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Sample records for early ureteric bud

  1. HS2ST MEDIATED KIDNEY MESENCHYME INDUCTION REGULATES EARLY URETERIC BUD BRANCHING

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mita M.; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Sweeney, Derina E.; Gallegos, Thomas F.; Bush, Kevin T.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Nigam, Sanjay K.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are central modulators of developmental processes likely through their interaction with growth factors, such as GDNF, members of the FGF and TGFβ superfamilies, EGF receptor ligands and HGF. Absence of the biosynthetic enzyme, heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase (Hs2st) leads to kidney agenesis. Using a novel combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches, we have reanalyzed the defect in morphogenesis of the Hs2st−/− kidney. We observed that, while the ureteric bud (UB) forms from all Hs2st−/− Wolffian ducts, about two-thirds do not branch at all, and the remainder stop after the first branching event. Utilizing assays that separately model distinct stages of kidney branching morphogenesis, we found that the Hs2st−/− UB is able to undergo branching and induce mesenchymal-to-epithelial transformation when recombined with control MM, and the isolated Hs2st null UB is able to undergo branching morphogenesis in the presence of exogenous soluble pro-branching growth factors when embedded in an extracellular matrix, indicating that the UB is competent in and of itself. This is in contrast to the prevailing view that the defect underlying the renal agenesis phenotype is due to a primary role for 2-O sulfated HS in UB branching. Unexpectedly, the mutant MM was also fully capable of being induced in recombination experiments with wild-type tissue. Thus, both the mutant UB and mutant MM tissue appear competent in and of themselves, but the combination of mutant tissues fails in vivo and, as we show, in organ culture. We hypothesized a 2OS-dependent defect in the mutual inductive process, which could be on either the UB or MM side, since both progenitor tissues express Hs2st. In light of these observations, we specifically examined the role of the HS 2-O sulfation modification on the morphogenetic capacity of the UB and MM individually. We demonstrate that early UB branching morphogenesis is not primarily modulated

  2. Esrrg functions in early branch generation of the ureteric bud and is essential for normal development of the renal papilla.

    PubMed

    Berry, Rachel; Harewood, Louise; Pei, Liming; Fisher, Malcolm; Brownstein, David; Ross, Allyson; Alaynick, William A; Moss, Julie; Hastie, Nicholas D; Hohenstein, Peter; Davies, Jamie A; Evans, Ronald M; FitzPatrick, David R

    2011-03-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUTs) are common disorders of human development affecting the renal parechyma, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and urethra; they show evidence of shared genetic aetiology, although the molecular basis of this remains unknown in the majority of cases. Breakpoint mapping of a de novo, apparently balanced, reciprocal translocation associated with bilateral renal agenesis has implicated the gene encoding the nuclear steroid hormone receptor ESRRG as a candidate gene for CAKUT. Here we show that the Esrrg protein is detected throughout early ureteric ducts as cytoplasmic/sub-membranous staining; with nuclear localization seen in developing nephrons. In 14.5-16.5 dpc (days post-conception) mouse embryos, Esrrg localizes to the subset of ductal tissue within the kidney, liver and lung. The renal ductal expression becomes localized to renal papilla by 18.5 dpc. Perturbation of function was performed in embryonic mouse kidney culture using pooled siRNA to induce knock-down and a specific small-molecule agonist to induce aberrant activation of Esrrg. Both resulted in severe abnormality of early branching events of the ureteric duct. Mouse embryos with a targeted inactivation of Esrrg on both alleles (Esrrg(-/-)) showed agenesis of the renal papilla but normal development of the cortex and remaining medulla. Taken together, these results suggest that Esrrg is required for early branching events of the ureteric duct that occur prior to the onset of nephrogenesis. These findings confirm ESRRG as a strong candidate gene for CAKUT. PMID:21138943

  3. Esrrg functions in early branch generation of the ureteric bud and is essential for normal development of the renal papilla

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Rachel; Harewood, Louise; Pei, Liming; Fisher, Malcolm; Brownstein, David; Ross, Allyson; Alaynick, William A.; Moss, Julie; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Hohenstein, Peter; Davies, Jamie A.; Evans, Ronald M.; FitzPatrick, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUTs) are common disorders of human development affecting the renal parechyma, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and urethra; they show evidence of shared genetic aetiology, although the molecular basis of this remains unknown in the majority of cases. Breakpoint mapping of a de novo, apparently balanced, reciprocal translocation associated with bilateral renal agenesis has implicated the gene encoding the nuclear steroid hormone receptor ESRRG as a candidate gene for CAKUT. Here we show that the Esrrg protein is detected throughout early ureteric ducts as cytoplasmic/sub-membranous staining; with nuclear localization seen in developing nephrons. In 14.5–16.5 dpc (days post-conception) mouse embryos, Esrrg localizes to the subset of ductal tissue within the kidney, liver and lung. The renal ductal expression becomes localized to renal papilla by 18.5 dpc. Perturbation of function was performed in embryonic mouse kidney culture using pooled siRNA to induce knock-down and a specific small-molecule agonist to induce aberrant activation of Esrrg. Both resulted in severe abnormality of early branching events of the ureteric duct. Mouse embryos with a targeted inactivation of Esrrg on both alleles (Esrrg−/−) showed agenesis of the renal papilla but normal development of the cortex and remaining medulla. Taken together, these results suggest that Esrrg is required for early branching events of the ureteric duct that occur prior to the onset of nephrogenesis. These findings confirm ESRRG as a strong candidate gene for CAKUT. PMID:21138943

  4. Intracellular and extracellular regulation of ureteric bud morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    DAVIES, JAMIE

    2001-01-01

    The urinary collecting duct system of the permanent kidney develops by growth and branching of an initially unbranched epithelial tubule, the ureteric bud. Formation of the ureteric bud as an outgrowth of the wolffian duct is induced by signalling molecules (such as GDNF) that emanate from the adjacent metanephrogenic mesenchyme. Once it has invaded the mesenchyme, growth and branching of the bud is controlled by a variety of molecules, such as the growth factors GDNF, HGF, TGFβ, activin, BMP-2, BMP-7, and matrix molecules such as heparan sulphate proteoglycans and laminins. These various influences are integrated by signal transduction systems inside ureteric bud cells, with the MAP kinase, protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways appearing to play major roles. The mechanisms of morphogenetic change that produce branching remain largely obscure, but matrix metalloproteinases are known to be necessary for the process, and there is preliminary evidence for the involvement of the actin/myosin contractile cytoskeleton in creating branch points. PMID:11322719

  5. The ureteric bud epithelium: Morphogenesis and roles in metanephric kidney patterning

    PubMed Central

    Nagalakshmi, Vidya K.; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian metanephric kidney is composed of two epithelial components –the collecting duct system and the nephron epithelium– that differentiate from two different tissues –the ureteric bud epithelium and the nephron progenitors, respectively– of intermediate mesoderm origin. The collecting duct system is generated through reiterative ureteric bud branching morphogenesis whereas the nephron epithelium is formed in a process termed nephrogenesis, which is initiated with the mesenchymal-epithelial transition of the nephron progenitors. Ureteric bud branching morphogenesis is regulated by nephron progenitors, and in return the ureteric bud epithelium regulates nephrogenesis. The metanephric kidney is also physiologically divided along the cortico-medullary axis into subcompartments that are enriched with specific segments of these two epithelial structures. Here we provide an overview of the major molecular and cellular processes underlying the morphogenesis and patterning of the ureteric bud epithelium and its roles in the cortical-medullary patterning of the metanephric kidney. PMID:25783232

  6. Transcriptional Dysregulation in the Ureteric Bud Causes Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney by Branching Morphogenesis Defect

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiusha; Tripathi, Piyush; Manson, Scott R.; Austin, Paul F.; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway regulates the transcription of genes important for development. It is impacted by various genetic and environmental factors. We investigated the potential role of NFAT induced transcriptional dysregulation in the pathogenesis of congenital abnormalities of the kidneys and urinary tract. Materials and Methods A murine model of conditional NFATc1 activation in the ureteric bud was generated and examined for histopathological changes. Metanephroi were also cultured in vitro to analyze branching morphogenesis in real time. Results NFATc1 activation led to defects resembling multicystic dysplastic kidney. These mutants showed severe disorganization of branching morphogenesis characterized by decreased ureteric bud branching and the disconnection of ureteric bud derivatives from the main collecting system. The orphan ureteric bud derivatives may have continued to induce nephrogenesis and likely contributed to the subsequent formation of blunt ended filtration units and cysts. The ureter also showed irregularities consistent with impaired epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Conclusions This study reveals the profound effects of NFAT signaling dysregulation on the ureteric bud and provides insight into the pathogenesis of multicystic dysplastic kidney. Our results suggest that the obstruction hypothesis and the bud theory may not be mutually exclusive to explain the pathogenesis of multicystic dysplastic kidney. Ureteric bud dysfunction such as that induced by NFAT activation can disrupt ureteric bud-metanephric mesenchyma interaction, causing primary defects in branching morphogenesis, subsequent dysplasia and cyst formation. Obstruction of the main collecting system can further enhance these defects, producing the pathological changes associated with multicystic dysplastic kidney. PMID:25301096

  7. microRNA-dependent Temporal Gene Expression in the Ureteric Bud Epithelium during Mammalian Kidney Development

    PubMed Central

    Nagalakshmi, Vidya K.; Lindner, Volkhard; Wessels, Andy; Yu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background Our previous study on mouse mutants with the ureteric bud (UB) epithelium-specific Dicer deletion (Dicer UB mutants) demonstrated the significance of UB epithelium-derived miRNAs in UB development. Results Our whole-genome transcriptional profiling showed that the Dicer mutant UB epithelium abnormally retained transcriptional features of the early UB epithelium and failed to express many genes associated with collecting duct differentiation. Further, we identified a temporal expression pattern of early UB genes during UB epithelium development in which gene expression was detected at early developmental stages and became undetectable by E14.5. In contrast, expression of early UB genes persisted at later stages in the Dicer mutant UB epithelium and increased at early stages. Our bioinformatics analysis of the abnormally persistently expressed early genes in the Dicer mutant UB epithelium showed significant enrichment of the let-7 family miRNA targets. We further identified a temporal expression pattern of let-7 miRNAs in the UB epithelium that is anti-parallel to that of some early UB genes during kidney development. Conclusions We propose a model in which the let-7 family miRNAs silence the expression of a subset of early genes in the UB epithelium at later developmental stages in order to promote collecting duct differentiation. PMID:25369991

  8. Eya-Six are necessary for survival of nephrogenic cord progenitors and inducing nephric duct development prior to ureteric bud formation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinshu; Xu, Pin-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Background Specification of the metanephric mesenchyme is a central step of kidney development as this mesenchyme promotes nephric duct induction to form a ureteric bud near its caudal end. Prior to ureteric bud formation, the caudal nephric duct swells to form a pseudostratified epithelial domain that later emerges as the tip of the bud. However, the signals that promote the formation of the transient epithelial domain remain unclear. Here we investigated the early roles of the mesenchymal factor Six family and its cofactor Eya on the initial induction of nephric duct development. Results The nephrogenic progenitor population is initially present but significantly reduced in mice lacking both Six1 and Six4 and undertakes an abnormal cell death pathway to be completely eliminated by ~E10.5-11.0, similar to that observed in Eya1−/− embryos. Consequently, the nephric duct fails to be induced to undergo normal proliferation to pseudostratify and form the ureteric bud in Six1−/−;Six4−/− or Eya1−/− embryos. Conclusion Our data support a model where Eya-Six may form a complex to regulate nephron progenitor cell development before metanephric specification and are critical mesenchymal factors for inducing nephric duct development. PMID:25903664

  9. A mathematical model for the induction of the mammalian ureteric bud.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Brodie A J; Flegg, Mark B

    2016-04-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract collectively form the most common type of prenatally diagnosed malformations. Whilst many of the crucial genes that direct the kidney developmental program are known, the mechanisms by which kidney organogenesis is achieved is still largely unclear. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for the localisation of the ureteric bud, the precursor to the ureter and collecting duct system of the kidney. The mathematical model presented fundamentally implicates Schnakenberg-like ligand-receptor Turing patterning as the mechanism by which the ureteric bud is localised on the Wolfian duct as proposed by Menshykaul and Iber (2013). This model explores the specific roles of regulatory proteins GREM1 and BMP as well as the domain properties of GDNF production. Our model demonstrates that this proposed pattern formation mechanism is capable of naturally predicting the phenotypical outcomes of many genetic experiments from the literature. Furthermore, we conclude that whilst BMP inhibits GDNF away from the budding site and GREM1 permits GDNF to signal, GREM1 also stabilises the effect of BMP on GDNF signalling from fluctuations in BMP sensitivity but not signal strength. PMID:26801874

  10. Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 regulate Wnt and p53 pathways in the ureteric bud epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaowei; Yao, Xiao; Li, Yuwen; Saifudeen, Zubaida; Bachvarov, Dimcho; El-Dahr, Samir S.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate a broad range of biological processes through removal of acetyl groups from histones as well as non-histone proteins. Our previous studies showed that Hdac1 and Hdac2 are bound to promoters of key renal developmental regulators and that HDAC activity is required for embryonic kidney gene expression. However, the existence of many HDAC isoforms in embryonic kidneys raises questions concerning the possible specificity or redundancy of their functions. We report here that targeted deletion of both the Hdac1 and Hdac2 genes from the ureteric bud (UB) cell lineage of mice causes bilateral renal hypodysplasia. One copy of either Hdac1 or Hdac2 is sufficient to sustain normal renal development. In addition to defective cell proliferation and survival, genome-wide transcriptional profiling revealed that the canonical Wnt signaling pathway is specifically impaired in UBHdac1,2−/− kidneys. Our results also demonstrate that loss of Hdac1 and Hdac2 in the UB epithelium leads to marked hyperacetylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 on lysine 370, 379 and 383; these post-translational modifications are known to boost p53 stability and transcriptional activity. Genetic deletion of p53 partially rescues the development of UBHdac1,2−/− kidneys. Together, these data indicate that Hdac1 and Hdac2 are crucial for kidney development. They perform redundant, yet essential, cell lineage-autonomous functions via p53-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:25758227

  11. Simultaneous percutaneous nephrolithotomy and early endoscopic ureteric realignment for iatrogenic ureteropelvic junction avulsion during ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tayeb, Marawan El; Mellon, Matthew J.; Lingeman, James E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case report of successful management of ureteropelvice junction avulsion during ureteroscopy successfully managed with simultaneous percutaneous nephrolithotomy and early endoscopic ureteral realignment. PMID:26834898

  12. Role of Wnt5a-Ror2 Signaling in Morphogenesis of the Metanephric Mesenchyme during Ureteric Budding

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Sen; Miyamoto, Mari; Okinaka, Yuka; Yamada, Makiko; Hashimoto, Ryuju; Iijima, Kazumoto; Otani, Hiroki; Hartmann, Christine; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    Development of the metanephric kidney begins with the induction of a single ureteric bud (UB) on the caudal Wolffian duct (WD) in response to GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) produced by the adjacent metanephric mesenchyme (MM). Mutual interaction between the UB and MM maintains expression of GDNF in the MM, thereby supporting further outgrowth and branching morphogenesis of the UB, while the MM also grows and aggregates around the branched tips of the UB. Ror2, a member of the Ror family of receptor tyrosine kinases, has been shown to act as a receptor for Wnt5a to mediate noncanonical Wnt signaling. We show that Ror2 is predominantly expressed in the MM during UB induction and that Ror2- and Wnt5a-deficient mice exhibit duplicated ureters and kidneys due to ectopic UB induction. During initial UB formation, these mutant embryos show dysregulated positioning of the MM, resulting in spatiotemporally aberrant interaction between the MM and WD, which provides the WD with inappropriate GDNF signaling. Furthermore, the numbers of proliferating cells in the mutant MM are markedly reduced compared to the wild-type MM. These results indicate an important role of Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling in morphogenesis of the MM to ensure proper epithelial tubular formation of the UB required for kidney development. PMID:24891614

  13. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  14. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-Long; Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  15. Early epithelial signaling center governs tooth budding morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahtiainen, Laura; Uski, Isa; Thesleff, Irma; Mikkola, Marja L

    2016-09-12

    During organogenesis, cell fate specification and patterning are regulated by signaling centers, specialized clusters of morphogen-expressing cells. In many organs, initiation of development is marked by bud formation, but the cellular mechanisms involved are ill defined. Here, we use the mouse incisor tooth as a model to study budding morphogenesis. We show that a group of nonproliferative epithelial cells emerges in the early tooth primordium and identify these cells as a signaling center. Confocal live imaging of tissue explants revealed that although these cells reorganize dynamically, they do not reenter the cell cycle or contribute to the growing tooth bud. Instead, budding is driven by proliferation of the neighboring cells. We demonstrate that the activity of the ectodysplasin/Edar/nuclear factor κB pathway is restricted to the signaling center, and its inactivation leads to fewer quiescent cells and a smaller bud. These data functionally link the signaling center size to organ size and imply that the early signaling center is a prerequisite for budding morphogenesis. PMID:27621364

  16. Overexpression of Robo2 causes defects in the recruitment of metanephric mesenchymal cells and ureteric bud branching morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jiayao; Li, Qinggang; Xie, Yuansheng; Zhang, Xueguang; Cui, Shaoyuan; Shi, Suozhu; Chen, Xiangmei

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of Robo2 caused reduced UB branching and glomerular number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fewer MM cells surrounding the UB after overexpression of Robo2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No abnormal Epithelial Morphology of UB or apoptosis of mm cells in the kidney. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of Robo2 affected MM cells migration and caused UB deficit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reduced glomerular number can also be caused by fewer MM cells. -- Abstract: Roundabout 2 (Robo2) is a member of the membrane protein receptor family. The chemorepulsive effect of Slit2-Robo2 signaling plays vital roles in nervous system development and neuron migration. Slit2-Robo2 signaling is also important for maintaining the normal morphogenesis of the kidney and urinary collecting system, especially for the branching of the ureteric bud (UB) at the proper site. Slit2 or Robo2 mouse mutants exhibit multilobular kidneys, multiple ureters, and dilatation of the ureter, renal pelvis, and collecting duct system, which lead to vesicoureteral reflux. To understand the effect of Robo2 on kidney development, we used microinjection and electroporation to overexpress GFP-Robo2 in an in vitro embryonic kidney model. Our results show reduced UB branching and decreased glomerular number after in vitro Robo2 overexpression in the embryonic kidneys. We found fewer metanephric mesenchymal (MM) cells surrounding the UB but no abnormal morphology in the branching epithelial UB. Meanwhile, no significant change in MM proliferation or apoptosis was observed. These findings indicate that Robo2 is involved in the development of embryonic kidneys and that the normal expression of Robo2 can help maintain proper UB branching and glomerular morphogenesis. Overexpression of Robo2 leads to reduced UB branching caused by fewer surrounding MM cells, but MM cell apoptosis is not involved in this effect. Our study demonstrates that

  17. Total ureteral avulsion leading to early nephrectomy as a rare complication of simple lumbar discectomy; a case report

    PubMed Central

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Mousavi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lumbar discectomy constitutes the most common and probably easiest spine surgery but it is not without complications. The aim of this work is to report a case with total ureteral avulsion during lumbar discectomy due to careless advancement of the pituitary rongeur. Methods: A 59-year-old male presented with refractory left L5-S1 lumbar disc herniation. During the surgery, left sided total ureteral avulsion occurred. Early postoperative progressive abdominal pain was the main clue for further investigation and diagnostic work-up. Results: Abdominal ultrasonography, intravenous pyelography, and abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) detected a left ureteral injury. Although the injury was detected early, ureteral repair or renal autotransplantation was not possible and nephrectomy was finally indicated, due to a significant ureteral loss. Discussion: Careful use of discectomy instruments, avoidance of excessive advancement of pituitary rongeurs (more than 3 cm), and thorough knowledge of the relevant anatomy are critical in preventing ureteral injury. PMID:27163085

  18. EARLY BUD-BREAK1 (EBB1) defines a conserved mechanism for control of bud-break in woody perennials

    PubMed Central

    Busov, Victor; Carneros, Elena; Yakovlev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Bud-break is an environmentally and economically important trait in trees, shrubs and vines from temperate latitudes. Poor synchronization of bud-break timing with local climates can lead to frost injuries, susceptibility to pests and pathogens and poor crop yields in fruit trees and vines. The rapid climate changes outpace the adaptive capacities of plants to respond through natural selection. This is particularly true for trees which have long generation cycle and thus the adaptive changes are significantly delayed. Therefore, to devise appropriate breeding and conservation strategies, it is imperative to understand the molecular underpinnings that govern dormancy mechanisms. We have recently identified and characterized the poplar EARLY BUD-BREAK 1 (EBB1) gene. EBB1 is a positive regulator of bud-break and encodes a transcription factor from the AP2/ERF family. Here, using comparative and functional genomics approaches we show that EBB1 function in regulation of bud-break is likely conserved across wide range of woody perennial species with importance to forestry and agriculture. PMID:26317150

  19. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida.

    PubMed

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-05-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar. PMID:25873679

  20. Sonic Hedgehog functions by localizing the region of proliferation in early developing feather buds.

    PubMed

    McKinnell, Iain W; Turmaine, Mark; Patel, Ketan

    2004-08-01

    Feathers are formed following a series of reciprocal signals between the epithelium and the mesenchyme. Initially, the formation of a dense dermis leads to the induction of a placode in the overlying ectoderm. The ectoderm subsequently signals back to the dermis to promote cell division. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted protein expressed in the ectoderm that has previously been implicated in mitogenic and morphogenetic processes throughout feather bud development. We therefore interfered with Shh signaling during early feather bud development and observed a dramatic change in feather form and prominence. Surprisingly, outgrowth did occur and was manifest as irregular, fused, and ectopic feather domains at both molecular and morphological levels. Experiments with Di-I and BrdU indicated that this effect was at least in part caused by the dispersal of previously aggregated proliferating dermal cells. We propose that Shh maintains bud development by localizing the dermal feather progenitors. PMID:15242792

  1. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants. PMID:26940832

  2. HAND2 targets define a network of transcriptional regulators that compartmentalize the early limb bud mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Osterwalder, Marco; Speziale, Dario; Shoukry, Malak; Mohan, Rajiv; Ivanek, Robert; Kohler, Manuel; Beisel, Christian; Wen, Xiaohui; Scales, Suzie J; Christoffels, Vincent M; Visel, Axel; Lopez-Rios, Javier; Zeller, Rolf

    2014-11-10

    The genetic networks that govern vertebrate development are well studied, but how the interactions of trans-acting factors with cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) are integrated into spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression is not clear. The transcriptional regulator HAND2 is required during limb, heart, and branchial arch development. Here, we identify the genomic regions enriched in HAND2 chromatin complexes from mouse embryos and limb buds. Then we analyze the HAND2 target CRMs in the genomic landscapes encoding transcriptional regulators required in early limb buds. HAND2 controls the expression of genes functioning in the proximal limb bud and orchestrates the establishment of anterior and posterior polarity of the nascent limb bud mesenchyme by impacting Gli3 and Tbx3 expression. TBX3 is required downstream of HAND2 to refine the posterior Gli3 expression boundary. Our analysis uncovers the transcriptional circuits that function in establishing distinct mesenchymal compartments downstream of HAND2 and upstream of SHH signaling. PMID:25453830

  3. HAND2 Targets Define a Network of Transcriptional Regulators that Compartmentalize the Early Limb Bud Mesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Osterwalder, Marco; Speziale, Dario; Shoukry, Malak; Mohan, Rajiv; Ivanek, Robert; Kohler, Manuel; Beisel, Christian; Wen, Xiaohui; Scales, Suzie J.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Visel, Axel; Lopez-Rios, Javier; Zeller, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Summary The genetic networks that govern vertebrate development are well studied, but how the interactions of trans-acting factors with cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) are integrated into spatio-temporal regulation of gene expression is not clear. The transcriptional regulator HAND2 is required during limb, heart and branchial arch development. Here, we identify the genomic regions enriched in HAND2 chromatin complexes from mouse embryos and limb buds. Then, we analyze the HAND2 target CRMs in the genomic landscapes encoding transcriptional regulators required in early limb buds. HAND2 controls the expression of genes functioning in the proximal limb bud and orchestrates the establishment of anterior and posterior polarity of the nascent limb bud mesenchyme by impacting on Gli3 and Tbx3 expression. TBX3 is required downstream of HAND2 to refine the posterior Gli3 expression boundary. Our analysis uncovers the transcriptional circuits that function in establishing distinct mesenchymal compartments downstream of HAND2 and upstream of SHH signaling. PMID:25453830

  4. Analysis of early nephron patterning reveals a role for distal RV proliferation in fusion to the ureteric tip via a cap mesenchyme-derived connecting segment.

    PubMed

    Georgas, Kylie; Rumballe, Bree; Valerius, M Todd; Chiu, Han Sheng; Thiagarajan, Rathi D; Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Aronow, Bruce J; Brunskill, Eric W; Combes, Alexander N; Tang, Dave; Taylor, Darrin; Grimmond, Sean M; Potter, S Steven; McMahon, Andrew P; Little, Melissa H

    2009-08-15

    While nephron formation is known to be initiated by a mesenchyme-to-epithelial transition of the cap mesenchyme to form a renal vesicle (RV), the subsequent patterning of the nephron and fusion with the ureteric component of the kidney to form a patent contiguous uriniferous tubule has not been fully characterized. Using dual section in situ hybridization (SISH)/immunohistochemistry (IHC) we have revealed distinct distal/proximal patterning of Notch, BMP and Wnt pathway components within the RV stage nephron. Quantitation of mitoses and Cyclin D1 expression indicated that cell proliferation was higher in the distal RV, reflecting the differential developmental programs of the proximal and distal populations. A small number of RV genes were also expressed in the early connecting segment of the nephron. Dual ISH/IHC combined with serial section immunofluorescence and 3D reconstruction revealed that fusion occurs between the late RV and adjacent ureteric tip via a process that involves loss of the intervening ureteric epithelial basement membrane and insertion of cells expressing RV markers into the ureteric tip. Using Six2-eGFPCre x R26R-lacZ mice, we demonstrate that these cells are derived from the cap mesenchyme and not the ureteric epithelium. Hence, both nephron patterning and patency are evident at the late renal vesicle stage. PMID:19501082

  5. Managing Small Ureteral Stones: A Retrospective Study on Follow-Up, Clinical Outcomes and Cost-Effectiveness of Conservative Management vs. Early Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Alevizopoulos, Aristeidis; Zosimas, Dimitrios; Piha, Lamprini; Hanna, Milad; Charitopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of ureteral calculi has evolved over the past decades with the advent of new surgical and medical treatments. The current guidelines support conservative management as a possible approach for ureteral stones sized = 10 mm. Objectives We purport to follow the natural history of ureteral stones managed conservatively in this retrospective study, and attempt to ascribe an estimated health-care and cost-effectiveness, from presentation to time of being stone-free. Materials and methods 192 male and female patients with a single ureteral stone sized = 10 mm were included in this study. The clinical and cost-related outcome was analyzed for different stone sizes (0-4, 4-6 and 6-10 mm). The effectiveness of selected follow-up (FU) scans was also analyzed. Results Stone size was found to be related to the degree of hydronephrosis and to the likelihood of need for a surgical management. Conservative management was found to be clinically effective, as 88% of the patients did not require surgery for their stone. 96.1% of the patients with a stone 0-4mm managed to expel their ureteral stone. Bigger ureteral stones were found to be more costly. The cost-effectiveness of the single FU scans was found to be related to their efficiency, while the global cost-effectiveness of conservative management vs. early surgery was higher for smaller stones (26.8 vs. 17.32% for stones 0-4 vs. 6-10 mm). Conclusion Conservative management is clinically effective with a significant cost-benefit, particularly for the subgroup of stones sized 0-4 mm, where a need for FU scans is in dispute. PMID:26989370

  6. Percutaneous Balloon Dilatation for the Treatment of Early and Late Ureteral Strictures After Renal Transplantation: Long-Term Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Bachar, Gil N. Mor, E.; Bartal, G.; Atar, Eli; Goldberg, N.; Belenky, A.

    2004-08-15

    We report our experience with percutaneous balloon dilatation (PBD) for the treatment of ureteral strictures in patients with renal allografts. Of the 422 consecutive patients after renal transplantation in our center 10 patients had ureteral strictures. An additional 11 patients were referred from other centers. The 21 patients included 15 men and 6 women aged 16 to 67 years. Strictures were confirmed by sonography and scintigraphy in all cases. Patients underwent 2 to 4 PBDs at 7-10-day intervals. Clinical success was defined as resolution of the stenosis and hydronephrosis on sequential ultrasound and normalization of creatinine levels. Patients were divided into two groups: those who underwent transplantation more than 3 months previously and those who underwent transplantation less than 3 months previously. PBD was successful in 13 of the 21 patients (62%). There was no statistically significant difference in success rate between the patients with early (n 12) and those with late (n = 9) obstruction: 58.4% and 66%, respectively. No major complications were documented. PBD is a safe and simple tool for treating ureteral strictures and procedure-related morbidity is low. It can serve as an initial treatment in patients with early or late ureteral strictures after renal transplantation.

  7. Ureteral peristalsis in pediatric urology

    SciTech Connect

    Schauenburg, W.M.; Anger, K.; Feine, U.; Flach, A.; Reifferscheid, P.; Hofmann, U.

    1984-01-01

    The review is based upon more than 300 pediatric studies from 6 years. Ureteral motility has been assessed in routine renography with I-123-hippuran and Tc-99m-DTPA. Normal ureters were studied with Tc-99m-MDP as by-product to bone scans. In a few cases the radioisotope was injected or infused into the renal pelvis via a Sober loop or a catheter. Ureteral motility information is compressed, similar to the M-mode in sonograhy, by a space time matrix approach, which was introduced in 1978. The clinical applications focussed upon vesico-ureteral reflux, megureter motility, and ureteral stenosis. Concerning vesico-ureteral reflux, the method revealed the clinical and diagnostic interference of retroperistalsis and reflux: (I) Retroperistalsis supports the backflow mechanism. (II) Retroperistalsis may be a symptom of a refluxive ureter, even if there is no actual reflux documented. (III) Discrepancies between direct and indirect tests for reflux are explained partly by the occurrence of retroperistaltic transport of prevesical urine during indirect testing, simulating vesico-ureteral valve dysfunction. Concerning megaureters, the preoperative motility is known to be of prognostic value. Early ureteral stenosis may be judged from peristalitic frequency, either in the basic study or after frusemide. The method became reliable, when the absence of motility could be distinguished from the absence of information on motility, due to a low isotope input into the ureter. In conclusion, the method is now available as routine tool.

  8. Procalcitonin determined at emergency department as an early indicator of progression to septic shock in patient with sepsis associated with ureteral calculi

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Young Hwii; Ji, Yoon Seob; Park, Sin-Youl; Kim, Su Jin; Song, Phil Hyun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: To investigate the role of initial procalcitonin (PCT) level as an early predictor of septic shock for the patient with sepsis induced by acute pyelonephritis (APN) secondary to ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: The data from 49 consecutive patients who met criteria of sepsis due to APN following ureteral stone were collected and divided into two groups: with (n=15) or without (n=34) septic shock. The clinical variables including PCT level for this outcome were retrospectively compared by univariate analysis, followed by multivariable logistic regression model. Results: All subjects had hydronephrosis, and were hospitalized with the mean of 11.8 days (3–42 days). The mean size of the ureteral stones was 7.5mm (3–30mm), and 57% were located in upper ureter. At univariate analysis, patients with septic shock were significantly older, a higher proportion had hypertension, lower platelet count and serum albumin level, higher CRP and PCT level, and higher positive blood culture rate. Multivariate models indicated that lower platelet count and higher PCT level are independent risk factors (p=0.043 and 0.046, respectively). In ROC curve, the AUC was significantly wider in PCT (0.929), compared with the platelet count (0.822, p=0.004). At the cut-off of 0.52ng/mL, the sensitivity and specificity were 86.7% and 85.3%. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated elevated initial PCT levels as an early independent predictor to progress into septic shock in patients with sepsis associated with ureteral calculi. PMID:27256181

  9. Glucagon, ureteral colic and ureteral peristalsis.

    PubMed

    Boyarsky, S; Labay, P C

    1978-01-01

    Experimentally, glucagon is an effective ureteral relaxant that induces a moderate diuresis. Our data suggest that in specified cases of ureteral colic, before the development of a ureteral bar, flaccid dilatation of the pelvis and renal shutdown, glucagon may facilitate the expulsion of small ureteral calculi. When the ureteral pain is due to hyperperistalsis the drug has promise in the alleviation of pain. The complexities of the pathophysiology of ureteral colic in an experimental model support the treatment of ureteral edema in colic with anti-inflammatory drugs but suggest certain precautions in the design of any investigation of drug therapy for colic, lest a good drug be found ineffective for the wrong reason-that it was used in an impossible situation. PMID:753018

  10. Changes in Transcription and Metabolism During the Early Stage of Replicative Cellular Senescence in Budding Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Kamei, Yuka; Tamada, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Yasumune; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Mukai, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Age-related damage accumulates and a variety of biological activities and functions deteriorate in senescent cells. However, little is known about when cellular aging behaviors begin and what cellular aging processes change. Previous research demonstrated age-related mRNA changes in budding yeast by the 18th to 20th generation, which is the average replicative lifespan of yeast (i.e. about half of the population is dead by this time point). Here, we performed transcriptional and metabolic profiling for yeast at early stages of senescence (4th, 7th, and 11th generation), that is, for populations in which most cells are still alive. Transcriptional profiles showed up- and down-regulation for ∼20% of the genes profiled after the first four generations, few further changes by the 7th generation, and an additional 12% of the genes were up- and down-regulated after 11 generations. Pathway analysis revealed that these 11th generation cells had accumulated transcripts coding for enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, the TCA cycle, and amino acid degradation and showed decreased levels of mRNAs coding for enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthetic pathways. These observations were consistent with the metabolomic profiles of aging cells: an accumulation of pyruvic acid and TCA cycle intermediates and depletion of most amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids. Stationary phase-induced genes were highly expressed after 11 generations even though the growth medium contained adequate levels of nutrients, indicating deterioration of the nutrient sensing and/or signaling pathways by the 11th generation. These changes are presumably early indications of replicative senescence. PMID:25294875

  11. Ureteral retrograde brush biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - brush - urinary tract; Retrograde ureteral brush biopsy cytology; Cytology - ureteral retrograde brush biopsy ... to be biopsied is rubbed with the brush. Biopsy forceps may be used instead to collect a ...

  12. A giant ureteric calculus

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Rajiv; Bansal, Prashant; Gutta, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Ureteric stones are usually small and symptomatic. We present a case of a 35-year old female who presented with minimally symptomatic right distal ureteric calculus with proximal hydroureteronephrosis. Laparoscopic right ureterolithotomy was performed and a giant ureteric calculus measuring 11 cm Χ 1.5 cm, weighing 40 g was retrieved. PMID:24082453

  13. A giant ureteric calculus.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Rajiv; Bansal, Prashant; Gutta, Srinivas

    2013-07-01

    Ureteric stones are usually small and symptomatic. We present a case of a 35-year old female who presented with minimally symptomatic right distal ureteric calculus with proximal hydroureteronephrosis. Laparoscopic right ureterolithotomy was performed and a giant ureteric calculus measuring 11 cm Χ 1.5 cm, weighing 40 g was retrieved. PMID:24082453

  14. Expression of alpha and beta tropomyosin subunits during early myogenesis in somites and limb buds of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Delezoide, A L; Pavlovitch, J H; Nato, F; Fiszman, M Y

    1989-06-01

    The appearance of alpha and beta subunits of skeletal tropomyosin in early myogenesis was studied histochemically using monoclonal antibody to alpha tropomyosin and affinity-purified polyclonal antibody to beta tropomyosin. In muscle cells, in both somites and limb buds, the alpha and beta subunits are simultaneously expressed and first appear in the somites at the 30-36 somites. The relatively greater amount of beta than alpha tropomyosin found in early myogenesis is thus likely to result from a higher rate of beta tropomyosin synthesis. PMID:2743399

  15. Ureteric access sheath aided insertion of resonance metal ureteric stent

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Matthew; Strahan, Stephen; Wines, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ureteral obstruction caused by malignancy is a challenging and often complicated problem for urologists. We present a novel technique of ureteric access sheath aided insertion of a Resonance metal ureteric stent in the setting of a difficult obstruction. PMID:24879725

  16. Percutaneous ureteral interventions.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Robert; Saad, Wael E A; Brown, Daniel B

    2009-09-01

    Urinary strictures are commonly managed by interventional radiologists and can result from both benign and malignant etiologies. Many patients end up with lifelong catheters. Although stricture dilation is commonly unsuccessful, some patients can eventually become catheter free. This review describes current outcomes with a variety of dilation and stenting techniques. Management of complex ureteral and urinary complications is also reviewed, including ureteral/arterial fistulas and ureteral embolization for permanent diversion. PMID:19945661

  17. RING1 proteins contribute to early proximal-distal specification of the forelimb bud by restricting Meis2 expression.

    PubMed

    Yakushiji-Kaminatsui, Nayuta; Kondo, Takashi; Endo, Takaho A; Koseki, Yoko; Kondo, Kaori; Ohara, Osamu; Vidal, Miguel; Koseki, Haruhiko

    2016-01-15

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins play a pivotal role in silencing developmental genes and help to maintain various stem and precursor cells and regulate their differentiation. PcG factors also regulate dynamic and complex regional specification, particularly in mammals, but this activity is mechanistically not well understood. In this study, we focused on proximal-distal (PD) patterning of the mouse forelimb bud to elucidate how PcG factors contribute to a regional specification process that depends on developmental signals. Depletion of the RING1 proteins RING1A (RING1) and RING1B (RNF2), which are essential components of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), led to severe defects in forelimb formation along the PD axis. We show that preferential defects in early distal specification in Ring1A/B-deficient forelimb buds accompany failures in the repression of proximal signal circuitry bound by RING1B, including Meis1/2, and the activation of distal signal circuitry in the prospective distal region. Additional deletion of Meis2 induced partial restoration of the distal gene expression and limb formation seen in the Ring1A/B-deficient mice, suggesting a crucial role for RING1-dependent repression of Meis2 and likely also Meis1 for distal specification. We suggest that the RING1-MEIS1/2 axis is regulated by early PD signals and contributes to the initiation or maintenance of the distal signal circuitry. PMID:26674308

  18. The pathogenesis of renal dysplasia. II. The significance of lateral and medial ectopy of the ureteric orifice.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, R D; Stephens, F D; Cussen, L J

    1981-09-01

    Renal hypoplasia and dysplasia may be primary malformations linked to a panureteric bud deformity or result from damage to the developing nephrons caused by abnormal urodynamic pressures, Kidneys with misplaced ureteric orifices were graded, according to histologic criteria, on the hypodysplasia scale. With lateral ectopy of the ureteric orifices with and without congenital urethral obstruction, the grades correlated with specific orifice positions. The grades of kidneys with caudal ectopy of the ureters indicated a more general correlation. Dysgenesis of the bud and nephrogenic mesenchyme may account for the renal hypodysplasia when the ureteric orifice is found to be ectopic. PMID:7275560

  19. FT-IR microscopic mappings of early mineralization in chick limb bud mesenchymal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Camacho, N. P.; Mendelsohn, R.; Doty, S. B.; Binderman, I.

    1992-01-01

    Chick limb bud mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrocytes and form a cartilaginous matrix in culture. In this study, the mineral formed in different areas within cultures supplemented with 4 mM inorganic phosphate, or 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP), was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopy. The relative mineral-to-matrix ratios, and distribution of crystal sizes at specific locations throughout the matrix were measured from day 14 to day 30. The only mineral phase detected was a poorly crystalline apatite. Cultures receiving 4 mM inorganic phosphate had smaller crystals which were less randomly distributed around the cartilage nodules than those in the beta GP-treated cultures. beta GP-induced mineral consisted of larger, more perfect apatite crystals. In cultures receiving 5 or 10 mM beta GP, the relative mineral-to-matrix ratios (calculated from the integrated intensities of the phosphate and amide I bands, respectively) were higher than in the cultures with 4 mM inorganic phosphate or in the in vivo calcified chick cartilage.

  20. Arenavirus Budding

    PubMed Central

    Urata, Shuzo; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health concern in their endemic regions. On the other hand, the prototypic arenavirus LCMV is a superb workhorse for the investigation of virus-host interactions and associated disease. The arenavirus small RING finger protein called Z has been shown to be the main driving force of virus budding. The budding activity of Z is mediated by late (L) domain motifs, PT/SAP, and PPXY, located at the C-terminus of Z. This paper will present the current knowledge on arenavirus budding including the diversity of L domain motifs used by different arenaviruses. We will also discuss how improved knowledge of arenavirus budding may facilitate the development of novel antiviral strategies to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses. PMID:22312335

  1. Dormant buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormant vegetative buds from diverse species can be preserved using cryopreservation. Sakai (1960) provided one of the first studies showing that winter twigs of poplar (Populus sieboldi) and willow (Salix koriyanagi) could survive low temperatures if slowly cooled prior to immersion in liquid nitr...

  2. Ureteral fibropapilloma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hattel, A L; Diters, R W; Snavely, D A

    1986-04-15

    A fibropapilloma was found to involve the left ureter in a 7-year-old castrated male Doberman Pinscher dog. Severe unilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter were associated with the ureteral mass. Treatment consisted of unilateral nephrectomy and ureterectomy. This case represents an additional type of primary ureteral neoplasm found in the dog. PMID:3710881

  3. Ureteric Suture Urolithiasis Following Open Emergency Ureteric Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sarmah, Piyush B.; Kelly, Brian D.; Devarajan, Raghuram

    2016-01-01

    Suture urolithiasis is an unusual but recognised phenomenon following surgery on the urinary tract. We report a case in a 30-year-old man who sustained a gunshot injury to the left ureter in Burundi and underwent open ureteric repair in a regional hospital. He migrated to the UK and presented one year later with left loin pain. An intravenous urogram revealed two foci of calcification to the left of L3, within a peri-ureteric position. The patient underwent left-sided ureteroscopy where two calculi each formed around a nylon suture were discovered within a ureteric pseudo-diverticulum, and basketed. This is the first reported case of suture urolithiasis occurring following ureteric surgery. PMID:26989371

  4. URETERIC ANGIOMYOLIPOMA CAUSING UNILATERAL PELVI-URETERIC JUNCTION OBSTRUCTION.

    PubMed

    Khan, Iftikhar Ali; Shahab, Durre; Rehman, Asad; Jamil, Imran; Akhter, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old lady, presented to us with nonspecific abdominal pain. Ultrasonography (USG) and CT scan abdomen and pelvis, showed right moderate hydronephrosis, with no evidence of mass at pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction. Per-operatively mass upper ureter was found obstructing PUJ. Mass was excised and pyeloplasty done, with Double J (DJ) Stenting. Stent was removed after a week. Histopathology of specimen showed upper ureteric Angiomyolipoma. PMID:26182785

  5. Arterio-Ureteric Fistula Following Iliac Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Aarvold, Alexander; Wales, Lucy Papadakos, Nikolaos; Munneke, Graham; Loftus, Ian; Thompson, Matt

    2008-07-15

    Arterio-ureteric fistulae are rare but can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We describe a novel case in which an arterio-ureteric fistula occurred as a complication following external iliac artery angioplasty and stenting, in a patient who had undergone previous pelvic surgery, radiotherapy, ureteric stenting, and urinary diversion surgery. Prompt recognition enabled successful endovascular management using a covered stent.

  6. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ureteral stent. 876.4620 Section 876.4620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral...

  7. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ureteral stent. 876.4620 Section 876.4620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral...

  8. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ureteral stent. 876.4620 Section 876.4620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral...

  9. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ureteral stent. 876.4620 Section 876.4620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral...

  10. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ureteral stent. 876.4620 Section 876.4620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral...

  11. Xenopus Limb bud morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Samuel R; Beck, Caroline W

    2016-03-01

    Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed frog, is a well-established model organism for the study of developmental biology and regeneration due to its many advantages for both classical and molecular studies of patterning and morphogenesis. While contemporary studies of limb development tend to focus on models developed from the study of chicken and mouse embryos, there are also many classical studies of limb development in frogs. These include both fate and specification maps, that, due to their age, are perhaps not as widely known or cited as they should be. This has led to some inevitable misinterpretations- for example, it is often said that Xenopus limb buds have no apical ectodermal ridge, a morphological signalling centre located at the distal dorsal/ventral epithelial boundary and known to regulate limb bud outgrowth. These studies are valuable both from an evolutionary perspective, because amphibians diverged early from the amniote lineage, and from a developmental perspective, as amphibian limbs are capable of regeneration. Here, we describe Xenopus limb morphogenesis with reference to both classical and molecular studies, to create a clearer picture of what we know, and what is still mysterious, about this process. PMID:26404044

  12. Advances in Ureteral Stent Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denstedt, John D.

    2007-04-01

    Ureteral stents are commonly used in urolithiasis patients for relief of obstruction or in association with stone treatments such as ureteroscopy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. There are currently many different bulk materials and coatings available for the manufacture of ureteral stents, however the ideal material has yet to be discovered. All potential biomaterials must undergo rigorous physical and biocompatibility testing before commercialization and use in humans. Despite significant advances in basic science research involving biocompatibility issues and biofilm formation, infection and encrustation remain associated with the use of biomaterials in the urinary tract. There have been many significant advances in the design of ureteral stents in recent years and these will be highlighted along with a discussion of future aspects of biomaterials and use of stents in association with urolithiasis.

  13. The Nrf2–Keap1 cellular defense pathway and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) response. Role in protection against oxidative stress in early neonatal unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi Tosi, Martin E.; Bocanegra, Victoria; Manucha, Walter; Gil Lorenzo, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Perturbation of renal tubular antioxidants and overproduction of reactive oxygen species may amplify the proinflammatory state of renal obstruction, culminating in oxidative stress and tubular loss. Here, we analyzed the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) response and the function and signal transduction of NF-E2-related protein 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor on oxidative stress modulation in obstruction. Rats were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction or sham operation and kidneys harvested at 5, 7, 10, and 14 days after obstruction. Hsp70 expression and Nrf2 activity and its downstream target gene products were assessed. After 10 and 14 days of obstruction, enhanced lipid peroxidation through higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels and increased oxidative stress resulted in reduced total antioxidant activity and enhanced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH) oxidase activity were demonstrated. This was accompanied by decreased inducible Hsp70 expression and a progressive reduction of nuclear Nrf2 and its target gene products glutathione S-transferase A2 (GSTA2) and NADPH/quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), whereas the Nrf2 repressor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1) was upregulated. By contrast, on early obstruction for 7 days, lack of increased oxidative markers associated with higher inducible Hsp70 protein levels and a rapid nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, Keap1 downregulation, and mRNA induction of the identified Nrf2-dependent genes, NQO1 and GSTA2, were shown. For these results, we suggest that the magnitude of cytoprotection in early obstruction depends on the combined contribution of induced activation of Nrf2 upregulating its downstream gene products and Hsp70 response. Impaired ability to mount the biological response to the prevailing oxidative stress leading to renal injury was shown in prolonged obstruction. PMID:20734248

  14. Ureteric injuries associated with gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Onwudiegwu, U; Makinde, O O; Badejo, O A; Okonofua, F E; Ogunniyi, S O

    1991-03-01

    We conducted a review of eight ureteric injuries associated with major gynecologic surgery in seven patients over an 11-year period. Our low incidence of 0.36% is comparable with other reports. Diagnosis was made either intra-operatively or postoperatively. Immediate ureteric repair is advocated for all injuries discovered intra-operatively. Attention to preventive measures both before and during gynecological operations will reduce the incidence of ureteric injuries. PMID:1673940

  15. Bud Dormancy and Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all land plants produce ancillary meristems in the form of axillary or adventitious buds in addition to the shoot apical meristem. Outgrowth of these buds has a significant impact on plant architecture and the ability of plants to compete with neighboring plants, as well as to respond to and ...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ureteral dilator. 876.5470 Section 876.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator....

  17. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ureteral dilator. 876.5470 Section 876.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator....

  18. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estêvão; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

    2008-01-01

    Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators’ experience, patients’ preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed. PMID:19468497

  19. Tropical Storm Bud

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  A Strengthening Eastern Pacific Storm     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) show then Tropical Storm Bud as it was intensifying toward hurricane status, which it acquired ...

  20. Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis as a cause of unilateral obstructive uropathy

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Ross J.; Alamri, Abdulaziz; Gusenbauer, Kaela; Kapoor, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition, but involvement of the urinary tract is rare. Ureteral endometriosis can present in a nonspecific fashion, and may mimic ureteral malignancy. This case report describes a 44-year-old woman who initially presented with chronic flank pain and was found to have left-sided renal dysfunction and a distal left ureteric mass. She was eventually diagnosed with ureteral endometriosis after undergoing nephroureterectomy for what was thought to be either a ureteral fibroepithelial polyp or transitional cell carcinoma. Ureteral endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a woman presenting with obstructive uropathy in the presence of a ureteric mass. PMID:27330580

  1. Use of percutaneous nephrostomy and ureteral stenting in management of ureteral obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Linda; Li, Hanhan; Pucheril, Daniel; Hansen, Moritz; Littleton, Raymond; Peabody, James; Sammon, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    The management options for ureteral obstruction are diverse, including retrograde ureteral stent insertion or antegrade nephrostomy placement, with or without eventual antegrade stent insertion. There is currently no consensus on the ideal treatment or treatment pathway for ureteral obstruction owing, in part, to the varied etiologies of obstruction and diversity of institutional practices. Additionally, different clinicians such as internists, urologists, oncologists and radiologists are often involved in the care of patients with ureteral obstruction and may have differing opinions concerning the best management strategy. The purpose of this manuscript was to review available literature that compares percutaneous nephrostomy placement vs ureteral stenting in the management of ureteral obstruction from both benign and malignant etiologies. PMID:26981442

  2. Percutaneous Therapy of Ureteral Obstructions and Leak After Renal Transplantation: Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Aytekin, Cueneyt Boyvat, Fatih; Harman, Ali; Ozyer, Umut; Colak, Turan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of percutaneous therapy of ureteral complications after renal transplantation. Between January 2000 and June 2006 we percutaneously treated 26 renal transplant patients with ureteral obstruction (n=19) and leak (n=7). Obstructions were classified as early (<2 months after transplantation) or late (>2 months). Patients with leak were treated with nephro-ureteral catheter placement and subsequent double-J stenting. Balloon dilatation, stent placement, and basket extraction were used to treat ureteral obstructions. Patients were followed with ultrasonography. No major procedure-related complication occurred. The mean follow-up time was 34.3 months (range: 6 to 74 months). Initial clinical success was achieved in all 19 patients with obstruction and 6 of 7 patients with leak. Four of 9 early obstructions and 4 of 10 late obstructions recurred during the follow-up. All recurrences were initially managed again with percutaneous methods, including cutting balloon technique and metallic stent placement. Although there was no recurrence in patients with successfully treated leak, stricture was seen at the previous leak site in two patients. These strictures were also successfully managed percutaneously. We conclude that in the treatment of ureteral obstruction and leak following renal transplantation, percutaneous therapy is an effective alternative to surgery. However, further interventions are usually needed to maintain long-term patency.

  3. Image-guided ureteral reconstruction using rendezvous technique for complex ureteric transection after gunshot injuries.

