New Evidence for the Social Embeddedness of Infants’ Early Triangular Capacities
McHale, James; Fivaz-Depeursinge, Elisabeth; Dickstein, Susan; Robertson, Janet; Daley, Matthew
2009-01-01
Infants appear to be active participants in complex interactional sequences with their parents far earlier than previously theorized. In this report, we document the capacity of 3-month-old infants to share attention with two partners (mothers and fathers) simultaneously, and trace links between this capacity and early family group-level dynamics. During comprehensive evaluations of the family’s emergent coparenting alliance completed in 113 homes, we charted infants’ eye gaze patterns during two different mother-father-infant assessment paradigms. Triangular capacities (operationalized as the frequency of rapid multishift gaze transitions between parents during interactions) were stable across interaction context. Infants exhibiting more advanced triangular capacities belonged to families showing evidence of better coparental adjustment. Theoretical and practice implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19130787
Early hominin auditory capacities.
Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis
2015-09-01
Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261
Early hominin auditory capacities
Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis
2015-01-01
Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261
Guan, Qun; Cheng, Jianli; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Bin; Huang, Ling; Nie, Fude; Ni, Wei
2015-01-01
CoO nanocrystal/graphene nanosheets (GNS) composites, consisting of a triangular CoO nanocrystal of 2~20 nm on the surface of GNS, are synthesized by a mild synthetic method. First, cobalt acetate tetrahydrate is recrystallized in the alcohol solution at a low temperature. Then, graphene oxide mixed with cobalt-precursor followed by high vacuum annealing to form the CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites. The CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1481.9 m Ah g−1 after 30 cycles with a high Coulombic efficiency of over 96% when used as anode materials for lithium ion battery. The excellent electrochemical performances may be attributed to the special structure of the composites. The well-dispersed triangular CoO nanocrystal on the substrate of conductive graphene can not only have a shorter diffusion length for lithium ions, better stress accommodation capability during the charge-discharge processes and more accessible active sites for lithium-ion storage and electrolyte wetting, but also possess a good conductive network, which can significantly improve the whole electrochemical performance. PMID:25961670
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Qun; Cheng, Jianli; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Bin; Huang, Ling; Nie, Fude; Ni, Wei
2015-05-01
CoO nanocrystal/graphene nanosheets (GNS) composites, consisting of a triangular CoO nanocrystal of 2~20 nm on the surface of GNS, are synthesized by a mild synthetic method. First, cobalt acetate tetrahydrate is recrystallized in the alcohol solution at a low temperature. Then, graphene oxide mixed with cobalt-precursor followed by high vacuum annealing to form the CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites. The CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1481.9 m Ah g-1 after 30 cycles with a high Coulombic efficiency of over 96% when used as anode materials for lithium ion battery. The excellent electrochemical performances may be attributed to the special structure of the composites. The well-dispersed triangular CoO nanocrystal on the substrate of conductive graphene can not only have a shorter diffusion length for lithium ions, better stress accommodation capability during the charge-discharge processes and more accessible active sites for lithium-ion storage and electrolyte wetting, but also possess a good conductive network, which can significantly improve the whole electrochemical performance.
The Preterm Infant's Use of Triangular Bids at Three Months, Adjusted Age: Two Case Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hansen, Ellen Saeter
2011-01-01
This article focuses on preterm infants' early triangular capacity, restricted to the use of triangular bids in interaction with their parents. An observational setting, the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP), is used for studying the patterns of interaction. This is an approach focusing on the family as a whole. These observations are part of a study…
Early Education: The Creation of Capacity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tumin, Melvin
Every human being is always open to some degree; for example, open for learning, experience, change, improvement, or further degradation by his own standards or those of others. Every experience alters an individual's learning capacity. Therefore, to say a child is naturally of high or low intelligence with unlimited or limited learning power is…
Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Loflin, Jerry W.
2014-01-01
The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…
Some early cases of aphasia and the capacity to sing.
Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B
2015-01-01
This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic. PMID:25684286
Building Leadership Capacity in Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Campbell-Evans, Glenda; Stamopoulos, Elizabeth; Maloney, Carmel
2014-01-01
Building leadership capacity has emerged as a key concern within the early childhood profession in Australia as the sector responds to recent national reforms focusing on raising standards and improving quality provision of services. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion around these reforms and to make a case for changes…
Methane storage capacity of the early martian cryosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lasue, Jeremie; Quesnel, Yoann; Langlais, Benoit; Chassefière, Eric
2015-11-01
Methane is a key molecule to understand the habitability of Mars due to its possible biological origin and short atmospheric lifetime. Recent methane detections on Mars present a large variability that is probably due to relatively localized sources and sink processes yet unknown. In this study, we determine how much methane could have been abiotically produced by early Mars serpentinization processes that could also explain the observed martian remanent magnetic field. Under the assumption of a cold early Mars environment, a cryosphere could trap such methane as clathrates in stable form at depth. The extent and spatial distribution of these methane reservoirs have been calculated with respect to the magnetization distribution and other factors. We calculate that the maximum storage capacity of such a clathrate cryosphere is about 2.1 × 1019-2.2 × 1020 moles of CH4, which can explain sporadic releases of methane that have been observed on the surface of the planet during the past decade (∼1.2 × 109 moles). This amount of trapped methane is sufficient for similar sized releases to have happened yearly during the history of the planet. While the stability of such reservoirs depends on many factors that are poorly constrained, it is possible that they have remained trapped at depth until the present day. Due to the possible implications of methane detection for life and its influence on the atmospheric and climate processes on the planet, confirming the sporadic release of methane on Mars and the global distribution of its sources is one of the major goals of the current and next space missions to Mars.
NiH2 capacity fade during early cycling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.
1993-01-01
Tests were conducted on nickel hydrogen batteries to determine the charge efficiency of the nickel electrode as a function of rate and temperature, cell discharge capacity, and capacity fade. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.
Endocranial capacity in an early hominid cranium from Sterkfontein, South Africa.
Conroy, G C; Weber, G W; Seidler, H; Tobias, P V; Kane, A; Brunsden, B
1998-06-12
Two- and three-dimensional computer imaging shows that endocranial capacity in an approximately 2.8- to 2.6-million-year-old early hominid cranium (Stw 505) from Sterkfontein, South Africa, tentatively assigned to Australopithecus africanus, is approximately 515 cubic centimeters. Although this is the largest endocranial capacity recorded for this species, it is still markedly less than anecdotal reports of endocranial capacity exceeding 600 cubic centimeters. No australopithecine has an endocranial capacity approaching, let alone exceeding, 600 cubic centimeters. Some currently accepted estimates of early hominid endocranial capacity may be inflated, suggesting that the tempo and mode of early hominid brain evolution may need reevaluation. PMID:9624045
Building Capacity through an Early Education Leadership Academy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goffin, Stacie G.
2013-01-01
In 2013, the early childhood education (ECE) field is paying limited attention to leadership development (Goffin & Janke, 2013; Goffin & Means, 2009). A recent survey of ECE leadership development programs suggests that the field does not fully recognize the potential of leadership to serve as a change catalyst, although there is evidence…
Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin
2013-01-01
Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.
Batten augmented triangular beam
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, Louis R.; Hedgepeth, John M.
1986-01-01
The BAT (Batten-Augmented Triangular) BEAM is characterized by battens which are buckled in the deployed state, thus preloading the truss. The preload distribution is determined, and the effects of various external loading conditions are investigated. The conceptual design of a deployer is described and loads are predicted. The influence of joint imperfections on effective member stiffness is investigated. The beam is assessed structurally.
Congenital Triangular Alopecia.
Yin Li, Vincent Chum; Yesudian, Paul Devakar
2015-01-01
Congenital triangular alopecia (CTA) also known as temporal triangular alopecia is a benign noncicatricial pattern of hair loss. It typically affects the frontotemporal region and rarely involves the temporoparietal or occipital scalp. It is a nonprogressive disorder that presents as a triangular, oval or lancet-shaped patch of alopecia. CTA can manifest at birth or develop later in life. The exact etiology of this condition remains unknown. Rarely, it may be associated with other disorders such as Down's syndrome and phakomatosis pigmentovascularis. The diagnosis is based on its distinct clinical appearance. Histologically, hair follicles are miniaturized and replaced by sparse vellus hair follicles. Tricoscopy using a polarized light handheld dermatoscope can be a useful diagnostic tool. CTA is often asymptomatic and remains unchanged throughout the life. No treatment is required. Surgical intervention with follicular unit hair transplantation can provide a satisfactory cosmetic result. In this paper, we have identified 126 cases of CTA in the published literature cited on PubMed between 1905 and 2015. From the available evidence, 79% of patients with CTA presented with unilateral hair loss, 18.5% with bilateral involvement and rarely, with occipital alopecia (2.5%). There was no gender predilection. These figures are entirely consistent with previously published data. Physicians should remember to consider CTA as a potential diagnosis in any patient presenting with a nonscarring alopecia in order to avoid unnecessary investigations and treatments. PMID:26180448
Adaptive triangular mesh generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlebacher, G.; Eiseman, P. R.
1984-01-01
A general adaptive grid algorithm is developed on triangular grids. The adaptivity is provided by a combination of node addition, dynamic node connectivity and a simple node movement strategy. While the local restructuring process and the node addition mechanism take place in the physical plane, the nodes are displaced on a monitor surface, constructed from the salient features of the physical problem. An approximation to mean curvature detects changes in the direction of the monitor surface, and provides the pulling force on the nodes. Solutions to the axisymmetric Grad-Shafranov equation demonstrate the capturing, by triangles, of the plasma-vacuum interface in a free-boundary equilibrium configuration.
Triangular Helical Column for Centrifugal Countercurrent Chromatography.
Ito, Yoichiro; Yu, Henry
2009-01-01
Effective column space and stationary phase retention have been improved by changing the configuration of the helical column originally used for toroidal coil countercurrent chromatography. The use of an equilateral triangular core for the helix column doubles effective column space and retains the stationary phase over 40% of the total column capacity without increasing the column pressure. The present results suggest that the stationary phase retention and the peak resolution will be further improved using new column designs fabricated by a new technology called "laser sintering for rapid prototyping." PMID:20046940
[Unilateral triangular lumbopelvic stabilization: indications and techniques].
Hoffmann, M F; Dudda, M; Schildhauer, T A
2013-11-01
Operative fixation has become treatment of choice for unstable sacral fractures. Osteosynthesis for these fractures results in loss of reduction in up to 15%. Vertical sacral fractures involving the S1 facet joint (Isler 2 and 3) may lead to multidirectional instability. Multidirectional instability of the posterior pelvic ring and lumbopelvic junction may be stabilized and forces balanced by a so-called lumbopelvic triangular fixation. Lumbopelvic triangular fixation combines vertical fixation between the lumbar vertebral pedicle and the ilium, with horizontal fixation, as an iliosacral screw or a transiliacal plate osteosynthesis. The iliac screw is directed from the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) to the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS). Thereby, lumbopelvic fixation decreases the load to the sacrum and SI joint and transfers axial loads from the lumbar spine directly onto the ilium. Triangular lumbopelvic fixation allows early full weight bearing and therefore reduces prolonged immobilization. The placement of iliac screws may be a complex surgical procedure. Thus, the technique requires thorough surgical preparation and operative logistics. Wound-related complications may occur. Preexisting Morell-Lavalée lesions increase the risk for infection. Prominent implants cause local irritation and pain. Hardware prominence and pain are markedly reduced with screw head recession into the PSIS. PMID:24233083
Invariants of triangular Lie algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyko, Vyacheslav; Patera, Jiri; Popovych, Roman
2007-07-01
Triangular Lie algebras are the Lie algebras which can be faithfully represented by triangular matrices of any finite size over the real/complex number field. In the paper invariants ('generalized Casimir operators') are found for three classes of Lie algebras, namely those which are either strictly or non-strictly triangular, and for so-called special upper triangular Lie algebras. Algebraic algorithm of Boyko et al (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.39 5749 (Preprint math-ph/0602046)), developed further in Boyko et al (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor.40 113 (Preprint math-ph/0606045)), is used to determine the invariants. A conjecture of Tremblay and Winternitz (2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.34 9085), concerning the number of independent invariants and their form, is corroborated.
Impact of early fructose intake on metabolic profile and aerobic capacity of rats
2011-01-01
Background Metabolic syndrome is a disease that today affects millions of people around the world. Therefore, it is of great interest to implement more effective procedures for preventing and treating this disease. In search of a suitable experimental model to study the role of exercise in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome, this study examined the metabolic profile and the aerobic capacity of rats kept early in life on a fructose-rich diet, a substrate that has been associated with metabolic syndrome. Methods We used adult female Wistar rats fed during pregnancy and lactation with two diets: balanced or fructose-rich 60%. During breastfeeding, the pups were distributed in small (4/mother) or adequate (8/mother) litters. At 90 days of age, they were analyzed with respect to: glucose tolerance, peripheral insulin sensitivity, aerobic capacity and serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations as well as measures of glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation by the soleus muscle. Results It was found that the fructose rich diet led the animals to insulin resistance. The fructose fed rats kept in small litters also showed dyslipidemia, with increased serum concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion Neither the aerobic capacity nor the glucose oxidation rates by the skeletal muscle were altered by fructose-rich diet, indicating that the animal model evaluated is potentially interesting for the study of the role of exercise in metabolic syndrome. PMID:21223589
Buss, Aaron T; Fox, Nicholas; Boas, David A; Spencer, John P
2014-01-15
Visual working memory (VWM) is a core cognitive system with a highly limited capacity. The present study is the first to examine VWM capacity limits in early development using functional neuroimaging. We recorded optical neuroimaging data while 3- and 4-year-olds completed a change detection task where they detected changes in the shapes of objects after a brief delay. Near-infrared sources and detectors were placed over the following 10-20 positions: F3 and F5 in left frontal cortex, F4 and F6 in right frontal cortex, P3 and P5 in left parietal cortex, and P4 and P6 in right parietal cortex. The first question was whether we would see robust task-specific activation of the frontal-parietal network identified in the adult fMRI literature. This was indeed the case: three left frontal channels and 11 of 12 parietal channels showed a statistically robust difference between the concentration of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin following the presentation of the sample array. Moreover, four channels in the left hemisphere near P3, P5, and F5 showed a robust increase as the working memory load increased from 1 to 3 items. Notably, the hemodynamic response did not asymptote at 1-2 items as expected from previous fMRI studies with adults. Finally, 4-year-olds showed a more robust parietal response relative to 3-year-olds, and an increasing sensitivity to the memory load manipulation. These results demonstrate that fNIRS is an effective tool to study the neural processes that underlie the early development of VWM capacity. PMID:23707803
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dennehy, Julie
2006-01-01
Many states have created professional development systems to support the ongoing and increased education and training needs of early care and education professionals. This guide describes lessons learned in Massachusetts about conducting a study of the capacity of institutions of higher education (IHEs) to prepare the early education and care…
Giuliano, Ryan J; Karns, Christina M; Neville, Helen J; Hillyard, Steven A
2014-12-01
A growing body of research suggests that the predictive power of working memory (WM) capacity for measures of intellectual aptitude is due to the ability to control attention and select relevant information. Crucially, attentional mechanisms implicated in controlling access to WM are assumed to be domain-general, yet reports of enhanced attentional abilities in individuals with larger WM capacities are primarily within the visual domain. Here, we directly test the link between WM capacity and early attentional gating across sensory domains, hypothesizing that measures of visual WM capacity should predict an individual's capacity to allocate auditory selective attention. To address this question, auditory ERPs were recorded in a linguistic dichotic listening task, and individual differences in ERP modulations by attention were correlated with estimates of WM capacity obtained in a separate visual change detection task. Auditory selective attention enhanced ERP amplitudes at an early latency (ca. 70-90 msec), with larger P1 components elicited by linguistic probes embedded in an attended narrative. Moreover, this effect was associated with greater individual estimates of visual WM capacity. These findings support the view that domain-general attentional control mechanisms underlie the wide variation of WM capacity across individuals. PMID:25000526
Building Buildings with Triangular Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pagni, David L.
2006-01-01
Triangular numbers are used to unravel a new sequence of natural numbers here-to-fore not appearing on the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences website. Insight is provided on the construction of the sequence using "buildings" as a viewable model of the sequence entries. A step-by-step analysis of the sequence pattern reveals a method for generating…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Syujie; Liu, Tzuming; Li, Minghsu; Tung, Chingpin
2016-04-01
The carrying capacity of a water supply system is the maximal probable water supply amount under an acceptable risk which is related to the systematic combination of hydrology conditions, climatic conditions, and water infrastructures, for instance, reservoirs, weirs, and water treatment plants. Due to long-term imbalance of water supply and demand during the drought seasons, the carrying capacity of a water supply system may be affected gradually with more extreme climate events resulting from the climate change. To evaluate the carrying capacity of the water supply system under climate change, three major steps to build adaptation capacity under climate change are adopted, including problem identification and goal setting, current risk assessment, and future risk assessment. The carrying capacities for current climate condition and future climate condition were estimated respectively. The early warning system was taken as the effective measure to strengthen the carrying capacity for the uncertain changing climate. The water supply system of Chuoshui River basin in Taiwan is used as the case study. The system dynamics modeling software, Vensim, was used to build the water resources allocation model for Chuoshui River basin. To apply the seasonal climate forecasts released from Taiwan Central Weather Bureau (CWB) on modeling, a weather generator is adopted to generate daily weather data for the input of the hydrological component of GWLF model, to project inflows with the lead time of three months. Consequently, the water shortages with and without a drought early warning system were estimated to evaluate the effectiveness of a drought early warning system under climate change. Keywords: Climate change, Carrying capacity, Risk Assessment, Seasonal Climate Forecasts, Drought Early Warning System
High precision triangular waveform generator
Mueller, Theodore R.
1983-01-01
An ultra-linear ramp generator having separately programmable ascending and descending ramp rates and voltages is provided. Two constant current sources provide the ramp through an integrator. Switching of the current at current source inputs rather than at the integrator input eliminates switching transients and contributes to the waveform precision. The triangular waveforms produced by the waveform generator are characterized by accurate reproduction and low drift over periods of several hours. The ascending and descending slopes are independently selectable.
Salivary pH and Buffering Capacity as Risk Markers for Early Childhood Caries: A Clinical Study
Ganesan, S
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT Background: The diagnostic utility of saliva is currently being explored in various branches of dentistry, remarkably in the field of caries research. This study was aimed to determine if assessment of salivary pH and buffering capacity would serve as reliable tools in risk prediction of early childhood caries (ECC). Materials and methods: Paraffin-stimulated salivary samples were collected from 50 children with ECC (group I) and 50 caries free children (group II). Salivary pH and buffering capacity (by titration with 0.1 N hydrochloric acid) were assessed using a handheld digital pH meter in both groups. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Statistically, no significant difference was observed between both the groups for all salivary parameters assessed, except for the buffering capacity level at 150 μl titration of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (p = 0.73; significant at 1% level). Conclusion: Salivary pH and buffering capacity may not serve as reliable markers for risk prediction of ECC. How to cite this article: Jayaraj D, Ganesan S. Salivary pH and Buffering Capacity as Risk Markers for Early Childhood Caries: A Clinical Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):167-171. PMID:26628849
Family Capacity-Building in Early Childhood Intervention: Do Context and Setting Matter?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunst, Carl J.; Bruder, Mary Beth; Espe-Sherwindt, Marilyn
2014-01-01
Findings from a study investigating the effects of early intervention settings on the extent of parent involvement in IDEA Part C Infant and Toddler Programs are reported. Participants were 124 parents and other primary caregivers of children receiving early intervention in 22 states who completed an investigator-developed scale measuring…
Extension's Capacity to Deliver Quality Early Childhood Professional Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Durden, Tonia R.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Gerdes, Jennifer; Lodl, Kathleen
2013-01-01
In recent years much attention has focused on the role of enhancing a teacher's professional knowledge and skills in helping to improve the quality of early care experiences for young children birth-5. In the study reported here, an environmental scan of the early childhood professional development programs offered within the Extension system…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula J.; Kelton, Robyn E.
2014-01-01
While there is consensus among policymakers and practitioners about the importance of strong leadership in early childhood education, there is scant research on effective models of leadership development for administrators of early childhood programs, particularly those working in the child care sector. This is cause for concern because the…
[Echocardiograms of a monophasic triangular wave of the tricuspid valve].
Tanimoto, M; Yamamoto, T; Makihata, S; Konishiike, A; Komasa, N; Kimura, S; Yamasaki, K; Sakuyama, K; Kawai, Y; Iwasaki, T
1982-12-01
The echocardiographic and clinical study was performed in six patients (three acute pulmonary embolism, one for each hypertensive cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease and primary pulmonary hypertension) who had a diastolic monophasic triangular pattern of the tricuspid valve echogram. Left-sided and right-sided IRT / square root R-R, ICT / square root R-R, PEP, Q-Mc and Q-Tc, and PEP / ET (IRT; isovolumic relaxation time, ICT; isovolumic contraction time, PEP; preejection time, Q-Mc or Q-Tc; interval of the Q wave of the ECG to the closing point of the mitral or tricuspid valve, and ET; ejection time) were measured from echocardiograms, and the comparisons of these parameters were made between two kinds of echogram with or without triangular pattern of the tricuspid valve. There were no significant differences in the left-sided parameters between the two kinds of echocardiograms. The mitral valve echogram showed a persistent M-shaped pattern irrespective of the pattern of the tricuspid valve. Right-sided IRT / square root R-R and ICT / square root R-R were significantly prolonged and Q-Tc was significantly shortened in the echogram with a triangular pattern of the tricuspid valve. Right ventricular (RV) catheterization was performed using a Swan-Ganz catheter in four patients with the triangular pattern of the tricuspid valve echogram. The mean pulmonary artery pressure ranged from 24 to 96 mmHg (40 mmHg on an average) and RV end-diastolic pressure from 8 to 17 mmHg (12 mmHg on An average). The possible explanation for the production of the triangular tricuspid valve echogram was an impaired early diastolic relaxation and increased stiffness of the RV due to the acute pressure overloading, resulting in a delayed opening and an early closing of the tricuspid valve. We conclude that a diastolic monophasic triangular pattern of the tricuspid valve echogram is a reflection of an impaired early diastolic relaxation and an increased end-diastolic stiffness of the RV
Measure of School Capacity for Improvement (MSCI): Early Field Test Findings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riffle, M. J. S.; Howley, C. W.; Ermolov, L. D.
2004-01-01
This study was conducted to confirm the validity and reliability of the 64-item Measure of School Capacity for Improvement (MSCI). The MSCI was designed to assess the degree to which schools possess the potential to become high performing learning communities, and was developed in response to a paucity of definition, operationalization, and…
Enacting Policy: The Capacity of School Leaders to Support Early Career Teachers through Policy Work
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sullivan, Anna M.; Morrison, Chad
2014-01-01
Early career teachers often feel overwhelmed by the complex, intense and unpredictable nature of their work. Recently, policy initiatives have been introduced to provide new teachers with extra release-time from face-to-face classroom teaching duties to assist them in their transition to the workforce. This paper reports on a critical policy study…
Mistry, Kamila B.; Minkovitz, Cynthia S.; Riley, Anne W.; Johnson, Sara B.; Grason, Holly A.; Dubay, Lisa C.; Guyer, Bernard
2012-01-01
Although the connection between early life experiences and later health is becoming increasingly clear, what is needed, now, is a new organizing framework for childhood health promotion, grounded in the latest science. We review the evidence base to identify the steps in the overall pathway to ensuring better health for all children. A key factor in optimizing health in early childhood is building capacities of parents and communities. Although often overlooked, capacities are integral to building the foundations of lifelong health in early childhood. We outline a framework for policymakers and practitioners to guide future decision-making and investments in early childhood health promotion. PMID:22813416
Willemsen, Hessel
2014-11-01
In this paper I aim to outline the importance of working clinically with affect when treating severely traumatized patients who have a limited capacity to symbolize. These patients, who suffer the loss of maternal care early in life, require the analyst to be closely attuned to the patient's distress through use of the countertransference and with significantly less attention paid to the transference. It is questionable whether we can speak of transference when there is limited capacity to form internal representations. The analyst's relationship with the patient is not necessarily used to make interpretations but, instead, the analyst's reverie functions therapeutically to develop awareness and containment of affect, first in the analyst's mind and, later, in the patient's, so that, in time, a relationship between the patient's mind and the body, as the first object, is made. In contrast to general object-relations theories, in which the first object is considered to be the breast or the mother, Ferrari (2004) proposes that the body is the first object in the emerging mind. Once a relationship between mind and body is established, symbolization becomes possible following the formation of internal representations of affective states in the mind, where previously there were few. Using Ferrari's body-mind model, two clinical case vignettes underline the need to use the countertransference with patients who suffered chronic developmental trauma in early childhood. PMID:25331507
Reigosa-Crespo, Vivian; González-Alemañy, Eduardo; León, Teresa; Torres, Rosario; Mosquera, Raysil; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell
2013-01-01
The first aim of the present study was to investigate whether numerical effects (Numerical Distance Effect, Counting Effect and Subitizing Effect) are domain-specific predictors of mathematics development at the end of elementary school by exploring whether they explain additional variance of later mathematics fluency after controlling for the effects of general cognitive skills, focused on nonnumerical aspects. The second aim was to address the same issues but applied to achievement in mathematics curriculum that requires solutions to fluency in calculation. These analyses assess whether the relationship found for fluency are generalized to mathematics content beyond fluency in calculation. As a third aim, the domain specificity of the numerical effects was examined by analyzing whether they contribute to the development of reading skills, such as decoding fluency and reading comprehension, after controlling for general cognitive skills and phonological processing. Basic numerical capacities were evaluated in children of 3(rd) and 4(th) grades (n=49). Mathematics and reading achievements were assessed in these children one year later. Results showed that the size of the Subitizing Effect was a significant domain-specific predictor of fluency in calculation and also in curricular mathematics achievement, but not in reading skills, assessed at the end of elementary school. Furthermore, the size of the Counting Effect also predicted fluency in calculation, although this association only approached significance. These findings contrast with proposals that the core numerical competencies measured by enumeration will bear little relationship to mathematics achievement. We conclude that basic numerical capacities constitute domain-specific predictors and that they are not exclusively "start-up" tools for the acquisition of Mathematics; but they continue modulating this learning at the end of elementary school. PMID:24255710
Reigosa-Crespo, Vivian; González-Alemañy, Eduardo; León, Teresa; Torres, Rosario; Mosquera, Raysil; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell
2013-01-01
The first aim of the present study was to investigate whether numerical effects (Numerical Distance Effect, Counting Effect and Subitizing Effect) are domain-specific predictors of mathematics development at the end of elementary school by exploring whether they explain additional variance of later mathematics fluency after controlling for the effects of general cognitive skills, focused on nonnumerical aspects. The second aim was to address the same issues but applied to achievement in mathematics curriculum that requires solutions to fluency in calculation. These analyses assess whether the relationship found for fluency are generalized to mathematics content beyond fluency in calculation. As a third aim, the domain specificity of the numerical effects was examined by analyzing whether they contribute to the development of reading skills, such as decoding fluency and reading comprehension, after controlling for general cognitive skills and phonological processing. Basic numerical capacities were evaluated in children of 3rd and 4th grades (n=49). Mathematics and reading achievements were assessed in these children one year later. Results showed that the size of the Subitizing Effect was a significant domain-specific predictor of fluency in calculation and also in curricular mathematics achievement, but not in reading skills, assessed at the end of elementary school. Furthermore, the size of the Counting Effect also predicted fluency in calculation, although this association only approached significance. These findings contrast with proposals that the core numerical competencies measured by enumeration will bear little relationship to mathematics achievement. We conclude that basic numerical capacities constitute domain-specific predictors and that they are not exclusively “start-up” tools for the acquisition of Mathematics; but they continue modulating this learning at the end of elementary school. PMID:24255710
Triangular spectral elements for incompressible fluid flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, C.; Vanrosendale, John
1993-01-01
We discuss the use of triangular elements in the spectral element method for direct simulation of incompressible flow. Triangles provide much greater geometric flexibility than quadrilateral elements and are better conditioned and more accurate when small angles arise. We employ a family of tensor product algorithms for triangles, allowing triangular elements to be handled with comparable arithmetic complexity to quadrilateral elements. The triangular discretizations are applied and validated on the Poisson equation. These discretizations are then applied to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a laminar channel flow solution is given. These new triangular spectral elements can be combined with standard quadrilateral elements, yielding a general and flexible high order method for complex geometries in two dimensions.
