomorph assemblages, we examined 15 samples from 12 black shale horizons throughout the early Aptian negative C-isotope spike interval of the Pusiano section (Maiolica Formation; N-Italy). These sediments were deposited at the southern continental margin of the alpine Tethys Ocean and have been bio- and magnetostratigraphically dated by Channell et al. (1995). In order to obtain a continuous palynological record of the negative C-isotope spike interval and the base of OAE1a, we combined this pre-OAE1a interval of Pusiano with the OAE1a interval of the nearby Cismon section (Hochuli et al., 1999). The sporomorph assemblages at the base of this composite succession feature abundant bisaccate pollen, which reflects a warm-temperate climate. Rather arid conditions are inferred from low trilete spore percentages. Several tens of thousand years before the onset of OAE1a, C-isotope values started to decrease. Some thousand years later, bisaccate pollen began to decrease, whereas an increase of Classopollis spp. and Araucariacites spp. percentages indicate a rise in temperatures. Maximum temperatures (suggested by a dominance of Classopollis spp.) were only reached after the most negative inorganic C-isotope values and after the onset of OAE1a. Our study shows that the volcanically-induced increase in pCO2, which ultimately led to OAE1a caused a substantial climate warming that seriously affected terrestrial vegetation. References: Arthur, M.A., 2000, Volcanic contributions to the carbon and sulfur geochemical cycles and global change, in Sigurdsson, H., Houghton, B., McNutt, S.R., Rymer, H., and Stix, J., eds., Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, Academic Press, p. 1045-1056. Channell, J.E.T., Cecca, F., and Erba, E., 1995, Correlations of Hauterivian and Barremian (Early Cretaceous) stage boundaries to polarity chrons: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 134, p. 125-140. Hochuli, P.A., Menegatti, A.P., Weissert, H., Riva, A., Erba, E., and Silva, I.P., 1999, Episodes of high productivity and cooling in the early Aptian Alpine Tethys: Geology, v. 27, p. 657-660. Jahren, A.H., Arens, N.C., Sarmiento, G., Guerrero, J., and Amundson, R., 2001, Terrestrial record of methane hydrate dissociation in the Early Cretaceous: Geology, v. 29, p. 159-162. Méhay, S., Keller, C.E., Bernasconi, S.M., Weissert, H., Erba, E., Bottini, C., and Hochuli, P.A., 2009, A volcanic CO2 pulse triggered the Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a and a biocalcification crisis: Geology, v. 37, p. 819-822. Tejada, M.L.G., Suzuki, K., Junichiro, K., Rodolfo, C., J., M.J., Naohiko, O., Tatsuhiko, S., and Yoshiyuki, T., 2009, Ontong Java Plateau eruption as a trigger for the early Aptian oceanic anoxic event: Geology, v. 37, p. 855-858.

Keller, Christina E.; Hochuli, Peter A.; Giorgioni, Martino; Garcia, Therese I.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Weissert, Helmut

2010-05-01

303

Modeled responses of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO 2 : a comparison of simulations by the biogeochemistry models of the Vegetation\\/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a great deal of information concerning responses to increases in atmospheric CO2 at the tissue and plant levels, there are substantially fewer studies that have investigated ecosystem-level responses in\\u000a the context of integrated carbon, water, and nutrient cycles. Because our understanding of ecosystem responses to elevated\\u000a CO2 is incomplete, modeling is a tool that can be used

Yude Pan; Jerry M. Melillo; A. David McGuire; David W. Kicklighter; Louis F. Pitelka; Kathy Hibbard; Lars L. Pierce; Steven W. Running; Dennis S. Ojima; William J. Parton; David S. Schimel

1998-01-01

304

FINAL REPORT: A Study of the Abundance and 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide to Advance the Scientific Understanding of Terrestrial Processes Regulating the GCC  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project was to continue research to develop carbon cycle relationships related to the land biosphere based on remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its isotopic composition. The project continued time-series observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic composition begun by Charles D. Keeling at remote sites, including Mauna Loa, the South Pole, and eight other sites. The program also included the development of methods for measuring radiocarbon content in the collected CO2 samples and carrying out radiocarbon measurements in collaboration with Tom Guilderson of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LLNL). The radiocarbon measurements can provide complementary information on carbon exchange rates with the land and oceans and emissions from fossil-fuel burning. Using models of varying complexity, the concentration and isotopic measurements were used to establish estimates of the spatial and temporal variations in the net CO2 exchange with the atmosphere, the storage of carbon in the land and oceans, and variable isotopic discrimination of land plants.

Keeling, R. F.; Piper, S. C.

2008-12-23

305

Early Holocene Change in Atmospheric Circulation in the North-Central USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous proxies in cores from Elk Lake, northwestern Minnesota, have provided a record of climatic and environmental change with annual resolution for the last 10,000 years. The proxies that allow reconstruction of the lake's physical and chemical paleolimnology (diatoms, redox-sensitive trace metals, and 18O values) show that that prior to about 8.2 cal ka the lake was a stable, dimictic lake that was strongly stratified. The same proxies show that after 8.2 cal. ka the lake was turbulent, well-mixed and shallower. The proxies that are related to climate factors external to the lake (dust as % Al and % Si, varve thickness, and pollen) show that prior to 8.2 cal. ka the lake was receiving relatively little dust, implying little wind activity. After 8.2 cal ka, there was a marked increase in the influx of dust indicating an increase in westerly winds. Lastly, the ostracode faunal assemblages, which provide information about the limnology and watershed characteristics, indicate that, for 1000 years prior to 8.2 cal. ka, the lake was stable and dilute with characteristics typical of lakes in boreal forests. At 8.2 cal. ka, the ostracode assemblage abruptly shifted to an assemblage typical of Canadian prairie lakes that exhibit large seasonal variability in physical characteristics. This marks the northward displacement of the polar front and beginning of westerlies. The Elk Lake record further shows that the so-called 8.2 cal. yr cold event, recognized in ice-core and other records from the circum-North Atlantic, and thought by some to be caused by catastrophic drainage of freshwater from proglacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway, was but a brief manifestation of a more fundamental and lasting change in the climate of North America. This fundamental climate change was the result of changes in atmospheric circulation in response to marked changes in the relative proportions of land, water, and, especially, glacial ice in North America during the early Holocene, the beginning of the altithermal or prairie period in Minnesota. Substantial changes in salinity also occurred at many lacustrine sites in the Northern Great Plains around 8.2 cal. ka so that such changes are not unique to Elk Lake, and thus the driver of these changes must be regional or global in extent. Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho, is a mesosaline-alkaline lake that historically was bipassed by the Bear River to the east of the lake. However, during the last glacial interval the lake and river were connected until about 16 cal. ka. As the salinity of the lake increased without Bear River influx, carbonate began to precipitate, first as calcite and then as aragonite, the dominant carbonate mineral deposited during most of the Holocene. C- O- and Sr-isotope data indicate that at about 9.5 cal ka the lake abruptly freshened suggesting that Bear River was again reconnected to the lake. The cause of the reconnection of Bear River with Bear Lake may have been tectonic, geomorphic, or climatic. However, the dominance of a boreal ostracode assemblage prior to 8.2 cal ka in Elk Lake, indicating that the polar front was far south of its present position, may have permitted the temporary establishment of a polar low over Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming in winter, increasing the snow pack in the Uinta Mountains and the Bear River Range to the west of the lake thereby increasing the surface- and ground-water flow to the lake. By 8.5 cal ka the salinity of the lake had decreased sufficiently to trigger another pulse of calcite precipitation that lasted about 1000 years. At 8.2 cal ka, when the Elk Lake ostracode record indicates that the polar front had retreated to the north, the Bear River was disconnected from the lake, and by 7.5 cal ka aragonite was again forming.

Dean, W. E.

2005-12-01

306

Sources of atmospheric CH{sub 4} in early postglacial time  

SciTech Connect

This paper looks the the dramatic changes in methane levels in the atmosphere following the end of the last glacial period, and during the Oldest and Younger Dryas. Levels are inferred from measurements made on ice core samples. The rate of changes required to account for the dramatic increase seems unlikely to be explainable based on biologic sources. The author argues that releases from fossil sources may have been a major contributor to the dramatic shifts recorded in the ice core records.