    PubMed

    Arabi, Mohammad; Mat'hami, Abdulaziz; Said, Mohammad T; Bulbul, Muhammad; Haddad, Maurice; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2016-01-01

    Management of complex ureteric transection poses a significant clinical challenge, particularly after gunshot injuries due to marked distortion of anatomy and associated tissue loss. We report two cases of total ureteric transection due to gunshot injury successfully repaired using fluoroscopy-guided rendezvous procedure and double J stent placement. This minimally invasive approach may offer a safe and effective technique to repair complete ureteral transection and obviate the need for complex surgical procedures. PMID:26955601

  4. Image-guided ureteral reconstruction using rendezvous technique for complex ureteric transection after gunshot injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arabi, Mohammad; Mat’hami, Abdulaziz; Said, Mohammad T.; Bulbul, Muhammad; Haddad, Maurice; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2016-01-01

    Management of complex ureteric transection poses a significant clinical challenge, particularly after gunshot injuries due to marked distortion of anatomy and associated tissue loss. We report two cases of total ureteric transection due to gunshot injury successfully repaired using fluoroscopy-guided rendezvous procedure and double J stent placement. This minimally invasive approach may offer a safe and effective technique to repair complete ureteral transection and obviate the need for complex surgical procedures. PMID:26955601

  5. Ureteral fibroepithelial polyp causing urinary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shive, Melissa L.; Baskin, Laurence S.; Harris, Catherine R.; Bonham, Michael; MacKenzie, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Ureteral polyps are rare causes of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction, particularly in children. We report a nine year-old boy with UPJ obstruction initially suggestive of an obstructive urinary stone. CT showed intraureteral calcification at the UPJ and hydronephrosis. A retrograde pyelogram showed narrowing at the UPJ and partial obstruction that was found to be a ureteral polyp. This case illustrates a rare cause of UPJ obstruction that should be considered when the imaging findings and presentation are atypical for more common etiologies of ureteral obstruction. PMID:23365709

  6. Bilingual Buds: The Evolution of a Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The impetus to begin Bilingual Buds came about six years ago when the author, pregnant with twins and commuting into New York City, was reading about the numerous cognitive benefits for children of acquiring a second language early in their lives. She was surprised to learn that even by the age of six months, children begin to lose the ability to…

  7. Absence of Canonical Smad Signaling in Ureteral and Bladder Mesenchyme Causes Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Piyush; Wang, Yinqiu; Casey, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Obstruction of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) is a common congenital anomaly frequently associated with ureteral defects. To study the molecular mechanisms that modulate ureteral development, we inactivated Smad4, the common Smad critical for transcriptional responses to TGF-β and Bmp signaling, in the ureteral and bladder mesenchyme during embryogenesis. Loss of canonical Smad signaling in these tissues caused bilateral UPJ obstruction and severe hydronephrosis beginning at embryonic day 17.5. Despite a reduction in quantity of ureteral smooth muscle, differentiation proceeded without Smad4, producing a less severe phenotype than Bmp4 mutants; this finding suggests that at least some Bmp4 functions in ureteral smooth muscle may be Smad-independent. The absence of canonical Smad signaling in the ureteral mesenchyme, but not in the urothelium itself, led to urothelial disorganization, highlighting the importance of mesenchymal support for epithelial development. Transcript profiling revealed altered expression in known Bmp targets, smooth muscle-specific genes, and extracellular matrix-related genes in mutant ureters before the onset of hydronephrosis. Expression of the Bmp target Id2 was significantly lower in Smad4 mutants, consistent with the observation that Id2 mutants develop UPJ obstruction. In summary, Smad4 deficiency reduces the number and contractility of ureteral smooth muscle cells, leading to abnormal pyeloureteral peristalsis and functional obstruction. The subsequent bending and luminal constriction of the ureter at the UPJ marks the transition from a functional obstruction to a more intractable physical obstruction, suggesting that early intervention for this disease may prevent more irreversible damage to the urinary tract. PMID:22282597

  8. Effect of smooth muscle relaxant drugs on proximal human ureteric activity in vivo: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Kim; Timoney, Anthony G; Keeley, Francis X

    2007-08-01

    Drugs are increasingly being used to promote stone passage in renal colic. Diclofenac, nifedipine and tamsulosin cause ureteric smooth muscle relaxation in vitro; however, in clinical trials nifedipine and tamsulosin promote stone passage whereas diclofenac has no apparent benefit. We adapted a ureteric pressure transducer catheter in an attempt to compare the human ureteric response to these drugs in vivo. The catheter was inserted into the contralateral ureter following ureteroscopy for stone disease. Contraction frequency, pressure and velocity measurements were recorded at 24 h. Each patient was randomly allocated to receive oral diclofenac, nifedipine or tamsulosin. Measurements were taken following drug administration. Eighteen patients (mean age 50 years) were recruited. Two patients were excluded intraoperatively and three required early removal of the catheter. Prior to drug administration, the mean number of contractions recorded was 0-4.1/min and the peak contraction pressure ranged from 11 to 35 mmHg. Conduction velocity ranged from 1.5 to 2.6 cm/s. Ureteric peristalsis persisted in all patients despite these drugs. Diclofenac and nifedipine produced inconsistent ureteric pressure responses but had little effect on contraction frequency. Tamsulosin significantly reduced ureteric pressure but had no effect on contraction frequency. There are many limitations associated with the use of ureteric catheters, however, they may provide some useful information when used to record the response to an intervention in the same patient. These preliminary results suggest a reduction in pressure generation may be the essential factor in the promotion of stone passage. More work is required but these drugs may work by preventing the increased, uncoordinated muscular activity seen in renal colic whilst maintaining peristalsis, thereby promoting stone passage. PMID:17530238

  9. Ureteral Stents. New Materials and Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monga, Manoj

    2008-09-01

    Issues of stent migration and challenges of stent placement can be addressed adequately with current stent designs and materials, and an emphasis on precision in technique. Future changes in ureteral stents will need to maintain the current standard that has been set with existing devices in these regards. In contrast, new advances are sorely needed in encrustation and infection associated with ureteral stents. The main target for future development in ureteral stent materials lies in a biodegradable stent that degrades either on demand or degrades reliably within one-month with predictable degradation patterns that do not predispose to urinary obstruction, discomfort or need for secondary procedures. The main target for future development in ureteral stent design is improved patient comfort.

  10. Expression of Hex during feather bud development.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Akiko; Akimoto, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    We studied proline-rich divergent homeobox gene Hex/Prh expression in the dorsal skin of chick embryo during feather bud development. Hex mRNA expression was first observed in the dorsolateral ectoderm and mesenchyme at 5 days, then in the epithelium and the dermis of the dorsal skin before placode (primordium of feather bud) formation and then was restricted to the placode and the dermis under the placode. Afterward, Hex expression was seen in the epidermis and the dermis of the posterior region of short bud. In accordance with Hex mRNA expression in the placode, Hex protein was observed in the epidermis as well as in the dermis of the placode. Immunoelectron microscopic study indicated that the protein located both in the nuclei and cytoplasm of the epidermis and the dermis at the short bud stage. The Wnt signaling pathway plays an essential role in the early inductive events in hair (Wnt3a and 7a) and feather (Wnt7a) follicles. The pattern of Hex expression in the epidermis was similar to that of Wnt7a, while little, if any, expression of Wnt7a was detected in the dermis under the placode or the dermis of the short bud compared with that of Hex, suggesting that Hex plays an important role in the initiation of feather morphogenesis. PMID:16172986

  11. "Bud, Not Buddy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the award-winning book "Bud, Not Buddy" written by Christopher Paul Curtis. Lists different versions of the book; suggests learning activities; lists sources for biographical information and interviews with Curtis, teacher guides, professional articles, and other Depression era novels; and provides a citation for the author's Newberry…

  12. Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD)

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) is an optimally designed active electromagnetic system that not only detects but also characterizes UXO. The system incorporates three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers. it has two modes of operation: (1) search mode, in which BUD moves along a profile and exclusively detects targets in its vicinity, providing target depth and horizontal location, and (2) discrimination mode, in which BUD, stationary above a target, from a single position, determines three discriminating polarizability responses together with the object location and orientation. The performance of the system is governed by a target size-depth curve. Maximum detection depth is 1.5 m. While UXO objects have a single major polarizability coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal transverse polarizabilities, scrap metal has three different principal polarizabilities. The results clearly show that there are very clear distinctions between symmetric intact UXO and irregular scrap metal, and that BUD can resolve the intrinsic polarizabilities of the target. The field survey at the Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona showed excellent results within the predicted size-depth range.

  13. Intra thoracic migration of ureteric stent after exstrophy bladder closure: Unusual complication

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Bajpai, Minu; Singh, Amit; Chand, Karunesh

    2015-01-01

    Classic bladder exstrophy is a rare malformation of the genitourinary tract requiring surgical intervention either one-staged or staged fashion. Premature stent dislodgement is a well-known reported complication. We are reporting an unusual case of migration of ureteric stent to thoracic cavity leading to the pleural effusion and respiratory distress in early post-operative period. PMID:25659564

  14. Malignant Ureteral Obstruction: Functional Duration of Metallic versus Polymeric Ureteral Stents

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Po-Ming; Chiang, I-Ni; Chen, Chia-Yen; Huang, Kuo-How; Hsu, Jui-Shan; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lee, Yuan-Ju; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Ureteral obstruction caused by extrinsic compression is often associated with intra-abdominal cancers. Internal drainage with ureteral stents is typically the first-line therapy to relieve such obstructions. Novel designs of ureteral stents made of different materials have been invented to achieve better drainage. In this study, we described the functional outcomes of a Resonance metallic ureteral stent (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, USA) in patients with malignant ureteral obstruction and compare the functional duration of Resonance stents with regular polymeric stents in the same cohort. Methods Cancer patients who received polymeric stents and subsequent Resonance stents for ureteral obstruction between July 2009 and November 2012 were included in a chart review. Stent failure was detected by clinical symptoms, imaging studies, and renal function tests. The functional durations of each stent were calculated, and possible factors affecting stent patency were investigated. Results A total of 50 stents were successfully inserted into 50 ureteral units in 42 patients with malignant ureteral obstruction. There were 7 antegrade stents and 43 retrograde stents. There were no major complications. Stent-related symptoms were similar in both kinds of stents. After polymeric stents were replaced with Resonance metallic stents, hydronephrosis subsided or remained stable in 90% (45/50) of the ureteral units. Serum creatinine decreased or remained stable in 90% (38/42) of these patients. The Resonance stent exhibited a mean increase in functional duration of 4 months compared with the polymeric stents (p<0.0001), and 50% (25/50) of the Resonance stents exhibited a significant increase in functional duration (more than 3 months). Pre-operative serum creatinine < 2 was associated with a substantial increase in stent duration. Conclusions Resonance stents are effective and safe in relieving malignant ureteral obstructions after polymeric stents failure

  15. Bilateral congenital ureteral strictures in a young cat

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namsoon; Choi, Mihyun; Keh, Seoyeon; Oh, Yein; Seo, Jimin; Choi, Heeyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Yoon, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    An 8-month-old cat was presented with bilateral hydronephrosis. Bilateral ureteral obstructions were identified by diagnostic imaging and confirmed by necropsy. Histopathologic findings revealed polypoid transitional epithelial hyperplasia with chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. This report documents congenital ureteral strictures as a cause of ureteral obstruction in a young cat. PMID:25183890

  16. Laparoscopic Ureterolithotomy for Giant Ureteric Calculus: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Magdum, Prasad V; Nerli, Rajendra B; Devaraju, Shishir; Hiremath, Murigendra B

    2015-09-01

    We present a case of a 21 year old male who presented with symptomatic right upper ureteric calculus measuring 5 cm × 1.5 cm fulfilling the criteria to be named as giant ureteric calculus. Laparoscopic right ureterolithotomy was performed and the giant ureteric calculus was retrieved. PMID:26793529

  17. 21 CFR 876.4020 - Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. 876.4020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4020 Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. (a) Identification. A fiberoptic light ureteral catheter is a device that consists of...

  18. 21 CFR 876.4020 - Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. 876.4020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4020 Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. (a) Identification. A fiberoptic light ureteral catheter is a device that consists of...

  19. 21 CFR 876.4020 - Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. 876.4020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4020 Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. (a) Identification. A fiberoptic light ureteral catheter is a device that consists of...

  20. 21 CFR 876.4020 - Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. 876.4020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4020 Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. (a) Identification. A fiberoptic light ureteral catheter is a device that consists of...

  1. Use of ureteral access sheaths in ureteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Adam G; Lipkin, Michael E; Scales, Charles D; Preminger, Glenn M

    2016-03-01

    The ureteral access sheath (UAS) facilitates the use of flexible ureteroscopy, enabling improved minimally invasive management of complex upper urinary tract diseases. The UAS, which comes in a variety of diameters and lengths, is passed in a retrograde fashion, aided by a hydrophilic coating and other features designed to confer smooth passage into the ureter with sufficient resistance to kinking and buckling. Use of a UAS has the advantage of enabling repeated passage of the ureteroscope while minimizing damage to the ureter, thus improving the flow of irrigation fluid and visualization within the urethra with reductions in operative times, which improves both the effectiveness of the surgery and reduces the costs. Placement of the UAS carries an increased risk of ureteral wall ischaemia and injury to the mucosal or muscular layers of the ureter, and a theoretically increased risk of ureteral strictures. A ureteral stent is typically placed after ureteroscopy with a UAS. Endourologists have found several additional practical uses of a UAS, such as the percutaneous treatment of patients with ureteral stones, and solutions to other endourological challenges. PMID:26597613

  2. Double-J ureteric stenting in pregnancy: A single-centre experience from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Ho-Yin; Salih, Hawre Qadir; Albeer, Ayad; Aghaways, Ismaeel; Buchholz, Noor

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of ureteric stenting with a JJ stent in pregnant women, to relieve renal obstruction and intractable flank pain. Patients and methods All pregnant patients presenting with intractable flank pain, with or without complications, to a tertiary national teaching hospital in Kurdistan/Iraq, and necessitating ureteric stenting with a JJ stent, were prospectively assessed for this study between March 2008 and March 2010. Results In all, 30 pregnant patients presented with intractable flank pain necessitating JJ ureteric stenting during the 25 months. Intractable flank pain (23 patients, 77%) was the most common indication for ureteric stenting, followed by flank pain with clinical sepsis (six, 20%). All pregnant women had hydronephrosis on ultrasonography (US), and 12 (40%) had evidence of coexisting renal stones on US. All ureteric stents were inserted successfully. The mean (range) indwelling time was 47.4 (3–224) days. Radiologically, 14 (47%) and 15 (50%) had complete resolution of the hydronephrosis on follow-up US in late pregnancy and in the early postnatal period, respectively. Two-thirds of patients had a clinical improvement immediately (15, 50%) and soon after (five, 17%) surgery. Stent encrustation (three, 10%), stent migration (three, 10%) and stent irritation (five, 17%) were reported as complications. The post-natal evaluation confirmed that half the patients had urinary calculus disease. Conclusion Ureteric stenting during pregnancy can be safe, with no intraoperative imaging and even under local anaesthesia. It provides good symptom relief and has a low complication rate. We therefore advocate it as a first-line treatment in pregnant women with therapy-resistant flank pain. PMID:26558073

  3. A 52-Year-Old Male with Bilaterally Duplicated Collecting Systems with Obstructing Ureteral Stones: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Scantling, Dane; Ross, Curtis; Altman, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Collecting system duplication is marked by a variety of clinical syndromes. Bilateral and obstructed duplicated systems, particularly with asymmetric levels of duplication, are rare and typically due to ureteric bud development anomalies. The infrequency with which this condition exists makes it a formidable challenge for physicians and patients. To our knowledge, we present the first case report of bilateral obstruction of bilaterally duplicated collecting systems. In our case, a 52-year-old male complaining of low back pain, constipation, urinary urgency and hematuria was found to have bilateral obstructing stones as well as asymmetrical bilateral collecting system duplication. We discuss the natural history of this condition, its consequences and identification. PMID:24917767

  4. [Pseudocystic ureteritis. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Joual, A; Sarf, I; Aboutaieb, R; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1995-01-01

    The authors report one case of ureteritis cystica in a young adult. The diagnosis was made by intravenous urography and confirmed by histologic examination. The patient was treated surgically (nephro-ureterectomy). The etiopathogenic, clinical and therapeutic aspects are discussed with a review of literature. PMID:8638909

  5. The mode of origin of root buds and root sprouts in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Bosela, M; Ewers, F

    1997-11-01

    The developmental anatomy of root buds and root sprouts was examined in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum. Root samples from 13 clones that varied widely in age and vigor were sectioned and two types of buds were found, "additional" buds and "reparative" buds. Additional buds form during the early growth of uninjured roots and they perennate by growing outwards in concert with the vascular cambium such that bud traces are produced in the secondary xylem. Reparative buds form de novo in response to senescence, injuries, or other types of disturbance. Reparative buds were found on the roots of seven of the clones, whereas additional buds were found on the roots of all 13 clones. The reparative buds had originated in the proliferated pericycle, where they were subtended by sphaeroblasts, or spherical nodules of wood. Few of the reparative buds were vascularized and none were connected with the vasculature of their parent roots. In contrast, most of the additional buds were vascularized, and the leaf traces of several of the additional buds appeared to be contiguous with the conducting xylem of their parent roots. To determine whether both bud types were functional, 82 field-collected root sprouts and 44 incubation-induced sprouts were sectioned at the root-sprout junction and examined for evidence relating to their mode of origin. None of the sprouts were subtended by sphaeroblasts, but 98% were subtended by bud traces, which indicated that they had originated from additional buds. Although reparative buds were more common than additional buds on some of the root samples, they appear to be dysfunctional at sprouting. Additional buds, on the other hand, are able to sprout both as a normal part of clonal spread and from root cuttings. PMID:21708553

  6. Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for large ureteric stones

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayyad, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for management of large proximal ureteric stones. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for proximal ureteral stones ≥2 cm were reviewed retrospectively. Patients’ characteristics, stone characteristics, perioperative and follow-up data were studied. Patients with stones <2 cm in size, previous transperitoneal surgical procedure, or follow-up duration <6 months were excluded from the study. Results: Twelve patients (mean age = 52.9 ± 12 years) with large upper ureteric stones (mean stone largest diameter = 39 ± 13 mm) were included. Nine patients had single stone, 2 patients had two stones, and 1 patient had large impacted stone with 2 small stones floating above. Mean operative time was 107 ± 49.5 min with mean blood loss of 60.5 ± 19.2 cc. Mean total pain score was 38.4 ± 5.5 (100 point scale) and mean time till resuming oral intake was 3.6 ± 0.5 h. Mean duration of hospital stay was 2.6 ± 1.4 days and mean duration of stenting was 7.3 ± 2 weeks. Throughout a mean duration of follow-up of 14.8 ± 7.6 months, 100% stone clearance rate was achieved with no recurrence. One patient developed a ureteric stricture treated by laser endoureterotomy and stenting for 6 weeks and responded without re-stricture formation. Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a safe and effective approach for selected patients with large proximal ureteric stones with reduced postoperative pain and short hospital stay, and should be considered as a treatment option for such stones. PMID:22346099

  7. Comparison of Two Types of Double-J Ureteral Stents that Differ in Diameter and the Existence of Multiple Side Holes along the Straight Portion in Malignant Ureteral Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Myung Gyu Seo, Tae-Seok Lee, Chang Hee Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Jun Suk Oh, Sang Cheul; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was decided to evaluate the impact of diameter and the existences of multiple side holes along the straight portion of double-J ureteral stents (DJUS) on early dysfunction of stents placed for malignant ureteral strictures.MethodsBetween April 2007 and December 2011, 141 DJUSs were placed via a percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) tract in 110 consecutive patients with malignant ureteral strictures. 7F DJUSs with multiple side holes in the straight portion were placed in 58 ureters of 43 patients (Group 1). 8F DJUSs with three side holes in the proximal 2-cm of the straight portion were placed in 83 ureters of 67 patients (Group 2). The incidence of early DJUS dysfunction was compared between the two groups, and nephrostographic findings were evaluated in the cases of early dysfunction.ResultsEarly dysfunction of the DJUS was noted in 14 of 58 patients (24.1 %) in Group 1, which was significantly higher (p = 0.001) than in Group 2 in which only 1 of 83 patients (1.2 %) had early dysfunction of the DJUS. Nephrostographic findings of early dysfunction included dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system, filling defects in the ureteral stent, and no passage of contrast media into the urinary bladder.ConclusionsIn malignant ureteral strictures, multiple side holes in the straight portion of the 7-F DJUS seem to cause early dysfunction. The 8F DJUSs with three side holes in the proximal 2-cm of the straight portion may be superior at preventing early dysfunction.

  8. Studies on Cytokinin-Controlled Bud Formation in Moss Protonemata

    PubMed Central

    Brandes, H.; Kende, H.

    1968-01-01

    Application of cytokinins to moss protonemata of the proper physiological age causes bud formation on specific cells (caulonema). During the early stages of their development, buds revert to protonemal filaments if the cytokinin has been removed by washing the protonemata. This indicates that the hormone is not acting as a “trigger” but has to be present during a critical period of time until differentiation is stabilized. Autoradiographs of protonemata treated with a labeled cytokinin, benzyladenine-benzyl-7-14C, show a striking accumulation of the radioactivity in caulonema cells which are in the stage of bud formation, and in the buds themselves. Cells which did not react to the hormone contained very little radioactivity. The accumulation of benzyladenine in the “target cells” may be due to the presence of binding sites which, in turn, may distinguish responding cells from non-responding ones. Images PMID:16656847

  9. Innervation of the undifferentiated limb bud in rabbit embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J; McCredie, J

    1982-01-01

    The concept that there are no nerves in the limb bud of mammalian embryos prior to differentiation has been re-examined. Rabbit embryos were collected at 260 and 290 hours gestation, which is prior to cartilage formation in the forelimb at 320 hours. Forelimb buds and adjacent neural tube were excised, fixed and embedded for light and electron microscopy. The limb buds were sectioned in two planes by serial 1 micrometer sections and inspected by light microscopy. Bundles of nerve fibres were seen within the proximal third of the limb bud, with distal ramification into adjacent zones of condensing mesenchyme. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of axons and associated immature Schwann cells. These results demonstrate the existence of an anatomical framework through which a neurotrophic influence might be brought to bear upon mesenchyme prior to early differentiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7130041

  10. Ureteral Stents and Foley Catheters-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: The Role of Coatings and Materials in Infection Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Joey; Lange, Dirk; Chew, Ben H.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections affect many patients, especially those who are admitted to hospital and receive a bladder catheter for drainage. Catheter associated urinary tract infections are some of the most common hospital infections and cost the health care system billions of dollars. Early removal is one of the mainstays of prevention as 100% of catheters become colonized. Patients with ureteral stents are also affected by infection and antibiotic therapy alone may not be the answer. We will review the current evidence on how to prevent infections of urinary biomaterials by using different coatings, new materials, and drug eluting technologies to decrease infection rates of ureteral stents and catheters. PMID:27025736

  11. Percutaneous antegrade fiberoptic ureterorenoscopic treatment of ureteral calculi.

    PubMed

    Berkhoff, W B; Meijer, F

    1990-09-01

    Treatment of upper ureteral calculi can be accomplished by various endourological techniques and/or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Percutaneous fiberoptic treatment of upper ureteral stones provides an alternative especially suited as second line treatment in cases when extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy failed. Usually, these patients will present with impacted ureteral stones. Our first experiences with 8 stones in 7 patients to date proved this technique to be safe and reliable, with no complications encountered on excretory urography 3 months postoperatively. PMID:2388317

  12. The number of fetal nephron progenitor cells limits ureteric branching and adult nephron endowment.

    PubMed

    Cebrian, Cristina; Asai, Naoya; D'Agati, Vivette; Costantini, Frank

    2014-04-10

    Nephrons, the functional units of the kidney, develop from progenitor cells (cap mesenchyme [CM]) surrounding the epithelial ureteric bud (UB) tips. Reciprocal signaling between UB and CM induces nephrogenesis and UB branching. Although low nephron number is implicated in hypertension and renal disease, the mechanisms that determine nephron number are obscure. To test the importance of nephron progenitor cell number, we genetically ablated 40% of these cells, asking whether this would limit kidney size and nephron number or whether compensatory mechanisms would allow the developing organ to recover. The reduction in CM cell number decreased the rate of branching, which in turn allowed the number of CM cells per UB tip to normalize, revealing a self-correction mechanism. However, the retarded UB branching impaired kidney growth, leaving a permanent nephron deficit. Thus, the number of fetal nephron progenitor cells is an important determinant of nephron endowment, largely via its effect on UB branching. PMID:24656820

  13. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Morales, I; Bassa, C; Pavlovic, A; Morales, C

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion. PMID:26793587

  14. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Morales, I.; Bassa, C.; Pavlovic, A.; Morales, C.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion. PMID:26793587

  15. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH URETERAL RUPTURES].

    PubMed

    Komjakov, B K; Guliev, B G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the causes of ureteral ruptures and the types surgical procedures used for their management. Over the period from 2006 to 2014, 7 patients with ureteral ruptures underwent surgical treatment in the Mechnikov N-WSMU clinic. All of them were males aged 50 to 71 years. In all cases, the ureter was injured during ureteroscopy and contact lithotripsy. In two patients the right ureter was cut off at the border of the upper and middle third, in four--at 3-4 cm below pyeloureteral segment, one patient diagnosed with a complete separation of the ureter from the kidney pelvis. Patients, who have suffered a detachment of the ureter in other hospitals, previously underwent surgical exploration of the retroperitoneal space, drainage of the kidney by pyelonephrostomy (5) and ureterocutaneostomy (1). In a case of a patient with an injury that occurred in our clinic, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous renal transplantation was carried out. Five patients with extended ureter defects underwent ileo-ureteroplasty. The patient with left ureterocutaneostomy underwent nephrovesical bypass. Patency of the upper urinary tract and kidney function were restored in all patients, all of them were relieved from external drains. The duration of the intestinal plastic averaged 160 minutes, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous transplantation--210 min and nephrovesical bypass--110 min. Blood transfusion was required only in autologous graft patient. The ureteral rupture is a serious complication of ureteral endourological procedures in upper urinary tract. It requires such complicated reconstructive operations as autologous transplantation of the kidney or intestinal ureteroplasty. PMID:26390553

  16. Genitourinary tuberculosis masquerading as a ureteral calculus

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Nathan; Hoag, Nathan A.; Jones, Edward C.; Rowley, Allen; McLoughlin, Martin G.; Paterson, Ryan F.

    2013-01-01

    The genitourinary tract is a common extrapulmonary site of tuberculosis infection, yet remains a rare clinical entity in North America. We report the case of a 37-year-old man who presented for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for a suspected ureteral stone on imaging. Further workup confirmed a diagnosis of genitourinary tuberculosis. Medical management was undertaken and, ultimately, nephrectomy performed. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of clinical suspicion for genitourinary tuberculosis. PMID:23766841

  17. Management of nephrostomy drains and ureteral stents.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Robert; Saad, Wael E A; Brown, Daniel B

    2009-09-01

    Nephroureteral and double J stents are routinely placed by interventional radiologists but quality literature on placement and management of these devices is limited. The purpose of this review is to detail indications for ureteral stent placement, review the types of antegrade and retrograde devices that are placed including technical tips, and discuss management of common complications that occur in this patient population. An algorithm for placement and management is included. PMID:19945660

  18. Discolored Ureteral Stents: Findings in Urinalysis and Urine Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Discolored ureteral stents are sometimes encountered in daily clinical practice; however, the mechanism(s) underlying the development of discolored ureteral stents remain unknown. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the characteristics of discolored ureteral stents based on the results of a urinalysis and urine culture. Materials & Methods We identified a total of 26 patients with discolored ureteral stents and compared the findings in the urinalyses and urine culture in 21 discolored versus 45 non-colored ureteral stents. Results The median and mean (±SD) duration of stenting time was 78.0 and 81.3 (± 21.3) days for the discolored ureteral stents and 69.0 and 74.9 (± 19.8) days for the non-colored ureteral stents, respectively (P = 0.25). The discolored ureteral stents were associated with a higher mean urine pH than the non-colored ureteral stents (mean: 6.4 vs 6.0, P< 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the RBC (P = 0.51) and WBC (P = 0.35) counts in the urinalyses. In addition, the rate of a positive culture in the patients with discolored stents [20 of 21 (95.2%)] was significantly (P <0.01) higher than that observed in the patients with non-colored ureteral stents [33 of 45 (73.3%)]. Conclusions In this study, the subjects with discolored ureteral stents showed a significantly higher likelihood of having a positive urine culture and also demonstrated higher pH values in the urinalyses. However, no clear cut-off point to predict discoloration was indicated. PMID:25849790

  19. The Anillin-Related Region of Bud4 Is the Major Functional Determinant for Bud4's Function in Septin Organization during Bud Growth and Axial Bud Site Selection in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huan; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The anillin-related protein Bud4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for axial bud site selection by linking the axial landmark to the septins, which localize at the mother bud neck. Recent studies indicate that Bud4 plays a role in septin organization during cytokinesis. Here we show that Bud4 is also involved in septin organization during bud growth prior to cytokinesis, as bud4Δ shs1Δ cells displayed an elongated bud morphology and defective septin organization at 18°C. Bud4 overexpression also affected septin organization during bud growth in shs1Δ cells at 30°C. Bud4 was previously thought to associate with the septins via its central region, while the C-terminal anillin-related region was not involved in septin association. Surprisingly, we found that the central region of Bud4 alone targets to the bud neck throughout the cell cycle, unlike full-length Bud4, which localizes to the bud neck only during G2/M phase. We identified the anillin-related region to be a second targeting domain that cooperates with the central region for proper septin association. In addition, the anillin-related region could largely mediate Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and bud site selection. We show that this region interacts with the C terminus of Bud3 and the two segments depend on each other for association with the septins. Moreover, like the bud4Δ mutant, the bud3Δ mutant genetically interacts with shs1Δ and cdc12-6 mutants in septin organization, suggesting that Bud4 and Bud3 may cooperate in septin organization during bud growth. These observations provide new insights into the interaction of Bud4 with the septins and Bud3. PMID:25576483

  20. The anillin-related region of Bud4 is the major functional determinant for Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and axial bud site selection in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Ya-Ting; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2015-03-01

    The anillin-related protein Bud4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for axial bud site selection by linking the axial landmark to the septins, which localize at the mother bud neck. Recent studies indicate that Bud4 plays a role in septin organization during cytokinesis. Here we show that Bud4 is also involved in septin organization during bud growth prior to cytokinesis, as bud4Δ shs1Δ cells displayed an elongated bud morphology and defective septin organization at 18°C. Bud4 overexpression also affected septin organization during bud growth in shs1Δ cells at 30°C. Bud4 was previously thought to associate with the septins via its central region, while the C-terminal anillin-related region was not involved in septin association. Surprisingly, we found that the central region of Bud4 alone targets to the bud neck throughout the cell cycle, unlike full-length Bud4, which localizes to the bud neck only during G2/M phase. We identified the anillin-related region to be a second targeting domain that cooperates with the central region for proper septin association. In addition, the anillin-related region could largely mediate Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and bud site selection. We show that this region interacts with the C terminus of Bud3 and the two segments depend on each other for association with the septins. Moreover, like the bud4Δ mutant, the bud3Δ mutant genetically interacts with shs1Δ and cdc12-6 mutants in septin organization, suggesting that Bud4 and Bud3 may cooperate in septin organization during bud growth. These observations provide new insights into the interaction of Bud4 with the septins and Bud3. PMID:25576483

  1. Herniorrhaphy: an unusual cause of ureteral injury in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eziyi, Amogu K; Etonyeaku, Amarachukwu C; Olajide, Abimbola O; Adejumobi, Musibau O

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Herniorrhaphy is a common surgery worldwide. Common complications include hemorrhage, infection, chronic pain, and recurrence. Ureteric injury from herniorrhaphy is unusual. We present a case of ureteric injury complicating an inguinal herniorrhaphy for a huge right inguino-scrotal hernia. Patient had primary uretero-neocystostomy but died from septicemia in the postoperative period. PMID:25548623

  2. Acute kidney injury due to bilateral ureteral obstruction in children

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Daniele; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Bove, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral ureteral obstruction in children is a rare condition arising from several medical or surgical pictures. It needs to be promptly suspected in order to attempt a quick renal function recovery. In this paper we concentrated on uncommon causes of obstruction, with the aim of giving a summary of such multiple, rare and heterogeneous conditions joint together by the common denominator of sudden bilateral ureteral obstruction, difficult to be suspected at times. Conversely, typical and well-known diseases have been just run over. We considered pediatric cases of ureteral obstruction presenting as bilateral, along with some cases which truly appeared as single-sided, because of their potential bilateral presentation. We performed a review of the literature by a search on PubMed, CrossRef Metadata Search, internet and reference lists of single articles updated to May 2014, with no time limits in the past. Given that we deal with rare conditions, we decided to include also papers in non-English languages, published with an English abstract. For the sake of clearness, we divided our research results into 8 categories: (1) urolithiasis; (2) congenital urinary tract malformations; (3) immuno-rheumatologic causes of ureteral obstruction; (4) ureteral localization of infections; (5) other systemic infective causes of ureteral obstructions; (6) neoplastic intrinsic ureteral obstructions; (7) extrinsic ureteral obstructions; and (8) iatrogenic trigonal obstruction or inflammation. Of course, different pathogenic mechanisms underlay those clinical pictures, partly well-known and partly not completely understood. PMID:25374811

  3. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  4. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  5. A review of ureteral injuries after external trauma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Ureteral trauma is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all urologic traumas. However, a missed ureteral injury can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the literature since 1961 with the primary objective to present the largest medical literature review, to date, regarding ureteral trauma. Several anatomic and physiologic considerations are paramount regarding ureteral injuries management. Literature review Eighty-one articles pertaining to traumatic ureteral injuries were reviewed. Data from these studies were compiled and analyzed. The majority of the study population was young males. The proximal ureter was the most frequently injured portion. Associated injuries were present in 90.4% of patients. Admission urinalysis demonstrated hematuria in only 44.4% patients. Intravenous ureterogram (IVU) failed to diagnose ureteral injuries either upon admission or in the operating room in 42.8% of cases. Ureteroureterostomy, with or without indwelling stent, was the surgical procedure of choice for both trauma surgeons and urologists (59%). Complications occurred in 36.2% of cases. The mortality rate was 17%. Conclusion The mechanism for ureteral injuries in adults is more commonly penetrating than blunt. The upper third of the ureter is more often injured than the middle and lower thirds. Associated injuries are frequently present. CT scan and retrograde pyelography accurately identify ureteral injuries when performed together. Ureteroureterostomy, with or without indwelling stent, is the surgical procedure of choice of both trauma surgeons and urologists alike. Delay in diagnosis is correlated with a poor prognosis. PMID:20128905

  6. Glycoconjugate in rat taste buds.

    PubMed

    Kano, K; Ube, M; Taniguchi, K

    2001-05-01

    The taste buds of the fungiform papillae, circumvallate papilla, foliate papillae, soft palate and epiglottis of the rat oral cavity were examined by lectin histochemistry to elucidate the relationships between expression of glycoconjugates and innervation. Seven out of 21 lectins showed moderate to intense staining in at least more than one taste bud. They were succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA). Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). UEA-I and BSL-I showed moderate to intense staining in all of the taste buds examined. They strongly stained the taste buds of the epiglottis, which are innervated by the cranial nerve X. UEA-I intensely stained the taste buds of the fungiform papillae and soft palate, both of which are innervated by the cranial nerve VII. The taste buds of circumvallate papilla and foliate papillae were innervated by the cranial nerve IX and strongly stained by BSL-I. Thus, UEA-I and BSL-I binding glycoconjugates, probably alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose, respectively, might be specific for taste buds. Although the expression of these glycoconjugates would be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve X, the differential expression of alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose might be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve VII and IX, respectively. PMID:11411494

  7. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    PubMed Central

    Kadyan, B.; Sabale, V.; Mane, D.; Satav, V.; Mulay, A.; Thakur, N.; Kankalia, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Ideal treatment modality for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial. We compared laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (Lap-TPUL) and semirigid ureteroscopy for large proximal ureteric stones to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods: From November 2012 to December 2014, we enrolled 122 patients with large (≥1.5 cm) proximal ureteral stone in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A (60 patients), retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using a semirigid ureteroscope; Group B (62 patients), transperitoneal LU (Lap-TPUL). Results: The overall stone-free rate was 71.6% and 93.5% for Group A and Group B respectively (P = 0.008). Auxiliary procedure rate was higher in Group A than in Group B (27.3% vs. 5.6%). The complication rate was 11.2% in Group B versus 25% in Group A. Mean procedure time was higher in laparoscopy group as compared to ureterorenoscopy (URS) groups (84.07 ± 16.80 vs. 62.82 ± 12.71 min). Hospital stay was 4.16 ± 0.67 days in laparoscopy group and 1.18 ± 0.38 days in URS group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment modality and should be recommended to all patients of impacted large proximal stones, which are not amenable to URS or extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or as a primary modality of choice especially if patient is otherwise candidate for open surgery. PMID:27141190

  8. Endoluminal release of ureteral ligature after hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Jen; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; Huang, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic ureteral injury is a well-recognized complication of abdominal total hysterectomy. We report a case of a 57-year-old female who underwent abdominal total hysterectomy for a uterine myoma and experienced severe right flank pain postoperatively. The imaging study displayed an obstruction of the right distal ureter. Under ureteroscopy, an extraluminal ligature was released with a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. The stenotic segment was immediately relieved. Two months later, the intravenous urogram illustrated patency of the distal ureter with regression of right hydronephrosis. There was no recurrent hydronephrosis during 1 year of follow-up. PMID:25241286

  9. The Race against Protease Activation Defines the Role of ESCRTs in HIV Budding

    PubMed Central

    Bendjennat, Mourad; Saffarian, Saveez

    2016-01-01

    HIV virions assemble on the plasma membrane and bud out of infected cells using interactions with endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). HIV protease activation is essential for maturation and infectivity of progeny virions, however, the precise timing of protease activation and its relationship to budding has not been well defined. We show that compromised interactions with ESCRTs result in delayed budding of virions from host cells. Specifically, we show that Gag mutants with compromised interactions with ALIX and Tsg101, two early ESCRT factors, have an average budding delay of ~75 minutes and ~10 hours, respectively. Virions with inactive proteases incorporated the full Gag-Pol and had ~60 minutes delay in budding. We demonstrate that during budding delay, activated proteases release critical HIV enzymes back to host cytosol leading to production of non-infectious progeny virions. To explain the molecular mechanism of the observed budding delay, we modulated the Pol size artificially and show that virion release delays are size-dependent and also show size-dependency in requirements for Tsg101 and ALIX. We highlight the sensitivity of HIV to budding “on-time” and suggest that budding delay is a potent mechanism for inhibition of infectious retroviral release. PMID:27280284

  10. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development.

    PubMed

    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A

    2015-12-15

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary inductive signal for taste placode formation, followed by taste papilla morphogenesis and taste bud differentiation, but the degree to which these later elements were direct or indirect consequences of β-catenin signaling was not explored. Here, we define discrete spatiotemporal functions of β-catenin in fungiform taste bud development. Specifically, we show that early epithelial activation of β-catenin, before taste placodes form, diverts lingual epithelial cells from a taste bud fate. By contrast, β-catenin activation a day later within Shh(+) placodes, expands taste bud precursors directly, but enlarges papillae indirectly. Further, placodal activation of β-catenin drives precocious differentiation of Type I glial-like taste cells, but not other taste cell types. Later activation of β-catenin within Shh(+) precursors during papilla morphogenesis also expands taste bud precursors and accelerates Type I cell differentiation, but papilla size is no longer enhanced. Finally, although Shh regulates taste placode patterning, we find that it is dispensable for the accelerated Type I cell differentiation induced by β-catenin. PMID:26525674

  11. Model of human immunodeficiency virus budding and self-assembly: Role of the cell membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Nguyen, Toan T.

    2008-11-01

    Budding from the plasma membrane of the host cell is an indispensable step in the life cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which belongs to a large family of enveloped RNA viruses, retroviruses. Unlike regular enveloped viruses, retrovirus budding happens concurrently with the self-assembly of the main retrovirus protein subunits (called Gag protein after the name of the genetic material that codes for this protein: Group-specific AntiGen) into spherical virus capsids on the cell membrane. Led by this unique budding and assembly mechanism, we study the free energy profile of retrovirus budding, taking into account the Gag-Gag attraction energy and the membrane elastic energy. We find that if the Gag-Gag attraction is strong, budding always proceeds to completion. During early stage of budding, the zenith angle of partial budded capsids, α , increases with time as α∝t1/2 . However, if the Gag-Gag attraction is weak, a metastable state of partial budding appears. The zenith angle of these partially spherical capsids is given by α0≃(τ2/κσ)1/4 in a linear approximation, where κ and σ are the bending modulus and the surface tension of the membrane, and τ is a line tension of the capsid proportional to the strength of Gag-Gag attraction. Numerically, we find α0<0.3π without any approximations. Using experimental parameters, we show that HIV budding and assembly always proceed to completion in normal biological conditions. On the other hand, by changing Gag-Gag interaction strength or membrane rigidity, it is relatively easy to tune it back and forth between complete budding and partial budding. Our model agrees reasonably well with experiments observing partial budding of retroviruses including HIV.

  12. Cutting laser systems for ureteral strictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durek, C.; Knipper, Ansgar; Brinkmann, Ralf; Miller, Ado; Gromoll, Bernd; Jocham, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    Acquired ureteral strictures are still treated either with a stent, balloon dilatation, by open surgery or by endoscopic therapy with a `cold knife' or high current density as intubated ureterotomy. The success rates described in the literature range between 50% and 90%. Using the experimental CTH:YAG laser (wavelength 2120 nm) and CT:YAG laser (wavelength 1950 nm), the reduction of invasiveness and of morbidity was evaluated. First, the CTH:YAG laser was investigated on 540 fresh porcine ureters varying the parameters. With a computerized morphometry system, defect depth, defect width, coagulation depth and coagulation width were measured. Then 21 female pigs underwent 7.5 F - 12 F ureteroscopy with CTH:YAG laser, CT:YAG laser, high current density and `cold knife' ureterotomy. An IVP and sacrification with explanation of the whole urinary tract was done on day 6 and around day 60. In practice, laser application via the endoscope was easy to handle and exact cutting was always seen. The CT:YAG laser seems to have the best success results with low ureteral stricture recurrence rates. However, its clinical use remains to be proven.

  13. Dentition development and budding morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Peterková, R; Peterka, M; Viriot, L; Lesot, H

    2000-01-01

    The development of functional teeth in the mouse has been widely used as a model to study general mechanisms of organogenesis. Compared with other mammals, in which three incisors, one canine, four premolars, and three molars may occur even in each dental quadrant, the mouse functional dentition is strongly reduced. It comprises only one incisor separated from three molars by a toothless gap diastema at the location of the missing teeth. However, mouse embryos also develop transient vestigial dental primordia between the incisor and molar germs in both the upper and lower jaws. These rudimental structures regress, and epithelial apoptosis is involved in this process. The existence of the vestigial dental structures allowed a better assessment of the periodicity in the mouse dentition, which extends opportunities for the interpretation of molecular data on tooth development. We compared the dentition development with tentative models of budding morphogenesis in other epithelial appendages lungs and feathers. We suggested how developmental control by signaling molecules, including bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp), sonic hedgehog (Shh), and fibroblast growth factor (Fgf), can be similarly involved during budding morphogenesis of dentition and other epithelial appendages. We propose that epithelial apoptosis plays an important role in achieving specific features of dentition, whose development involves both budding and its more complex variant branching. The failure of segregation of the originating buds supports the participation of the concrescence of several tooth primordia in the evolutionary differentiation of mammalian teeth. PMID:11354512

  14. Bud-Neck Scaffolding as a Possible Driving Force in ESCRT-Induced Membrane Budding

    PubMed Central

    Mercker, Moritz; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Membrane budding is essential for processes such as protein sorting and transport. Recent experimental results with ESCRT proteins reveal a novel budding mechanism, with proteins emerging in bud necks but separated from the entire bud surface. Using an elastic model, we show that ESCRT protein shapes are sufficient to spontaneously create experimentally observed structures, with protein-membrane interactions leading to protein scaffolds in bud-neck regions. Furthermore, the model reproduces experimentally observed budding directions and bud sizes. Finally, our results reveal that membrane-mediated sorting has the capability of creating structures more complicated than previously assumed. PMID:25692588

  15. Tissue Engineering of Ureteral Grafts: Preparation of Biocompatible Crosslinked Ureteral Scaffolds of Porcine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Holger; Hammer, Niels; Ossmann, Susann; Schierle, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich; Hofmann, Jörg; Wecks, Mike; Boldt, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The surgical reconstruction of ureteric defects is often associated with post-operative complications and requires additional medical care. Decellularized ureters originating from porcine donors could represent an alternative therapy. Our aim was to investigate the possibility of manufacturing decellularized ureters, the characteristics of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the biocompatibility of these grafts in vitro/in vivo after treatment with different crosslinking agents. To achieve these goals, native ureters were obtained from pigs and were decellularized. The success of decellularization and the ECM composition were characterized by (immuno)histological staining methods and a DNA-assay. In vitro: scaffolds were crosslinked either with carbodiimide (CDI), genipin (GP), glutaraldehyde, left chemically untreated or were lyophilized. Scaffolds in each group were reseeded with Caco2, LS48, 3T3 cells, or native rat smooth muscle cells (SMC). After 2 weeks, the number of ingrown cells was quantified. In vivo: crosslinked scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into rats and the type of infiltrating cells were determined after 1, 9, and 30 days. After decellularization, scaffold morphology and composition of ECM were maintained, all cellular components were removed, DNA destroyed and strongly reduced. In vitro: GP and CDI scaffolds revealed a higher number of ingrown 3T3 and SMC cells as compared to untreated scaffolds. In vivo: at day 30, implants were predominantly infiltrated by fibroblasts and M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages. A maximum of MMP3 was observed in the CDI group at day 30. TIMP1 was below the detection limit. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of decellularization to create biocompatible porcine ureteric grafts, whereas a CDI-crosslink may facilitate the remodeling process. The use of decellularized ureteric grafts may represent a novel therapeutic method in reconstruction of ureteric defects. PMID:26157796

  16. Ureteric obstruction due to pelvic actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, R; Bancewicz, J

    1982-03-01

    Since 1973 several reports of pelvic actinomycosis arising in association with modern types of IUDs have appeared. Various presentations occur such as vaginal discharge, tubo-ovarian abscess, or "frozen pelvis." Ureteric obstruction is uncommon and its management unclear. A case is presented of ureteric obstruction due to pelvic actinomycosis associated with an IUD. A 34 year old woman presented with a 6 month history of alternating constipation and diarrhea, weight loss, amenorrhea, and laterally, a vaginal discharge. A Lippes loop had been inserted 2 years earlier. On examination, she was anemic, cachectic, pyrexial and had a frozen pelvis. There was a stricture of the midrectum but the mucosa was intact. The strings of the IUD could be felt and the cervix appeared normal. There was skin redness and induration over the right ischiorectal fossa. Intravenous urogram showed bilateral hydronephrosis with hydroureter. Examination under anesthesia confirmed the midrectal stricture. Biopsies showed mild inflammatory changes only. The IUD was removed and curettings revealed an acute endometritis. At laparotomy, apparently normal small bowel loops were adherent to a friable mass in the pelvis, which displaced the bladder forwards. The colon and uterus appeared normal but bilateral pyosalpinges were present and were resected. Neither ovary could be identified. Despite the tubal infection, pelvic malignancy was suspected and a sigmoid colostomy fashioned in view of impending rectal obstruction. Histology of the mass showed a large amount of fibrous tissue infiltrated by acute and chronic inflammatory cells and containing micro-abscesses. In 2 places only, colonies of actinomycetes surrounded by polymorphs were observed. No sulphur granules were identified. No growth was obtained on aerobic and anaerobic culture of the tissue and the pyosalpinges. Treatment with penicillin V 500 mg q.d.s. produced an allergic reaction and was changed to tetracycline 250 mg q.d.s. which was

  17. Spontaneous ureteral rupture in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.H.; Pennebaker, J.B.; Harisdangkul, V.; Songcharoen, S.

    1983-08-01

    A patient with known systemic lupus erythematosus had fever and symptoms of a lower urinary tract infection. Bone scintigraphy showed left ureteral perforation and necrosis with no demonstrable nephrolithiasis. It is speculated that this episode was due to lupus vasculitis.

  18. [TRANSURETHRAL CONTACT URETERAL LITHOTRIPSY IN A GASEOUS (CO2) MEDIUM].

    PubMed

    Glybochko, P V; Aljaev, Ju G; Rapoport, L M; Carichenko, D G; Arzumanjan, E G

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes for the first time the method of contact ureteral lithotripsy in gaseous (CO2) medium. It presents the results of a comparative study of urolithiasis patients treated with this treatment modality (study group, n=30) and with traditional contact ureteral lithotripsy in liquid medium (control group, n=30). The incidence of retrograde migration of calculus in the kidney in the study group was 0%, while it was 16.6% in the control group. Acute or exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis was diagnosed in only 3 (10%) patients in the control group. The suggested method of contact ureteral lithotripsy is safe and provides several advantages over traditional contact ureteral lithotripsy in a fluid medium, such as: physiologic validity, absence of calculus hypermobility (increased mobility), improved visualization during surgery and high cost effectiveness. PMID:26237808

  19. An Indwelling Ureteral Stent Forgotten for Over 12 Years.

    PubMed

    Bidnur, Samir; Huynh, Melissa; Hoag, Nathan; Chew, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Ureteral stents are one of the most commonly used urologic devices with the purpose of establishing and maintaining ureteral patency. They are also associated with a number of complications including infection, migration, stent-related symptoms, and encrustation, leading to lithiasis. Prolonged stent dwell time is associated with a greater degree of these complications. We present the case of a 36-year-old man who presented with a severely encrusted ureteral stent that had been placed 12.5 years prior for an obstructive left-sided ureteral stone and was lost to follow-up. The patient underwent a combination of percutaneous nephrolithomy, cystolitholapaxy, and ureteroscopy to remove the stent and associated 1.7 cm renal pelvic stone and 4.1 cm bladder stone, necessitating two operative sittings to render him stone free. PMID:27579442

  20. Management of full-length complete ureteral avulsion

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kaifa; Sun, Fa; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Yili

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Complete ureteral avulsion is one of the most serious complications of ureteroscopy. The aim of this report was to look for a good solution to full-length complete ureteral avulsion. Case presentation A 40-year-old man underwent ureteroscopic management. Full-length complete avulsion of ureter occurred during ureteroscopy. Pyeloureterostomy plus greater omentum investment outside the avulsed ureter and ureterovesical anastomosis were performed 6 hours after ureteral avulsion. The patient was followed-up during 34 months. Double-J tube was removed at 3 months after operation. Twenty three months after the first operation, the patient developed hydronephrosis because of a new ureter upside stone, then rigid ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy were used successfully. Conclusion Pyeloureterostomy plus greater omentum investment outside the avulsed ureter and ureterovesical anastomosis may be a good choice for full-length complete ureteral avulsion. PMID:27136483

  1. An Indwelling Ureteral Stent Forgotten for Over 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bidnur, Samir; Huynh, Melissa; Hoag, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ureteral stents are one of the most commonly used urologic devices with the purpose of establishing and maintaining ureteral patency. They are also associated with a number of complications including infection, migration, stent-related symptoms, and encrustation, leading to lithiasis. Prolonged stent dwell time is associated with a greater degree of these complications. We present the case of a 36-year-old man who presented with a severely encrusted ureteral stent that had been placed 12.5 years prior for an obstructive left-sided ureteral stone and was lost to follow-up. The patient underwent a combination of percutaneous nephrolithomy, cystolitholapaxy, and ureteroscopy to remove the stent and associated 1.7 cm renal pelvic stone and 4.1 cm bladder stone, necessitating two operative sittings to render him stone free. PMID:27579442

  2. [Endoscopic modified technique of ureteral resection during nephroureterectomy].