Daniels, Joseph; Nduati, Ruth; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey
2015-01-01
Introduction Strategies to transfer international health research training programs to sub-Saharan African institutions focus on developing cadres of local investigators who will lead such programs. Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative study of one program to understand how collaborative training and research can support early career investigators in Kenya toward the program transfer goal. Methods We used purposive sampling methods and a semi-structured protocol to conduct in-depth interviews with US (N = 5) and Kenyan (N = 5) independent investigators. Transcripts were coded using a two-step process, and then compared with each other to identify major themes. Results A limited local research environment, funding needs and research career mentorship were identified as major influences on early career researchers. Institutional demands on Kenyan faculty to teach rather than complete research restricted investigators’ ability to develop research careers. This was coupled with lack of local funding to support research. Sustainable collaborations between Kenyan, US and other international investigators were perceived to mitigate these challenges and support early career investigators who would help build a robust local research environment for training. Conclusion Mutually beneficial collaborations between Kenyan and US investigators developed during training mitigate these challenges and build a supportive research environment for training. In these collaborations, early career investigators learn how to navigate the complex international research environment to build local HIV research capacity. Shared and mutually beneficial resources within international research collaborations are required to support early career investigators and plans to transfer health research training to African institutions. PMID:26113923
RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.
Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Christodoulou, Christos George; Feldner, Lucas Matthew
2005-01-01
A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.
RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.
Christodoulou, Christos George; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Feldner, Lucas Matthew
2005-07-01
A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.
2013-01-01
Introduction The relationships between systemic hemodynamics and renal blood flow and renal microcirculation are poorly known in sepsis. Norepinephrine (NE) infusion may add another level of complexity. Methods Ventilated and anesthetized rats were submitted to various mean arterial pressure (MAP) steps by blood removal, in presence and absence of sepsis and/or NE. Renal blood flow (RBF) and blood velocity (Vm) in renal cortical capillaries (using Sidestream Dark Field Imaging) were measured. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models enabling us to display the effects of both the considered explanatory variables and their interactions. Results Positive correlations were found between MAP and RBF. Sepsis had no independent impact on RBF whereas norepinephrine decreased RBF, regardless of the presence of sepsis. The relationship between MAP and RBF was weaker above a MAP of 100 mmHg as opposed to below 100 mmHg, with RBF displaying a relative "plateau" above this threshold. Sepsis and NE impacted carotid blood flow (CBF) differently compared to RBF, demonstrating organ specificity. A positive relationship was observed between MAP and Vm. Sepsis increased Vm while nNE decreased Vm irrespective of MAP. Sepsis was associated with an increase in serum creatinine determined at the end of the experiments, which was prevented by NE infusion. Conclusion In our model, sepsis at an early phase did not impact RBF over a large range of MAP. NE elicited a renal vasoconstrictive effect. Autoregulation of RBF appeared conserved in sepsis. Conversely, sepsis was associated with "hypervelocity" of blood flow in cortical peritubular capillaries reversed by NE infusion. PMID:23849307
Triangular laser resonators with astigmatic compensation.
Skettrup, T; Meelby, T; Faerch, K; Frederiksen, S L; Pedersen, C
2000-08-20
The magnitudes and locations of the beam waists in both the sagittal and the tangential planes have been found by means of the ABCD matrix method for a triangular resonator. Equilateral and isosceles resonators are discussed, and curves are given from which resonators with astigmatism-free beams can be designed. A frequency-doubled triangular Nd ring laser has been constructed after this design, and it is demonstrated that this laser emits a single longitudinal mode with a circular TEM(00) Gaussian beam. PMID:18350014
Localized lasing modes of triangular organic microlasers.
Lafargue, C; Lebental, M; Grigis, A; Ulysse, C; Gozhyk, I; Djellali, N; Zyss, J; Bittner, S
2014-11-01
We investigated experimentally the ray-wave correspondence in organic microlasers of various triangular shapes. Triangular billiards are of interest since they are the simplest cases of polygonal billiards and the existence and properties of periodic orbits in triangles are not yet fully understood. The microlasers with symmetric shapes that were investigated exhibited states localized on simple periodic orbits, and their lasing characteristics like spectra and far-field distributions could be well explained by the properties of the periodic orbits. Furthermore, asymmetric triangles that do not feature simple periodic orbits were studied. Their lasing properties were found to be more complicated and could not be explained by periodic orbits. PMID:25493873
Reducing quasilinear systems to block triangular form
Tunitsky, Dmitry V
2013-03-31
The paper is concerned with systems of n quasilinear partial differential equations of the first order with 2 independent variables. Using a geometric formalism for such equations, which goes back to Riemann, it is possible to assign a field of linear operators on an appropriate vector bundle to this type of quasilinear system. Several tests for a quasilinear system to be reducible to triangular or block triangular form are obtained in terms of this field; they supplement well known results on diagonalization and block diagonalization due to Haantjes and Bogoyavlenskij. Bibliography: 10 titles.
Tunable configurational anisotropy of concave triangular nanomagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nanayakkara, Kasuni; Vasil'evskii, Ivan S.; Eremin, Igor S.; Kolentsova, Olga S.; Kargin, Nikolay I.; Anferov, Alexander; Kozhanov, Alexander
2016-06-01
Shape and dimension variation effects on the configurational anisotropy and magnetization ground states of single domain triangular nano-magnets are investigated using micromagnetic simulations and magnetic force microscopy. We show that introducing concavity or elongating vertexes stabilize the Y magnetization ground states of triangular nanomagnets. A phenomenological model relating the magnetization anisotropy and triangle geometry parameters is developed. MFM imaging reveals shape defined buckle and Y ground states that are in good agreement with numeric simulations. Concavity and vertex extrusion allow for the form-ruled magnetization ground state engineering in the shapes with higher orders of symmetry.
Ozçalişkan, Seyda
2005-05-01
Situated within the framework of the conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999), this study investigated young children's understanding of metaphorical extensions of spatial motion. Metaphor was defined as a conceptual-linguistic mapping between a source and a target domain. The study focused on metaphors that are structured by the source domain of motion in space (e.g. time flies by, ideas pass through one's mind, sickness crawls through one's body). The study investigated whether metaphor comprehension varied by the age of the participant, target domain of the metaphorical mapping, and the conventionality of the linguistic form with which the metaphor was conveyed. Data were gathered using a story comprehension task and a semi-structured interview from 60 monolingual Turkish-speaking children, at the mean ages 3;6, 4;5 and 5;5 (20 participants per age group), and 20 adult native speakers of Turkish. The results showed metaphor understanding to be an early emerging cognitive and linguistic capacity. PMID:16045252
Transport Code for Regular Triangular Geometry
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1993-06-09
DIAMANT2 solves the two-dimensional static multigroup neutron transport equation in planar regular triangular geometry. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous problems subject to vacuum, reflective or input specified boundary flux conditions are solved. Anisotropy is allowed for the scattering source. Volume and surface sources are allowed for inhomogeneous problems.
Solutions to the Triangular Bicycle Flags Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hartweg, Kim
2005-01-01
Students in a fifth-grade general education class and a second-grade gifted class participated in the Triangular Bicycle Flags problem. The results indicated that providing students with geometric experiences at the correct van Hiele level is necessary for helping students move from one level of understanding to the next.
Experimental study of photonic crystal triangular lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Ruhu; Qin, Bo; Jin, Chongjun
1999-06-01
Triangular lattice photonic crystal behaving in the electromagnetic zones constructed from fused silica cylinders in styrofoam is fabricated. The transmission spectra of the photonic crystal with and without defects are measured. On this basis, the defect modes of photonic crystal were studied, and the potential applications of the photonic crystal are discussed.
Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia
2012-01-01
Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…
Optimal parallel solution of sparse triangular systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alvarado, Fernando L.; Schreiber, Robert
1990-01-01
A method for the parallel solution of triangular sets of equations is described that is appropriate when there are many right-handed sides. By preprocessing, the method can reduce the number of parallel steps required to solve Lx = b compared to parallel forward or backsolve. Applications are to iterative solvers with triangular preconditioners, to structural analysis, or to power systems applications, where there may be many right-handed sides (not all available a priori). The inverse of L is represented as a product of sparse triangular factors. The problem is to find a factored representation of this inverse of L with the smallest number of factors (or partitions), subject to the requirement that no new nonzero elements be created in the formation of these inverse factors. A method from an earlier reference is shown to solve this problem. This method is improved upon by constructing a permutation of the rows and columns of L that preserves triangularity and allow for the best possible such partition. A number of practical examples and algorithmic details are presented. The parallelism attainable is illustrated by means of elimination trees and clique trees.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dennehy, Julie; Marshall, Nancy L.
2005-01-01
This research brief is part of the Massachusetts Capacity Study and focuses on the characteristics of the workforce caring for infants and toddlers in licensed or regulated early care and education in Massachusetts. The brief reviews the latest information on workforce education, staff-child ratios, group size, teacher tenure and turnover, and…
Collisional diffusion in toroidal plasmas with elongation and triangularity
Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Haines, M. G.
2007-05-15
Collisional diffusion is analyzed for plasma tokamaks with different ellipticities and triangularities. Improved nonlinear equations for the families of magnetic surfaces are used here. Dimensionless average velocities are calculated as a function of the inductive electric field, elongation, triangularity, and Shafranov shift. Confinement has been found to depend significantly on triangularity.
van Ittersum, M. W.; Groothoff, J. W.; Oostveen, J. C. M.; Oosterveld, F. G. J.; van der Schans, C. P.; Soer, R.; Reneman, M. F.
2010-01-01
Objective The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) increases, but the impact of the disorder on peoples’ functional capacity is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare self-reported health status and functional capacity of subjects with early OA of hip and/or knee to reference data of healthy working subjects and to assess whether this capacity is sufficient to meet physical job demands. Methods Self-reported health status and functional capacity of 93 subjects from the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee (CHECK) were measured using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey and 6 tests of the Work Well Systems Functional Capacity Evaluation. Results were compared with reference data from 275 healthy workers, using t-tests. To compare the functional capacity with job demands, the proportions of subjects with OA performing lower than the p5 of reference data were calculated. Results Compared to healthy workers, the subjects (mean age 56) from CHECK at baseline reported a significantly worse physical health status, whereas the women (n = 78) also reported a worse mental health status. On the FCE female OA subjects performed significantly lower than their healthy working counterparts on all 6 tests. Male OA subjects performed lower than male workers on 3 tests. A substantial proportion of women demonstrated functional capacities that could be considered insufficient to perform jobs with low physical demands. Conclusions Functional capacity and self-reported health of subjects with early OA of the hips and knees were worse compared to healthy ageing workers. A substantial proportion of female subjects did not meet physical job demands. PMID:20490537
Efficient triangular adaptive meshes for tsunami simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behrens, J.
2012-04-01
With improving technology and increased sensor density for accurate determination of tsunamogenic earthquake source parameters and consecutively uplift distribution, real-time simulations of even near-field tsunami hazard appears feasible in the near future. In order to support such efforts a new generation of tsunami models is currently under development. These models comprise adaptively refined meshes, in order to save computational resources (in areas of low wave activity) and still represent the inherently multi-scale behavior of a tsunami approaching coastal waters. So far, these methods have been based on oct-tree quadrilateral refinement. The method introduced here is based on binary tree refinement on triangular grids. By utilizing the structure stemming from the refinement strategy, a very efficient method can be achieved, with a triangular mesh, able to accurately represent complex boundaries.
High-precision triangular-waveform generator
Mueller, T.R.
1981-11-14
An ultra-linear ramp generator having separately programmable ascending and decending ramp rates and voltages is provided. Two constant current sources provide the ramp through an integrator. Switching of the current at current source inputs rather than at the integrator input eliminates switching transients and contributes to the waveform precision. The triangular waveforms produced by the waveform generator are characterized by accurate reproduction and low drift over periods of several hours. The ascending and descending slopes are independently selectable.
Displaying multimedia environmental partitioning by triangular diagrams
Lee, S.C.; Mackay, D.
1995-11-01
It is suggested that equilateral triangular diagrams are a useful method of depicting the equilibrium partitioning of organic chemicals among the three primary environmental media of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the organosphere (natural organic matter and biotic lipids and waxes). The technique is useful for grouping chemicals into classes according to their partitioning tendencies, for depicting the incremental effects of substituents such as alkyl groups and chlorine, and for showing how partitioning changes in response to changes in temperature.
Triangular Element For Analyzing Elasticity Of Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, C. Wayne; Lung, S. F.; Gupta, K. K.
1991-01-01
Flat triangular element developed for use in finite-element analyses of stress and strain in laminated plates made of such materials as plywood or advanced fiber/epoxy composite materials. Has multiple layers, each of which can have different isotropic or orthotropic elastic properties. Many such elements used in finite-element mesh to calculate stiffness of plate. Formulation of element straight-forward, and calculation of its stiffness matrix simple and fast.
Vertex-Atom-Dependent Rectification in Triangular h-BNC/Triangular Graphene Heterojunctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lihua; Zhao, Jianguo; Zhang, Zizhen; Ding, Bingjun; Guo, Yong
2016-08-01
First-principles calculations have shown dramatically unexpected rectifying regularities in particular heterojunction configurations with triangular hexagonal boron-nitride-carbon ( h-BNC) and triangular graphene (TG) sandwiched between two armchair graphene nanoribbon electrodes. When the triangular h-BNC and TG are linked by vertex atoms of nitrogen and carbon (boron and carbon), forward (reverse) rectifying performance can be observed. Moreover, for a certain linking mode, the larger the elemental proportion p (where p = N_{{{boron}} + {{nitrogen}}} /N_{{{boron}} + {{nitrogen}} + {{carbon}}} ) in the h-BNC, the larger the ratio for forward (reverse) rectification. A mechanism for these rectification behaviors is suggested. The findings provide insights into control of rectification behaviors in TG-based nanodevices.
Use of dermoscopy in the diagnosis of temporal triangular alopecia*
de Campos, Jullyene Gomes; Oliveira, Cláudia Marina Puga Barbosa; Romero, Sandra Adolfina Reyes; Klein, Ana Paula; Akel, Patricia Bandeira de Melo; Pinto, Giselle Martins
2015-01-01
Temporal triangular alopecia, also referred as congenital triangular alopecia, is an uncommon dermatosis of unknown etiology. It is characterized by a non-scarring, circumscribed alopecia often located unilaterally in the frontotemporal region. It usually emerges at ages 2-9 years. Alopecia areata is the main differential diagnosis, especially in atypical cases. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive procedure that helps distinguish temporal triangular alopecia from aloepecia areata. Such procedure prevents invasive diagnostic methods as well as ineffective treatments. PMID:25672312
Sharma, Subash; Kalita, Golap; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Zulkifli, Zurita; Tanemura, Masaki
2015-01-01
In-plane heterostructure of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene is of great interest for its tunable bandgap and other unique properties. Here, we reveal a H2-induced etching process to introduce triangular hole in triangular-shaped chemical vapor deposited individual h-BN crystal. In this study, we synthesized regular triangular-shaped h-BN crystals with the sizes around 2-10 μm on Cu foil by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The etching behavior of individual h-BN crystal was investigated by annealing at different temperature in an H2:Ar atmosphere. Annealing at 900 °C, etching of h-BN was observed from crystal edges with no visible etching at the center of individual crystals. While, annealing at a temperature ≥950 °C, highly anisotropic etching was observed, where the etched areas were equilateral triangle-shaped with same orientation as that of original h-BN crystal. The etching process and well-defined triangular hole formation can be significant platform to fabricate planar heterostructure with graphene or other two-dimensional (2D) materials. PMID:25994455
Sharma, Subash; Kalita, Golap; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Zulkifli, Zurita; Tanemura, Masaki
2015-01-01
In-plane heterostructure of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene is of great interest for its tunable bandgap and other unique properties. Here, we reveal a H2-induced etching process to introduce triangular hole in triangular-shaped chemical vapor deposited individual h-BN crystal. In this study, we synthesized regular triangular-shaped h-BN crystals with the sizes around 2-10 μm on Cu foil by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The etching behavior of individual h-BN crystal was investigated by annealing at different temperature in an H2:Ar atmosphere. Annealing at 900 °C, etching of h-BN was observed from crystal edges with no visible etching at the center of individual crystals. While, annealing at a temperature ≥ 950 °C, highly anisotropic etching was observed, where the etched areas were equilateral triangle-shaped with same orientation as that of original h-BN crystal. The etching process and well-defined triangular hole formation can be significant platform to fabricate planar heterostructure with graphene or other two-dimensional (2D) materials. PMID:25994455
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Subash; Kalita, Golap; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Zulkifli, Zurita; Tanemura, Masaki
2015-05-01
In-plane heterostructure of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene is of great interest for its tunable bandgap and other unique properties. Here, we reveal a H2-induced etching process to introduce triangular hole in triangular-shaped chemical vapor deposited individual h-BN crystal. In this study, we synthesized regular triangular-shaped h-BN crystals with the sizes around 2-10 μm on Cu foil by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The etching behavior of individual h-BN crystal was investigated by annealing at different temperature in an H2:Ar atmosphere. Annealing at 900 °C, etching of h-BN was observed from crystal edges with no visible etching at the center of individual crystals. While, annealing at a temperature ≥950 °C, highly anisotropic etching was observed, where the etched areas were equilateral triangle-shaped with same orientation as that of original h-BN crystal. The etching process and well-defined triangular hole formation can be significant platform to fabricate planar heterostructure with graphene or other two-dimensional (2D) materials.
Triangularity effects on the collisional diffusion for elliptic tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martín, Pablo; Castro, Enrique
2015-09-01
The effect of ellipticity and triangularity will be analyzed for axisymmetric tokamak in the collisional regime. Analytic forms for the magnetic field cross sections are taken from those derived recently by other authors. Analytic results can be obtained in elliptic plasmas with triangularity by using an special system of tokamak coordinates previously published. Our results show that triangularities smaller than 0.6 increase confinement for ellipticities in the range 1.2-2. This behavior happens for negative and positive triangularities, however this effect is stronger for negative than for positive triangularities. The maximum diffusion velocity is not obtained for zero triangularity, but for small negative triangularities. Ellipticity is also very important in confinement, but the effect of triangularity seems to be more important. High electric inductive fields increase confinement, though this field is difficult to modify once the tokamak has been built. The analytic form of the current produced by this field is like that of a weak Ware pinch with an additional factor, which weakens the effect by an order of magnitude. The dependence of the triangularity effect with the Shafranov shift is also analyzed.
Ultracold quantum gases in triangular optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, C.; Soltan-Panahi, P.; Kronjäger, J.; Dörscher, S.; Bongs, K.; Sengstock, K.
2010-06-01
Over recent years, exciting developments in the field of ultracold atoms confined in optical lattices have led to numerous theoretical proposals devoted to the quantum simulation of problems e.g. known from condensed matter physics. Many of those ideas demand experimental environments with non-cubic lattice geometries. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a versatile three-beam lattice allowing for the generation of triangular as well as hexagonal optical lattices. As an important step, the superfluid-Mott insulator (SF-MI) quantum phase transition has been observed and investigated in detail in this lattice geometry for the first time. In addition to this, we study the physics of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in the presence of the triangular optical lattice potential, especially spin changing dynamics across the SF-MI transition. Our results suggest that, below the SF-MI phase transition, a well-established mean-field model describes the observed data when renormalizing the spin-dependent interaction. Interestingly, this opens up new perspectives for a lattice-driven tuning of a spin dynamics resonance occurring through the interplay of the quadratic Zeeman effect and spin-dependent interaction. Finally, we discuss further lattice configurations that can be realized with our setup.
Patch-fitting on triangular surface holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savva, A.; Stylianou, V.
2014-11-01
The human body is probably the best example of a complex deformable figure. To generate a realistic object is a complex task and some mathematical methods are necessary in order to assist solving this problem. Spline methods have dominated the area of modeling complex articulated figures. The most popular of these methods is NURBS (Non Uniform Rational B-Splines) which is used by the majority of figure modelers due to its ability to control the shape of a surface by applying weights on the control points defining the object and not by altering their positions. However, spline methods, such as NURBS, have a drawback in defining surfaces containing multiple branches. The resulting surface has an "n-sided hole" at the joint of n branches. This paper proposes a solution to the triangular holes problem, which however, can be generalized to solve the n-sided-hole problem. The method fits a Sabin triangular patch in the hole and then applies subdivision spline methods to generate smooth and closed surfaces.
Kudernatsch, Robert F; Letsch, Anne; Guerreiro, Manuel; Löbel, Madlen; Bauer, Sandra; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Scheibenbogen, Carmen
2014-12-01
Even today it is still not completely understood how CD8(+) T-cell memory is maintained long term. Since bone marrow (BM) is a niche for immunological memory, we sought to identify long-lasting early memory CD8(+) T cells in this compartment. To achieve this, we looked for CD8(+) T cells that are able to efflux Rhodamine 123, a typical property of stem cells. Indeed, we identified a distinct subset of CD8(+) T cells in BM, with the capacity to efflux and high CD127 expression. These CD127(hi) effluxers are conventional CD8(+) T cells exhibiting a broad TCR-Vβ repertoire and are generated in response to viral peptides in vitro. CD127(hi) effluxer CD8(+) T cells have an early memory phenotype defined by preferential TNF-α production and a Bcl-2(hi) , KLRG-1(low) profile. This population has long telomeres and shows constitutively low frequencies of Ki-67 expression ex vivo, but has a high proliferative and differentiation capacity in vitro. However, IL-15 downmodulates CD127 in CD127(hi) effluxer CD8(+) T cells in vitro. Consequently, the CD127(low) effluxer subset may comprise cells recently exposed to IL-15. Taken together, CD127(hi) effluxer CD8(+) T cells represent a novel population of early memory T cells resident in BM with properties required for long-lived memory. PMID:25231631
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Beth L.; Malsch, Anna M.; Kothari, Brianne Hood; Busse, Jessica; Brennan, Eileen
2012-01-01
This article describes the development, implementation, and outcomes of a pilot intervention designed to enhance preschool programs' ability to support children's social-emotional development. Working with two Head Start programs, the intervention included (1) restructuring existing early childhood mental health consultation services; (2) engaging…
Micromagnetics of triangular thin film nanoelements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stavrou, V. D.; Gergidis, L. N.; Markou, A.; Charalambopoulos, A.; Panagiotopoulos, I.
2016-03-01
The magnetization reversal in 330 nm triangular prism magnetic nanoelements with variable magnetocrystalline anisotropy (as that of partially chemically ordered FePt) is studied using Finite Elements micromagnetic calculations. The magnetization reversal characteristics under different values and directions of the uniaxial anisotropy and different directions of the applied external magnetic field are explored. The simulation results show that a wealth of reversal mechanisms is possible sensitively depending on the uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy values and directions which may explain the different Magnetic Force Microscopy patterns obtained in such magnetic systems. In addition, the micromagnetic simulations reveal that interesting vortex-like formations can be produced and stabilized in large field ranges and in sizes that can be tuned by the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the material.
Histological assessment of the triangular fibrocartilage complex.
Semisch, M; Hagert, E; Garcia-Elias, M; Lluch, A; Rein, S
2016-06-01
The morphological structure of the seven components of triangular fibrocartilage complexes of 11 cadaver wrists of elderly people was assessed microscopically, after staining with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Elastica van Gieson. The articular disc consisted of tight interlaced fibrocartilage without blood vessels except in its ulnar part. Volar and dorsal radioulnar ligaments showed densely parallel collagen bundles. The subsheath of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, the ulnotriquetral and ulnolunate ligament showed mainly mixed tight and loose parallel tissue. The ulnolunate ligament contained tighter parallel collagen bundles and clearly less elastic fibres than the ulnotriquetral ligament. The ulnocarpal meniscoid had an irregular morphological composition and loose connective tissue predominated. The structure of the articular disc indicates a buffering function. The tight structure of radioulnar and ulnolunate ligaments reflects a central stabilizing role, whereas the ulnotriquetral ligament and ulnocarpal meniscoid have less stabilizing functions. PMID:26685153
Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices.