Nisbet, E.G. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

1992-08-20

307

Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data  

SciTech Connect

We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000 2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2, while accounting for lateral transfers of forest and crop products as well as their eventual emissions. The total NEE estimate of a 327 252 TgC yr1 sink for NA was driven primarily by CO2 uptake in the Forest Lands sector (248 TgC yr1), largely in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the US, and in the Crop Lands sector (297 TgC yr1), predominantly in the Midwest US states. These sinks are counteracted by the carbon source estimated for the Other Lands sector (+218 TgC yr1), where much of the forest and crop products are assumed to be returned to the atmosphere (through livestock and human consumption). The ecosystems of Mexico are estimated tobe a small net source (+18 TgC yr1) due to land use change between 1993 and 2002. We compare these inventorybased estimates with results from a suite of terrestrial biosphere and atmospheric inversion models, where the mean continental-scale NEE estimate for each ensemble is 511 TgC yr1 and 931 TgC yr1, respectively. In the modeling approaches, all sectors, including Other Lands, were generally estimated to be a carbon sink, driven in part by assumed CO2 fertilization and/or lack of consideration of carbon sources from disturbances and product emissions. Additional fluxes not measured by the inventories, although highly uncertain, could add an additional 239 TgC yr1 to the inventory-based NA sink estimate, thus suggesting some convergence with the modeling approaches.

Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Turner, David P [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Stinson, Graham [Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Heath, Linda S. [USDA Forest Service; De Jong, Bernardus [ECOSUR; McConkey, Brian G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Birdsey, Richard A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Kurz, Werner [Canadian Forest Service; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Pan, Yude [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

2012-01-01

308

Terrestrial soil pH and MAAT records based on the MBT/CBT in the southern South China Sea: implications for the atmospheric CO2 evolution in Southeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liang Dong1, Li Li1, Qianyu Li1,2, Chuanlun L. Zhang1,3 1State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China 2School of Earth and Environment Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia 3Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA The methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and/or the cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) are derived from the branched glycerol dialkyl Glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) of bacterial origin and are widely used to reconstruct the terrestrial soil pH and mean annual air temperature (MAAT); however, these proxies are less frequently used in the oceanic settings. Here we provide the first high resolution records of soil pH and MAAT since the last glacial maximum based on the sedimentary core of MD05-2896 in the southern South China Sea. The MAAT record exhibited typical glacial and interglacial cycles and was consistent with the winter insolation variation. The pH values were lower (6.4-7) in the glacial time and higher (7-8.4) in the interglacial time. Changes in soil pH allowed the evaluation of changes in soil CO2 based on the atmosphere-soil CO2 balance. The results imply that the lower winter MAAT variation with a lower winter atmospheric CO2 concentration might have resulted in a higher pH in the interglacial period. Our records provide a new insight into the evolution of atmospheric CO2 between glacial and interglacial cycles in East Asia. Key words: South China Sea, MBT/CBT, b-GDGTs, MAAT, pH

Dong, L.; Li, L.; Li, Q.; Zhang, C.

2013-12-01

309

Recent increases in trifluoromethane (HFC-23) global emissions and early atmospheric changes observed for other hydrofluorocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trifluoromethane (HFC-23) is an unintended by-product of chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) production and has a 100-yr global warming potential of 14,800. Firn-air and ambient air measurements of HFC-23 from three firn sampling excursions to Antarctica between 2001 and 2009 are used to construct a consistent atmospheric history for this chemical in the Southern Hemisphere. The results show continued increases in the atmospheric abundance of HFC-23 and imply substantial increases in HFC-23 global emissions since 2003. These emission increases are coincident with rapidly increasing HCFC-22 production in developing countries and are observed despite efforts in recent years to limit emissions of HFC-23 through the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism. These results will be considered along with new observations of additional HFCs from archived air, firn air, and ongoing flask-air measurements. Considered together, atmospheric increases observed for hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons accounted for ~9% of the increase in total direct radiative forcing from anthropogenic gases during 2003-2008, an addition that was slightly larger than attributable to N2O over this same period.

Montzka, S. A.; Miller, B. R.; Battle, M. O.; Aydin, K. M.; Fahey, D. W.; Hall, B. D.; Miller, L.; Verhulst, K. R.; Saltzman, E.; McFarland, M.

2009-12-01

310

Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket success-fully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

Elphic, Richard C.; Hine, Butler; Delory, Gregory T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

2014-05-01

311

Fossil worm burrows reveal very early terrestrial animal activity and shed light on trophic resources after the end-cretaceous mass extinction.  

PubMed

The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms. PMID:23951041

Chin, Karen; Pearson, Dean; Ekdale, A A

2013-01-01

312

Solar-terrestrial models and application software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The empirical models related to solar-terrestrial sciences are listed and described which are available in the form of computer programs. Also included are programs that use one or more of these models for application specific purposes. The entries are grouped according to the region of the solar-terrestrial environment to which they belong and according to the parameter which they describe. Regions considered include the ionosphere, atmosphere, magnetosphere, planets, interplanetary space, and heliosphere. Also provided is the information on the accessibility for solar-terrestrial models to specify the magnetic and solar activity conditions.

Bilitza, Dieter

1990-01-01

313

Anomalous Xenon in the Precambrian Nuclear Reactor in Okelobondo (Gabon): A Possible Connection to the Fission Component in the Terrestrial Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some CFF-Xe (Chemically Fractionated Fission Xenon), whose isotopic composition is established by simultaneous decay and migration of radioactive fission products, is probably present in the Earth's lithosphere, a conclusion based on available Xe data from various crustal and mantle rocks . Our recent isotopic analysis of Xe in alumophosphate from zone 13 of Okelobondo (southern extension of Oklo), along with the independent estimation of the isotopic composition of atmospheric fission Xe , supports the hypothesis that CFF-Xe was produced on a planetary scale. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Meshik, A. P.; Kehm, K.; Hohenberg, C. M.

1999-01-01

314

Global changes to atmospheric chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Changes in atmospheric concentrations of trace gases provided early evidence of widespread changes within the biosphere. Trace gas production by plants and in soils increased in response to human pressures. Long lived trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane are greenhouse gases and play an important role in stratospheric chemistry. Photochemically active compounds, isoprene, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide, are determinants of tropospheric ozone concentrations and thus regulate the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Inclusion of isoprene produced by plants in 3-D chemical transport models increases atmospheric concentrations of ozone and carbon monoxide substantially. In return, terrestrial ecosystems are sensitive to atmospheric composition, responding to increased N deposition with increased C uptake, and soil acidification, and responding to increased ozone concentrations and UV-B with decreased plant production.

Brasseur, G.P.; Holland, E.A. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1995-06-01

315

TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories): Establishment of a alpine observatory for long term observations of the impact of global change factors on biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term observations are an indispensable pre-requisite to improve our knowledge of the complex biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere (BHA)-interactions and to detect and analyze the impact of Global Change parameters on these interactions as well as to develop, improve and validate BHA model systems. FZK IMK-IFU will establish a Climate-Feedback Observatory at which the effects of predicted future changes in temperature and precipitation amount/distribution within the pre-alpine region on the complex BHA interactions will be studied applying a long term in-situ simulation experiment. For this a lysimeter network will be realized in which soil monoliths are transplanted along the existing natural gradient in temperature and precipitation within the alpine region. Details of this experimental approach will be presented. The central objectives of the scientific work performed are: Characterization and quantification of changes of the (i) coupled C-/N-cycles and C-/N-storage, (ii) biosphere-atmosphere exchange (trace gases/energy flux/albedo), (iii) vegetation and microbial biodiversity and of the temporal dynamics of matter turnover and exchange coupled to this change in biodiversity, (iv) seapage water quality/quantity

Kiese, R.; Papen, H.; Kunstmann, H.; Marx, A.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Schmid, H. P.

2009-04-01

316

Atmospheric and terrestrial water budgets: sensitivity and performance of configurations and global driving data for long term continental scale WRF simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driving data and physical parametrizations can significantly impact the performance of regional dynamical atmospheric models in reproducing hydrometeorologically relevant variables. Our study addresses the water budget sensitivity of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model System WRF (WRF-ARW) with respect to two cumulus parametrizations (Kain-Fritsch, Betts-Miller-Janji?), two global driving reanalyses (ECMWF ERA-INTERIM and NCAR/NCEP NNRP), time variant and invariant sea surface temperature and optional gridded nudging. The skill of global and downscaled models is evaluated against different gridded observations for precipitation, 2 m-temperature, evapotranspiration, and against measured discharge time-series on a monthly basis. Multi-year spatial deviation patterns and basin aggregated time series are examined for four globally distributed regions with different climatic characteristics: Siberia, Northern and Western Africa, the Central Australian Plane, and the Amazonian tropics. The simulations cover the period from 2003 to 2006 with a horizontal mesh of 30 km. The results suggest a high sensitivity of the physical parametrizations and the driving data on the water budgets of the regional atmospheric simulations. While the global reanalyses tend to underestimate 2 m-temperature by 0.2-2 K, the regional simulations are typically 0.5-3 K warmer than observed. Many configurations show difficulties in reproducing the water budget terms, e.g. with long-term mean precipitation biases of 150 mm month-1 and higher. Nevertheless, with the water budget analysis viable setups can be deduced for all four study regions.