    PubMed

    Aguirre Benites, F; Blanco Carballo, O; Pamplona Casamayor, M; Díaz González, R; Leiva Galvis, O

    2007-01-01

    We show a technical modification of the ureteral endoscopic resection with which we try to avoid comunication between urine and surgical bed in order to prevent tumor local spread of upper urotelial tumor. PMID:17902476

  3. Ureteral reimplantation in children with neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Belloli, G P; Musi, L; Campobasso, P; Cattaneo, A

    1979-04-01

    The treatment of urologic complications from myelomeningocele and especially of vesico-renal reflux is a controversial problem. A series of 26 reimplanted ureters in 17 children, with good results in more than 85%, is reported. Ureteroneocystostomy, carried out with a few technical innovation, may represent a useful method for the treatment of vesico-renal reflux and obstruction of the uretero-vesical junction in neurogenic bladder associated with myelomeningocele. This surgical approach leads to the disappearance of the reflux, decrease of dilatation of the upper urinary tract and preservation of renal function in most cases; moreover, infection can be more easily controlled. Ureteral reimplantation should be preceded by periodic urethral dilatation, external transurethral sphincterotomy, and pharmacologic regulation in order to attempt to decrease urethral resistance. After successful surgery, it is possible to try to reeducate the bladder. Reimplantation should be preferred to permanent urinary diversion even if there is gross reflux. PMID:458534

  4. [Vesico-ureteral reflux in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Fanos, V; Khoory, B J; Vecchini, S; Pedrolli, A; Pizzini, C; Benini, D

    1998-01-01

    Vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) is the most frequent uropathy involving 1-2% of children. Genetics, familiarity, race gender and age intervene in the pathogenesis of VUR. In particular, neonatal VUR seems to represent a specific entity. Different factors determine a renal damage due to RVU: direct action of VUR (back pression), urinary tract infection (UTI), inflammatory mechanisms and renal dysplasia. Micturing cystourethrography and nuclear cystography are currently performed for the diagnosis of VUR, being ultrasound examination aspecific. Functional parameters are now investigated in association with new morphologic studies. The strict relationship of VUR and UTI is discussed. The treatment (medical, surgical) of VUR is not well established, although some guidelines can be suggested. Finally an adequate support must be given to the family for an optimal management. PMID:9973804

  5. GATA6 is a crucial regulator of Shh in the limb bud.

    PubMed

    Kozhemyakina, Elena; Ionescu, Andreia; Lassar, Andrew B

    2014-01-01

    In the limb bud, patterning along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is controlled by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a signaling molecule secreted by the "Zone of Polarizing Activity", an organizer tissue located in the posterior margin of the limb bud. We have found that the transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6, which are key regulators of cell identity, are expressed in an anterior to posterior gradient in the early limb bud, raising the possibility that GATA transcription factors may play an additional role in patterning this tissue. While both GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in an A-P gradient in the forelimb buds, the hindlimb buds principally express GATA6 in an A-P gradient. Thus, to specifically examine the role of GATA6 in limb patterning we generated Prx1-Cre; GATA6(fl/fl) mice, which conditionally delete GATA6 from their developing limb buds. We found that these animals display ectopic expression of both Shh and its transcriptional targets specifically in the anterior mesenchyme of the hindlimb buds. Loss of GATA6 in the developing limbs results in the formation of preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs. Conversely, forced expression of GATA6 throughout the limb bud represses expression of Shh and results in hypomorphic limbs. We have found that GATA6 can bind to chromatin (isolated from limb buds) encoding either Shh or Gli1 regulatory elements that drive expression of these genes in this tissue, and demonstrated that GATA6 works synergistically with FOG co-factors to repress expression of luciferase reporters driven by these sequences. Most significantly, we have found that conditional loss of Shh in limb buds lacking GATA6 prevents development of hindlimb polydactyly in these compound mutant embryos, indicating that GATA6 expression in the anterior region of the limb bud blocks hindlimb polydactyly by repressing ectopic expression of Shh. PMID:24415953

  6. GATA6 Is a Crucial Regulator of Shh in the Limb Bud

    PubMed Central

    Kozhemyakina, Elena; Ionescu, Andreia; Lassar, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    In the limb bud, patterning along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is controlled by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a signaling molecule secreted by the “Zone of Polarizing Activity”, an organizer tissue located in the posterior margin of the limb bud. We have found that the transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6, which are key regulators of cell identity, are expressed in an anterior to posterior gradient in the early limb bud, raising the possibility that GATA transcription factors may play an additional role in patterning this tissue. While both GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in an A-P gradient in the forelimb buds, the hindlimb buds principally express GATA6 in an A-P gradient. Thus, to specifically examine the role of GATA6 in limb patterning we generated Prx1-Cre; GATA6fl/fl mice, which conditionally delete GATA6 from their developing limb buds. We found that these animals display ectopic expression of both Shh and its transcriptional targets specifically in the anterior mesenchyme of the hindlimb buds. Loss of GATA6 in the developing limbs results in the formation of preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs. Conversely, forced expression of GATA6 throughout the limb bud represses expression of Shh and results in hypomorphic limbs. We have found that GATA6 can bind to chromatin (isolated from limb buds) encoding either Shh or Gli1 regulatory elements that drive expression of these genes in this tissue, and demonstrated that GATA6 works synergistically with FOG co-factors to repress expression of luciferase reporters driven by these sequences. Most significantly, we have found that conditional loss of Shh in limb buds lacking GATA6 prevents development of hindlimb polydactyly in these compound mutant embryos, indicating that GATA6 expression in the anterior region of the limb bud blocks hindlimb polydactyly by repressing ectopic expression of Shh. PMID:24415953

  7. Ureteral Metastasis as the Presenting Manifestation of Pancreatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arvind, Nand Kishore; Singh, Onkar; Gupta, Shilpi; Ali, Qutub

    2013-01-01

    We recently cared for a patient with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas who presented with ureteral metastasis followed by hydroureteronephrosis long before the appearance of any symptoms related to the primary lesion. The entity is extremely rare; only seven similar cases are on record in the scientific literature. No recent review exists on this topic. This encouraged us to present our case along with the previous cases of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with ureteral metastasis that have been reported. PMID:24223025

  8. Danazol in the management of ureteral obstruction secondary to endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivlin, M.E.; Krueger, R.P.; Wiser, W.L.

    1985-08-01

    A case is reported in which a woman was diagnosed with ureteral obstruction secondary to endometriosis after cystourethrogram, retrograde pyelogram and a renal scan. After unsuccessful treatment with danazol, a retroperitoneal ureteroneocystotomy was performed. The ureter was found to be obstructed by dense fibrous tissue that contained endometrial glands. It was concluded that danazol is unlikely to relieve endometriotic ureteric obstruction once dense fibrosis has occurred. 8 references, 2 figures.

  9. The Energy of COPI for Budding Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Thiam, Abdou Rachid; Pincet, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    As a major actor of cellular trafficking, COPI coat proteins assemble on membranes and locally bend them to bud 60 nm-size coated particles. Budding requires the energy of the coat assembly to overcome the one necessary to deform the membrane which primarily depends on the bending modulus and surface tension, γ. Using a COPI-induced oil nanodroplet formation approach, we modulated the budding of nanodroplets using various amounts and types of surfactant. We found a Heaviside-like dependence between the budding efficiency and γ: budding was only dependent on γ and occurred beneath 1.3 mN/m. With the sole contribution of γ to the membrane deformation energy, we assessed that COPI supplies ~1500 kBT for budding particles from membranes, which is consistent with common membrane deformation energies. Our results highlight how a simple remodeling of the composition of membranes could mechanically modulate budding in cells. PMID:26218078

  10. Iatrogenic ureteric injuries: approaches to etiology and management

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, James D.; Mahoney, John E.; Futter, Norman G.; Gaffield, Johanna

    1998-01-01

    Injury to the ureter is a risk of any pelvic or abdominal surgery, including laparoscopy and ureteroscopy. The morbidity associated with such injury may be serious, resulting in increased hospital stay, compromise of the original surgical outcome, secondary invasive interventions, reoperation, potential loss of renal function and deterioration of the patient’s quality of life. Management of ureteric injuries, in conjunction with frank and open dialogue with the patient, can lead to an optimal outcome. For ureteral ligation, removal of the suture and assessment of ureteral viability are recommended, with surgical correction if necessary. For partial transection primary closure is suggested over stent placement. For uncomplicated upper- and middle-third ureteral injury ureteroureterostomy is the procedure of choice. For injuries above the pelvic brim several procedures are available: ureteroureterostomy, ureteroileal interposition and nephrectomy. For injuries below the pelvic brim ureteroneocystostomy is recommended with a psoas hitch or Boari bladder flap. To decrease the incidence of iatrogenic ureteral injury, a sound knowledge of abdominal and pelvic anatomy is the best prevention. If the proposed operation is likely to be close to the ureter, the ureter should be identified at the pelvic brim. If the dissection is likely to be difficult, preoperative intravenous pyelography and placement of a ureteral catheter may help in identifying and protecting the ureter. PMID:9793505

  11. Robotic-assisted ureteral reimplantation with Boari flap and psoas hitch: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Yang, Christopher; Jones, Loren; Rivera, Marcelino E; Verlee, Graham T; Deane, Leslie A

    2011-11-01

    Robotic-assisted ureteral reimplantations were performed on 3 patients at a single institution, 2 with Boari flap and psoas hitch and 1 with psoas hitch alone. These were for urothelial carcinoma of the distal ureter, ureteral obstruction caused by distal ureteral endometriosis, and ureteral transaction during gynecologic surgery. We used intraoperative ureteroscopy to confirm tumor margins as well as a simple technique for retrograde placement of transvesicle wire prior to ureteral anastomosis. Surgery and recovery were uneventful. This illustrates that robotic-assisted ureteral reimplantation with Boari flap and psoas hitch is a safe and viable approach for ureterovesicle reconstruction. PMID:21859340

  12. Unusual case of severe late-onset cytomegalovirus-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and ureteritis in a renal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Ersan, Sibel; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Sert, Mehmet; Atila, Koray; Celik, Ali; Gulcu, Aytac; Cavdar, Caner; Sifil, Aykut; Bora, Seymen; Gulay, Hüseyin; Camsari, Taner

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common in solid organ transplant recipients and accounts for the majority of graft compromise. Major risk factors include primary exposure to CMV infection at the time of transplantation and the use of antilymphocyte agents such as OKT3 (the monoclonal antibody muromonab-CD3) and antithymocyte globulin. It most often develops during the first 6 months after transplantation. Although current prophylactic strategies and antiviral agents have led to decreased occurrence of CMV disease in early posttransplant period, the incidence of late-onset CMV disease ranges from 2% to 7% even in the patients receiving prophylaxis with oral ganciclovir. The most common presentation of CMV disease in transplant patients is CMV pneumonitis followed by gastrointestinal disease. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The condition is usually due to cyclophosphamide-based myeloablative regimens and infectious agents. Even in these settings, CMV-induced cases occur only sporadically. Ureteritis and hemorrhagic cystitis due to CMV infection after kidney transplantation is reported very rarely on a case basis in the literature so far. We report here a case of late-onset CMV-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and ureteritis presenting with painful macroscopic hematuria and ureteral obstruction after 4 years of renal transplantation. The diagnosis is pathologically confirmed by the demonstration of immunohistochemical staining specific for CMV in a resected ureteral section. We draw attention to this very particular presentation of CMV hemorrhagic cystitis with ureteral obstruction in order to emphasize atypical presentation of tissue-invasive CMV disease far beyond the timetable for posttransplant CMV infection. PMID:22251223

  13. COPI Budding within the Golgi Stack

    PubMed Central

    Popoff, Vincent; Adolf, Frank; Brügger, Britta; Wieland, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The Golgi serves as a hub for intracellular membrane traffic in the eukaryotic cell. Transport within the early secretory pathway, that is within the Golgi and from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum, is mediated by COPI-coated vesicles. The COPI coat shares structural features with the clathrin coat, but differs in the mechanisms of cargo sorting and vesicle formation. The small GTPase Arf1 initiates coating on activation and recruits en bloc the stable heptameric protein complex coatomer that resembles the inner and the outer shells of clathrin-coated vesicles. Different binding sites exist in coatomer for membrane machinery and for the sorting of various classes of cargo proteins. During the budding of a COPI vesicle, lipids are sorted to give a liquid-disordered phase composition. For the release of a COPI-coated vesicle, coatomer and Arf cooperate to mediate membrane separation. PMID:21844168

  14. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming. PMID:25566281

  15. The Gachon University Ureteral Narrowing score: A comprehensive standardized system for predicting necessity of ureteral dilatation to treat proximal ureteral calculi

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Tae Beom; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Kim, Chang Hee; Kim, Kwang Taek; Chung, Kyung Jin; Kim, Khae Hawn; Jung, Han; Yoon, Sang Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose For treating proximal ureteral calculi, treatment decision has been known still difficult to choose ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) or shockwave lithotripsy. The aims of our study are to identify the possible predictors for necessity of URS and to propose the Gachon University Ureteral Narrowing scoring system (GUUN score) as a helpful predictor. Materials and Methods We evaluated 83 consecutive patients who underwent semirigid URS due to proximal ureteral calculi between April 2011 and February 2014 by a single surgeon. We reviewed patient characteristics and pre- and postoperative parameters and surgical records. We divided the patients into 2 groups (group 1, nondilation group; group 2, dilation group) according to whether or not balloon dilation was performed. A stepwise logistic regression was performed to identify the factors that predict dilatation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted and areas under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated to GUUN score. Results Mean patients' age and their stone size were 48.53±12.90 years and 7.79±2.57 cm, respectively. Significantly smaller stone size (p=0.009), lower stone density (p=0.005), and lower ureteral density differences between ureteral narrowing level and far distal ureter (UD) (p<0.001) were observed in group 1 (n=34) than in group 2 (n=49). GUUN score consists of age, stone size and UD (AUC, 0.938). Overall stone-free clearance rate was 85.5%. Conclusions We suggest that the GUUN score is an excellent scoring system to predict the necessity of ureteral dilatation for decision making whether or not to perform surgical manipulation. PMID:27437538

  16. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  17. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  18. Aip3p/Bud6p, a yeast actin-interacting protein that is involved in morphogenesis and the selection of bipolar budding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Amberg, D C; Zahner, J E; Mulholland, J W; Pringle, J R; Botstein, D

    1997-01-01

    A search for Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins that interact with actin in the two-hybrid system and a screen for mutants that affect the bipolar budding pattern identified the same gene, AIP3/BUD6. This gene is not essential for mitotic growth but is necessary for normal morphogenesis. MATa/alpha daughter cells lacking Aip3p place their first buds normally at their distal poles but choose random sites for budding in subsequent cell cycles. This suggests that actin and associated proteins are involved in placing the bipolar positional marker at the division site but not at the distal tip of the daughter cell. In addition, although aip3 mutant cells are not obviously defective in the initial polarization of the cytoskeleton at the time of bud emergence, they appear to lose cytoskeletal polarity as the bud enlarges, resulting in the formation of cells that are larger and rounder than normal. aip3 mutant cells also show inefficient nuclear migration and nuclear division, defects in the organization of the secretory system, and abnormal septation, all defects that presumably reflect the involvement of Aip3p in the organization and/or function of the actin cytoskeleton. The sequence of Aip3p is novel but contains a predicted coiled-coil domain near its C terminus that may mediate the observed homo-oligomerization of the protein. Aip3p shows a distinctive localization pattern that correlates well with its likely sites of action: it appears at the presumptive bud site prior to bud emergence, remains near the tips of small bund, and forms a ring (or pair of rings) in the mother-bud neck that is detectable early in the cell cycle but becomes more prominent prior to cytokinesis. Surprisingly, the localization of Aip3p does not appear to require either polarized actin or the septin proteins of the neck filaments. Images PMID:9247651

  19. Novel application of an established technique for removing a knotted ureteric stent.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Heidi; Turney, Ben; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a case whereby a ureteric stent became knotted during removal and lodged within the upper ureter. The authors describe a novel minimally invasive technique to remove the knotted ureteric stent using the holmium laser. PMID:22701009

  20. Novel Features of the Prenatal Horn Bud Development in Cattle (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Dominique Judith; Wiedemar, Natalie; Welle, Monika Maria; Drögemüller, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the genetic background of horn growth in cattle has been studied extensively, little is known about the morphological changes in the developing fetal horn bud. In this study we histologically analyzed the development of horn buds of bovine fetuses between ~70 and ~268 days of pregnancy and compared them with biopsies taken from the frontal skin of the same fetuses. In addition we compared the samples from the wild type (horned) fetuses with samples taken from the horn bud region of age-matched genetically hornless (polled) fetuses. In summary, the horn bud with multiple layers of vacuolated keratinocytes is histologically visible early in fetal life already at around day 70 of gestation and can be easily differentiated from the much thinner epidermis of the frontal skin. However, at the gestation day (gd) 212 the epidermis above the horn bud shows a similar morphology to the epidermis of the frontal skin and the outstanding layers of vacuolated keratinocytes have disappeared. Immature hair follicles are seen in the frontal skin at gd 115 whereas hair follicles below the horn bud are not present until gd 155. Interestingly, thick nerve bundles appear in the dermis below the horn bud at gd 115. These nerve fibers grow in size over time and are prominent shortly before birth. Prominent nerve bundles are not present in the frontal skin of wild type or in polled fetuses at any time, indicating that the horn bud is a very sensitive area. The samples from the horn bud region from polled fetuses are histologically equivalent to samples taken from the frontal skin in horned species. This is the first study that presents unique histological data on bovine prenatal horn bud differentiation at different developmental stages which creates knowledge for a better understanding of recent molecular findings. PMID:25993643

  1. Cotton buds, momentum, and impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Ed; Nuñez, Jover; Guirit, Alfredo; van Huis, Cor

    2000-01-01

    Here is a simple experiment demonstrating impulse and momentum that was picked up from a Japanese presenter at a physics teacher conference held in Cebu City. We have not been able to trace the experiment farther and have never seen it in print. After student-author Nuñez demonstrated it during an exam on conducting demonstrations, we converted the qualitative idea into a quanitative experiment and even discovered some possibilities for student research. The lab is also suitable as homework, since it uses universally available "equipment" — cotton buds (swabs), drinking straws, and a ruler.

  2. Experimental evolution in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss our progress in analyzing evolution in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We take two basic approaches. The first is to try and examine quantitative aspects of evolution, for example by determining how the rate of evolution depends on the mutation rate and the population size or asking whether the rate of mutation is uniform throughout the genome. The second is to try to evolve qualitatively novel, cell biologically interesting phenotypes and track the mutations that are responsible for the phenotype. Our efforts include trying to alter cell morphology, evolve multicellularity, and produce a biological oscillator.

  3. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Vegetative Buds, Floral Buds and Buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Sun, Ming; Du, Dongliang; Pan, Huitang; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important floral crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, due to a lack of genomic resources, very little information is available concerning the molecular mechanisms of flower development in chrysanthemum. Results The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum vegetative buds, floral buds and buds were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 15.4 Gb of reads were assembled into 91,367 unigenes with an average length of 739 bp. A total of 43,137 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swissprot or NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Additionally, 25,424, 24,321 and 13,704 unigenes were assigned to 56 gene ontology (GO) categories, 25 EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) categories, and 285 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, respectively. A total of 1,876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (1,516 up-regulated, 360 down-regulated) were identified between vegetative buds and floral buds, and 3,300 DEGs (1,277 up-regulated, 1,706 down-regulated) were identified between floral buds and buds. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., AP2, MYB, MYC, WRKY, NAC and CRT) as well as proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, plant hormone signal transduction, and the defense responses, among others, were considerably up-regulated in floral buds. Genes involved in the photoperiod pathway and flower organ determination were also identified. These genes represent important candidate genes for molecular cloning and functional analysis to study flowering regulation in chrysanthemum. Conclusion This comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and signaling pathway components between the vegetative buds, floral buds and buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A wide range of genes was implicated in regulating the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. These results should aid

  4. Crossing Ureteric Strictures: Microcatheters to the Rescue When Conventional Methods Fail

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, A. N.; Lee, M. J.

    2007-11-15

    Tight distal ureteric strictures can be most challenging to traverse both from above, by interventional radiologists, and below, by urologists. Despite the advent of numerous guidewires, manufactured from different materials, often ureteric strictures are too tight to allow conventional guidewires to pass through. We describe an alternative approach to cross tight ureteric strictures, using a microguidewire and microcatheter combination.

  5. Noncontrast helical CT for ureteral stones.

    PubMed

    Boridy, I C; Nikolaidis, P; Kawashima, A; Sandler, C M; Goldman, S M

    1998-01-01

    Noncontrast helical computed tomography (CT) has recently been found to be superior to excretory urography (IVU) in the evaluation of patients with suspected ureterolithiasis. Noncontrast helical CT does not require the use of intravenous contrast material with its associated cost and risk of adverse reactions and can be completed within 5 min, in most cases. Noncontrast CT often detects extraurinary pathology responsible for the patient's symptoms. CT is also more sensitive than IVU in detecting the calculus, regardless of its size, location, and chemical composition. However, confidently differentiating ureteral calculi from phleboliths along the course of the ureter may, at times, be difficult. The "tissue-rim" sign, a rim of soft tissue attenuation around the suspicious calcification, is helpful in making this distinction. Noncontrast CT does not provide physiological information about renal function and the degree of obstruction. A pilot study has suggested a proportional relationship between the extent of perinephric edema and the degree of obstruction. The cost of the examination and the radiation dose delivered to the patient may be higher with CT. Despite these limitations, noncontrast helical CT has quickly become the imaging study of choice in evaluating patients with acute flank pain. PMID:9542010

  6. Pyelo-ureteral necrosis after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce B; Masin-Spasovska, Jelka; Stavridis, Sotir; Saiti, Skender; Lekovski, Ljupco

    2008-01-01

    Because of the limited chance of receiving a kidney transplant (for several well-known reasons), a lot of desperate dialysis patients procure an unrelated donor kidney transplant against all medical advice. This type of renal paid transplantation is associated with many surgical complications and invasive opportunistic infections that increase the morbidity and mortality in this group of transplant recipients. In this report, we describe a case of a 22-year-old girl with a segmental infarction of the graft lower pole and a complete pyelo-ureteral necrosis as a consequence of some vascular damage, complicated by a pathohistological finding of an invasive candidiasis. Despite the successful surgical pyelovesical anastomosis and the good recovery of the patient and the kidney, long-term prognosis remains poor. The lack of information from the transplanting center regarding both donor and recipient and the associated, unacceptable risks on the graft and patient survival in unrelated, paid transplant recipients reinforce the standpoint that this practice should be abandoned. PMID:18204913

  7. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established. PMID:25509282

  8. [Subcutaneous ureteral bypass devices as a treatment option for bilateral ureteral obstruction in a cat with ureterolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Romy M; Pashmakova, Medora; Lamb, Jodie H; Spaulding, Kathy A; Cook, Audrey K

    2016-06-16

    A 6-year-old female spayed Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with acute lethargy, dehydration, marked azotemia, metabolic acidosis, left-sided renomegaly, and bilateral hydronephrosis. Ureterolithiasis and ureteral obstruction were suspected based on further diagnostics including abdominal sonography. Medical treatment was not successful. Fluoroscopically guided antegrade pyelography confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral ureteral obstruction due to ureterolithiasis. Subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) devices were placed bilaterally, followed by close patient monitoring. Frequent reassessment of patient parameters and blood work served to adjust the fluid needs of the patient and to ensure proper hydration, correction of azotemia at an appropriate rate, and cardiovascular stability. After significant improvement of all patient parameters within 5 days, the patient was discharged from the hospital. Treatment included a dietary change to reduce the risk of stone formation as well as a phosphorus binder. Clinical and clinicopathologic parameters were unchanged at the 1- and 4- and 7-month rechecks (consistent with IRIS CKD stage II-NP-AP0), and both SUB devices continued to provide unobstructed urine flow. Bilateral placement of subcutaneous ureteral bypass devices may be a safe and potentially effective treatment option for acute bilateral ureteral obstruction in cats with ureterolithiasis. Strict patient monitoring and patient-centered postoperative treatment decisions are crucial to successful treatment outcomes. PMID:26898228

  9. Formation of spacing pattern and morphogenesis of chick feather buds is regulated by cytoskeletal structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Sung-Won; Song, Wu-Chul; Lee, Min-Jung; Cai, Jinglei; Ohk, Seung-Ho; Song, Hee-Kyung; Degan, Alexander; Jung, Han-Sung

    2005-06-01

    Chick feather buds develop sequentially in a hexagonal array. Each feather bud develops with anterior posterior polarity, which is thought to develop in response to signals derived from specialized regions of mesenchymal condensation and epithelial thickening. These developmental processes are performed by cellular mechanisms, such as cell proliferation and migration, which occur during chick feather bud development. In order to understand the mechanisms regulating the formation of mesenchymal condensation and their role in feather bud development, we explanted chick dorsal skin at stage HH29+ with cytochalasin D, which inhibits cytoskeletal formation. We show that the aggregation of mesenchymal cells can be prevented by cytochalasin D treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. Subsequently, cytochalasin D disrupts the spacing pattern and inhibits feather bud axis formation as well. In addition, expression patterns of Bmp-4 and Msx-2, key molecules for early feather bud development, were disturbed by cytochalasin D treatment. Our results fully indicate that both the cytoskeletal structure and cell activity via gene regulation are of fundamental importance in mesenchymal condensation leading to proper morphogenesis of feather bud and spacing pattern formation. PMID:16026546

  10. Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Ureterolithotomy for Proximal Ureteral Calculi in Selected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qingfeng; Ding, Weihong; Gou, Yuancheng; Ho, Yatfaat; Xu, Ke; Gu, Bin; Sun, Chuanyu; Xia, Guowei; Ding, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To summarize our experience of retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy for ureteral calculi and evaluate the safety and efficiency of this procedure. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 197 patients with proximal ureteral calculi who accepted retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy from June 2005 to June 2014. Results. All procedures were performed successfully and the mean operating time and estimated blood loss were 87 min and 64 mL. The clearance rate was 98.5% and the rates of urine leak and ureteral stricture were 2.5% and 1.0%. Conclusions. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy is a safe and effective procedure for patients with complex stones or anatomic abnormalities, and, with experience of high volume series, it is also a reasonable choice as the primary treatment for such selected patients. PMID:25548791

  11. Removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in Kenyan rural Maasai.

    PubMed

    Hassanali, J; Amwayi, P; Muriithi, A

    1995-04-01

    The removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in early childhood is a practice that has been documented in Kenya and in neighboring countries. This paper describes the occurrence, rationale and method of this practice amongst rural Kenyan Maasai. In a group of 95 children aged between six months and two years, who were examined in 1991/92, 87% were found to have undergone the removal of one or more deciduous canine tooth buds. In an older age group (3-7 years of age), 72% of the 111 children examined exhibited missing mandibular or maxillary deciduous canines. It was found that the actual removal of a deciduous tooth bud is often performed by middle-aged Maasai women who enucleate the developing tooth using a pointed pen-knife. There exists a strong belief among the Maasai that diarrhoea, vomiting and other febrile illnesses of early childhood are caused by the gingival swelling over the canine region, and which is thought to contain 'worms' or 'nylon' teeth. The immediate and long-term hazards of this practice include profuse bleeding, infection and damage to the developing permanent canines. A multi-disciplinary approach involving social anthropologists in addition to dental and medical personnel, is recommend in order to discourage this harmful operation that appears to be on the increase. PMID:7621751

  12. Verification of relationships between anthropometric variables among ureteral stents recipients and ureteric lengths: a challenge for Vitruvian-da Vinci theory

    PubMed Central

    Acelam, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine and verify how anthropometric variables correlate to ureteric lengths and how well statistical models approximate the actual ureteric lengths. Materials and methods In this work, 129 charts of endourological patients (71 females and 58 males) were studied retrospectively. Data were gathered from various research centers from North and South America. Continuous data were studied using descriptive statistics. Anthropometric variables (age, body surface area, body weight, obesity, and stature) were utilized as predictors of ureteric lengths. Linear regressions and correlations were used for studying relationships between the predictors and the outcome variables (ureteric lengths); P-value was set at 0.05. To assess how well statistical models were capable of predicting the actual ureteric lengths, percentages (or ratios of matched to mismatched results) were employed. Results The results of the study show that anthropometric variables do not correlate well to ureteric lengths. Statistical models can partially estimate ureteric lengths. Out of the five anthropometric variables studied, three of them: body frame, stature, and weight, each with a P<0.0001, were significant. Two of the variables: age (R2=0.01; P=0.20) and obesity (R2=0.03; P=0.06), were found to be poor estimators of ureteric lengths. None of the predictors reached the expected (match:above:below) ratio of 1:0:0 to qualify as reliable predictors of ureteric lengths. Conclusion There is not sufficient evidence to conclude that anthropometric variables can reliably predict ureteric lengths. These variables appear to lack adequate specificity as they failed to reach the expected (match:above:below) ratio of 1:0:0. Consequently, selections of ureteral stents continue to remain a challenge. However, height (R2=0.68) with the (match:above:below) ratio of 3:3:4 appears suited for use as estimator, but on the basis of decision rule. Additional research is recommended for stent improvements

  13. Distinct Domains of Yeast Cortical Tag Proteins Bud8p and Bud9p Confer Polar Localization and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Krappmann, Anne-Brit; Taheri, Naimeh; Heinrich, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, diploid yeast cells follow a bipolar budding program, which depends on the two transmembrane glycoproteins Bud8p and Bud9p that potentially act as cortical tags to mark the cell poles. Here, we have performed systematic structure-function analyses of Bud8p and Bud9p to identify functional domains. We find that polar transport of Bud8p and Bud9p does not depend on N-terminal sequences but instead on sequences in the median part of the proteins and on the C-terminal parts that contain the transmembrane domains. We show that the guanosine diphosphate (GDP)/guanosine triphosphate (GTP) exchange factor Bud5p, which is essential for bud site selection and physically interacts with Bud8p, also interacts with Bud9p. Regions of Bud8p and Bud9p predicted to reside in the extracellular space are likely to confer interaction with the N-terminal region of Bud5p, implicating indirect interactions between the cortical tags and the GDP/GTP exchange factor. Finally, we have identified regions of Bud8p and Bud9p that are required for interaction with the cortical tag protein Rax1p. In summary, our study suggests that Bud8p and Bud9p carry distinct domains for delivery of the proteins to the cell poles, for interaction with the general budding machinery and for association with other cortical tag proteins. PMID:17581861

  14. Thyroid bud morphogenesis requires CDC42- and SHROOM3-dependent apical constriction

    PubMed Central

    Loebel, David A. F.; Plageman, Timothy F.; Tang, Theresa L.; Jones, Vanessa J.; Muccioli, Maria; Tam, Patrick P. L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early development of the gut endoderm and its subsequent remodeling for the formation of organ buds are accompanied by changes to epithelial cell shape and polarity. Members of the Rho-related family of small GTPases and their interacting proteins play multiple roles in regulating epithelial morphogenesis. In this study we examined the role of Cdc42 in foregut development and organ bud formation. Ablation of Cdc42 in post-gastrulation mouse embryos resulted in a loss of apical-basal cell polarity and columnar epithelial morphology in the ventral pharyngeal endoderm, in conjunction with a loss of apical localization of the known CDC42 effector protein PARD6B. Cell viability but not proliferation in the foregut endoderm was impaired. Outgrowth of the liver, lung and thyroid buds was severely curtailed in Cdc42-deficient embryos. In particular, the thyroid bud epithelium did not display the apical constriction that normally occurs concurrently with the outgrowth of the bud into the underlying mesenchyme. SHROOM3, a protein that interacts with Rho GTPases and promotes apical constriction, was strongly expressed in the thyroid bud and its sub-cellular localization was disrupted in Cdc42-deficient embryos. In Shroom3 gene trap mutant embryos, the thyroid bud epithelium showed no apical constriction, while the bud continued to grow and protruded into the foregut lumen. Our findings indicate that Cdc42 is required for epithelial polarity and organization in the endoderm and for apical constriction in the thyroid bud. It is possible that the function of CDC42 is partly mediated by SHROOM3. PMID:26772200

  15. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Mederacke, Ingmar; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Stice, Steve; Schwabe, Robert F.; Mistretta, Charlotte M.; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Taste buds, the sensory organs for taste, have been described as arising solely from the surrounding epithelium, which is in distinction from other sensory receptors that are known to originate from neural precursors, i.e., neural ectoderm that includes neural crest (NC). Our previous study suggested a potential contribution of NC derived cells to early immature fungiform taste buds in late embryonic (E18.5) and young postnatal (P1-10) mice. In the present study we demonstrated the contribution of the underlying connective tissue (CT) to mature taste buds in mouse tongue and soft palate. Three independent mouse models were used for fate mapping of NC and NC derived connective tissue cells: (1) P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP) to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2) Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3) Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT cells and derivatives upon tamoxifen treatment. Both P0-Cre/RFP and Dermo1-Cre/RFP labeled cells were abundant in mature taste buds in lingual taste papillae and soft palate, but not in the surrounding epithelial cells. Concurrently, labeled cells were extensively distributed in the underlying CT. RFP signals were seen in the majority of taste buds and all three types (I, II, III) of differentiated taste bud cells, with the neuronal-like type III cells labeled at a greater proportion. Further, Vimentin-CreER labeled cells were found in the taste buds of 3-month-old mice whereas Vimentin immunoreactivity was only seen in the CT. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized origin of taste bud cells from the underlying CT, a conceptually new finding in our knowledge of taste bud cell derivation, i.e., from both the surrounding epithelium and the underlying CT that is primarily derived from NC. PMID:26741369

  16. A conserved family of proteins facilitates nascent lipid droplet budding from the ER

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Vineet; Ojha, Namrata; Golden, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in all cells and play critical roles in lipid metabolism. De novo LD biogenesis occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but is not well understood. We imaged early stages of LD biogenesis using electron microscopy and found that nascent LDs form lens-like structures that are in the ER membrane, raising the question of how these nascent LDs bud from the ER as they grow. We found that a conserved family of proteins, fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT) proteins, is required for proper budding of LDs from the ER. Elimination or reduction of FIT proteins in yeast and higher eukaryotes causes LDs to remain in the ER membrane. Deletion of the single FIT protein in Caenorhabditis elegans is lethal, suggesting that LD budding is an essential process in this organism. Our findings indicated that FIT proteins are necessary to promote budding of nascent LDs from the ER. PMID:26504167

  17. 21 CFR 876.4020 - Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fiberoptic light ureteral catheter. 876.4020 Section 876.4020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4020 Fiberoptic...

  18. Evolving Guidance on Ureteric Calculi Management in the Acute Setting.

    PubMed

    Makanjuola, Jonathan K; Rintoul-Hoad, Sophie; Bultitude, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Ureteric colic is a common presentation to acute emergency services. The gold standard test for the diagnosis of acute ureteric colic is a non-contrast computer tomography of the kidneys ureters and bladder (CT KUB). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be used as first-line analgesia, with studies showing that there is no role for steroid or phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. There is emerging evidence that a high body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor. The drugs used to facilitate stone passage are known as medical expulsive therapy (MET). The most evaluated being alpha-blockers. The Spontaneous Urinary Stone Passage Enabled by Drugs (SUSPEND) trial was designed to evaluate the use of MET (tamsulosin and nifedipine). This trial showed that there was no difference with MET and placebo for the spontaneous passage of ureteric stones. There is an emerging role for the use of primary ureteroscopy in the management of non-infective ureteric stones. PMID:26874536

  19. Ureteral Stent Coatings: What's Here and What's Coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razvi, Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Ureteral stents have become an indispensable tool to the urologist in the management of various disorders afflicting the urinary tract. While the ideal stent remains elusive, novel technical advances in stent coating technology offer the potential of enhancing stent biocompatibility and clinical application. Currently available stent coatings as well as new and emerging devices will be reviewed.

  20. AN IN VITRO MODEL FOR MURINE URETERIC EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a model developed to study growth and differentiation of primary cultures of ureteric epithelial cells from embryonic C57BL/6N mouse urinary tracts. Single cells were resuspended in medium and plated onto transwells coated with collagen IV and laminin. Basa...

  1. An H-shaped complete ureteric duplication: embryology or erosion.

    PubMed

    Jayasekera, Ashan; Tempest, Heidi; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a duplex urinary collecting system that forms a single chamber about 2 cm proximal to the bladder with distal bifurcation and drainage into the bladder via distinct ureteric orifices. This anatomical variant has not been described before. PMID:22691584

  2. The dormant buds of Rhabdopleura compacta (Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Dilly, P N

    1975-06-13

    Rhabdopleura has an overwintering stage that consists of two layers of cells surrounding a central yolk mass. This cellular part is surrounded by a thick electron dense capsule which is secreted by the bud itself. The capsule is probably impervious and protective to its contents. Blood vessels join the buds to the zooids of the colony. They form the probable route of transfer of yolk from the zooids to the dormant bud. The capsule of the dormant bud has some structural features in common with the black stolon of the adult zooids. The black stolon is probably formed in a manner similar to that which made the fusellar fabric of the periderm of fossil graptolities. PMID:1149105

  3. Dual requirement of ectodermal Smad4 during AER formation and termination of feedback signaling in mouse limb buds.

    PubMed

    Benazet, Jean-Denis; Zeller, Rolf

    2013-09-01

    BMP signaling is pivotal for normal limb bud development in vertebrate embryos and genetic analysis of receptors and ligands in the mouse revealed their requirement in both mesenchymal and ectodermal limb bud compartments. In this study, we genetically assessed the potential essential functions of SMAD4, a mediator of canonical BMP/TGFß signal transduction, in the mouse limb bud ectoderm. Msx2-Cre was used to conditionally inactivate Smad4 in the ectoderm of fore- and hindlimb buds. In hindlimb buds, the Smad4 inactivation disrupts the establishment and signaling by the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) from early limb bud stages onwards, which results in severe hypoplasia and/or aplasia of zeugo- and autopodal skeletal elements. In contrast, the developmentally later inactivation of Smad4 in forelimb buds does not alter AER formation and signaling, but prolongs epithelial-mesenchymal feedback signaling in advanced limb buds. The late termination of SHH and AER-FGF signaling delays distal progression of digit ray formation and inhibits interdigit apoptosis. In summary, our genetic analysis reveals the temporally and functionally distinct dual requirement of ectodermal Smad4 during initiation and termination of AER signaling. PMID:23818325

  4. Asymmetric expression of Notch/Delta/Serrate is associated with the anterior-posterior axis of feather buds.

    PubMed

    Chen, C W; Jung, H S; Jiang, T X; Chuong, C M

    1997-08-01

    We studied the roles of Notch, Delta, and Serrate in vertebrate epithelial appendage morphogenesis using feather as a model and found the following. (1) C-Notch-1, C-Delta-1, and C-Serrate-1 are not expressed at the early placode stage and are therefore not involved in the determination of bud versus interbud compartments. (2) From symmetric short buds to asymmetric long buds, C-Delta-1 and C-Serrate-1 are expressed in the posterior bud mesenchyme in a nested fashion, while C-Notch-1 is expressed as a stripe perpendicular to the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis and positioned posterior to the midpoint. (3) Epithelial-mesenchymal recombination with rotation led to the disappearance of these genes followed by their reappearance with new positions appearing to predict their new morphological orientation. (4) Conditions leading to branched buds (e.g., recombination of later buds) show polarized staining patterns before branching occurs. (5) Conditions leading to symmetrical round buds (e.g., treated with the protein kinase A agonist forskolin) suppress expression of all three genes. These results lead us to hypothesize that Notch, Delta, and Serrate are involved in establishing the A-P asymmetry of feather buds. PMID:9245521

  5. Pear Bud Metabolism: Seasonal Changes in Glucose Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Richard H.; Faust, Miklos

    1969-01-01

    Utilization of glucose, uracil and valine by flower and leaf buds of seedling pear trees (Pyrus calleryana Decne.) from the time of flower bud initiation to flowering was investigated. A very high rate of glucose utilization through the pentose phosphate pathway was observed throughout the development of buds. There was no difference in the type of glucose metabolism between flower and leaf buds except immediately before flowering, when the metabolism in flower buds was shifted toward the glycolytic pathway. Such a shift did not occur in leaf buds. The incorporation of uracil and valine into the nucleic acid and protein fraction of buds, respectively, was high throughout bud development, perhaps indicating a high rate of turnover in the resting buds. Incorporation of both compounds decreased when buds started to expand prior to flowering. PMID:16657202

  6. Retrograde flexible ureteroscopy-assisted retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy for refractory ureteral stricture: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Tsuru, Nobuo; Mugiya, Soichi; Sato, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy (UU) is a preferred and valid minimally invasive procedure for treatment of benign ureteral strictures. In some cases with chronic inflammation or after repeated endoscopic ureteral surgery, it is difficult to identify the location of a ureteral stricture. Presentation of case We report a case of 48-year-old man with an impacted stone after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. Although transurethral lithotripsy (TUL) was performed, the ureteral stricture did not improve by subsequent endoscopic ureteral Holmium laser incision and balloon dilation. Discussion To simultaneously identify the exact location of the constriction, we performed retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy with intraoperative observations via super-slim flexible fiberoptic ureteroscopy retrograde. Conclusions Accurate identification of the ureteral stricture via observation by laparoscopy and observation by ureteroscopy was feasible. In contrast to the use of a rigid ureteroscopy, flexible fiberoptic ureteroscopy did not require placing the patient in an unnatural position. PMID:26826930

  7. Budded baculovirus particle structure revisited.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiushi; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M; Rottier, Peter J; van Lent, Jan W M

    2016-02-01

    Baculoviruses are a group of enveloped, double-stranded DNA insect viruses with budded (BV) and occlusion-derived (ODV) virions produced during their infection cycle. BVs are commonly described as rod shaped particles with a high apical density of protein extensions (spikes) on the lipid envelope surface. However, due to the fragility of BVs the conventional purification and electron microscopy (EM) staining methods considerably distort the native viral structure. Here, we use cryo-EM analysis to reveal the near-native morphology of two intensively studied baculoviruses, Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Spodoptera exigua MNPV (SeMNPV), as models for BVs carrying GP64 and F as envelope fusion protein on the surface. The now well-preserved AcMNPV and SeMNPV BV particles have a remarkable elongated, ovoid shape leaving a large, lateral space between nucleocapsid (NC) and envelope. Consistent with previous findings the NC has a distinctive cap and base structure interacting tightly with the envelope. This tight interaction may explain the partial retaining of the envelope on both ends of the NC and the disappearance of the remainder of the BV envelope in the negative-staining EM images. Cryo-EM also reveals that the viral envelope contains two layers with a total thickness of ≈ 6-7 nm, which is significantly thicker than a usual biological membrane (<4 nm) as measured by X-ray scanning. Most spikes are densely clustered at the two apical ends of the virion although some envelope proteins are also found more sparsely on the lateral regions. The spikes on the surface of AcMNPV BVs appear distinctly different from those of SeMNPV. Based on our observations we propose a new near-native structural model of baculovirus BVs. PMID:26743500

  8. Modeling of bud break of Scots pine in northern Finland in 1908-2014.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Hannu; Jalkanen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Bud break and height-growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the northern boreal zone in Lapland, Finland, was followed through the entire growing seasons in the periods 2001-2003 and 2008-2010 in sapling stands in two different locations in northern Finland set some 250 km apart along a latitudinal transect. Field measurements continued at the southern site also in 2011-2013. Air temperature was recorded hourly at the sites. A simple optimization algorithm (GA) was used to adjust parameters of the models predicting the timing of bud break of Scots pine in order to minimize the difference between observed and predicted dates. The models giving the best performance and century-long daily temperatures were used to reconstruct bud-break time series. The temperature observations were recorded for the period 1908-2014 in Sodankylä, which is located in-between the sapling stands in the north-south direction and for the period 1877-2014 in Karasjok, which is in Norway about 145 km north-west from the northernmost stand of this study. On average buds began to extend in the beginning of May in the southernmost stand and in mid-May in the northernmost stands, and the variation between years was in the range of 3 weeks. A simple day-length-triggered (fixed date) model predicted most accurately the date of bud break; root mean square error (RMSE) was 2 and 4 days in the northern and southern site, respectively. The reconstructed bud-break series indicated that based on temperature observations from Sodankylä, growth onset of Scots pine has clearly advanced since the 1960s, though it currently matches that of the early 1920s and early 1950s. The temperature record from Karasjok indicated a similar variation, though there was a weak linear trend advancing bud break by about 3-4 days over a 100-year period. PMID:25798141

  9. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in an Adolescent Male Presenting as Ureteral Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Christopher D.; McAlvany, Kelly L.; Zingula, Shannon N.; Kramer, Stephen A.; Granberg, Candace F.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoma may affect the ureter in cases of retroperitoneal involvement. We present a case of an adolescent male found to have non-Hodgkin lymphoma initially presenting as ureteral stricture evident on imaging. He was treated and responded to multiagent chemotherapy with resolution of both the lymphoma and the ureteral stricture. Although rare, non-Hodgkin lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of pediatric patients with noncalculous, idiopathic ureteral strictures. PMID:25093138

  10. Different Management Options for Transplant Ureteral Obstructions within an Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Felix; Debartolo, Merrit Marion; Copertino, Leonard Michael; Szafran, April Adams; Estrada, Chelsea Caron; Lynch, Patrick Gerard; Darras, Frank Sam

    2016-01-01

    Ureteral obstruction secondary to an inguinal hernia with transplant ureteral component is an extremely rare entity with only several case reports found in literature. In all previously reported cases, management of the obstruction involved temporary drainage with ureteral stenting or nephrostomy tube placements followed by delayed definitive repair. We present two case reports, here one being the first one managed by immediate definitive repair via ureteral reimplant and herniorrhaphy and a second case by delayed definitive repair after percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement. Both patients continued to do well postoperatively with normalization of renal function on follow-up. PMID:27144049

  11. Unilateral ureteric stone associated with gross hydronephrosis and kidney shrinkage: a cadaveric report

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Ern-Wei; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2014-01-01

    Ureteric stones are a common cause of obstruction of the urinary tract, usually presenting with characteristic signs and symptoms, such as acute ureteric colic and hematuria. Occasionally, stones may present with non-specific symptoms such as low back pain and remain unidentified, leading to stone growth, chronic ureteric obstruction and complications such as hydronephrosis and renal damage. Here, we report a large ureteric stone in a cadaver with complete obstruction at the left ureterovesical junction, resulting in severe dilatation of the left ureter and renal pelvis. PMID:25548725

  12. Ureteral stricture formation after ureteroscope treatment of impacted calculi: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Singam, Praveen; Ho, Christopher Chee Kong; Sridharan, Radhika; Hod, Rozita; Bahadzor, Badrulhisham; Goh, Eng Hong; Tan, Guan Hee; Zainuddin, Zulkifli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Urinary calculi is a familiar disease. A well-known complication of endourological treatment for impacted ureteral stones is the formation of ureteral strictures, which has been reported to occur in 14.2% to 24% of cases. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study. Ureterotripsy treatment was used on patients with impacted ureteral stones. Then, after 3 months and 6 months, the condition of these patients was assessed by means of a kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) ultrasound. If the KUB ultrasound indicated moderate to serious hydronephrosis, the patient was further assessed by means of a computed tomography intravenous urogram or retrograde pyelogram to confirm the occurrence of ureteral strictures. Results Of the 77 patients who participated in the study, 5 developed ureteral strictures. Thus, the stricture rate was 7.8%. An analysis of the intraoperative risk factors including perforation of the ureter, damage to the mucous membrane, and residual stone impacted within the ureter mucosa revealed that none of these factors contributed significantly to the formation of the ureteric strictures. The stone-related risk factors that were taken into consideration were stone size, stone impaction site, and duration of impaction. These stone factors also did not contribute significantly to the formation of the ureteral strictures. Conclusions This prospective study failed to identify any predictable factors for ureteral stricture formation. It is proposed that all patients undergo a simple postoperative KUB ultrasound screening 3 months after undergoing endoscopic treatment for impacted ureteral stones. PMID:25598938

  13. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-ke; Yang, Juan-mei; Huang, Yi-bo; Ren, Dong-dong; Chi, Fang-lu

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds. PMID:26199619

  14. Pulsed dye laser fragmentation of ureteral calculi: initial clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Dretler, S P; Watson, G; Parrish, J A; Murray, S

    1987-03-01

    The pulsed dye laser, emitting at wavelengths of 504 nm. for 1 microsecond. at a frequency of 5 Hz. transmitted via a 250 mu in diameter silicon-coated quartz fiber, was passed into the ureter through the working channel of a 9.5F rigid ureteroscope. Seventeen patients with ureteral calculi too large to be extracted directly, who were unable to be treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy or who otherwise would have required transureteral or percutaneous ultrasonic stone removal, underwent attempted stone fragmentation by pulsed dye laser application. Of the 17 calculi 16 were fragmented to spontaneously passable or easily extractable fragments. There was no significant ureteral injury, thermal or otherwise, attributable to laser energy action. At 3-month followup 15 of the 17 ureters had improved and 2 showed evidence of ureterscopic injury. The mechanism of stone fragmentation by laser is small volume "shock wave" formation. PMID:3820363

  15. An Everting Ureteral Access Sheath: Concepts and In Vitro Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keith L.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2007-04-01

    Ureteral access sheaths have been a recent innovation in facilitating ureteral stone surgery. Once properly placed, access sheaths allow the movement of ureteroscopes and other instruments through the ureter with minimal injury to the urothelium. However, there are shortcomings of the current device designs. Initial sheath placement requires significant force, and shear stress can injure the ureter. In addition, inadvertent advancement of the outer sheath without the inner introducer stylet can tear and avulse the ureter. A novel eversion design incorporating a lubricous film provides marked improvement over current access sheaths. In bench top and animal models, the eversion shealths require less force during advancement, cause less injury to the urothelial tissue, and have a lower potential of introducing extraneous materials (e.g., microbes) into a simulated urinary tract. While, the everting design provides important advantages over traditional non-everting designs, further preclinical and clinical trials are required.

  16. Ureteritis cystica: an interesting case with diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Zamri, Z; Harunarashid; Das, S; Ramzisham, A R M

    2010-01-01

    Ureteritis cystica is a rare, benign, proliferative condition. We report the case of a 51-year-old female who complained of dysuria and frequency for the last 10 years. The symptoms, however, increased in severity and frequency over the past one year. Urine culture and sensitivity showed presence of Escherichia Coli which was sensitive to augmentin and ciproflaxocin. The urinary tract ultrasonography and intravenous urography revealed bladder diverticula with multiple small, smooth well defects with sharp borders that protruded into the lumen along the proximal and mid left ureter. This finding was later confirmed by retrograde pyelogram. She was treated and currently is on long term antibiotic therapy. The diagnostic features and management of ureteritis cystic is being discussed in detail. PMID:20964103

  17. Transcriptome Profiling of Tiller Buds Provides New Insights into PhyB Regulation of Tillering and Indeterminate Growth in Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Kebrom, Tesfamichael H; Mullet, John E

    2016-04-01

    Phytochrome B (phyB) enables plants to modify shoot branching or tillering in response to varying light intensities and ratios of red and far-red light caused by shading and neighbor proximity. Tillering is inhibited in sorghum genotypes that lack phytochrome B (58M, phyB-1) until after floral initiation. The growth of tiller buds in the first leaf axil of wild-type (100M, PHYB) and phyB-1 sorghum genotypes is similar until 6 d after planting when buds of phyB-1 arrest growth, while wild-type buds continue growing and develop into tillers. Transcriptome analysis at this early stage of bud development identified numerous genes that were up to 50-fold differentially expressed in wild-type/phyB-1 buds. Up-regulation of terminal flower1, GA2oxidase, and TPPI could protect axillary meristems in phyB-1 from precocious floral induction and decrease bud sensitivity to sugar signals. After bud growth arrest in phyB-1, expression of dormancy-associated genes such as DRM1, GT1, AF1, and CKX1 increased and ENOD93, ACCoxidase, ARR3/6/9, CGA1, and SHY2 decreased. Continued bud outgrowth in wild-type was correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a SWEET transporter and cell wall invertases. The SWEET transporter may facilitate Suc unloading from the phloem to the apoplast where cell wall invertases generate monosaccharides for uptake and utilization to sustain bud outgrowth. Elevated expression of these genes was correlated with higher levels of cytokinin/sugar signaling in growing buds of wild-type plants. PMID:26893475

  18. Six1 is required for the early organogenesis of mammalian kidney.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pin-Xian; Zheng, Weiming; Huang, Li; Maire, Pascal; Laclef, Christine; Silvius, Derek

    2003-07-01

    The murine Six gene family, homologous to Drosophila sine oculis (so) which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor, is composed of six members (Six1-6). Among the six members, only the Six2 gene has been previously shown to be expressed early in kidney development, but its function is unknown. We have recently found that the Six1 gene is also expressed in the kidney. In the developing kidney, Six1 is expressed in the uninduced metanephric mesenchyme at E10.5 and in the induced mesenchyme around the ureteric bud at E11.5. At E17.5 to P0, Six1 expression became restricted to a subpopulation of collecting tubule epithelial cells. To study its in vivo function, we have recently generated Six1 mutant mice. Loss of Six1 leads to a failure of ureteric bud invasion into the mesenchyme and subsequent apoptosis of the mesenchyme. These results indicate that Six1 plays an essential role in early kidney development. In Six1(-/-) kidney development, we have found that Pax2, Six2 and Sall1 expression was markedly reduced in the metanephric mesenchyme at E10.5, indicating that Six1 is required for the expression of these genes in the metanephric mesenchyme. In contrast, Eya1 expression was unaffected in Six1(-/-) metanephric mesenchyme at E10.5, indicating that Eya1 may function upstream of Six1. Moreover, our results show that both Eya1 and Six1 expression in the metanephric mesenchyme is preserved in Pax2(-/-) embryos at E10.5, further indicating that Pax2 functions downstream of Eya1 and Six1 in the metanephric mesenchyme. Thus, the epistatic relationship between Pax, Eya and Six genes in the metanephric mesenchyme during early kidney development is distinct from a genetic pathway elucidated in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc. Finally, our results show that Eya1 and Six1 genetically interact during mammalian kidney development, because most compound heterozygous embryos show hypoplastic kidneys. These analyses establish a role for Six1 in the initial inductive step for

  19. Acute bilateral ureteral obstruction secondary to guaifenesin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cockerill, Patrick A; de Cógáin, Mitra R; Krambeck, Amy E

    2013-10-01

    Several medications or their metabolites have been associated with urolithiasis, although overall they remain an infrequent cause of urolithiasis. Guaifenesin stones were originally reported as complexed with ephedrine, and subsequent reports have demonstrated pure guaifenesin stones, occurring after long term abuse. We report a case of a 23-year-old male who ingested a large, one time dose of guaifenesin, resulting in acute bilateral ureteral obstruction, which, to our knowledge, is the first such reported case in the literature. PMID:24128843

  20. Inspection of Ureteral Orifices: The Pearl of Flexible Cystoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Charmaine; Bushra, Hamid; Das, Sanjay; Pettersson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cystoscopy is most common diagnostic investigation. The examination technique and the findings, both normal and pathological, were well described described a hundred years ago. With technological advances, there has been over-emphasis on imaging modalities for diagnostic purposes. A basic maneuver of examining the ureteral orifices is sometimes rushed through when in fact careful examination can clinch the diagnosis. The importance is exemplified by two cases, one of which is a rare case of Xanthoma of the ureter.