Fay, C W; Liu, J W; Duxbury, P M
2006-05-01
Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem. PMID:16803003
Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shankar, S. Shiv; Rai, Akhilesh; Ankamwar, Balaprasad; Singh, Amit; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali
2004-07-01
The optoelectronic and physicochemical properties of nanoscale matter are a strong function of particle size. Nanoparticle shape also contributes significantly to modulating their electronic properties. Several shapes ranging from rods to wires to plates to teardrop structures may be obtained by chemical methods; triangular nanoparticles have been synthesized by using a seeded growth process. Here, we report the discovery that the extract from the lemongrass plant, when reacted with aqueous chloroaurate ions, yields a high percentage of thin, flat, single-crystalline gold nanotriangles. The nanotriangles seem to grow by a process involving rapid reduction, assembly and room-temperature sintering of 'liquid-like' spherical gold nanoparticles. The anisotropy in nanoparticle shape results in large near-infrared absorption by the particles, and highly anisotropic electron transport in films of the nanotriangles.
Thermodynamic Properties in Triangular-Lattice Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xixiao; Qin, Ling; Zhao, Huaisong; Lan, Yu; Feng, Shiping
2016-06-01
The study of superconductivity arising from doping a Mott insulator has become a central issue in the area of superconductivity. Within the framework of the kinetic-energy-driven superconducting (SC) mechanism, we discuss the thermodynamic properties in the triangular-lattice cobaltate superconductors. It is shown that a sharp peak in the specific heat appears at the SC transition temperature T_c, and then the specific heat varies exponentially as a function of temperature for temperatures T
Shuttle-launch triangular space station
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, W. C. (Inventor); Berka, R. B. (Inventor); Kavanaugh, C. (Inventor); Nagy, K. (Inventor); Parish, R. C. (Inventor); Schliesing, J. A. (Inventor); Smith, P. D. (Inventor); Stebbins, F. J. (Inventor); Wesselski, C. J. (Inventor)
1986-01-01
A triangular space station deployable in orbit is described. The framework is comprized of three trusses, formed of a pair of generally planar faces consistine of foldable struts. The struts expand and lock into rigid structural engagement forming a repetition of equilater triangles and nonfolding diagonal struts interconnecting the two faces. The struts are joined together by node fittings. The framework can be packaged into a size and configuration transportable by a space shuttle. When deployed, the framework provides a large work/construction area and ample planar surface area for solar panels and thermal radiators. A plurity of modules are secured to the framework and then joined by tunnels to make an interconnected modular display. Thruster units for the space station orientation and altitude maintenance are provided.
Sznajd Sociophysics Model on a Triangular Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Iksoo
The Sznajd sociophysics model is generalized on the triangular lattice with pure antiferromagnetic opinion and also with both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic opinions. The slogan of the trade union ``united we stand, divided we fall'' can be realized via the propagation of ferromagnetic opinion of adjacent people in the union, but the propagation of antiferromagnetic opinion can be observed among the third countries between two big super powers or among the family members of conflicting parents. Fixed points are found in both models. The distributions of relaxation time of the mixed model are dispersed and become closer to log-normal as the initial concentration of down spins approaches 0.5, whereas for pure antiferromagnetic spins, they are collapsed into one master curve, which is roughly log-normal. We do not see the phase transition in the model.
Quantum electric-dipole liquid on a triangular lattice
Shen, Shi-Peng; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Song, Jun-Da; Sun, Xue-Feng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Scott, James F.; Sun, Young
2016-01-01
Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66 mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics. PMID:26843363
Quantum electric-dipole liquid on a triangular lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Shi-Peng; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Song, Jun-Da; Sun, Xue-Feng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Scott, James F.; Sun, Young
2016-02-01
Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66 mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics.
Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Cucherat, Michel; Charlesworth, Andrew; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Mallet, Alain; Boissel, Jean-Pierre; Hampton, John; Lechat, Philippe
2003-01-01
Aims For ethical and economic reasons, interim analysis of phase III clinical trials is essential. This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of two interim analysis procedures, which could be used to allow early termination of a clinical trial. Methods We made a post hoc application of two interim analysis methods (Lan & DeMets with O’Brien–Flemming modification, and the triangular test according to Whitehead) by using individual patient data from four published placebo-controlled survival trials. We determined the date the trial would have been stopped had each method been used, and we estimated consequent results in terms of events and patient numbers included in the trial, the duration of the trial, and on treatment effect. Results The triangular test provided the lowest number of events required to reach a conclusion of the trials while providing an accurate estimate of experimental treatment effects. The triangular test thus indicated the smallest number of patients that would have been enrolled, and the shortest trial duration. The difference between the methods was most important with a detrimental effect of experimental treatment: the number of required events was reduced by 75% and the trial duration was shortened by 48% with the triangular test compared to the Lan & DeMets method. Conclusions Stopping a trial early must depend on the clinical context. It is most important to stop a placebo-controlled trial as soon as possible when the experimental treatment can be shown deleterious. In such a situation the triangular test is more appropriate than the Lan & DeMets method. When a treatment effect is no different from, or better than, placebo the triangular test is also superior but the importance of premature termination of the trial in such cases has to be balanced against the inevitable reduction of information that the trial can provide. PMID:12630981
Low-cost Triangular Lattice Towers for Small Wind Turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, Ram Chandra
This thesis focuses on the study of low-cost steel and bamboo triangular lattice towers for small wind turbines. The core objective is to determine the material properties of bamboo and assess the feasibility of bamboo towers. Using the experimentally determined buckling resistance, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, a 12 m high triangular lattice tower for a 500W wind turbine has been modeled as a tripod to formulate the analytical solutions for the stresses and tower deflections, which enables design of the tower based on buckling strength of tower legs. The tripod formulation combines the imposed loads, the base distance between the legs and tower height, and cross-sectional dimensions of the tower legs. The tripod model was used as a reference for the initial design of the bamboo tower and extended to finite element analysis. A 12 m high steel lattice tower was also designed for the same turbine to serve as a comparison to the bamboo tower. The primary result of this work indicates that bamboo is a valid structural material. The commercial software package ANSYS APDL was used to carry out the tower analysis, evaluate the validity of the tripod model, and extend the analysis for the tower design. For this purpose, a 12 m high steel lattice tower for a 500 W wind turbine was examined. Comparison of finite element analysis and analytical solution has shown that tripod model can be accurately used in the design of lattice towers. The tower designs were based on the loads and safety requirements of international standard for small wind turbine safety, IEC 61400-2. For connecting the bamboo sections in the lattice tower, a steel-bamboo adhesive joint combined with conventional lashing has been proposed. Also, considering the low durability of bamboo, periodic replacement of tower members has been proposed. The result of this study has established that bamboo could be used to construct cost-effective and lightweight lattice towers for wind turbines of 500 Watt
Chen, Long; Ding, Mei-Lin; Wu, Fang; He, Wen; Li, Jin; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Xie, Wen-Li; Duan, Sheng-Zhong; Xia, Wen-Hao; Tao, Jun
2016-02-01
Although hyperaldosteronemia exerts detrimental impacts on vascular endothelium in addition to elevating blood pressure, the effects and molecular mechanisms of hyperaldosteronemia on early endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-mediated endothelial repair after arterial damage are yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from hypertensive patients with primary hyperaldosteronemia (PHA). In vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from PHAs (n=20), age- and blood pressure-matched essential hypertension patients (n=20), and age-matched healthy subjects (n=20) was evaluated by transplantation into a nude mouse carotid endothelial denudation model. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation of brachial artery in human subjects. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs and flow-mediated dilation were impaired both in PHAs and in essential hypertension patients when compared with age-matched healthy subjects; however, the early EPC in vivo endothelial repair capacity and flow-mediated dilation of PHAs were impaired more severely than essential hypertension patients. Oral spironolactone improved early EPC in vivo endothelial repair capacity and flow-mediated dilation of PHAs. Increased oxidative stress, oxidative 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin degradation, endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and decreased nitric oxide production were found in early EPCs from PHAs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47(phox) knockdown or 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin supplementation attenuated endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and enhanced in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from PHAs. In conclusion, PHAs exhibited more impaired endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs than did essential hypertension patients independent of blood pressure, which was associated with mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent oxidative stress and subsequently 5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Picaud, F.; Petit, D. P.
2007-07-01
Rehabilitated mine sites are suitable environments for the study of primary ecological succession. Following the monitoring of Plant and Orthoptera communities for 4 years on 7 sites in the Limousin region (France), covering 9 years of rehabilitation, three grasshopper seres were defined. It is expected that these seres are conditioned by both displacement capacities and reproductive characteristics. This study compares by field experiments the jumping flights and walking speed of the most abundant Caelifera belonging to the defined seres. A strong link emerged between the successional stages, the distances covered by jumping flights and sexual dimorphism. Walking speed is poorly related to the successional stage. We show that the high density of some species, as observed in the medium stage of succession, significantly reduces the walking distance of late colonisers, suggesting a mechanism that reduces further colonisation.
Marklein, Ross A; Lo Surdo, Jessica L; Bellayr, Ian H; Godil, Saniya A; Puri, Raj K; Bauer, Steven R
2016-04-01
Human bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, often referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), represent an attractive cell source for many regenerative medicine applications due to their potential for multi-lineage differentiation, immunomodulation, and paracrine factor secretion. A major complication for current MSC-based therapies is the lack of well-defined characterization methods that can robustly predict how they will perform in a particular in vitro or in vivo setting. Significant advances have been made with identifying molecular markers of MSC quality and potency using multivariate genomic and proteomic approaches, and more recently with advanced techniques incorporating high content imaging to assess high-dimensional single cell morphological data. We sought to expand upon current methods of high dimensional morphological analysis by investigating whether short term cell and nuclear morphological profiles of MSCs from multiple donors (at multiple passages) correlated with long term mineralization upon osteogenic induction. Using the combined power of automated high content imaging followed by automated image analysis, we demonstrated that MSC morphology after 3 days was highly correlated with 35 day mineralization and comparable to other methods of MSC osteogenesis assessment (such as alkaline phosphatase activity). We then expanded on this initial morphological characterization and identified morphological features that were highly predictive of mineralization capacities (>90% accuracy) of MSCs from additional donors and different manufacturing techniques using linear discriminant analysis. Together, this work thoroughly demonstrates the predictive power of MSC morphology for mineralization capacity and motivates further studies into MSC morphology as a predictive marker for additional in vitro and in vivo responses. Stem Cells 2016;34:935-947. PMID:26865267
Oliveira Amorim, Ana Paula; Campos de Oliveira, Márcia Cristina; de Azevedo Amorim, Thiago; Echevarria, Aurea
2013-01-01
The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant activity against the radical species DPPH, the reducing capacity against Fe II ions, and the inhibitory activity on the tyrosinase enzyme of the T. triangulare. Hydromethanolic crude extract provided two fractions after the liquid/liquid partition with chloroform. The Folin-Ciocalteu method determined the total phenolic content of the crude extract (CE) and the hydromethanolic fraction (Fraction 1), resulting in a concentration of 0.5853 g/100 g for Fraction 1, and 0.1400 g/100 g for the CE. Taking into account the results of the DPPH, the free radical scavenging capacity was confirmed. The formation of complexes with Fe II ions was evaluated by UV/visible spectrometry; results showed that CE has complexing power similar to the positive control (Gingko biloba extract).The inhibitory capacity of samples against the tyrosinase enzyme was determined by the oxidation of L-DOPA, providing IC50 values of 13.3 μg·mL(-1) (CE) and 6.6 μg·mL(-1) (Fraction 1). The values indicate that Fraction 1 was more active and showed a higher inhibitory power on the tyrosinase enzyme than the ascorbic acid, used as positive control. The hydromethanolic extract of T. triangulare proved to have powerful antioxidant activity and to inhibit the tyrosinase enzyme; its potential is increased after the partition with chloroform. PMID:26784338
Oliveira Amorim, Ana Paula; Campos de Oliveira, Márcia Cristina; de Azevedo Amorim, Thiago; Echevarria, Aurea
2013-01-01
The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant activity against the radical species DPPH, the reducing capacity against Fe II ions, and the inhibitory activity on the tyrosinase enzyme of the T. triangulare. Hydromethanolic crude extract provided two fractions after the liquid/liquid partition with chloroform. The Folin-Ciocalteu method determined the total phenolic content of the crude extract (CE) and the hydromethanolic fraction (Fraction 1), resulting in a concentration of 0.5853 g/100 g for Fraction 1, and 0.1400 g/100 g for the CE. Taking into account the results of the DPPH, the free radical scavenging capacity was confirmed. The formation of complexes with Fe II ions was evaluated by UV/visible spectrometry; results showed that CE has complexing power similar to the positive control (Gingko biloba extract).The inhibitory capacity of samples against the tyrosinase enzyme was determined by the oxidation of L-DOPA, providing IC50 values of 13.3 μg·mL−1 (CE) and 6.6 μg·mL−1 (Fraction 1). The values indicate that Fraction 1 was more active and showed a higher inhibitory power on the tyrosinase enzyme than the ascorbic acid, used as positive control. The hydromethanolic extract of T. triangulare proved to have powerful antioxidant activity and to inhibit the tyrosinase enzyme; its potential is increased after the partition with chloroform. PMID:26784338
Coherently Tunable Triangular Trefoil Phaseonium Metamaterial.
Nguyen, D M; Soci, Cesare; Ooi, C H Raymond
2016-01-01
Phaseonium is a three-level Λ quantum system, in which a coherent microwave and an optical control (pump) beams can be used to actively modulate the dielectric response. Here we propose a new metamaterial structure comprising of a periodic array of triangular phaseonium metamolecules arranged as a trefoil. We present a computational study of the spatial distribution of magnetic and electric fields of the probe light and the corresponding transmission and reflection, for various parameters of the optical and microwave beams. For specific values of the probing frequencies and control fields, the phaseonium can display either metallic or dielectric optical response. We find that, in the metallic regime, the phaseonium metamaterial structure supports extremely large transmission, with optical amplification at large enough intensity of the microwave thanks to strong surface plasmon coupling; while, in the dielectric regime without microwave excitation, the transmission bandwidth can be tuned by varying the control beam intensity. Implementation of such phaseonium metamaterial structure in solid-state systems, such as patterned crystals doped with rare-earth elements or dielectric matrices embedded with quantum dots, could enable a new class of actively tunable quantum metamaterials. PMID:26879520
Coherently Tunable Triangular Trefoil Phaseonium Metamaterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, D. M.; Soci, Cesare; Ooi, C. H. Raymond
2016-02-01
Phaseonium is a three-level Λ quantum system, in which a coherent microwave and an optical control (pump) beams can be used to actively modulate the dielectric response. Here we propose a new metamaterial structure comprising of a periodic array of triangular phaseonium metamolecules arranged as a trefoil. We present a computational study of the spatial distribution of magnetic and electric fields of the probe light and the corresponding transmission and reflection, for various parameters of the optical and microwave beams. For specific values of the probing frequencies and control fields, the phaseonium can display either metallic or dielectric optical response. We find that, in the metallic regime, the phaseonium metamaterial structure supports extremely large transmission, with optical amplification at large enough intensity of the microwave thanks to strong surface plasmon coupling; while, in the dielectric regime without microwave excitation, the transmission bandwidth can be tuned by varying the control beam intensity. Implementation of such phaseonium metamaterial structure in solid-state systems, such as patterned crystals doped with rare-earth elements or dielectric matrices embedded with quantum dots, could enable a new class of actively tunable quantum metamaterials.
Coherently Tunable Triangular Trefoil Phaseonium Metamaterial
Nguyen, D. M.; Soci, Cesare; Ooi, C. H. Raymond
2016-01-01
Phaseonium is a three-level Λ quantum system, in which a coherent microwave and an optical control (pump) beams can be used to actively modulate the dielectric response. Here we propose a new metamaterial structure comprising of a periodic array of triangular phaseonium metamolecules arranged as a trefoil. We present a computational study of the spatial distribution of magnetic and electric fields of the probe light and the corresponding transmission and reflection, for various parameters of the optical and microwave beams. For specific values of the probing frequencies and control fields, the phaseonium can display either metallic or dielectric optical response. We find that, in the metallic regime, the phaseonium metamaterial structure supports extremely large transmission, with optical amplification at large enough intensity of the microwave thanks to strong surface plasmon coupling; while, in the dielectric regime without microwave excitation, the transmission bandwidth can be tuned by varying the control beam intensity. Implementation of such phaseonium metamaterial structure in solid-state systems, such as patterned crystals doped with rare-earth elements or dielectric matrices embedded with quantum dots, could enable a new class of actively tunable quantum metamaterials. PMID:26879520
Magnetoresistance measurement of permalloy thin film rings with triangular fins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Mei-Feng; Hsu, Chia-Jung; Liao, Chun-Neng; Chen, Ying-Jiun; Wei, Zung-Hang
2010-01-01
Magnetization reversals in permalloy rings controlled by nucleation sites using triangular fins at the same side and diagonal with respect to the field direction are demonstrated by magnetoresistance measurement and micromagnetic simulation. In the ring with triangular fins at the same side, there exists two-step reversal from onion to flux-closure state (or vortex state) and then from flux-closure (or vortex state) to reverse onion state; in the ring with diagonal triangular fins, one-step reversal occurs directly from onion to reverse onion state. The reversal processes are repeatable and controllable in contrast to an ideal ring without triangular fins where one-step and two-step reversals occur randomly in sweep-up and sweep-down processes.
Detail of front south wall section showing pediment with triangular ...
Detail of front south wall section showing pediment with triangular inset molding; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA
7. NORTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ...
7. NORTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ENCLOSED PORCH SCREENED WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA
DETAIL VIEW OF LARGE BORE HOLE, SHOWING TRIANGULAR SHAPE FORMED ...
DETAIL VIEW OF LARGE BORE HOLE, SHOWING TRIANGULAR SHAPE FORMED BY CHISEL METHOD OF DRILLING - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA
The Centre of Mass of a Triangular Plate
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slusarenko, Viktor; Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo
2008-01-01
We present a derivation for the coordinates of the centre of mass--or centre of gravity--of a homogeneous triangular plate by using scaling and symmetry. We scale the triangular plate by a factor of 2 and divide its area into four plates identical to the original. By symmetry, we assert that the centre of mass of two identical masses lies at the…
Ibrahim, Salwa
2007-01-01
Previous studies have highlighted epithelial proliferation and apoptosis in the cyst lining as common features in animal models of cystic disease. In this study, we sought to evaluate the timing and extent of these changes in renal tissue obtained from patients with autosomal-dominant, polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) subjected for nephrectomy for a variety of clinical indications. Cell proliferation was assessed using an antibody to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and apoptosis was evaluated by the use of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) digoxigenin-deoxyuridine (dUTP) nick end-labeling technique (ApopTag(R)). The origin of cystic structures was evaluated using antibodies to epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). The lineage of interstitial mononuclear cells was assessed by anti CD 45 and CD 68 monoclonal antibodies. We found an increased rate of proliferation within the epithelium, not only of cystic, but also of noncystic, tubules that was significantly higher than the corresponding values from normal kidney (p pound 0.0001). Apoptotic index values were significantly increased within the epithelium lining noncystic and cystic structures (p < 0.001). In the interstitium, increased proliferation and apoptosis rates were also noted. Interstitial infiltrates were dense and consisted mainly of CD 68-positive macrophages and CD 45-positive lymphocytes. The present study demonstrated that changes in cell turnover are early events in cyst formation. The observation of mild proportionate elevation of both proliferation and apoptosis values of the epithelium lining cysts explains the lack of increase risk of renal cell carcinoma in ADPKD. The development of heavy interstitial inflammation could contribute to progressive tubulointerstitial scarring, leading to progressive renal failure. PMID:18040538
Chemical compounds isolated from Talinum triangulare (Portulacaceae).
de Oliveira Amorim, Ana Paula; de Carvalho, Almir Ribeiro; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Castro, Rosane Nora; de Oliveira, Marcia Cristina Campos; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo
2014-10-01
This first phytochemical study of Talinum triangulare Leach (Portulacaceae), also known as 'cariru', which is a commonly consumed food in Northern Brazil, allowed the isolation and structural determination of four new compounds: one acrylamide, 3-N-(acryloyl, N-pentadecanoyl) propanoic acid (5), and three new phaeophytins named (15(1)S, 17R, 18R)-Ficuschlorin D acid (3(1),3(2)-didehydro-7-oxo-17(3)-O-phytyl-rhodochlorin-15-acetic acid), (13), Talichorin A (17R, 18R)-phaeophytin b-15(1)-hidroxy, 15(2),15(3)-acetyl-13(1)-carboxilic acid (14), and (15(1)S, 17R, 18R)-phaeophytin b peroxylactone or (15(1)S, 17R, 18R)-hydroperoxy-ficuschlorin D (16), together with twelve known compounds, including four phaeophytins (11,12, 15 and 17). The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, IR, HRESI-MS spectra, including GC-MS, and HPLC-UV analysis, as well as comparisons with the literature data. The CD spectra data analysis were used to define the absolute configuration of phaeophytins 12 (13(2)R, 17R, 18R)-13(2)-hydroxyphaeophytin a, 13 and 16, 15 (15(1)S, 17R, 18R)-3(1),3(2)-didehydro-15(1)-hydroxyrhodochlorin-15-acetic acid δ-lactone-15(2)-methyl-17(3)-phytyl ester and 17 (17R, 18R)-purpurin 18-phytyl ester. PMID:24799228
Melik, Enver; Babar, Emine; Kocahan, Sayad; Guven, Mustafa; Akillioglu, Kubra
2014-04-01
Pre- and early postnatal stress can cause dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and thereby promote the development of hippocampus memory-dependent schizoid abnormalities of navigation in space, time, and knowledge. An enriched environment improves mental abilities in humans and animals. Whether an enriched environment can prevent the development of schizoid symptoms induced by neonatal NMDAR dysfunction was the central question of our paper. The experimental animals were Wistar rats. Early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction was created by systemic treatment of rat pups with the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at PD10-20 days. During the development period (PD21-90 days), the rats were reared in cognitively and physically enriched cages. Adult age rats were tested on navigation based on pattern separation and episodic memory in the open field and on auto-hetero-associations based on episodic and semantic memory in a step-through passive avoidance task. The results showed that postnatal NMDAR antagonism caused abnormal behaviors in both tests. An enriched environment prevented deficits in the development of navigation in space based on pattern separation and hetero-associations based on semantic memory. However, an enriched environment was unable to rescue navigation in space and auto-associations based on episodic memory. These data may contribute to the understanding that an enriched environment has a limited capacity for therapeutic interventions in protecting the development of schizoid syndromes in children and adolescents. PMID:24184288
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bründl, M.; Stoffel, L.
2012-04-01
As a consequence of the avalanche winter in January/February 1999 in Switzerland the project "intercantonal early warning and crisis information system" (IFKIS) was initialised. The goal of this project was to close the gaps recognised in the event analysis of this one-month avalanche period, which caused 17 fatalities and over 600 million CHF of damage [1,2]. Whereas the system of integral avalanche protection consisting of technical measures, land use planning and protection forests proved to be successful, the most important gaps were found to be in the organisational part. Especially communities who did not have an every-winter-experience had faced problems in managing the extraordinary event. The main deficiencies were less experienced or even missing local avalanche safety services and missing information and communication. The results of the IFKIS project embrace a concept for education courses, a concept for compulsory booklets and a guideline for the daily work in local avalanche safety services, and the information system IFKIS-InfoManager improving the two-way communication between the national avalanche warning service and the local services on the one side and enhancing the communication between local and regional avalanche services (IFKIS-MIS) on the other side [3]. The results of the project IFKIS are implemented in practice since 10 years. Since 2000 every winter two to three courses were conducted at two levels either in German, French and Italian. Since 2000 about thousand participants completed the courses. Feedback from participants and observations made by cantonal authorities and the national avalanche warning centre SLF revealed that these education courses greatly improved the local capacity for dealing with critical avalanche situations. The system of regular avalanches courses at the community level served meanwhile as a good-practice example for comparable courses initialised by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) as a
Synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles
Rai, Akhilesh; Chaudhary, Minakshi; Ahmad, Absar; Bhargava, Suresh; Sastry, Murali . E-mail: msastry@tatachemicals.com
2007-07-03
In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles. The triangular gold core is obtained by the reduction of gold ions by lemongrass extract. Utilizing the negative charge on the gold nanotriangles, silver ions are bound to their surface and thereafter reduced by ascorbic acid under alkaline conditions. The thickness of the silver shell may be modulated by varying the pH of the reaction medium. The formation of the Au core-Ag shell triangular nanostructures has been followed by UV-vis-NIR Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The sharp vertices of the triangles coupled with the core-shell structure is expected to have potential for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and in the sensitive detection of biomolecules.
Field-design optimization with triangular heliostat pods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez-Bravo, Carmen-Ana; Bode, Sebastian-James; Heiming, Gregor; Richter, Pascal; Carrizosa, Emilio; Fernández-Cara, Enrique; Frank, Martin; Gauché, Paul
2016-05-01
In this paper the optimization of a heliostat field with triangular heliostat pods is addressed. The use of structures which allow the combination of several heliostats into a common pod system aims to reduce the high costs associated with the heliostat field and therefore reduces the Levelized Cost of Electricity value. A pattern-based algorithm and two pattern-free algorithms are adapted to handle the field layout problem with triangular heliostat pods. Under the Helio100 project in South Africa, a new small-scale Solar Power Tower plant has been recently constructed. The Helio100 plant has 20 triangular pods (each with 6 heliostats) whose positions follow a linear pattern. The obtained field layouts after optimization are compared against the reference field Helio100.