Fersch, Benjamin; Kunstmann, Harald

2014-05-01

317

Evaporative control on soil water isotope ratios: implications for atmosphere-land surface water fluxes and interpretation of terrestrial proxy records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moisture balance of the continental boundary layer plays an important role in regulating the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and atmosphere. In particular, the near-surface moisture balance is controlled by a number of factors including precipitation, infiltration and evapotranspiration. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in water can be exploited to better understand the mechanisms controlling atmosphere-land surface water fluxes. In addition, understanding the processes that set sub-surface water isotope ratios can prove useful for refining paleoclimate interpretations of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope-based proxies. We present in situ tower-based measurements of stable isotope ratios in water vapor (?D and ?18O) from the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, a semi-arid tall-tower site in Erie, Colorado, during July-September 2012. Near surface profiles from 0 to 10 meters were measured approximately every ninety minutes. Long-term measurements of soil water content show that most of the variation in soil water occurs in the top 30 cm on weekly to monthly time scales. Therefore, soil profiles from 0 to 30 cm were sampled on a weekly basis. Water from soil samples was cryogenically extracted for stable water isotope measurement. Intra-storm precipitation samples were collected using a fully automated evaporation-proof rain collector. Results show that there is perpetual disequilibrium between the surface vapor and soil water isotopes. The top 10 cm of soil water approaches equilibrium with the surface vapor right after a rain event because of high infiltration and saturation at the surface. At this semi-arid site with little vegetation, evaporative exchange is the main driver for soil water fluxes as the soil dries. This is corroborated by soil Dexcess profiles showing progressive enrichment through evaporation. Soil water isotope ratios at >15cm in July and >10 cm in September reflect either: (a) rain from 1-2 days prior, if a rain event occurred, or (b) typical day-time seasonal surface water vapor. The former suggests that infiltration controls the soil water isotope value, while the latter suggests that evaporation at the surface and diffusion within the soil are more dominant controls. We use these observations to constrain a Craig-Gordon evaporation model to weight the contributions of rainfall and surface water vapor exchange to soil water isotope values. These findings show that in arid or semi-arid sites, the soil water isotope ratios are likely dominated by evaporative exchange rather than precipitation. Therefore proxies like cave deposits that rely on soil water could be considered reliable in estimating past evaporative conditions.

Kaushik, A.; Noone, D. C.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; O'Neill, M.

2013-12-01

318

Identification of nitrogenous organic species in Titan aerosols analogs: Nitrogen fixation routes in early atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titan, an icy world surrounded by auburn organic haze, is considered as one of the best targets for studying abiotic planetary organic chemistry. In spite of a great many efforts being made, the chemistry in Titan's atmosphere and its resulting chemical structures are still not fully understood. In our previous work, we have investigated the structure of Titan aerosols analogs (tholin) by NMR and identified hexamethylenetetramine as a dominant small molecule in Titan tholin. Here we report a more complete and definitive structural investigation of the small molecule inventory in Titan tholin. We identified several nitrogenous organic molecules including cyanamide, guanidine, 2-cyanoguanidine, melamine, N?-cyanoformamidine and 1,2,4-triazole in Titan tholin by using NMR and GC-MS and standard sample comparison. The structural characteristics of these molecules suggest a possible formation pathway from the reaction of HCN and NH3, both of which are known to exist in appreciable density in the atmosphere and were tentatively detected by the Huygens probe.

He, Chao; Smith, Mark A.

2013-09-01

319

Spherically symmetric, expanding, non-LTE model atmospheres for novae during their early stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the continuum and line-blanketed models presented here, nova atmospheres are characterized by a very slow decrease of density with increasing radius. This feature leads to very large geometrical extensions so that there are large temperature differences between the inner and outer parts of the line-forming regions. The theoretical spectra show a large IR excess and a small Balmer jump which may be either in absorption or in emission. For the parameters considered (effective temperature of about 10 exp 4 K, L = 2 x 10 exp 4 solar luminosities, outer boundary density of about 3 x 10 exp -15 g cm exp -3, mass-loss rate of 10 exp -5 solar masses/yr), most lines are in absorption. The effects of changes in the abundances of the heavy elements on the emergent spectra are discussed. The strong unidentified features observed in ultraviolet spectra of novae are found in actuality to be regions of transparency within the Fe 'forest'. Ultraviolet spectra obtained from the IUE archives are displayed, and spectral synthesis of these spectra is done using the theoretical atmospheres.

Hauschildt, P. H.; Wehrse, R.; Starrfield, S.; Shaviv, G.

1992-01-01

320

Use It or Lose It: Advances in Our Understanding of Terrestrial Nitrogen Retention and Loss (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding of the terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycle has grown over the last decade to include a variety of pathways that have the potential to either retain N in the ecosystem or result in losses to the atmosphere or groundwater. Early work has described the mechanics of these N transformations, but the relevance of these processes to ecosystem, regional, or global scale N cycling has not been well quantified. In this study, we review advances in our understanding of the terrestrial N cycle, and focus on three pathways with particular relevance to N retention and loss: dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite reduction to ammonium (DNRA), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (annamox), and anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron reduction (Feammox). We discuss the role of these processes in the microbial N economy (sensu Burgin et al. 2011) of the terrestrial N cycle, the environmental and ecological constraints, and relationships with other key biogeochemical cycles. We also discuss recent advances in analytical approaches that have improved our ability to detect these and related N fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Finally, we present a scaling exercise that identifies the potential importance of these pathways for N retention and loss across a range of spatial and temporal scales, and discuss their significance in terms of N limitation to net primary productivity, N leaching to groundwater, and the release of reactive N gases to the atmosphere.

Silver, W. L.; Yang, W. H.

2013-12-01

321

A relatively reduced Hadean continental crust and implications for the early atmosphere and crustal rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that the Earth was strongly reduced during its early accretion, however, the transition from the reduced state that prevailed during Earth's early period to the modern oxidized crust and mantle has never been captured by geochemical surveys on Earth materials as old as ?4.0 billion years ago. By combining available trace-elements data of igneous zircons of crustal origin, we show that the Hadean continental crust was significantly more reduced than its modern counterpart and experienced progressive oxidation till ?3.6 billions years ago. We suggest that the increase in the oxidation state of the Hadean continental crust is related to the progressive decline in the intensity of chondritic addition during the late veneer. Inputs of carbon- and hydrogen-rich chondritic materials during the formation of Hadean granitic crust must have favored strongly reduced magmatism. The conjunction of cold, wet and reduced granitic magmatism during the Hadean implies the production of methane-rich fluids, in addition to the CO- and H2-rich volcanic species produced by degassing of hot reduced basaltic melts as modified by delivered materials during the late veneer. When the late veneer events ended, magma produced by normal decompression melting of the mantle imparted more oxidizing conditions to erupted lavas and the related crust, emitting CO2- and H2O-rich gases. Our model suggests that the Hadean continental crust was possibly much weaker than present-day, facilitating intrusion of underplating magma and thus allowing faster crustal growth in the early Earth.

Yang, Xiaozhi; Gaillard, Fabrice; Scaillet, Bruno

2014-05-01

322

Statistical equilibrium calculations for silicon in early-type model stellar atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Line profiles of 36 multiplets of silicon (Si) II, III, and IV were computed for a grid of model atmospheres covering the range from 15,000 to 35,000 K in effective temperature and 2.5 to 4.5 in log (gravity). The computations involved simultaneous solution of the steady-state statistical equilibrium equations for the populations and of the equation of radiative transfer in the lines. The variables were linearized, and successive corrections were computed until a minimal accuracy of 1/1000 in the line intensities was reached. The common assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) was dropped. The model atmospheres used also were computed by non-LTE methods. Some effects that were incorporated into the calculations were the depression of the continuum by free electrons, hydrogen and ionized helium line blocking, and auto-ionization and dielectronic recombination, which later were found to be insignificant. Use of radiation damping and detailed electron (quadratic Stark) damping constants had small but significant effects on the strong resonance lines of Si III and IV. For weak and intermediate-strength lines, large differences with respect to LTE computations, the results of which are also presented, were found in line shapes and strengths. For the strong lines the differences are generally small, except for the models at the hot, low-gravity extreme of our range. These computations should be useful in the interpretation of the spectra of stars in the spectral range B0-B5, luminosity classes III, IV, and V.