  1. Papain immobilized polyurethane as an ureteral stent material.

    PubMed

    Maria Manohar, Cynthya; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-05-01

    Long term use of polyurethane-based ureteral stent is hampered by the development of infection due to the formation of bacterial biofilm and salt deposition. Here papain, is covalently immobilized to polyurethane using glutarldehyde and is investigated as a possible anti-infective ureteral stent material. Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirmed its immobilization. Immobilized enzyme retained 85% of the activity of the free enzyme and about 12% loss of enzyme was observed from the polymer surface in one month. The modified polyurethane showed 8 log reduction in Staphylococcus aureus and 7 log reduction in Escherichia coli live colonies and 3-4 times decrease in the protein and carbohydrate in the biofilms than bare polymer. The amount of calcium and magnesium salts deposited on the polymer surface reduced by 40% after enzyme immobilization. 80% of L6 myoblast cells were viable on this material which indicated that it was noncytotoxic. A linear regression equation with hydrophilicity of the polymer surface and the cell surface hydrophobicity as the two independent variables was able to predict the number of live cells attached on the modified PU. This study indicated the possibility of using such an approach to overcome the problems of ureteral stent associated biofilm and salt encrustation. PMID:26853541

  2. Flower bud formation in short-day strawberry cultivar under non-photo inductive conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A scheme for producing short-day type strawberry cultivars that initiate flowers under long-day photoperiod was used to investigate the flower bud induction. When runner tips of short-day type ‘Carmine’ were started as plug plants in early July and field planted 1 September 86 percent of transplant...

  3. DNA methylation/demethylation programming during peach flower bud dormancy release, development and blooming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach flower bud development undergoes a long, complex and temperature-dependent regulation process with cessation of growth in response to cool temperatures in late fall, a slow but gradual development during the chilling period in winter, and eventually blooming in early spring. It has been demon...

  4. Chorio-Allantoic Membrane Grafting of Chick Limb Buds as a Class Practical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, John C.

    1981-01-01

    A new method of carrying out grafts of early embryonic chick limb buds to the chick chorio-allantoic membrane and a processing schedule which renders cartilage elements visible in whole mount are discussed, including implications for the procedures and their results. (Author/DC)

  5. Direct Primary or Secondary Percutaneous Ureteral Stenting: What Is the Most Compliant Option in Patients with Malignant Ureteral Obstructions?

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Lagana, Domenico; Lumia, Domenico; Giorgianni, Andrea; Mangini, Monica; Santoro, Domenico; Cuffari, Salvatore; Marconi, Alberto; Novario, Raffaele; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2007-09-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze three ureteral stenting techniques in patients with malignant ureteral obstructions, considering the indications, techniques, procedural costs, and complications. In the period between June 2003 and June 2006, 45 patients with bilateral malignant ureteral obstructions were evaluated (24 males, 21 females; average age, 68.3; range, 42-87). All of the patients were treated with ureteral stenting: 30 (mild strictures) with direct stenting (insertion of the stent without predilation), 30 (moderate/severe strictures) with primary stenting (insertion of the stent after predilation in a one-stage procedure), and 30 (mild/moderate/severe strictures with infection) with secondary stenting (insertion of the stent after predilation and 2-3 days after nephrostomy). The incidence of complications and procedural costs were compared by a statistical analysis. The primary technical success rate was 98.89%. We did not observe any major complications. The minor complication rate was 11.1%. The incidence of complications for the various techniques was not statistically significantly. The statistical analysis of costs demonstrated that the average cost of secondary stenting ( Euro 637; SD, Euro 115) was significantly higher than that of procedures which involved direct or primary stenting ( Euro 560; SD, Euro 108). We conclude that one-step stenting (direct or primary) is a valid option to secondary stenting in correctly selected patients, owing to the fact that when the procedure is performed by expert interventional radiologists there are high technical success rates, low complication rates, and a reduction in costs.

  6. A Computational Clonal Analysis of the Developing Mouse Limb Bud

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Luciano; Arqués, Carlos G.; Torres, Miguel S.; Sharpe, James

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive spatio-temporal description of the tissue movements underlying organogenesis would be an extremely useful resource to developmental biology. Clonal analysis and fate mappings are popular experiments to study tissue movement during morphogenesis. Such experiments allow cell populations to be labeled at an early stage of development and to follow their spatial evolution over time. However, disentangling the cumulative effects of the multiple events responsible for the expansion of the labeled cell population is not always straightforward. To overcome this problem, we develop a novel computational method that combines accurate quantification of 2D limb bud morphologies and growth modeling to analyze mouse clonal data of early limb development. Firstly, we explore various tissue movements that match experimental limb bud shape changes. Secondly, by comparing computational clones with newly generated mouse clonal data we are able to choose and characterize the tissue movement map that better matches experimental data. Our computational analysis produces for the first time a two dimensional model of limb growth based on experimental data that can be used to better characterize limb tissue movement in space and time. The model shows that the distribution and shapes of clones can be described as a combination of anisotropic growth with isotropic cell mixing, without the need for lineage compartmentalization along the AP and PD axis. Lastly, we show that this comprehensive description can be used to reassess spatio-temporal gene regulations taking tissue movement into account and to investigate PD patterning hypothesis. PMID:21347315

  7. Stenting for malignant ureteral obstruction: Tandem, metal or metal-mesh stents.

    PubMed

    Elsamra, Sammy E; Leavitt, David A; Motato, Hector A; Friedlander, Justin I; Siev, Michael; Keheila, Mohamed; Hoenig, David M; Smith, Arthur D; Okeke, Zeph

    2015-07-01

    Extrinsic malignant compression of the ureter is not uncommon, often refractory to decompression with conventional polymeric ureteral stents, and frequently associated with limited survival. Alternative options for decompression include tandem ureteral stents, metallic stents and metal-mesh stents, though the preferred method remains controversial. We reviewed and updated our outcomes with tandem ureteral stents for malignant ureteral obstruction, and carried out a PubMed search using the terms "malignant ureteral obstruction," "tandem ureteral stents," "ipsilateral ureteral stents," "metal ureteral stent," "resonance stent," "silhouette stent" and "metal mesh stent." A comprehensive review of the literature and summary of outcomes is provided. The majority of studies encountered were retrospective with small sample sizes. The evidence is most robust for metal stents, whereas only limited data exists for tandem or metal-mesh stents. Metal and metal-mesh stents are considerably more expensive than tandem stenting, but the potential for less frequent stent exchanges makes them possibly cost-effective over time. Urinary tract infections have been associated with all stent types. A wide range of failure rates has been published for all types of stents, limiting direct comparison. Metal and metal-mesh stents show a high incidence of stent colic, migration and encrustation, whereas tandem stents appear to produce symptoms equivalent to single stents. Comparison is difficult given the limited evidence and heterogeneity of patients with malignant ureteral obstruction. It is clear that prospective, randomized studies are necessary to effectively scrutinize conventional, tandem, metallic ureteral and metal-mesh stents for their use in malignant ureteral obstruction. PMID:25950837

  8. Virus Budding and the ESCRT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Votteler, Jörg; Sundquist, Wesley I.

    2013-01-01

    Enveloped viruses escape infected cells by budding through limiting membranes. In the decade since the discovery that the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) recruits cellular ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) machinery to facilitate viral budding, this pathway has emerged as the major escape route for enveloped viruses. In cells, the ESCRT pathway catalyzes the analogous membrane fission events required for the abscission stage of cytokinesis and for a series of “reverse topology” vesiculation events. Studies of enveloped virus budding are therefore providing insights into the complex cellular mechanisms of cell division and membrane protein trafficking (and vice versa). Here, we review how viruses mimic cellular recruiting signals to usurp the ESCRT pathway, discuss mechanistic models for ESCRT pathway functions, and highlight important research frontiers. PMID:24034610

  9. A novel type of ureteral stents in the treatment of a bilateral iatrogenic transaction of the ureters.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Ernesto; Mondaini, Francesco; Abdulcadir, Dalmar; Raspanti, Claudio; Citone, Michele; Lapini, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This report illustrates the case of a patient who suffered an iatrogenic complete injury of both ureters after a complex surgical procedure to remove a large sacral chordoma. Ureteral recanalization was achieved with two removable, autoexpandable, and polytetrafluoroethylene covered nitinol stents. To our knowledge, we describe the first application of this type of stents to treat a bilateral ureteral transection. Despite the bad general conditions of the patient, the ureteral stents successfully restored and maintained the bilateral ureteral continuity. PMID:23984172

  10. Dental cell sheet biomimetic tooth bud model.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Nelson; Smith, Elizabeth E; Angstadt, Shantel; Zhang, Weibo; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yelick, Pamela C

    2016-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies offer promising therapies for both medicine and dentistry. Our long-term goal is to create functional biomimetic tooth buds for eventual tooth replacement in humans. Here, our objective was to create a biomimetic 3D tooth bud model consisting of dental epithelial (DE) - dental mesenchymal (DM) cell sheets (CSs) combined with biomimetic enamel organ and pulp organ layers created using GelMA hydrogels. Pig DE or DM cells seeded on temperature-responsive plates at various cell densities (0.02, 0.114 and 0.228 cells 10(6)/cm(2)) and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days were used to generate DE and DM cell sheets, respectively. Dental CSs were combined with GelMA encapsulated DE and DM cell layers to form bioengineered 3D tooth buds. Biomimetic 3D tooth bud constructs were cultured in vitro, or implanted in vivo for 3 weeks. Analyses were performed using micro-CT, H&E staining, polarized light (Pol) microscopy, immunofluorescent (IF) and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses. H&E, IHC and IF analyses showed that in vitro cultured multilayered DE-DM CSs expressed appropriate tooth marker expression patterns including SHH, BMP2, RUNX2, tenascin and syndecan, which normally direct DE-DM interactions, DM cell condensation, and dental cell differentiation. In vivo implanted 3D tooth bud constructs exhibited mineralized tissue formation of specified size and shape, and SHH, BMP2 and RUNX2and dental cell differentiation marker expression. We propose our biomimetic 3D tooth buds as models to study optimized DE-DM cell interactions leading to functional biomimetic replacement tooth formation. PMID:27565550

  11. Interaction between bud-site selection and polarity-establishment machineries in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chi-Fang; Savage, Natasha S.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells polarize in order to form a single bud in each cell cycle. Distinct patterns of bud-site selection are observed in haploid and diploid cells. Genetic approaches have identified the molecular machinery responsible for positioning the bud site: during bud formation, specific locations are marked with immobile landmark proteins. In the next cell cycle, landmarks act through the Ras-family GTPase Rsr1 to promote local activation of the conserved Rho-family GTPase, Cdc42. Additional Cdc42 accumulates by positive feedback, creating a concentrated patch of GTP-Cdc42, which polarizes the cytoskeleton to promote bud emergence. Using time-lapse imaging and mathematical modelling, we examined the process of bud-site establishment. Imaging reveals unexpected effects of the bud-site-selection system on the dynamics of polarity establishment, raising new questions about how that system may operate. We found that polarity factors sometimes accumulate at more than one site among the landmark-specified locations, and we suggest that competition between clusters of polarity factors determines the final location of the Cdc42 cluster. Modelling indicated that temporally constant landmark-localized Rsr1 would weaken or block competition, yielding more than one polarity site. Instead, we suggest that polarity factors recruit Rsr1, effectively sequestering it from other locations and thereby terminating landmark activity. PMID:24062579

  12. Sponge budding is a spatiotemporal morphological patterning process: Insights from synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography into the asexual reproduction of Tethya wilhelma

    PubMed Central

    Hammel, Jörg U; Herzen, Julia; Beckmann, Felix; Nickel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Primary agametic-asexual reproduction mechanisms such as budding and fission are present in all non-bilaterian and many bilaterian animal taxa and are likely to be metazoan ground pattern characters. Cnidarians display highly organized and regulated budding processes. In contrast, budding in poriferans was thought to be less specific and related to the general ability of this group to reorganize their tissues. Here we test the hypothesis of morphological pattern formation during sponge budding. Results We investigated the budding process in Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae) by applying 3D morphometrics to high resolution synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography (SR-μCT) image data. We followed the morphogenesis of characteristic body structures and identified distinct morphological states which indeed reveal characteristic spatiotemporal morphological patterns in sponge bud development. We discovered the distribution of skeletal elements, canal system and sponge tissue to be based on a sequential series of distinct morphological states. Based on morphometric data we defined four typical bud stages. Once they have reached the final stage buds are released as fully functional juvenile sponges which are morphologically and functionally equivalent to adult specimens. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that budding in demosponges is considerably more highly organized and regulated than previously assumed. Morphological pattern formation in asexual reproduction with underlying genetic regulation seems to have evolved early in metazoans and was likely part of the developmental program of the last common ancestor of all Metazoa (LCAM). PMID:19737392

  13. Competitive canalization of PIN-dependent auxin flow from axillary buds controls pea bud outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Balla, Jozef; Kalousek, Petr; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jiří; Procházka, Stanislav

    2011-02-01

    Shoot branching is one of the major determinants of plant architecture. Polar auxin transport in stems is necessary for the control of bud outgrowth by a dominant apex. Here, we show that following decapitation in pea (Pisum sativum L.), the axillary buds establish directional auxin export by subcellular polarization of PIN auxin transporters. Apical auxin application on the decapitated stem prevents this PIN polarization and canalization of laterally applied auxin. These results support a model in which the apical and lateral auxin sources compete for primary channels of auxin transport in the stem to control the outgrowth of axillary buds. PMID:21219506

  14. Ureteropyeloscopy and homium: YAG laser lithotripsy for treatment of ureteral calculi (report of 356 cases)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhong; Din, Qiang; Jiang, Hao-wen; Zen, Jing-cun; Yu, Jiang; Zhang, Yuanfang

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of holmium YAG laser lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi. Methods: A total of 356 patients underwent ureteropyeloscopic lithotripsy using holmium YAG laser with a semirigid uretesopyeloscope, 93 upper, 135 middle, and 128 lower ureteral stones were treated. Results: The overall successful fragmentation rate for all ureteral stones in a single session achieved 98% (349/356). The successful fragmentation rate stratified by stone location was 95% 88/93 in the upper ureter, 99% (134/135) in the mid ureter , and 99%(127/128) in the distal ureter. 12 cases with bilateral ureteral stones which caused acute renal failure and anuria were treated rapidly and effectively by the holmium YAG laser lithotripsy. No complications such as perforation and severe trauma were encountered during the operations. 2 weeks 17months (with an average of 6.8 month ) follow up postoperatively revealed that the overall stone-free rate was 98%(343/349) and no ureteral stenosis was found. Conclusions Holmium YAG laser lithotripsy is a highly effective, minimally invasive and safe therapy for ureteral calculi. It is indicated as a first choice of treatment for patients with ureteral calculi, especially for the ones with mid- lower levels of ureteral calculi.

  15. Flexible ultrasonic lithotriptor and fiberoptic ureterorenoscope: a new approach to ureteral calculi.

    PubMed

    Higashihara, E; Aso, Y

    1989-07-01

    A newly developed flexible ultrasonic lithotriptor has been used with a fiberoptic ureterorenoscope for removal of upper ureteral and kidney stones. There was an 87.5 per cent success rate in 16 patients. This technique can be used safely and effectively to remove mid and upper ureteral stones not amenable to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy or the rigid ureterorenoscope. PMID:2733106

  16. Surgical Management of Ureteral Strictures Arising From Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, J.; Tward, Jonathan D.; Lenherr, Sara; Hotaling, James M.; Brant, William O.; Myers, Jeremy B.

    2016-01-01

    Ureteral strictures arising from radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer are rare. We describe four cases of these ureteral strictures emphasizing pre-operative factors that may have contributed to development of the strictures, their ultimate surgical management, and the patients' short-term outcomes. PMID:27175344

  17. Renal developmental defects resulting from in utero hypoxia are associated with suppression of ureteric β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Lorine J; Neal, Cailda S; Singh, Reetu R; Sparrow, Duncan B; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Ju, Adler; Grieve, Stuart M; Dunwoodie, Sally L; Moritz, Karen M; Little, Melissa H

    2015-05-01

    Gestational stressors, including glucocorticoids and protein restriction, can affect kidney development and hence final nephron number. Since hypoxia is a common insult during pregnancy, we studied the influence of oxygen tension on kidney development in models designed to represent a pathological hypoxic insult. In vivo mouse models of moderate, transient, midgestational (12% O₂, 48 h, 12.5 dpc) or severe, acute, early-gestational (5.5-7.5% O₂, 8 h, 9.5-10.5 dpc) hypoxia were developed. The embryo itself is known to mature under hypoxic conditions with embryonic tissue levels of oxygen estimated to be 5%-8% (physiological hypoxia) when the mother is exposed to ambient normoxia. Both in vivo models generated phenotypes seen in patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Severe, acute, early hypoxia resulted in duplex kidney, while moderate, transient, midgestational hypoxia permanently reduced ureteric branching and nephron formation. Both models displayed hypoxia-induced reductions in β-catenin signaling within the ureteric tree and suppression of the downstream target gene, Ccnd1. Thus, we show a link between gestational hypoxia and CAKUT, the phenotype of which varies with timing, duration, and severity of the hypoxic insult. PMID:25587709

  18. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaoping; Li, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED) employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control. PMID:26064777

  19. Toradol, an NSAID used for renal colic, decreases renal perfusion and ureteral pressure in a canine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Perlmutter, A; Miller, L; Trimble, L A; Marion, D N; Vaughan, E D; Felsen, D

    1993-04-01

    Toradol is a new parenteral, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is efficacious in treating renal coli. In the present experiments, Toradol was administered to both control dogs and dogs with unilateral ureteral obstruction. In control dogs, Toradol had no effect on RBF or GFR, despite inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis (measured as urinary prostaglandin release). In contrast, RBF fell acutely by 35% (p < 0.001) within 15 minutes of Toradol administration in the setting of ureteral obstruction; contralateral RBF was unaffected. Ipsilateral ureteral pressure also fell. Changes in RBF and ureteral pressure, together with the known effects of NSAIDs on pain pathways, may contribute to the pain relief observed clinically with Toradol. However, the abrupt changes in renal hemodynamics brought on by Toradol to the obstructed kidney may compromise renal reserve, and Toradol should be used cautiously in treating renal colic. PMID:8455277

  20. Prevention of iatrogenic ureteral injuries during robotic gynecologic surgery: a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ziho; Kaplan, Joshua; Giusto, Laura; Eun, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Iatrogenic ureteral injuries, more than half of which occur during gynecologic surgery, may have devastating consequences for both patients and physicians. Gynecologists have employed various techniques such as cystoscopy, ureteral stents, and lighted ureteral stents to prevent ureteral injuries. The emergence and increasing prevalence of robotic surgery necessitates that we not only reevaluate the utility of these techniques, but also develop new ones specific for the robotic modality. In the robotic setting, the surgeon lacks tactile feedback and must rely primarily on visual cues. The use of intraureteral indocyanine green and subsequent visualization under near-infrared fluorescence appears to be a promising technique to primarily and secondarily prevent ureteral injuries during robotic gynecologic surgery. PMID:26519785

  1. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Human Vallate Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Tizzano, Marco; Grigereit, Laura; Shultz, Nicole; Clary, Matthew S; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of the vallate papillae from postmortem human samples was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Microscopically, taste buds were present along the inner wall of the papilla, and in some cases in the outer wall as well. The typical taste cell markers PLCβ2, GNAT3 (gustducin) and the T1R3 receptor stain elongated cells in human taste buds consistent with the Type II cells in rodents. In the human tissue, taste bud cells that stain with Type II cell markers, PLCβ2 and GNAT3, also stain with villin antibody. Two typical immunochemical markers for Type III taste cells in rodents, PGP9.5 and SNAP25, fail to stain any taste bud cells in the human postmortem tissue, although these antibodies do stain numerous nerve fibers throughout the specimen. Car4, another Type III cell marker, reacted with only a few taste cells in our samples. Finally, human vallate papillae have a general network of innervation similar to rodents and antibodies directed against SNAP25, PGP9.5, acetylated tubulin and P2X3 all stain free perigemmal nerve endings as well as intragemmal taste fibers. We conclude that with the exception of certain molecular features of Type III cells, human vallate papillae share the structural, morphological, and molecular features observed in rodents. PMID:26400924

  2. Signals regulating dormancy in vegetative buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormancy in plants involves a temporary suspension of meristem growth, thus insuring bud survival and maintenance of proper shoot system architecture. Dormancy regulation is a complex process involving interactions of various signals through specific and/or overlapping signal transduction pathways. ...

  3. Dormant bud preservation for germplasm conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suitability of dormant buds (DB) for cryopreservation of different plant species has been demonstrated in several reports. For the majority of the species, processing DB for long-term liquid nitrogen storage does not involve establishing tissue cultures and the time for growing out post-cryo mat...

  4. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Budding Sites and Released Virus Suggests a Revised Model for HIV-1 Morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, L.; Simon, M.; Briggs, J. A. G.; Glass, B.; Riches, J. D.; Johnson, M. C.; Muller, B.; Grunewald, K.; Krausslich, H.-G.

    2008-12-11

    Current models of HIV-1 morphogenesis hold that newly synthesized viral Gag polyproteins traffic to and assemble at the cell membrane into spherical protein shells. The resulting late-budding structure is thought to be released by the cellular ESCRT machinery severing the membrane tether connecting it to the producer cell. Using electron tomography and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we find that virions have a morphology and composition distinct from late-budding sites. Gag is arranged as a continuous but incomplete sphere in the released virion. In contrast, late-budding sites lacking functional ESCRT exhibited a nearly closed Gag sphere. The results lead us to propose that budding is initiated by Gag assembly, but is completed in an ESCRT-dependent manner before the Gag sphere is complete. This suggests that ESCRT functions early in HIV-1 release - akin to its role in vesicle formation - and is not restricted to severing the thin membrane tether.

  5. Contemporary Series of Robotic-Assisted Distal Ureteral Reconstruction Utilizing Side Docking Position

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Rick C.; Farber, Nicholas J.; Riley, Julie M.; Shilo, Yaniv; Ost, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The robot-assisted approach to distal ureteral reconstruction is increasingly utilized. Traditionally, the robot is docked between the legs in lithotomy position resulting in limited bladder access for stent placement. We examined the use of side docking of the daVinci robot® to perform distal ureteral reconstruction. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of distal ureteral reconstruction (ureteral reimplantation and uretero-ureterostomy) executed robotically was performed at a single institution by a single surgeon. The daVinci robotic® Si surgical platform was positioned at the right side of the patient facing towards the head of the patient, i.e. side docking. Results: A total of 14 cases were identified from 2011–2013. Nine patients underwent ureteral reimplantation for ureteral injury, two for vesicoureteral reflux, one for ureteral stricture, and one for megaureter. One patient had an uretero-ureterostomy for a distal stricture. Three patients required a Boari flap due to extensive ureteral injury. Mean operative time was 286 minutes (189–364), mean estimated blood loss was 40cc (10–200), and mean length of stay was 2.3 days (1–4). Follow-up renal ultrasound was available for review in 10/14 patients and revealed no long-term complications in any patient. Mean follow-up was 20.7 months (0.1–59.3). Conclusion: Robot-assisted laparoscopic distal ureteral reconstruction is safe and effective. Side docking of the robot allows ready access to the perineum and acceptable placement of the robot to successfully complete ureteral repair. PMID:26742974

  6. Pruning time × cultivar effects on flower-bud hardiness in northern highbush and southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine if early-fall pruning of either northern highbush or southern highbush blueberries was detrimental to the development of optimum and levels of mid-winter cold-hardiness. Using a detached-shoot freeze-thaw assay, flower bud LT50 values were determined in early Janua...

  7. Semi-rigid ureteroscopy: Proximal versus distal ureteral stones

    PubMed Central

    Alameddine, Mahmoud; Azab, Mohamad M.; Nassir, Anmar A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of semi-rigid ureteroscopy in proximal and distal ureteral stones, and to compare the operative and perioperative characteristics between the two stone groups. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent semi-rigid ureteroscopy for management of ureteral stones at the International Medical Center between June 2007 and September 2012. All stones were fragmented using Holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser lithotripter. Stones located above the pelvic brim are considered proximal and below it are distal. Results: One hundred and ninety-one patients were included. One hundred and three patients (54%) underwent ureteroscopy for proximal stones and 88 (46%) for distal stones. The stone size in the proximal group was 10 mm (±5.5) versus 8.6 mm (±5) in the distal group. The initial stone-free rate for proximal and distal calculi were 89–98.2%, respectively. The perioperative complication rate was higher in the proximal group 10% compared to the distal group which is 1.5% (P = 0.06). Both groups have the same average of hospital stay 1.2 days. Conclusion: Although there is a clinical difference between proximal and distal calculi groups in terms of complication and stone-free rates, this difference remained statistically insignificant (P = 0.06). Using a smaller caliber semi-rigid ureteroscopy combined with Holmium-YAG laser can be carried out as a day care procedure and showed a slightly higher risk in patients with proximal ureteral calculi which should be explained to the patient PMID:26834409

  8. Holmium laser lithotripsy for ureteral calculi: an outpatient procedure.

    PubMed

    Yip, K H; Lee, C W; Tam, P C

    1998-06-01

    A retrospective review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy using the holmium laser with a semirigid endoscope in a newly established day surgery center. In 1996, 69 consecutive patients (40 male and 29 female) with a mean age of 46.7 (range 21-73) years and ASA status I or II underwent ureteroscopic lithotripsy for their ureteral calculi using the holmium laser (365-micron fiber; power setting 0.5-1.4 J/5 Hz) and 8.5F semirigid ureteroscope in a day surgery setting. Stone features, postoperative pain scores, readmissions, and complications were evaluated. Eighteen upper, 17 middle, and 34 lower ureteral stones were treated, with a mean size measuring 12.1 (5-45) mm. The mean operative time was 61 minutes including the anesthetic time (range 15-150 minutes), and the success rate was 91% (63/69). The complication rate was 10% (7/69) including four unscheduled readmissions (6%). Telephone follow-up on postoperative Day 1 and Day 3 revealed mean pain scores of 2 and 1, respectively (on a 0-10 scale) and an analgesic requirement of 1 tablet of Dologesic (containing 32.5 mg of dextropropoxyphene + 320 mg of paracetamol) four times a day on both days. Ureteroscopic lithotripsy using the holmium laser and a semirigid endoscope is highly successful and well tolerated and carries a low complication rate. It is indicated as an ambulatory and minimally invasive treatment modality in low-risk patients with ureteral stones. PMID:9658294

  9. Molecular Pathology of Murine Ureteritis Causing Obstructive Uropathy with Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ichii, Osamu; Otsuka, Saori; Namiki, Yuka; Hashimoto, Yoshiharu; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Primary causes of urinary tract obstruction that induces urine retention and results in hydronephrosis include uroliths, inflammation, and tumors. In this study, we analyzed the molecular pathology of ureteritis causing hydronephrosis in laboratory rodents. F2 progenies of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice were studied histopathologically and by comprehensive gene expression analysis of their ureters. Incidence of hydronephrosis was approximately 5% in F2 progenies. Histopathologically, this hydronephrosis was caused by stenosis of the proximal ureter, which showed fibrosis and papillary malformations of the proliferative epithelium with infiltrations of B-cell-dominated lymphocytes. Additionally, CD16-positive large granular leukocytes and eosinophils infiltrated from the ureteral mucosa to the muscular layer. Eosinophilic crystals were characteristically observed in the lumen of the ureter and the cytoplasm of large granular leukocytes, eosinophils, and transitional epithelial cells. Comprehensive gene profiling revealed remarkably elevated expression of genes associated with hyperimmune responses through activation of B cells in diseased ureters. Furthermore, diseased ureters showed dramatically higher gene expression of chitinase 3-like 3, known as Ym1, which is associated with formation both of adenomas in the transitional epithelium and of eosinophilic crystals in inflammatory conditions. The Ym1 protein was mainly localized to the cytoplasm of the transitional epithelium, infiltrated cells, and eosinophilic crystals in diseased ureters. We determined that the primary cause of hydronephrosis in F2 mice was ureteritis mediated by the local hyperimmune response with malformation of the transitional epithelium. Our data provide a novel molecular pathogenesis for elucidating causes of aseptic inflammation in human upper urinary tracts. PMID:22114694

  10. Management of lower ureteric stones: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Morsi, Gamal A.M.; Beshir, Mansour S.M.; Soliman, Sheri S.; Galal, Hussein A.; Ortiz–Vanderdys, Cervando

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the current concepts in lower ureteric stone management. Material and methods Between October 2008 and November 2010, 190 patients of both sexes and of different age groups with lower ureteric stones, underwent in situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) (48 cases), ureterorenoscopy (URS) (120 cases) and open stone surgery (OSS) (22 cases). The patients’ clinical and radiological findings, as well as stone characteristics, were reviewed and correlated with the stone–free status. Results In the ESWL group, the operative time was 43.13 +22.5 min; the average number of sessions/patients was 1.5 sessions; the average number of SW/patients was 4500 SW/patients; the average energy was 16.5 kV; the average stone burden was 7.8/mm; the overall stone–free rate was 75% (36/48); and the average radiation exposure time was 3.5 min. In the URS group, the operative time was 49.21 +16.09 min; the average stone burden was 10.81mm; the overall stone–free rate was 97.5% (117/120); the average hospital stay was 3.99 days; and the average radiation exposure time was 0.75 min. In the OSS group, the operative time was 112.38 +37.1 min; the overall stone–free rate was 100% (22/22); and the average hospital stay was 9.74 days. Conclusion In the management of patients with lower ureteral stones, URS, SWL and OSS were considered acceptable treatment options. This recommendation was based on the stone–free results, morbidity and retreatment rates for each therapy. PMID:24757544

  11. Gene expression analysis of bud and leaf color in tea.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Zhang, Yazhen; Wu, Liyun; Li, Hailin; Ruan, Li; Bai, Peixian; Zhang, Chengcai; Zhang, Fen; Xu, Liyi; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Purple shoot tea attributing to the high anthocyanin accumulation is of great interest for its wide health benefits. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in purple buds and leaves formation in tea plants, we performed transcriptome analysis of six green or purple shoot tea individuals from a F1 population using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 292 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and assembled into 112,233 unigenes, with an average length of 759 bp and an N50 of 1081 bp. Moreover, totally 2193 unigenes showed significant differences in expression levels between green and purple tea samples, with 1143 up- and 1050 down-regulated in the purple teas. Further real time PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq results. Our study identified 28 differentially expressed transcriptional factors and A CsMYB gene was found to be highly similar to AtPAP1 in Arabidopsis. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and transportation showed that the late biosynthetic genes and genes involved in anthocyanin transportation were largely affected but the early biosynthetic genes were less or none affected. Overall, the identification of a large number of differentially expressed genes offers a global view of the potential mechanisms associated with purple buds and leaves formation, which will facilitate molecular breeding in tea plants. PMID:27362295

  12. Bilateral ureteric stones: an unusual cause of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Daniel; Rehnberg, Lucas; Kler, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    A 49-year-old man presented to the accident and emergency department, with a short history of vague abdominal pain, abdominal distension and two episodes of frank haematuria. A plain chest film showed dilated loops of large bowel and blood results on admission showed an acute kidney injury (stage 3). A diagnosis of bowel obstruction was made initially but a CT scan of the abdomen showed bilateral obstructing calculi. After initial resuscitation, the patient had bilateral ultrasound-guided nephrostomies and haemofiltration. He later underwent bilateral antegrade ureteric stenting. A decision will later be made on whether or not he is fit enough to undergo ureteroscopy and laser stone fragmentation. PMID:27030462

  13. Minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of ureteral stump syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alenezi, Husain; Eltiraifi, Abdelmoniem E.; Alomar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to highlight the advantages and the feasibility of treating ureteral stump syndrome (USS) by different minimally invasive procedures. Materials and Methods: Four patients with USS who were treated by different minimally invasive surgery approaches depending on their presentation and findings on radiologic investigations. Results: Three patients had complete resolution of their symptoms, whereas the fourth patient had persistence of urinary tract infection. Conclusion: Minimally invasive surgery is a valid treatment option for patients with USS with possible less morbidity than conventional open surgical excision. PMID:26692664

  14. Renographic Demonstration of Desmoid Tumor-Ureteral Fistula.

    PubMed

    Kim, David U; McQuinn, Garland; Lin, Eugene; Lee, Marie

    2016-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman with Gardner syndrome and intra-abdominal desmoid tumors presented with increasing abdominal pain. CT demonstrated a new area of central hypodensity in a presumed desmoid tumor, compressing the left ureter. Findings were suspicious for abscess or fistula to the ureter. Subsequent 99mTc-MAG3 renogram demonstrated persistent extraureteral radiotracer activity in the region of the tumor, confirming a desmoid tumor-ureteral fistula. Desmoid tumors are benign but locally aggressive fibrous neoplasms that can be sporadic or associated with familial adenomatous polyposis syndromes, specifically Gardner syndrome. Fistula formation to the ureter has been reported infrequently. PMID:26284772

  15. Renal aspergilloma presenting with pelvi-ureteric junction Obstruction (PUJO).

    PubMed

    Ullah, Syed Rabi; Jamshaid, Anila; Zaidi, Syed Zafar

    2016-07-01

    Primary renal aspergillosis, though a rare entity, is still seen in immune compromised individuals. Renal aspergillosis may lead to formation of focal abscesses, fungal bezoars and may cause ureteric obstruction. Treatment involves stabilization of patient and removal of fungal bezoars along with administration of anti-fungal agents. This report describes the case of localized primary renal aspergillosis with fungal bezoars formation in a 55 years old female, diabetic, hypertensive, who presented with upper urinary tract obstruction and was successfully managed by endoscopic removal of fungal bezoars and intravenous amphotericin followed by oral itraconazole. PMID:27427147

  16. [Medical therapy for ureteral stones: high versus low fluid intake].

    PubMed

    Hauser, Johannes; Caviezel, Alessandro; Iselin, Christophe

    2010-12-01

    The mainstays of renal colic medical treatment are first to provide efficient pain relief, and second to facilitate migration of the ureteral stone or dissolve it. In the ambulatory setting, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the treatment of choice of pain relief. To facilitate stone migration, the debate between hydric restriction and hyperhydration remains somewhat open. Besides that, alpha-blockers and anti-calcic agents appear to speed up stone explusion, whereas stone chemolysis acts on a longer time scale. PMID:21290866

  17. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds123

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood. PMID:26730405

  18. The development of ureteric strictures after ureteroscopic treatment for ureteric calculi: A long-term study at two academic centres

    PubMed Central

    El-Abd, Ahmed S.; Suliman, Mohammed G.; Abo Farha, Mohamed O.; Ramadan, Ahmed R.; El-Tatawy, Hassan H.; El-Gamal, Osama M.; El-Gamal, Samir A.; Figenshau, Robert; El Abd, Shawky A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of symptomatic and ‘silent’ obstruction after ureteroscopic procedures. Patients and methods In all, 1980 patients underwent ureteroscopy for ureteric calculi in two large centres. The methods of disintegration, auxiliary procedures used and type of stenting were considered. Intraoperative complications, in addition to the size and site of the stone, were assessed in relation to postoperative obstruction. The mean (range) follow-up was 42 (12–68) months, with patients assessed after 3–6 months and yearly thereafter. The postoperative evaluation included an assessment of pain, renal ultrasonography, a plain abdominal film, intravenous urography, and a diuretic renal scan in some cases to confirm obstruction. Results The success rate of stone removal was 98.5%. The failures were related to the size of the stone (>2 cm; P < 0.001). In eight patients there was a ureteric perforation, and six of these developed a ureteric stricture. A stricture also occurred in 12 patients (0.6%) during the follow-up; these included nine of 204 with stones of >2 cm (4.4%), compared to three (0.17%) of 1746 patients with stones of <2 cm (P < 0.001). Fourteen patients presented with pain (0.7%), and five had no obstruction, while in nine (0.46%) the pain was associated with obstruction. There was silent obstruction in three cases (0.15%). The negative and positive predictive values for pain were 99.8% and 64.3%, respectively. Conclusions Radiographic surveillance for stricture formation and obstruction is mandatory in patients who are symptomatic after ureteroscopy, and for up to 18 months in patients with intraoperative complications or with a stone of >2 cm in the proximal ureter. PMID:26019943

  19. [A ureteral endoscopic approach--a minimally invasive method complementary to nephroureterectomy].

    PubMed

    Geavlete, P; Jora, T

    1998-01-01

    Nephroureterectomy with ureteral stump excision and perimeatal cystectomy is the "golden standard surgical approach" for urothelial upper urinary tract cancer. Nephroureterectomy is also necessary in renoureteral tuberculosis, with compromised renal unit. Since June 1995 we performed the endoscopic distal ureteral approach in 11 cases (9 cases with upper urinary tract cancer and 2 cases with renal tuberculosis and concomitant ureteral distal lesions). In 7 cases we performed ureteral stripping after nephrectomy and in 4 cases we performed endoscopic disconnection of the intramural ureter followed by nephroureterectomy (in one operative step). Ureteral stripping was realized in two ways: perimeatal resection of the ureter and 12 o'clock incision. There was only one intraoperative complication which consisted in the dislodgement of the ureteral catheter who needs conversion to open surgery. Mean follow-up period was 12 months (range 2 to 28). The evolution of the patients was satisfactory, with significant reduction of the hospitalization. According to our experience the endoscopic distal ureteral approach is a safer complementary proceeding to the one step nephroureterectomy, being performed faster and easier than open ureterectomy. PMID:9656599

  20. Calculus-related ureteral intussusception: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, James; Blecher, Gideon; Tsai, Ken; Bishop, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ureteral intussusception is a rarely reported condition, primarily as a complication of ureteric tumours. Fewer than 30 case reports have been made. This case represents the first reported case, to our knowledge, of ureteral intussusception caused by a ureteric calculus. Presentation of case We present the case of a 70 year old man with a history of conservatively managed renal calculi, in whom obstructive ureterolithiasis was incidentally detected. Retrograde pyelography and ureteroscopy revealed intussusception of the ureter around a calculus. Extensive biopsies revealed no evidence of tumour, and the intussusception resolved following stone clearance. Discussion Literature review of previously reported cases of ureteral intussusception revealed 26 cases, of which 22 were secondary to tumour and 4 were secondary to surgical procedures. We propose a mechanism by which calculus-related ureteral intussusception may occur, and suggest treatment for this condition. Conclusion Calculus-related ureteral intussusception is a rare condition, of which this represents the only case report. Management of the condition should involve excluding the presence of tumour, and then clearing the stone, avoiding the use of a basket for retrieval of fragments. PMID:26011803

  1. Dynamic thermal time model of cold hardiness for dormant grapevine buds

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, John C.; Tarara, Julie M.; Mills, Lynn J.; Grove, Gary G.; Keller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Grapevine (Vitis spp.) cold hardiness varies dynamically throughout the dormant season, primarily in response to changes in temperature. The development and possible uses of a discrete-dynamic model of bud cold hardiness for three Vitis genotypes are described. Methods Iterative methods were used to optimize and evaluate model parameters by minimizing the root mean square error between observed and predicted bud hardiness, using up to 22 years of low-temperature exotherm data. Three grape cultivars were studied: Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay (both V. vinifera) and Concord (V. labruscana). The model uses time steps of 1 d along with the measured daily mean air temperature to calculate the change in bud hardiness, which is then added to the hardiness from the previous day. Cultivar-dependent thermal time thresholds determine whether buds acclimate (gain hardiness) or deacclimate (lose hardiness). Key Results The parameterized model predicted bud hardiness for Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay with an r2 = 0·89 and for Concord with an r2 = 0·82. Thermal time thresholds and (de-)acclimation rates changed between the early and late dormant season and were cultivar dependent but independent of each other. The timing of these changes was also unique for each cultivar. Concord achieved the greatest mid-winter hardiness but had the highest deacclimation rate, which resulted in rapid loss of hardiness in spring. Cabernet Sauvignon was least hardy, yet maintained its hardiness latest as a result of late transition to eco-dormancy, a high threshold temperature required to induce deacclimation and a low deacclimation rate. Conclusions A robust model of grapevine bud cold hardiness was developed that will aid in the anticipation of and response to potential injury from fluctuations in winter temperature and from extreme cold events. The model parameters that produce the best fit also permit insight into dynamic differences in hardiness among genotypes

  2. Lower intestinal modification of ureteral urine in hydrated house sparrows.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, D L; Braun, E J

    1986-01-01

    The ureters of birds empty into the posterior portion of the lower intestine, thereby providing the possibility for modification of ureteral urine by this latter organ. We have used in vivo perfusion to measure the transport of Na+, K+, and water across the lower intestine (colon and coprodaeum) of anesthetized house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Na+ was reabsorbed from (Vmax = approximately 22 mu eq . cm-2 . h-1, Km = approximately 69 meq/l) and K+ was secreted (at variable rates) into all saline perfusion fluids. The osmotic permeability of the intestinal epithelium was 0.39 microliter . cm-2 . h-1 . mosM-1 in the mucosal-to-serosal direction and 0.43 microliter . cm-2 . h-1 . mosM-1 in the serosal-to-mucosal direction. At isosmotic perfusion, Na+-linked water transport occurred at a rate of 1.7 microliter/mu eq Na+. In hydrated house sparrows the composition of ureteral urine (osmolarity = 351 mosM, Na+ = 86.5 meq/l, K+ = 60.5 meq/l) was significantly modified by transport in the lower intestine (voided fluid osmolarity = 344 mosM, Na+ = 60 meq/l, K+ = 90 meq/l). Interspecific comparisons of lower intestinal resorptive surface area and transport parameters at the level of the tissue, organ, and whole animal reveal no consistent pattern of adaptation related to habitat. PMID:3942257

  3. Sulfasalazine reduces inflammatory renal injury in unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Demirbilek, Savas; Emre, Memet Hanefi; Aydin, Engin Nasuhi; Edali, Mehmet Naci; Aksoy, Rauf Tuğrul; Akin, Melih; Gürünlüoğlu, Kubilay; Tas, Erkan; Ay, Selma; Yilmaz, Zümrüt

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether sulfasalazine has a protective action against interstitial inflammation and the development of renal fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy. Female rats were subjected to a sham (n = 10) or unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO, n = 30). UUO was induced in rats by ligating the left ureter. Three days after operation, rats subjected to UUO were randomized to receive tretment with either sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg) or vehicle every day for the last 7 days of the experiment. At 10 days following UUO, the obstructed kidney exhibited tubulointerstitial injury and leukocyte infiltration (mainly monocytes) that were associated with high levels of reactive oxygen species, cytokines, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lipid peroxidation. Ten days after UUO, the obstructed kidney was also associated with increased nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kappabeta) expression in saline-treated rats. Compared with sham-operated rats, UUO rat kidneys showed lower concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the obstructed kidney tissue. All of these changes were significantly attenuated by treatment with sulfasalazine in the obstructed kidney. Sulfasalazine protected against the renal interstitial inflammation and tissue damage elicited by ureteral occlusion. Inhibition of the NF-kappabeta-dependent pathway and inflammatory response and oxidative stress inhibition is likely to be involved in the beneficial effects of sulfasalazine. PMID:17294223

  4. HIV-1 Assembly, Budding, and Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Sundquist, Wesley I.; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg

    2012-01-01

    A defining property of retroviruses is their ability to assemble into particles that can leave producer cells and spread infection to susceptible cells and hosts. Virion morphogenesis can be divided into three stages: assembly, wherein the virion is created and essential components are packaged; budding, wherein the virion crosses the plasma membrane and obtains its lipid envelope; and maturation, wherein the virion changes structure and becomes infectious. All of these stages are coordinated by the Gag polyprotein and its proteolytic maturation products, which function as the major structural proteins of the virus. Here, we review our current understanding of the mechanisms of HIV-1 assembly, budding, and maturation, starting with a general overview and then providing detailed descriptions of each of the different stages of virion morphogenesis. PMID:22762019

  5. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle. PMID:26519319

  6. Actomyosin ring driven cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Meitinger, Franz; Palani, Saravanan

    2016-05-01

    Cytokinesis is the final process in the cell cycle that physically divides one cell into two. In budding yeast, cytokinesis is driven by a contractile actomyosin ring (AMR) and the simultaneous formation of a primary septum, which serves as template for cell wall deposition. AMR assembly, constriction, primary septum formation and cell wall deposition are successive processes and tightly coupled to cell cycle progression to ensure the correct distribution of genetic material and cell organelles among the two rising cells prior to cell division. The role of the AMR in cytokinesis and the molecular mechanisms that drive AMR constriction and septation are the focus of current research. This review summarizes the recent progresses in our understanding of how budding yeast cells orchestrate the multitude of molecular mechanisms that control AMR driven cytokinesis in a spatio-temporal manner to achieve an error free cell division. PMID:26845196

  7. Anisotropic stress orients remodelling of mammalian limb bud ectoderm.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kimberly; Tao, Hirotaka; Liu, Haijiao; Wen, Jun; Sturgeon, Kendra; Sorfazlian, Natalie; Lazic, Savo; Burrows, Jeffrey T A; Wong, Michael D; Li, Danyi; Deimling, Steven; Ciruna, Brian; Scott, Ian; Simmons, Craig; Henkelman, R Mark; Williams, Trevor; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Sun, Yu; Hopyan, Sevan

    2015-05-01

    The physical forces that drive morphogenesis are not well characterized in vivo, especially among vertebrates. In the early limb bud, dorsal and ventral ectoderm converge to form the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. By live imaging mouse embryos, we show that prospective AER progenitors intercalate at the dorsoventral boundary and that ectoderm remodels by concomitant cell division and neighbour exchange. Mesodermal expansion and ectodermal tension together generate a dorsoventrally biased stress pattern that orients ectodermal remodelling. Polarized distribution of cortical actin reflects this stress pattern in a β-catenin- and Fgfr2-dependent manner. Intercalation of AER progenitors generates a tensile gradient that reorients resolution of multicellular rosettes on adjacent surfaces, a process facilitated by β-catenin-dependent attachment of cortex to membrane. Therefore, feedback between tissue stress pattern and cell intercalations remodels mammalian ectoderm. PMID:25893915

  8. Anisotropic stress orients remodelling of mammalian limb bud ectoderm

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Kimberly; Tao, Hirotaka; Liu, Haijiao; Wen, Jun; Sturgeon, Kendra; Sorfazlian, Natalie; Lazic, Savo; Burrows, Jeffrey T. A.; Wong, Michael D.; Li, Danyi; Deimling, Steven; Ciruna, Brian; Scott, Ian; Simmons, Craig; Henkelman, R. Mark; Williams, Trevor; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Sun, Yu; Hopyan, Sevan

    2016-01-01

    The physical forces that drive morphogenesis are not well characterized in vivo, especially among vertebrates. In the early limb bud, dorsal and ventral ectoderm converge to form the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. By live imaging mouse embryos, we show that prospective AER progenitors intercalate at the dorsoventral boundary and that ectoderm remodels by concomitant cell division and neighbour exchange. Mesodermal expansion and ectodermal tension together generate a dorsoventrally biased stress pattern that orients ectodermal remodelling. Polarized distribution of cortical actin reflects this stress pattern in a β-catenin- and Fgfr2-dependent manner. Intercalation of AER progenitors generates a tensile gradient that reorients resolution of multicellular rosettes on adjacent surfaces, a process facilitated by β-catenin-dependent attachment of cortex to membrane. Therefore, feedback between tissue stress pattern and cell intercalations remodels mammalian ectoderm. PMID:25893915

  9. Outcomes of Percutaneous Management of Anastomotic Ureteral Strictures in Renal Transplantation: Chronic Nephroureteral Stent Placement with and without Balloon Dilatation

    SciTech Connect

    Uflacker, A. Sheeran, D. Khaja, M.

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was designed o evaluate outcomes of percutaneous management of anastomotic ureteral strictures in renal transplants using nephroureteral stents with or without balloon dilatation.MethodsA retrospective audit of 1,029 consecutive renal transplants was performed. Anastomotic ureteral strictures were divided into two groups: nephroureteral stent only (NUS) and NUS+PTA (nephroureteral stent plus percutaneous transluminal angioplasty), with each cohort subdivided into early versus late presentation (obstructive uropathy occurring <90 day or >90 days from transplant, respectively). Overall and 6-month technical success were defined as removal of NUS any time with <30 % residual stenosis (any time lapse less or more than 6 months) and at >6 months, respectively. Patency was evaluated from NUS removal to last follow-up for both groups and compared.ResultsSixty-seven transplant patients with 70 ureteric anastomotic strictures (6.8 %, n = 70/1,029) underwent 72 percutaneous treatments. 34 % were late (>90 days, n = 24/70), and 66 % were early (<90 days, n = 46/70). Overall technical success was 82 % (n = 59/72) and 6-month success was 58 % (n = 42/72). Major and minor complications were 2.8 % (n = 2/72), and 12.5 % (n = 9/72). NUS+PTA did not improve graft survival (p = 0.354) or patency (p = 0.9) compared with NUS alone. There was no difference in graft survival between treated and nontreated groups (p = 0.74).ConclusionsThere is no advantage to PTA in addition to placement of NUS, although PTA did not negatively impact graft survival or long-term patency and both interventions were safe and effective. Neither the late or early groups benefited from PTA in addition to NUS. Earlier obstructions showed greater improvement in serum creatinine than later obstructions.

  10. Distal ureteral atresia with ureteropelvic junction obstruction in a female child: a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuiqing; Xu, Ran; Zhu, Xuan; Zhao, Xiaokun

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a distal ureteral atresia along with ureteropelvic junction obstruction which occurred in a 19-month-old female child. It is easily to be misdiagnosed as mere ureteropelvic junction obstruction and omitted the combined diagnosis of distal ureteral atresia. Dismembered pyeloplasty was done in local hospital after admission, however with the result of recurrent fever when clamp the left nephrostomy tube and Antegrade urography demonstrated distal ureteral atresia. After two months, boari flap reconstruction was performed for the patient in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, and the child had good rehabilitation in the end. To our knowledge, this is the first case report on distal ureteral atresia associated with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. PMID:25785157

  11. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyuki; Yoshinaga, Atsushi; Ohno, Rena; Chiba, Koji; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Kamata, Shigeyoshi; Watanabe, Toru; Yamada, Takumi

    2004-06-01

    Optimal treatment for distal ureteral stones remains controversial. During a period of 10 years, from December 1992 to December 2002, 103 distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter were treated at our institution with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using the Siemens Lithostar. Only 2 patients had a ureteral stent in place at the time of treatment. The overall stone-free rate was 98% with 1-12 session and 3-month stone-free rate was 95.1%. These data reveal that a high success rate was achieved in multisession ESWL. Therefore, ESWL is considered to be acceptable as first-line therapy for fragmentation of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter. PMID:15293734

  12. The effect of indomethacin and metamizole on ureteral motility and urine flow in sheep.

    PubMed

    Khater, S; Angelo-Khattar, M; Thulesius, O

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, indomethacin and metamizole, on ureteral peristalsis during acute occlusion similar to the situation in renal colic. In 12 pentobarbital anesthetized sheep, both ureters were cannulated and the frequency of ureteral contractions, urine flow, mean ureteral pressure and blood pressure were recorded during 10-min control and i.v. drug administration periods. Both indomethacin (1-2 mg/kg) and metamizole (60-120 mg/kg) showed a dose dependent reduction in peristaltic frequency without reduction of the mean pressure. In addition, the pressure amplitude of the peristaltic waves was also lowered, particularly with indomethacin. Only indomethacin reduced the urine flow. Arterial blood pressure was elevated by both drugs, particularly after the first dose of indomethacin. It can be concluded that indomethacin and metamizole reduce ureteral peristaltic frequency, probably blocking the impulse transmission at the ureteropelvic junction. PMID:2100421

  13. Characterization of the mid-foregut transcriptome identifies genes regulated during lung bud induction

    PubMed Central

    Millien, Guetchyn; Beane, Jennifer; Lenburg, Marc; Tsao, Po-Nien; Lu, Jining; Spira, Avrum; Ramirez., Maria I.