Nakayoshi, Takaharu; Sasaki, Ken-ichiro; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Koiwaya, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Masanori; Ueno, Takafumi; Chibana, Hidetoshi; Itaya, Naoki; Sasaki, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Shinji; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Imaizumi, Tsutomu
2014-01-01
The effects of therapeutic angiogenesis by intramuscular injection of early pro-angiogenic cells (EPCs) to ischemic limbs are unsatisfactory. Oxidative stress in the ischemic limbs may accelerate apoptosis of injected EPCs, leading to less neovascularization. Forkhead transcription factor 4 (FOXO4) was reported to play a pivotal role in apoptosis signaling of EPCs in response to oxidative stress. Accordingly, we assessed whether FOXO4-knockdown EPCs (FOXO4KD-EPCs) could suppress the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and augment the neovascularization capacity in ischemic limbs. We transfected small interfering RNA targeted against FOXO4 of human EPCs to generate FOXO4KD-EPCs and confirmed a successful knockdown. FOXO4KD-EPCs gained resistance to apoptosis in response to hydrogen peroxide in vitro. Oxidative stress stained by dihydroethidium was stronger for the immunodeficient rat ischemic limb tissue than for the rat non-ischemic one. Although the number of apoptotic EPCs injected into the rat ischemic limb was greater than that of apoptotic EPCs injected into the rat non-ischemic limb, FOXO4KD-EPCs injected into the rat ischemic limb brought less apoptosis and more neovascularization than EPCs. Taken together, the use of FOXO4KD-EPCs with resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis may be a new strategy to augment the effects of therapeutic angiogenesis by intramuscular injection of EPCs. PMID:24663349
14. INTERIOR, IN TRIANGULAR STORAGE AREA, IN SOUTHEAST AREA OF ...
14. INTERIOR, IN TRIANGULAR STORAGE AREA, IN SOUTHEAST AREA OF BUILDING (EAST OF LOCKER/OFFICE/HEAD AREA), LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Shed, South of D Street between First & Second Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
6. SOUTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ...
6. SOUTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ENCLOSED PORCH SCREENED WINDOWS. ON BASIC FLOOR-PLAN FOR THE SIX-ROOM HOUSE THIS END WAS THE FRONT ENTRANCE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA
Triangular congenital cataract morphology associated with prenatal methamphetamine exposure.
Clarke, Michael E; Schloff, Susan; Bothun, Erick D
2009-08-01
Bilateral congenital cataracts are often characterized by morphology, etiology, and related conditions. We report a case of unique congenital cataracts with triangular morphology and associated prenatal methamphetamine exposure. Although this association is likely coincidental, the cataract's morphology in light of the specific timing of prenatal drug use deserves reporting. PMID:19464935
Middle Passage in the Triangular Slave Trade: The West Indies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sawh, Ruth; Scales, Alice M.
2006-01-01
Our narrative focuses on the middle passage of the slave trade in the West Indies. Herein we describe why more men, women, and children were imported in the West Indies than other islands. Specifically, our aim was to address how slaves in the middle passage of the triangular slave trade were treated, how they sustained themselves, and how they…
View of the demilune, a triangular piece of land that ...
View of the demilune, a triangular piece of land that protected the rear of gorge wall of the fort. After the civil war, large earthen mounds were built in the demilune area. These mounds overlay four powder magazines and passageways to several gun emplacements. - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA
Triangular Numbers, Gaussian Integers, and KenKen
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watkins, John J.
2012-01-01
Latin squares form the basis for the recreational puzzles sudoku and KenKen. In this article we show how useful several ideas from number theory are in solving a KenKen puzzle. For example, the simple notion of triangular number is surprisingly effective. We also introduce a variation of KenKen that uses the Gaussian integers in order to…
Zhong, Jin-Feng; Wu, Wei-Gao; Zhang, Xiao-Qing; Tu, Wei; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Fang, Re-Jun
2016-08-01
The contradiction between high susceptibility of early weaned piglets to enteric pathogens and rigid restriction of antibiotic use in the diet is still prominent in the livestock production industry. To address this issue, the study was designed to replace dietary antibiotics partly or completely by an immunostimulant, namely heat-killed Mycobacterium phlei (M. phlei). Piglets (n = 192) were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: (1) basal diet (Group A), (2) basal diet + a mixture of antibiotics (80 mg/kg diet, Group B), (3) basal diet + a mixture of antibiotics (same as in Group B, but 40 mg/kg diet) + heat-killed M. phlei (1.5 g/kg diet) (Group C) and (4) basal diet + heat-killed M. phlei (3 g/kg diet) (Group D). All piglets received the respective diets from days 21 to 51 of age and were weaned at the age of 28 d. Compared with the Control (Group A), in all other groups the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, small intestinal villus height:crypt depth ratio and protein levels of occludin and ZO-1 in the jejunal mucosa were increased. A decreased incidence of diarrhoea in conjunction with an increased sIgA concentration in the intestinal mucosa and serum IL-12 and IFN-γ concentrations was found in groups supplemented with heat-killed M. phlei (Groups C and D), but not in Group B. Groups C and D also showed decreased IL-2 concentrations in the intestinal mucosa with lower TLR4 and phosphor-IκB protein levels. The antioxidant capacity was reinforced in Groups C and D, as evidenced by the reduction in malondialdehyde and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum. These data indicate that heat-killed M. phlei is a promising alternative to antibiotic use for early weaned piglets via induction of protective immune responses. PMID:27216553
Bolander, Johanna; Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Schrooten, Jan; Lambrechts, Dennis; Roberts, Scott J; Luyten, Frank P
2016-04-01
The development of osteoinductive calcium phosphate- (CaP) based biomaterials has, and continues to be, a major focus in the field of bone tissue engineering. However, limited insight into the spatiotemporal activation of signalling pathways has hampered the optimisation of in vivo bone formation and subsequent clinical translation. To gain further knowledge regarding the early molecular events governing bone tissue formation, we combined human periosteum derived progenitor cells with three types of clinically used CaP-scaffolds, to obtain constructs with a distinct range of bone forming capacity in vivo. Protein phosphorylation together with gene expression for key ligands and target genes were investigated 24 hours after cell seeding in vitro, and 3 and 12 days post ectopic implantation in nude mice. A computational modelling approach was used to deduce critical factors for bone formation 8 weeks post implantation. The combined Ca(2+)-mediated activation of BMP-, Wnt- and PKC signalling pathways 3 days post implantation were able to discriminate the bone forming from the non-bone forming constructs. Subsequently, a mathematical model able to predict in vivo bone formation with 96% accuracy was developed. This study illustrates the importance of defining and understanding CaP-activated signalling pathways that are required and sufficient for in vivo bone formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the reliability of mathematical modelling as a tool to analyse and deduce key factors within an empirical data set and highlight its relevance to the translation of regenerative medicine strategies. PMID:26901484
The formation of ammonium cobalt (II) phosphate was utilized to synthesize unprecedented 3D structures of Co3O4, triangular prisms and trunk-like structures, via a self-supported and organics-free method. The length of a triangular side of the prepared 3D triangular prisms is ~1...
Tanimoto, M; Yamamoto, T; Kimura, S; Komasa, N; Makihata, S; Yasutomi, N; Saito, Y; Kawai, Y; Iwasaki, T
1982-03-01
The changes of mitral valve echo and hemodynamic data [isovolumic relaxation time (IRT)/square root R-R, time constant T, peak positive dP/dt/P, left ventricular enddiastolic pressure (LVEDP) and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP] during acute pressure overload produced by aortic root obstruction were analyzed in 13 mongrel dogs under sodium pentbarbital anesthesia (25 mg/kg). IRT/square root R-R, time constant T, positive dP/dt and LVSP were expressed as percent changes to the value (=100%) of pre-pressure overload, LVEDP was expressed by an absolute value as mmHg. In 7 of 13 dogs, an abnormal diastolic monophasic triangular pattern of the mitral valve was observed during acute pressure overload of the left ventricle, and values of five hemodynamic data were compared between cases with or without the triangular pattern. The values of IRT/square root R-R, time constant T, positive dP/dt/P, LVSP amd LVEDP in cases with the triangular pattern became from 200 to 500% (275 +/- 100%), from 175 to 267% (220 +/- 50%), from 55 to 112% (81 +/- 21%), from 129 to 200% (59 +/- 21%) and from 7 to 33 mmHg (16 +/- 9 mmHg), respectively. The values of IRT/square root R-R, time constant T, positive dP/dt/P, LVSP and LVEDP in cases with the non-triangular pattern became from 116 to 155% (133 +/- 17%), from 116 to 154% (136 +/- 16%), from 111 to 186% (62 +/- 34%) and from 9 to 20 mmHg (9 +/- 6 mmHg), respectively. Thus, the values of IRT/square root R-R and time constant T were significantly different between the two groups. The possible explanation for the triangular pattern of the mitral valve seems to be due to impaired active relaxation system of the left ventricle resulting in a markedly delayed opening of the mitral valve. We conclude that early diastolic isovolumic relaxation of the left ventricle is impaired by acute pressure overload, and the echocardiographic diastolic monophasic triangular pattern of the mitral valve reflects this impairment. PMID:7119493
Highly efficient reflective Dammann grating with a triangular structure.
Wang, Jin; Zhou, Changhe; Ma, Jianyong; Zong, Yonghong; Jia, Wei
2016-07-01
A highly efficient reflective Dammann grating with a triangular structure operating at 1064 nm wavelength under normal incidence for TE polarization is designed and fabricated. Rigorous coupled wave analysis and particle swarm optimization algorithms are adopted to design and analyze the properties. The triangular reflective grating could cancel the 0th order, and the mechanism is clarified by the simplified modal method. The gratings are fabricated by direct laser writing lithography. The diffraction efficiency of fabricated grating is more than 86% at 1064 nm wavelength (97.6% in theory). This reflective grating should be a useful optical element in the field of high-power lasers as well as other reflective applications. PMID:27409211
Self-Avoiding Walks over Adaptive Triangular Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heber, Gerd; Biswas, Rupak; Gao, Guang R.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
In this paper, we present a new approach to constructing a "self-avoiding" walk through a triangular mesh. Unlike the popular approach of visiting mesh elements using space-filling curves which is based on a geometric embedding, our approach is combinatorial in the sense that it uses the mesh connectivity only. We present an algorithm for constructing a self-avoiding walk which can be applied to any unstructured triangular mesh. The complexity of the algorithm is O(n x log(n)), where n is the number of triangles in the mesh. We show that for hierarchical adaptive meshes, the algorithm can be easily parallelized by taking advantage of the regularity of the refinement rules. The proposed approach should be very useful in the run-time partitioning and load balancing of adaptive unstructured grids.
Vibration of clamped right triangular thin plates: Accurate simplified solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saliba, H. T.
1994-12-01
Use of the superposition techniques in the free-vibration analyses of thin plates, as they were first introduced by Gorman, has provided simple and effective solutions to a vast number of rectangular plate problems. The method has also been extended to nonrectangular plates such as triangular and trapezoidal plates. However, serious difficulties were encountered in some of these analyses. These difficulties were discussed and obviated in Salibra, 1990. This reference, however, dealt only with simple support conditions, leading to a simple, highly accurate, and very economical solution to the free-vibration problem of simply supported right angle triangular plates. The purpose of this Note is to show that the modified superposition method of Salibra, 1990 is also applicable to clamped-edge conditions. This is accomplished through the application of this method to the title problem.
A Novel Triangular Shaped UWB Fractal Antenna Using Circular Slot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahu, Babu Lal; Pal, Srikanta; Chattoraj, Neela
2016-03-01
The article presents the design of triangular shaped fractal based antenna with circular slot for ultra wideband (UWB) application. The antenna is fed using microstrip line and has overall dimension of 24×24×1.6 mm3. The proposed antenna is covering the wide frequency bandwidth of 2.99-11.16 GHz and is achieved using simple fractal based triangular-circular geometries and asymmetrical ground plane. The antenna is designed and parametrical studies are performed using method of moment (MOM) based Full Wave Electromagnetic (EM) software Simulator Zeland IE3D. The prototype of proposed antenna is fabricated and tested to compare the simulated and measured results of various antenna parameters. The antenna has good impedance bandwidth, nearly constant gain and stable radiation pattern. Measured return loss shows fair agreement with simulated one. Also measured group delay variation obtained is less than 1.0 ns, which proves good time domain behavior of the proposed antenna.
Mott Insulating Ground State on a Triangular Surface Lattice
Weitering, H.; Shi, X.; Weitering, H.; Johnson, P.; Chen, J.; DiNardo, N.; DiNardo, N.; Kempa, K.
1997-02-01
Momentum-resolved direct and inverse photoemission spectra of the K/Si(111)-({radical}(3){times}{radical}(3))R30{degree}-B interface reveals the presence of strongly localized surface states. The K overlayer remains nonmetallic up to the saturation coverage. This system most likely presents the first experimental realization of a frustrated spin 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Dual band triangular slotted stacked microstrip antenna for wireless applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Vinod; Ali, Zakir; Singh, Ashutosh; Ayub, Shahanaz
2013-06-01
In this paper stacked configuration of microstrip antenna is used to produce dual wide band which is suitable for various wireless applications. Using triangular slot and stacking of foam substrate of dielectric constant 1, two bands of bandwidth 18.70% and 12.10% is obtained. The antenna is fed by coaxial probe feeding technique. The proposed patch antenna is designed on the foam substrate and simulated on the Zeland IE3D software.
Triangular temporal alopecia: a rare case in adulthood.
Jutla, Simran; Patel, Vikas; Rajpara, Anand
2016-01-01
Triangular temporal alopecia (TTA) is an asymptomatic, circumscribed, non-scarring form of alopecia that affects the temporal scalp. Although TTA is most often seen between ages two and nine, the condition has rarely been described in adults. If unrecognized, adulthood TTA can be misdiagnosed, leading to unnecessary steroid treatment. This case report describes TTA in an adult woman who had no prior history of alopecia. It also reviews the existing TTA literature, describing the diagnosis and management of this condition. PMID:27136639
RNA folding on the 3D triangular lattice
2009-01-01
Background Difficult problems in structural bioinformatics are often studied in simple exact models to gain insights and to derive general principles. Protein folding, for example, has long been studied in the lattice model. Recently, researchers have also begun to apply the lattice model to the study of RNA folding. Results We present a novel method for predicting RNA secondary structures with pseudoknots: first simulate the folding dynamics of the RNA sequence on the 3D triangular lattice, next extract and select a set of disjoint base pairs from the best lattice conformation found by the folding simulation. Experiments on sequences from PseudoBase show that our prediction method outperforms the HotKnot algorithm of Ren, Rastegari, Condon and Hoos, a leading method for RNA pseudoknot prediction. Our method for RNA secondary structure prediction can be adapted into an efficient reconstruction method that, given an RNA sequence and an associated secondary structure, finds a conformation of the sequence on the 3D triangular lattice that realizes the base pairs in the secondary structure. We implemented a suite of computer programs for the simulation and visualization of RNA folding on the 3D triangular lattice. These programs come with detailed documentation and are accessible from the companion website of this paper at http://www.cs.usu.edu/~mjiang/rna/DeltaIS/. Conclusion Folding simulation on the 3D triangular lattice is effective method for RNA secondary structure prediction and lattice conformation reconstruction. The visualization software for the lattice conformations of RNA structures is a valuable tool for the study of RNA folding and is a great pedagogic device. PMID:19891777
A Step-Wise Approach to Elicit Triangular Distributions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenberg, Marc W.
2013-01-01
Adapt/combine known methods to demonstrate an expert judgment elicitation process that: 1.Models expert's inputs as a triangular distribution, 2.Incorporates techniques to account for expert bias and 3.Is structured in a way to help justify expert's inputs. This paper will show one way of "extracting" expert opinion for estimating purposes. Nevertheless, as with most subjective methods, there are many ways to do this.
New triangular and quadrilateral plate-bending finite elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narayanaswami, R.
1974-01-01
A nonconforming plate-bending finite element of triangular shape and associated quadrilateral elements are developed. The transverse displacement is approximated within the element by a quintic polynomial. The formulation takes into account the effects of transverse shear deformation. Results of the static and dynamic analysis of a square plate, with edges simply supported or clamped, are compared with exact solutions. Good accuracy is obtained in all calculations.
Development of Negative Triangularity Plasmas in DIII-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, M. L.
2015-11-01
We report on development of DIII-D electron cyclotron heated discharges with controlled negative triangularity plasma shapes, to evaluate the effect on electron heat transport in L-mode plasmas, as reported on TCV. Analysis of TCV data found that negative triangularity exerts a stabilizing influence on the trapped electron mode, the dominant instability in the conditions of those experiments. Major objectives of the DIII-D development are producing complementary plasmas, one with negative and one with positive triangularity, approximately symmetric in major radial coordinate and having similar density and current profiles. Major constraints include selection of plasma parameters and toroidal field to optimize fluctuation diagnostic measurements while preventing transition from L- to H-mode and deposition of EC heating power near the q=1 surface to limit sawteeth. Issues discussed are definition of control scenarios by which the pair of shapes are accessed and their resulting controllability under the constraints imposed by DIII-D shaping control. Supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.
Effective Lateral Canthal Lengthening with Triangular Rotation Flap
2016-01-01
In Korea, lateral canthoplasty, along with medial epicanthoplasty, has become popular over the past years to widen the horizontal length of the palpebral fissure. However, the effect of the surgery differs greatly depending on the shape and structure of the eyes. If over-widened, complications such as eversion, scarring, and conjunctival exposure may occur. Thus, the author of this study suggests a more effective and safe method for lateral canthal lengthening that causes minimal complications. A total of 236 patients underwent lateral canthoplasty between July 2007 and December 2015. For each patient, a triangular flap 4–5 mm away from the lateral canthus was elevated and rotated 45 degrees laterally while the continuity of the lower eyelid gray line was maintained. A new lateral canthus was created by fixating the rotation flap to the lateral orbital rim with minimal skin trimming and tension-free sutures, preventing relapse and maintaining a triangular shape. In more than 95% of cases, effective and satisfactory extension was achieved. On average, a 3 mm extension of the lateral canthus was achieved. There were minor complications such as wound dehiscence, webbing, and scarring, which were easily corrected. The author not only extended the lateral canthus 3–4 mm laterally but also maintained the continuity of the gray line on the lower lid as a more natural-looking triangular shape, while minimizing complications such as webbing and conjunctival exposure. PMID:27462562
Chéret, Antoine; Versmisse, Pierre; Nembot, Georges; Meyer, Laurence; Rouzioux, Christine; Pancino, Gianfranco; Venet, Alain; Sáez-Cirión, Asier
2013-01-01
The strong CD8+ T-cell-mediated HIV-1-suppressive capacity found in a minority of HIV-infected patients in chronic infection is associated with spontaneous control of viremia. However, it is still unclear whether such capacities were also present earlier in the CD8+ T cells from non controller patients and then lost as a consequence of uncontrolled viral replication. We studied 50 patients with primary HIV-1-infection to determine whether strong CD8+ T-cell-mediated HIV suppression is more often observed at that time. Despite high frequencies of polyfunctional HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells and a strong CD4+ T-helper response, CD8+ T-cells from 48 patients lacked strong HIV-suppressive capacities ex vivo. This indicates that the superior HIV-suppressive capacity of CD8+ T-cells from HIV controllers is not a general characteristic of the HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response in primary HIV infection. PMID:23555774
INTEGRATING A LINEAR INTERPOLATION FUNCTION ACROSS TRIANGULAR CELL BOUNDARIES
J. R. WISEMAN; J. S. BROCK
2000-04-01
Computational models of particle dynamics often exchange solution data with discretized continuum-fields using interpolation functions. These particle methods require a series expansion of the interpolation function for two purposes: numerical analysis used to establish the model's consistency and accuracy, and logical-coordinate evaluation used to locate particles within a grid. This report presents discrete-expansions for a linear interpolation function commonly used within triangular cell geometries. Discrete-expansions, unlike a Taylor's series, account for interpolation discontinuities across cell boundaries and, therefore, are valid throughout a discretized domain. Verification of linear discrete-expansions is demonstrated on a simple test problem.
The upwind control volume scheme for unstructured triangular grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giles, Michael; Anderson, W. Kyle; Roberts, Thomas W.
1989-01-01
A new algorithm for the numerical solution of the Euler equations is presented. This algorithm is particularly suited to the use of unstructured triangular meshes, allowing geometric flexibility. Solutions are second-order accurate in the steady state. Implementation of the algorithm requires minimal grid connectivity information, resulting in modest storage requirements, and should enhance the implementation of the scheme on massively parallel computers. A novel form of upwind differencing is developed, and is shown to yield sharp resolution of shocks. Two new artificial viscosity models are introduced that enhance the performance of the new scheme. Numerical results for transonic airfoil flows are presented, which demonstrate the performance of the algorithm.
Modelling of Motion of Bodies Near Triangular Lagrangian Points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobrov, O. A.
In this paper, we consider a system of three bodies connected by gravity, two of which are of comparable mass (the Sun and Jupiter), and the third is negligible and it is located in one of the triangular Lagrange points (restricted 3 - body problem). We used the equations of motion in a planar coordinate system that rotates together with massive bodies. Several programs have been written in the programming environment Pascal ABC, in order to build the trajectory of a small body, to indicate the osculating orbit around a massive body, to display equipotential surfaces.
Liquid Crystalline Networks Composed of Pentagonal, Square, and Triangular Cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Zeng, Xiangbing; Baumeister, Ute; Ungar, Goran; Tschierske, Carsten
2005-01-01
T-shaped molecules are designed in such a way that they self-organize into nanoscale liquid crystalline honeycombs based on polygons with any chosen number of sides. One of the phases reported here is a periodic organization of identical pentagonal cylinders; the other one is a structure composed of square-shaped and triangular cylinders in the ratio 2:1. These two different packing motifs represent duals of the same topological class. The generalization of the concept applied here allows the prediction of a whole range of unusual complex liquid crystalline phases.
Supersolid Phase with Cold Polar Molecules on a Triangular Lattice
Pollet, L.; Picon, J. D.; Buechler, H. P.; Troyer, M.
2010-03-26
We study a system of heteronuclear molecules on a triangular lattice and analyze the potential of this system for the experimental realization of a supersolid phase. The ground state phase diagram contains superfluid, solid, and supersolid phases. At finite temperatures and strong interactions there is an additional emulsion region, in contrast with similar models with short-range interactions. We derive the maximal critical temperature T{sub c} and the corresponding entropy S/N=0.04(1) for supersolidity and find feasible experimental conditions for its realization.
Vibration of clamped right triangular thin plates: Accurate simplified solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saliba, H. T.
1994-12-01
Use of the superposition techniques in the free-vibration analyses of thin plates, as they were first introduced by Gorman, has provided simple and effective solutions to a vast number of rectangular plate problems. A modified superposition method is presented that is a noticeable improvement over existing techniques. It deals only with simple support conditions, leading to a simple, highly accurate, and very economical solution to the free-vibration problem of simply-supported right angle triangular plates. The modified method is also applicable to clamped-edge conditions.
Charge frustration in a triangular triple quantum dot.
Seo, M; Choi, H K; Lee, S-Y; Kim, N; Chung, Y; Sim, H-S; Umansky, V; Mahalu, D
2013-01-25
We experimentally investigate the charge (isospin) frustration induced by a geometrical symmetry in a triangular triple quantum dot. We observe the ground-state charge configurations of sixfold degeneracy, the manifestation of the frustration. The frustration results in omnidirectional charge transport, and it is accompanied by nearby nontrivial triple degenerate states in the charge stability diagram. The findings agree with a capacitive interaction model. We also observe unusual transport by the frustration, which might be related to elastic cotunneling and the interference of trajectories through the dot. This work demonstrates a unique way of studying geometrical frustration in a controllable way. PMID:25166188
Triangular preconditioners for saddle point problems with a penalty term
Klawonn, A.
1996-12-31
Triangular preconditioners for a class of saddle point problems with a penalty term are considered. An important example is the mixed formulation of the pure displacement problem in linear elasticity. It is shown that the spectrum of the preconditioned system is contained in a real, positive interval, and that the interval bounds can be made independent of the discretization and penalty parameters. This fact is used to construct bounds of the convergence rate of the GMRES method used with an energy norm. Numerical results are given for GMRES and BI-CGSTAB.
Efficient demagnetization protocol for the artificial triangular spin ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, J. H.; Mól, L. A. S.; Moura-Melo, W. A.; Pereira, A. R.
2013-08-01
In this work, we study demagnetization protocols for an artificial spin ice in a triangular geometry. Our results show that a simple hysteresis-like process is very efficient in driving the system to its ground state, even for a relatively strong disorder in the system, confirming previous expectations. In addition, transitions between the magnetized state and the ground state were observed to be mediated by the creation and propagation of vertices that behave like magnetic monopoles pseudo-particles. This is an important step towards a more detailed experimental study of monopole-like excitations in artificial spin ice systems.
Fuzzy Γ-Hyperideals in Γ-Hypersemirings by Using Triangular Norms
Ersoy, B. A.; Davvaz, B.; Onar, S.; Leoreanu-Fotea, V.
2014-01-01
The concept of Γ-semihyperrings was introduced by Dehkordi and Davvaz as a generalization of semirings, semihyperrings, and Γ-semiring. In this paper, by using the notion of triangular norms, we define the concept of triangular fuzzy sub-Γ-semihyperrings as well as triangular fuzzy Γ-hyperideals of a Γ-semihyperring, and we study a few results in this respect. PMID:24967434
Honeycomb and triangular domain wall networks in heteroepitaxial systems.
Elder, K R; Chen, Z; Elder, K L M; Hirvonen, P; Mkhonta, S K; Ying, S-C; Granato, E; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Ala-Nissila, T
2016-05-01
A comprehensive study is presented for the influence of misfit strain, adhesion strength, and lattice symmetry on the complex Moiré patterns that form in ultrathin films of honeycomb symmetry adsorbed on compact triangular or honeycomb substrates. The method used is based on a complex Ginzburg-Landau model of the film that incorporates elastic strain energy and dislocations. The results indicate that different symmetries of the heteroepitaxial systems lead to distinct types of domain wall networks and phase transitions among various surface Moiré patterns and superstructures. More specifically, the results show a dramatic difference between the phase diagrams that emerge when a honeycomb film is adsorbed on substrates of honeycomb versus triangular symmetry. It is also shown that in the small deformation limit, the complex Ginzburg-Landau model reduces to a two-dimensional sine-Gordon free energy form. This free energy can be solved exactly for one dimensional patterns and reveals the role of domains walls and their crossings in determining the nature of the phase diagrams. PMID:27155643
Honeycomb and triangular domain wall networks in heteroepitaxial systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elder, K. R.; Chen, Z.; Elder, K. L. M.; Hirvonen, P.; Mkhonta, S. K.; Ying, S.-C.; Granato, E.; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Ala-Nissila, T.