Kamp, L. W.

1976-01-01

323

Formation of the terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early phases of formation in the inner solar system were dominated by collisions and short-range dynamical interactions among planetesimals. But the later phases, which account for most of the differences among planets, are unsure because the dynamics are more subtle. Jupiter's influence became more important, leading to drastic clearing out of the asteroid belt and the stunting of Mars's growth. Further in, the effect of Jupiter-- both directly and indirectly, through ejection of mass in the outer solar system-- was probably to speed up the process without greatly affecting the outcome. The great variety in bulk properties of the terrestrial bodies indicate a terminal phase of great collisions, so that the outcome is the result of small-N statistics. Mercury, 65 percent iron, appears to be a residual core from a high-velocity collision. All planets appear to require a late phase of high energy impacts to erode their atmospheres: including the Earth, to remove CO2 so that its ocean could form by condensation of water. Consistent with this model is that the largest collision, about 0.2 Earth masses, was into the proto-Earth, although the only property that appears to require it is the great lack of iron in the Moon. The other large differences between the Earth and Venus, angular momentum (spin plus satellite) and inert gas abundances, must arise from origin circumstances, but neither require nor forbid the giant impact. Venus's higher ratio of light to heavy inert gases argues for it receiving a large icy impactor, about 10-6 Earth masses from far out, requiring some improbable dynamics to get a low enough approach velocity. Core formation in both planets probably started rather early during accretion. Some geochemical evidences argue for the Moon coming from the Earth's mantle, but are inconclusive. Large scale melting of the mantle by the giant impact would plausibly have led to stratification. But the "lock-up" at the end of turbulent mantle convection is a trade-off between rates: crystallization of constituents of small density difference versus overall freezing. Also, factors such as differences in melting temperatures and densities, melt compressibilities, and phase transitions may have had homogenizing effects in the subsequent mantle convection.

Kaula, William M.

1994-01-01

324

Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing of Seasonal Freeze-Thaw Processes in the Terrestrial High Latitudes: Relationships with Land-Atmosphere CO2 exchange  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth's Northern Hemisphere. These relatively abrupt transitions represent the closest analog to a biospheric and hydrologic on/off switch existing in nature, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. We utilize time series satellite-borne microwave remote sensing measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to examine spatial and temporal variability in seasonal freeze/thaw cycles for the pan-Arctic basin and Alaska. Regional measurements of spring thaw timing are derived using daily brightness temperature measurements from the 19 GHz, horizontally polarized channel, separately for overpasses with 6 AM and 6 PM equatorial crossing times. Spatial and temporal patterns in regional freeze/thaw dynamics show distinct differences between North America and Eurasia, and boreal forest and Arctic tundra biomes. Annual anomalies in the timing of thawing in spring also correspond closely to seasonal atmospheric CO2 concentration anomalies derived from NOAA CMDL arctic and subarctic monitoring stations. Classification differences between AM and PM overpass data average approximately 5 days for the region, though both appear to be effective surrogates for monitoring annual growing seasons at high latitudes.

McDonald, Kyle C.; Kimball, John S.; Zhao, Maosheng; Njoku, Eni; Zimmermann, Reiner; Running, Steven W.

2004-01-01

325

Unusually strong nitric oxide descent in the Arctic middle atmosphere in early 2013 as observed by Odin/SMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle atmosphere has been affected by an exceptionally strong midwinter stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) during the Arctic winter 2012/2013. These unusual meteorological conditions led to a breakdown of the polar vortex, followed by the reformation of a strong upper stratospheric vortex associated with particularly efficient descent of air. Measurements by the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR), on board the Odin satellite, show that very large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), produced by Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT), could thus enter the polar stratosphere in early 2013. The mechanism referring to the downward transport of EPP generated-NOx during winter is generally called the EPP indirect effect. SMR observed up to 20 times more NO in the upper stratosphere than the average NO measured at the same latitude, pressure and time during three previous winters where no mixing between mesospheric and stratospheric air was noticeable. This event turned out to be an unprecedently strong case of this effect. Our study is based on a comparison with the Arctic winter 2008/2009, when a similar situation was observed and which was so far considered as a record-breaking winter for this kind of events. This outstanding situation is the result of the combination between a relatively high geomagnetic activity and an unusually high dynamical activity, which makes this case a prime example to study the EPP impacts on the atmospheric composition.

Pérot, K.; Urban, J.; Murtagh, D. P.

2014-02-01

326

Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook For Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An update of the NASA 'Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development' (NASA-HDBK-1001) is currently in the final process of completion for release in late-2004 or early 2005. The current version of the Handbook was approved by the NASA Chief Engineer in 2000 as a NASA Preferred Technical Standard. However, it was based on natural environment criteria developed mostly in the early 1990's. Therefore, a task was approved to completely update the Handbook in order to reflect the current state-of-the-art in the various terrestrial environmental climatic criteria areas. The technical areas include: Winds, atmospheric constituents, thermodynamic parameters/models/extremes, humidity, electricity, precipitation/fog/icing, cloud phenomena/cover, diffusion/toxic release, severe weather/tornado/hurricane, solar/thermal radiation, geologic hazards, and sea state. A summary of this extensive update will be presented along with some key examples of the new contents. Earlier versions of this publication have been extensively used by the aerospace community, especially program managers and design engineers for required natural terrestrial environment inputs to use in mission planning, development studies and trades, plus by those concerned with terrestrial environment descriptions for the major test ranges within the United States.

Johnson, Dale; Vaughan, William W.

2004-01-01

327

Climate change effects on environment (marine, atmospheric and terrestrial) and human perception in an Italian Region (Marche) and the nearby northern Adriatic Sea.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated analysis of recent climate change, including atmosphere, sea and land, as well as some of the impacts on society, has been conducted on the Marche Region in central Italy and the northern portion of the Adriatic Sea. The Marche Region is one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy, located at a latitude approximately 43° North, with a total surface area of 9,366 km2 and 1,565,000 residents. The northern Adriatic Sea is the northernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea, and it has peculiar relevance for several aspects (environment, tourism, fisheries, economy). The collected environmental data included meteorological stations (daily maximum and minimum air temperature, daily precipitation), oceanographic stations (sea temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient salts concentration, chlorophyll) and river flows, over the last 50 years. The collected social data include 800 questionnaires and interviews carried out on selected samples of residents, decision-makers and emergency managers. These questionnaires and interviews aimed at highlighting the perception of climate change risks. The trend analysis of air temperature and precipitation data detailed an overall temperature increase in all seasons and rainfall decreases in Winter, Spring and Summer with Autumn increases, influencing river flow changes. Marine data showed a relevant warming of the water column in the period after 1990 in comparison with the previous period, particularly in the cold season. Surface salinity increased in Spring and Summer and strongly decreased in Autumn and Winter (according with the precipitation and river flow changes). These last mentioned changes, combined with anthropogenic effects, also influenced the marine ecosystems, with changes of nutrient salts, chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen. Changes in nutrient discharge from rivers influenced the average marine chlorophyll concentration reduction and the consequent average reduction of warm season hypoxic conditions. Indeed, all these changes influence several other aspects of the North Adriatic marine environment, such as coastal erosion, ecosystems, biological productivity, mucilage phenomena, harmful algal blooms, etc.. These impacts in the coastal areas are also evident inland. For example, the analysis of agro-meteorological extreme indices (aridity index, potential water deficit) suggests negative impacts in terms of soil deterioration and agricultural productivity, particularly evident in the area close to the coast. Finally, the analysis of social data revealed awareness among local residents of these impacts and associated risks connected to climate change. Yet, this awareness does not appear translated into long term adaptation plans. Apparently, the inability to define shared collective strategies is the result of a feeble sense of individual and institutional responsibility about climate matters, and ineffective information exchange among citizens, public administrators and the scientific community.

Appiotti, F.; Krzelj, M.; Marincioni, F.; Russo, A.