    2008-01-01

    To identify genes expressed during initiation of lung organogenesis, we generated transcriptional profiles of the prospective lung region of the mouse foregut (mid-foregut) microdissected from embryos at three developmental stages between embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5) and E9.5. This period spans from lung specification of foregut cells to the emergence of the primary lung buds. We identified a number of known and novel genes that are temporally regulated as the lung bud forms. Genes that regulate transcription, including DNA binding factors, co-factors, and chromatin remodeling genes, are the main functional groups that change during lung bud formation. Members of key developmental transcription and growth factor families, not previously described to participate in lung organogenesis, are expressed in the mid-foregut during lung bud induction. These studies also show early expression in the mid-foregut of genes that participate in later stages of lung development. This characterization of the mid-foregut transcriptome provides new insights into molecular events leading to lung organogenesis. PMID:18023262

  14. Expression and regulation of Groucho-related genes in the embryonic chicken feather bud.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Leslie; Freeman, Allison; Morgan, Bruce A

    2003-04-01

    The groucho-related gene (Grg) products modulate the transcriptional response to several extracellular signals, including the Wnts. In an effort to define the roles of Grgs in the morphogenesis of the feather bud, cDNAs encoding members of the Grg family were cloned from embryonic chick skin. In situ hybridization was used to localize transcripts for cGrg2, Grg3, Grg4, and Grg5 in embryos from day 6 through day 9. Expression of cGrg2, 3, and 5 is detected throughout the initial epidermal placode. As the buds mature, expression becomes limited to the posterior halves and eventually to the distal tip of the outgrowing bud. This pattern and the effects of forced activation of the bone morphogenetic protein and beta-catenin signal transduction pathways on Grg gene expression suggest that these genes act downstream of the early activation of the beta-catenin pathway that initiates placode formation. Induction of Grg genes by beta-catenin may serve as a negative feedback to modulate pathway activation while also altering the activity of other transduction pathways involved in bud patterning. PMID:12666196

  15. Seasonal variations in the incidence of ureteric colic.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, T Q; Fahadi, K

    1977-08-01

    A retrospective study of 1097 male in-patients with ureteric colic was conducted to try and define the aetiological effect of climate on the disease. The overall monthly incidence for the study period of 10 years was found, on statistical analysis to correlate with ambient temperature thus: (1) directly with the mean temperature of the preceding month, (2) directly with the difference between mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures of the same month, and (3) inversely with the mean maximum temperature of the same month. The correlation was interpreted on the basis that hot ambient temperatures promoted stone generation whereas cold ones promoted stone descent through cold-induced diuresis. This trend, among its other implications, could pinpoint the reason for the increase in nephrolithiasis with industralisation. PMID:912251

  16. Definitive ureteroscopy and intracorporeal lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral calculi during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Teleb, Mohamed; Ragab, Ahmed; Dawod, Tamer; Elgalaly, Hazem; Elsayed, Ehab; Sakr, Ahmed; Abdelhameed, Ahmed; Maarouf, Arif; Khalil, Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the outcome of using semi-rigid ureteroscopy with or without intracorporeal pneumatic lithotripsy vs. temporary ureteric JJ stenting in the management of obstructing ureteric calculi in pregnant women. Patients and methods This prospective comparative study comprised 43 pregnant women with obstructing ureteric calculi. The diagnosis was based on the acute flank pain as the main symptom, microscopic haematuria, and unilateral hydronephrosis on abdominal ultrasonography (US). The patients were randomly divided into two groups; those in group 1 (22 patients) were treated by temporary ureteric JJ stenting until after delivery, and those in group 2 (21) were treated definitively by ureteroscopic stone extraction with intracorporeal pneumatic lithotripsy. Postoperative complications and the degree of patient satisfaction were reported. Results An obstructing ureteric stone was identified by US in 68% and 76% of groups 1 and 2, respectively. In group 1, nine patients had mid-ureteric stones and 13 had stones in the lower ureter. In group 2, seven patients had mid-ureteric stones, whilst the stones were in the distal ureter in 14. No perioperative foetal complications were detected in any group and all patients completed the full term of pregnancy. In group 1, four patients had a postoperative urinary tract infection (UTI), and the JJ stent was exchanged in seven. Two patients in group 2 had a postoperative UTI. Conclusions Definitive ureteroscopy, even with intracorporeal pneumatic lithotripsy, is an effective and safe treatment for pregnant women with obstructing ureteric calculi. It has a better outcome and is more satisfactory for the patients than a temporary JJ stent. PMID:26019966

  17. Giant ureteral stone in a patient with a single functioning kidney: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Y B; Park, J K; Kim, H J; Kim, Y G; Kim, M K

    2011-06-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with long-standing left flank pain. A plain abdominal radiograph and intravenous urography (IVU) revealed a giant ureteral stone measuring 6.2 × 2.2 cm causing ureteral obstruction. A non-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) scan showed a significantly atrophied right kidney and left hydronephroureterosis with a giant stone. A left transperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy was performed with excellent results. PMID:21612759

  18. A resorbable bicomponent braided ureteral stent with improved mechanical performance.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ting; Wang, Lu; Li, Wenchao; Wang, Wenzu; Chen, Fang; King, Martin W

    2014-10-01

    Bioresorbable ureteral stents have the advantage of eliminating the need for a second removal surgery and hence avoiding certain complications. However the inadequate mechanical performance and lack of control over the rate of resorption limit the use of current prototype designs. This paper focuses on a series of resorbable millimeter-sized stents which were fabricated by a unique combination of braiding and thermal treatment processes. Their mechanical properties where optimized by varying the braided structure and different resorbable components. Five different bicomponent structures were fabricated for the stent with different areas and distributions of poly (glycolic acid) (PGA) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) resorbable yarns. Subsequent thermal treatment then converted the PLGA yarns into areas of continuous PLGA polymer film. The morphology, applied compression resistance and recovery and tensile strength tests were conducted on these prototype stents so as to investigate the relationship between their structures and mechanical properties. By selecting the appropriate resorbable biomaterials and altering the design of the braided structure it was possible to generate different sized areas and distributions of 100% braided yarn and 100% polymer film within the same bicomponent tubular structure. The relative total area of braided yarn to polymer film coverage was different for the five different prototype stents as well as between the external and internal surfaces of the bicomponent stents. This relative coverage of the braided yarn to polymer film played an important role in determining the mechanical performance of the stents, including the compression and recovery behavior as well as the tensile properties and failure morphology. The design of Stent C appeared to have the optimal structure for a resorbable ureteral stent with superior applied compression and tensile properties. PMID:24997428

  19. A sign on CT that predicts a hazardous ureteral anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Allam, E.S.; Johnson, D.Y.; Grewal, S.G.; Johnson, F.E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An aberrant course of the distal ureter can pose a risk of ureteral injury during surgery for inguinal hernia repair and other groin operations. In a recent case series of inguinoscrotal hernation of the ureter, we found that each affected ureter was markedly anterior to the psoas muscle at its mid-point on abdominal CT. We hypothesized that this abnormality in the abdominal course of the ureter would predict the potentially hazardous aberrant course of the distal ureter. Presentation of cases We reviewed all evaluable CT urograms performed at St. Louis University Hospital from June 2012 to July 2013 and measured the ureteral course at several anatomically fixed points. Discussion 93% (50/54) of ureters deviated by less than 1 cm from the psoas muscle in their mid-course (at the level of the L4 vertebra). Reasons for anterior deviation of the ureter in this study included morbid obesity with prominent retroperitoneal fat, congenital renal abnormality, and post-traumatic renal/retroperitoneal hematoma. We determined that the optimal level on abdominal CT to detect the displaced ureter was the mid-body of the L4 vertebra. Conclusion Anterior deviation of the ureter in its mid-course appears to predict inguinoscrotal herniation of the ureter. This finding is a sensitive predictor and should raise concern for this anomaly in the appropriate clinical setting. It is not entirely specific as morbid obesity and congenital anomalies may result in a similar imaging appearance. We believe that this association has not been reported previously. Awareness of this anomaly can have significant operative implications. PMID:27046105

  20. Unenhanced CT for the evaluation of acute ureteric colic: the essential pictorial guide.

    PubMed

    Kennish, Steven J; Wah, Tze M; Irving, Henry C

    2010-07-01

    Acute ureteric colic is a common emergency, often dealt with by the emergency physician or general practitioner and referred on to the urologist. Unenhanced CT of the kidneys, ureters and bladder (CTKUB) is the 'gold standard' imaging investigation for establishing a diagnosis and guiding management. An appreciation of the CTKUB signs, which support or refute a diagnosis of ureteric colic, is highly valuable to the clinician when making a urological referral, and to the urologist, who must make appropriate management plans. All salient diagnostic and supportive features of ureteric colic are carefully illustrated, as are important radiological mimics, with the objectives of educating and informing the non-radiologist. Ready access to the picture archive and communication system (PACS) allows all specialists involved to interpret the radiological report with the benefit of images. A stone within the ureter may not always be readily apparent. Soft tissue rim sign around a calcific focus is an important indicator of a ureteric stone, whereas a comet tail sign suggests a phlebolith (a calcified venous thrombosis), a radiological mimic of a ureteric stone. Numerous secondary signs of ureteric obstruction may be present including hydronephrosis and perinephric stranding, and can help to confirm the diagnosis. The relative diagnostic weighting of signs is discussed, and a checklist is provided to assist with interpretation. Unexpected alternative radiological diagnoses are also illustrated, which may have significant management consequences necessitating specialist referral. PMID:20634253

  1. Salpingo-ureteric fistula—A rare complication following laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer: A case report and literature review☆

    PubMed Central

    Nkwam, N.; During, V.; Chen, T.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We report the management and outcome of the case of a 57-year old woman with adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Following neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy and laparoscopic-assisted anterior resection of her tumour she developed a right salpingo-ureteric fistula. PRESENTATION OF CASE Three weeks following laparoscopic anterior resection of the tumour she presented with urinary frequency and incontinence. A ureteric stent was inserted and left in-situ for five months but the fistula did not heal. The patient underwent exploration and open repair of the salpingo-ureteric fistula which resolved her symptoms. DISCUSSION There have not been many reported cases in the literature of salpingo-ureteric fistulae but after initial trial of management with ureteric stents all eventually required open exploration and repair. CONCLUSION we advocate open repair of salpingo-ureteric fistulae as the definitive management following intra-operative injury. PMID:24636981

  2. Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The essential oil of Betula pendula Roth. buds was obtained using both hydrodistillation and microdistillation techniques and their chemical compositions were analyzed using both gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, more than 50 compounds were identified representing 80% and 92% for hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively. The main components (by hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively) found were α-copaene (12% and 10%), germacrene D (11% and 18%) and δ-cadinene (11% and 15%) in the analyzed essential oils. The microdistillation technique proved to be a useful tool and compliant alternative when compared to hydrodistillation. PMID:15841263

  3. Cell Polarization and Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Erfei; Park, Hay-Oak

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division, which includes cell polarization and cytokinesis, is essential for generating cell diversity during development. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduces by asymmetric cell division, and has thus served as an attractive model for unraveling the general principles of eukaryotic cell polarization and cytokinesis. Polarity development requires G-protein signaling, cytoskeletal polarization, and exocytosis, whereas cytokinesis requires concerted actions of a contractile actomyosin ring and targeted membrane deposition. In this chapter, we discuss the mechanics and spatial control of polarity development and cytokinesis, emphasizing the key concepts, mechanisms, and emerging questions in the field. PMID:22701052

  4. Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Betül; Paper, Dietrich H; Demirci, Fatih; Can Başer, K Hüsnü; Franz, Gerhard

    2004-12-01

    The essential oil of Betula pendula Roth. buds was obtained using both hydrodistillation and microdistillation techniques and their chemical compositions were analyzed using both gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, more than 50 compounds were identified representing 80% and 92% for hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively. The main components (by hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively) found were alpha-copaene (12% and 10%), germacrene D (11% and 18%) and delta-cadinene (11% and 15%) in the analyzed essential oils. The microdistillation technique proved to be a useful tool and compliant alternative when compared to hydrodistillation. PMID:15841263

  5. FGF induces new feather buds from developing avian skin.

    PubMed

    Widelitz, R B; Jiang, T X; Noveen, A; Chen, C W; Chuong, C M

    1996-12-01

    Induction of skin appendages involves a cascade of molecular events. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of peptide growth factors is involved in cell proliferation and morphogenesis. We explored the role of the FGFs during skin appendage induction using developing chicken feather buds as a model. FGF-1, FGF-2, or FGF-4 was added directly to the culture medium or was released from pre-soaked Affigel blue beads. Near the midline, FGFs led to fusion of developing feather buds, representing FGFs' ability to expand feather bud domains in developing skin. In lateral regions of the explant where feather placodes have not formed, FGF treatment produces a zone of condensation and a region with an increased number of feather buds. In ventral epidermis that is normally apteric (without feathers), FGFs can also induce new feather buds. Like normal feather buds, the newly induced buds express Shh. The expression of Grb, Ras, Raf, and Erk, intracellular signaling molecules known to be downstream to tyrosine kinase receptors such as the FGF receptor, was enriched in feather bud domains. Genistein, an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase, suppressed feather bud formation and the effect of FGF. These results indicate that there are varied responses to FGFs depending on epithelial competence. All the phenotypic responses, however, show that FGFs facilitate the formation of skin appendage domains. PMID:8941663

  6. Screening and identification of the differential proteins in kidney with complete unilateral ureteral obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; Yang, Yi; Wang, Chang-Lin; Hou, Ying; Chen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive nephropathy is a major cause of renal failure, particularly in infants and children, and indications for therapeutic intervention remain highly controversial. There is a great need for the development of new methods to monitor patients, and the biomarker research field is a promising approach for this purpose to be used as prognostic tools for early disease detection and the choice of the optimal treatment and monitoring. Here, we presented our comparative proteomics study of rat kidney with complete unilateral ureteral obstruction (CUUO). Proteins from the groups of CUUO and corresponding sham rat kidney tissues were subjected to 2-D gel electrophoresis, and then protein identification by mass spectrometry. We identified 39 proteins with differential expression between kidney tissues from sham operated group and those with CUUO. These identified proteins were reported to be involved in cell apoptosis, energy metabolism and injuries of mitochondrion and oxidative stress, and so on. We confirmed 3 identified proteins by immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence staining and assessed their mRNA levels in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate protein alterations that reflect the pathological situation of the obstructed kidneys, which may help understand the relationship between oxidative stress and obstructive nephropathy. PMID:26045767

  7. Release of Apical Dominance in Potato Tuber Is Accompanied by Programmed Cell Death in the Apical Bud Meristem[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Buskila, Yossi; Lopesco, Yael; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Saad, Inbal; Holdengreber, Vered; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Ori, Naomi; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2012-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber, a swollen underground stem, is used as a model system for the study of dormancy release and sprouting. Natural dormancy release, at room temperature, is initiated by tuber apical bud meristem (TAB-meristem) sprouting characterized by apical dominance (AD). Dormancy is shortened by treatments such as bromoethane (BE), which mimics the phenotype of dormancy release in cold storage by inducing early sprouting of several buds simultaneously. We studied the mechanisms governing TAB-meristem dominance release. TAB-meristem decapitation resulted in the development of increasing numbers of axillary buds with time in storage, suggesting the need for autonomous dormancy release of each bud prior to control by the apical bud. Hallmarks of programmed cell death (PCD) were identified in the TAB-meristems during normal growth, and these were more extensive when AD was lost following either extended cold storage or BE treatment. Hallmarks included DNA fragmentation, induced gene expression of vacuolar processing enzyme1 (VPE1), and elevated VPE activity. VPE1 protein was semipurified from BE-treated apical buds, and its endogenous activity was fully inhibited by a cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-1-specific inhibitor N-Acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CHO (Ac-YVAD-CHO). Transmission electron microscopy further revealed PCD-related structural alterations in the TAB-meristem of BE-treated tubers: a knob-like body in the vacuole, development of cytoplasmic vesicles, and budding-like nuclear segmentations. Treatment of tubers with BE and then VPE inhibitor induced faster growth and recovered AD in detached and nondetached apical buds, respectively. We hypothesize that PCD occurrence is associated with the weakening of tuber AD, allowing early sprouting of mature lateral buds. PMID:22362870

  8. Late ureteral obstruction in an adult who had STING/Teflon in childhood: Should we expect an epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Shilo; Lorber, Amitay; Landau, Ezekiel H.; Pode, Dov; Gofrit, Ofer N.; Hidas, Guy; Duvdevani, Mordechai; Sfoungaristos, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of left renal colic in a 25-year-old female patient. She had subureteral injection of Teflon (STING) at the age of 10 due to vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) disease and recurrent urinary tract infections. Renal colic was the result of late ureteral obstruction due to Teflon-induced periureteral foreign body reaction. To our knowledge, this is the longest interval between STING and ureteral obstruction reported and the first case of delayed ureteral obstruction caused by Teflon. Monitoring the upper tracts of patients after STING should go beyond childhood. PMID:26664516

  9. Primary carcinoma of the ureteral stump following radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    JIN, SHIHUA; WANG, GANG; YU, CHENGFAN; LI, NINGCHEN

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of primary carcinoma of the ureteral stump following radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is extremely rare; 7 patients with the disease have been reported previously. All these patients were males with transitional cell carcinoma. The current study reports the case of a 61-year-old woman, who presented with gross hematuria following a radical nephrectomy for local clear cell renal carcinoma. A computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a mass on the ureteral stump. The patient underwent a left ureteral stump and bladder cuff excision. The histological diagnosis was high-grade transitional cell carcinoma of the ureteral stump, with focal interstitial cancer cell infiltrates. There was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 35 months. In addition, the present study reviewed the literature for previous patients with ureteral stump carcinoma following a radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma; 7 previous patients with the disease were identified. The present study suggests that, if patients who have previously undergone a radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma present with hematuria, the possibility of ureteral stump carcinoma should be considered, particularly in East Asian countries. The existence or a history of bladder carcinoma should be considered as a high-risk factor for developing ureteral stump carcinoma. A ureteral stump and bladder cuff excision should be performed once ureteral stump carcinoma is diagnosed. PMID:27123110

  10. Single ectopic ureteral orifice with bilateral duplicated renal collecting systems in an adult girl: Diagnosis by magnetic resonance urography

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Min; Wang, Quanrongzi; Liu, Bianjiang; Li, Jie; Lu, Qiang; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Renal duplication accompanied by ureteral ectopia is an uncommon urinary congenital abnormality. We report the case of a 21-year-old girl who suffered from lifelong continuous urinary leakage. She was finally diagnosed with bilateral duplicated collecting systems complicated with right ectopic ureteral orifice – an extremely rare case. The patient underwent ureteric re-implantation for the ectopic side, and her urinary incontinence ceased soon thereafter. In this case, traditional imaging failed to show the exact insertion of an ectopic ureter. However, magnetic resonance urography combined with retrograde intubation radiography successfully depicted the point of ureteric insertion, which may make the diagnostic process accurate and efficient. PMID:26609333

  11. From buds to follicles: matrix metalloproteinases in developmental tissue remodeling during feather morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting-Xin; Tuan, Tai Lan; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Organogenesis involves a series of dynamic morphogenesis and remodeling processes. Since feathers exhibit complex forms, we have been using the feather as a model to analyze how molecular pathways and cellular events are used. While several major molecular pathways have been studied, the roles of matrix degrading proteases and inhibitors in feather morphogenesis are unknown. Here we addressed this knowledge gap by studying the temporal and spatial expression of proteases and inhibitors in developing feathers using mammalian antibodies that cross react with chicken proteins. We also investigated the effect of protease inhibitors on feather development employing an in vitro feather bud culture system. The results show that antibodies specific for mammalian MMP2 and TIMP2 stained positive in both feather epithelium and mesenchyme. The staining co-localized in structures of E10-E13 developing feathers. Interestingly, MMP2 and TIMP2 exhibited a complementary staining pattern in developing E15 and E20 feathers and in maturing feather filaments. Although they exhibited a slight delay in feather bud development, similar patterns of MMP2 and TIMP2 staining were observed in in vitro culture explants. The broad spectrum pharmacological inhibitors AG3340 and BB103 (MMP inhibitors) but not Aprotinin (a plasmin inhibitor) showed a reversible effect on epithelium invagination and feather bud elongation. TIMP2, a physiological inhibitor to MMPs, exhibited a similar effect. Markers of feather morphogenesis showed that MMP activity was required for both epithelium invagination and mesenchymal cell proliferation. Inhibition of MMP activity led to an overall delay in the expression of molecules that regulate either early feather bud growth and/or differentiation and thereby produced abnormal buds with incomplete follicle formation. This work demonstrates that MMPs and their inhibitors are not only important in injury repair, but also in development tissue remodeling as demonstrated

  12. Glutamate: Tastant and Neuromodulator in Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2016-07-01

    In taste buds, glutamate plays a double role as a gustatory stimulus and neuromodulator. The detection of glutamate as a tastant involves several G protein-coupled receptors, including the heterodimer taste receptor type 1, member 1 and 3 as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Both receptor types participate in the detection of glutamate as shown with knockout animals and selective antagonists. At the basal part of taste buds, ionotropic glutamate receptors [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA] are expressed and participate in the modulation of the taste signal before its transmission to the brain. Evidence suggests that glutamate has an efferent function on taste cells and modulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and ATP. This short article reviews the recent developments in the field with regard to glutamate receptors involved in both functions as well as the influence of glutamate on the taste signal. PMID:27422519

  13. Specific residues of the GDP/GTP exchange factor Bud5p are involved in establishment of the cell type-specific budding pattern in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pil Jung; Lee, Bongyong; Park, Hay-Oak

    2004-07-01

    Cells of the budding yeast undergo oriented cell division by choosing a specific site for growth depending on their cell type. Haploid a and alpha cells bud in an axial pattern whereas diploid a/alpha cells bud in a bipolar pattern. The Ras-like GTPase Rsr1p/Bud1p, its GDP-GTP exchange factor Bud5p, and its GTPase-activating protein Bud2p are essential for selecting the proper site for polarized growth in all cell types. Here we showed that specific residues at the N terminus and the C terminus of Bud5p were important for bipolar budding, while some residues were involved in both axial and bipolar budding. These bipolar-specific mutations of BUD5 disrupted proper localization of Bud5p in diploid a/alpha cells without affecting Bud5p localization in haploid alpha cells. In contrast, Bud5p expressed in the bud5 mutants defective in both budding patterns failed to localize in all cell types. Thus, these results identify specific residues of Bud5p that are likely to be involved in direct interaction with spatial landmarks, which recruit Bud5p to the proper bud site. Finally, we found a new start codon of BUD5, which extends the open reading frame to 210 bp upstream of the previously estimated start site, thus encoding a polypeptide of 608 amino acid residues. Bud5p with these additional N-terminal residues interacted with Bud8p, a potential bipolar landmark, suggesting that the N-terminal region is necessary for recognition of the spatial cues. PMID:15136576

  14. Treatment of ureteral calculus obstruction with laser lithotripsy in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Todd L; Sur, Roger L

    2012-03-01

    An adult female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presented with acute anorexia secondary to progressive azotemia (blood urea nitrogen = 213 mg/dl, creatinine [Cr] = 9.5 mg/dl) and electrolyte abnormalities (K = 7.4 mEq/L). It was later diagnosed with postrenal obstruction secondary to bilaterally obstructing ureteral calculi seen on ultrasound. Treatment of the obstruction required two endoscopic procedures, cystoscopy for ureteral stent placement and ureteroscopy to perform intracorporeal lithotripsy on the obstructing calculi. Before the first procedure, the dolphin's azotemia was stabilized with aggressive fluid therapy, peritoneal dialysis, and treatment for acidosis. Diuresis subsequent to the fluid therapy enabled passage of the right obstructing urolith. For both endoscopic procedures, the dolphin was placed in left lateral recumbency due to the peritoneal dialysis catheter in the right retroperitoneal region. For the first procedure, a 12-French (Fr) flexible cystoscope was inserted retrograde into the bladder via the urethra, whereupon a calculus was seen obstructing the left ureteral orifice. A 4.8-Fr, 26-cm double-pigtail ureteral stent was placed up the left ureter to relieve the postrenal obstruction. Inadvertent proximal migration of the left ureteral stent occurred during the procedure. However, renal parameters (serum Cr = 5.8, K = 5.4) improved significantly by the next day. For the second procedure, 28 hr later, ureteroscopy was performed to treat the calculus and replace the existing stent with a longer stent. The left ureteral calculus was pulverized into tiny fragments by using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser inserted through a 6.9-Fr semirigid ureteroscope. The migrated stent was visualized in the distal left ureter and replaced with a 90-cm single-pigtail ureteral stent that was sutured exterior to the urogenital slit and removed 3 days later. Renal function normalized over the next several days, and the dolphin recovered over

  15. Is the Routine Check Nephrostogram Following Percutaneous Antegrade Ureteric Stent Placement Necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Keng Chuan; Tay, Kiang Hiong Tan, Bien Soo; MM Htoo, Austin; HG Lo, Richard; Lin, Shueh En

    2008-05-15

    Our aim was to review our experience with percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent (PAUS) placement and to determine if the routinely conducted check nephrostogram on the day following ureteric stent placement was necessary. Retrospective review of patients who had undergone PAUS placement between January 2004 and December 2005 was performed. There were 83 subjects (36 males, 47 females), with a mean age of 59.9 years (range, 22-94 years). Average follow-up duration was 7.1 months (range, 1-24 months). The most common indications for PAUS placement were ureteric obstruction due to metastatic disease (n = 56) and urinary calculi (n = 34). Technical success was 93.2% (96/103 attempts), with no major immediate procedure-related complications or mortalities. The Bard 7Fr Urosoft DJ Stent was used in more than 95% of the cases. Eighty-one of 89 (91.0%) check nephrostograms demonstrated a patent ureteric stent with resultant safety catheter removal. Three check nephrostograms revealed distal stent migration requiring repositioning by a goose-snare, while five others showed stent occlusion necessitating permanent external drainage by nephrostomy drainage catheter reinsertion. Following PAUS placement, the serum creatinine level improved or stabilized in 82% of patients. The serum creatinine outcome difference between the groups with benign and malignant indications for PAUS placement was not statistically significant (p = 0.145) but resolution of hydronephrosis was significantly better (p = 0.008) in patients with benign indications. Percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent placement is a safe and effective means of relief for ureteric obstruction. The check nephrostogram following ureteric stent placement was unnecessary in the majority of patients.

  16. Initial Experience with the Resonance Metallic Stent for Antegrade Ureteric Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Tze M. Irving, Henry C.; Cartledge, Jon

    2007-07-15

    Background and purpose. We describe our initial experience with a new metallic ureteric stent which has been designed to provide long-term urinary drainage in patients with malignant ureteric strictures. The aim is to achieve longer primary patency rates than conventional polyurethane ureteric stents, where encrustation and compression by malignant masses limit primary patency. The Resonance metallic double-pigtail ureteric stent (Cook, Ireland) is constructed from coiled wire spirals of a corrosion-resistant alloy designed to minimize tissue in-growth and resist encrustation, and the manufacturer recommends interval stent change at 12 months. Methods. Seventeen Resonance stents were inserted via an antegrade approach into 15 patients between December 2004 and March 2006. The causes of ureteric obstruction were malignancies of the bladder (n = 4), colon (n = 3), gynecologic (n = 5), and others (n = 3). Results. One patient had the stent changed after 12 months, and 3 patients had their stents changed at 6 months. These stents were draining adequately with minimal encrustation. Four patients are still alive with functioning stents in situ for 2-10 months. Seven patients died with functioning stents in place (follow-up periods of 1 week to 8 months). Three stents failed from the outset due to bulky pelvic malignancy resulting in high intravesical pressure, as occurs with conventional plastic stents. Conclusion. Our initial experience with the Resonance metallic ureteric stent indicates that it may provide adequate long-term urinary drainage (up to 12 months) in patients with malignant ureteric obstruction but without significantly bulky pelvic disease. This obviates the need for regular stent changes and would offer significant benefit for these patients with limited life expectancy.

  17. Emergency ureteroscopic lithotripsy in acute renal colic caused by ureteral calculi: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghazo, Mohammed A; Ghalayini, Ibrahim Fathi; Al-Azab, Rami S; Bani Hani, Osamah; Bani-Hani, Ibrahim; Abuharfil, Mohammad; Haddad, Yazan

    2011-12-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of emergency ureteroscopic lithotripsy in patients with ureteral stones. From May 2003 to December 2010, 244 patients (184 men and 60 women, mean age 45.6 ± 12.7 years (range 22-73 years) were treated with emergency ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral calculi. All patients were divided into three groups according to the stone location in the ureter. Intracorporeal lithotripsy when necessary was performed with the Swiss lithoclast. The overall stone-free status was defined as the complete absence of stone fragments at 4 weeks, postoperatively. A double J stent was inserted in selected patients if there was significant ureteral wall trauma, edema at the stone impaction site, suspected or proved ureteral perforation, and if the stone migrated to the kidney. The overall success rate was 90.6%. The success rates were different according to the stone site. The success rate of groups A, B and C was 69.4, 94.8 and 96.6%, respectively. The overall rate of ureteral stent insertion at the end of the procedure was 177/244 (72.5%). The rate of stent insertion was 41/49 (83.7%), 32/46 (69.6%) and 104/149 (69.8%) in groups A, B and C, respectively. The overall complication, failure, and stricture rate was 32/244 (13.1%), 23/244 (9.4%) and 0.8%, respectively. With the recent advances in ureteroscopic technology, intracorporeal probes and stone extraction devices, emergency ureteroscopy is found to be a safe and effective procedure with immediate relief from ureteral colic and ureteral stone fragmentation. PMID:21499919

  18. Kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus budding and assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Nguyen, Toan

    2009-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) belongs to a large family of RNA viruses, retroviruses. Unlike budding of regular enveloped viruses, retroviruses bud concurrently with the assembly of retroviral capsids on the cell membrane. The kinetics of HIV (and other retroviruses) budding and assembly is therefore strongly affected by the elastic energy of the membrane and fundamentally different from regular viruses. The main result of this work shows that the kinetics is tunable from a fast budding process to a slow and effectively trapped partial budding process, by varying the attractive energy of retroviral proteins (call Gags), relative to the membrane elastic energy. When the Gag-Gag attraction is relatively high, the membrane elastic energy provides a kinetic barrier for the two pieces of the partial capsids to merge. This energy barrier determines the slowest step in the kinetics and the budding time. In the opposite limit, the membrane elastic energy provides not only a kinetic energy barrier, but a free energy barrier. The budding and assembly is effectively trapped at local free energy minimum, corresponding to a partially budded state. The time scale to escape from this metastable state is exponentially large. In both cases, our result fit with experimental measurements pretty well.

  19. A Monitor for Bud Emergence in the Yeast Morphogenesis Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Theesfeld, Chandra L.; Zyla, Trevin R.; Bardes, Elaine G.S.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    Cell cycle transitions are subject to regulation by both external signals and internal checkpoints that monitor satisfactory progression of key cell cycle events. In budding yeast, the morphogenesis checkpoint arrests the cell cycle in response to perturbations that affect the actin cytoskeleton and bud formation. Herein, we identify a step in this checkpoint pathway that seems to be directly responsive to bud emergence. Activation of the kinase Hsl1p is dependent upon its recruitment to a cortical domain organized by the septins, a family of conserved filament-forming proteins. Under conditions that delayed or blocked bud emergence, Hsl1p recruitment to the septin cortex still took place, but hyperphosphorylation of Hsl1p and recruitment of the Hsl1p-binding protein Hsl7p to the septin cortex only occurred after bud emergence. At this time, the septin cortex spread to form a collar between mother and bud, and Hsl1p and Hsl7p were restricted to the bud side of the septin collar. We discuss models for translating cellular geometry (in this case, the emergence of a bud) into biochemical signals regulating cell proliferation. PMID:12925763

  20. beta-catenin signaling can initiate feather bud development.

    PubMed

    Noramly, S; Freeman, A; Morgan, B A

    1999-08-01

    Intercellular signaling by a subset of Wnts is mediated by stabilization of cytoplasmic beta-catenin and its translocation to the nucleus. Immunolocalization of beta-catenin in developing chick skin reveals that this signaling pathway is active in a dynamic pattern from the earliest stages of feather bud development. Forced activation of this pathway by expression of a stabilized beta-catenin in the ectoderm results in the ectopic formation of feather buds. This construct is sufficient to induce bud formation since it does so both within presumptive feather tracts and in normally featherless regions where tract-specific signals are absent. It is also insensitive to the lateral inhibition that mediates the normal spacing of buds and can induce ectopic buds in interfollicular skin. However, additional patterning signals cooperate with this pathway to regulate gene expression within domains of stabilized beta-catenin expression. Localized activation of this pathway within the bud as it develops is required for normal morphogenesis and ectopic activation of the pathway leads to abnormally oriented buds and growths on the feather filaments. These results suggest that activation of the beta-catenin pathway initiates follicle development in embryonic skin and plays important roles in the subsequent morphogenesis of the bud. PMID:10409498

  1. Desiccation tolerance of dormant buds from selected Prunus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormant buds of woody plant species present a convenient material for backing-up of germplasm in liquid nitrogen. Routinely, this type of material is used in long-term preservation of only a few species (e.g. apple and sour cherry). Cryopreservation procedures of dormant buds are species dependent, ...

  2. An elastic model of partial budding of retroviruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Nguyen, Toan

    2008-03-01

    Retroviruses are characterized by their unique infection strategy of reverse transcription, in which the genetic information flows from RNA back to DNA. The most well known representative is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Unlike budding of traditional enveloped viruses, retrovirus budding happens together with the formation of spherical virus capsids at the cell membrane. Led by this unique budding mechanism, we proposed an elastic model of retrovirus budding in this work. We found that if the lipid molecules of the membrane are supplied fast enough from the cell interior, the budding always proceeds to completion. In the opposite limit, there is an optimal size of partially budded virions. The zenith angle of these partially spherical capsids, α, is given by α˜(2̂/κσ)^1/4, where κ is the bending modulus of the membrane, σ is the surface tension of the membrane, and τ characterizes the strength of capsid protein interaction. If τ is large enough such that α˜π, the budding is complete. Our model explained many features of retrovirus partial budding observed in experiments.

  3. Effect of ipsilateral ureteric obstruction on contralateral kidney and role of renin angiotensin system blockade on renal recovery in experimentally induced unilateral ureteric obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Shasanka S.; Bajpai, Minu; Sinha, Anand; Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Sharma, Mehar C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To study, the effects of ipsilateral ureteric obstruction on contralateral kidney and the role of renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockade on renal recovery in experimentally induced unilateral ureteric obstruction. Materials and Methods: Unilateral upper ureteric obstruction was created in 96 adult Wistar rats that were reversed after pre-determined intervals. Losartan and Enalapril were given to different subgroups of rats following relief of obstruction. Results: The severity of dilatation on the contralateral kidney varied with duration of ipsilateral obstruction longer the duration more severe the dilatation. There is direct correlation between renal parenchymal damage, pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) fibrosis, inflammation and severity of pelvi-calyceal system dilatation of contralateral kidney with duration of ipsilateral PUJ obstruction. Conclusions: Considerable injury is also inflicted to the contralateral normal kidney while ipsilateral kidney remains obstructed. Use of RAS blocking drugs has been found to significantly improve renal recovery on the contralateral kidney. It can, thus, be postulated that contralateral renal parenchymal injury was mediated through activation of RAS. PMID:23798807

  4. Rabies virus inactivates cofilin to facilitate viral budding and release.

    PubMed

    Zan, Jie; An, Shu-Ting; Mo, Kai-Kun; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Hai-Long; Yan, Yan; Liao, Min; Zhou, Ji-Yong

    2016-09-01

    Cytoplasmic actin and actin-associated proteins have been identified in RABV particles. Although actin is involved in RABV entry into cells, the specific role of actin in RABV budding and release remains unknown. Our study found that RABV M protein-mediated virion budding depends on intact actin filaments. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a block to virions budding, with a number of M protein-mediated budding vesicles detained in the cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, RABV infection resulted in inactivation of cofilin and upregulation of phosphorylated cofilin. Knockdown of cofilin reduced RABV release. These results for the first time indicate that RABV infection resulted in upregulation of phosphorylated cofilin to facililtate actin polymerization for virus budding. PMID:27396619

  5. Estrogen signaling is not required for prostatic bud patterning or for its disruption by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Allgeier, Sarah Hicks; Vezina, Chad M.; Lin, T.-M.; Moore, Robert W.; Silverstone, Allen E.; Mukai, Motoko; Gavalchin, Jerrie; Cooke, Paul S.; Peterson, Richard E.

    2009-08-15

    Estrogens play an important role in prostatic development, health, and disease. While estrogen signaling is essential for normal postnatal prostate development, little is known about its prenatal role in control animals. We tested the hypothesis that estrogen signaling is needed for normal male prostatic bud patterning. Budding patterns were examined by scanning electron microscopy of urogenital sinus epithelium from wild-type mice, mice lacking estrogen receptor (ER){alpha}, ER{beta}, or both, and wild-type mice exposed to the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Budding phenotypes did not detectably differ among any of these groups, strongly suggesting that estrogen signaling is not needed to establish the prototypical prostatic budding pattern seen in control males. This finding contributes to our understanding of the effects of low-level estrogen exposure on early prostate development. In utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can greatly alter the pattern in which prostatic buds form and reduce their number. For several reasons, including a prior observation that inhibitory effects of TCDD on prostatic budding in rats depend heavily on the sex of adjacent fetuses, we tested the hypothesis that estrogen signaling is needed for TCDD to disrupt prostatic budding. However, budding did not detectably differ among wild-type mice, or mice lacking ER{alpha}, ER{beta}, or both, that were exposed prenatally to TCDD (5 {mu}g/kg on embryonic day 13.5). Nor did ICI 182,780 detectably affect the response to TCDD. These results strongly suggest that estrogen signaling is not needed for TCDD to inhibit prostatic epithelial budding.

  6. This bud's for you: mechanisms of cellular nucleocytoplasmic trafficking via nuclear envelope budding.

    PubMed

    Fradkin, Lee G; Budnik, Vivian

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) physically separates the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. While this barrier provides advantages, it also presents a challenge for the nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Decades-old dogma holds that all such border-crossing is via the nuclear pore complex (NPC). However, the diameter of the NPC central channel limits the passage of large cargos. Here, we review evidence that such large RNPs employ an endogenous NE-budding pathway, previously thought to be exclusive to the nuclear egress of Herpes viruses. We discuss this and other models proposed, the likelihood that this pathway is conserved, and the consequences of disrupting NE-budding for synapse development, localized translation of synaptic mRNAs, and laminopathies inducing accelerated aging. PMID:27236823

  7. Budding Yeast for Budding Geneticists: A Primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model System

    PubMed Central

    Duina, Andrea A.; Miller, Mary E.; Keeney, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:24807111

  8. Calling Card Analysis in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, David; Mitra, Robi D

    2016-02-01

    Calling card analysis is a high-throughput method for identifying the genomic binding sites of multiple transcription factors in a single experiment in budding yeast. By tagging a DNA-binding protein with a targeting domain that directs the insertion of the Ty5 retrotransposon, the genomic binding sites for that transcription factor are marked. The transposition locations are then identified en masse by Illumina sequencing. The calling card protocol allows for simultaneous analysis of multiple transcription factors. By cloning barcodes into the Ty5 transposon, it is possible to pair a unique barcode with every transcription factor in the experiment. The method presented here uses expression of transcription factors from their native loci; however, it can also be altered to measure binding sites of transcription factors overexpressed from a plasmid. PMID:26832687

  9. Measuring mitotic spindle dynamics in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, Kemp

    In order to carry out its life cycle and produce viable progeny through cell division, a cell must successfully coordinate and execute a number of complex processes with high fidelity, in an environment dominated by thermal noise. One important example of such a process is the assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle prior to chromosome segregation. The mitotic spindle is a modular structure composed of two spindle pole bodies, separated in space and spanned by filamentous proteins called microtubules, along which the genetic material of the cell is held. The spindle is responsible for alignment and subsequent segregation of chromosomes into two equal parts; proper spindle positioning and timing ensure that genetic material is appropriately divided amongst mother and daughter cells. In this thesis, I describe fluorescence confocal microscopy and automated image analysis algorithms, which I have used to observe and analyze the real space dynamics of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast. The software can locate structures in three spatial dimensions and track their movement in time. By selecting fluorescent proteins which specifically label the spindle poles and cell periphery, mitotic spindle dynamics have been measured in a coordinate system relevant to the cell division. I describe how I have characterised the accuracy and precision of the algorithms by simulating fluorescence data for both spindle poles and the budding yeast cell surface. In this thesis I also describe the construction of a microfluidic apparatus that allows for the measurement of long time-scale dynamics of individual cells and the development of a cell population. The tools developed in this thesis work will facilitate in-depth quantitative analysis of the non-equilibrium processes in living cells.

  10. Flexible Ureteroscopy Can Be More Efficacious in the Treatment of Proximal Ureteral Stones in Select Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Erdal; Sarıbacak, Ali; Ozkanli, Ahmet Oguz; Basar, Mehmet Murad; Acar, Oguz; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We aimed to compare and evaluate the outcomes and complications of two endoscopic treatment procedures, semirigid ureteroscopy (SR-URS) and flexible ureteroscopy (F-URS), in the treatment of proximal ureteral stones (PUS). Methods. SR-URS (group 1) was done on 68 patients whereas 64 patients underwent F-URS (group 2) for the treatment of PUS. Success rate was defined as the absence of stone fragments or presence of asymptomatic insignificant residual fragments < 2 mm. Outcomes and complications were recorded. Results. The differences were statistically not significant in age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and stone characteristics between groups. Mean ureteral stone size was 9.1 ± 0.4 mm and 8.9 ± 0.5 mm for groups 1 and 2. Mean operative time was 34.1 ± 1.5 min and 49.4 ± 2.3 min for groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.001). SFRs were 76.5% and 87.5% for groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.078). Two major complications (ureteral avulsion and ureteral rupture) occurred in group 1. Conclusion. F-URS is safer and less invasive than SR-URS in patients with PUS. There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy of either technique. Nonetheless we recommend F-URS in the management of PUS as a first-line treatment option in select cases of proximal ureteral calculi. PMID:26617636

  11. Flexible Ureteroscopy Can Be More Efficacious in the Treatment of Proximal Ureteral Stones in Select Patients.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Erdal; Sarıbacak, Ali; Ozkanli, Ahmet Oguz; Basar, Mehmet Murad; Acar, Oguz; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We aimed to compare and evaluate the outcomes and complications of two endoscopic treatment procedures, semirigid ureteroscopy (SR-URS) and flexible ureteroscopy (F-URS), in the treatment of proximal ureteral stones (PUS). Methods. SR-URS (group 1) was done on 68 patients whereas 64 patients underwent F-URS (group 2) for the treatment of PUS. Success rate was defined as the absence of stone fragments or presence of asymptomatic insignificant residual fragments < 2 mm. Outcomes and complications were recorded. Results. The differences were statistically not significant in age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and stone characteristics between groups. Mean ureteral stone size was 9.1 ± 0.4 mm and 8.9 ± 0.5 mm for groups 1 and 2. Mean operative time was 34.1 ± 1.5 min and 49.4 ± 2.3 min for groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.001). SFRs were 76.5% and 87.5% for groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.078). Two major complications (ureteral avulsion and ureteral rupture) occurred in group 1. Conclusion. F-URS is safer and less invasive than SR-URS in patients with PUS. There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy of either technique. Nonetheless we recommend F-URS in the management of PUS as a first-line treatment option in select cases of proximal ureteral calculi. PMID:26617636

  12. Optimal management of distal ureteric strictures following renal transplantation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Justin; Schiefer, Danielle; Aboalsamh, Ghaleb; Archambault, Jason; Luke, Patrick P; Sener, Alp

    2016-05-01

    Our objective was to define optimal management of distal ureteric strictures following renal transplantation. A systematic review on PubMed identified 34 articles (385 patients). Primary endpoints were success rates and complications of specific primary and secondary treatments (following failure of primary treatment). Among primary treatments (n = 303), the open approach had 85.4% success (95% CI 72.5-93.1) and the endourological approach had 64.3% success (95% CI 58.3-69.9). Among secondary treatments (n = 82), the open approach had 93.1% success (95% CI 77.0-99.2) and the endourological approach had 75.5% success (95% CI 62.3-85.2). The most common primary open treatment was ureteric reimplantation (n = 33, 81.8% success, 95% CI 65.2-91.8). The most common primary endourological treatment was dilation (n = 133, 58.6% success, 95% CI 50.1-66.7). Fourteen complications, including death (4 weeks post-op) and graft loss (12 days post-op), followed endourological treatment. One complication followed open treatment. This is the first systematic review to examine the success rates and complications of specific treatments for distal ureteric strictures following renal transplantation. Our review indicates that open management has higher success rates and fewer complications than endourological management as a primary and secondary treatment for post-transplant distal ureteric strictures. We also outline a post-transplant ureteric stricture evaluation and treatment algorithm. PMID:26895782

  13. Benefits and Complications of Removing Ureteral Stent Based on the Elapsed Time After Renal Transplantation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dadkhah, Farid; Yari, Hassan; Ali Asgari, Majid; Fallahnezhad, Mohammad Hossein; Tavoosian, Ali; Ghadian, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background The most important surgical complications of renal transplantation are stenosis and obstruction of anastomosis of the ureter to the bladder. Although the routine use of the ureteral stents to prevent such complications seems rational, the optimal time to keep the ureteral stent is still controversial. Objectives This study presents the benefits and complications of removing the ureteral stent based on the elapsed time after the surgery. Patients and Methods All patients who underwent kidney transplantation between May 2011 and August 2014 in Modarres hospital, Tehran, Iran, were enrolled in the study. The patients were classified into three groups. The ureteral stent was removed 10, 20, and 30 days after the transplantation in these groups. Results A total of 529 patients underwent kidney transplant surgery in our center. Urologic complications among the three groups consisting of hydronephrosis, urinoma and collection did not have statistically significant differences. Conclusions Ureteral stent can be picked up with no increased risk of urologic complications at shorter intervals after the kidney transplantation surgery. PMID:27231685

  14. Combination Therapy with Losartan and α-Tocopherol in Acute Ureteral Obstruction-Induced Renal Excretory Dysfunction and Acidification Defect

    PubMed Central

    Gheitasi, Izadpanah; Moosavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous study by the authors showed that a-tocopherol prevents oxidative stress but would not improve depressed excretory variables in post-obstructed kidney (POK) after release of 24-h unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). This study is a supplementary investigation on the effects of a-tocopherol combined with an antagonist of angiotensin-II type-1 (AT1) receptor on renal dysfunction following release of acute UUO. Methods: The left ureter was ligated in different groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats that received normal saline, losartan or losartan/a-tocopherol (n=6 in each group). After releasing 24-h UUO, urine of each kidney was separately collected under paraffin during 1-3 h of post-release period and then both kidneys were removed for measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP). Results: Losartan-treatment decreased MDA and increased FRAP, creatinine-clearance and sodium-reabsorption in POK, while co-treatment with losartan and a-tocopherol not only augmented improvement in these variables but also elevated potassium-excretion, free-water reabsorption and urine-osmolality. However, UUO-induced fall in urinary pCO2 and rise in pH and bicarbonate-excretion of POK were ameliorated equally with losartan and losartan/a-tocopherol. Conclusion: Activation of AT1-receptor contributes to the development of renal distal acidification defect induced by acute ureteral obstruction. The co-treatment with losartan and a-tocopherol showed that their effects on preventing oxidative stress along with ameliorating glomerular filtration and tubular fluid-delivery in POK could lead to improvement in tubular transport of sodium and potassium as well as urine-concentrating ability at the early post-release period. PMID:25031488

  15. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous antegrade hydropropulsion to relieve ureteral obstruction in a pet guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Chalmers, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Severe hydroureter and hydronephrosis secondary to ureteral obstruction by calculus were present in a guinea pig. A palliative ultrasound-guided percutaneous antegrade hydropropulsion was performed under general anesthesia to relieve the ureteral obstruction and the associated clinical signs. We describe the technique and the considerations for its potential application in similar cases. PMID:24293674

  16. A Case of Delayed Diagnosis of Bilateral Ureteral and Bladder Injury after Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: An Unusual Complication

    PubMed Central

    Goris-Gbenou, Maximilien C.; Arfi, Nicolas; Mitach, Abdel; Rashed, Sheer; Lopez, Jean-Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of ureteral and bladder lesions after laparoscopic hysterectomy is the most encountered urinary complication in gynaecological surgery. We report the unusual case of 42-year-old woman who had a delayed diagnosis of bilateral ureteral injury associated with bladder lesion and loose of vaginal suture after undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy for uterine adenomyosis. PMID:23198267

  17. Tree-in-bud pattern of chest CT images for diagnosis of Mycobacterium abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Haiqing; Li, Bing; Zhao, Lan; Huang, Dongdong; Xu, Jinfu; Zhang, Jingbo; Gui, Tao; Xu, Liyun; Luo, Liulin; Zhang, Zhemin; Sun, Xiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Changes of chest CT images in Mycobacterium and non-Mycobacterium abscesses in patients with lung disease were with a view to making an early diagnosis. Methods: 124 primary patients diagnosed with non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium infections with a positive sputum acid-fast smear were enrolled in this retrospective study. CT images and clinical data of these patients were analyzed. Results: The 52 Mycobacterium abscess lung disease cases included bronchiectasis 82.7% (43/52), which was more easily detected bilaterally than unilaterally (29/52 vs. 14/52), lung consolidation 44.2% (23/52), nodules 44.2% (22/52), cavities 32.7% (17/52), tree-in-bud pattern 42.3% (22/52) and patchy shadow 63.5% (33/52) in CT images. Tree-in-bud pattern was more common in Mycobacterium abscess compared with non-Mycobacterium abscess lung disease (42.3% vs. 18.1%, P = 0.004). A significant difference of the lung area involved by tree-in-bud in CT was found between non-Mycobacteria abscess and Mycobacterium abscess lung disease (17.0% vs. 7.2%, P < 0.001), and tree-in-bud occurred more readily unilaterally (21.2% vs. 6.9%, P = 0.029), and in the inferior lobe of the right lung (3.2% vs. 0.2%, P = 0.029) in Mycobacterium abscess lung disease. Patchy shadow was more common in non-Mycobacterium abscess lung disease (63.5% vs. 80.1%, P = 0.041). Further multi-factor analysis confirmed that tree-in-bud was an independent predictor of Mycobacterium abscess lung disease. Conclusions: Different CT results existed between non-Mycobacterium abscess and Mycobacterium abscess lung diseases. The tree-in-bud pattern might be helpful to choose a suitable therapy in patients, with an acid-fast bacilli smear-positive diagnosis of lung disease. PMID:26770485

  18. Ureteral Injury with Delayed Massive Hematuria after Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Oocyte Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Burnik Papler, Tanja; Vrtačnik Bokal, Eda; Šalamun, Vesna; Galič, Dejan; Smrkolj, Tomaž; Jančar, Nina

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of ureteral injury with delayed hematuria after transvaginal oocyte retrieval. A 28-year-old infertile patient with a history of previous laparoscopic resection of endometriotic nodes of both sacrouterine ligaments presented with abdominal pain one day after oocyte retrieval. Four days after oocyte retrieval, she presented with massive hematuria that reappeared 6 days after oocyte retrieval. Monopolar coagulation with wire electrode and insertion of a double-J-stent was performed during operative cystoscopy. The patient recovered completely after transfusion and had no signs of renal impairment after ureteric stent removal. This is the first report of ureteral injury after oocyte retrieval presenting itself with delayed massive hematuria and no signs of renal dysfunction or urinary leakage into retroperitoneal space. PMID:26146577

  19. Antegrade placement of a ureteric stent by a pull-through technique.

    PubMed

    Asch, M R; Jaffer, N M

    1995-12-01

    Internal double-J ureteric stents are valuable in the treatment of ureteric obstruction, obviating the need for an external drainage catheter. Retrograde placement of these stents is often performed by the urologist, or, if such placement fails, antegrade placement is performed by the interventional radiology service. In cases of high-grade obstruction it may be possible to pass a guide wire through the stricture but impossible to do so with a catheter. The authors describe a pull-through technique, which was used to place a ureteric stent in a 65-year-old man with bilateral hydronephrosis. The method consists of gaining control of the distal end of the guide wire by retrieving it through the penile urethra to allow the stenosis to be crossed with a catheter. PMID:7583729

  20. Binding of various lectins during chondrogenesis in mouse limb buds.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, B

    1986-01-01

    The binding of six different FITC-labelled lectins to cells and matrix was investigated during chondrogenesis in mouse limb buds from day 10 to 13 of development. In undifferentiated mesenchyme, concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin bound very strongly, whereas at later stages binding was decreased in the peripheral mesenchyme, but very strong in blastemata and cartilage. Phaseolus vulgaris lectin showed the same properties, but the decrease in the peripheral mesenchyme was less pronounced. Fucose-specific lotus A lectin showed no binding at all. Ricinus communis lectin bound preferentially to the blastemata, and the galactose-specific peanut lectin exhibited binding exclusively to the blastemata. Electron microscopic investigations of the binding of peroxidase-labelled peanut lectin revealed reaction product in the matrix and at cellular membranes only at later stages. Early blastemal cell condensations were negative. In vitro experiments on chondrogenesis in high density cultures showed no pronounced influence of beta-D-galactosides on cell differentiation and matrix production. PMID:2422680

  1. Characterization of Septin Ultrastructure in Budding Yeast Using Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Summary Septins are essential for the completion of cytokinesis. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septins are located at the bud neck during mitosis and are closely connected to the inner plasma membrane. In vitro, yeast septins have been shown to self-assemble into a variety of filamentous structures, including rods, paired filaments, bundles and rings [1–3]. Using electron tomography of freeze-substituted section and cryo-electron tomography of frozen sections, we determined the three dimensional organization of the septin cytoskeleton in dividing budding yeast with molecular resolution [4,5]. Here we describe the detailed procedures used for our characterization of the septin cellular ultrastructure. PMID:26519309

  2. Management of alternative pathology detected using CT KUB in suspected ureteric colic.

    PubMed

    Sarofim, Mina; Teo, Adrian; Wilson, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Acute flank pain is a common presentation to the emergency department (ED), and imaging studies play an important role in establishing an accurate diagnosis. Computed Tomography of Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder (CT KUB) has surpassed all other imaging modalities to become the gold standard in detection of ureteric calculi. The purpose of this study is to identify the range and management of alternative diagnoses established by CT KUB in patients with suspected ureteric colic. Two hundred and fifteen consecutive CT KUB examinations ordered in the ED of a tertiary-care centre for suspected ureteric colic were retrospectively reviewed. This comprised of 134 male (62.3%) and 81 female (37.7%) patients with a mean age of 53 years old. The positive detection rate for ureteric calculi in males was 43.3% compared to a lower rate for females of 29.6% (p < 0.05). Almost two-thirds of patients were discharged following CT KUB imaging, and admission rates were significantly higher in those with alternative radiological findings (p < 0.04) Alternative radiological findings occurred in 72 patients (33.5%), including 15 patients (7.0%) who had clinically important alternative pathology. The rate of clinically important alternative findings was significantly higher in males than females, 9.7% versus 2.5% respectively (p = 0.04). Surgical intervention was more common in patients with alternative radiological findings classified as gastrointestinal (18.2%) compared to non-gastrointestinal (3.6%), however this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). In conclusion, significant alternative pathology was identified using CT KUB in 7% of patients with suspected ureteric colic. The low rates of detection of ureteric calculi and significant alternative pathology in female patients suggests a more thorough clinical assessment is warranted to improve their management, prior to ordering investigations with exposure to radiation. PMID:27373521