2016-05-01
A comprehensive study is presented for the influence of misfit strain, adhesion strength, and lattice symmetry on the complex Moiré patterns that form in ultrathin films of honeycomb symmetry adsorbed on compact triangular or honeycomb substrates. The method used is based on a complex Ginzburg-Landau model of the film that incorporates elastic strain energy and dislocations. The results indicate that different symmetries of the heteroepitaxial systems lead to distinct types of domain wall networks and phase transitions among various surface Moiré patterns and superstructures. More specifically, the results show a dramatic difference between the phase diagrams that emerge when a honeycomb film is adsorbed on substrates of honeycomb versus triangular symmetry. It is also shown that in the small deformation limit, the complex Ginzburg-Landau model reduces to a two-dimensional sine-Gordon free energy form. This free energy can be solved exactly for one dimensional patterns and reveals the role of domains walls and their crossings in determining the nature of the phase diagrams.
Triangular Black Phosphorus Atomic Layers by Liquid Exfoliation
Seo, Soonjoo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Kim, Yooseok; Kim, Hyeran; Bang, Junhyeok; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youngjun; Park, Byoungnam; Lee, Jouhahn
2016-01-01
Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is the most promising material among the two-dimensional materials due to its layered structure and the excellent semiconductor properties. Currently, thin BP atomic layers are obtained mostly by mechanical exfoliation of bulk BP, which limits applications in thin-film based electronics due to a scaling process. Here we report highly crystalline few-layer black phosphorus thin films produced by liquid exfoliation. We demonstrate that the liquid-exfoliated BP forms a triangular crystalline structure on SiO2/Si (001) and amorphous carbon. The highly crystalline BP layers are faceted with a preferred orientation of the (010) plane on the sharp edge, which is an energetically most favorable facet according to the density functional theory calculations. Our results can be useful in understanding the triangular BP structure for large-area applications in electronic devices using two-dimensional materials. The sensitivity and selectivity of liquid-exfoliated BP to gas vapor demonstrate great potential for practical applications as sensors. PMID:27026070
Triangular Black Phosphorus Atomic Layers by Liquid Exfoliation.
Seo, Soonjoo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Kim, Yooseok; Kim, Hyeran; Bang, Junhyeok; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youngjun; Park, Byoungnam; Lee, Jouhahn
2016-01-01
Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is the most promising material among the two-dimensional materials due to its layered structure and the excellent semiconductor properties. Currently, thin BP atomic layers are obtained mostly by mechanical exfoliation of bulk BP, which limits applications in thin-film based electronics due to a scaling process. Here we report highly crystalline few-layer black phosphorus thin films produced by liquid exfoliation. We demonstrate that the liquid-exfoliated BP forms a triangular crystalline structure on SiO2/Si (001) and amorphous carbon. The highly crystalline BP layers are faceted with a preferred orientation of the (010) plane on the sharp edge, which is an energetically most favorable facet according to the density functional theory calculations. Our results can be useful in understanding the triangular BP structure for large-area applications in electronic devices using two-dimensional materials. The sensitivity and selectivity of liquid-exfoliated BP to gas vapor demonstrate great potential for practical applications as sensors. PMID:27026070
Triangular Black Phosphorus Atomic Layers by Liquid Exfoliation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Soonjoo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Kim, Yooseok; Kim, Hyeran; Bang, Junhyeok; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youngjun; Park, Byoungnam; Lee, Jouhahn
2016-03-01
Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is the most promising material among the two-dimensional materials due to its layered structure and the excellent semiconductor properties. Currently, thin BP atomic layers are obtained mostly by mechanical exfoliation of bulk BP, which limits applications in thin-film based electronics due to a scaling process. Here we report highly crystalline few-layer black phosphorus thin films produced by liquid exfoliation. We demonstrate that the liquid-exfoliated BP forms a triangular crystalline structure on SiO2/Si (001) and amorphous carbon. The highly crystalline BP layers are faceted with a preferred orientation of the (010) plane on the sharp edge, which is an energetically most favorable facet according to the density functional theory calculations. Our results can be useful in understanding the triangular BP structure for large-area applications in electronic devices using two-dimensional materials. The sensitivity and selectivity of liquid-exfoliated BP to gas vapor demonstrate great potential for practical applications as sensors.
RKKY interaction in triangular MoS2 nanoflakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mastrogiuseppe, Diego; Avalos-Ovando, Oscar; Ulloa, Sergio
Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MoS2, possess unique electronic and optical properties, making them promising for optospintronics. Exfoliation and CVD growth processes produce nanoflakes of different shapes, often triangular with zigzag edges. Magnetic impurities in this material interact indirectly through the TMD conduction electrons/holes. Using an effective 3-orbital tight-binding model, we study the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction between magnetic impurities in p-doped triangular flakes with zigzag termination. We analyze the interaction as function of impurity separation along high symmetry directions in the nanoflake, considering hybridization to different Mo orbitals, and different fillings. The interaction is anisotropic for impurities in the interior of the flake. However, when impurities lie on the edges of the crystallite, the effective exchange is Ising-like, reflecting the presence of z2-orbitals associated with edge states. Other interactions are possible by selecting impurity positions and orbital character of the states in their neighborhood. Our results can be tested with local probes, such as spin-polarized STM Supported by NSF DMR-1508325.
SHIFT: a distributed runoff model using irregular triangular facets*1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palacios-Vélez, Oscar Luis; Cuevas-Renaud, Baltasar
1992-06-01
SHIFT (Sistema HIdrológico de Facetas Triangulares) is a computational system that allows for the: (1) creation, editing and visualization of a watershed Digital Elevation Model (DEM), based on the Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) concepts; (2) input and interpolation of soil, river-bed, and rainfall data; and (3) calculation and routing of runoff in all the facets and reaches. The TIN DEM model is constructed from a set of points, where the slope changes abruptly. Afterwards, the drainage network is automatically identified and an interactive editor allows the addition or deletion of points to eliminate network discontinuities. Rainfall data are interpolated by means of a procedure based on the minimization of the bending energy of a thin plate. In order to calculate and route the runoff, the system determines the routing sequence of river segments and for each one: identifies the facets forming the contributing area; and determines a cascade of overland flow planes. Then, for each element and time interval, the system calculates the infiltration and routes the resultant runoff by a numerical solution of the kinematic wave equations. This information is saved and the user can see the hydrograph for any facet or reach.
Triangular covariance factorizations for. Ph.D. Thesis. - Calif. Univ.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, C. L.
1976-01-01
An improved computational form of the discrete Kalman filter is derived using an upper triangular factorization of the error covariance matrix. The covariance P is factored such that P = UDUT where U is unit upper triangular and D is diagonal. Recursions are developed for propagating the U-D covariance factors together with the corresponding state estimate. The resulting algorithm, referred to as the U-D filter, combines the superior numerical precision of square root filtering techniques with an efficiency comparable to that of Kalman's original formula. Moreover, this method is easily implemented and involves no more computer storage than the Kalman algorithm. These characteristics make the U-D method an attractive realtime filtering technique. A new covariance error analysis technique is obtained from an extension of the U-D filter equations. This evaluation method is flexible and efficient and may provide significantly improved numerical results. Cost comparisons show that for a large class of problems the U-D evaluation algorithm is noticeably less expensive than conventional error analysis methods.
Electron sharing and anion-π recognition in molecular triangular prisms.
Schneebeli, Severin T; Frasconi, Marco; Liu, Zhichang; Wu, Yilei; Gardner, Daniel M; Strutt, Nathan L; Cheng, Chuyang; Carmieli, Raanan; Wasielewski, Michael R; Stoddart, J Fraser
2013-12-01
Stacking on a full belly: Triangular molecular prisms display electron sharing among their triangularly arranged naphthalenediimide (NDI) redox centers. Their electron-deficient cavities encapsulate linear triiodide anions, leading to the formation of supramolecular helices in the solid state. Chirality transfer is observed from the six chiral centers of the filled prisms to the single-handed helices. PMID:24227594
26 CFR 1.358-6 - Stock basis in certain triangular reorganizations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock basis in certain triangular reorganizations. 1.358-6 Section 1.358-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.358-6 Stock basis in certain triangular...
Triangular flow in relativstic heavy ion collisions in an event-by-event hybrid approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petersen, Hannah; La Placa, Rolando; Bass, Steffen A.
2012-09-01
Triangular flow has been shown to be an interesting new observable to gain insights about the properties of hot and dense strongly interacting matter as it is produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. The potential of triangular flow for constraining the initial state granularity is explored by performing an explicit calculation of the triangularity and the final state anisotropic flow for initial states that exhibit different amounts of fluctuations. We present triangular flow results for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy calculated in a hybrid approach that includes a non-equilibrium initial evolution and an ideal hydrodynamic expansion with a hadronic afterburner in 3+1 dimensions. Triangular flow results for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies employing the same parameters that work at RHIC are compared to ALICE data. In addition, by comparing the hybrid approach calculation with a pure transport approach, the influence of viscosity is studied.
Factorizable Upwind Schemes: the Triangular Unstructured Grid Formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.; Sidilkover, David
2001-01-01
The upwind factorizable schemes for the equations of fluid was introduced recently. They facilitate achieving the Textbook Multigrid Efficiency (TME) and are expected also to result in the solvers of unparalleled robustness. The approach itself is very general. Therefore, it may well become a general framework for the large-scale Computational Fluid Dynamics. In this paper we outline the triangular grid formulation of the factorizable schemes. The derivation is based on the fact that the factorizable schemes can be expressed entirely using vector notation, without explicitly mentioning a particular coordinate frame. We describe the resulting discrete scheme in detail and present some computational results verifying the basic properties of the scheme/solver.
Quantum Paramagnet in a π Flux Triangular Lattice Hubbard Model.
Rachel, Stephan; Laubach, Manuel; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny
2015-04-24
We propose the π flux triangular lattice Hubbard model (π THM) as a prototypical setup to stabilize magnetically disordered quantum states of matter in the presence of charge fluctuations. The quantum paramagnetic domain of the π THM that we identify for intermediate Hubbard U is framed by a Dirac semimetal for weak coupling and by 120° Néel order for strong coupling. Generalizing the Klein duality from spin Hamiltonians to tight-binding models, the π THM maps to a Hubbard model which corresponds to the (J_{H},J_{K})=(-1,2) Heisenberg-Kitaev model in its strong coupling limit. The π THM provides a promising microscopic testing ground for exotic finite-U spin liquid ground states amenable to numerical investigation. PMID:25955072
Factorizable Upwind Schemes: The Triangular Unstructured Grid Formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sidilkover, David; Nielsen, Eric J.
2001-01-01
The upwind factorizable schemes for the equations of fluid were introduced recently. They facilitate achieving the Textbook Multigrid Efficiency (TME) and are expected also to result in the solvers of unparalleled robustness. The approach itself is very general. Therefore, it may well become a general framework for the large-scale, Computational Fluid Dynamics. In this paper we outline the triangular grid formulation of the factorizable schemes. The derivation is based on the fact that the factorizable schemes can be expressed entirely using vector notation. without explicitly mentioning a particular coordinate frame. We, describe the resulting discrete scheme in detail and present some computational results verifying the basic properties of the scheme/solver.
A triangular thin shell finite element: Nonlinear analysis. [structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, G. R.; Gallagher, R. H.
1975-01-01
Aspects of the formulation of a triangular thin shell finite element which pertain to geometrically nonlinear (small strain, finite displacement) behavior are described. The procedure for solution of the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations combines a one-step incremental (tangent stiffness) approach with one iteration in the Newton-Raphson mode. A method is presented which permits a rational estimation of step size in this procedure. Limit points are calculated by means of a superposition scheme coupled to the incremental side of the solution procedure while bifurcation points are calculated through a process of interpolation of the determinants of the tangent-stiffness matrix. Numerical results are obtained for a flat plate and two curved shell problems and are compared with alternative solutions.
A triangular thin shell finite element: Linear analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, G. R.; Gallagher, R. H.
1975-01-01
The formulation of the linear stiffness matrix for a doubly-curved triangular thin shell element, using a modified potential energy principle, is described. The strain energy component of the potential energy is expressed in terms of displacements and displacement gradients by use of consistent Koiter strain-displacement equations. The element inplane and normal displacement fields are approximated by complete cubic polynomials. The interelement displacement admissibility conditions are met in the global representation by imposition of constraint conditions on the interelement boundaries; the constraints represent the modification of the potential energy. Errors due to the nonzero strains under rigid body motion are shown to be of small importance for practical grid refinements through performance of extensive comparison analyses.
Spin Fluctuations from Hertz to Terahertz on a Triangular Lattice.
Nambu, Yusuke; Gardner, Jason S; MacLaughlin, Douglas E; Stock, Chris; Endo, Hitoshi; Jonas, Seth; Sato, Taku J; Nakatsuji, Satoru; Broholm, Collin
2015-09-18
The temporal magnetic correlations of the triangular-lattice antiferromagnet NiGa_{2}S_{4} are examined through 13 decades (10^{-13}-1 sec) using ultrahigh-resolution inelastic neutron scattering, muon spin relaxation, and ac and nonlinear susceptibility measurements. Unlike the short-ranged spatial correlations, the temperature dependence of the temporal correlations show distinct anomalies. The spin fluctuation rate decreases precipitously upon cooling towards T^{*}=8.5 K, but fluctuations on the microsecond time scale then persist in an anomalous dynamical regime for 4 K
Spin Liquid in the Triangular Lattice Heisenberg Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCulloch, Ian; Saadatmand, Seyed
We report the results of a large-scale numerical study of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice, with nearest- and next-nearest neighbor interactions. Using SU(2)-invariant iDMRG for infinite cylinders, we focus on the YC12 structure (with a circumference of 12 sites), and obtain 4 candidate groundstates, corresponding to even/odd spinon sectors, each with linear and projective representations of the cylinder geometry. The momentum-resolved entanglement spectrum reveals the structure of the low-lying spinon excitations. Contrary to some recent works, we find no evidence for chiral symmetry breaking. Supported by the ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems.
A transient, quadratic nodal method for triangular-Z geometry
DeLorey, T.F.
1993-06-01
Many systematically-derived nodal methods have been developed for Cartesian geometry due to the extensive interest in Light Water Reactors. These methods typically model the transverse-integrated flux as either an analytic or low order polynomial function of position within the node. Recently, quadratic nodal methods have been developed for R-Z and hexagonal geometry. A static and transient quadratic nodal method is developed for triangular-Z geometry. This development is particularly challenging because the quadratic expansion in each node must be performed between the node faces and the triangular points. As a consequence, in the 2-D plane, the flux and current at the points of the triangles must be treated. Quadratic nodal equations are solved using a non-linear iteration scheme, which utilizes the corrected, mesh-centered finite difference equations, and forces these equations to match the quadratic equations by computing discontinuity factors during the solution. Transient nodal equations are solved using the improved quasi-static method, which has been shown to be a very efficient solution method for transient problems. Several static problems are used to compare the quadratic nodal method to the Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) method. The quadratic method is shown to give more accurate node-averaged fluxes. However, it appears that the method has difficulty predicting node leakages near reactor boundaries and severe material interfaces. The consequence is that the eigenvalue may be poorly predicted for certain reactor configurations. The transient methods are tested using a simple analytic test problem, a heterogeneous heavy water reactor benchmark problem, and three thermal hydraulic test problems. Results indicate that the transient methods have been implemented correctly.
Goff, Brandon Jesse; Naber, Jeremy Wingseng; McCallin, John Patrick; Lopez, Edward Michael; Guthmiller, Kevin Brant; Lautenschlager, Karl Alan; Lai, Tristan Toll; Hommer, Dean Harry; Marin, Gonzalez Raul
2014-01-01
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain condition that is characterized by vasomotor, sensory, sudomotor, and motor symptoms. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been successfully utilized for the treatment of pain refractory to conventional therapies. We present a case of a previously highly functioning 54-year-old female who developed a rarely reported case of idiopathic CRPS of the right ankle which spontaneously occurred four months after an uncomplicated anterior cervical disc fusion. This condition resulted in severe pain and functional impairment that was unresponsive to pharmacological management. The patient's rehabilitation was severely stymied by her excruciating pain. However, with the initiation of spinal cord stimulation, her pain was adequately controlled allowing for progression to full unassisted ambulation, advancing functional capacity, and improving quality of life. This case report supports the concept that rapid progression to neuromodulation, rather than delays that occur due to attempts at serial sympathetic blocks, may better control symptoms leading allowing for a more meaningful recovery. PMID:25525522
Goff, Brandon Jesse; Naber, Jeremy Wingseng; McCallin, John Patrick; Lopez, Edward Michael; Guthmiller, Kevin Brant; Lautenschlager, Karl Alan; Lai, Tristan Toll; Hommer, Dean Harry; Marin, Gonzalez Raul
2014-01-01
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain condition that is characterized by vasomotor, sensory, sudomotor, and motor symptoms. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been successfully utilized for the treatment of pain refractory to conventional therapies. We present a case of a previously highly functioning 54-year-old female who developed a rarely reported case of idiopathic CRPS of the right ankle which spontaneously occurred four months after an uncomplicated anterior cervical disc fusion. This condition resulted in severe pain and functional impairment that was unresponsive to pharmacological management. The patient's rehabilitation was severely stymied by her excruciating pain. However, with the initiation of spinal cord stimulation, her pain was adequately controlled allowing for progression to full unassisted ambulation, advancing functional capacity, and improving quality of life. This case report supports the concept that rapid progression to neuromodulation, rather than delays that occur due to attempts at serial sympathetic blocks, may better control symptoms leading allowing for a more meaningful recovery. PMID:25525522
A Generalization of the Formula for the Triangular Number of the Sum and Product of Natural Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asiru, M. A.
2008-01-01
This note generalizes the formula for the triangular number of the sum and product of two natural numbers to similar results for the triangular number of the sum and product of "r" natural numbers. The formula is applied to derive formula for the sum of an odd and an even number of consecutive triangular numbers.
Tourette, Cendrine; Farina, Francesca; Vazquez-Manrique, Rafael P; Orfila, Anne-Marie; Voisin, Jessica; Hernandez, Sonia; Offner, Nicolas; Parker, J Alex; Menet, Sophie; Kim, Jinho; Lyu, Jungmok; Choi, Si Ho; Cormier, Kerry; Edgerly, Christina K; Bordiuk, Olivia L; Smith, Karen; Louise, Anne; Halford, Michael; Stacker, Steven; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Ferrante, Robert J; Lu, Wange; Neri, Christian
2014-06-01
The Wnt receptor Ryk is an evolutionary-conserved protein important during neuronal differentiation through several mechanisms, including γ-secretase cleavage and nuclear translocation of its intracellular domain (Ryk-ICD). Although the Wnt pathway may be neuroprotective, the role of Ryk in neurodegenerative disease remains unknown. We found that Ryk is up-regulated in neurons expressing mutant huntingtin (HTT) in several models of Huntington's disease (HD). Further investigation in Caenorhabditis elegans and mouse striatal cell models of HD provided a model in which the early-stage increase of Ryk promotes neuronal dysfunction by repressing the neuroprotective activity of the longevity-promoting factor FOXO through a noncanonical mechanism that implicates the Ryk-ICD fragment and its binding to the FOXO co-factor β-catenin. The Ryk-ICD fragment suppressed neuroprotection by lin-18/Ryk loss-of-function in expanded-polyQ nematodes, repressed FOXO transcriptional activity, and abolished β-catenin protection of mutant htt striatal cells against cell death vulnerability. Additionally, Ryk-ICD was increased in the nucleus of mutant htt cells, and reducing γ-secretase PS1 levels compensated for the cytotoxicity of full-length Ryk in these cells. These findings reveal that the Ryk-ICD pathway may impair FOXO protective activity in mutant polyglutamine neurons, suggesting that neurons are unable to efficiently maintain function and resist disease from the earliest phases of the pathogenic process in HD. PMID:24960609
Temel, Metin; Gunal, Ertan; Kahraman, Serif Samil
2016-06-01
Congenital isolated alar defects are extremely rare, occurring in approximately 1 in 20,000 to 40,000 live births. The patients are presented here of 2 pediatric patients operated on for congenital isolated alar defect. The reconstruction of congenital isolated alar defects was made in a 3-layered fashion. The skin defects were covered using the Mutaf triangular closure technique in which 2 cutaneous local flaps are designed in an unequal Z-plasty manner. Conchal cartilage graft was used between the skin and mucosal closure to replace the missing part of the lower lateral cartilage in these patients. The early results were promising in Patient 1, but sufficient improvement was detected in the alar cartilage postoperative follow-up period in Patient 2. Hence, this patient required revision 1 to 2 years postoperatively. This technique provides excellent aesthetic and functional results, except for this problem in Tessier 2 cleft patients. The use of the Stair step flap technique with Mutaf triangle closure technique achieved cosmetically and functionally excellent results in the reconstruction and repair of a large, irregular, narrow cleft, in the inadequate rotation of the lateral part of the lower lateral cartilage. However, because of this problem, evaluation of the long-term follow-up of patients is necessary. PMID:27192642
EPDM Based Double Slope Triangular Enclosure Solar Collector: A Novel Approach
Qureshi, Shafiq R.; Khan, Waqar A.
2014-01-01
Solar heating is one of the important utilities of solar energy both in domestic and industrial sectors. Evacuated tube heaters are a commonly used technology for domestic water heating. However, increasing cost of copper and nickel has resulted in huge initial cost for these types of heaters. Utilizing solar energy more economically for domestic use requires new concept which has low initial and operating costs together with ease of maintainability. As domestic heating requires only nominal heating temperature to the range of 60–90°C, therefore replacing nickel coated copper pipes with any cheap alternate can drastically reduce the cost of solar heater. We have proposed a new concept which utilizes double slope triangular chamber with EPDM based synthetic rubber pipes. This has reduced the initial and operating costs substantially. A detailed analytical study was carried out to design a novel solar heater. On the basis of analytical design, a prototype was manufactured. Results obtained from the experiments were found to be in good agreement with the analytical study. A maximum error of 10% was recorded at noon. However, results show that error is less than 5% in early and late hours. PMID:24688407
EPDM based double slope triangular enclosure solar collector: a novel approach.
Qureshi, Shafiq R; Khan, Waqar A; Sarwar, Waqas
2014-01-01
Solar heating is one of the important utilities of solar energy both in domestic and industrial sectors. Evacuated tube heaters are a commonly used technology for domestic water heating. However, increasing cost of copper and nickel has resulted in huge initial cost for these types of heaters. Utilizing solar energy more economically for domestic use requires new concept which has low initial and operating costs together with ease of maintainability. As domestic heating requires only nominal heating temperature to the range of 60-90 °C, therefore replacing nickel coated copper pipes with any cheap alternate can drastically reduce the cost of solar heater. We have proposed a new concept which utilizes double slope triangular chamber with EPDM based synthetic rubber pipes. This has reduced the initial and operating costs substantially. A detailed analytical study was carried out to design a novel solar heater. On the basis of analytical design, a prototype was manufactured. Results obtained from the experiments were found to be in good agreement with the analytical study. A maximum error of 10% was recorded at noon. However, results show that error is less than 5% in early and late hours. PMID:24688407
Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Rybczynski, J.; Wang, D.Z.; Kempa, K.; Ren, Z.F.
2005-04-11
Self-assembly of polystyrene microspheres has been utilized in a two-step masking technique to prepare triangular lattices of catalytic nanodots at low cost. Subsequent triangular lattices of aligned carbon nanotubes on a silicon substrate are achieved by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Nickel is used both in the nanodots and in the secondary mask. The triangular lattices of carbon nanotube arrays as two-dimensional photonic crystals show higher geometrical symmetry than the hexagonal lattices previously reported, enabling broader applications including negative index of refraction and subwavelength lensing effect.
Multi-domain electromagnetic absorption of triangular quantum rings.
Sitek, Anna; Thorgilsson, Gunnar; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Manolescu, Andrei
2016-06-01
We present a theoretical study of the unielectronic energy spectra, electron localization, and optical absorption of triangular core-shell quantum rings. We show how these properties depend on geometric details of the triangle, such as side thickness or corners' symmetry. For equilateral triangles, the lowest six energy states (including spin) are grouped in an energy shell, are localized only around corner areas, and are separated by a large energy gap from the states with higher energy which are localized on the sides of the triangle. The energy levels strongly depend on the aspect ratio of the triangle sides, i.e., thickness/length ratio, in such a way that the energy differences are not monotonous functions of this ratio. In particular, the energy gap between the group of states localized in corners and the states localized on the sides strongly decreases with increasing the side thickness, and then slightly increases for thicker samples. With increasing the thickness the low-energy shell remains distinct but the spatial distribution of these states spreads. The behavior of the energy levels and localization leads to a thickness-dependent absorption spectrum where one transition may be tuned in the THz domain and a second transition can be tuned from THz to the infrared range of electromagnetic spectrum. We show how these features may be further controlled with an external magnetic field. In this work the electron-electron Coulomb repulsion is neglected. PMID:27102909
Morphological Transitions of Droplets Wetting a Series of Triangular Grooves.
Dokowicz, Marcin; Nowicki, Waldemar
2016-07-19
Morphology and thermodynamics of a microdroplet deposited on a grooved inhomogeneous surface with triangular cross section of the grooves were studied by computer simulations with the use of Surface Evolver program. With increasing volume of the droplet, it initially spreads along the series of grooves assuming the filament-like morphology. After reaching a certain volume, the surface wetted by the droplet is reduced and the droplet assumes the bulge morphology or spreads over the surface bordering on the groove initially occupied (it can be either a neighboring groove or a flat surface). The character of the process is determined by the geometry of the edge of the inhomogeneity studied. The effect described also depends on the number of grooves G and the Young contact angle θY. The change in the shape of the droplet becomes more pronounced with decreasing θY and G. Above a certain number of grooves, in the range of contact angles studied (e.g., G > 6 if θY = 70° and G > 4 if θY = 75°), no morphological transition of the droplet was observed. PMID:27347695
Fluid Interfaces of Triangular Containers in Reduced Gravity Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guttromson, Jayleen; Manning, Robert; Collicott, Steven H.