2012-04-01

328

Identification of Terrestrial Reflectance From Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Correcting for atmospheric effects is an essential part of surface-reflectance recovery from radiance measurements. Model-based atmospheric correction techniques enable an accurate identification and classification of terrestrial reflectances from multi-spectral imagery. Successful and efficient removal of atmospheric effects from remote-sensing data is a key factor in the success of Earth observation missions. This report assesses the performance, robustness and sensitivity of two atmospheric-correction and reflectance-recovery techniques as part of an end-to-end simulation of hyper-spectral acquisition, identification and classification.

Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Nolf, Scott R.; Stacy, Kathryn (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

329

Channel modeling for terrestrial free space optical links  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent advances and interest in free space optics (FSO) for commercial deployments, a proper understanding of optical signal propagation in different atmospheric conditions has become essential, and thus arises the need to rationalize the effects of atmospheric channel on terrestrial FSO links. In this paper, we present the preliminary results of our effort to simulate the atmospheric free space

S. Sheikh Muhammad; P. Kohldorfer; E. Leitgeb

2005-01-01

330

Investigating Earth's Atmospheric Electricity: a Role Model for Planetary Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historical development of terrestrial atmospheric electricity is described, from its beginnings with the first observations of the potential gradient to the global electric circuit model proposed by C.T.R. Wilson in the early 20th century. The properties of the terrestrial global circuit are summarised. Concepts originally needed to develop the idea of a global circuit are identified as "central tenets", for example, the importance of radio science in establishing the conducting upper layer. The central tenets are distinguished from additional findings that merely corroborate, or are explained by, the global circuit model. Using this analysis it is possible to specify which observations are preferable for detecting global circuits in extraterrestrial atmospheres. Schumann resonances, the extremely low frequency signals generated by excitation of the surface-ionosphere cavity by electrical discharges, are identified as the most useful single measurement of electrical activity in a planetary atmosphere.

Aplin, K. L.; Harrison, R. G.; Rycroft, M. J.

331

Investigating Earth's Atmospheric Electricity: a Role Model for Planetary Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historical development of terrestrial atmospheric electricity is described, from its beginnings with the first observations of the potential gradient to the global electric circuit model proposed by C.T.R. Wilson in the early 20th century. The properties of the terrestrial global circuit are summarised. Concepts originally needed to develop the idea of a global circuit are identified as “central tenets”, for example, the importance of radio science in establishing the conducting upper layer. The central tenets are distinguished from additional findings that merely corroborate, or are explained by, the global circuit model. Using this analysis it is possible to specify which observations are preferable for detecting global circuits in extraterrestrial atmospheres. Schumann resonances, the extremely low frequency signals generated by excitation of the surface-ionosphere cavity by electrical discharges, are identified as the most useful single measurement of electrical activity in a planetary atmosphere.

Aplin, K. L.; Harrison, R. G.; Rycroft, M. J.

2008-06-01

332

Solar-terrestrial relations: Flare and solar wind effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of solar terrestrial relations is clearly shown during solar flare events. During these catastrophic events the enhanced flux of XUV solar radiation as well as the sudden outburst of energetic solar cosmic ray particles induce a series of well identified effects in the Earth's magnetic field, in the terrestrial ionosphere and in the upper atmosphere. These geophysical effects

J. Lemaire

1989-01-01

333

Terrestrial Solar Spectral Modeling Tools and Applications for Photovoltaic Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This conference paper describes the variations in terrestrial spectral irradiance on photovoltaic devices can be an important consideration in photovoltaic device design and performance. This paper describes three available atmospheric transmission models...

D. R. Myers K. E. Emergy

2002-01-01

334

Research Challenges for Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon sequestration is a growing research topic that addresses one important aspect of an overall strategy for carbon management to help mitigate the increasing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. There are estimates that terrestrial e...

R. C. Dahlman G. K. Jacobs

2001-01-01

335

Research Challenges for Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon sequestration is a growing research topic that addresses one important aspect of an overall strategy for carbon management to help mitigate the increasing emissions of CO(sub 2) into the atmosphere. There are estimates that terrestrial ecosystems c...

R. C. Dahlman

2001-01-01

336

Terrestrial photovoltaic collector technology trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the path of space PV collector development in its early stages, terrestrial PV technologies based upon single-crystal silicon have matured rapidly. Currently, terrestrial PV cells with efficiencies approaching space cell efficiencies are being fabricated into modules at a fraction of the space PV module cost. New materials, including CuInSe2 and amorphous silicon, are being developed for lowering the cost, and multijunction materials for achieving higher efficiency. Large grid-interactive, tracking flat-plate power systems and concentrator PV systems totaling about 10 MW, are already in operation. Collector technology development both flat-plate and concentrator, will continue under an extensive government and private industry partnership.

Shimada, K.; Costogue, E.

1984-01-01

337

A Spherical Non-LTE Line-blanketed Stellar Atmosphere Model of the Early B Giant {epsilon} Canis Majoris  

SciTech Connect

We use a spherical non-LTE fully line-blanketed model atmosphere to fit the full multiwavelength spectrum, including the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) continuum observed by the {ital Extreme} {ital Ultraviolet} {ital Explorer}, of the B2 II star {epsilon} Canis Majoris (CMa). The available spectrophotometry of {epsilon} CMa from 350 {Angstrom} to 25 {mu}m is best fitted with model parameters {ital T}{sub eff} = 21,750 K, log {ital g} = 3.5, and an angular diameter of 0.77 mas. Our best-fit model predicts a hydrogen ionizing flux, {ital q}{sub 0}, of 1.59 {times} 10{sup 21} photons cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} at the star`s surface and 2290 photons cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} at the surface of the Local Cloud. The close agreement between the model and the measured EUV flux from {epsilon} CMa is a result of the higher temperatures at the formation depths of the H i and He i Lyman continua compared with other models. The realistic model treatment of early B giants with spherical geometry and non-LTE metal line{endash}blanketing results in the prediction of significantly larger EUV fluxes compared with plane-parallel models. We find that our metal line{endash}blanketed spherical models show significantly warmer temperature structures, 1{endash}3 kK at the formation depth of the Lyman continua, and predict stronger EUV fluxes, up to a factor of 5 in the H i Lyman continuum, compared with plane-parallel atmospheres that have identical model parameters. In contrast, we find that spherical and plane-parallel models that do not include metal line blanketing are nearly identical. Our {ital T}{sub eff} = 21,000 K, log {ital g} = 3.2, spherical non-LTE model predicts more than twice as many hydrogen ionizing photons and over 200 times more neutral helium ionizing photons than a standard hydrostatic plane-parallel LTE model with the same stellar parameters. Our synthetic spectra are in reasonably good agreement with observed continuum and line fluxes from echelle spectra obtained with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph. While we find agreement between the absolute UV flux of {epsilon} CMa as measured by GHRS and our model atmosphere, these fluxes are {approximately}30{percent} higher in the UV than those measured by {ital IUE}, {ital OAO} {ital 2}, and {ital TD}-{ital 1}, in excess of the published errors in the absolute calibration of these data. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

Aufdenberg, J.P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85271-1504 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85271-1504 (United States); Hauschildt, P.H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Simulational Physics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-2451 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Simulational Physics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-2451 (United States); Shore, S.N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Indiana University South Bend, South Bend, Indiana 46634-7111 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Indiana University South Bend, South Bend, Indiana 46634-7111 (United States); Baron, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019-0225 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019-0225 (United States)

1998-05-01

338

Nanophase Iron Oxides as an Ultraviolet Sunscreen for Ancient Photosynthetic Microbes: A Possible Link Between Early Organisms, Banded-Iron Formations, and the Oxygenation of the Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose that nanophase iron oxide-bearing materials provided important niches for ancient photosynthetic microbes on the early Earth that ultimately led to the oxygenation of the Earth s atmosphere and the formation of iron oxide deposits. Atmospheric oxygen and ozone attenuate UV radiation on the Earth today providing substantial protection for photosynthetic organisms. With ultraviolet radiation fluxes likely to have been even higher on the early Earth than today, accessing solar radiation was particularly risky for early organisms. Yet, we know that photosynthesis arose then and played a critical role in subsequent evolution. Of primary importance was protection at approx.250-290 nm, where peak nucleic acid (approx.260 nm) and protein (approx.280 nm) absorptions occur. Nanophase ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide minerals absorb, and thus block, the lethal UV radiation, while transmitting light through much of the visible and near-infrared regions of interest to photosynthesis (400 to 1100 nm). Further, they were available in early environments, and are synthesized by many organisms. Based on ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide spectral properties, likely geologic processes, and the results of experiments with the photosynthetic organisms, Euglena sp. and Chlumydomonus reinhardtii, we propose a scenario where photosynthesis, and ultimately the oxygenation of the atmosphere, depended on the protection of early microbes by nanophase ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides. The results of this study are also applicable to other potentially habitable iron-bearing planetary bodies because of the evolutionary pressure to utilize solar radiation when available as an energy source.