  3. Replication origins and timing of temporal replication in budding yeast: how to solve the conundrum?

    PubMed

    Barberis, Matteo; Spiesser, Thomas W; Klipp, Edda

    2010-05-01

    Similarly to metazoans, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cereviasiae replicates its genome with a defined timing. In this organism, well-defined, site-specific origins, are efficient and fire in almost every round of DNA replication. However, this strategy is neither conserved in the fission yeast Saccharomyces pombe, nor in Xenopus or Drosophila embryos, nor in higher eukaryotes, in which DNA replication initiates asynchronously throughout S phase at random sites. Temporal and spatial controls can contribute to the timing of replication such as Cdk activity, origin localization, epigenetic status or gene expression. However, a debate is going on to answer the question how individual origins are selected to fire in budding yeast. Two opposing theories were proposed: the "replicon paradigm" or "temporal program" vs. the "stochastic firing". Recent data support the temporal regulation of origin activation, clustering origins into temporal blocks of early and late replication. Contrarily, strong evidences suggest that stochastic processes acting on origins can generate the observed kinetics of replication without requiring a temporal order. In mammalian cells, a spatiotemporal model that accounts for a partially deterministic and partially stochastic order of DNA replication has been proposed. Is this strategy the solution to reconcile the conundrum of having both organized replication timing and stochastic origin firing also for budding yeast? In this review we discuss this possibility in the light of our recent study on the origin activation, suggesting that there might be a stochastic component in the temporal activation of the replication origins, especially under perturbed conditions. PMID:21037857

  4. Cholesterol modification restricts the spread of Shh gradient in the limb bud.

    PubMed

    Li, Yina; Zhang, Huimin; Litingtung, Ying; Chiang, Chin

    2006-04-25

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) produced in the zone of polarizing activity is the major determinant of anteroposterior development of the amniote limb. The mature and active Shh protein is cholesterol-modified at its C terminus, and the hydrophobic nature of the modification requires the function of Dispatched (mDispA), a seven-pass transmembrane protein, for Shh release from its source. The current model suggests that the cholesterol moiety promotes the spread of Shh gradient in the limb bud. However, this model is inconsistent with findings in Drosophila and not in line with current thoughts on the role of the cholesterol moiety in Shh multimerization. Therefore, it remains unclear how the cholesterol moiety affects the postrelease extracellular behavior of Shh that relates to the shape of its activity gradient in responsive tissues. Here, we report functional analyses in mice showing that Shh lacking cholesterol modification (ShhN) has an increased propensity to spread long-distance, eliciting ectopic Shh pathway activation consistent with target gene expressions and modulating the level of Gli3 processing in the anterior limb mesoderm. These molecular alterations are reflected in the mispatterning of digits in ShhN mutants. Additionally, we provide direct evidence for the long-distance movement of ShhN across the anteroposterior axis of the limb bud. Our findings suggest that the cholesterol moiety regulates the range and shape of the Shh morphogen gradient by restricting rather than promoting the postrelease spread of Shh across the limb bud during early development. PMID:16611729

  5. Apical constriction initiates new bud formation during monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Young; Varner, Victor D; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-08-01

    Branching morphogenesis sculpts the airway epithelium of the lung into a tree-like structure to conduct air and promote gas exchange after birth. In the avian lung, a series of buds emerges from the dorsal surface of the primary bronchus via monopodial branching to form the conducting airways; anatomically, these buds are similar to those formed by domain branching in the mammalian lung. Here, we show that monopodial branching is initiated by apical constriction of the airway epithelium, and not by differential cell proliferation, using computational modeling and quantitative imaging of embryonic chicken lung explants. Both filamentous actin and phosphorylated myosin light chain were enriched at the apical surface of the airway epithelium during monopodial branching. Consistently, inhibiting actomyosin contractility prevented apical constriction and blocked branch initiation. Although cell proliferation was enhanced along the dorsal and ventral aspects of the primary bronchus, especially before branch formation, inhibiting proliferation had no effect on the initiation of branches. To test whether the physical forces from apical constriction alone are sufficient to drive the formation of new buds, we constructed a nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element model of the airway epithelium and used it to simulate apical constriction and proliferation in the primary bronchus. Our results suggest that, consistent with the experimental results, apical constriction is sufficient to drive the early stages of monopodial branching whereas cell proliferation is dispensable. We propose that initial folding of the airway epithelium is driven primarily by apical constriction during monopodial branching of the avian lung. PMID:23824575

  6. Anuria Secondary to Bilateral Obstructing Ureteral Stones in the Absence of Renal Colic

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Christopher; Altamar, Hernan O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obstructing ureteral stones are a rare cause of anuria, which is typically from prerenal or renal etiologies. Classically, obstructive stones cause moderate to severe renal colic. Urolithiasis is rarely considered during evaluation of painless anuria. Case Presentation: We present an unusual case of a 73-year-old Caucasian female who presented with anuria and was found to have large bilateral obstructing ureteral stones in the absence of renal colic. Conclusion: Given that patients with obstructive anuria can be asymptomatic, urolithiasis should be considered in all patients presenting with anuria. PMID:27579429

  7. [Ureteral obstruction: an unfrequent complication of Burch colposuspension. Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Flores Rosas, Sergio Alberto; Cabrera Jácome, Rafael; Galeano Portillo, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    The injury of the urinary tract in a pelvic surgery is inherent, its real frequency in which it presents, is difficult to establish, due that not all the lesions are published. In this article, two cases of ureteral obstruction posterior to a Burch-procedure, and the way they were resolved is reported. The ureteral obstruction is a very rare complication, but one that has the worst and severe medico-legal consequences, if they are not resolved opportunely. Its frequency in our service was of 0.41%, in 240 Burch-procedures that were realized during April of 1997 and June of 2000. PMID:15239563

  8. Ureterocalycostomy - final resort in the management of secondary pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction: our experience

    PubMed Central

    Gite, Venkat A.; Siddiqui, Ayub Karam Nabi; Bote, Sachin M.; Patil, Saurabh Ramesh; Kandi, Anita J.; Nikose, Jayant V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ureterocalycostomy can be performed in patients in whom desired methods of treating secondary PUJ (Pelvi-Ureteric Junction) obstructions either failed or could not be used. In our study, one child and two adults in whom one redo-ureterocalycostomy and two ureterocalycostomies were performed for severely scarred PUJ. The causes for secondary PUJ obstruction were post-pyelolithotomy in one case, post-pyeloplasty and ureterocalycostomy for PUJ obstruction in the second patient and the third patient had long upper ureteric stricture post-ureteropyeloplasty due to tuberculosis. In all these cases ureterocalycostomy proved to be salvage/final resort for preserving functional renal unit. PMID:27286113

  9. Delayed-onset Ureteral Obstruction and Calcification Masquerading as Renal Colic Following Deflux Injection.

    PubMed

    Romain, Julie; Fourcade, Laurent; Centi, Joachim; Blanc, Philippe; Masselin, Mathilde Casson; Lescure, Victor; Guigonis, Vincent; Descazeaud, Aurélien; Ballouhey, Quentin

    2016-08-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux is a common disorder in children, and its management has changed entirely as a result of widespread use of endoscopy procedures to inject filler materials. Complications with this type of treatment, particularly ureteral obstruction, are rare. Very few patients with delayed obstruction have been reported in the literature. We here present the case of an 8-year-old girl who exhibited symptoms of febrile renal colic and renal distension more than 5 years after undergoing endoscopic treatment. This is the first reported case of atypical late presentation combining pyelonephritis with ureteral obstruction and calcification. PMID:26970448

  10. An Extremely Rare Complication of Ureteral Pigtail Stent Placement: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Arab, Davood; Ardestani Zadeh, Arash; Eskandarian, Rahimeh; Asaadi, Mehrshad; Ghods, Kamran

    2016-05-01

    Double-J (DJ) stents are the main tools used in urological practice for prevention and treatment of obstruction. Stenting is also mandatory after complicated ureteroscopy or TUL (Transureteral Lithotripsy). Known complications are upper migration of DJ stents into the kidney and lower migration to the bladder. In a man with an impacted right lower ureteral stone, a DJ stent was placed because the ureteroscope was not passed from an intramural ureter. We reported a very rare complication of DJ ureteral stent placement with intravascular migration to the pulmonary arteries, which was removed percutaneously through the right femoral vein under fluoroscopic guidance. PMID:27570754

  11. Metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma to the prostate presenting with bilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Marlin, Evan S; Hyams, Elias S; Dulabon, Lori; Shah, Ojas

    2010-02-01

    Carcinoma metastatic to the prostate occurs rarely and is most commonly associated with malignant bladder neoplasms. We present the case of a 73-year-old male with a history of gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma and clinically symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent photoselective vaporization of the prostate and presented several months later with gross hematuria, intermittent urinary retention and bilateral ureteral obstruction causing acute renal failure. After relieving the ureteral obstruction, subsequent transurethral resection of the prostate revealed locally invasive metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of metastatic gastroesophageal carcinoma to the prostate. PMID:20156389

  12. Misplacement or migration? Extremely rare case of cardiac migration of a ureteral j stent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Nam; Lee, Chan Ho; Kong, Do Hoon; Shin, Dong Kil; Lee, Jeong Zoo

    2014-05-01

    A 29-year-old woman with mild back pain when coughing and suprapubic discomfort after voiding was admitted to Pusan National University Hospital. Two weeks earlier, she had undergone a hysterectomy and right-sided ureteroneocystostomy for uterine atony and right ureteral injury with bladder rupture. Computed tomography showed that a ureteral J stent extended from the right ovarian vein to the right cardiac chamber. The stent was retrieved via both femoral veins with a snare loop and pigtail catheter. Computed tomography showed that the urinary and vascular tracts were normal 5 months after the procedure. PMID:24868342

  13. Combined Endoscopic and Percutaneous Retrieval of a Retained 4-Wire Ureteral Stone Basket

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Adam G.; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Complex endourologic procedures may require the use of a combined ureteroscopic and percutaneous approach. Endoscopic removal of a retained 4-wire ureteral stone basket is particularly complex, as broken tines can potentially injure the ureter if the basket is removed in a retrograde manner. The patient in this case presented with a ureteral stone basket embedded within the urothelium of the upper pole of the kidney. Holmium laser incision of the overlying urothelium allowed retrieval of the basket, although the tines were broken. Endoscopically guided percutaneous access to the kidney was obtained to allow for direct passage of the retained basket out of a nephrostomy sheath, thereby protecting the kidney.

  14. Uterine Artery Embolization for Ureteric Obstruction Secondary to Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Mirsadraee, Saeed; Tuite, David; Nicholson, Anthony

    2008-11-15

    This case series examines the safety and efficacy of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the treatment of obstructive nephropathy caused by large fibroids. Between 2004 and 2007, 10 patients referred with symptomatic uterine fibroids that were found to be causing either unilateral (7 patients) or bilateral (3 patients) hydronephrosis were treated by UAE. Presenting complaints included menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, bulk symptoms, loin pain, postobstructive atrophy, and mild renal impairment. All had posterior intramural dominant fibroids >11 cm in maximum sagittal diameter and uterine volumes between 3776 and 15,625 ml. Outcome measures at between 12 and 36 months included procedural success, repeat intervention, relief of symptoms, resolution of hydronephrosis, stable renal function and size, and avoidance of hysterectomy. In all cases the cause of renal obstruction was confirmed to be a giant fibroid compressing the ureter at the pelvic brim. In all cases UAE was technically successful, though two patients required a repeat procedure. In eight patients hydronephrosis resolved and the obstruction was relieved, though two still had some bulk symptoms not requiring further treatment. Renal function improved or was stable in all cases. Renal size was stable in all cases. Where menorrhagia was part of the symptom complex it was relieved in all cases. Two patients diagnosed as having postobstructive atrophy of one kidney underwent retrograde ureteric stenting on the nonatrophied side prior to UAE. This was unsuccessful in one of the cases due to the distortion caused by the fibroid. Despite improvement in hydronephrosis this patient underwent hysterectomy at 7 months after a renogram demonstrated persistent obstruction at the pelvic brim. In the second patient a double pigtail stent was inserted with difficulty and eventually removed at 8 months. This patient has had stable renal function and size for 3 years post-UAE. We conclude that UAE is safe and effective in

  15. Mechanical feedback stabilizes budding yeast morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Samhita; Trogdon, Michael; Petzold, Linda; Campas, Otger

    Walled cells have the ability to remodel their shape while sustaining an internal turgor pressure that can reach values up to 10 atmospheres. This requires a tight and simultaneous regulation of cell wall assembly and mechanochemistry, but the underlying mechanisms by which this is achieved remain unclear. Using the growth of mating projections in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) as a motivating example, we have developed a theoretical description that couples the mechanics of cell wall expansion and assembly via a mechanical feedback. In the absence of a mechanical feedback, cell morphogenesis is inherently unstable. The presence of a mechanical feedback stabilizes changes in cell shape and growth, and provides a mechanism to prevent cell lysis in a wide range of conditions. We solve for the dynamics of the system and obtain the different dynamical regimes. In particular, we show that several parameters affect the stability of growth, including the strength of mechanical feedback in the system. Finally, we compare our results to existing experimental data.

  16. Factors influencing axillary shoot proliferation and adventitious budding in cedar.

    PubMed

    Renau-Morata, Begoña; Ollero, Javier; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2005-04-01

    We developed procedures for in vitro cloning of Cedrus atlantica Manetti and C. libani A. Rich explants from juvenile and mature plants. Explant size was one determinant of the frequency of axillary bud break in both species. Shoot tips and nodal explants mainly developed calli, whereas bud sprouting occurred in defoliated microcuttings cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium without growth regulators. Isolation and continuous subculture of sprouted buds on the same medium allowed cloning of microcuttings from C. atlantica and C. libani seedlings and bicentennial C. libani trees, thus providing a desirable alternative for multiplying mature trees that have demonstrated superior characteristics. We also report adventitious bud differentiation from isolated embryos of C. atlantica. Neither auxin treatments nor other methods tested, including infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, were effective in inducing root initiation. PMID:15687096

  17. Viral and host proteins that modulate filovirus budding

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuliang; Harty, Ronald N

    2010-01-01

    The filoviruses, Ebola and Marburg, utilize a multifaceted mechanism for assembly and budding of infectious virions from mammalian cells. Growing evidence not only demonstrates the importance of multiple viral proteins for efficient assembly and budding, but also the exploitation of various host proteins/pathways by the virus during this late stage of filovirus replication, including endocytic compartments, vacuolar protein sorting pathways, ubiquitination machinery, lipid rafts and cytoskeletal components. Continued elucidation of these complex and orchestrated virus-host interactions will provide a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of filovirus assembly/budding and ultimately lead to the development of novel viral- and/or host-oriented therapeutics to inhibit filovirus egress and spread. This article will focus on the most recent studies on host interactions and modulation of filovirus budding and summarize the key findings from these investigations. PMID:20730024

  18. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  19. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katherine A

    2016-03-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. PMID:27047605

  20. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27047605

  1. Impact of peritumoral and intratumoral budding in esophageal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Thies, Svenja; Guldener, Lars; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Zlobec, Inti; Koelzer, Viktor H; Lugli, Alessandro; Kröll, Dino; Seiler, Christian A; Feith, Marcus; Langer, Rupert

    2016-06-01

    Tumor budding has prognostic significance in many carcinomas and is defined as the presence of detached isolated single cells or small cell clusters up to 5 cells at the invasion front (peritumoral budding [PTB]) or within the tumor (intratumoral budding [ITB]). For esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs), there are currently only few data about the impact of this morphological feature. We investigated tumor budding in a large collective of 200 primarily resected EACs. Pancytokeratin staining was demonstrated to be superior to hematoxylin and eosin staining for the detection of buds with substantial to excellent interobserver agreement and used for subsequent analysis. PTB and ITB were scored across 10 high-power fields (HPFs). The median count of tumor buds was 130/10 HPFs for PTB (range, 2-593) and 80/10 HPFs for ITB (range, 1-656). PTB and ITB correlated significantly with each other (r = 0.9; P < .001). High PTB and ITB rates were seen in more advanced tumor categories (P < .001 each); tumors with lymph node metastases (P < .001/P = .002); and lymphatic, vascular, and perineural invasion and higher tumor grading (P < .001 each). Survival analysis showed an association with worse survival for high-grade ITB (P = .029) but not PTB (P = .385). However, in multivariate analysis, lymph node and resection status, but not ITB, were independent prognostic parameters. In conclusion, PTB and ITB can be observed in EAC to various degrees. High-grade budding is associated with aggressive tumor phenotype. Assessment of tumor budding, especially ITB, may provide additional prognostic information about tumor behavior and may be useful in specific cases for risk stratification of EAC patients. PMID:26980046

  2. The S40 residue in HIV-1 Gag p6 impacts local and distal budding determinants, revealing additional late domain activities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-1 budding is directed primarily by two motifs in Gag p6 designated as late domain-1 and −2 that recruit ESCRT machinery by binding Tsg101 and Alix, respectively, and by poorly characterized determinants in the capsid (CA) domain. Here, we report that a conserved Gag p6 residue, S40, impacts budding mediated by all of these determinants. Results Whereas budding normally results in formation of single spherical particles ~100 nm in diameter and containing a characteristic electron-dense conical core, the substitution of Phe for S40, a change that does not alter the amino acids encoded in the overlapping pol reading frame, resulted in defective CA-SP1 cleavage, formation of strings of tethered particles or filopodia-like membrane protrusions containing Gag, and diminished infectious particle formation. The S40F-mediated release defects were exacerbated when the viral-encoded protease (PR) was inactivated or when L domain-1 function was disrupted or when budding was almost completely obliterated by the disruption of both L domain-1 and −2. S40F mutation also resulted in stronger Gag-Alix interaction, as detected by yeast 2-hybrid assay. Reducing Alix binding by mutational disruption of contact residues restored single particle release, implicating the perturbed Gag-Alix interaction in the aberrant budding events. Interestingly, introduction of S40F partially rescued the negative effects on budding of CA NTD mutations EE75,76AA and P99A, which both prevent membrane curvature and therefore block budding at an early stage. Conclusions The results indicate that the S40 residue is a novel determinant of HIV-1 egress that is most likely involved in regulation of a critical assembly event required for budding in the Tsg101-, Alix-, Nedd4- and CA N-terminal domain affected pathways. PMID:24257210

  3. Dielectric modelling of cell division for budding and fission yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Koji; Sekine, Katsuhisa

    2007-02-01

    The frequency dependence of complex permittivity or the dielectric spectrum of a system including a cell in cell division has been simulated by a numerical technique based on the three-dimensional finite difference method. Two different types of cell division characteristic of budding and fission yeast were examined. The yeast cells are both regarded as a body of rotation, and thus have anisotropic polarization, i.e. the effective permittivity of the cell depends on the orientation of the cell to the direction of an applied electric field. In the perpendicular orientation, where the rotational axis of the cell is perpendicular to the electric field direction, the dielectric spectra for both yeast cells included one dielectric relaxation and its intensity depended on the cell volume. In the parallel orientation, on the other hand, two dielectric relaxations appeared with bud growth for budding yeast and with septum formation for fission yeast. The low-frequency relaxation was shifted to a lower frequency region by narrowing the neck between the bud and the mother cell for budding yeast and by increasing the degree of septum formation for fission yeast. After cell separation, the low-frequency relaxation disappeared. The simulations well interpreted the oscillation of the relative permittivity of culture broth found for synchronous cell growth of budding yeast.

  4. Cryotolerance of apple tree bud is independent of endodormancy

    PubMed Central

    Bilavcik, Alois; Zamecnik, Jiri; Faltus, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Increasing interest in cryopreservation of dormant buds reveals the need for better understanding of the role of dormancy in cryotolerance. Dormancy stage and low-temperature survival of vegetative apple buds (Malus domestica Borkh.), cultivars ‘Sampion’ and ‘Spartan’, collected from orchard were evaluated during three seasons contrasting in temperature and precipitation throughout the arrested plant growth period. During each season, the cultivars differed either in the onset of the endodormancy or in the length of the endodormant period. A simple relation between endodormancy of the buds and their water content was not detected. The cryosurvival of vegetative apple buds of both cultivars correlated with their cold hardening without direct regard to their particular phase of dormancy. The period of the highest bud cryotolerance after low-temperature exposure overlapped with the endodormant period in some evaluated seasons. Both cultivars had the highest cryosurvival in December and January. The presented data were compared with our previous results from a dormancy study of in vitro apple culture. Endodormancy coincided with the period of successful cryosurvival of apple buds after liquid nitrogen exposure, but as such, it was not decisive for their survival and did not limit their successful cryopreservation. PMID:26442012

  5. Tumor Budding: The Name is EMT. Partial EMT.

    PubMed Central

    Grigore, Alexandru Dan; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Jia, Dongya; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Levine, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Tumor budding is a histological phenomenon encountered in various cancers, whereby individual malignant cells and/or small clusters of malignant cells are seen in the tumor stroma. Postulated to be mirror epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor budding has been associated with poor cancer outcomes. However, the vast heterogeneity in its exact definition, methodology of assessment, and patient stratification need to be resolved before it can be routinely used as a standardized prognostic feature. Here, we discuss the heterogeneity in defining and assessing tumor budding, its clinical significance across multiple cancer types, and its prospective implementation in clinical practice. Next, we review the emerging evidence about partial, rather than complete, epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype at the tumor bud level, and its connection with tumor proliferation, quiescence, and stemness. Finally, based on recent literature, indicating a co-expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers in many tumor buds, we posit tumor budding to be a manifestation of this hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype displaying collective cell migration. PMID:27136592

  6. Waves and patterning in developmental biology: vertebrate segmentation and feather bud formation as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Ruth E.; Schnell, Santiago; Maini, Philip K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we will discuss the integration of developmental patterning mechanisms with waves of competency that control the ability of a homogeneous field of cells to react to pattern forming cues and generate spatially heterogeneous patterns. We base our discussion around two well known patterning events that take place in the early embryo: somitogenesis and feather bud formation. We outline mathematical models to describe each patterning mechanism, present the results of numerical simulations and discuss the validity of each model in relation to our example patterning processes. PMID:19557684

  7. A Prospective, Multi-Institutional Study of Flexible Ureteroscopy for Proximal Ureteral Stones Smaller than 2 cm

    PubMed Central

    Hyams, Elias S.; Monga, Manoj; Pearle, Margaret S.; Antonelli, Jodi A.; Semins, Michelle J.; Assimos, Dean G.; Lingeman, James E.; Pais, Vernon M.; Preminger, Glenn M.; Lipkin, Michael E.; Eisner, Brian H.; Shah, Ojas; Sur, Roger L; Mufarrij, Patrick W.; Matlagak, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Flexible ureteroscopy is rapidly becoming a first line therapy for many patients with renal and ureteral stones. However, current understanding of treatment outcomes in patients with isolated proximal ureteral stones is limited. Therefore, we performed a prospective, multi-institutional study of ureteroscopic management of proximal ureteral stones smaller than 2 cm to better define clinical outcomes associated with this approach. Materials and Methods Adult patients with proximal ureteral calculi smaller than 2 cm were prospectively identified. Patients with concomitant ipsilateral renal calculi or prior ureteral stenting were excluded from study. Flexible ureteroscopy, holmium laser lithotripsy and ureteral stent placement was performed. Ureteral access sheath use, laser settings and other details of perioperative and postoperative management were based on individual surgeon preference. Stone clearance was determined by the results of renal ultrasound and plain x-ray of the kidneys, ureters and bladder 4 to 6 weeks postoperatively. Results Of 71 patients 44 (62%) were male and 27 (38%) were female. Mean age was 48.2 years. ASA® score was 1 in 12 cases (16%), 2 in 41 (58%), 3 in 16 (23%) and 4 in 2 (3%). Mean body mass index was 31.8 kg/m2, mean stone size was 7.4 mm (range 5 to 15) and mean operative time was 60.3 minutes (range 15 to 148). Intraoperative complications occurred in 2 patients (2.8%), including mild ureteral trauma. Postoperative complications developed in 6 patients (8.7%), including urinary tract infection in 3, urinary retention in 2 and flash pulmonary edema in 1. The stone-free rate was 95% and for stones smaller than 1 cm it was 100%. Conclusions Flexible ureteroscopy is associated with excellent clinical outcomes and acceptable morbidity when applied to patients with proximal ureteral stones smaller than 2 cm. PMID:25014576

  8. [Operative fiberoptic nephroureteroscope--removal of renal and upper ureteral stones].

    PubMed

    Aso, Y; Otawara, Y; Fukuta, K; Sudoko, H; Nakano, M; Ushiyama, T; Ota, N; Suzuki, K; Tajima, A

    1987-06-01

    Two types of operative fiberoptic nephroureteroscopes were developed with the cooperation of the Olympus Optical Company mainly to remove the upper urinary tract calculi. Removal of the renal and upper ureteral stones was attempted in nine cases. The ureter was dilated with olive tip, balloon and Teflon dilators alone or in combination. The combination of balloon and Teflon dilators seemed the most promising. As a result of ureteral dilation, operative fiberoptic nephroureteroscopes, 4.5 mm and 3.5 mm in diameter, could be passed into the ureter in all the cases and the stones could be visualized clearly. Four of the 7 upper ureteral stones and 1 of the 2 pelvic stones could be removed. The success ratio was 56%. The method of stone removal still requires improvement. At present, application of the operative fiberoptic nephroureteroscope is indicated for upper ureteral and renal stones less than 1.0 cm in diameter. With the improved techniques of stone removal using this fiberscope, the indications of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or percutaneous nephrolithotripsy will probably be greatly reduced in the near future. PMID:3673834

  9. The antenatally detected pelvi-ureteric junction stenosis: advances in renography and strategy of management.

    PubMed

    Ismaili, Khalid; Piepsz, Amy

    2013-04-01

    This review includes an analysis of new developments in the field of renography, the predictive factors suggesting the need for pyeloplasty in cases of pelvi-utereric stenosis detected antenatally and integration of the pelvi-ureteric junction stenosis within the framework of antenatally detected hydronephrosis. PMID:23525768

  10. Forgotten/retained double J ureteric stents: A source of severe morbidity in children

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, Rajendra B.; Magdum, Prasad V.; Sharma, Vikas; Guntaka, Ajay Kumar; Hiremath, Murigendra B.; Ghagane, Shridhar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The increase in the usage of double J (DJ) ureteral stents in the management of a variety of urinary tract disease processes mandates familiarity with these devices, their consequences and their potential complications, which at times can be devastating. We retrospectively reviewed our series of children with forgotten/retained DJ ureteric stents. Materials and Methods: Hospital records of all patients’ <18 years old who underwent removal of forgotten/retained DJ ureteral stent at our hospital were reviewed for age, gender, indication for insertion of DJ stent, duration of stent insertion, radiological images and surgical procedures performed. Results: During the study period, January 2000 to December 2014 (a 15-year period), a total of 14 children underwent removal of forgotten/retained DJ ureteral stent. A combination of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, cystolitholapaxy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy was done to free the DJ stent and extract it. Conclusions: Forgotten/retained stents in children are a source of severe morbidity, additional/unnecessary hospitalisation and definitely financial strain. PMID:27251521

  11. Ectopic Ureteral Insertion into the Seminal Vesicle Causing Recurrent Epididymitis in a 24-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Marien, Tracy; Herrell, Stanley Duke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A 24-year-old male was found to have recurrent epididymitis secondary to ectopic ureteral insertion to the seminal vesicle. His ipsilateral kidney was atrophic and ectopic in the pelvis, suggesting a complex failure of embryological development. He was successfully treated with robot-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy.

  12. Ballistics and the management of ureteral injuries from high velocity missiles.

    PubMed

    Stutzman, R E

    1977-12-01

    The management of 21 patients with 22 ureteral injuries from high velocity missiles is described and 6 cases are reported in detail. Ballistics should be considered in all wounds of violence. Débridement, internal stents, proximal diversion and thorough drainage are advocated. PMID:926271

  13. Analgesic effect and tolerance of Voltaren and Ketogan in acute renal or ureteric colic.

    PubMed

    Sommer, P; Kromann-Andersen, B; Lendorf, A; Lyngdorf, P; Møller, P

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-six patients with renal or ureteric colic were entered into a randomised, prospective, double-blind investigation of the analgesic efficacy and tolerance of Voltaren versus Ketogan, both administered intramuscularly. There were no significant differences regarding pain-relief but side effects were fewer in patients treated with Voltaren. PMID:2645969

  14. Should We Place Ureteral Stents in Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Ureterolithotomy?: Consideration of Surgical Techniques and Complications

    PubMed Central

    You, Jae Hyung; Kim, Young Gon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There is some debate over the necessity of ureteral stenting after laparoscopic ureterolithotomy. We evaluated the need for ureteral stenting after retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (RLU). Materials and Methods Between January 2009 and January 2013, 41 patients underwent RLU to remove upper ureteral stones. The retroperitoneal approach was used in all patients by a single surgeon. A double J (D-J) stent was placed in the first 17 patients after the procedure but not in any of the next 24 patients. Results The mean patient age, serum creatinine levels, and stone size were not significantly different between the two groups. The stone-free rate was 100%. The mean operative time was significantly shorter in the stentless group than in the stent group (59.48 minutes vs. 77.88 minutes, p<0.001). Parenteral analgesic use and anticholinergic medication use were observed in the stent group only. The blood loss, drain removal day, and hospital stay were not significantly different between the two groups. No other significant complications occurred during or after the operation in any patients. Conclusions RLU is a safe and effective treatment modality for large impacted ureteral stones. In this study, D-J stent placement was not necessary after RLU. In the future, large-scale studies of RLU without D-J stenting, especially on the frequency of the development of complications according to the surgical technique, may be needed. PMID:25132944

  15. Organ In Vitro Culture: What Have We Learned about Early Kidney Development?

    PubMed Central

    Rak-Raszewska, Aleksandra; Hauser, Peter V.; Vainio, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    When Clifford Grobstein set out to study the inductive interaction between tissues in the developing embryo, he developed a method that remained important for the study of renal development until now. From the late 1950s on, in vitro cultivation of the metanephric kidney became a standard method. It provided an artificial environment that served as an open platform to study organogenesis. This review provides an introduction to the technique of organ culture, describes how the Grobstein assay and its variants have been used to study aspects of mesenchymal induction, and describes the search for natural and chemical inducers of the metanephric mesenchyme. The review also focuses on renal development, starting with ectopic budding of the ureteric bud, ureteric bud branching, and the generation of the nephron and presents the search for stem cells and renal progenitor cells that contribute to specific structures and tissues during renal development. It also presents the current use of Grobstein assay and its modifications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering today. Together, this review highlights the importance of ex vivo kidney studies as a way to acquire new knowledge, which in the future can and will be implemented for developmental biology and regenerative medicine applications. PMID:26078765

  16. A rare cause of ureteral injuries; simultaneous common iliac artery and ureter injury during posterior lumbar disc surgery

    PubMed Central

    Başer, Aykut; Alkış, Okan; Toktaş, Cihan; Zümrütbaş, Ali Ersin

    2016-01-01

    Major vascular injuries during lumbar disc surgery are rare but well-recognized complications. However, vascular injuries of the branches of the aorta and ureteral injuries are very rare. Although its incidence is not known definitely, it is estimated to be 1/1000. Ureteral injuries comprise less than 1% of all genitourinary traumas. In this article, we report clinical progress of a patient who had simultaneous internal iliac artery and ureteral injury during lumbar discectomy. The patient was managed with primary ureteroureterostomy. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported with simultaneous ureter and iliac artery trauma during lumbar disc surgery. PMID:27274898

  17. Pneumatic v electrokinetic lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral stones.

    PubMed

    Vorreuther, R; Klotz, T; Heidenreich, A; Nayal, W; Engelmann, U

    1998-06-01

    Recently, a new device (Combilith) for electrokinetic lithotripsy (EKL) has become available which is very similar to the well-known device for pneumatic (ballistic) lithotripsy (Swiss Lithoclast). The Lithoclast uses air pressure to push a projectile within the handpiece against the end of a metal probe, which is thereby accelerated and thrown like a jackhammer against the stone. In principle, the same stroking movement of a small metal probe is provided by EKL; the difference is that instead of a projectile, a magnetic core within the handpiece is accelerated by the electromagnetic principle. This paper compares the clinical efficacy and the features of the two devices. Testing the devices on a stone model, taking into account stone propulsion, the systems turned out to equally effective regarding stone disintegration. However, stone displacement was more pronounced with the Lithoclast applied on easily breaking stones. In a second experiment, an optoelectronic movement-measuring apparatus (Zimmer camera) was employed to measure the range and velocity of the movement of the probe tip without any contact. The linear acceleration velocity ranged from 5 to a maximum of 12.5 m/sec with both systems, but the maximum height of the stroke was 2.5 mm with the Lithoclast and 1 mm with EKL. After the initial break-up of soft stones, further impact of the probe tip against the stone resulted merely in propulsion; thus, the greater probe stroke height is the cause of the stone displacement. In a clinical trial, 22 ureteral stones were treated with the Lithoclast and 35 with the EKL. The two devices were equally effective in terms of stone disintegration and safety margin. Fixation using a Dormia basket was necessary in 12 cases (8 Lithoclast, 4 EKL). Although a difference in probe stroke height was noted when comparing pneumatic and electrokinetic lithotripsy, there were no clinically significant differences in the efficacy of stone fragmentation or stone-free rates. At the

  18. Factors predicting the spontaneous passage of a ureteric calculus of ⩽10 mm

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Abul-fotouh; Gabr, Ahmed H.; Emara, Abdel-Aziz; Ali, Mahmoud; Abdel-Aziz, Al-Sayed; Alshahrani, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the outcome of the expectant management of ureteric stones and to determine the factors predictive of the spontaneous passage of stones. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had ureteric stones of ⩽10 mm and who were treated conservatively at our institutions during the period 2008–2013. The stone-passage rate and time, and different clinical, laboratory and radiological variables, were analysed. Results In all, 163 patients with ureteric stones were enrolled in the study, of whom 127 (77.9%) passed their stones spontaneously, with a mean (SD) passage time of 24.0 (8.09) days. The cumulative stone-passage rate was 1.6%, 15%, 41.7%, 72.4%, 89.8% and 98.4% at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days from the first presentation, respectively. Patients with a high pain-scale score, stones of ⩽5 mm, a lower ureteric stone, a high white blood cell count and those with absent computed tomography (CT) findings of perinephric fat stranding (PFS) and tissue-rim sign (TRS) had a higher likelihood of spontaneous stone passage. Patients with stones of ⩽5 mm, stones in the lower ureter and those with no PFS had a shorter spontaneous passage time. In a multivariate analysis the absence of PFS and TRS were the only significant predictors for spontaneous stone passage (P < 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Conclusions The spontaneous ureteric stone-passage rate and time varies with different factors. The absence of CT findings of PFS and TRS are significant predictors for stone passage, and should be considered when choosing the expectant management. PMID:26413326

  19. Ureteral Stent Insertion in the Management of Renal Colic during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Il; Yu, Young Dong; Park, Dong Soo

    2016-05-01

    To determine an optimal invasive intervention for renal colic patients during pregnancy after conservative treatments have been found to be unhelpful. Among the available invasive interventions, we investigated the reliability of a ureteral stent insertion, which is considered the least invasive intervention during pregnancy. Between June 2006 and February 2015, a total of 826 pregnant patients came to the emergency room or urology outpatient department, and 39 of these patients had renal colic. The mean patient age was 30.49 years. In this retrospective cohort study, the charts of the patients were reviewed to collect data that included age, symptoms, the lateralities and locations of urolithiasis, trimester, pain following treatment and pregnancy complications. Based on ultrasonography diagnoses, 13 patients had urolithiasis, and 13 patients had hydronephrosis without definite echogenicity of the ureteral calculi. Conservative treatments were successful in 25 patients. Among these treatments, antibiotics were used in 15 patients, and the remaining patients received only hydration and analgesics without antibiotics. Several urological interventions were required in 14 patients. The most common intervention was ureteral stent insertion, which was performed in 13 patients to treat hydronephrosis or urolithiasis. The patients' pain was relieved following these interventions. Only one patient received percutaneous nephrostomy due to pyonephrosis. No pregnancy complications were noted. Ureteral stent insertion is regarded as a reliable and stable first-line urological intervention for pregnant patients with renal colic following conservative treatments. Ureteral stent insertion has been found to be equally effective and safe as percutaneous nephrostomy, which is associated with complications that include bleeding and dislocation, and the inconvenience of using external drainage system. PMID:27231677

  20. Ureteral Stent Insertion in the Management of Renal Colic during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Il; Yu, Young Dong

    2016-01-01

    To determine an optimal invasive intervention for renal colic patients during pregnancy after conservative treatments have been found to be unhelpful. Among the available invasive interventions, we investigated the reliability of a ureteral stent insertion, which is considered the least invasive intervention during pregnancy. Between June 2006 and February 2015, a total of 826 pregnant patients came to the emergency room or urology outpatient department, and 39 of these patients had renal colic. The mean patient age was 30.49 years. In this retrospective cohort study, the charts of the patients were reviewed to collect data that included age, symptoms, the lateralities and locations of urolithiasis, trimester, pain following treatment and pregnancy complications. Based on ultrasonography diagnoses, 13 patients had urolithiasis, and 13 patients had hydronephrosis without definite echogenicity of the ureteral calculi. Conservative treatments were successful in 25 patients. Among these treatments, antibiotics were used in 15 patients, and the remaining patients received only hydration and analgesics without antibiotics. Several urological interventions were required in 14 patients. The most common intervention was ureteral stent insertion, which was performed in 13 patients to treat hydronephrosis or urolithiasis. The patients' pain was relieved following these interventions. Only one patient received percutaneous nephrostomy due to pyonephrosis. No pregnancy complications were noted. Ureteral stent insertion is regarded as a reliable and stable first-line urological intervention for pregnant patients with renal colic following conservative treatments. Ureteral stent insertion has been found to be equally effective and safe as percutaneous nephrostomy, which is associated with complications that include bleeding and dislocation, and the inconvenience of using external drainage system. PMID:27231677

  1. Minimally invasive surgical treatment for large impacted upper ureteral stones: Ureteroscopic lithotripsy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy?

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Ibrahim Halil; Yonguc, Tarik; Arslan, Burak; Degirmenci, Tansu; Gunlusoy, Bulent; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Koras, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The management of patients with large impacted upper ureteral stones is difficult; there is no standard treatment. We compared the outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureteroscopic lithotripsy (UL) to treat large (≥1.5 cm), impacted, upper ureteral stones. Methods: In total, 86 patients with large impacted upper ureteral stones were included in this study. Of these patients 41 underwent UL and 45 underwent PCNL. The inclusion criteria were: longest diameter of stone ≥1.5 cm, the localization of stone between the lower border of L4 spine and ureteropelvic junction and impacted stone. Results: In the UL group, we were unable to reach the stone in 3 patients because of ureteral stricture and edema despite balloon dilation. Of these 3 patients, we were unable to optimally visualize the stone in 2 patients due to bleeding and mucosal injury following balloon dilation. The stricture was too firm and could not be passed in the third patient. Also in the UL group, 15 patients had stones or big fragments which migrated into the renal collecting system. In the PCNL group, 21 patients had concurrent renal stones <1 cm and stones were successfully removed in all patients. No statistically significant difference was found between groups in terms of operation time. Mean hospital stay was significantly shorter in the UL group. Success rates were 82.3% in the UL group and 97.6% in the PCNL group (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The recent study confirms that PCNL is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure with acceptable complication rates in the treatment of patients with large, impacted upper ureteral stones. PMID:25844097

  2. Structural and functional studies of Bud23–Trm112 reveal 18S rRNA N7-G1575 methylation occurs on late 40S precursor ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Létoquart, Juliette; Huvelle, Emmeline; Wacheul, Ludivine; Bourgeois, Gabrielle; Zorbas, Christiane; Graille, Marc; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit carries only four ribosomal (r) RNA methylated bases, all close to important functional sites. N7-methylguanosine (m7G) introduced at position 1575 on 18S rRNA by Bud23–Trm112 is at a ridge forming a steric block between P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we report atomic resolution structures of Bud23–Trm112 in the apo and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-bound forms. Bud23 and Trm112 interact through formation of a β-zipper involving main-chain atoms, burying an important hydrophobic surface and stabilizing the complex. The structures revealed that the coactivator Trm112 undergoes an induced fit to accommodate its methyltransferase (MTase) partner. We report important structural similarity between the active sites of Bud23 and Coffea canephora xanthosine MTase, leading us to propose and validate experimentally a model for G1575 coordination. We identify Bud23 residues important for Bud23–Trm112 complex formation and recruitment to pre-ribosomes. We report that though Bud23–Trm112 binds precursor ribosomes at an early nucleolar stage, m7G methylation occurs at a late step of small subunit biogenesis, implying specifically delayed catalytic activation. Finally, we show that Bud23–Trm112 interacts directly with the box C/D snoRNA U3-associated DEAH RNA helicase Dhr1 supposedly involved in central pseudoknot formation; this suggests that Bud23–Trm112 might also contribute to controlling formation of this irreversible and dramatic structural reorganization essential to overall folding of small subunit rRNA. Our study contributes important new elements to our understanding of key molecular aspects of human ribosomopathy syndromes associated with WBSCR22 (human Bud23) malfunction. PMID:25489090

  3. Wnt5a Deficiency Leads to Anomalies in Ureteric Tree Development, Tubular Epithelial Cell Organization and Basement Membrane Integrity Pointing to a Role in Kidney Collecting Duct Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Prunskaite-Hyyryläinen, Renata; Kaisto, Susanna; Tika, Elisavet; van Eerde, Albertien M.; Salo, Antti M.; Garma, Leonardo; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Feitz, Wout F.; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.; Juffer, André; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Renkema, Kirsten Y.; Myllyharju, Johanna; Vainio, Seppo J.

    2016-01-01

    The Wnts can be considered as candidates for the Congenital Anomaly of Kidney and Urinary Tract, CAKUT diseases since they take part in the control of kidney organogenesis. Of them Wnt5a is expressed in ureteric bud (UB) and its deficiency leads to duplex collecting system (13/90) uni- or bilateral kidney agenesis (10/90), hypoplasia with altered pattern of ureteric tree organization (42/90) and lobularization defects with partly fused ureter trunks (25/90) unlike in controls. The UB had also notably less tips due to Wnt5a deficiency being at E15.5 306 and at E16.5 765 corresponding to 428 and 1022 in control (p<0.02; p<0.03) respectively. These changes due to Wnt5a knock out associated with anomalies in the ultrastructure of the UB daughter epithelial cells. The basement membrane (BM) was malformed so that the BM thickness increased from 46.3 nm to 71.2 nm (p<0.01) at E16.5 in the Wnt5a knock out when compared to control. Expression of a panel of BM components such as laminin and of type IV collagen was also reduced due to the Wnt5a knock out. The P4ha1 gene that encodes a catalytic subunit of collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase I (C-P4H-I) in collagen synthesis expression and the overall C-P4H enzyme activity were elevated by around 26% due to impairment in Wnt5a function from control. The compound Wnt5a+/-;P4ha1+/- embryos demonstrated Wnt5a-/- related defects, for example local hyperplasia in the UB tree. A R260H WNT5A variant was identified from renal human disease cohort. Functional studies of the consequence of the corresponding mouse variant in comparison to normal ligand reduced Wnt5a-signalling in vitro. Together Wnt5a has a novel function in kidney organogenesis by contributing to patterning of UB derived collecting duct development contributing putatively to congenital disease. PMID:26794322

  4. Wnt5a Deficiency Leads to Anomalies in Ureteric Tree Development, Tubular Epithelial Cell Organization and Basement Membrane Integrity Pointing to a Role in Kidney Collecting Duct Patterning.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Prunskaite-Hyyryläinen, Renata; Kaisto, Susanna; Tika, Elisavet; van Eerde, Albertien M; Salo, Antti M; Garma, Leonardo; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Feitz, Wout F; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Juffer, André; Knoers, Nine V A M; Renkema, Kirsten Y; Myllyharju, Johanna; Vainio, Seppo J

    2016-01-01

    The Wnts can be considered as candidates for the Congenital Anomaly of Kidney and Urinary Tract, CAKUT diseases since they take part in the control of kidney organogenesis. Of them Wnt5a is expressed in ureteric bud (UB) and its deficiency leads to duplex collecting system (13/90) uni- or bilateral kidney agenesis (10/90), hypoplasia with altered pattern of ureteric tree organization (42/90) and lobularization defects with partly fused ureter trunks (25/90) unlike in controls. The UB had also notably less tips due to Wnt5a deficiency being at E15.5 306 and at E16.5 765 corresponding to 428 and 1022 in control (p<0.02; p<0.03) respectively. These changes due to Wnt5a knock out associated with anomalies in the ultrastructure of the UB daughter epithelial cells. The basement membrane (BM) was malformed so that the BM thickness increased from 46.3 nm to 71.2 nm (p<0.01) at E16.5 in the Wnt5a knock out when compared to control. Expression of a panel of BM components such as laminin and of type IV collagen was also reduced due to the Wnt5a knock out. The P4ha1 gene that encodes a catalytic subunit of collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase I (C-P4H-I) in collagen synthesis expression and the overall C-P4H enzyme activity were elevated by around 26% due to impairment in Wnt5a function from control. The compound Wnt5a+/-;P4ha1+/- embryos demonstrated Wnt5a-/- related defects, for example local hyperplasia in the UB tree. A R260H WNT5A variant was identified from renal human disease cohort. Functional studies of the consequence of the corresponding mouse variant in comparison to normal ligand reduced Wnt5a-signalling in vitro. Together Wnt5a has a novel function in kidney organogenesis by contributing to patterning of UB derived collecting duct development contributing putatively to congenital disease. PMID:26794322

  5. Are there efferent synapses in fish taste buds?

    PubMed

    Reutter, Klaus; Witt, Martin

    2004-12-01

    In fish, nerve fibers of taste buds are organized within the bud's nerve fiber plexus. It is located between the sensory epithelium consisting of light and dark elongated cells and the basal cells. It comprises the basal parts and processes of light and dark cells that intermingle with nerve fibers, which are the dendritic endings of the taste sensory neurons belonging to the cranial nerves VII, IX or X. Most of the synapses at the plexus are afferent; they have synaptic vesicles on the light (or dark) cells side, which is presynaptic. In contrast, the presumed efferent synapses may be rich in synaptic vesicles on the nerve fibers (presynaptic) side, whereas the cells (postsynaptic) side may contain a subsynaptic cistern; a flat compartment of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This structure is regarded as a prerequisite of a typical efferent synapse, as occurring in cochlear and vestibular hair cells. In fish taste buds, efferent synapses are rare and were found only in a few species that belong to different taxa. The significance of efferent synapses in fish taste buds is not well understood, because efferent connections between the gustatory nuclei of the medulla with taste buds are not yet proved. PMID:16217620

  6. Multiple Pathways Influence Mitochondrial Inheritance in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Rebecca L.; Okamoto, Koji; Shaw, Janet M.

    2008-01-01

    Yeast mitochondria form a branched tubular network. Mitochondrial inheritance is tightly coupled with bud emergence, ensuring that daughter cells receive mitochondria from mother cells during division. Proteins reported to influence mitochondrial inheritance include the mitochondrial rho (Miro) GTPase Gem1p, Mmr1p, and Ypt11p. A synthetic genetic array (SGA) screen revealed interactions between gem1Δ and deletions of genes that affect mitochondrial function or inheritance, including mmr1Δ. Synthetic sickness of gem1Δ mmr1Δ double mutants correlated with defective mitochondrial inheritance by large buds. Additional studies demonstrated that GEM1, MMR1, and YPT11 each contribute to mitochondrial inheritance. Mitochondrial accumulation in buds caused by overexpression of either Mmr1p or Ypt11p did not depend on Gem1p, indicating these three proteins function independently. Physical linkage of mitochondria with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has led to speculation that distribution of these two organelles is coordinated. We show that yeast mitochondrial inheritance is not required for inheritance or spreading of cortical ER in the bud. Moreover, Ypt11p overexpression, but not Mmr1p overexpression, caused ER accumulation in the bud, revealing a potential role for Ypt11p in ER distribution. This study demonstrates that multiple pathways influence mitochondrial inheritance in yeast and that Miro GTPases have conserved roles in mitochondrial distribution. PMID:18245340

  7. Encrustation of the Ureteral Double J Stent in Patients with a Solitary Functional Kidney – a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Milicevic, Snjezana; Bijelic, Radojka; Jakovljevic, Branislava

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The efficacy of ureteric stents in the management of various urological conditions causing the upper urinary tract obstruction has been extensively proven, and their contribution to urology remains enormous. The clinical use of ureteric stents is associated with several complications. “Stent syndrome,” encrustation, migration and urothelial hyperplasia are the most common problems related to long-term ureteral stenting. Case report: This work presents an interesting case from our practice: a complete encrustation of a classical polyurethane double J stent two and a half months after its initial instillation, in a 70 year old man, with a solitary functioning kidney, as well as successful removal of it by using a simultaneous treatment of extracorporeal lithotripsy and ureteroscopy with a contact disintegration of encrustations and with percutaneous nephrostomy, as an auxiliary procedure for providing of additional urine derivation. Conclusion: These problems can be overcome by the introduction of new advanced ureteral stent designs and biomaterials. PMID:26543316

  8. Is ureteral stent placement by the transurethral approach during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy an effective option to preoperative technique?

    PubMed

    Molinari, Alberto; Simonelli, Giovanni; De Concilio, Bernardino; Porcaro, Antonio Benito; Del Biondo, Dario; Zeccolini, Guglielmo; Celia, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Ureteral stent placement may be needed in patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in cases of a large median lobe or previous transurethral surgery to prevent damage to the ureteral orifices. Unpredictable anatomic variants or technical difficulties in bladder neck section may necessitate intraoperative stent placement. We describe our original, simple, and feasible transurethral stent placement technique during RARP, which could be a valid option to preoperative technique. PMID:24735391

  9. Evaluation of risk factors and treatment options in patients with ureteral stricture disease at a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Henry; Arsovska, Olga; Paterson, Ryan F.; Chew, Ben H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ureteral strictures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, resulting in potential kidney damage requiring several surgical procedures. Non-malignant causes include radiation, trauma from calculi impaction, pelvic surgery, or ureteroscopy (URS). We identified risk factors in our patients with ureteral strictures and the success of their treatment outcomes. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 25 patients with 29 ureteral strictures was performed to determine the success of their treatment. Results: Twenty-five (25) patients with 29 benign ureteral strictures were identified. Most cases (60%) were caused by impacted stones where the median stone size was 1.15 cm (0.37–1.8 cm). Intervention for stones prior to stricture development included shockwave lithotripsy, URS, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Five patients with strictures from impacted stones had ureteric complications during stone treatment including perforation +/− urinoma (n=3), fractured guidewire left in situ (n=1), and ureteric orifice resection (n=1). Other stricture etiologies included radiation (28%) and endometriosis (4%). Treatment modalities used included ureteroureterostomy (n=2), ureteral re-implant (n=3), urinary diversion (n=3), autotrasplant (n=1), laser endoureterotomy +/− balloon dilation (n=8), nephrectomy (n=2), balloon dilation +/− stent (n=3), ureterovesical junction (UVJ) resection + stent (n=1), chronic stent changes (n=4), or surveillance (n=3). Conclusions: Our evaluation highlights important principles. Patients with complicated ureteroscopies or severely impacted calculi warrant close followup with imaging after stone treatment due to possibility of rapid renal deterioration from stricture formation. Radiation-induced strictures are difficult to manage, possibly requiring subsequent urinary diversion. Finally, endoscopic management of benign ureteral strictures via balloon dilation and laser endoureterotomy is an excellent choice in properly

  10. After urgent drainage of an obstructed kidney by internal ureteric stenting; is ureteroscopic stone extraction always needed?