2002-01-01
Capillary dominated fluid dynamics will be examined in a reduced-gravity environment onboard the KC-135; in particular, the behavior of the lower portion of the meniscus in triangular tank geometries. Seven clear acrylic tanks were constructed to view seven angles of the four geometries. Silicon oil with two different viscosities, 2cs and 5cs silicon oil, were used on different days of the flight. Six tanks and one control tank are filled with a certain viscosity fluid for each flight day. During each parabola, three tanks are tested at time. The experimental tanks are exchanged between parabola sets on the KC-135. The 60deg -60deg -60deg control tank is viewed throughout the flight. To gather data, two digital video cameras and one digital still camera are placed perpendicular the viewing surface. To provide a greater contrast in the meniscus, an EL backlighting sheet was used to backlight the tanks. These images and video are then digitized, passed through NASA's mini-tracker software, and compared to a theory published my M. M. Weislogel, "Fluid Interface Phenomena in a Low-Gravity Environment: Recent Results from Drop Tower Experimentation." By focusing on a lower portion of the meniscus and using longer periods of reduced gravity, this experiment may confirm that a stationary point exists on the fluid surface. This information will enable better designing of propellant management devices, especially satellite propellant refilling and gas venting. Also, biological and material processing systems in reduced gravity environments will benefit from this data.
A Compact Shape Descriptor for Triangular Surface Meshes
Gao, Zhanheng; Yu, Zeyun; Pang, Xiaoli
2014-01-01
Three-dimensional shape-based descriptors have been widely used in object recognition and database retrieval. In the current work, we present a novel method called compact Shape-DNA (cShape-DNA) to describe the shape of a triangular surface mesh. While the original Shape-DNA technique provides an effective and isometric-invariant descriptor for surface shapes, the number of eigenvalues used is typically large. To further reduce the space and time consumptions, especially for large-scale database applications, it is of great interest to find a more compact way to describe an arbitrary surface shape. In the present approach, the standard Shape-DNA is first computed from the given mesh and then processed by surface area-based normalization and line subtraction. The proposed cShape-DNA descriptor is composed of some low frequencies of the discrete Fourier transform of the processed Shape-DNA. Several experiments are shown to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the cShape-DNA method on 3D shape analysis, particularly on shape comparison and classification. PMID:24910467
Triangular dislocation: an analytical, artefact-free solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikkhoo, Mehdi; Walter, Thomas R.
2015-05-01
Displacements and stress-field changes associated with earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and human activity are often simulated using numerical models in an attempt to understand the underlying processes and their governing physics. The application of elastic dislocation theory to these problems, however, may be biased because of numerical instabilities in the calculations. Here, we present a new method that is free of artefact singularities and numerical instabilities in analytical solutions for triangular dislocations (TDs) in both full-space and half-space. We apply the method to both the displacement and the stress fields. The entire 3-D Euclidean space {R}3 is divided into two complementary subspaces, in the sense that in each one, a particular analytical formulation fulfils the requirements for the ideal, artefact-free solution for a TD. The primary advantage of the presented method is that the development of our solutions involves neither numerical approximations nor series expansion methods. As a result, the final outputs are independent of the scale of the input parameters, including the size and position of the dislocation as well as its corresponding slip vector components. Our solutions are therefore well suited for application at various scales in geoscience, physics and engineering. We validate the solutions through comparison to other well-known analytical methods and provide the MATLAB codes.
Electric generator using a triangular diamagnetic levitating rotor system.
Ho, Joe Nhut; Wang, Wei-Chih
2009-02-01
This paper describes a feasibility study of creating a small low friction and low maintenance generator using a diamagnetically stabilized levitating rotor. The planar rotor described in this paper uses a triangular configuration of magnets that generates emf by passing over coils placed below the rotor. Equations were developed to predict the generated emf from coils with two different coil geometries. Additionally, this paper provides a method for estimating optimal coil size and position for the planar rotor presented for both segmental arc and circular coils to obtain maximum power output. Experiments demonstrated that the emf generated in the coils matches well with the predicted wave forms for each case, and the optimization theory gives good prediction to outcome of induced waveforms. For the segmental arc coil design, the induced emf was 1.7 mV at a radial frequency of 21.8 rad/s. For the circular coil design, the emf was 1.25 mV at a radial frequency of 28.1 rad/s. PMID:19256668
Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup
2013-08-01
Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P∞ and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P∞ and S, the critical exponents βk and γk for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, βk and γk are the critical exponents for P∞ and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are β2 = 1.79(3), γ2 = 0.88(1), β3 = 1.35(5) and γ3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (β∞ = 1 and γ∞ = 1), we also find β∞ < β3 < β2 and γ∞ > γ3 > γ2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.
Low-Reynolds number compressible flow around a triangular airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munday, Phillip; Taira, Kunihiko; Suwa, Tetsuya; Numata, Daiju; Asai, Keisuke
2013-11-01
We report on the combined numerical and experimental effort to analyze the nonlinear aerodynamics of a triangular airfoil in low-Reynolds number compressible flow that is representative of wings on future Martian air vehicles. The flow field around this airfoil is examined for a wide range of angles of attack and Mach numbers with three-dimensional direct numerical simulations at Re = 3000 . Companion experiments are conducted in a unique Martian wind tunnel that is placed in a vacuum chamber to simulate the Martian atmosphere. Computational findings are compared with pressure sensitive paint and direct force measurements and are found to be in agreement. The separated flow from the leading edge is found to form a large leading-edge vortex that sits directly above the apex of the airfoil and provides enhanced lift at post stall angles of attack. For higher subsonic flows, the vortical structures elongate in the streamwise direction resulting in reduced lift enhancement. We also observe that the onset of spanwise instability for higher angles of attack is delayed at lower Mach numbers. Currently at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki.
Multi-domain electromagnetic absorption of triangular quantum rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sitek, Anna; Thorgilsson, Gunnar; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Manolescu, Andrei
2016-06-01
We present a theoretical study of the unielectronic energy spectra, electron localization, and optical absorption of triangular core–shell quantum rings. We show how these properties depend on geometric details of the triangle, such as side thickness or corners’ symmetry. For equilateral triangles, the lowest six energy states (including spin) are grouped in an energy shell, are localized only around corner areas, and are separated by a large energy gap from the states with higher energy which are localized on the sides of the triangle. The energy levels strongly depend on the aspect ratio of the triangle sides, i.e., thickness/length ratio, in such a way that the energy differences are not monotonous functions of this ratio. In particular, the energy gap between the group of states localized in corners and the states localized on the sides strongly decreases with increasing the side thickness, and then slightly increases for thicker samples. With increasing the thickness the low-energy shell remains distinct but the spatial distribution of these states spreads. The behavior of the energy levels and localization leads to a thickness-dependent absorption spectrum where one transition may be tuned in the THz domain and a second transition can be tuned from THz to the infrared range of electromagnetic spectrum. We show how these features may be further controlled with an external magnetic field. In this work the electron–electron Coulomb repulsion is neglected.
Thermoviscoplastic analysis of fibrous periodic composites using triangular subvolumes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, Kevin P.; Freed, Alan D.; Jordan, Eric H.
1993-01-01
The nonlinear viscoplastic behavior of fibrous periodic composites is analyzed by discretizing the unit cell into triangular subvolumes. A set of these subvolumes can be configured by the analyst to construct a representation for the unit cell of a periodic composite. In each step of the loading history, the total strain increment at any point is governed by an integral equation which applies to the entire composite. A Fourier series approximation allows the incremental stresses and strains to be determined within a unit cell of the periodic lattice. The nonlinearity arising from the viscoplastic behavior of the constituent materials comprising the composite is treated as fictitious body force in the governing integral equation. Specific numerical examples showing the stress distributions in the unit cell of a fibrous tungsten/copper metal matrix composite under viscoplastic loading conditions are given. The stress distribution resulting in the unit cell when the composite material is subjected to an overall transverse stress loading history perpendicular to the fibers is found to be highly heterogeneous, and typical homogenization techniques based on treating the stress and strain distributions within the constituent phases as homogeneous result in large errors under inelastic loading conditions.
Collinear versus triangular geometry: A ternary fission study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vijayaraghavan, K. R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; von Oertzen, W.
2014-08-01
We study in this work the preference of the arrangements of fragments leading to ternary fission. Earlier experimental investigations on this subject have established the fact that the emission of a third particle happens in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the fission axis. Recently, within the missing mass approach, it has been reported that for fragments of comparable masses, the so-called collinear cluster tripartition (CCT), collinear emission of the fragments occurs. The ternary potential energy surface (PES) of three-body fragmentation of Cf252 is studied. The PESs are calculated for the fragment arrangements starting from a collinear configuration to a triangular configuration by varying the angle between the end fragments with respect to the fragment positioned in the middle. Furthermore, the role of the positioning of the three fragments is analyzed. Our results indicate that there is a clear preference for an arrangement in which the lightest fragment is positioned in the middle. Furthermore, for all possible third fragments, collinear geometry is found to be favored over orthogonal geometry.
Comparison of some isoparametric mappings for curved triangular spectral elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasquetti, Richard
2016-07-01
Using the spectral element method (SEM), or more generally hp-finite elements (hp-FEM), it is possible to solve with high accuracy various kinds of problems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs), see e.g. [1,2]. However, as soon as the physical domain is not polygonal, the accuracy quickly deteriorates if curved elements are not implemented. This is the reason why various methods have been developed during the last decades, starting from the celebrated transfinite interpolation proposed for quadrangular elements in [3]. In this note we revisit this problem for triangular elements, based on the use of Fekete points for interpolations and of Gauss points for quadratures, i.e. when using the so-called Fekete-Gauss approximation. As detailed in [4], such an approach shows the so-called spectral accuracy. However, differently to the quadrangles based SEM, it does not involve diagonal mass matrices, see e.g. [5-7] and references herein for works trying to preserve this nice property that is especially useful when addressing evolution problems with an explicit time marching. In the frame of the Fekete-Gauss TSEM (T, for triangle), the present study clearly points out the importance of a good choice of the bending procedure by comparing different isoparametric mappings for the Poisson and Grad-Shafranov PDEs.
Critical frontier of the triangular Ising antiferromagnet in a field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Xiaofeng; Wegewijs, Maarten; Blöte, Henk W.
2004-03-01
We study the critical line of the triangular Ising antiferromagnet in an external magnetic field by means of a finite-size analysis of results obtained by transfer-matrix and Monte Carlo techniques. We compare the shape of the critical line with predictions of two different theoretical scenarios. Both scenarios, while plausible, involve assumptions. The first scenario is based on the generalization of the model to a vertex model, and the assumption that the exact analytic form of the critical manifold of this vertex model is determined by the zeroes of an O(2) gauge-invariant polynomial in the vertex weights. However, it is not possible to fit the coefficients of such polynomials of orders up to 10, such as to reproduce the numerical data for the critical points. The second theoretical prediction is based on the assumption that a renormalization mapping exists of the Ising model on the Coulomb gas, and analysis of the resulting renormalization equations. It leads to a shape of the critical line that is inconsistent with the first prediction, but consistent with the numerical data.
Evidence for triangular D3h symmetry in 12C.
Marín-Lámbarri, D J; Bijker, R; Freer, M; Gai, M; Kokalova, Tz; Parker, D J; Wheldon, C
2014-07-01
We report a measurement of a new high spin Jπ=5- state at 22.4(2) MeV in 12C which fits very well to the predicted (ground state) rotational band of an oblate equilateral triangular spinning top with a D3h symmetry characterized by the sequence 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with almost degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Such a D3h symmetry was observed in triatomic molecules, and it is observed here for the first time in nuclear physics. We discuss a classification of other rotation-vibration bands in 12C such as the (0+) Hoyle band and the (1-) bending mode band and suggest measurements in search of the predicted ("missing") states that may shed new light on clustering in 12C and light nuclei. In particular, the observation (or nonobservation) of the predicted ("missing") states in the Hoyle band will allow us to conclude the geometrical arrangement of the three alpha particles composing the Hoyle state at 7.654 MeV in 12C. PMID:25032922
Two-dimensional orthogonal DCT expansion in triangular and trapezoid regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pei, Soo-Chang; Ding, Jian-Jiun; Lee, Tzu-Heng Henry
2010-07-01
It is known that the 2-D DCT basis is complete and orthogonal in a rectangular region. In this paper, we introduce the way to generate the complete and orthogonal 2-D DCT basis in a trapezoid region or a triangular region without using the complicated Gram-Schmidt method. Moreover, since a polygon can be decomposed several triangular regions, the proposed method is also suitable for the polygonal region. Our algorithm can much generalize the JPEG algorithm. Instead of dividing an image into 8 by 8 blocks, we can divide an image into trapezoid or triangular regions and then transform and code each of them. In addition to the DCT basis, our method can also be used for generating the 2-D complete and orthogonal DFT basis, KLT basis, Legendre basis, Hadamard (Walsh) basis, and polynomial basis in the trapezoid and triangular regions.
García-Sosa, Alfonso T; Maran, Uko
2014-11-24
A delicate balance exists between a drug molecule's toxicity and its activity. Indeed, efficacy, toxicity, and side effect problems are a common cause for the termination of drug candidate compounds and development projects. To address this, an antitarget interaction profile is built and combined with virtual screening and cross docking for new inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase, in order to consider possible off-target interactions as early as possible in a drug or hit discovery program. New ranking techniques using triangular numbers improve ranking information on the compounds and recovery of known inhibitors into the top compounds using different docking programs. This improved ranking arises from using consensus of ranks between docking programs and ligand efficiencies to derive a new rank, instead of using absolute score values, or average of ranks. The triangular number rerank also allowed the objective combination of results from several protein targets or screen conditions and several programs. Triangular number reranking conserves more information than other reranking methods such as average of scores or averages of ranks. In addition, the use of triangular numbers for reranking makes possible the use of thresholds with a justified leeway based on the number of available known inhibitors, so that the majority of the compounds above the threshold in ranks compare to the compounds that have known experimentally determined biological activity. The battery of anti- or off-targets can be tailored to specific molecular or drug design challenges. In silico filters can thus be deployed in successive stages, for prefiltering, activity profiling, and for further analysis and triaging of libraries of compounds. PMID:25303089
Modelling and simulation of parallel triangular triple quantum dots (TTQD) by using SIMON 2.0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fathany, Maulana Yusuf; Fuada, Syifaul; Lawu, Braham Lawas; Sulthoni, Muhammad Amin
2016-04-01
This research presents analysis of modeling on Parallel Triple Quantum Dots (TQD) by using SIMON (SIMulation Of Nano-structures). Single Electron Transistor (SET) is used as the basic concept of modeling. We design the structure of Parallel TQD by metal material with triangular geometry model, it is called by Triangular Triple Quantum Dots (TTQD). We simulate it with several scenarios using different parameters; such as different value of capacitance, various gate voltage, and different thermal condition.
Error estimates of triangular finite elements under a weak angle condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Shipeng; Shi, Zhongci
2009-08-01
In this note, by analyzing the interpolation operator of Girault and Raviart given in [V. Girault, P.A. Raviart, Finite element methods for Navier-Stokes equations, Theory and algorithms, in: Springer Series in Computational Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,1986] over triangular meshes, we prove optimal interpolation error estimates for Lagrange triangular finite elements of arbitrary order under the maximal angle condition in a unified and simple way. The key estimate is only an application of the Bramble-Hilbert lemma.
Reliability and flexural behavior of triangular and T-reinforced concrete beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Ansari, Mohammed S.
2015-12-01
The paper studied the behavior of reinforced concrete triangular and T-beams. Three reinforced concrete beams were tested experimentally and analyzed analytically using the finite element method. Their reliability was also assessed using the reliability index approach. The results showed that the finite element vertical displacements compared well with those obtained experimentally. They also showed that the vertical displacements obtained using the finite element method were larger than those obtained experimentally. This is a strong indication that the finite element results were conservative and reliable. The results showed that the triangular beams exhibited higher ductility at failure than did the T-beam. The plastic deformations at failure of the triangular beams were higher than that of the T-beam. This is a strong indication of the higher ductility of the triangular beams compared to the T-beam. Triangular beams exhibited smaller cracks than did T-beams for equal areas of steel and concrete. The design moment strengths M c computed using the American Concrete Institute (ACI) design formulation were safe and close to those computed using experimental results. The experimental results validated the reliability analysis results, which stated that the triangular beams are more reliable than T-beams for equal areas of steel and concrete.
Dorsal Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex: Clinical Features and Treatment.
Abe, Yukio; Moriya, Atsushi; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Koji
2016-03-01
Background Several different triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tear patterns have been classified through the use of wrist arthroscopy. A tear of the dorsal aspect of the TFCC has been previously reported, but it is not included in Palmer original classification. Our purpose was to describe this type of tear pattern along with the clinical presentation. Methods An isolated dorsal TFCC tear was encountered in seven wrists of six patients (three men and three women; average age was 31 years). All patients were evaluated by physical exam, X-ray, plain axial computed tomography with pronation, neutral and supination position, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with coronal, sagittal, and axial section and arthroscopy. Results The clinical findings varied and included the following: tenderness at the dorsoulnar aspect of the wrist was positive in all wrists, fovea sign was positive in five wrists, and tenderness at the dorsal aspect of the distal radioulnar joint was present in one wrist. Pain with forearm rotation was positive in all wrists. The ulnar head ballottement test induced pain in all wrists, whereas dorsal instability of the ulnar head was present in one wrist with this test. The ulnocarpal stress test was positive in five wrists. Axial and sagittal images on MRI revealed the dorsal tear in five wrists. All wrists were treated with an arthroscopic capsular repair. The final functional outcome at an average follow-up of 16.1 months was four excellent and one good wrist according to the modified Mayo wrist score. Conclusions The aim of this article is to describe our experiences with tears involving the dorsal aspect of the TFCC, which may be misdiagnosed if the surgeon is not cognizant of this injury. Type of study/level of evidence Diagnostic/level IV. PMID:26855835
Arthroscopic Foveal Repair of the Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex
Atzei, Andrea; Luchetti, Riccardo; Braidotti, Federica
2015-01-01
Background Foveal disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is associated with distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. TFCC fixation onto the fovea is the suitable treatment, which is not achieved by conventional arthroscopic techniques. We describe an all-inside arthroscopic technique that uses a suture anchor through distal DRUJ arthroscopy for foveal repair of the TFCC. Materials and Methods Forty-eight patients with TFCC foveal tear and DRUJ instability were selected according to the Atzei–European Wrist Arthroscopy Society (EWAS) algorithm of treatment. Retrospective evaluation included pain, DRUJ instability, range of motion (ROM), grip strength, Modified Mayo Wrist Score (MMWS), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Score. Description of Technique DRUJ arthroscopy was performed to débride the TFCC and the foveal area. Under arthroscopic guidance, a suture anchor was inserted via the distal foveal portal to repair the TFCC onto the fovea. Sutures were tied on the radiocarpal surface of the TFCC. Postoperative immobilization of forearm rotation was maintained for 4 weeks. Heavy tasks were allowed after 3 months. Results After a mean follow-up of 33 months, pain improved significantly but remained moderate in four patients, severe in one. DRUJ instability resolved in 44 patients. Wrist ROM increased. Grip strength, MMWS, and DASH score improved significantly. Excellent and good MMWS equaled 83.3%. Forty-one patients (85.5%) resumed previous work and sport activities. As a postoperative complication, five patients experienced neuroapraxia of the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve (DSBUN) with full spontaneous recovery. Conclusions With appropriate indications and patient selection, arthroscopic foveal repair of the TFCC may restore DRUJ stability and provide satisfactory results without significant complications. PMID:25709875
Energy levels of double triangular graphene quantum dots
Liang, F. X.; Jiang, Z. T. Zhang, H. Y.; Li, S.; Lv, Z. T.
2014-09-28
We investigate theoretically the energy levels of the coupled double triangular graphene quantum dots (GQDs) based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian model. The double GQDs including the ZZ-type, ZA-type, and AA-type GQDs with the two GQDs having the zigzag or armchair boundaries can be coupled together via different interdot connections, such as the direct coupling, the chains of benzene rings, and those of carbon atoms. It is shown that the energy spectrum of the coupled double GQDs is the amalgamation of those spectra of the corresponding two isolated GQDs with the modification triggered by the interdot connections. The interdot connection is inclined to lift up the degeneracies of the energy levels in different degree, and as the connection changes from the direct coupling to the long chains, the removal of energy degeneracies is suppressed in ZZ-type and AA-type double GQDs, which indicates that the two coupled GQDs are inclined to become decoupled. Then we consider the influences on the spectra of the coupled double GQDs induced by the electric fields applied on the GQDs or the connection, which manifests as the global spectrum redistribution or the local energy level shift. Finally, we study the symmetrical and asymmetrical energy spectra of the double GQDs caused by the substrates supporting the two GQDs, clearly demonstrating how the substrates affect the double GQDs' spectrum. This research elucidates the energy spectra of the coupled double GQDs, as well as the mechanics of manipulating them by the electric field and the substrates, which would be a significant reference for designing GQD-based devices.
Ground-state properties of quantum triangular ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owerre, S. A.
2016-03-01
Motivated by recent quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations of the quantum Kagome ice model by Juan Carrasquilla et al., [Nat. Commun., 6, 7421 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms8421], we study the ground-state properties of this model on the triangular lattice. In the presence of a magnetic field h , the Hamiltonian possesses competing interactions between a Z2-invariant easy-axis ferromagnetic interaction J±± and a frustrated Ising term Jz. As in the U(1)-invariant model, we obtain four classical distinctive phases, however, the classical phases in the Z2-invariant model are different. They are as follows: a fully polarized (FP) ferromagnet for large h , an easy-axis canted ferromagnet (CFM) with broken Z2 symmetry for small h and dominant J±±, a ferrosolid phase with broken translational and Z2 symmetries for small h and dominant Jz, and two lobes with m =
Psyplot: Visualizing rectangular and triangular Climate Model Data with Python
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommer, Philipp
2016-04-01
The development and use of climate models often requires the visualization of geo-referenced data. Creating visualizations should be fast, attractive, flexible, easily applicable and easily reproducible. There is a wide range of software tools available for visualizing raster data, but they often are inaccessible to many users (e.g. because they are difficult to use in a script or have low flexibility). In order to facilitate easy visualization of geo-referenced data, we developed a new framework called "psyplot," which can aid earth system scientists with their daily work. It is purely written in the programming language Python and primarily built upon the python packages matplotlib, cartopy and xray. The package can visualize data stored on the hard disk (e.g. NetCDF, GeoTIFF, any other file format supported by the xray package), or directly from the memory or Climate Data Operators (CDOs). Furthermore, data can be visualized on a rectangular grid (following or not following the CF Conventions) and on a triangular grid (following the CF or UGRID Conventions). Psyplot visualizes 2D scalar and vector fields, enabling the user to easily manage and format multiple plots at the same time, and to export the plots into all common picture formats and movies covered by the matplotlib package. The package can currently be used in an interactive python session or in python scripts, and will soon be developed for use with a graphical user interface (GUI). Finally, the psyplot framework enables flexible configuration, allows easy integration into other scripts that uses matplotlib, and provides a flexible foundation for further development.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korobov, A.
2011-08-01
Discrete uniform Poisson-Voronoi tessellations of two-dimensional triangular tilings resulting from the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) growth of triangular islands have been studied. This shape of tiles and islands, rarely considered in the field of random tessellations, is prompted by the birth-growth process of Ir(210) faceting. The growth mode determines a triangular metric different from the Euclidean metric. Kinetic characteristics of tessellations appear to be metric sensitive, in contrast to area distributions. The latter have been studied for the variant of nuclei growth to the first impingement in addition to the conventional case of complete growth. Kiang conjecture works in both cases. The averaged number of neighbors is six for all studied densities of random tessellations, but neighbors appear to be mainly different in triangular and Euclidean metrics. Also, the applicability of the obtained results for simulating birth-growth processes when the 2D nucleation and impingements are combined with the 3D growth in the particular case of similar shape and the same orientation of growing nuclei is briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathew, Ribu; Sankar, A. Ravi
2015-05-01
Microcantilever platforms with integrated piezoresistors have found versatile applications in the field of clinical analysis and diagnostics. Even though treatise encompasses numerous design details of the cantilever based biochemical sensors, a majority of them focus on the generic slender rectangular cantilever platform mainly due to its evolution from the atomic force microscope (AFM). The reported designs revolve around the aspects of dimensional optimization and variations with respect to the combination of materials for the composite structure. In this paper, a triangular cantilever platform is shown to have better performance metrics than the reported generic slender rectangular and the square cantilever platforms with integrated piezoresistors for biochemical sensing applications. The selection and optimization of the triangular cantilever platform is carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the preliminary selection of the cantilever shape is performed based on the initial design obtained by analytical formulae and numerical simulations. The second stage includes the geometrical optimization of the triangular cantilever platform and the integrated piezoresistor. The triangular cantilever platform shows a better performance in terms of the figure of merit (FoM), \\psi = ≤ft(Δ R/R\\right)f02 and the measurement bandwidth. The simulation results show that the magnitude of ψ of the triangular platform is 77.21% and 65.64% higher than that of the slender rectangular and the square cantilever platforms respectively. Moreover, the triangular platform exhibits a measurement bandwidth that is 70.91% and 2.04 times higher than that of the slender rectangular and square cantilever structures respectively. For a better understanding of the 2D nature of the stress generated on the cantilever platform due to the surface stress, its spatial profile has been extracted and depicted graphically. Finally, a set of design rules are provided for optimizing the
Triangularity and dipole asymmetry in relativistic heavy ion collisions
Teaney, Derek; Yan Li
2011-06-15
We introduce a cumulant expansion to parametrize possible initial conditions in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We show that the cumulant expansion converges and that it can systematically reproduce the results of Glauber type initial conditions. At third order in the gradient expansion the cumulants characterize the triangularity
Rajkumar, K; Sivakumar, S; Senthilkumar, P; Prabha, D; Subbhuraam, C V; Song, Y C
2009-10-01
The heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd) accumulation capacity of the stem cuttings of the terrestrial, ornamental plant, Talinum triangulare was assessed in hydroponic medium. The stem cuttings of T. triangulare, grew well in distilled water regenerating roots and aerial parts. On exposure to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd, a concentration dependent decrease was observed in the number of leaves produced and roots regenerated and an increase in the number of days required for the initiation of roots. The number of leaves produced showed an increasing trend in almost all treatment concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd with an increase in the duration of experiment, whereas, with an increase in the treatment concentration of metals a significant (P < 0.05) decrease was observed in the number of leaves produced. The number of days required for root initiation in metal solutions, however, increased with increasing concentration of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd. The root development was completely arrested from 10 mg l(-1) of Ni and 4 mg l(-1) of Cd. Compared to the control, a significant decrease was recorded in the number of roots produced in all treatment concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd. Pink colouration of metal solution consequent to leaching of plant pigment from T. triangulare was observed which was not persistent and disappeared after a few days. Decaying of stem was observed when exposed to Ni and Cd but not to Cu and Pb. Although, copper accumulation by T. triangulare at treatment concentration of 15 and 20 mg l(-1) exceeded 1,000 mg kg(-1) dry matter, necessary pot culture experiment is required before "T. triangulare" can be definitely classified as a Cu hyperaccumulator. PMID:19590954
Theoretical lift and drag of thin triangular wings at supersonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Clinton E
1946-01-01
A method is derived for calculating the lift and the drag due to lift of point-forward triangular wings and a restricted series of sweptback wings at supersonic speeds. The elementary or "supersonic sources" solution of the linearized equation of motion is used to find the potential function of a line of doublets. The flow about the triangular flat plate is then obtained by a surface distribution of these doublet lines. The lift-curve slope of triangular wings is found to be a function of the ratio of the tangent of the apex angle to the tangent of the Mach angle. As the apex angle approaches and becomes greater than the Mach angle, the lift coefficient of the triangular wing becomes equal to that of a two-dimensional supersonic airfoil at the same Mach number. The drag coefficient due to lift of triangular wings with leading edges well behind the Mach cone is shown to be close to that of elliptically loaded wings of the same aspect ratio in subsonic flight. The resultant force on wings with leading edges outside the Mach cone, however, is shown to act normal to the surfaces and thus an induced drag equal to the lift times the angle of attack is obtained.