Bishop, Janice L.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Rogoff, Dana A.

2006-01-01

339

Observations of Middle Atmosphere CO from the UARS ISAMS during the Early Northern Winter 1991/92  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structure and kinematics of carbon monoxide in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere (10-0.03 hPa) are studied for the early northern winter 1991/92 using the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) measurements. The study is aided by data from a 6-week parameterized-chemistry run of the Goddard Space Flight Center 3D Chemistry and Transport Model (CTM), initialized on 8 December 1991. Generally, CO mixing ratios increase with height due to the increasing source contribution from CO, photolysis. In the tropical upper stratosphere. however, a local maximum in CO mixing ratio occurs. A simple photochemical model is used to show that this feature results largely from methane oxidation. In the extratropics the photochemical lifetime of CO is long, and therefore its evolution is dictated by large-scale motion of air. evidenced by strong correlation with Ertel potential vorticity. This makes CO one of the few useful observable tracers at the stratopause level and above. Thus CO maps are used to study the synoptic evolution of the polar vortex in early January 1992. Modified Lagrangian mean mixing diagnostics are applied to ISAMS and CTM data to examine the strength of the mixing barrier at the polar vortex edge. It is demonstrated that planetary wave activity weakens the barrier. promoting vortex erosion. The vortex erosion first appears in the lower mesosphere and subsequently descends through the upper stratosphere. and is attributed to effects of planetary wave dissipation. Agreement between ISAMS and CTM is good in the horizontal distribution of CO throughout the examined period, but vertical CO gradients in the CTM weaken with time relative to the ISAMS observations.

Allen, D. R.; Stanford, J. L.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Nakamura, N.; Lary, D. J.; Douglass, A. R.; Cerniglia, M. C.; Remedios, J. J.; Taylor, F. W.

1999-01-01

340

Breccia pipes in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, as conduits for metamorphic gases to the Early Jurassic atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Toarcian (Early Jurassic) event was manifested by globally elevated temperatures and anoxic ocean conditions that particularly affected shallow marine taxa. The event coincided with the emplacement of the vast Karoo-Ferrar Large Igneous Province. Among the suggestions for trigger mechanisms for the climatic perturbation is metamorphic methane generation from black shale around the sills in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. The sill emplacement provides a mechanism for voluminous in-situ production and emission of greenhouse gases, and establishes a distinct link between basin-trapped and atmospheric carbon. In the lower stratigraphic levels of the Karoo Basin, black shales are metamorphosed around sills and the sediments are cut by a large number of pipe structures with metamorphic haloes. The pipes are vertical, cylindrical structures that contain brecciated and baked sediments with variable input of magmatic material. Here, we present borehole, petrographic, geochemical and field data from breccia pipes and contact aureoles based on field campaigns over a number of years (2004-2014). The metamorphism around the pipes show equivalent metamorphic grade as the sediments around nearby sills, suggesting a more prominent phreatomagmatic component than previously thought. The stratigraphic position of pipes and the breccia characteristics strengthens the hypothesis of a key role in the Toarcian carbon isotope excursion.

Silkoset, Petter; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

2014-05-01

341

Spectroscopic Determination of Stellar Atmospheric Parameters: Application to Mid-F through Early-K Dwarfs and Subgiants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Takeda et al.'s (2002, PASJ, 54, 451) method for the spectroscopic determination of stellar atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg, vt, and [Fe/H]) from the equivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines was applied to 32 dwarfs/subgiants of mid-F through early-K types based on high-quality echelle spectra obtained at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, for the purpose of examining the numerical performance of this technique as well as the precision of the results. The solutions of the parameters were confirmed to successfully converge, except for a few cases (e.g., for lower temperature and lower metallicity stars) where the microturbulent velocity could not be well determined. A comparison of the present results with the literature values, especially those of Fuhrmann (1998, AAA070.155.024), revealed that the agreement is mostly satisfactory, though a systematic tendency appears to exist that our method yields slightly lower (i.e., by ˜ 100 K) Teff values. The results are further discussed in relation to the stellar fundamental parameters (mass, luminosity, etc.), while referring to the Hipparcos parallaxes or theoretical stellar evolutionary tracks.

Takeda, Yoichi; Sato, Bun'ei; Kambe, Eiji; Sadakane, Kozo; Ohkubo, Michiko

2002-12-01

342

Observation of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes with Fermi LAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond bursts of high energy photons, electrons, and positrons originating in Earth's atmosphere and associated with powerful thunderstorms. The Fermi GBM has detected hundreds of TGFs, some with energies up to 40 MeV. Recent AGILE observations of photons up to 100 MeV in TGFs pose a significant challenge to the relativistic runaway electron avalanche mechanism that is generally believed to be responsible for these bremsstrahlung gamma rays. With its large area, high segmentation, and low deadtime, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a powerful instrument for measuring the high energy emission of these short, intense transients. Here we present early results of a program of observing TGFs with the LAT.

Grove, J. Eric; Chekhtman, A.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; Fishman, G.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Fermi GBM Collaboration

2012-01-01

343

Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace Meteorology provides the identification of that aspect of meteorology that is concerned with the definition and modeling of atmospheric parameters for use in aerospace vehicle development, mission planning and operational capability assessments. One of the principal sources of this information is the NASA-HDBK-1001 "Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development'. This handbook was approved by the NASA Chief Engineer in 2000 as a NASA Preferred Technical Standard . Its technical contents were based on natural environment statistics/models and criteria developed mostly in the early 1990's. A task was approved to completely update the handbook to reflect the current state-of-the-art in the various terrestrial environment climatic areas.

Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

2004-01-01

344

Numerical modeling of impact erosion of atmospheres: Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is clear from the great diversity of atmospheres among the terrestrial planets that their formation and evolution must have depended on a balance among a number of different processes. One of these processes is atmospheric erosion by impacts, which may have been particularly effective on Mars. The reason is that geomorphic evidence on Mars suggests that this planet had, early in its history, dense enough atmosphere to sustain active precipitation over geologically significant periods of time. Analytic calculations indicate that neither the projectile entering the atmosphere nor the main crater ejecta can cause the lose of significant amounts of atmosphere. The vapor plume that is formed, however, expands rapidly as its internal energy is converted into kinetic energy, and may blow off the overlying atmosphere. A model of this part of the impact/atmosphere interaction predicts Mars could have lost a substantial early atmosphere by impact erosion alone. Although our more detailed calculations, which took into account the anisotropy of the atmosphere with respect to zenith angle, show that the process isn't quite as effective, they still indicate the probability of substantial atmospheric loss from Mars. The first results from 2-D hydrocode runs are discussed. These include two runs which make most of the same simplifying approximations as the analytic models, in order to compare the analytic and numerical results directly, and one run (as yet incomplete) that models the full impact.

Vickery, A. M.

1993-01-01

345

Numerical modeling of impact erosion of atmospheres: Preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is clear from the great diversity of atmospheres among the terrestrial planets that their formation and evolution must have depended on a balance among a number of different processes. One of these processes is atmospheric erosion by impacts, which may have been particularly effective on Mars. The reason is that geomorphic evidence on Mars suggests that this planet had, early in its history, dense enough atmosphere to sustain active precipitation over geologically significant periods of time. Analytic calculations indicate that neither the projectile entering the atmosphere nor the main crater ejecta can cause the lose of significant amounts of atmosphere. The vapor plume that is formed, however, expands rapidly as its internal energy is converted into kinetic energy, and may blow off the overlying atmosphere. A model of this part of the impact/atmosphere interaction predicts Mars could have lost a substantial early atmosphere by impact erosion alone. Although our more detailed calculations, which took into account the anisotropy of the atmosphere with respect to zenith angle, show that the process isn't quite as effective, they still indicate the probability of substantial atmospheric loss from Mars. The first results from 2-D hydrocode runs are discussed. These include two runs which make most of the same simplifying approximations as the analytic models, in order to compare the analytic and numerical results directly, and one run (as yet incomplete) that models the full impact.