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Diaa-Eldin; Elshal, Ahmed M.; Zahran, Mohamed H.; Harraz, Ahmed M.; El-Nahas, Ahmed R.; Shokeir, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the probability of spontaneous stone passage and its predictors after drainage of obstructed kidney by JJ stent, as insertion of an internal ureteric stent is often used for renal drainage in cases of calcular ureteric obstruction. Patients and methods Between January 2011 and June 2013, patients for whom emergent drainage by ureteric stents were identified. The patients’ demographics, presentation, and stone characteristics were reviewed. The primary endpoint for this study was stone-free status at the time of stent removal, where all patients underwent non-contrast spiral computed tomography (NCCT) before stent removal. Ureteroscopic stone extraction was performed for CT detectable ureteric stones at the time of stent removal. Potential factors affecting the need for ureteroscopic stone extraction at the time of stent removal were assessed using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results Emergent ureteric stents were undertaken in 196 patients (112 males, 84 females) with a mean (SD) age of 53.7 (16.2) years, for renal obstruction drainage. At the time of stent removal, 83 patients (42.3%) were stone free; with the remaining 113 patients (57.7%) undergoing ureteroscopic stone extraction. On multivariate analysis, stone width [odds ratio (OR) 15.849, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.83; P = 0.002) and radio-opaque stones (OR 12.035, 95% CI 4.65; P < 0.001) were independent predictors of the need for ureteroscopic stone extraction at the time of stent removal. Conclusion Spontaneous ureteric stone passage is possible after emergent drainage of an obstructed kidney by ureteric stenting. Stone opacity, larger stone width, and positive preoperative urine culture are associated with a greater probability of requiring ureteroscopic stone extraction after emergent drainage by ureteric stenting. PMID:26609444

  11. Repellence of the red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda from grafted apple trees by impregnation of rubber budding strips with essential oils.

    PubMed

    van Tol, Rob W H M; Swarts, Henk J; van der Linden, Anton; Visser, J H

    2007-05-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by 'shield budding'. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the buds with the rootstocks. Budding strips are used very often by growers to bind scion buds to rootstocks. These strips cannot prevent midges from reaching the damaged tissue. Chemical treatments applied to the grafts and other types of strip do not provide better protection against the pest and may cause other risks for growers. In orchard experiments in 2000 and 2001, the authors evaluated the repellent action provided by three essential oils and five compounds of plant origin against the midges by impregnating budding strips with them. The essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (P. Mill.), and alpha-terpineol decreased the infestation of buds by more than 95 and 80% respectively. The other potential repellents tested [the essential oil of Juniperus virginiana (L.), citronellal, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, R-carvone, linalool and R-fenchone] decreased infestation by 67, 66, 51, 45, 37 and 25% respectively. The formulation and commercial development of budding strips impregnated with lavender oil is discussed. PMID:17421054

  12. Optical properties of bud scales and protochlorophyll(ide) forms in leaf primordia of closed and opened buds.

    PubMed

    Solymosi, Katalin; Böddi, Béla

    2006-08-01

    The transmission spectra of bud scales of 14 woody species and the 77 K fluorescence emission spectra of the innermost leaf primordia of closed and opened buds of 37 woody species were studied. Pigment concentrations were determined in some species. Bud scales had low transmittance between 400 and 680 nm with a local minimum around 680 nm. Transmittance increased steeply above 680 nm and was > 80% in the 700-800 nm spectral region. Significant protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) accumulation was observed in leaf primordia of tightly packed, closed buds with relatively thick, dark bud scales. In common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and Hungarian ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.), the innermost leaf primordia of the closed buds contained protochlorophyll (Pchl) and Pchlide (abbreviated as Pchl(ide)), but no chlorophyll. We observed Pchl(ide) forms with emission maxima at 633, 643 and 655 nm in these leaves. Complete transformation of Pchlide(655) (protochlorophyllide form with maximum emission at 655 nm) into Chlide(692) (chlorophyllide form with maximum emission at 692 nm) occurred after irradiation for 10 s. The innermost leaf primordia of the buds of four species (flowering ash (Fraxinus ornus L.), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima P. Mill.) and common walnut (Juglans regia L.)) contained Pchl(ide)(633), Pchl(ide)(643) and Pchlide(655) as well as an emission band at 688 nm corresponding to a chlorophyll form. The Pchlide(655) was fully photoactive in these species. The outermost leaf primordia of these four species and the innermost leaf primordia of 28 other species contained all of the above described Pchl(ide) forms in various ratios but in small amounts. In addition, Chl forms were present and the main bands in the fluorescence emission spectra were at 690 or 740 nm, or both. The results indicate that Pchl(ide) accumulation occurs in leaf primordia in near darkness inside the tightly closed buds, where the bud scales and

  13. Computational Predictions of Structures of Multichromosomes of Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Gürsoy, Gamze; Xu, Yun; Liang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the global architecture of the cell nucleus and the spatial organization of genome is critical for understanding gene expression and nuclear function. Single-cell imaging techniques provide a wealth of information on the spatial organization of chromosomes. Computational tools for modelling chromosome structure have broad implications in studying the effect of cell nucleus on higher-order genome organization. Here we describe a multichromosome constrained self-avoiding chromatin model for studying ensembles of genome structural models of budding yeast nucleus. We successfully generated a large number of model genomes of yeast with appropriate chromatin fiber diameter, persistence length, and excluded volume under spatial confinement. By incorporating details of the constraints from single-cell imaging studies, our method can model the budding yeast genome realistically. The model developed here provides a general computational framework for studying the overall architecture of budding yeast genome. PMID:25570855

  14. Light Signaling in Bud Outgrowth and Branching in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Nathalie; Roman, Hanaé; Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Huché-Thélier, Lydie; Lothier, Jérémy; Demotes-Mainard, Sabine; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Branching determines the final shape of plants, which influences adaptation, survival and the visual quality of many species. It is an intricate process that includes bud outgrowth and shoot extension, and these in turn respond to environmental cues and light conditions. Light is a powerful environmental factor that impacts multiple processes throughout plant life. The molecular basis of the perception and transduction of the light signal within buds is poorly understood and undoubtedly requires to be further unravelled. This review is based on current knowledge on bud outgrowth-related mechanisms and light-mediated regulation of many physiological processes. It provides an extensive, though not exhaustive, overview of the findings related to this field. In parallel, it points to issues to be addressed in the near future. PMID:27135502

  15. Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Brewer, C.; Havens, K.; Meymaris, K.

    2007-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. Project BudBurst launched a pilot program in the Spring of 2007. The goals of Project BudBurst were to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From April through mid-June 2007, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of ~60 easily identifiable, broadly distributed wild and cultivated species found across the continent. We will report on the results of the pilot project and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst as it becomes a year round event beginning in 2008. A broad consortium of collaborators, representing the Chicago Botanic Garden, Plant Conservation Alliance, ESRI, the USA-National Phenology Network, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, University of Arizona, University of Montana, University of California-Santa Barbara, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, came together to design and implement Project BudBurst with seed funding from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the National Phenology Network (through a RCN grant from the NSF), and the Plant Conservation Alliance.

  16. Effect of alternating day and night temperature on short day-induced bud set and subsequent bud burst in long days in Norway spruce

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Jorunn E.; Lee, YeonKyeong; Junttila, Olavi

    2014-01-01

    Young seedlings of the conifer Norway spruce exhibit short day (SD)-induced cessation of apical growth and bud set. Although different, constant temperatures under SD are known to modulate timing of bud set and depth of dormancy with development of deeper dormancy under higher compared to lower temperature, systematic studies of effects of alternating day (DT) and night temperatures (NT) are limited. To shed light on this, seedlings of different provenances of Norway spruce were exposed to a wide range of DT-NT combinations during bud development, followed by transfer to forcing conditions of long days (LD) and 18°C, directly or after different periods of chilling. Although no specific effect of alternating DT/NT was found, the results demonstrate that the effects of DT under SD on bud set and subsequent bud break are significantly modified by NT in a complex way. The effects on bud break persisted after chilling. Since time to bud set correlated with the daily mean temperature under SD at DTs of 18 and 21°C, but not a DT of 15°C, time to bud set apparently also depend on the specific DT, implying that the effect of NT depends on the actual DT. Although higher temperature under SD generally results in later bud break after transfer to forcing conditions, the fastest bud flush was observed at intermediate NTs. This might be due to a bud break-hastening chilling effect of intermediate compared to higher temperatures, and delayed bud development to a stage where bud burst can occur, under lower temperatures. Also, time to bud burst in un-chilled seedlings decreased with increasing SD-duration, suggesting that bud development must reach a certain stage before the processes leading to bud burst are initiated. The present results also indicate that low temperature during bud development had a larger effect on the most southern compared to the most northern provenance studied. Decreasing time to bud burst was observed with increasing northern latitude of origin in un

  17. Electrostatic Levitation of Plant Seeds and Flower Buds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Liang; Wang, Hai-Peng; Li, Liu-Hui; Wei, Bing-Bo

    2012-06-01

    We report the electrostatic levitation of various kinds of seeds and flower buds. Coral berry and pepper near a spherical shape show a stable levitation state. The prolate ellipsoid soybean and flower buds are always “standing" in the free space with satisfactory levitation stability. For the irregular mushroom and wheat grain, the levitation state is characterized as a “top-heavy" posture. These special stable equilibrium states are proved by the analysis of surface charge distribution. The obtained saturation polarization charge of samples presents a good accordance with experimental data. The levitation ability is weighed by the factor m(inr+2)/(inrD2).

  18. Project BudBurst: People, Plants, and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Ward, D.; Havens, K.; Gardiner, L. S.; Alaback, P.

    2010-12-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2009 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2010 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst co managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and

  19. Early Stent Removal After Kidney Transplantation: Is it Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Ali Asgari, Majid; Dadkhah, Farid; Tara, Seyed Ahmad; Argani, Hassan; Tavoosian, Ali; Ghadian, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background The most important surgical complications of renal transplantation are stenosis and obstruction of the ureterovesical anastomosis. Routine use of ureteral stents can prevent this complication, but the optimal time for ureteral stent use is still controversial. Objectives The purpose of this study is to compare the benefits and complications of early and delayed stent removal after surgery. Early ureteral stent removal can decrease some complications, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), bladder irritation symptoms, persistent hematuria, and the risk of stent crusting; its benefits include easier stent removal and shorter hospitalization time. Patients and Methods All patients who underwent kidney transplantation from May 2011 until March 2012 in Modarres Hospital were included in this study. We classified the patients into three groups, based on time of stent removal (10, 20, and 30 days after transplantation). Results Ninety-one patients were studied; urologic complications (hydroureteronephrosis and urinoma) in these three groups were analyzed and showed no statistical significant difference. Conclusions We can remove the ureteral stent earlier after kidney transplantation with no increase in the prevalence of surgical complications. PMID:27231684

  20. The treatment of the reno-ureteral calculi by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)

    PubMed Central

    Ceban, E

    2012-01-01

    Urolithiasis has an important role in the structure of urological pathology, due to its high incidence, frequency of recurrence and complications it might cause. There are many methods of treatment for kidney stones described in the scientific literature as conservative, surgical, laparoscopic, endoscopic, and ESWL. In this study, we have analyzed the ESWL method of treatment of reno-ureteral stones. There are still many controversies about the effectiveness of different models of lithotripters but the lithotripter type Modulith SLK Storz Medical (Germany) used in our clinic has proved to be very effective. ESWL is currently the first-line treatment for the majority of kidney and ureteral stones, which are up to 20 mm in diameter. PMID:22802877

  1. Variable partial unilateral ureteral obstruction and its release in the neonatal and adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, Barbara A; Chevalier, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive nephropathy is the most important cause of renal failure in children. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the neonatal mouse provides a useful model to investigate the response of the developing kidney to urine flow obstruction. Creation of reversible variable partial UUO (compared to complete UUO) more closely approximates congenital lesions, and permits the study of recovery following release of the obstruction. Implementation of this technique requires the appropriate optical, surgical, and anesthetic equipment, as well as adaptations appropriate to the very small animals undergoing surgical procedures. Care of the pups must include minimizing trauma to delicate tissues, close monitoring of anesthesia and body temperature, and ensuring acceptance of the pups by the mother. It is important to document the severity and patency of the partial UUO by ureteral measurement and pelvic injection of India ink. Finally, removal of kidneys for histologic examination should be accomplished with gentle handling and processing. PMID:22639278

  2. Management of Ureteral Strictures in Renal Transplants by Antegrade Balloon Dilatation and Temporary Internal Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, Audrey Alice; Ball, Simon Thomas; Pelling, Marc X.; Gedroyc, Wladyslaw Michal Witold; Morgan, Robert Anthony

    1999-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous balloon dilatation and temporary internal stenting in the treatment of transplant ureteral strictures. Methods: Nine patients presenting with obstructed renal transplants were treated by antegrade nephrostomy insertion, ureteroplasty, and temporary internal stenting. Following stent removal, patients were divided into two groups for analysis according to whether the obstruction occurred less than (group A) or more than (group B) 3 months following transplantation. Results: All procedures were technically successful. In group A (n= 6), all patients were successfully treated by one or two dilatations with stenting. In group B (n= 3), two patients were successfully treated by one dilatation with stenting. Overall, eight patients (89%) have had their primary or secondary stent removed successfully at a mean interval of 97.5 days after insertion, and remain well at a mean follow-up interval of 22 months. Conclusion: Balloon dilatation and temporary internal stenting is a useful method for treating transplant ureteral strictures.

  3. Xanthine urolithiasis causing bilateral ureteral obstruction in a 10-month-old cat.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Gonçalves, Tiago; Parreira, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E; Hamaide, Annick J

    2013-10-01

    Xanthine urolithiasis was diagnosed in a 10-month-old intact female domestic shorthair cat presented with acute renal failure due to bilateral ureteral obstruction. Ultrasonography revealed the presence of multiple uroliths in both kidneys and ureters that were not detectable on previous survey radiographs. Medical management failed and ureteral obstruction persisted with no evidence of stone migration into the bladder. Bilateral ureterotomy with urolith removal was performed in order to relieve the obstruction. The cat recovered from surgery, and blood urea nitrogen and creatinine values decreased within normal limits 6 days postoperatively. Urolith analysis by infrared spectrometry determined xanthine composition, and a higher blood and urine concentration of hypoxanthine and xanthine was also found. At 1-year follow-up, the cat was free of clinical signs. However, ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed small-size calculi in both kidneys, despite the low protein diet intake. The very young age of the animal suggests a possible congenital xanthinuria. PMID:23413269

  4. [Obstructive pyelonephritis caused by ureteral orifice catheterization with a bladder catheter].

    PubMed

    Arnaud, P; Carpentier, X; Pedulla, F; Sandid, M; Pernin, F

    2014-12-01

    This article reports a rare case of acute pyelonephritis secondary to left ureteral obstruction by a bladder catheter. The patient was 93years old man hospitalized in the hospital emergency department with a 39°C fever and pyuria from an indwelling catheter. Blood test found hyperleukocytosis, inflammatory syndrome and acute renal failure. Diagnosis was confirmed by non-contrast abdominal CT scan showing distal part of the catheter inside left ureteral orifice with ureterohydronephrosis. Treatment consisted in replacing the catheter by a three-way catheter for irrigation and parenteral antibiotics therapy. Clinico-biological evolution was successful and a urinary tract CT scan could be realized at day 9. The left upper urinary tract function was recovered. With a short review of the literature we propose to describe the different procedures to manage those obstructions. PMID:25288585

  5. Inferior vena cava filter penetration following Whipple surgical procedure causing ureteral injury

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aal, Ahmed Kamel; Ezzeldin, Islam B.; Moustafa, Amr Soliman; Ertel, Nathan; Oser, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an indwelling inferior vena cava filter that penetrated the IVC wall after Whipple’s pancreatico-duodenectomy procedure performed in a patient with ampullary carcinoma, resulting in right ureteral injury and obstruction with subsequent hydroureter and hydronephrosis. This was incidentally discovered on a computed tomography scan performed as routine follow up to evaluate the results of the surgery. We retrieved the inferior vena cava filter and placed a nephrostomy catheter to relieve the ureteral obstruction. Our case highlights the importance of careful inferior vena cava manipulation during abdominal surgery in the presence of an inferior vena cava filter, and the option of temporary removal of the filter to be placed again after surgery in order to avoid this complication, unless protection is required against clot migration during the surgical procedure. PMID:27200175

  6. Extensive transcriptome changes during natural onset and release of vegetative bud dormancy in Populus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To survive winter conditions, axillary buds of poplar transition from paradormancy to endodormancy. Following sufficient chilling, endodormant axillary buds will transition from endodormancy to ecodormancy. We utilized the near whole genome NimbleGen poplar microarrays to follow transcriptome diff...

  7. Efficacy of silodosin in the treatment of distal ureteral stones 4 to 10 mm in diameter

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Serdar; Tokgoz, Husnu; Yalcinkaya, Soner; Baş, Serkan; Ipekci, Tümay; Yildiz, Ali; Ates, Nihat; Savas, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Few studies have investigated the efficacy of silodosin, a recently introduced selective alpha 1-A adrenoceptor antagonist, in medical expulsive therapy (MET) for ureteral calculi. The results of these studies, which all evaluated the efficacy of 8 mg/day, indicate that silodosin is a potential treatment for ureteral calculi. This study investigated the efficacy of 4 mg/day of silodosin for MET of distal ureteral stones 4 to 10 mm in diameter. Material and Method: After 70 patients had been randomized into 2 groups of 35 patients each, both the control and experimental groups (groups 1 and 2, respectively) were advised to take 75 mg/day of diclofenacsodiumas needed for pain relief but only the experimental group to take 4 mg/day of silodosin. After 21 days, the groups were compared regarding the stone expulsion rate and duration, number of renalcolicepisodes, and analgesicdosage. Results: The median expulsion rates were 71.4% and 91.4% in groups 1 and 2, respectively, and the difference between them was significant (P=0.031). The median expulsion durations were 12.91±6.14 and 8.03±4.99 days, respectively, and the difference between them was significant (P<0.001). No significant differences were found regarding the median number of renal colic episodes or median analgesic dosage. While no patients in group 1 experienced side effects, 5 patients (14%) in group 2 experienced retrograde ejaculation. Conclusion: These results indicate that 4 mg/day of silodos in facilitates the expulsion of distal ureteral stones 4 to 10 mm in diameter but does not significantly reduce the number of renal colic episodes or analgesic dosage. PMID:26770537

  8. Long ureteric stricture replacement by buccal mucosa graft: an Armenian experience case series report

    PubMed Central

    Akopyan, Kristina; Levonyan, Arthur; Tsaturyan, Ashot

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to demonstrate the results of a case series concerning the replacement of long ureteric strictures using buccal mucosa grafts. Material and methods Five patients (3 men, 2 women), with a mean age of 35 years old, underwent reconstructive ureteral surgery using buccal mucosa graft with omental wrapping during the period of 2010–2013. In all cases, the location of strictures was in the proximal ureters with the length of strictures varying from 2.5 to 5.0 cm. Results We did not observe any major complications postoperatively. Two patients complained of constipation, which was resolved on the second day without any special treatment. Only one patient experienced fever (39°C) on the seventh day after the surgery due to inadequate drainage of the nephrostomic tube. Mean follow-up time was 39.6 months (range 26–52 months), mean hospital stay length was 10.6 days. Intravenous and antegrade urography were performed after removing JJ stents. Results were favorable without any signs of stricture. Repetitive ultrasound and radiologic imaging was performed at month 3, 6, 12 in the first year and every half-year thereafter. Intravenous urography showed no signs of strictures. Hydronephrosis was resolved in all patients by the sixth month following the surgery. Conclusions Postoperatively, we observed favorable results in all patients in terms of absence of short term-surgical complications. This technique could be considered for patients with long ureteric strictures in whom ureteral replacement with bowel interposition or kidney auto-transplantation is contraindicated. PMID:27551561

  9. Ureteritis Cystica: Important Consideration in the Differential Diagnosis of Acute Renal Colic

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Fernández, B.; Díaz-Alférez, FJ.; Herrero-Polo, M.; Martín-Izquierdo, M.; Silva-Abuín, JM.; Lorenzo-Gómez, MF.

    2012-01-01

    Ureteritis cystica is an uncommon cause of acute renal pain. The aetiology remains unclear and the diagnosis may be difficult to establish. We report the case of a 29 year old woman with a history of repeated urinary tract infections presenting with acute renal colic in the absence of lithiasis. We review the diagnostic tools available to make the diagnosis and the recent pertinent literature. PMID:22474406

  10. Tamsulosin versus tadalafil as a medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones: A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Anil; Acharya, Ganesh Bhakta; Basnet, Robin Bahadur; Shah, Arvind Kumar; Shrestha, Parash Mani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of tamsulosin and tadalafil as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones. Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was conducted at the Department of Urology of Bir Hospital over a period of 12 months in patients with distal ureteral stones sized 5 to 10 mm. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A received tamsulosin 0.4 mg and group B received tadalafil 10 mg at bedtime for 2 weeks. Stone expulsion rate, number of ureteric colic episodes and pain score, analgesic requirements, and adverse drug effects were noted in both groups. Statistical analyses were performed by using Student t-test and chi-square test. Results Altogether 85 patients, 41 in group A and 44 in group B, were enrolled in the study. The patients' average age was 31.72±12.63 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Demographic profiles, stone size, and baseline investigations were comparable between the 2 groups. The stone expulsion rate was significantly higher in the tadalafil group than in the tamsulosin group (84.1% vs. 61.0%, p=0.017). Although the occurrence of side effects was higher with tadalafil, this difference was not significant (p=0.099). There were no serious adverse effects. Conclusions Tadalafil has a significantly higher stone expulsion rate than tamsulosin when used as a medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones sized 5–10 mm. Both drugs are safe, effective, and well tolerated with minor side effects. PMID:27617317

  11. Bilateral ureteric obstruction: an unusual complication of male-to-female gender reassignment surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rezwan, Nivin; Basit, Anas Abdel; Andrews, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Gender reassignment surgery is a form of treatment for gender dysphoria. It can be male-to-female or female-to-male. We present a patient who underwent male to female reassignment and had a vaginal reconstruction. She presented almost a year later with acute kidney injury and bilateral ureteric obstruction, subsequently ending up with nephrectomy for a non-functioning kidney. PMID:24813202

  12. Bleeding Ureter: Endometriosis Mascarading as a Ureteral Malignancy - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, Puvvada; Pathade, Amey; Nagaraj, H K

    2014-01-01

    Ureteral endometriosis is a serious localization of disease burden that can lead to urinary tract obstruction, with subsequent hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and potential kidney loss. As the diagnosis is elusive, a heavy clinical suspicion is necessary. Surgical technique to treatment varies, but the goal is to salvage renal function and decrease disease burden. Here, we are presenting a rare case of bleeding ureter in a young lady who had endometriosis of the ureter. PMID:25478397

  13. The comparison of laparoscopy, shock wave lithotripsy and retrograde intrarenal surgery for large proximal ureteral stones

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, M.D. Ufuk; Şener, Nevzat Can; Goktug, H.N. Goksel; Gucuk, Adnan; Nalbant, Ismail; İmamoglu, M. Abdurrahim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In this study we compare the success rates and complication rates of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), laparoscopic, and ureteroscopic approaches for large (between 1 and 2 cm) proximal ureteral stones. Methods: In total, 151 patients with ureteral stones between 1 and 2 cm in diameter were randomized into 3 groups (52 SWL, 51 laparoscopy and 48 retrograde intrarenal surgery [RIRS]). The groups were compared for stone size, success rates, and complication rates using the modified Clavien grading system. Results: Stone burden of the groups were similar (p = 0.36). The success rates were 96%, 81% and 79%, respectively in the laparoscopy, SWL, and ureteroscopy groups. The success rate in laparoscopy group was significantly higher (p < 0.05). When these groups were compared for complication rates, RIRS seemed to be the group with the lowest complication rates (4.11%) (p < 0.05). SWL and laparoscopy seem to have similar rates of complication (7.06% and 7.86%, respectively, p = 0.12). Interpretation: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the results of laparoscopy, SWL and RIRS in ureteral stones. Our results showed that in management of patients with upper ureteral stones between 1 and 2 cm, laparoscopy is the most successful method based on its stone-free rates and acceptable complication rates. However, the limitations of our study are lack of hospital stay and cost-effectiveness data. Also, studies conducted on larger populations should support our findings. When a less invasive method is the only choice, SWL and flexible ureterorenoscopy methods have similar success rates. RIRS, however, has a lower complication rate than the other approaches. PMID:24282455

  14. Transumbilical Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Ureterolithotomy for Large Impacted Ureteral Stones: Initial Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Heon; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We presented our initial clinical experiences with transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) ureterolithotomy for large, impacted ureteral stones. Materials and Methods Between March 2009 and November 2009, seven LESS ureterolithotomies were performed at our institute. During the operation, we made a single 2 cm incision at the umbilicus and a homemade port by using a small wound retractor (Alexis®, Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, USA), a surgical glove, and conventional trocars. The operation was performed in the same manner as conventional laparoscopic surgery. The mean maximal stone diameter was 21.9 mm (range, 16.0-27.0 mm). There were six cases of upper ureteral stones and one case of a mid-ureteral stone. Perioperative and postoperative parameters were evaluated. Results The mean operative time was 197.1 min (range, 150-270 min). No transfusions were required. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.3 days (range, 2-6 days). The mean pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS) on postoperative day 2 was 26 mm (range, 0-80 mm), and the mean cosmetic VAS at 6 weeks after the operation was 0 mm. The mean time for patients to return to their baseline activities was 4.0 days (range, 3-7 days). In six cases, all stones were completely removed on the basis of postoperative radiologic evaluation. There were no cases of major complications, including internal organ injury, urinary leakage, or urinary tract infection. Conclusions Transumbilical LESS ureterolithotomy can be considered as an alternative treatment option with minimal invasiveness and good effectiveness for large, impacted ureteral stones. PMID:20577607

  15. Bud emergence and shoot growth from mature citrus nodal segments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bud emergence and shoot growth from adult phase citrus nodal cultures were studied using Citrus mitis (calamondin), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit), and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). The effects of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), and citrus type on shoot quality and growth fro...

  16. Detection of vegetative bud dormancy QTL in peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most temperate tree species cease growth during the winter and enter a state of endodormancy that requires the exposure of vegetative and floral buds to cold temperatures (below 7°C) to initiate normal growth in the spring. The length of the cold treatment required for the resumption of growth is d...

  17. Science Shorts: Project BudBurst--Analyzing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kimberly J.; Coskie, Tracy L.

    2008-01-01

    Project BudBurst is a national program intended to get students and other "citizen scientists" to participate in a real study about plants, the environment, and climate change. It also provides an excellent opportunity for students to build data-analysis skills. A collaboration of several agencies and universities, the program began last year and…

  18. Interaction of chill and heat in peach flower bud dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach bud dormancy requirement is a critical factor in selecting adapted cultivars, but the dormancy process is not well-understood. The Utah model proposes bloom occurs after a cultivar-specific amount of chilling followed by 5000 heat units above 4 °C. This model works well in colder climates, but...

  19. Extending the dormant bud cryopreservation method to new tree species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cryopreservation of germplasm, using dormant winter buds (DB) as source plant material is economically favorable over tissue culture options. Although the DB cryopreservation method has been known for many years, the approach is feasible only for cryopreserving a select number of temperate tree s...

  20. Geographic trend of bud hardiness response in Vitis riparia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major goal of grapevine breeding efforts for production outside of Mediterranean climates is the production of varieties that have cold tolerance phenotypes. Typically, grapevine breeders use midwinter bud hardiness measures as the descriptive phenotype for cold tolerance. Historical practices of...

  1. The Utility of Routine Ultrasound Imaging after Elective Transplant Ureteric Stent Removal

    PubMed Central

    Olsburgh, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ureteric stent insertion during kidney transplantation reduces the incidence of major urological complications (MUCs). We evaluated whether routine poststent removal graft ultrasonography (PSRGU) was useful in detecting MUCs before they became clinically or biochemically apparent. Methods. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of clinical outcomes following elective stent removals from adult single renal transplant recipients (sRTRs) at our centre between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013. Results. Elective stent removal was performed for 338 sRTRs. Of these patients, 222 had routine PSRGU (median (IQR) days after stent removal = 18 (11–31)), 79 had urgent PSRGU due to clinical or biochemical indications, 12 had CT imaging, and 25 had no further renal imaging. Of the 222 sRTRs who underwent routine PSRGU, 210 (94.6%) had no change of management, three (1.4%) required repeat imaging only, and eight patients (3.6%) had incidental (nonureteric) findings. One patient (0.5%) had nephrostomy insertion as a result of routine PSRGU findings, but no ureteric stenosis was identified. Of 79 patients having urgent PSRGU after elective stent removal, three patients required transplant ureteric reimplantation. Conclusions. This analysis found no evidence that routine PSRGU at two to three weeks after elective stent removal provides any added value beyond standard clinical and biochemical monitoring. PMID:27493793

  2. Treatment of Ureteroarterial Fistulae with Covered Vascular Endoprostheses and Ureteral Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose I. Cosin, Octavio; Bastarrika, Gorka; Rosell, David; Zudaire, Javier; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio

    2005-04-15

    Background. Ureteroarterial fistulae (UAFs) are a rare entity, often difficult to identify, and associated with a high mortality rate. This fact has been attributed to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Five conditions that can predispose to the development of this uncommon entity have been described: prior pelvic surgery, prolonged ureteral stenting, radiation therapy, previous vascular surgery and vascular pathology. Methods. We present 4 patients with UAFs and at least three of the above-mentioned conditions. Ureteral ischemia and subsequent necrosis promote the formation of these fistulae. The constant pulsation of the iliac artery is transmitted to an already compromised ureter containing a stiff intraluminal foreign body, resulting in pressure necrosis, most likely where the ureter crosses the iliac artery. Results and Conclusion. Cases were managed percutaneously with a combination of the deployment of a covered prosthesis and, when needed, with mechanical occlusion of the ureter. Hematuria stopped in all the patients with no evidence of immediate rebleeding. One patient presented a new episode of vaginal bleeding 13 months after endograft placement and ureteral embolization. Arteriography showed the presence of a hypogastric artery pseudoaneurysm that was occluded using coils. No new bleeding has occurred in this patient 12 months after the second embolization. At present all 4 patients are alive with follow-up periods of 5, 9, 11 and 25 months since the first procedure.

  3. Impact of ureteric stent on outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: A propensity score analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gołąb, Adam; Słojewski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is one of the most frequently performed procedures in patients with urolithiasis. For ureter-localized stones, SWL is often preceded by a double J stent insertion. However, fear of serious complications, including sepsis associated with stents, is often expressed. The following study assessed the impact of stent insertions on the results of SWL in patients with ureteric stones. Material and methods The study group consisted of 411 ureteric stone patients who were treated with SWL from January 2010 to December 2014. In 60 cases, treatment was preceded by ureteric stent insertion. A propensity scoring system was used to pair non-stented patients with the stented group. Success rates were assessed and compared using the chi-squared test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of particular variables on the stone-free rate. Results The overall success rate was 82.2%. After matching, the success rate of the stented group was not significantly different from the control group (85.0% vs. 83.3% respectively, p = 0.80). The mean number of sessions was higher in the stented group (1.88 per patient). Stones located in the lower part of the ureter have the greatest chance of being successfully treated. Conclusions The double J stent has no influence on the outcome of SWL treatment. In view of the greater likelihood of having additional sessions, this approach should be reserved for selected cases. PMID:27551556

  4. Melatonin protects kidney against apoptosis induced by acute unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Badem, Hüseyin; Cakmak, Muzaffer; Yilmaz, Hakki; Kosem, Bahadir; Karatas, Omer Faruk; Bayrak, Reyhan; Cimentepe, Ersin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To investigate whether there was a protective effect of melatonin on apoptotic mechanisms after an acute unilateral obstruction of the kidney. Material and methods A total of 25 rats consisting of five groups were used in the study, designated as follows: Group 1: control, Group 2: sham, Group 3: unilateral ureteral obstruction treated with only saline, Group 4: unilateral ureteral obstruction treated with melatonin immediately, and Group 5: unilateral obstruction treated with melatonin one day after obstruction. Melatonin was administered as a 10 mg/kg dose intraperitoneally. The kidneys were evaluated according to the apoptotic index and Ki-67 scores. Results Comparison of all obstruction groups (Group 3, 4, and 5), revealed that the apoptotic index was significantly higher in Groups 1 and 2. Despite melatonin reduced apoptotic mechanisms in Groups 4 and 5, there was no significant difference between Groups 4 and 5 in terms of the reduction of apoptosis. However, the reduction of apoptosis in the melatonin treated group did not decrease to the level of Groups 1 and 2. Conclusions Despite melatonin administration, which significantly reduces the apoptotic index occurring after acute unilateral ureteral obstruction, the present study did not observe a return to normal renal histology in the obstruction groups. PMID:27551563

  5. The Role of Ureteral Relaxation in the Promotion of Stone Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Kim; Timoney, Anthony G.; Keeley, Francis X.

    2007-04-01

    In order to promote stone passage in renal colic, we must first understand normal ureteral activity and how this is affected by the presence of a stone. Measuring normal ureteral activity in humans is difficult without the use of invasive methods or techniques which in themselves may affect peristalsis. Monitoring the activity during confirmed renal colic is even more difficult and virtually impossible. Both animal and human studies have therefore been used in an attempt to understand the physiology of the ureter and how this is affected by the presence of a stone. Using this knowledge, drugs can be used to alter the behavior of the ureter in an attempt to promote stone passage. Peristalsis has always been thought to be essential to allow stone passage and therefore it has been necessary to determine whether stone passage occurs by promotion of ureteral activity or by smooth muscle relaxation. Research indicates that drugs which allow continued peristalsis whilst preventing the increased uncoordinated activity seen in renal colic would be the most advantageous. The alpha-1A-adrenoceptor antagonists are the most effective drugs to date.

  6. Urological complications of renal transplantation: the impact of double J ureteric stents.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, M. L.; Veitch, P. S.; Donnelly, P. K.; Bell, P. R.

    1991-01-01

    In a 10 year series of 350 consecutive renal transplant operations, the overall urological complication rate was 7.7%. During this period double J stents were introduced and were used either in the treatment of actual urological complications or as a prophylactic measure to protect ureters which had been damaged at retrieval. A total of 34 double J stents were used in 33 patients. The indications were: ureteric obstruction (n = 13), urinary leak (n = 5), short transplant ureter anastomosed using an extravesical ureteroneocystostomy (n = 10) and ureteric injury at the time of organ retrieval (n = 6). Thirty-two double J stents were inserted at open operation and two were inserted by an antegrade method after percutaneous nephrostomy. Improvement in renal function occurred in 16 out of the 18 cases of urological complications. No kidneys were lost and there were no deaths as a direct result of these complications. In a number of cases the insertion of a double J stent was the only treatment, thus eliminating the need for more complex surgery. All 16 patients who had a ureteric stent inserted as a prophylactic measure at the time of transplantation made uncomplicated postoperative recoveries. Urinary tract infection was relatively common (27%) after double J stent insertion, but other complications were rare. In conclusion, double J stents have proved to be a useful adjunct in the management of renal transplant related urological complications. PMID:1929136

  7. A Tissue-Specific Scaffold for Tissue Engineering-Based Ureteral Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongde; Fu, Weijun; Wang, Zhongxin; Li, Gang; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Terminally differentiated somatic cells can rapidly change phenotypes when they are isolated from their native tissue and cultured in vitro. This problem may become a barrier to tissue engineering-based organ reconstruction, which utilizes somatic cells. The present study was designed to validate the feasibility of maintaining the urothelial cell phenotype in a tissue-specific ureteral scaffold. The tissue-specific scaffold was fabricated by blending poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and ureteral extracellular matrix (UECM) using electrostatic spinning technology. PLLA was used to enhance the mechanical properties, and UECM was used to mimic the natural components of the ureter. Primary urothelial cells (UCs), derived from ureteral mucosa, were seeded onto the tissue-specific scaffold to assess cell adhesion, proliferation and phenotypes at designated time points. The results showed that UCs in the tissue-specific scaffold exhibited better proliferation compared to cells in pure PLLA or a PLLA-small intestinal submucosa (PLLA-SIS) scaffold (p<0.05). At different time points, the expression of a UC-specific marker (UroplakinⅢ) in the tissue-specific scaffold was significantly higher than its expression in pure PLLA or a PLLA-SIS scaffold (p<0.05). Therefore, the tissue-specific scaffold appears to be an ideal substrate for promoting UC survival and phenotype maintenance. PMID:25775033

  8. Clinical observation of different minimally invasive surgeries for the treatment of impacted upper ureteral calculi

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanhua; Zhou, Zhangyan; Xia, An; Dai, Haitao; Guo, Linjie; Zheng, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical effects of three minimally invasive surgeries on the treatment of impacted upper ureteral calculi. Methods: 135 patients with impacted upper ureteral calculi were selected and randomly divided into three groups (Group A-C) (n=45), which were treated with transurethral ureteroscopic lithotripsy, minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy respectively. Relevant results of the three groups were compared. Results: The surgery time of Group C was significantly longer than those of Group A and Group B (P < 0.05). The postoperative hospitalization time of Group B was significantly longer than those of Group A and Group C (P < 0.05). 37.78% (17/45) of Group A patients required extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, being significantly more than those in Group B (6.67%, 3/45) and Group C (0, 0/45) (P < 0.05). The postoperative calculus clearance rate of Group A (51.11%, 82.22%) was significantly lower than those of Group B (91.11%, 97.78%) and Group C (93.33%, 100%) (P < 0.05). The incidence rates of postoperative complications in Group A-C were 11.11% (5/45), 8.89% (4/45) and 6.67% (3/45) respectively without significant differences (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The three surgical methods for impacted upper ureteral calculi should be selected according to practical conditions to improve therapeutic effects and to ensure safe surgery. PMID:24550953

  9. AXR1 Acts after Lateral Bud Formation to Inhibit Lateral Bud Growth in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Stirnberg, Petra; Chatfield, Steven P.; Leyser, H.M. Ottoline

    1999-01-01

    The AXR1 gene of Arabidopsis is required for many auxin responses. The highly branched shoot phenotype of mature axr1 mutant plants has been taken as genetic evidence for a role of auxin in the control of shoot branching. We compared the development of lateral shoots in wild-type Columbia and axr1-12 plants. In the wild type, the pattern of lateral shoot development depends on the developmental stage of the plant. During prolonged vegetative growth, axillary shoots arise and develop in a basal-apical sequence. After floral transition, axillary shoots arise rapidly along the primary shoot axis and grow out to form lateral inflorescences in an apical-basal sequence. For both patterns, the axr1 mutation does not affect the timing of axillary meristem formation; however, subsequent lateral shoot development proceeds more rapidly in axr1 plants. The outgrowth of lateral inflorescences from excised cauline nodes of wild-type plants is inhibited by apical auxin. axr1-12 nodes are resistant to this inhibition. These results provide evidence for common control of axillary growth in both patterns, and suggest a role for auxin during the late stages of axillary shoot development following the formation of the axillary bud and several axillary leaf primordia. PMID:10557232

  10. Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Alaback, P.; Havens, K.

    2008-12-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its second year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, participants from 49 states have submitted data that is being submitted to the USA National Phenology Network (www.usanpn.org) database. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project Budburst and will report on the results of the 2008 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2009. Project BudBurst is a Windows to the Universe Citizen Science program managed by the University

  11. Effects of PDE5 Inhibitors and sGC Stimulators in a Rat Model of Artificial Ureteral Calculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandner, Peter; Tinel, Hanna; Affaitati, Giannapia; Costantini, Raffaele; Giamberardino, Maria Adele

    2015-01-01

    Urinary colics from calculosis are frequent and intense forms of pain whose current pharmacological treatment remains unsatisfactory. New and more effective drugs are needed to control symptoms and improve stone expulsion. Recent evidence suggested that the Nitric Oxide (NO) / cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) / phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) system may contribute to ureteral motility influencing stone expulsion. We investigated if PDE5 inhibitors and sGC stimulators influence ureteral contractility, pain behaviour and stone expulsion in a rat model of ureteral calculosis. We investigated: a)the sex-specific PDE5 distribution in the rat ureter; b)the functional in vitro effects of vardenafil and sildenafil (PDE5 inhibitors) and BAY41-2272 (sGC stimulator) on induced ureteral contractility in rats and c)the in vivo effectiveness of vardenafil and BAY41-2272, alone and combined with ketoprofen, vs hyoscine-N-butylbromide alone or combined with ketoprofen, on behavioural pain indicators and stone expulsion in rats with artificial calculosis in one ureter. PDE5 was abundantly expressed in male and female rats’ ureter. In vitro, both vardenafil and BAY41-2272 significantly relaxed pre-contracted ureteral strips. In vivo, all compounds significantly reduced number and global duration of “ureteral crises” and post-stone lumbar muscle hyperalgesia in calculosis rats. The highest level of reduction of the pain behaviour was observed with BAY41-2272 among all spasmolytics administered alone, and with the combination of ketoprofen with BAY41-2272. The percentage of stone expulsion was maximal in the ketoprofen+BAY41-2272 group. The NO/cGMP/PDE5 pathway is involved in the regulation of ureteral contractility and pain behaviour in urinary calculosis. PDE5 inhibitors and sGC stimulators could become a potent new option for treatment of urinary colic pain. PMID:26509272

  12. Misexpression of Pknox2 in mouse limb bud mesenchyme perturbs zeugopod development and deltoid crest formation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenrong; Zhu, Huang; Zhao, Jianzhi; Li, Hanjun; Wan, Yong; Cao, Jingjing; Zhao, Haixia; Yu, Jian; Zhou, Rujiang; Yao, Yiyun; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Lifang; He, Lin; Ma, Gang; Yao, Zhengju; Guo, Xizhi

    2013-01-01

    The TALE (Three Amino acid Loop Extension) family consisting of Meis, Pbx and Pknox proteins is a group of transcriptional co-factors with atypical homeodomains that play pivotal roles in limb development. Compared to the in-depth investigations of Meis and Pbx protein functions, the role of Pknox2 in limb development remains unclear. Here, we showed that Pknox2 was mainly expressed in the zeugopod domain of the murine limb at E10.5 and E11.5. Misexpression of Pknox2 in the limb bud mesenchyme of transgenic mice led to deformities in the zeugopod and forelimb stylopod deltoid crest, but left the autopod and other stylopod skeletons largely intact. These malformations in zeugopod skeletons were recapitulated in mice overexpressing Pknox2 in osteochondroprogenitor cells. Molecular and cellular analyses indicated that the misexpression of Pknox2 in limb bud mesenchyme perturbed the Hox10-11 gene expression profiles, decreased Col2 expression and Bmp/Smad signaling activity in the limb. These results indicated that Pknox2 misexpression affected mesenchymal condensation and early chondrogenic differentiation in the zeugopod skeletons of transgenic embryos, suggesting Pknox2 as a potential regulator of zeugopod and deltoid crest formation. PMID:23717575

  13. Supported Bilayers with Excess Membrane Reservoir: A Template for Reconstituting Membrane Budding and Fission

    PubMed Central

    Pucadyil, Thomas J.; Schmid, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A complete mechanistic understanding of membrane-localized processes in vesicular transport, such as membrane budding and fission, requires their reconstitution with biochemically-defined components from a biochemically-defined substrate. Supported bilayers formed by vesicle fusion represent an attractive substrate for this purpose. However, conventional supported bilayers lack a sufficient membrane reservoir to recreate membrane budding and fission events. We describe the formation of supported bilayers with excess membrane reservoir (SUPER) templates from the fusion of liposomes containing negatively charged lipids on silica beads under high-ionic-strength conditions. Using a fluorescence microscopy-based assay to monitor early and late stages of supported bilayer formation, we show that an increase in ionic strength leads to an increase in the rates of liposome adsorption and subsequent fusion during formation of supported bilayers. The two rates, however, increase disproportionally, leading to accumulation of excess reservoir with an increase in ionic strength. SUPER templates allow the seamless application of microscopy-based assays to analyze membrane-localized processes together with sedimentation-based assays to isolate vesicular and nonvesicular products released from the membrane. The results presented here emphasize the general utility of these templates for analyzing vesicular and nonvesicular transport processes. PMID:20643070

  14. Divergence of a conserved elongation factor and transcription regulation in budding and fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Booth, Gregory T; Wang, Isabel X; Cheung, Vivian G; Lis, John T

    2016-06-01

    Complex regulation of gene expression in mammals has evolved from simpler eukaryotic systems, yet the mechanistic features of this evolution remain elusive. Here, we compared the transcriptional landscapes of the distantly related budding and fission yeast. We adapted the Precision Run-On sequencing (PRO-seq) approach to map the positions of RNA polymerase active sites genome-wide in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Additionally, we mapped preferred sites of transcription initiation in each organism using PRO-cap. Unexpectedly, we identify a pause in early elongation, specific to S. pombe, that requires the conserved elongation factor subunit Spt4 and resembles promoter-proximal pausing in metazoans. PRO-seq profiles in strains lacking Spt4 reveal globally elevated levels of transcribing RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) within genes in both species. Messenger RNA abundance, however, does not reflect the increases in Pol II density, indicating a global reduction in elongation rate. Together, our results provide the first base-pair resolution map of transcription elongation in S. pombe and identify divergent roles for Spt4 in controlling elongation in budding and fission yeast. PMID:27197211

  15. Ureteroscopy and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy: an emerging definitive management strategy for symptomatic ureteral calculi in pregnancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watterson, James D.; Girvan, Andrew R.; Beiko, Darren T.; Nott, Linda; Wollin, Timothy A.; Razvi, Hassan A.; Denstedt, John D.

    2003-06-01

    Objectives: Symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy that does not respond to conservative measures has traditionally been managed with ureteral stent insertion or percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). Holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser lithotripsy using state-of-the-art ureteroscopes represents an emerging strategy for definitive stone management in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to review the results of holmium laser lithotripsy in a cohort of patients who presented with symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted at 2 tertiary stone centers from January 1996 to August 2001 to identify pregnant patients who were treated with ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for symptomatic urolithiasis or encrusted stents. Eight patients with a total of 10 symptomatic ureteral calculi and 2 encrusted ureteral stents were treated. Mean gestational age at presentation was 22 weeks. Mean stone size was 8.1 mm. Stones were located in the proximal ureter/ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) (3), mid ureter (1), and distal ureter (6). Results: Complete stone fragmentation and/or removal of encrusted ureteral stents were achieved in all patients using the holmium:YAG laser. The overall procedural success rate was 91%. The overall stone-free rate was 89%. No obstetrical or urological complications were encountered. Conclusions: Ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy can be performed safely in all stages of pregnancy providing definitive management of symptomatic ureteral calculi. The procedure can be done with minimal or no fluoroscopy and avoids the undesirable features of stents or nephrostomy tubes.

  16. Unilateral versus bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks during ureteric shock wave lithotripsy: A prospective randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed Ali; Shabana, Waleed Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used for intra- and post-operative analgesia during abdominal operations and for ureteric shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as well. Aim: This study aimed at comparing ultrasound-guided unilateral versus bilateral TAP blocks as analgesic techniques for unilateral ureteric SWL. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized comparative study. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for unilateral ureteric SWL were randomly allocated into two groups: Group (U) received unilateral TAP block in the form of 25 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% (i.e., 62.5 mg), and Group (B) received bilateral TAP blocks in the form of 25 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% (i.e., 62.5 mg) on each side. Statistical Analysis: This was performed using SPSS program version 19 ((IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and EP 16 program. Results: The mean values of intra- and post-procedural visual analog scale at different time intervals were around (30), which was statistically insignificant between groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between groups regarding cardiopulmonary stability, postanesthesia care unit time, the total amount of rescue fentanyl and patient satisfaction scores (P > 0.05). There were no significant side effects in both groups. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block is as safe and effective analgesic technique as bilateral TAP blocks during unilateral ureteric SWL. It can be used as the sole analgesic technique during ureteric SWL. PMID:27453645

  17. Cell Budding from Normal Appearing Epithelia: A Predictor of Colorectal Cancer Metastasis?

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bin; Mason, Jeffrey; Jewett, Anahid; Qian, Jun; Ding, Yijiang; Cho, William CS; Zhang, Xichen; Man, Yan-gao

    2013-01-01

    Background: Colorectal carcinogenesis is believed to be a multi-stage process that originates with a localized adenoma, which linearly progresses to an intra-mucosal carcinoma, to an invasive lesion, and finally to metastatic cancer. This progression model is supported by tissue culture and animal model studies, but it is difficult to reconcile with several well-established observations, principally among these are that up to 25% of early stage (Stage I/II), node-negative colorectal cancer (CRC) develop distant metastasis, and that circulating CRC cells are undetectable in peripheral blood samples of up to 50% of patients with confirmed metastasis, but more than 30% of patients with no detectable metastasis exhibit such cells. The mechanism responsible for this diverse behavior is unknown, and there are no effective means to identify patients with pending, or who are at high risk for, developing metastatic CRC. Novel findings: Our previous studies of human breast and prostate cancer have shown that cancer invasion arises from the convergence of a tissue injury, the innate immune response to that injury, and the presence of tumor stem cells within tumor capsules at the site of the injury. Focal degeneration of a capsule due to age or disease attracts lymphocyte infiltration that degrades the degenerating capsules resulting in the formation of a focal disruption in the capsule, which selectively favors proliferating or “budding” of the underlying tumor stem cells. Our recent studies suggest that lymphocyte infiltration also triggers metastasis by disrupting the intercellular junctions and surface adhesion molecules within the proliferating cell buds causing their dissociation. Then, lymphocytes and tumor cells are conjoined through membrane fusion to form tumor-lymphocyte chimeras (TLCs) that allows the tumor stem cell to avail itself of the lymphocyte's natural ability to migrate and breach cell barriers in order to intravasate and to travel to distant organs

  18. Potential pitfall of DMSA scintigraphy in patients with ureteral duplication

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.; Snow, B.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1986-07-01

    A 5-wk-old male presented with radiographic findings of a duplicated collecting system. A (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA scan was requested to evaluate cortical function. Images obtained immediately. postinjection showed activity restricted to the upper poles; in contrast, delayed images at 4 hr showed activity in the bladder and throughout both kidneys. Catheterizing the patient drained the activity from the bladder but had little effect on the refluxed renal activity. The early (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA images were critical in making the proper interpretation. Technetium-99m DMSA is excreted into the urine and this fact needs to be considered when interpreting scans of patients with possible reflux or obstruction. When DMSA scans are obtained in pediatric patients with possible reflux, catheterization prior to the study and early images prior to the appearance of DMSA in the collecting system are recommended.

  19. Sensing a bud in the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint: a role for Elm1.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hui; Tsygankov, Denis; Lew, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Bud formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae must be coordinated with the nuclear cycle to enable successful proliferation. Many environmental stresses temporarily disrupt bud formation, and in such circumstances, the morphogenesis checkpoint halts nuclear division until bud formation can resume. Bud emergence is essential for degradation of the mitotic inhibitor, Swe1. Swe1 is localized to the septin cytoskeleton at the bud neck by the Swe1-binding protein Hsl7. Neck localization of Swe1 is required for Swe1 degradation. Although septins form a ring at the presumptive bud site before bud emergence, Hsl7 is not recruited to the septins until after bud emergence, suggesting that septins and/or Hsl7 respond to a "bud sensor." Here we show that recruitment of Hsl7 to the septin ring depends on a combination of two septin-binding kinases: Hsl1 and Elm1. We elucidate which domains of these kinases are needed and show that artificial targeting of those domains suffices to recruit Hsl7 to septin rings even in unbudded cells. Moreover, recruitment of Elm1 is responsive to bud emergence. Our findings suggest that Elm1 plays a key role in sensing bud emergence. PMID:27053666

  20. Sensing a bud in the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint: a role for Elm1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hui; Tsygankov, Denis; Lew, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Bud formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae must be coordinated with the nuclear cycle to enable successful proliferation. Many environmental stresses temporarily disrupt bud formation, and in such circumstances, the morphogenesis checkpoint halts nuclear division until bud formation can resume. Bud emergence is essential for degradation of the mitotic inhibitor, Swe1. Swe1 is localized to the septin cytoskeleton at the bud neck by the Swe1-binding protein Hsl7. Neck localization of Swe1 is required for Swe1 degradation. Although septins form a ring at the presumptive bud site before bud emergence, Hsl7 is not recruited to the septins until after bud emergence, suggesting that septins and/or Hsl7 respond to a “bud sensor.” Here we show that recruitment of Hsl7 to the septin ring depends on a combination of two septin-binding kinases: Hsl1 and Elm1. We elucidate which domains of these kinases are needed and show that artificial targeting of those domains suffices to recruit Hsl7 to septin rings even in unbudded cells. Moreover, recruitment of Elm1 is responsive to bud emergence. Our findings suggest that Elm1 plays a key role in sensing bud emergence. PMID:27053666

  1. Co-ordinated gene expression during phases of dormancy release in raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) buds.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Luca; Hancock, Robert D; Haupt, Sophie; Walker, Paul G; Pont, Simon D A; McNicol, Jim; Cardle, Linda; Morris, Jenny; Viola, Roberto; Brennan, Rex; Hedley, Peter E; Taylor, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Bud break in raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is often poor and uneven, with many of the subapical buds remaining in a dormant state. In order to determine the dormancy status of raspberry buds, an empirical measure of bud burst in a growth-permissive environment following exposure to chilling (4 degrees C cold storage) was developed. For cv. Glen Ample, percentage bud burst in intact canes and isolated nodes was recorded after 14 d. Isolated nodes (a measure of endodormancy) achieved 100% bud burst after approximately 1500 h chilling whereas buds on intact plants (combined endo- and paradormancy) required an additional 1000 h chilling. A microarray approach was used to follow changes in gene expression that occurred during dormancy transition. The probes for the microarrays were obtained from endodormant and paradormant raspberry bud cDNA libraries. The expression profiles of 5300 clones from these libraries were subjected to principal component analysis to determine the most significant expression patterns. Sequence analysis of these clones, in many cases, enabled their functional categorization and the development of hypotheses concerning the mechanisms of bud dormancy release. Thus a set of novel candidates for key dormancy-related genes from raspberry buds have been identified. Bud dormancy is fundamental to the study of plant developmental processes and, in addition, its regulation is of significant economic importance to fruit and horticultural industries. PMID:17244630

  2. Influences of polar auxin transport on polarity of adventitious bud formation in hybrid populas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Myung Won ); Hackett, W. )

    1989-04-01

    The role of auxin and cytokinin distribution of polar regeneration of adventitious bud has been investigated. Explants from leaf midvein were labelled with {sup 14}C-NAA and {sup 14}C-BA and the radioactivity in proximal, mid, and distal portions was counted after 24h and 48h. Explants showing polar regeneration of buds on the proximal end showed a clear polar distribution of {sup 14}CNAA. Auxin transport inhibitors (NPA, TIBA) eliminated polar distribution of auxin and reduced polarity of bud formation and the total number of buds formed, but did not reduce callus formation. Increased concentration of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} decreased polarity of bud formation and increased the number of buds formed but did not affect the distribution of auxin of cytokinin. Some factor in addition to polar distribution of auxin or cytokinin-auxin ratio appears to influence the polarity of adventitious bud formation.