Pieters, Alejandro J; Tezara, Wilmer; Herrera, Ana
2003-09-01
Changes in photochemical activity induced by water deficit were investigated in Talinum triangulare, an inducible CAM plant. The aim was to analyse the interactions between C3 photosynthesis, induction and activity of CAM, photosynthetic energy regulation and the mechanisms responsible for photoprotection and photoinhibition under water stress. Gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, titratable acidity, carotenoid composition and relative contents of the PSII reaction centre protein (D1) were measured. A decrease in xylem tension (psi) from -0.14 to -0.2 MPa substantially decreased daytime net CO2 assimilation and daily carbon gain, and induced CAM, as shown by CO2 assimilation during the night and changes in titratable acidity; a further decrease in psi decreased nocturnal acid accumulation by 60%. Non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence (NPQ) increased with water deficit, but decreased with a more severe drought (psi below -0.2 MPa), when CAM activity was low. NPQ was lower at 0900 h (during maximum decarboxylation rates) than at 1400 h, when malate pools were depleted. Down-regulation of PSII activity related to the rise in NPQ was indicated by a smaller quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (phiPSII) in droughted compared with watered plants. However, phiPSII was larger at 0900 h than at 1400 h. The de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle increased with drought and was linearly related to NPQ. Intrinsic quantum yield of PSII (FV/FM) measured at dusk was also lower in severely stressed plants than in controls. Under maximum photosynthetic photon flux and high decarboxylation rates of organic acids, the D1 content in leaves of droughted plants showing maximal CAM activity was identical to the controls; increased drought decreased D1 content by more than 30%. Predawn samples had D1 contents similar to leaves sampled at peak irradiance, with no signs of recovery after 12 h of darkness. It is concluded that under mild water stress, early
PIETERS, ALEJANDRO J.; TEZARA, WILMER; HERRERA, ANA
2003-01-01
stress, early induction of CAM, together with an increased energy dissipation by the xanthophyll cycle, prevents net degradation of D1 protein; when water deficit is more severe, CAM and xanthophyll cycle capacities for energy dissipation decline, and net degradation of D1 proceeds. PMID:12881404
Odağ, Celal
2004-01-01
In early childhood, the mother is the primary object of the child's dyadic relationship, and mother and child form a unity together. In the oedipal period, however, the father enters this dyadic unity, and it is with his entry that the dyad becomes triangular and begins to incorporate features of a triangular relationship. In some cases the father may even replace the mother, thereby reducing the mother's relevance. Kafka is an interesting example of this unusual case. In addition, a close look at Kafka's psychopathology facilitates a better understanding of the interdependency of preoedipal, oedipal and adolescent stages. A psychoanalytic approach to Kafka reveals severe disturbances of these major developmental steps, which, on their part, impede the development of Kafka's individual identity. It is against this background that Kafka's author identity will be analysed in greater detail, by regarding representations of separatedness, continuity, and originality in his literary work to be expressions of his author identity. One further assumption of this paper is that Kafka's ideal self and superego are not separate from each other. His feelings of guilt, shame and fear demonstrate that these instances are very much intertwined and not distinct from each other. The reader's emotional agony while reading some of Kafka's work signalizes that Kafka's ideal self and superego form a unity together. Psychoanalysts, however, commonly accept that, in normal development, ideal self and superego should become separate entities, and continue their activities separately. It seems as though Kafka's ideal self and superego have not gained sovereignty yet, and likewise, it is difficult to separate the son's superego or ideal self from his father's. PMID:15622512
Complete band gaps and deaf bands of triangular and honeycomb water-steel phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsiao, Fu-Li; Khelif, Abdelkrim; Moubchir, Hanane; Choujaa, Abdelkrim; Chen, Chii-Chang; Laude, Vincent
2007-02-01
Phononic crystals with triangular and honeycomb lattices are investigated experimentally and theoretically. They are composed of arrays of steel cylinders immersed in water. The measured transmission spectra reveal the existence of complete band gaps but also of deaf bands. Band gaps and deaf bands are identified by comparing band structure computations, obtained by a periodic-boundary finite element method, with transmission simulations, obtained using the finite difference time domain method. The appearance of flat bands and the polarization of the associated eigenmodes is also discussed. Triangular and honeycomb phononic crystals with equal cylinder diameter and smallest spacing are compared. As previously obtained with air-solid phononic crystals, it is found that the first complete band gap opens for the honeycomb lattice but not for the triangular lattice, thanks to symmetry reduction.
Bao Keyan; Yu Fengyang; Shi Liang; Liu Shuzhen; Hu Xiaobo; Cao Jie; Qian Yitai
2009-04-15
Highly crystalline rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) with regular triangular shapes were synthesized on a large scale in a stainless steel autoclave using B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NaNH{sub 2} as reactants at 600 deg. C for 6 h. The as-prepared BN triangular nanoplates have an average edge length of 400 nm and the thickness of about 60 nm. The photoluminescence measurements reveal that the r-BN products show strong yellow-green emission. The as-prepared r-BN has potential optical and optoelectronic applications in high temperature devices due to its excellent thermal stability and anti-oxidation properties. - Graphical abstract: Rhombohedral BN triangular nanoplates were synthesized at 600 deg. C. The products exhibit excellent luminescence, thermal stability and anti-oxidation properties; they are expected to become good candidates for optical and optoelectronic devices.
Mechanical Properties of 3-D Printed Cellular Foams with triangular cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunga, Pratap Kumar
In the present work, poly lactic acid (PLA) is used as a model system to investigate the mechanical behavior of 3-D printed foams with triangular cells. Solid PLA tension and compression specimens and foams made of PLA were fabricated using fused deposition 3-D printing technique. The solid PLA tension specimens were characterized for their densities and found to be about 10% lower in density as compared to their bulk counter parts. The triangular foams had a relative density of about 64%. The relationships between the structure of the foams and its deformation behavior under compression along two in-plane directions were characterized. Furthermore, simple finite element models were developed to understand the observed deformation behavior of triangular foams.
Swarna, J; Lokeswari, T S; Smita, M; Ravindhran, R
2013-12-15
Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd is an erect, succulent, perennial herb belonging to the family Portulacaceae. Under extreme environmental conditions, the plant produces betalain pigments which get accumulated in the stem region. Hence, in the present study, the betaxanthin and betacyanin patterns from different samples of T. triangulare have been investigated by applying high-performance liquid chromatography photo-diode array detection (HPLC-PDA) coupled with positive ion electro-spray mass spectrometry. Two betacyanins and two betaxanthins were identified in aqueous methanolic extract of flower, stem and leaf. Betanin, isobetanin, immonium conjugates of betalamic acid with dopamine and tyrosine were elucidated. The total betalain content was estimated by photometric analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity for the betalain extract determined by various methods revealed potent scavenging ability. The current work may possibly be considered beneficial in utilisation of the plant T. triangulare as a natural colourant in food and beverage industries. PMID:23993629
The evidence for synthesis of truncated triangular silver nanoplates in the presence of CTAB
He Xin; Zhao Xiujian Chen Yunxia; Feng Jinyang
2008-04-15
Truncated triangular silver nanoplates were prepared by a solution-phase approach, which involved the seed-mediated growth of silver nanoparticles in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 40 deg. C. The result of X-ray diffraction indicates that the as-prepared nanoparticles are made of pure face centered cubic silver. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies show that the truncated triangular silver nanoplates, with edge lengths of 50 {+-} 5 nm and thicknesses of 27 {+-} 3 nm, are oriented differently on substrates of a copper grid and a fresh mica flake. The corners of these nanoplates are round. The selected area electron diffraction analysis reveals that the silver nanoplates are single crystals with an atomically flat surface. We determine the holistic morphology of truncated triangular silver nanoplates through the above measurements with the aid of computer-aided 3D perspective images.
Interpreting medium ring canonical conformers by a triangular plane tessellation of the macrocycle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalili, Pegah; Barnett, Christopher B.; Naidoo, Kevin J.
2013-05-01
Cyclic conformational coordinates are essential for the distinction of molecular ring conformers as the use of Cremer-Pople coordinates have illustrated for five- and six-membered rings. Here, by tessellating medium rings into triangular planes and using the relative angles made between triangular planes we are able to assign macrocyclic pucker conformations into canonical pucker conformers such as chairs, boats, etc. We show that the definition is straightforward compared with other methods popularly used for small rings and that it is computationally simple to implement for complex macrocyclic rings. These cyclic conformational coordinates directly couple to the motion of individual nodes of a ring. Therefore, they are useful for correlating the physical properties of macrocycles with their ring pucker and measuring the dynamic ring conformational behavior. We illustrate the triangular tessellation, assignment, and pucker analysis on 7- and 8-membered rings. Sets of canonical states are given for cycloheptane and cyclooctane that have been previously experimentally analysed.
Density matrix renormalization group study of triangular Kitaev-Heisenberg model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sota, Shigetoshi; Sjinjo, Kazuya; Shirakawa, Tomonori; Tohyama, Takami; Yunoki, Seiji
2015-03-01
Topological insulator has been one of the most active subjects in the current condensed matter physics. For most of topological insulators electron correlations are considered to be not essential. However, in the case where electron correlations are strong, novel phases such as a spin liquid phase can emerge in competition with a spin-orbit coupling. Here, using the density matrix renormalization group method, we investigate magnetic phase of a triangular Kitaev-Heisenberg (quantum compass) model that contains a spin-orbital interaction and spin frustration in the antiferromagnetic region. The triangular Kitaev-Heisenberg model is regarded as a dual model of the honeycomb Kitaev-Heisenberg model that is usually employed to discuss A2CuO3 (A=Na, K). Systematically calculating ground state energy, entanglement entropy, entanglement spectrum, and spin-spin correlation functions, we discuss the duality between the triangular and the honeycomb Kitaev-Heisenberg model as well as the ground state magnetic phases.
Extended particle swarm optimisation method for folding protein on triangular lattice.
Guo, Yuzhen; Wu, Zikai; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yong
2016-02-01
In this study, the authors studied the protein structure prediction problem by the two-dimensional hydrophobic-polar model on triangular lattice. Particularly the non-compact conformation was modelled to fold the amino acid sequence into a relatively larger triangular lattice, which is more biologically realistic and significant than the compact conformation. Then protein structure prediction problem was abstracted to match amino acids to lattice points. Mathematically, the problem was formulated as an integer programming and they transformed the biological problem into an optimisation problem. To solve this problem, classical particle swarm optimisation algorithm was extended by the single point adjustment strategy. Compared with square lattice, conformations on triangular lattice are more flexible in several benchmark examples. They further compared the authors' algorithm with hybrid of hill climbing and genetic algorithm. The results showed that their method was more effective in finding solution with lower energy and less running time. PMID:26816397
On Modeling and Analysis of MIMO Wireless Mesh Networks with Triangular Overlay Topology
Cao, Zhanmao; Wu, Chase Q.; Zhang, Yuanping; Shiva, Sajjan G.; Gu, Yi
2015-01-01
Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) wireless mesh networks (WMNs) aim to provide the last-mile broadband wireless access to the Internet. Along with the algorithmic development for WMNs, some fundamental mathematical problems also emerge in various aspects such as routing, scheduling, and channel assignment, all of which require an effective mathematical model and rigorous analysis of network properties. In this paper, we propose to employ Cartesian product of graphs (CPG) as a multichannel modeling approach and explore a set of unique properties of triangular WMNs. In each layer of CPG with a single channel, we design a node coordinate scheme thatmore » retains the symmetric property of triangular meshes and develop a function for the assignment of node identity numbers based on their coordinates. We also derive a necessary-sufficient condition for interference-free links and combinatorial formulas to determine the number of the shortest paths for channel realization in triangular WMNs.« less
Transformation of design formulae for feed line of triangular microstrip antenna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathur, Monika; Singh, Ghanshyam; Bhatnagar, S. K.; Swami, Swati; Vats, Abhijat
2016-03-01
In wireless communication system microstrip antenna is the key component. Popular shapes of patch for microstrip are rectangular, triangular and circular. A new transformation design formulae for feed line of rectangular microstrip antenna by using equivalent design concept were presented by the authors. That says one designed antenna for a given frequency on any substrate can be transformed into another substrate material for the same design frequency by simply multiply a factor ψ to the all dimensions of patch, length of feed line and some power of ψ for feed line width (where ψ is the square root of the ratio of dielectric constants of those two designs). This paper presents that the same formulae of that rectangular transformation feed line can also be applicable for triangular shape microstrip antenna transformation. The process was repeated for the triangular shape patch microstrip antenna as applied for rectangular shape and the simulation results were surprisingly the same for it by applying the same transformation formulae.
Damping in Pitch and Roll of Triangular Wings at Supersonic Speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Clinton E; Adams, Mac C
1948-01-01
A method is derived for calculating the damping coefficients in pitch and roll for a series of triangular wings and a restricted series of sweptback wings at supersonic speeds. The elementary "supersonic source" solution of the linearized equation of motion is used to find the potential function of a line of doublets, and the flows are obtained by surface distributions of these doublet lines. The damping derivatives for triangular wings are found to be a function of the ratio of the tangent of the apex angle to the tangent of the Mach angle. As this ratio becomes equal to and greater than 1.0 for triangular wings, the damping derivatives, in pitch and in roll, become constant. The damping derivative in roll becomes equal to one-half the value calculated for an infinite rectangular wing, and the damping derivative in pitch for pitching about the apex becomes equal to 3.375 times that of an infinite rectangular wing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yumoto, K.
2011-12-01
Under the framework of the MAGDAS Project of SERC (at Kyushu University), this report will cover the three phases of "Capacity Building": (1) Development of instrument capacity, (2) Development of data analysis capacity, and (3) Development of science capacity. Capacity Building is one of the major goals of IHY and ISWI, as specified by the organizers of IHY and ISWI.
Characterization of PSD of activated carbons by using slit and triangular pore geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azevedo, D. C. S.; Rios, R. B.; López, R. H.; Torres, A. E. B.; Cavalcante, C. L.; Toso, J. P.; Zgrablich, G.
2010-06-01
A mixed geometry model for activated carbons, representing the porous space as a collection of an undetermined proportion of slit and triangular pores, is developed, evaluated theoretically and applied to the characterization of a controlled series of samples of activated carbon obtained from the same precursor material. A method is proposed for the determination of the Pore Size Distribution (PSD) for such a mixed geometry model, leading to the unique determination of the proportion of pores of the two geometries fitting adsorption data. By using the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation method in the continuum space, families of N2 adsorption isotherms are generated both for slit and triangular geometry corresponding to different pore sizes. The problem of the uniqueness in the determination of the PSD by fitting an adsorption isotherm using the mixed geometry model is then discussed and the effects of the addition of triangular pores on the PSD are analyzed by performing a test where the adsorption isotherm corresponding to the known PSD is generated and used as the "experimental" isotherm. It is found that a pure slit geometry model would widen the PSD and shift it to smaller sizes, whereas a pure triangular geometry model would produce the opposite effect. The slit and triangular geometry families of isotherms are finally used to the fit experimental N 2 adsorption data corresponding to a family of activated carbons obtained from coconut shells through a one-step chemical activation process with phosphoric acid in air, allowing for the determination of the micropore volume, the proportion of slit and triangular pores and the PSD corresponding to the mixed geometry. The same experimental data were fit using both the conventional slit pore model and the mixed geometry model. From the analysis of the effect of different preparation procedures on the resulting PSDs, it is concluded that the proposed mixed geometry model may probably better capture the
Single crystal growth and heat capacity measurements of triangular lattice R2Pt6Ga15 (R =rare earth)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Y.; Ueda, T.; Ohara, S.
2016-02-01
We have succeeded in synthesizing the single crystal of R2Pt6Ga15 (R=La-Nd, Sm- Lu) with hexagonal Sc0.67Fe2Si5-type structure using Ga self flux method. The crystal structure was confirmed by the powder X-ray method. The unit-cell volume V of R2Pt6Ga15 follows the lanthanide concentration except R = Ce, Eu and Yb, indicating that the valences of R = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, and Lu ion are trivalent, whereas those of R = Ce, Eu and Yb ion are deviate from trivalent. We have measured the specific heat C(T) of R2Pt6Ga15. It is found that the magnetic order takes place in R2Pt6Ga15 (R=Pr, Nd, Sm-Tm). Moreover, the multiple phase transitions were observed in R2Pt6Ga15 (R = Nd, Eu, Gd and Ho).
Invariants of triangular Lie algebras with one nil-independent diagonal element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyko, Vyacheslav; Patera, Jiri; Popovych, Roman
2007-08-01
The invariants of solvable triangular Lie algebras with one nil-independent diagonal element are studied exhaustively. Bases of the invariant sets of all such algebras are constructed using an original algebraic algorithm based on Cartan's method of moving frames and the special technique developed for triangular and closed algebras in Boyko et al (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 2007 40 7557). The conjecture of Tremblay and Winternitz (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 2001 34 9085) on the number and form of elements in the bases is completed and proved.
Modulation instability in a triangular three-core coupler with a negative-index material channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shafeeque Ali, A. K.; Nithyanandan, K.; Porsezian, K.; Maimistov, Andrei I.
2016-03-01
A theoretical investigation of the modulation instability (MI) in the three core triangular oppositely directed coupler with negative index material channel is presented. This class of couplers have an effective feedback mechanism due to the opposite directionality of the phase velocities in the negative and positive index channels. It is found that the MI in the nonlinear three core triangular oppositely directed coupler is significantly influenced by the ratio of the forward- to backward-propagating wave power and nonlinearity. Also, in the case of the normal dispersion regime a threshold-like behavior is observed, whereas this behavior is not identified in the anomalous dispersion regime. For the asymmetric case (h\
The solution of the two-dimensional incompressible flow equations on unstructured triangular meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Morgan
1993-05-01
A numerical method for calculating two-dimensional turbulent incompressible flow on unstructured triangular meshes is developed. A primitive variable formulation is used. The Helmholtz pressure equation algorithm is used to enforce the velocity continuity relation for incompressible flow. A careful treatment of the pressure dissipation model is presented. A standard k-epsilon turbulence model with wall functions is used to provide closure for the governing equations. A backward-facing step turbulent flow is calculated using an unstructured triangular mesh, and the results are compared to experimental and computational data.
Effects of Shannon entropy and electric field on polaron in RbCl triangular quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
M, Tiotsop; A, J. Fotue; S, C. Kenfack; N, Issofa; H, Fotsin; L, C. Fai
2016-04-01
In this paper, the time evolution of the quantum mechanical state of a polaron is examined using the Pekar type variational method on the condition of the electric-LO-phonon strong-coupling and polar angle in RbCl triangular quantum dot. We obtain the eigenenergies, and the eigenfunctions of the ground state, and the first excited state respectively. This system in a quantum dot can be treated as a two-level quantum system qubit and the numerical calculations are performed. The effects of Shannon entropy and electric field on the polaron in the RbCl triangular quantum dot are also studied.
Xu, Lin; Luo, Zhimin; Fan, Zhanxi; Yu, Sijia; Chen, Junze; Liao, Yusen; Xue, Can
2015-06-01
Triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes were successfully synthesized through galvanic replacement by using Ag nanoprisms as sacrificial templates. The ridge thickness of the Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes could be readily tuned by adjusting the amount of the Pd source during the reaction. These obtained triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for the methanol oxidation reaction as compared with the commercial Pd/C catalyst due to the alloyed Ag-Pd composition as well as the hollow-framed structures. This work would be highly impactful in the rational design of future bimetallic alloy nanostructures with high catalytic activity for fuel cell systems. PMID:25925988
Current density and poloidal magnetic field for toroidal elliptic plasmas with triangularity
Martin, P.; Haines, M.G.; Castro, E.
2005-08-15
Changes in the poloidal magnetic field around a tokamak magnetic surface due to different values of triangularity and ellipticity are analyzed in this paper. The treatment here presented allows the determination of the poloidal magnetic field from knowledge of the toroidal current density. Different profiles of these currents are studied. Improvements in the analytic forms of the magnetic surfaces have also been found. The treatment has been performed using a recent published system of coordinates. Suitable analytic equations have been used for the elliptic magnetic surfaces with triangularity and Shafranov shift.
Magnetic Flux Effect on a Kondo-Induced Electric Polarization in a Triangular Triple Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koga, Mikito; Matsumoto, Masashige; Kusunose, Hiroaki
2014-08-01
A magnetic flux effect is studied theoretically on an electric polarization induced by the Kondo effect in a triangular triple-quantum-dot system, where one of the three dots is connected to a metallic lead. This electric polarization exhibits an Aharonov-Bohm oscillation as a function of the magnetic flux penetrating through the triangular loop. The numerical renormalization group analysis reveals how the oscillation pattern depends on the Kondo coupling of a local spin with lead electrons, which is sensitive to the point contact with the lead. It provides an experimental implication that the Kondo effect is the origin of the emergent electric polarization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koga, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Kusunose, H.
2015-03-01
The Kondo effect plays an important role in emergence of electric polarization in a triangular triple-quantum-dot system, where one of the three dots is point-contacted with a single lead, and a magnetic flux penetrates through the triangular loop. The Kondo-induced electric polarization exhibits an Aharonov-Bohm type oscillation as a function of the magnetic flux. Our theoretical study shows various oscillation patterns associated with the field-dependent mixing of twofold orbitally degenerate ground states and their sensitivity to the point contact.
Hsu, Hsiang-Yi; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Cha, Yuh-Ru; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; Lin, Chung-Yen; Han, Yu-San
2015-01-01
Natural stocks of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) have decreased drastically because of overfishing, habitat destruction, and changes in the ocean environment over the past few decades. However, to date, artificial mass production of glass eels is far from reality because of the lack of appropriate feed for the eel larvae. In this study, wild glass eel, leptocephali, preleptocephali, and embryos were collected to conduct RNA-seq. Approximately 279 million reads were generated and assembled into 224,043 transcripts. The transcript levels of genes coding for digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters were investigated to estimate the capacities for nutrient digestion and absorption during early development. The results showed that the transcript levels of protein digestion enzymes were higher than those of carbohydrate and lipid digestion enzymes in the preleptocephali and leptocephali, and the transcript levels of amino acid transporters were also higher than those of glucose and fructose transporters and the cholesterol transporter. In addition, the transcript levels of glucose and fructose transporters were significantly raising in the leptocephali. Moreover, the transcript levels of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid digestion enzymes were balanced in the glass eel, but the transcript levels of amino acid transporters were higher than those of glucose and cholesterol transporters. These findings implied that preleptocephali and leptocephali prefer high-protein food, and the nutritional requirements of monosaccharides and lipids for the eel larvae vary with growth. An online database (http://molas.iis.sinica.edu.tw/jpeel/) that will provide the sequences and the annotated results of assembled transcripts was established for the eel research community. PMID:26406914
Cha, Yuh-Ru; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; Lin, Chung-Yen; Han, Yu-San
2015-01-01
Natural stocks of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) have decreased drastically because of overfishing, habitat destruction, and changes in the ocean environment over the past few decades. However, to date, artificial mass production of glass eels is far from reality because of the lack of appropriate feed for the eel larvae. In this study, wild glass eel, leptocephali, preleptocephali, and embryos were collected to conduct RNA-seq. Approximately 279 million reads were generated and assembled into 224,043 transcripts. The transcript levels of genes coding for digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters were investigated to estimate the capacities for nutrient digestion and absorption during early development. The results showed that the transcript levels of protein digestion enzymes were higher than those of carbohydrate and lipid digestion enzymes in the preleptocephali and leptocephali, and the transcript levels of amino acid transporters were also higher than those of glucose and fructose transporters and the cholesterol transporter. In addition, the transcript levels of glucose and fructose transporters were significantly raising in the leptocephali. Moreover, the transcript levels of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid digestion enzymes were balanced in the glass eel, but the transcript levels of amino acid transporters were higher than those of glucose and cholesterol transporters. These findings implied that preleptocephali and leptocephali prefer high-protein food, and the nutritional requirements of monosaccharides and lipids for the eel larvae vary with growth. An online database (http://molas.iis.sinica.edu.tw/jpeel/) that will provide the sequences and the annotated results of assembled transcripts was established for the eel research community. PMID:26406914
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1990-04-25
Version 00 TPTRIA calculates reactivity, effective delayed neutron fractions and mean generation time for two-dimensional triangular geometry on the basis of neutron transport perturbation theory. DIAMANT2 (also designated as CCC-414), is a multigroup two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport code system for triangular and hexagonal geometry which calculates direct and adjoint angular fluxes.