Vickery, A. M.

1993-03-01

346

Terrestrial dominance of organic matter in north temperate lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquatic ecosystems are hotspots of decomposition and a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere that is globally significant. Carbon exported from land (allochthonous) also supplements the carbon fixed by photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems (autochthonous), contributing to the organic matter (OM) that supports aquatic consumers. Although the presence of terrestrial compounds in aquatic OM is well known, the contribution of terrestrial versus aquatic sources to the composition of OM has been quantified for only a handful of systems. Here we use stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon to demonstrate that the terrestrial contribution to particulate organic matter (POM) is as large or larger (mean=54.6% terrestrial) than the algal contribution in 39 lakes of the northern highlands region of Wisconsin and Michigan. Further, the largest carbon pool, dissolved organic matter (DOM), is strongly dominated by allochthonous material (mean for the same set of lakes approximately 100% terrestrial). Among lakes, increases in terrestrial contribution to POM are significantly correlated with more acidic pH. Extrapolating this relationship using a survey of pH in 1692 lakes in the region reveals that, with the exception of eutrophic lakes, most of the OM in lakes is of terrestrial origin. These results are consistent with the growing evidence that terrestrial OM may support many lake food webs, and that lakes are significant conduits for returning degraded terrestrial carbon to the atmosphere.

Wilkinson, G.; Pace, M. L.; Cole, J. J.

2012-12-01

347

Abiotic Nitrogen Fixation on Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abiotic fixation of nitrogen is critical to planetary evolution and the potential for life on terrestrial planets. A non-biological source of nitrogen, in a biochemically accessible form, is necessary for the origin and early evolution of life. Loss of nitrogen can result in atmospheric pressures too low for liquid water and will impact planetary habitability and hydrological processes. Shock heating of a non-reducing atmosphere produces NO and this has been well studied. Our understanding of the subsequent reactions was, in the past, theoretical. It was postulated that NO was photochemically converted to HNO which then, in surface waters, reacts to form nitrate and nitrite. This chemistry, including reactions in both the gas phase and the liquid phase, has now been studied experimentally. Our work has observed that there are multiple pathways for the fixation. One pathway observed is consistent with the theoretically predicted route via the formation of HNO. Interestingly, this pathway is coupled to photochemical formation of formaldehyde from CO through the formation of HCO. In the presence of liquid water, this pathway leads to the formation of nitrate and nitrite. In the presence of water vapor, but no liquid water, HNO appears to mostly dimerize to form N2O. A second pathway involves the formation of NO2 from CO2 and NO. This pathway becomes more dominant without water, but the reaction of NO2 with even adsorbed water can lead to the formation of nitric acid. Finally, with FeS suspended in liquid water, the direct reduction of NO to ammonia is observed. This last pathway represents the most efficient way to reduced nitrogen, with product yields well above 20% (nitrite/nitrate, from the first two pathways can also be reduced to ammonia thought the overall efficiency suffers). We wish to thank the NASA Astrobiology Institute for support.

Summers, David P.; Khare, B.; Basa, R. C. B.; Rodoni, D.

2009-09-01

348

Atmospheric escape, redox evolution, and planetary habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the greenhouse effect, the presence and composition of an atmosphere is critical for defining a (conventional) circumstellar habitable zone in terms of planetary surface temperatures suitable for liquid water. Lack of knowledge of planetary atmospheres is likely to frustrate attempts to say with any certainty whether detected terrestrial-sized exoplanets may or may not be habitable. Perhaps an underappreciated role in such considerations is the evolutionary effect of atmospheric escape for determining atmospheric composition or whether an atmosphere exists in the first place. Whether atmospheres exist at all on planets is demonstrably connected to the effect of integrated atmospheric escape. When we observe our own Solar System and transiting exoplanets, the existence of an atmosphere is clearly delineated by a relative vulnerability to thermal escape and impact erosion. The prevalence of thermal escape as a key evolutionary determinant for the presence of planetary atmosphere is shown by a relationship between the relative solar (or stellar) heating and the escape velocity. Those bodies with too much stellar heating and too smaller escape velocity end up devoid of atmospheres. Impact erosion is evident in the relationship between impact velocity and escape velocity. Escape due to impacts is particularly important for understanding the large differences in the atmospheres of giant planet moons, such as Ganymede versus Titan. It is also significant for Mars-sized planets. The oxidation state of atmospheres is important for some theories of the origin of life (where an early reducing atmosphere is helpful for organic synthesis) and the evolution of advanced life (where free molecular oxygen is the best source of high energy metabolism). Surfaces on some relatively small planets and moons are observed to have evolved to an oxidized state, which theory and observation can explain through atmospheric escape. There are several examples in the Solar System where a net escape of hydrogen relative to heavier oxygen is the generally accepted explanation for the present oxidation state: Venus and Mars amongst the planets, and Ganymede, Europa, and Rhea amongst bodies with extremely tenuous atmospheres. We also argue that hydrogen escape was the key factor for oxidizing the Earth and facilitating the increase of photosynthetically-produced oxygen in the Proterozoic atmosphere. Our view about the primacy of hydrogen escape with regard to the Earth's atmospheric oxygenation is perhaps less widely accepted. However, it was inevitable that hydrogen escaped from Earth's early anoxic atmosphere at a significant rate. The result was a very big integrated oxidation consistent with what is observed in the Earth's crust in addition to some export to the mantle. In conclusion, a better understanding of atmospheric escape processes appears critical for understanding the suitability of planets for harboring life from simple to advanced forms.

Catling, D. C.; Zahnle, K. J.

2011-12-01

349

TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM SIMULATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Terrestrial Habitats Project at the Western Ecology Division (Corvallis, OR) is developing tools and databases to meet the needs of Program Office clients for assessing risks to wildlife and terrestrial ecosystems. Because habitat is a dynamic condition in real-world environm...

350

Experimental investigation of anaerobic nitrogen fixation rates with varying pressure, temperature and metal concentration with application to the atmospheric evolution of early Earth and Mars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmosphere of the early Earth is thought to have been significantly different than the modern composition of 21% O2 and 78% N2, yet the planet has been clearly established as hosting microbial life as far back as 3.8 billion years ago. As such, constraining the atmospheric composition of the early Earth is fundamental to establishing a database of habitable atmospheric compositions. A similar argument can be made for the planet Mars, where nitrates have been hypothesized to exist in the subsurface. During the early period on Mars when liquid water was likely more abundant, life may have developed to take advantage of available nitrates and a biologically-driven Martian nitrogen cycle could have evolved. Early Earth atmospheric composition has been investigated numerically, but only recently has the common assumption of a pN2 different than modern been investigated. Nonetheless, these latest attempts fail to take into account a key atmospheric parameter: life. On modern Earth, nitrogen is cycled vigorously by biology. The nitrogen cycle likely operated on the early Earth, but probably differed in the metabolic processes responsible, dominantly due to the lack of abundant oxygen which stabilizes oxidized forms of N that drive de-nitrification today. Recent advances in evolutionary genomics suggest that microbial pathways that are relatively uncommon today (i.e. vanadium and iron-based nitrogen fixation) probably played important roles in the early N cycle. We quantitatively investigate in the laboratory the effects of variable pressure, temperature and metal concentration on the rates of anoxic nitrogen fixation, as possible inputs for future models investigating atmospheric evolution, and better understand the evolution of the nitrogen cycle on Earth. A common anaerobic methanogenic archaeal species with i) a fully sequenced genome, ii) all three nitrogenases (molybdenum, vanadium and iron-based) and iii) the ability to be genetically manipulated will be used as a model species. This species will be genetically modified to create knock-out mutants lacking one or more nitrogenase genes. These mutants will be used in variable pressure, temperature and metal-concentration experiments. Nitrogen fixation rate and nitrogenase gene expression will be measured using isotope dilution and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively.

Gupta, Prateek

2012-07-01

351

Clouds in Planetary Atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the terrestrial atmosphere clouds are familiar as vast collections of small water drops or ice cyrstals suspended in the air. The study of clouds touches on many facets of armospheric science. The chemistry of clouds is tied to the chemistry of the surrounding atmosphere.

West, R.

1999-01-01

352

Sources of Terrestrial Volatiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheres are found enveloping those planets and satellites best able to hold them. The obvious conclusion is that volatile escape must have played nearly as great a role as volatile supply. A consequence of this view is that volatile supplies were probably much greater than the atmospheres that remain. The likeliest candidates are sources associated with the main events of planetary accretion itself such as volatile-rich planetesimals, or direct gravitational capture of nebular gases. Late asteroidal or cometary volatile-rich veneers are attractive, but they present quantitative difficulties. Comets in particular are inadequate, because the associated mass of stray comets that would have been scattered to the Oort Cloud or beyond is excessive. This difficulty applies to Uranus-Neptune planetesimals as well as to a putative massive early Kuiper Belt. Another potential problem with comets is that the D/H ratio in the three comets for which this has been measured is about twice that of Earth's oceans. Objects falling from a much augmented ancient asteroid belt remain a viable option, but timing is an issue: Can the depopulation of the asteroid belt be delayed long enough that it makes sense to talk of asteroids as a late veneer? Early accretion of asteroids as objects scattered into the maw of infant Earth makes more sense. Another appealing candidate population of volatile-rich objects for the inner solar system would be scattered planetesimals associated with the accretion of Jupiter, for two reasons: (1) Before there was Jupiter, there was no object in the solar system capable of expelling comets efficiently, and (2) the cross section of the inner solar system to stray objects was Greater when there were m many planetesimals.

Zahnle, K. J.; Dones, L.

1998-01-01

353

Chamber for Simulating Martian and Terrestrial Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for simulating the environment at the surface of Mars has been developed. Within the apparatus, the pressure, gas composition, and temperature of the atmosphere; the incident solar visible and ultraviolet (UV) light; and the attenuation of the light by dust in the atmosphere can be simulated accurately for any latitude, season, or obliquity cycle over the entire geological history of Mars. The apparatus also incorporates instrumentation for monitoring chemical reactions in the simulated atmosphere. The apparatus can be used for experiments in astrobiology, geochemistry, aerobiology, and aerochemistry related to envisioned robotic and human exploration of Mars. Moreover, the apparatus can be easily adapted to enable similar experimentation under environmental conditions of (1) the surfaces of moons, asteroids, and comets, and (2) the upper atmospheres of planets other than Mars: in particular, it can be made to simulate conditions anywhere in the terrestrial atmosphere at altitudes up to about 100 km.

Schuerger, Andrew C.

2009-01-01

354

Terrestrial dominance of organic matter in north temperate lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquatic ecosystems are hotspots of decomposition and sources of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere that are globally significant. Carbon exported from land (allochthonous) also supplements the carbon fixed by photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems (autochthonous), contributing to the organic matter (OM) that supports aquatic consumers. Although the presence of terrestrial compounds in aquatic OM is well known, the contribution of terrestrial versus aquatic sources to the composition of OM has been quantified for only a handful of systems. Here we use stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon to demonstrate that the terrestrial contribution (?Terr) to particulate organic matter (POM) is as large or larger (mean = 54.6% terrestrial) than the algal contribution in 39 lakes of the northern highlands region of Wisconsin and Michigan. Further, the largest carbon pool, dissolved organic matter (DOM), is strongly dominated by allochthonous material (mean for the same set of lakes approximately 100% terrestrial). Among lakes, increases in terrestrial contribution to POM are significantly correlated with more acidic pH. Extrapolating this relationship using a survey of pH in 1692 lakes in the region reveals that, with the exception of eutrophic lakes, most of the OM in lakes is of terrestrial origin. These results are consistent with the growing evidence that lakes are significant conduits for returning degraded terrestrial carbon to the atmosphere.

Wilkinson, Grace M.; Pace, Michael L.; Cole, Jonathan J.

2013-01-01

355

Testing the opacity and equation of state of LTE and non-LTE model atmospheres with OPAL and OP data for early-type stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Complex investigations of stars are made by studying their atmospheres, evolutionary states and oscillation properties, but the opacities and equation of state are still uncertain. Aims: Compatibility of model atmospheres with internal structure of early-type stars are investigated at photospheric and sub-photospheric regions. Methods: The problem was studied quantitatively by means of diagrams that involve the Rosseland-mean opacities, temperatures, densities, and gradients of radiation pressure as functions of depth using stellar atmosphere and envelope models. Results: Two new grids of radiative-equilibrium models of atmospheres were calculated assuming the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The first one is based on Kurucz's ATLAS12 computer code implemented with the occupation probability formalism, which accounts for the destruction of loosely bound states of atoms by interactions with particles in the plasma. The second grid of models is based on monochromatic opacities and equations of state taken from the well-known international opacity project (OP). Non-LTE model atmospheres are also calculated and some aspects of the modeling are pointed out to improve agreement with ATLAS12, OP data, as well as with results of the Rogers & Iglesias OPAL opacity computing code (OPAL). The model atmospheres are also discussed by analyzing emerging fluxes of radiation. Conclusions: Commonly used LTE and non-LTE models of stellar atmospheres of early-type stars differ markedly from each other and do not fit OPAL or OP stellar envelope models at great optical depths. The results of the OP project distributed as the OPCD v 3.3 base are useful for calculating not only stellar envelopes but also fully line-blanketed LTE model atmospheres. These models have diagnostic values for studying the atomic physics used for modeling of photospheric and sub-photospheric regions of stars. The OPAL and OP opacities are markedly underestimated in comparison with the Rosseland-mean opacities taken from the Castelli & Kurucz (2003, IAU Symp., 210, 10) atmosphere models in which a new opacity bump appears at lgT ? 5.06. This additional opacity bump affects the OPAL- and OP-driving zone for stellar pulsations and therefore the new envelope models may markedly change predicted spectra of unstable oscillation modes. Differences between current non-LTE and LTE models based on the TLUSTY200 and ATLAS codes, respectively, cannot be assigned entirely to non-LTE effects, but for B stars they reflect mainly opacity effects.

Cugier, H.

2012-11-01

356

Recent patterns and mechanisms of carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of carbon exchange between the atmosphere, land and the oceans is important, given that the terrestrial and marine environments are currently absorbing about half of the carbon dioxide that is emitted by fossil-fuel combustion. This carbon uptake is therefore limiting the extent of atmospheric and climatic change, but its long-term nature remains uncertain. Here we provide an overview of

J. I. House; K. A. Hibbard; P. Bousquet; P. Ciais; P. Peylin; B. H. Braswell; M. J. Apps; D. Baker; A. Bondeau; J. Canadell; G. Churkina; W. Cramer; A. S. Denning; C. B. Field; P. Friedlingstein; C. Goodale; M. Heimann; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; D. Murdiyarso; I. Noble; S. W. Pacala; I. C. Prentice; M. R. Raupach; P. J. Rayner; R. J. Scholes; W. L. Steffen; C. Wirth; D. S. Schimel

2001-01-01

357

[Effects of land use change on carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystem].  

PubMed

Terrestrial ecosystem is an important carbon pool, which plays a crucial role in carbon biogeochemical cycle. Human activities such as fossil fuel combustion and land use change have resulted in carbon fluxes from terrestrial ecosystem to the atmosphere, which increased the atmospheric CO2 concentration, and reinforced the greenhouse effect. Land use change affects the structure and function of the terrestrial ecosystem, which causes its change of carbon storage. To a great extent, the change of carbon storage lies in the type of ecosystem and the change of land use patterns. The conversion of forest to agricultural land and pasture causes a large reduction of carbon storage in vegetation and soil, and the decrease of soil carbon concentration is mainly caused by the reduction of detritus, the acceleration of soil organic matter decomposition, and the destroy of physical protection to organic matter due to agricultural practices. The loss of soil organic matter appears at the early stage after deforestation, and the loss rate is influenced by many factors and soil physical, chemical and biological processes. The conversion of agricultural land and pasture to forest and many conservative agricultural practices can sequester atmospheric carbon in vegetation and soil. Vegetation can sequester large amounts of carbon from atmosphere, while carbon accumulation in soil varies greatly because of farming history and soil spatial heterogeneity. Conservative agricultural practices such as no-tillage, reasonable cropping system, and fertilization can influence soil physical and chemical characters, plant growth, quality and quantity of stubble, and soil microbial biomass and its activity, and hence, maintain and increase soil carbon concentration. PMID:14655381

Yang, Jingcheng; Han, Xingguo; Huang, Jianhui; Pan, Qingmin

2003-08-01

358

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS): An Overview and Early Results from the 1994 Field Year  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) is large-scale international field experiment that has the goal of improving our understanding of the exchanges of radiative energy, heat water, CO2, and trace gases between the boreal forest and the lower atmosphere. An important objective of BORES is collect the data needed to im