Li, Yuesheng; Liao, Haijun; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Shiyan; Jin, Feng; Ling, Langsheng; Zhang, Lei; Zou, Youming; Pi, Li; Yang, Zhaorong; Wang, Junfeng; Wu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Qingming
2015-01-01
Quantum spin liquid (QSL) is a novel state of matter which refuses the conventional spin freezing even at 0 K. Experimentally searching for the structurally perfect candidates is a big challenge in condensed matter physics. Here we report the successful synthesis of a new spin-1/2 triangular antiferromagnet YbMgGaO4 with symmetry. The compound with an ideal two-dimensional and spatial isotropic magnetic triangular-lattice has no site-mixing magnetic defects and no antisymmetric Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interactions. No spin freezing down to 60 mK (despite θw ~ −4 K), the power-law temperature dependence of heat capacity and nonzero susceptibility at low temperatures suggest that YbMgGaO4 is a promising gapless (≤|θw|/100) QSL candidate. The residual spin entropy, which is accurately determined with a non-magnetic reference LuMgGaO4, approaches zero (<0.6%). This indicates that the possible QSL ground state (GS) of the frustrated spin system has been experimentally achieved at the lowest measurement temperatures. PMID:26552727
Zhu, Siya; Wang, Qian
2015-10-15
Triangular nanoflake growth patterns have been commonly observed in synthesis of transition metal dichalcogenide sheets and their hybrid structures. Triangular nanoflakes not only show exceptional properties, but also can serve as building blocks for two or three dimensional structures. In this study, taking the MoS{sub 2} system as a test case, we propose a Matrix method to understand the mechanism of such unique growth pattern. Nanoflakes with different edge types are mathematically described with configuration matrices, and the total formation energy is calculated as the sum of the edge formation energies and the chemical potentials of sulfur and molybdenum. Based on energetics, we find that three triangular patterns with the different edge configurations are energetically more favorable in different ranges of the chemical potential of sulfur, which are in good agreement with experimental observations. Our algorithm has high efficiency and can deal with nanoflakes in microns which are beyond the ability of ab-initio method. This study not only elucidates the mechanism of triangular nanoflake growth patterns in experiment, but also provides a clue to control the geometric configurations in synthesis.
Generation of triangular waveforms based on a microwave photonic filter with negative coefficient.
Li, Wei; Wang, Wen Ting; Sun, Wen Hui; Wang, Wei Yu; Zhu, Ning Hua
2014-06-16
We report a novel approach to generating full-duty-cycle triangular waveforms based on a microwave photonic filter (MPF) with negative coefficient. It is known that the Fourier series expansion of a triangular waveform has only odd-order harmonics. In this work, the undesired even-order harmonics are suppressed by the MPF that has a periodic transmission response. A triangular waveform at fundamental frequency can be generated by setting the bias of a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) at quadrature point. However, it is found that a broadband 90° microwave phase shifter has to be used after photodetection to adjust the phases of odd-order harmonics. Alternatively, a frequency doubling triangular waveform can be generated by setting the bias of the MZM at maximum or minimum transmission point. This approach is more promising because the broadband microwave phase shifter is no longer required in this case but it is more power consuming. The proposed approach is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. PMID:24977593
Improved fusion performance in low-q, low triangularity plasmas with negative central magnetic shear
Strait, E.J.; Casper, T.N.; Chu, M.S.
1996-07-01
Fusion performance in DIII-D low-q single-null divertor discharges has doubled as a result of improved confinement and stability, achieved through modification of pressure and current density profiles. These discharges extend the regime of neoclassical core confinement associated with negative or weak central magnetic shear to plasmas with the low safety factor (q{sub 95}{approximately}3) and triangularity ({delta}{approximately}0.3) anticipated in future tokamaks such as ITER. Energy confinement times exceed the ITER-89P L- mode scaling law by up to a factor of 4, and are almost twice as large as in previous single-null cases with 3{le}q{sub 95}{le}4. The normalized beta [{beta}(aB/I)] reaches values as high as 4, comparable to the best previous single-null discharges. Although high triangularity allows a larger plasma current, the fusion gain in these low triangularity plasmas is similar to that of high triangularity double-null plasmas at the same plasma current. These results are encouraging for advanced performance operation in ITER and for D-T experiments in JET.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, D. Nagendra; Ghonge, Sudarshan; Banerjee, Souri
2016-04-01
In this paper we investigate the effect of separation of triangular metal electrodes with both convex and concave geometries, on the localization of suspended DNA molecules under the combined effect of dielectrophoresis and AC electro-osmosis through simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics. Trapping points are realized within the electrodes which are found to vary with the separation of the electrodes.
Badia, Alejandro; Jiménez, Alexis
2006-10-01
This report presents a method of arthroscopic repair of the peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex tears that replaces traditional suture knots with ultrasonic welding of sutures. This will help eliminate potential causes of ulnar-sided wrist discomfort during the postoperative period. PMID:17027791
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Jitendra K.; Priye, Vishnu; Rahman, B. M. A.
2016-07-01
A triangular profile multicore fiber (MCF) optical interconnect (OI) is investigated to augment performance that typically degrades at high data rates for higher order modulation in a short reach transmission system. Firstly, probability density functions (PDFs) variation with inter-core crosstalk is calculated for 8-core MCF OI with different index profile in the core and it was observed that the triangular profile MCF OI is the most crosstalk tolerant. Next, symbol error probability (SEP) for higher order quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulated signal due to inter-core crosstalk is analytically obtained and their dependence on typical characteristic parameters are examined. Further, numerical simulations are carried out to compare the error performance of QPSK for step index and triangular index MCF OI by generating eye diagram at 40 Gbps per channel. Finally, it is shown that MCF OI with triangular index profile supporting QPSK has double spectral efficiency with tolerable trade off in SEP as compared with those of binary phase shift keying (BPSK) at high data rates which is scalable up to 5 Tbps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chun-Hong; Zhu, Jian; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Jun-Wu
2016-01-01
The local electric field enhancements of overlapping Ag triangular nanoplates are investigated using the discrete dipole approximate (DDA) method. The enhancement region of local electric field in the gap could be focused and enlarged by adjusting the thickness and the number of layers of the nanoplates. For the double-layer Ag triangular nanoplates, with the thickness increasing, the electric field enhancements transform from near the corners to the center of the gap gradually and the intensities get stronger. The largest "hot spot volume" appears as the thickness increases to 20 nm. The plasmonic coupling between the two nanoplates leads to the surface charges accumulating on the surfaces adjoining the gap. The variation of the surface charges due to the increase of the thickness should be responsible for this phenomenon. For the multilayer Ag triangular nanoplates, the enhancement region enlarges as the number of layers increases. And the "hot spot volume" could reach about 72% of the total volume of the middle gap when the number of layers is 6. The large volume of the intense electric field enhancements obtained in overlapping Ag triangular nanoplates provide potential for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface enhancement fluorescence (SEF) applications. Figures s1-4 are available in electronic form only at http://www.epjap.org
Algebraic Bethe Ansatz for Open XXX Model with Triangular Boundary Matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belliard, Samuel; Crampé, Nicolas; Ragoucy, Eric
2013-05-01
We consider an open XXX spin chain with two general boundary matrices whose entries obey a relation, which is equivalent to the possibility to put simultaneously the two matrices in a upper-triangular form. We construct Bethe vectors by means of a generalized algebraic Bethe ansatz. As usual, the method uses Bethe equations and provides transfer matrix eigenvalues.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-05-19
... regulations or proposed regulations, as applicable, and collectively, the 2008 regulations). 73 FR 30301 (TD... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BG96 Treatment of Property Used To Acquire Parent Stock or Securities in Certain Triangular Reorganizations Involving Foreign Corporations AGENCY: Internal...
Reconstruction using 'triangular approximation' of bone grafts for orbital blowout fractures.
Saiga, Atsuomi; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Yamaji, Yoshihisa
2015-10-01
There are many orbital wall reconstruction materials that can be used in surgery for orbital blowout fractures. We consider autogenous bone grafts to have the best overall characteristics among these materials and use thinned, inner cortical tables of the ilium. A bone bender is normally used to shape the inner iliac table to match the orbital shape. Since orbital walls curve three-dimensionally, processing of bone grafts is not easy and often requires much time and effort. We applied a triangular approximation method to the processing of bone grafts. Triangular approximation is a concept used in computer graphics for polygon processing. In this method, the shape of an object is represented as combinations of polygons, mainly triangles. In this study, the inner iliac table was used as a bone graft, and cuts or scores were made to create triangular sections. These triangular sections were designed three-dimensionally so that the shape of the resulting graft approximated to the three-dimensional orbital shape. This method was used in 12 patients with orbital blowout fractures, which included orbital floor fractures, medial wall fractures, and combined inferior and medial wall fractures. In all patients, bone grafts conformed to the orbital shape and good results were obtained. This simple method uses a reasonable and easy-to-understand approach and is useful in the treatment of bone defects in orbital blowout fractures when using a hard graft material. PMID:26297418
Non-linear stability around the triangular libration points. [in earth-moon system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckenzie, R.; Szebehely, V.
1981-01-01
The configuration space around the triangular libration points in the Earth-Moon system is partitioned according to the stability of the motion. The regions around L4 and L5 are established where particles placed with zero initial velocity will librate. The complexity of the partitioning is revealed.
A Simple Approximation for the Symbol Error Rate of Triangular Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duy, Tran Trung; Kong, Hyung Yun
In this paper, we consider the error performance of the regular triangular quadrature amplitude modulation (TQAM). In particular, using an accurate exponential bound of the complementary error function, we derive a simple approximation for the average symbol error rate (SER) of TQAM over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and fading channels. The accuracy of our approach is verified by some simulation results.
The J1-J2 Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCulloch, Ian; Saadatmand, Seyed; Powell, Ben
2015-03-01
We study the J1-J2 spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on triangular cylinders using non-abelian DMRG techniques. This model exhibits a rich phase diagram in the J1-J2 plane with a quasi-long-range 120° order, valence-bond crystal and columnar phases. ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Siya; Wang, Qian
2015-10-01
Triangular nanoflake growth patterns have been commonly observed in synthesis of transition metal dichalcogenide sheets and their hybrid structures. Triangular nanoflakes not only show exceptional properties, but also can serve as building blocks for two or three dimensional structures. In this study, taking the MoS2 system as a test case, we propose a Matrix method to understand the mechanism of such unique growth pattern. Nanoflakes with different edge types are mathematically described with configuration matrices, and the total formation energy is calculated as the sum of the edge formation energies and the chemical potentials of sulfur and molybdenum. Based on energetics, we find that three triangular patterns with the different edge configurations are energetically more favorable in different ranges of the chemical potential of sulfur, which are in good agreement with experimental observations. Our algorithm has high efficiency and can deal with nanoflakes in microns which are beyond the ability of ab-initio method. This study not only elucidates the mechanism of triangular nanoflake growth patterns in experiment, but also provides a clue to control the geometric configurations in synthesis.
Optical Film for LED with Triangular-Pyramidal Array Using Size-Reducible Embossing Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, C. F.; Pan, C. T.; Liu, K. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chen, J. L.; Huang, J. C.
2011-12-01
This study presents a modified hot-embossing process to fabricate micro-triangular-pyramidal array (MTPA). First, a tungsten (W) steel mold (as the first mold) is manufactured by precision machining including optical projection grinding, lapping, and polishing processes. The dimension of a triangular pyramid with acute angle of 85° on the W-steel mold is about 300 μm in width and 139 μm in height. The pitch between two triangular-pyramidal tips is about 170 μm. Then, only the portion of the tip area of the triangular-pyramidal patterns is transferred on bulk metallic glass (BMG, Mg58Cu31Y11) using this modified multi-step hot-embossing method to reduce the pattern size. With a position-adjustable mechanism, size-reduced concaved-shaped MTPA can be selectively formed, used as the secondary mold. In this way, not only can the size of triangular-pyramidal patterns on W-steel mold be reduced down on BMG, but also the tool arc between each triangular-pyramid on W-steel mold caused by machine tool can be eliminated. This is based on the fact that amorphous glass alloys contain no dislocation that can be responsible for yielding in crystalline materials. Thus, BMG is expected to be strong and hard enough to be used as a mold material. Then the secondary mold is used to emboss convex-shaped MTPA on PolymethylMethacrylate (PMMA) optical film. Experiments with different embossing times and embossing pressures are conducted and discussed. Large-sized triangular-pyramidal array on the W-steel mold has been successfully and selectively miniaturized on BMG, and then transferred on PMMA. Finally, this optical film of PMMA with MTPA is packaged on light-emitting diode (LED) to improve its lighting uniformity and luminance. In comparison with commercial 3M™ optical film (3M™ Vikuiti™ TBEF2-T-65i), the film with MTPA shows a good optical performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuesheng; Zhang, Qingming; Chen, Gang
The ground state of a spin-orbit coupled insulator with an odd number of electrons per unit cell must be exotic as long as the time reversal symmetry is preserved according to the recent theoretical advances. We present a new structurally perfect triangular quantum spin liquid (QSL) candidate YbMgGaO4 with spin-orbit entangled effective spin-1/2 for Yb3+. Due to the spin-orbit entanglement, the neighboring spin interaction is highly anisotropic in the spin space. We carried out the thermodynamic and the electron spin resonance measurements for YbMgGaO4 single-crystals to quantitatively determine the anisotropic couplings. Despite the antiferromagnetic couplings (~4K), no spin freezing was observed at least down to 60mK. The magnetic heat capacity of YbMgGaO4 clearly behaves as Cv ~ Tγ (γ ~ 2/3) from about 1K down to 60mK, suggesting a probable gapless QSL. Almost zero residual spin entropy (<0.6% of Rln2) at 60mK, indicates the system accesses the ground state property. Our results shed new light on the search for QSLs in strong spin-orbit coupled insulators.
Multi-frequency excitation of stiffened triangular plates for large amplitude oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Askari, H.; Saadatnia, Z.; Esmailzadeh, E.; Younesian, D.
2014-10-01
Free and forced vibrations of triangular plate are investigated. Diverse types of stiffeners were attached onto the plate to suppress the undesirable large-amplitude oscillations. The governing equation of motion for a triangular plate, based on the von Kármán theory, is developed and the nonlinear ordinary differential equation of the system using Galerkin approach is obtained. Closed-form expressions for the free undamped and large-amplitude vibration of an orthotropic triangular elastic plate are presented using the two well-known analytical methods, namely, the energy balance method and the variational approach. The frequency responses in the closed-form are presented and their sensitivities with respect to the initial amplitudes are studied. An error analysis is performed and the vibration behavior, as well as the accuracy of the solution methods, is evaluated. Different types of the stiffened triangular plates are considered in order to cover a wide range of practical applications. Numerical simulations are carried out and the validity of the solution procedure is explored. It is demonstrated that the two methods of energy balance and variational approach have been quite straightforward and reliable techniques to solve those nonlinear differential equations. Subsequently, due to the importance of multiple resonant responses in engineering design, multi-frequency excitations are considered. It is assumed that three periodic forces are applied to the plate in three specific positions. The multiple time scaling method is utilized to obtain approximate solutions for the frequency resonance cases. Influences of different parameters, namely, the position of applied forces, geometry and the number of stiffeners on the frequency response of the triangular plates are examined.
The negative triangularity tokamak: stability limits and prospects as a fusion energy system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedev, S. Yu.; Kikuchi, M.; Villard, L.; Takizuka, T.; Diamond, P.; Zushi, H.; Nagasaki, K.; Duan, X.; Wu, Y.; Ivanov, A. A.; Martynov, A. A.; Poshekhonov, Yu. Yu.; Fasoli, A.; Sauter, O.
2015-06-01
The paper discusses edge stability, beta limits and power handling issues for negative triangularity tokamaks. The edge magnetohydrodynamic stability is the most crucial item for power handling. For the case of negative triangularity the edge stability picture is quite different from that for conventional positive triangularity tokamaks: the second stability access is closed for localized Mercier/ballooning modes due to the absence of a magnetic well, and nearly internal kink modes set the pedestal height limit to be weakly sensitive to diamagnetic stabilization just above the margin of the localized mode Mercier criterion violation. While a negative triangularity tokamak is thought to have a low beta limit with its magnetic hill property, it is found that plasmas with reactor-relevant values of normalized beta βN > 3 can be stable to global kink modes without wall stabilization with appropriate core pressure profile optimization against localized mode stability, and also with increased magnetic shear in the outer half-radius. The beta limit is set by the n = 1 mode for the resulting flat pressure profile. The wall stabilization is very inefficient due to strong coupling between external and internal modes. The n > 1 modes are increasingly internal when approaching the localized mode limit, and set a lower beta in the case of the peaked pressure profile leading to a Mercier unstable core. With the theoretical predictions supported by experiments, a negative triangularity tokamak would become a prospective fusion energy system with other advantages including a larger separatrix wetted area, more flexible divertor configuration design, wider trapped particle-free scrape-off layer, lower background magnetic field for internal poloidal field coils, and larger pumping conductance from the divertor room.
Dating human cultural capacity using phylogenetic principles.
Lind, J; Lindenfors, P; Ghirlanda, S; Lidén, K; Enquist, M
2013-01-01
Humans have genetically based unique abilities making complex culture possible; an assemblage of traits which we term "cultural capacity". The age of this capacity has for long been subject to controversy. We apply phylogenetic principles to date this capacity, integrating evidence from archaeology, genetics, paleoanthropology, and linguistics. We show that cultural capacity is older than the first split in the modern human lineage, and at least 170,000 years old, based on data on hyoid bone morphology, FOXP2 alleles, agreement between genetic and language trees, fire use, burials, and the early appearance of tools comparable to those of modern hunter-gatherers. We cannot exclude that Neanderthals had cultural capacity some 500,000 years ago. A capacity for complex culture, therefore, must have existed before complex culture itself. It may even originated long before. This seeming paradox is resolved by theoretical models suggesting that cultural evolution is exceedingly slow in its initial stages. PMID:23648831
Hong, Z.C.; Liou, J.H.
1998-02-20
Control volume methods have recently been developed for fluid flow and heat transfer on unstructured meshes. In this study, the authors extend these methods to implement the solution of natural-convection-dominated melting of gallium by a fixed-grid method. A simple, robust, and reliable explicit numerical method (MAC method) is applied for an unstructured triangular grid. This investigation also applies the implicit SIMPLER method for an unstructured triangular grid. Results obtained from the unstructured triangular grid correlate well with the structured mesh computations and experimental data. Also, the feasibility of applying the triangular grid to complex geometric problems is demonstrated by calculating two different triangular domains.
A cubic triangular element with local continuity - An application in potential flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, E.-R.
1981-08-01
A triangular element is developed using a complete third-degree polynomial as the interpolation function. The nodal variables include the function and its first-order derivatives. A local continuity condition, which implements the conservation of the normal gradients of the interpolation function along the three boundaries of the element, is provided as a remedy for the nonconformity of the first-order derivatives in conventional elements with zeroth order continuity. The element is applied to potential flow problems. Numerical results for the flow over a cylinder and the flow through a draft tube elbow of a hydraulic turbine confirm the validity and the accuracy of this new cubic element. A comparison of this element with a triangular element with zeroth order continuity is made by checking their differences from an analytical solution for the flow over the cylinder. This element appears to be more accurate than the element with zeroth order continuity.
Uniform Strain Elements for Three-Node Triangular and Four-Node Tetrahedral Meshes
Dohrmann, C.R.; Heinstein, M.W.; Jung, J.; Key, S.W.; Witkowski, W.R.
1999-03-02
A family of uniform strain elements is presented for three-node triangular and four-node tetrahedral meshes. The elements use the linear interpolation functions of the original mesh, but each element is associated with a single node. As a result, a favorable constraint ratio for the volumetric response is obtained for problems in solid mechanics. The uniform strain elements do not require the introduction of additional degrees of freedom and their performance is shown to be significantly better than that of three-node triangular or four-node tetrahedral elements. In addition, nodes inside the boundary of the mesh are observed to exhibit superconvergent behavior for a set of example problems.
Novel S = 3/2 Triangular Antiferromagnet Ag2CrO2 with Metallic Conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji; Isobe, Masaaki
2011-12-01
A novel metallic silver chromate, Ag2CrO2, was synthesized using a high-pressure technique. Ag2CrO2 crystallizes in trigonal symmetry with lattice parameters of a = 2.9271(1) Å and c = 8.6721(4) Å. The structure consists of CrO2 and double Ag layers stacked alternately along the c-axis. The former realizes an S = 3/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg system, while the latter provides itinerant electrons. Ag2CrO2 exhibits an antiferromagnetic long-range order at TN = 24 K with the weak ferromagnetic moment. The resistivity shows a sudden drop at TN, suggesting a large s--d interaction (RKKY interaction) between the Cr 3d localized spins on the triangular lattice and the Ag 5s itinerant electrons. The RKKY interaction is responsible for releasing the magnetic frustration and the three-dimensional long-range ordering at TN.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Rajneesh; Kumar, Anoop; Goel, Varun
2016-06-01
The force convective heat transfer in an equilateral triangular duct of different wall heat flux configurations was analysed for the laminar hydro-dynamically developed and thermally developing flow by the use of finite volume method. Unstructured meshing was generated by multi-block technique and set of governing equations were discretized using second-order accurate up-wind scheme and numerically solved by SIMPLE Algorithm. For ensuring accuracy, grid independence study was also done. Numerical methodology was verified by comparing results with previous work and predicted results showed good agreement with them (within error of ±5 %). The different combinations of constant heat flux boundary condition were analysed and their effect on heat transfer and fluid flow for different Reynolds number was also studied. The results of different combinations were compared with the case of force convective heat transfer in the equilateral triangular duct with constant heat flux on all three walls.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalapati, Sasanka; Addicoat, Matthew; Jin, Shangbin; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Gao, Jia; Xu, Hong; Irle, Stephan; Seki, Shu; Jiang, Donglin
2015-07-01
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an emerging class of highly ordered porous polymers with many potential applications. They are currently designed and synthesized through hexagonal and tetragonal topologies, limiting the access to and exploration of new structures and properties. Here, we report that a triangular topology can be developed for the rational design and synthesis of a new class of COFs. The triangular topology features small pore sizes down to 12 Å, which is among the smallest pores for COFs reported to date, and high π-column densities of up to 0.25 nm-2, which exceeds those of supramolecular columnar π-arrays and other COF materials. These crystalline COFs facilitate π-cloud delocalization and are highly conductive, with a hole mobility that is among the highest reported for COFs and polygraphitic ensembles.
Suture welding for arthroscopic repair of peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex tears.
Badia, Alejandro; Khanchandani, Prakash
2007-03-01
This report presents a method of arthroscopic repair of the peripheral triangular fibrocartilage tears by using ultrasonic suture welding technique, thus avoiding the need for traditional suture knots. This technique eliminates the potential causes of ulnar-sided wrist discomfort especially during the postoperative period. Twenty-three patients (9 women and 14 men; mean age, 35 years; range, 18-52 years) were operated during a 1-year period in 2001 for Palmer grade 1B triangular fibrocartilage complex tear and followed up for 17 months. At the final follow-up, the average wrist arc of motion was as follows: extension, 65 degrees; flexion, 56 degrees; supination, 80 degrees; pronation, 78 degrees; radial deviation, 12 degrees; and ulnar deviation, 25 degrees. Grip strength measured with a dynamometer (Jamar) averaged 81% of the contralateral side at the final evaluation (range, 53%-105%). PMID:17536524
Apex-angle-dependent resonances in triangular split-ring resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burnett, Max A.; Fiddy, Michael A.
2016-02-01
Along with other frequency selective structures (Pendry et al. in IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech 47(11):2075-2084, 1999) (circles and squares), triangular split-ring resonators (TSRRs) only allow frequencies near the center resonant frequency to propagate. Further, TSRRs are attractive due to their small surface area (Vidhyalakshmi et al. in Stopband characteristics of complementary triangular split ring resonator loaded microstrip line, 2011), comparatively, and large quality factors ( Q) as previously investigated by Gay-Balmaz et al. (J Appl Phys 92(5):2929-2936, 2002). In this work, we examine the effects of varying the apex angle on the resonant frequency, the Q factor, and the phase shift imparted by the TSRR element within the GHz frequency regime.
Symmetric Z2 spin liquids and their neighboring phases on triangular lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yuan-Ming
2016-04-01
Motivated by recent numerical discovery of a gapped spin liquid phase in spin-1 /2 triangular-lattice J1-J2 Heisenberg model, we classify symmetric Z2 spin liquids on triangular lattice in the Abrikosov-fermion representation. We find 20 phases with distinct spinon symmetry quantum numbers, eight of which have their counterparts in the Schwinger-boson representation. Among them we identify two promising candidates (#1 and #20), which can realize a gapped Z2 spin liquid with up to next nearest neighbor mean-field amplitudes. We analyze their neighboring magnetic orders and valence bond solid patterns, and find one state (#20) that is connected to 120-degree Neel order by a continuous quantum phase transition. We also identify gapped nematic Z2 spin liquids in the neighborhood of the symmetric states and find three promising candidates (#1, #6, and #20).
Light trapping at Dirac point in 2D triangular Archimedean-like lattice photonic crystal.
Mao, Qiuping; Xie, Kang; Hu, Lei; Li, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Haiming; Hu, Zhijia; Wang, Erlei
2016-04-20
Optical cavities and waveguides are critical parts of modern optical devices. Traditionally, optical cavities and waveguides rely on photonic bandgaps, or total internal reflection, to achieve light trapping. It has been reported that a novel light trapping, which exists in triangular and honeycomb lattices, is attributed to the so-called Dirac point. Our analysis reveals that 2D triangular Archimedean-like lattice photonic crystals also can support this Dirac mode with similar characteristics. This is a new type of localized mode with a different algebraic field profile at a different specified Dirac frequency, which is also beyond any complete photonic bandgap. The new wave localization has different features and can be applied to the design of new optical devices. PMID:27140119
Computing jump conditions for the immersed interface method using triangular meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Sheng; Pearson, Glen D.
2015-12-01
The immersed interface method (IIM) can be employed to solve many interface problems on fixed Cartesian grids by incorporating necessary interface-induced Cartesian jump conditions into numerical schemes. In this paper, we present a method to compute the necessary Cartesian jump conditions from given principal jump conditions using triangular mesh representation of an interface. The triangular mesh representation is simpler and robuster than interface parametrization for a complex or non-smooth interface. We test our method by using the computed Cartesian jump conditions in the IIM to solve a Poisson equation subject to an interface with the shape of a sphere, cube, cylinder or cone. The results demonstrate the expected second-order accuracy of the solution in the infinity norm.