  3. Parasympathetic neurogenesis is strongly associated with tumor budding and correlates with an adverse prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lingfu; Guo, Limei; Tao, Ming; Fu, Wei; Xiu, Dianrong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the frequency of parasympathetic neurogenesis and determine its association with tumor budding and prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Methods: Parasympathetic neurogenesis was defined as the distribution of abnormal parasympathetic nerves in the stroma tissue. Staining of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), as a marker for parasympathetic neurogenesis, was performed on a representative specimen of the tumor for 59 PDAC patients with available clinical, pathologic, and follow-up information. Three specimens containing normal pancreatic tissues were stained in parallel. The number of parasympathetic nerve fibers was counted in five high-power microscopic fields (5×0.785 mm2). Cut-off values were calculated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: VAChT-positive parasympathetic nerve fibers were not seen in the stroma of 3 cases of normal pancreatic tissues. In 59 PDAC cases, the range of parasympathetic neurogenesis was 4-38 fibers/(5×0.785) mm2, with a median of 18 fibers/(5×0.785) mm2. Patients with parasympathetic neurogenesis >15 fibers/(5×0.785) mm2 were defined as the high-density group (39 patients, 66.1%), and those with parasympathetic neurogenesis 15 fibers/(5×0.785) mm2 as the low-density group (20 patients, 33.9%). The high-density group had a higher occurrence of tumor budding (P=0.001) and a higher rate of early recurrence (P=0.035). Parasympathetic neurogenesis appeared to be an independent adverse prognostic factor [hazard ratio (HR)=2.45, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.25-4.81, P=0.009], in addition to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage (P=0.010) and tumor budding (P=0.009). Conclusions: Parasympathetic neurogenesis is strongly associated with tumor budding and correlates with an adverse prognosis in PDAC. PMID:27199515

  4. Cell Biology of Yeast Zygotes, from Genesis to Budding

    PubMed Central

    Tartakoff, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    The zygote is the essential intermediate that allows interchange of nuclear, mitochondrial and cytosolic determinants between cells. Zygote formation in S. cerevisiae is accomplished by mechanisms that are not characteristic of mitotic cells. These include shifting the axis of growth away from classical cortical landmarks, dramatically reorganizing the cell cortex, remodeling the cell wall in preparation for cell fusion, fusing with an adjacent partner, accomplishing nuclear fusion, orchestrating two steps of septin morphogenesis that account for a delay in fusion of mitochondria, and implementing new norms for bud site selection. This essay emphasizes the sequence of dependent relationships that account for this progression from cell encounters through to zygote budding. It briefly summarizes classical studies of signal transduction and polarity specification and then focuses on downstream events. PMID:25862405

  5. Cell biology of yeast zygotes, from genesis to budding.

    PubMed

    Tartakoff, Alan M

    2015-07-01

    The zygote is the essential intermediate that allows interchange of nuclear, mitochondrial and cytosolic determinants between cells. Zygote formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is accomplished by mechanisms that are not characteristic of mitotic cells. These include shifting the axis of growth away from classical cortical landmarks, dramatically reorganizing the cell cortex, remodeling the cell wall in preparation for cell fusion, fusing with an adjacent partner, accomplishing nuclear fusion, orchestrating two steps of septin morphogenesis that account for a delay in fusion of mitochondria, and implementing new norms for bud site selection. This essay emphasizes the sequence of dependent relationships that account for this progression from cell encounters through zygote budding. It briefly summarizes classical studies of signal transduction and polarity specification and then focuses on downstream events. PMID:25862405

  6. H2B Ubiquitylation Modulates Spliceosome Assembly and Function in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hérissant, Lucas; Moehle, Erica A.; Bertaccini, Diego; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Guthrie, Christine; Dargemont, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background information Commitment to splicing occurs co-transcriptionally, but a major unanswered question is the extent to which various modifications of chromatin, the template for transcription in vivo, contribute to the regulation of splicing. Results Here we perform genome-wide analyses showing that inhibition of specific marks – H2B ubiquitylation, H3K4 methylation, and H3K36 methylation – perturbs splicing in budding yeast, with each modification exerting gene-specific effects. Furthermore, semi-quantitative mass spectrometry on purified nuclear mRNPs and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis on intron-containing genes indicated that H2B ubiquitylation, but not Set1-, Set2- or Dot1-dependent H3 methylation, stimulates recruitment of the early splicing factors, namely U1 and U2 snRNPs, onto nascent RNAs. Conclusions These results suggest that histone modifications impact splicing of distinct subsets of genes using distinct pathways. PMID:24476359

  7. Apoptosis during an early stage of nephrogenesis induces renal hypoplasia in bcl-2-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, M.; Nakauchi, H.; Nakayama, K.; Nakayama, K.; Loh, D.; Watanabe, T.

    1996-01-01

    Renal development in bcl-2-deficient mice was monitored to examine the temporal and spatial function of this gene during nephrogenesis in vivo. Extensive apoptosis occurred during abnormal nephrogenesis in bcl-2-deficient mice. In embryos and newborn mice, the sequence of morphological events was monitored by morphology in conjunction with morphometry, and bcl-2 -/-, bcl-2 +/-, and bcl-2 +/+ mice were compared. In bcl-2 -/- mice, initial induction of nephrons was detected by embryonic day 13 (E-13) as normal. Then, apoptotic cells became five times more frequent at E-13 to E-16 with a significant reduction (1/5) in nephron number at E-17 to E-19 in bcl-2 -/- mice compared with bcl-2 +/+ mice. No morphological difference was evident between bcl-2 +/- mice and bcl-2 +/+ mice by morphometry. Apoptotic cells were found mainly among the mesenchyme and less frequently in tubuli. Little apoptosis among ureteric buds was noted. In bcl-2 -/- mice at E-17 to E-19, inactive branching and insufficient convolution of ureteric buds were accompanied by fulminant apoptosis in the mesenchyme. Neonatal bcl-2 -/- mice lacked the nephrogenic zone, exhibiting renal hypoplasia. Thus, bcl-2 seems to inhibit apoptosis in renal stem cells during the induction of nephrons in vivo. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8623928

  8. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Extravesical Ureteral Reimplantation in Children: Top-Down Suturing Technique Without Stent Placement.

    PubMed

    Silay, Mesrur Selcuk; Baek, Minki; Koh, Chester J

    2015-08-01

    Extravesical robotic-assisted laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation in children is a challenging procedure. Our top-down suturing technique facilitates this reconstructive surgery. After mobilization of the ureter without the use of ureteral stent placement, the detrusor muscle is divided. Once adequate muscle flaps are raised, the ureter is placed into its new muscle tunnel. Unlike previously described techniques, the top-down suturing approach involves placement of the first detrusor stitch at the superior aspect. This allows the ureter to be elevated out of harm's way and in a tension-free manner. The rest of the detrusor reapproximation is performed in a top-down approach with interrupted sutures without the need for ureteral elevation or manipulation. This technique facilitates the suturing process and decreases trauma to the ureter with less instrument contact. This helps to prevent potential complications and improve success rates associated with this procedure. PMID:25674670

  9. Leptin's effect on taste bud calcium responses and transmitter secretion.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Tricia L; Corcoran, Alan; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone released by adipose tissue, acts on the hypothalamus to control cravings and appetite. Leptin also acts to decrease taste responses to sweet substances, though there is little detailed information regarding where leptin acts in the taste transduction cascade. The present study examined the effects of leptin on sweet-evoked responses and neuro transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Our results indicate that leptin moderately decreased sweet-evoked calcium mobilization in isolated mouse taste buds. We also employed Chinese hamster ovary biosensor cells to examine taste transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Leptin reduced ATP and increased serotonin release in response to sweet stimulation. However, leptin has no effect on bitter-evoked transmitter release, further showing that the action of leptin is sweet specific. Our results support those of previous studies, which state that leptin acts on taste tissue via the leptin receptor, most likely on Type II (Receptor) cells, but also possibly on Type III (Presynaptic) cells. PMID:25537017

  10. Ecological Conditions Favoring Budding in Colonial Organisms under Environmental Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Takada, Takenori; Ohtsuki, Akiko; Suzuki, Sayaki U.; Miura, Kanan; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal is a topic of great interest in ecology. Many organisms adopt one of two distinct dispersal tactics at reproduction: the production of small offspring that can disperse over long distances (such as seeds and spawned eggs), or budding. The latter is observed in some colonial organisms, such as clonal plants, corals and ants, in which (super)organisms split their body into components of relatively large size that disperse to a short distance. Contrary to the common dispersal viewpoint, short-dispersal colonial organisms often flourish even in environments with frequent disturbances. In this paper, we investigate the conditions that favor budding over long-distance dispersal of small offspring, focusing on the life history of the colony growth and the colony division ratio. These conditions are the relatively high mortality of very small colonies, logistic growth, the ability of dispersers to peacefully seek and settle unoccupied spaces, and small spatial scale of environmental disturbance. If these conditions hold, budding is advantageous even when environmental disturbance is frequent. These results suggest that the demography or life history of the colony underlies the behaviors of the colonial organisms. PMID:24621824

  11. Trichomes control flower bud shape by linking together young petals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiafu; Walford, Sally-Anne; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widespread in plants and develop from surface cells on different tissues(1). They have many forms and functions, from defensive spines to physical barriers that trap layers of air to insulate against desiccation, but there is growing evidence that trichomes can also have developmental roles in regulating flower structure(2,3). We report here that the trichomes on petals of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are essential for correct flower bud shape through a mechanical entanglement of the trichomes on adjacent petals that anchor the edges to counter the opposing force generated by asymmetric expansion of overlapping petals. Silencing a master regulator of petal trichomes, GhMYB-MIXTA-Like10 (GhMYBML10), by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed petal trichome growth and resulted in flower buds forming into abnormal corkscrew shapes that exposed developing anthers and stigmas to desiccation damage. Artificially gluing petal edges together could partially restore correct bud shape and fertility. Such petal 'Velcro' is present in other Malvaceae and perhaps more broadly in other plant families, although it is not ubiquitous. This mechanism for physical association between separate organs to regulate flower shape and function is different from the usual organ shape control(4) exerted through cell-to-cell communication and differential cell expansion within floral tissues(5,6). PMID:27322517

  12. Epigenetic regulation of bud dormancy events in perennial plants

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Gabino; Leida, Carmen; Conejero, Ana; Badenes, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Release of bud dormancy in perennial plants resembles vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana and cereals. In both cases, a certain period of chilling is required for accomplishing the reproductive phase, and several transcription factors with the MADS-box domain perform a central regulatory role in these processes. The expression of DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-box (DAM)-related genes has been found to be up-regulated in dormant buds of numerous plant species, such as poplar, raspberry, leafy spurge, blackcurrant, Japanese apricot, and peach. Moreover, functional evidence suggests the involvement of DAM genes in the regulation of seasonal dormancy in peach. Recent findings highlight the presence of genome-wide epigenetic modifications related to dormancy events, and more specifically the epigenetic regulation of DAM-related genes in a similar way to FLOWERING LOCUS C, a key integrator of vernalization effectors on flowering initiation in Arabidopsis. We revise the most relevant molecular and genomic contributions in the field of bud dormancy, and discuss the increasing evidence for chromatin modification involvement in the epigenetic regulation of seasonal dormancy cycles in perennial plants. PMID:24917873

  13. Paramyxovirus Assembly and Budding: Building Particles that Transmit Infections

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Megan S.; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Schmitt, Anthony P.

    2010-01-01

    The paramyxoviruses define a diverse group of enveloped RNA viruses that includes a number of important human and animal pathogens. Examples include human respiratory syncytial virus and the human parainfluenza viruses, which cause respiratory illnesses in young children and the elderly; measles and mumps viruses, which have caused recent resurgences of disease in developed countries; the zoonotic Hendra and Nipah viruses, which have caused several outbreaks of fatal disease in Australia and Asia; and Newcastle disease virus, which infects chickens and other avian species. Like other enveloped viruses, paramyxoviruses form particles that assemble and bud from cellular membranes, allowing the transmission of infections to new cells and hosts. Here, we review recent advances that have improved our understanding of events involved in paramyxovirus particle formation. Contributions of viral matrix proteins, glycoproteins, nucleocapsid proteins, and accessory proteins to particle formation are discussed, as well as the importance of host factor recruitment for efficient virus budding. Trafficking of viral structural components within infected cells is described, together with mechanisms that allow for the selection of specific sites on cellular membranes for the coalescence of viral proteins in preparation of bud formation and virion release. PMID:20398786

  14. Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide reduces viscerovisceral hyperalgesia in a rat model of endometriosis plus ureteral calculosis: role of mast cells.

    PubMed

    Iuvone, Teresa; Affaitati, Giannapia; De Filippis, Daniele; Lopopolo, Mariangela; Grassia, Gianluca; Lapenna, Domenico; Negro, Luana; Costantini, Raffaele; Vaia, Massimo; Cipollone, Francesco; Ialenti, Armando; Giamberardino, Maria Adele

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide were evaluated on pain behaviours and markers of mast cell (MC) activity in a rat model of endometriosis plus ureteral calculosis (ENDO+STONE)-induced viscerovisceral hyperalgesia (VVH). Female Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent surgical induction of endometriosis were randomly assigned to receive active (ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide 10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), orally) or placebo treatment for 25 days. At day 21, they underwent ureteral stone formation and were video-recorded till day 25 to evaluate ureteral and uterine pain behaviours. At autopsy (day 25), ureteral condition and number and diameter of endometrial cysts were evaluated. The following were then measured: number and percentage of degranulating MCs, number of vessels, chymase, nerve growth factor (NGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Flk-1 (VEGF receptor) in cysts, and NGF in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide-treated vs placebo-treated rats showed significantly lower number, duration and complexity of ureteral crises, shorter duration of uterine pain, and smaller cyst diameter (0.0001 < P < 0.004); a significantly higher percentage of expelled stones (P < 0.0001); significantly lower MC number (P < 0.01), vessel number (P < 0.01), chymase (P < 0.05), NGF (P < 0.05), VEGF (P < 0.01), and Flk-1 (P < 0.01) expression in cysts and NGF expression in DRG (P < 0.01). In all animals, the global duration of ureteral crises correlated linearly and directly with cyst diameter, MC number and chymase in cysts, and NGF in cysts and DRG (0.02 < P < 0.0002). Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide significantly reduces VVH from ENDO+STONE, probably by modulating MC expression/activity in cysts, thus reducing central sensitization due to noxious signals from endometriotic lesions. The results suggest potential utility of the compound for VVH in clinics. PMID:25974242

  15. External Validation of the STONE Score, a Clinical Prediction Rule for Ureteral Stone: An Observational Multi-institutional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ralph C.; Rodriguez, Robert M.; Moghadassi, Michelle; Noble, Vicki; Bailitz, John; Mallin, Mike; Corbo, Jill; Kang, Tarina L.; Chu, Phillip; Shiboski, Steve; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Study objective The STONE score is a clinical decision rule that classifies patients with suspected nephrolithiasis into low-, moderate-, and high-score groups, with corresponding probabilities of ureteral stone. We evaluate the STONE score in a multi-institutional cohort compared with physician gestalt and hypothesize that it has a sufficiently high specificity to allow clinicians to defer computed tomography (CT) scan in patients with suspected nephrolithiasis. Methods We assessed the STONE score with data from a randomized trial for participants with suspected nephrolithiasis who enrolled at 9 emergency departments between October 2011 and February 2013. In accordance with STONE predictors, we categorized participants into low-, moderate-, or high-score groups. We determined the performance of the STONE score and physician gestalt for ureteral stone. Results Eight hundred forty-five participants were included for analysis; 331 (39%) had a ureteral stone. The global performance of the STONE score was superior to physician gestalt (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.78 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.74 to 0.81] versus 0.68 [95% CI 0.64 to 0.71]). The prevalence of ureteral stone on CT scan ranged from 14% (95% CI 9% to 19%) to 73% (95% CI 67% to 78%) in the low-, moderate-, and high-score groups. The sensitivity and specificity of a high score were 53% (95% CI 48% to 59%) and 87% (95% CI 84% to 90%), respectively. Conclusion The STONE score can successfully aggregate patients into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups and predicts ureteral stone with a higher specificity than physician gestalt. However, in its present form, the STONE score lacks sufficient accuracy to allow clinicians to defer CT scan for suspected ureteral stone. PMID:26440490

  16. Comparative efficacy of tadalafil versus tamsulosin as the medical expulsive therapy in lower ureteric stone: a prospective randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Mylarappa, Prasad; Aggarwal, Kuldeep; Patil, Avinash; Joshi, Prarthan; Desigowda, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, medical expulsive therapy has been used in the management of distal ureteric stones as a supplement to conservative treatment. Therefore, we conducted a prospective randomized study to evaluate the possible role of tadalafil individually in comparison with proven tamsulosin therapy in ureteric stone expulsion. The aim of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (tadalafil) and an α-1 blocker (tamsulosin) as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric calculi. Material and methods Between August 2014 and October 2015, 207 patients who presented with distal ureteric stones of size 5–10 mm were randomly divided into two groups: tadalafil (Group A) and tamsulosin (Group B). Therapy was given for a maximum of 4 weeks. Stone expulsion rate, time to stone expulsion, analgesic use, number of hospital visits for pain, follow-up, endoscopic treatment and adverse effects of drugs were noted. Both groups were compared for normally distributed data by percentage, analysis of variance, and T-test. All the classified and categorical data were analyzed for both groups using the chi-square test. Results A statistically significant expulsion rate of 84.0% in Group A compared with 68.0% in Group B (P value = 0.0130), and shorter stone expulsion time in Group A (14.7±3.8) in comparison to Group B (16.8 ±4.5) was observed. Statistically significant differences were noted in renal colic episodes and analgesic requirement in Group A than Group B. No serious adverse effects were noted. Conclusions Tadalafil is safe, efficacious, and well tolerated as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones. This study showed that tadalafil increases ureteric stone expulsion quite significantly along with better control of pain and significantly lower analgesic requirement. PMID:27551555

  17. Aliskiren restores renal AQP2 expression during unilateral ureteral obstruction by inhibiting the inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weidong; Luo, Renfei; Lin, Yu; Wang, Feifei; Zheng, Peili; Levi, Moshe; Yang, Tianxin; Li, Chunling

    2015-04-15

    Ureteral obstruction is associated with reduced expression of renal aquaporins (AQPs), urinary concentrating defects, and an enhanced inflammatory response, in which the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may play an important role. We evaluated whether RAS blockade by a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, would prevent the decreased renal protein expression of AQPs in a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model and what potential mechanisms may be involved. UUO was performed for 3 days (3UUO) and 7 days (7UUO) in C57BL/6 mice with or without aliskiren injection. In 3UUO and 7UUO mice, aliskiren abolished the reduction of AQP2 protein expression but not AQP1, AQP3, and AQP4. mRNA levels of renal AQP2 and vasopressin type 2 receptor were decreased in obstructed kidneys of 7UUO mice, which were prevented by aliskiren treatment. Aliskiren treatment was also associated with a reduced inflammatory response in obstructed kidneys of UUO mice. Aliskiren significantly decreased mRNA levels of several proinflammatory factors, such as transforming growth factor-β and tumor necrosis factor-α, seen in obstructed kidneys of UUO mice. Interestingly, mRNA and protein levels of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome components apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, caspase-1, and IL-1β were dramatically increased in obstructed kidneys of 7UUO mice, which were significantly suppressed by aliskiren. In primary cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells, IL-1β significantly decreased AQP2 expression. In conclusions, RAS blockade with the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren increased water channel AQP2 expression in obstructed kidneys of UUO mice, at least partially by preventing NLRP3 inflammasome activation in association with ureteral obstruction. PMID:25694485

  18. Tamsulosin versus Alfuzosin in the Treatment of Patients with Distal Ureteral Stones: Prospective, Randomized, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-sayed, Abul-yazid Saad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated and compared the efficacy of tamsulosin and alfuzosin in the medical treatment of symptomatic, uncomplicated distal ureteral stones. Materials and Methods A total of 87 patients with distal ureteral stones of ≤10 mm were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group I patients (n=29) received 0.4 mg tamsulosin daily, group II patients (n=30) received 10 mg alfuzosin daily, and group III patients (n=28) were not given tamsulosin or alfuzosin. Patients in all groups received Diclofenac sodium regularly for 1 week and then on demand. Follow-up was done on a weekly basis for 30 days. Results The mean stone size was comparable in the 3 groups (4.97±2.24, 5.47±2.13, and 5.39±1.81 mm, respectively). The stone expulsion rate was 86.2%, 76.6%, and 50% in groups I, II, and III, respectively. The difference in groups I and II with respect to group III was significant (p=0.0028 and 0.035). The mean expulsion time for groups I to III was 7.52±7.06, 8.26±7.34, and 13.90±6.99 days, respectively. The expulsion time was significantly shorter in groups I and II than in group III (p=0.0097 and 0.026). Patients taking tamsulosin and alfuzosin had fewer pain attacks than did group III patients (1.24±0.57 vs. 1.43±0.67 vs. 1.75±1.17). Only 3 cases of drug side effects, 2 in group I and 1 in group II, were recorded. Conclusions The use of tamsulosin or alfuzosin for the medical treatment of lower ureteric stones proved to be safe and effective. Moreover, tamsulosin did not have any significant benefits over alfuzosin. PMID:20414396

  19. Aliskiren restores renal AQP2 expression during unilateral ureteral obstruction by inhibiting the inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weidong; Luo, Renfei; Lin, Yu; Wang, Feifei; Zheng, Peili; Levi, Moshe; Yang, Tianxin

    2015-01-01

    Ureteral obstruction is associated with reduced expression of renal aquaporins (AQPs), urinary concentrating defects, and an enhanced inflammatory response, in which the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may play an important role. We evaluated whether RAS blockade by a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, would prevent the decreased renal protein expression of AQPs in a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model and what potential mechanisms may be involved. UUO was performed for 3 days (3UUO) and 7 days (7UUO) in C57BL/6 mice with or without aliskiren injection. In 3UUO and 7UUO mice, aliskiren abolished the reduction of AQP2 protein expression but not AQP1, AQP3, and AQP4. mRNA levels of renal AQP2 and vasopressin type 2 receptor were decreased in obstructed kidneys of 7UUO mice, which were prevented by aliskiren treatment. Aliskiren treatment was also associated with a reduced inflammatory response in obstructed kidneys of UUO mice. Aliskiren significantly decreased mRNA levels of several proinflammatory factors, such as transforming growth factor-β and tumor necrosis factor-α, seen in obstructed kidneys of UUO mice. Interestingly, mRNA and protein levels of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome components apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, caspase-1, and IL-1β were dramatically increased in obstructed kidneys of 7UUO mice, which were significantly suppressed by aliskiren. In primary cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells, IL-1β significantly decreased AQP2 expression. In conclusions, RAS blockade with the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren increased water channel AQP2 expression in obstructed kidneys of UUO mice, at least partially by preventing NLRP3 inflammasome activation in association with ureteral obstruction. PMID:25694485

  20. Can stone density on plain radiography predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for ureteral stones?

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ki Hong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Bae, Jungbum; Cho, Min Chul; Lee, Kwang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to determine whether stone density on plain radiography (kidney-ureter-bladder, KUB) could predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stones. Materials and Methods A total of 223 patients treated by ESWL for radio-opaque ureteral stones of 5 to 20 mm were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent routine blood and urine analyses, plain radiography (KUB), and noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) before ESWL. Demographic, stone, and radiological characteristics on KUB and NCCT were analyzed. The patients were categorized into two groups: lower-density (LD) group (radiodensity less than or equal to that of the 12th rib, n=163) and higher-density (HD) group (radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib, n=60). Stone-free status was assessed by KUB every week after ESWL. A successful outcome was defined as stone free within 1 month after ESWL. Results Mean stone size in the LD group was significantly smaller than that in the HD group (7.5±1.4 mm compared with 9.9±2.9 mm, p=0.002). The overall success rates in the LD and HD groups were 82.1% and 60.0%, respectively (p=0.007). The mean duration of stone-free status and average number of SWL sessions required for success in the two groups were 21.7 compared with 39.2 days and 1.8 compared with 2.3, respectively (p<0.05). On multivariate logistic analysis, stone size and time to ESWL since colic and radiodensity of the stone on KUB were independent predictors of successful ESWL. Conclusions Our data suggest that larger stone size, longer time to ESWL, and ureteral stones with a radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib may be at a relatively higher risk of ESWL failure 1 month after the procedure. PMID:25598937

  1. Comparison between Double J (DJ) Ureteral Stenting and Percutaneous Nephrostomy (PCN) in Obstructive Uropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Saeed Pansota, Mudassar; Tariq, Muhammad; Shahzad Saleem, Muhammad; Ali Tabassum, Shafqat; Hussain, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the complications rate of percutaneous nephrostomy and double J ureteral stenting in the management of obstructive uropathy. Methodology: Total number of 300 patients of age 20-80 years who underwent JJ stenting or percutaneous nephrostomy for obstructive uropathy were included in this study. Patients were divided in two groups i.e. A & B. In group A, 100 patients who underwent double J ureteral stenting while in group B, 200 patients who underwent percutaneous nephrostomy tube insertion were included. The stent was inserted retrograde by using cystoscope, under mild sedation or local anesthesia. While the percutaneous nephrostomy was done under ultrasound guidance by using local anesthetic agent. Complications were noted in immediate post-operative period and on follow up. Results: Majority of the patients were between 36 to 50 years of age with male to female ratio was 2.6:1. The most common cause of obstructive uropathy was stone disease i.e. renal, ureteric or both. Post DJ stent, complications like painful trigon irritation, septicemia, haematuria and stent encrustation were seen in 12.0%, 7.0%, 10.0% and 5.0% patients respectively. On the other hand, post-PCN septicemia, bleeding and tube dislodgment or blockage was seen in 3.5%, 4.5% and 4.5% respectively. In this study, overall success rate for double J stenting was up to 83.0% and for percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) was 92.0% (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Percutaneous nephrostomy is a safe and better method of temporary urinary diversion than double J stenting for management of obstructive uropathy with lower incidence of complications. PMID:24353616

  2. Effects of Tamsulosin, Solifenacin, and Combination Therapy for the Treatment of Ureteral Stent Related Discomforts

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyoung Taek; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Tchun Yong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of tamsulosin, solifenacin, and combination therapy of two agents in improving the lower urinary tract symptoms of patients with indwelling double-J ureteral stents. Materials and Methods A total of 168 patients underwent placement of a double-J ureteral stent after retrograde ureteroscopy for urinary stone disease. All patients received polyurethane double-J ureteral stents (6 Fr, 24 or 26 cm), which were removed a mean of 14 days postoperatively. A total of 48 patients were given no medication (Group 1), 43 patients were given tamsulosin 0.2 mg once daily (Group 2), 45 patients were given solifenacin 5 mg once daily (Group 3), and 32 patients were given a combination of two agents postoperatively (Group 4). International Prostate Symptom Score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and visual analogue pain scale (VAPS) questionnaires were completed by each patient at 1 day postoperatively and on the day of stent removal. Results In the total group of patients, the mean age was 50.24±12.90 years. There was a significant difference in the IPSS total score between group 1 and groups 3 and 4. Group 4 also differed significantly from group 1 in the irritative subscore. The obstructive subscore differed between groups 2 and 4 and group 1. There was a statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 4 in the QoL score. There were no significant differences in the VAPS. Conclusions Combination therapy with tamsulosin and solifenacin improved both irritative and obstructive symptoms more than in the other groups. Combination therapy should be strongly considered for patients who complain of stent-related symptoms. PMID:21860770

  3. Effectiveness of medical treatment in overcoming the ureteral double-J stent related symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuyumcuoglu, Ugur; Eryildirim, Bilal; Tuncer, Murat; Faydaci, Gokhan; Tarhan, Fatih; Ozgül, Aydin

    2012-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether the frequency of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) increased in patients in whom double-J stents were applied. We also evaluated several medical therapy protocols to treat symptoms related with ureteral stents. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 patients, in whom unilateral double-j stent was applied during ureteral stone treatment, were included. Before the double-J stent was applied, all patients completed storage components of the “International Prostate Symptom Score” (IPSSs), quality of life components of the IPSS (IPSS-QOL) and “Overactive Bladder Questionnaire” (OABq) forms and scores were calculated. After the procedure, cases were randomized into 5 groups, an antiinflammatory was given to Group 1, spasmolytic to Group 2, anticholinergic to Group 3 and α-blocker to Group 4. No additional drug was given to Group 5 as this control group. During the fourth week of the procedure, IPSSs, IPSS-QOL and OABq forms were again completed and scores were compared with the previous ones. Results: When all the cases were evaluated, the IPSSs, IPSS-QOL and OABq scores of patients in whom the double-J stent was applied were statistically significantly higher the procedure. Compared to the control group, the cases where the double-J stent was applied showed a higher IPSSs, IPSS-QOL and OABq scores and none of the medical therapies could prevent this increase. Interpretation: The frequency of LUTS increased in cases where the ureteral stent was applied and discomfort continued as long as the stent stayed in the body. PMID:21914427

  4. Robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy without using ureteral stent: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Burak; Coşkuner, Enis Rauf; Yalçın, Veli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To share our results of robotic assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) we performed without using ureteral stent in a single center from Turkey. Material and methods Medical records of consecutive 45 patients (34 men and 11 women) who underwent RAPN for kidney lesions between March 2011 and December 2014 were retrieved, and evaluated. All the procedures were performed by a transperitoneal approach without using ureteral stent prior to surgery. Renal artery clamping was used in all cases and intraoperative ultrasonography was used in 2 cases. Results Patients undergoing RAPN had a mean tumor size of 4.42 cm (2–8) and a mean renal nephrometry score of 5.82 (4–11). The mean estimated blood loss was 250 mL (150–450 ml) and the mean operative time was 195 minutes (150–300). There was no statistical difference between the preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine levels at the first follow-up visit (0.9 vs. 0.95, p=0.087). Surgical margin positivity was not detected in any patient, and the mean surgical margin distance was calculated as 0.4 mm (0.2–10). In only 1 patient disease recurrence was detected at the 21st month of the the follow-up period, and no distant metastases was reported in our patients at a mean follow-up of 10 months (3–36 mos). Our complication rate was 11.1% and according to the Clavien system complications were as; grade 2 (3 patients), grade 3a (1 patient) and grade 3b (1 patient). Conclusion With appropriately selected patients and adequate surgical experience, RAPN performed without using ureteral stent is a safe and feasible method for localized renal tumors. PMID:27011873

  5. [The EDAP LT and the M.P.L. 9000. Results of the treatment of reno-ureteral lithiasis].

    PubMed

    De Cobelli, O; Larcher, P; Carmignani, L; Meroni, T; Franchini, V; Panizzuti, M; Rocco, F

    1989-12-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric lithotripsy are discussed with specific analysis of the EDAP LT 01. A description of the EDAP LT 01 is included. Installation, accommodation, and maintenance features are discussed. The Dornier M.P.L. 9000 represents a third-generation lithotripter for both kidney and gallbladder stones with an ultrasound localization system tubules shock-wave coupling. The use of TH M.P.L. 9000 was limited by ultrasound-guided localization of kidney stones, upper ureteral calculi causing obstruction, and intramural lower ureteral stones. PMID:2532403

  6. Automated Sensing of Douglas Fir Bud-Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintz, H. E.; Kruger, A.; Wagner, D. A.; Tenney, I. J.

    2011-12-01

    The timing of plant biological events such as budburst in the spring can have major impacts on plant productivity and ecosystem carbon balance. While research efforts that address the timing of events is gaining considerable momentum, the technology available for sensing and recording the timing of events is limited, especially for trees. Thus, researchers often perform manual measurements, which can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. This has resulted in efforts such as Project BudBurst, a network of professional and volunteer observers across the United States that monitor plants as seasons change. Access to forest trees can be difficult during periods of greatest interest, such as when buds open in the spring. For example, high elevation, snow, and melting snow during the spring hamper access to trees in alpine regions. Researchers at Oregon State University and The University of Iowa are developing instrumentation for automating sensing of budburst in Douglas firs. While the instrumentation targets Douglas firs, it can find application in studying budburst in other species. We present an initial bud-burst sensor that uses optical techniques to sense bud opening. An optical fiber illuminates a target bud with modulated light, a second fiber detects, and guides reflect light to a photodetector and signal processing electronics. Changes in the reflected light indicate the budburst. The instrumentation exploits advances in microelectronics, particularly miniaturization and low power consumption, and uses advanced signal processing techniques such as lock-in detection. The instrumentation records the reflected light every 15 minutes on high-capacity, non-volatile Flash media. Power consumption is very low and sensors have an extrapolated, continuous operating time more than 9 months, suggesting their deployment in the fall, and retrieval in the following spring. We believe the sensor will enable a caliber of research not yet achievable owing to the difficulty of

  7. Ureteral carcinoma presenting as a complex pelvic mass in a post menopausal patient.

    PubMed

    Farley, J H; Douglas, T H; Mcleod, D G; Harrison, C R

    1998-07-01

    This is a report of a low-grade ureteral carcinoma presenting as a pelvic mass in a postmenopausal woman with a prolonged history of lower back pain. A right complex adnexal mass and right hydroureter and hydronephrosis in an atrophic nonfunctioning right kidney was found during evaluation for the back pain. Operative evaluation revealed a normal uterus and ovaries; however, a 2 x 3-cm mass in the right ureter was found at the level of the uterine arteries. A total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and right nephroureterectomy were performed with pathology returning grade I papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter. PMID:9698491

  8. BET 2: Tadalafil medical expulsive therapy in ureteral calculi: a new kid on the block?

    PubMed

    Christie, Brian; Oostema, Adam

    2016-08-01

    A short cut review was carried out to see if tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5) inhibitor, was superior to standard α-adrenergic antagonists at promoting spontaneous ureteric calculi excretion. Two relevant papers were found, published by the same research group. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. Tadalafil was not shown to have significant superiority in terms of efficacy or adverse effects compared with standard treatment. PMID:27440770

  9. Antegrade Flexible Ureteroscopy for Bilateral Ureteral Stones in a Patient with Severe Hip Joint Ankylosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bum Soo; Lee, Jun Nyung; Choi, Jae Young; Park, Yoon Kyu

    2010-01-01

    In the past several decades there has been a remarkable development of small-caliber, flexible ureteroscopes and various ancillary instruments for stone manipulation and retrieval. Percutaneous antegrade ureteroscopy can be substituted in select cases for retrograde ureteroscopy. We report a case of a 60-year-old man with severe ankylosis in both hip joints who was diagnosed with bilateral ureteral stones. The patient underwent antegrade flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy. This case illustrates the role of antegrade flexible ureteroscopy combined with the holmium:YAG laser as a minimally invasive, safe, and effective technique for the management of stones in a patient who cannot undergo a retrograde approach. PMID:21165203

  10. Differentiation of Apical Bud Cells in a Newly Developed Apical Bud Transplantation Model Using GFP Transgenic Mice as Donor

    PubMed Central

    Sakagami, Ryuji; Yoshinaga, Yasunori; Okamura, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Rodent mandibular incisors have a unique anatomical structure that allows teeth to grow throughout the lifetime of the rodent. This report presents a novel transplantation technique for studying the apical bud differentiation of rodent mandibular incisors. Incisal apical end tissue with green fluorescent protein from transgenic mouse was transplanted to wild type mice, and the development of the transplanted cells were immunohistologically observed for 12 weeks after the transplantation. Results indicate that the green fluorescent apical end tissue replaced the original tissue, and cells from the apical bud differentiated and extended toward the incisal edge direction. The immunostaining with podoplanin also showed that the characteristics of the green fluorescent tissue were identical to those of the original. The green fluorescent cells were only found in the labial side of the incisor up to 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, however, they were also found in the lingual side. Here the green fluorescent cementocyte-like cells were only present in the cementum close to the dentin surface. This study suggests that some of the cells that form the cellular cementum come from the apical tissue including the apical bud in rodent incisors. PMID:26978064

  11. Strigolactone acts downstream of auxin to regulate bud outgrowth in pea and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Philip B; Dun, Elizabeth A; Ferguson, Brett J; Rameau, Catherine; Beveridge, Christine A

    2009-05-01

    During the last century, two key hypotheses have been proposed to explain apical dominance in plants: auxin promotes the production of a second messenger that moves up into buds to repress their outgrowth, and auxin saturation in the stem inhibits auxin transport from buds, thereby inhibiting bud outgrowth. The recent discovery of strigolactone as the novel shoot-branching inhibitor allowed us to test its mode of action in relation to these hypotheses. We found that exogenously applied strigolactone inhibited bud outgrowth in pea (Pisum sativum) even when auxin was depleted after decapitation. We also found that strigolactone application reduced branching in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) auxin response mutants, suggesting that auxin may act through strigolactones to facilitate apical dominance. Moreover, strigolactone application to tiny buds of mutant or decapitated pea plants rapidly stopped outgrowth, in contrast to applying N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), an auxin transport inhibitor, which significantly slowed growth only after several days. Whereas strigolactone or NPA applied to growing buds reduced bud length, only NPA blocked auxin transport in the bud. Wild-type and strigolactone biosynthesis mutant pea and Arabidopsis shoots were capable of instantly transporting additional amounts of auxin in excess of endogenous levels, contrary to predictions of auxin transport models. These data suggest that strigolactone does not act primarily by affecting auxin transport from buds. Rather, the primary repressor of bud outgrowth appears to be the auxin-dependent production of strigolactones. PMID:19321710

  12. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Mikiko; Toyomasu, Takayuki; Aoki, Takayuki; Price, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA) of various flower bud tissues using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121∘C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving-labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA) was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen. PMID:25859249

  13. EphA4, RhoB and the molecular development of feather buds are maintained by the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    McKinnell, Iain W; Makarenkova, Helen; de Curtis, Ivan; Turmaine, Mark; Patel, Ketan

    2004-06-01

    The development of feather buds is a highly ordered process involving epithelial-mesenchymal signalling. Cellular morphology is determined by the actin cytoskeleton, which is controlled by networks of regulators such as the GTPases. EphA4 belongs to a receptor tyrosine kinase family that has been consistently shown to regulate the cytoskeleton via Rho family GTPases in neural development and is expressed in early stages of feather bud development though its role has not been defined. We therefore used an in vitro skin culture system to interfere with EphA4 levels in feather buds using anti-sense oligonucleotides, demonstrating a severe effect on both their number and morphological form. Analysis of the Rho family of GTPases revealed that this effect was mediated by the GTPase RhoB, the expression of which was altered in response to altered levels of EphA4. In addition, the inhibition of RhoB mimicked the effects of reduced EphA4 levels on feather development. Significantly, manipulation of cytoskeletal dynamics revealed that those cells undergoing morphogenetic change regulate the patterning signals responsible for initiating feather development. We propose that this molecular maintenance mechanism between EphA4-RhoB and the actin cytoskeleton converges or coordinates with other morphogenic signalling systems to control feather bud development. PMID:15136143

  14. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the timing of bud burst in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Partanen, Jouni; Koski, Veikko; Hänninen, Heikki

    1998-12-01

    We examined the effects of several photoperiod and temperature regimes imposed during the winter-spring period on the timing of bud burst in rooted cuttings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) grown in a greenhouse in Finland. The treatments were initiated in November and December after the cuttings had been exposed to natural chilling and freezing events. Irrespective of the treatments applied, time to bud burst decreased with increased duration of previous exposure to natural chilling and freezing events. Fluctuating day/night temperatures and continuous lengthening of the photoperiod hastened bud burst. Shortening the photoperiod delayed bud burst, suggesting that little or no ontogenetic development toward bud burst takes place during mild periods before the winter solstice. In the case of climatic warming, this phenomenon may prevent the premature onset of growth that has been predicted by computer simulations with models that only consider temperature regulation of bud burst. PMID:12651402

  15. Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-07-01

    During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding.

  16. Fgf16 is essential for pectoral fin bud formation in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Ryohei; Kamei, Eriko; Hotta, Yuuhei; Konishi, Morichika; Miyake, Ayumi; Itoh, Nobuyuki . E-mail: itohnobu@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-08-18

    Zebrafish pectoral fin bud formation is an excellent model for studying morphogenesis. Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and sonic hedgehog (shh) are essential for pectoral fin bud formation. We found that Fgf16 was expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of fin buds. A knockdown of Fgf16 function resulted in no fin bud outgrowth. Fgf16 is required for cell proliferation and differentiation in the mesenchyme and the AER of the fin buds, respectively. Fgf16 functions downstream of Fgf10, a mesenchymal factor, signaling to induce the expression of Fgf4 and Fgf8 in the AER. Fgf16 in the AER and shh in the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) interact to induce and/or maintain each other's expression. These findings have revealed that Fgf16, a newly identified AER factor, plays a crucial role in pectoral fin bud outgrowth by mediating the interactions of AER-mesenchyme and AER-ZPA.

  17. Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-01-01

    During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding. PMID:25058275

  18. Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-01-01

    During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding. PMID:25058275

  19. Combined endoscopic surgery in the prone-split leg position for successful single-session removal of an encrusted ureteral stent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although encrusted stents may lead to some unwanted complications including urinary tract obstruction, urinary sepsis, and potential loss of kidney function, there is currently no consensus on the most efficient method for managing stents that are intentionally left in situ. This is the first report describing the management of an encrusted stent using combined endoscopic surgery in the prone split-leg position in a single session. Case presentation A 47-year-old Asian man presented with left flank pain and macrohematuria. The patient had undergone left ureteral stenting three years previously for the treatment of left ureteral stones and hydronephrosis; however, he was lost to follow-up before the treatment for the ureter stones was completed. Therefore, the ureteral stent and stones were not removed. An abdominal radiograph and a noncontrast computed tomography scan showed encrustation along the retained stent with stone burdens in the kidney and ureter. The ureteral stent could not be removed by cystoscopy after shock wave lithotripsy of the left ureteral stones. Therefore, endoscopic lithotripsy combined with flexible ureteroscopy and miniature nephroscopy was performed with the patient in the prone split-leg position. All the stones and the encrusted ureteral stent were successfully removed in a single session. Conclusions In this case, percutaneous nephrolithomy in addition to flexible ureteroscopy was preferred because severe encrustation of the proximal stent and ureteral stones complicated the therapeutic strategy. Combined endoscopic techniques in the prone split-leg position can achieve successful and safe management of encrusted stents. PMID:24742133

  20. Application of Skin Electrical Conductance of Acupuncture Meridians for Ureteral Calculus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Xu, Jian-Ming; Chen, Der-Cherng; Chen, Wen-Chi; Lee, Chao-Te

    2011-01-01

    Renal colic is a common condition seen in the emergency department (ED). Our recent study showed that measures of electrical conductance may be used as supplementary diagnostic methods for patients with acute renal colic. Here, we describe the case of a 30-year-old male subject with a left ureteral calculus who presented with frequency and normal-looking urine. He had already visited the outpatient department, but in vain. Normal urinalysis and nonobstructive urogram were reported at that time. Two days later, he was admitted to the ED because of abdominal pain in the left lower quadrant. The urinalysis did not detect red blood cells. Ultrasonography did not indicate hydronephrosis. The meridian electrical conductance and index of sympathovagal balance were found to be abnormal. High level of electrical conductance on the left bladder meridian was found. An unenhanced helical computed tomography was scheduled to reveal a left ureterovesical stone. Ureteroscopic intervention was later uneventfully performed, and the patient's pain was relieved. The follow-up measurements showed that the meridian parameters had returned to normal one month after treatment. This case suggests that bladder meridian electrical conductance might be used as a supplemental method for ureteral calculus diagnosis. PMID:24533191

  1. A novel ureteral stent material with antibacterial and reducing encrustation properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Cao, Zhiqiang; Ren, Ling; Chen, Shanshan; Zhang, Bingchun; Liu, Rui; Yang, Ke

    2016-11-01

    Ureteral stents have been used to relieve ureterostenosis. Complications such as infection and encrustation occur in the long time of stent implantation, which is a clinical problem needs to be resolved. Indwelling ureteral stents have shown to develop microbial biofilm that may lead to recurrent infection and encrustation. This study was aiming to reduce those complications by using a novel material, Cu-bearing antibacterial stainless steel. The antibacterial performance, encrustation property, and biocompatibility were examined by SEM, image analysis, MTT and would healing. The in vitro immersion test showed that 316LCu-bearing stainless steel (316LCu-SS) not only inhibited proliferation of bacteria and formation of biofilm, but also had less encrustation deposition. Its antibacterial effectiveness against Escherichia coli reached to 92.7% in the artificial urine for 24h and 90.3% in the human urine for 6h. The encrustation surface coverage percentage was 30.2% by 12weeks, which was nearly one half of NiTi alloy. The in vitro tests showed that 316LCu-SS had no toxicity, and promoted the migration of urethral epithelial cells. PMID:27524016

  2. Comparative efficacy of tamsulosin versus nifedipine for distal ureteral calculi: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai; Man, Li Bo; Huang, Guang Lin; Li, Gui Zhong; Wang, Jian Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to systematically compare the therapeutic effect and safety of tamsulosin with nifedipine in medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral calculi. Methods Databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trial Register Centers, were comprehensively searched. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected, and quality assessment was performed according to the Cochrane Handbook. RevMan software was used to analyze the outcome measures, which consisted of expulsion rate, expulsion time, and complications. Results Twelve RCTs consisting of 4,961 patients were included (tamsulosin group, 2,489 cases; nifedipine group, 2,472 cases). Compared with nifedipine, tamsulosin significantly increased the expulsion rate (risk ratio =1.29, 95% CI [1.25, 1.33], P<0.0001) and reduced the expulsion time (standard mean difference =−0.39, 95% CI [−0.72, −0.05], P=0.02). Regarding safety, tamsulosin was associated with fewer complications than nifedipine (risk ratio =0.45, 95% CI [0.28, 0.72], P=0.0008), and further subgroup analysis showed that tamsulosin was associated with a lower risk of both mild and moderate-to-severe complications. Conclusion On the bias of current evidence, tamsulosin showed an overall superiority to nifedipine for distal ureteral calculi <10 mm in aspects of expulsion rate, expulsion time, and safety. Tamsulosin was supposed to be the first drug to be recommended to patients willing to receive medical expulsive therapy. PMID:27099471

  3. Subcutaneous nephrovesical bypass: Treatment for ureteral obstruction in advanced metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YUNYAN; WANG, GONGCHENG; HOU, PEIJIN; ZHUANG, HAIJUN; YANG, XIAOSONG; GU, SHUO; WANG, HENGBING; JI, LU; XU, ZONGYUAN; MENG, JUNSONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the value of subcutaneous nephrovesical bypass (SNVB) for the treatment of ureteral obstruction due to pelvic metastatic disease. SNVB stents (n=30) were implanted in 24 patients with advanced metastatic disease between January 2008 and December 2012. Urinalysis, serum creatinine (SCr), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), quality of life (QoL) scores, and renal ultrasonography were evaluated at follow-up. The SNVB procedures were successful in all 24 patients. Patient follow-ups occurred at an average of 10.6 months. Preoperative hydronephrosis was eliminated in 16 cases (53.3%) and reduced in the remaining patients. Following surgery, SCr levels reduced significantly from 256±46 to 124±23 μmol/l (P<0.001). GFRs increased from 25±4.8 to 45±5.3 ml/min (P<0.01). The mean QoL scores were 3.4±1.4 preoperatively and 7.6±1.0 postoperatively (P<0.001). The results showed that SNVB is a minimally invasive, effective and safe procedure for patients with ureteral obstruction resulting from advanced malignant disease. As an alternative procedure to percutaneous nephrostomy, SNVB offers patients a better QoL. PMID:25435997

  4. Preparation, degradation and in vitro release of ciprofloxacin-eluting ureteral stents for potential antibacterial application.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaofei; Xiao, Yan; Xu, Heng; Lei, Kun; Lang, Meidong

    2016-09-01

    Drug-eluting stents with biodegradable polymers as reservoirs have shown great potential in the application of interventional therapy due to their capability of local drug delivery. Herein, poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) with three different compositions as carriers for ciprofloxacin lactate (CIP) was coated on ureteral stents by the dipping method. To simulate a body environment, degradation behavior of PLCL as both the bulk film and the stent coating was evaluated in artificial urine (AU, pH6.20) respectively at 37°C for 120days by tracing their weight/Mn loss, water absorption and surface morphologies. Furthermore, the release profile of the eluting drug CIP on each stent exhibited a three-stage pattern, which was greatly affected by the degradation behavior of PLCL except for the burst stage. Interestingly, the degradation results on both macroscopic and molecular level indicated that the release mechanism at stage I was mainly controlled by chain scission instead of the weight loss or morphological changes of the coatings. While for stage II, the release profile was dominated by erosion resulting from the hydrolysis reaction autocatalyzed by acidic degradation residues. In addition, ciprofloxacin-loaded coatings displayed a significant bacterial resistance against E. coli and S. aureus without obvious cytotoxicity to Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). Our results suggested that PLCL copolymers with tunable degradation rate as carriers for ciprofloxacin lactate could be used as a promising long-term antibacterial coating for ureteral stents. PMID:27207042

  5. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide on renal injury in the experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, Murat; Otunctemur, Alper; Ozbek, Emin; Sahin, Suleyman; Besiroglu, Huseyin; Ozsoy, Ozgur Doga; Cekmen, Mustafa; Somay, Adnan; Ozbay, Nurver

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction/Objective: Ureteral obstruction is a common pathology and causes kidney fibrosis and dysfunction at late period. In this present study, we investigated the antifibrotic and antiinflammatory effects of hydrogen sulfide on kidney damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats. Materials and Methods: 24 rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was control, group 2 was sham, group 3 included rats with UUO and group 4 rats with UUO which were given sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS)-exogenous donor of hydrogen sulfide (intraperitoneally 56μmoL/kg/day). After 14 days, rats were killed and their kidneys were taken and blood analysis was performed. Tubular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis were determined histopathologically in a part of the kidneys; nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were determined in the other part of the kidneys. Urea-creatinine levels were investigated by blood analysis. Statistical analyses were made by the Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: There was no significantly difference for urea-creatinine levels among groups. Pathologically, there was serious tubular necrosis and fibrosis in group 3 and there was significantly decreasing of tubular necrosis and fibrosis in group 4 (p<0.005). Also, there was significantly increase of NO and MDA levels and decrease of GSH levels in group 3 compared to other groups (p<0.005). Conclusions: hydrogen sulfide prevents kidney damage with antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect. PMID:26742979

  6. Complications of Percutaneous Nephrostomy, Percutaneous Insertion of Ureteral Endoprosthesis, and Replacement Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kaskarelis, Ioannis S.; Papadaki, Marina G.; Malliaraki, Niki E.; Robotis, Epaminondas D.; Malagari, Katerina S.; Piperopoulos, Ploutarchos N.

    2001-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to record and identify the frequency of complications following percutaneous nephrostomy, replacement of nephrostomy drains and percutaneous insertion of ureteral endoprostheses.Methods: During a 10-year period 341 patients were referred to our department with indications for percutaneous nephrostomy and/or percutaneous insertion of a ureteral endoprosthesis, and a total of 1036 interventional procedures were performed (nephrostomy, catheter change, stenting).Results: There were three major complications (0.29%): two patients died during the first 30 days after the procedure, due to aggravation of their condition caused by the procedure, and one patient had retroperitoneal bleeding requiring surgery. There were 76 complications of intermediate severity (7.33%): catheter or stent displacement (n = 37, 3.57%) catheter occlusion (n = 18, 1.73%), hematuria (n = 12, 1.16%), and urinary tract infection (n = 9, 0.87%). The 55 minor complications (5.3%) comprised inflammation of the skin at the site of insertion of the percutaneous catheter.Conclusion: The small number of complications observed during acts of interventional uroradiology prove transcutaneous manipulations to be safe medical procedures.

  7. Identification of budding yeast using a fiber-optic imaging bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschwanez, John; Holl, Mark; Marquardt, Brian; Dragavon, Joe; Burgess, Lloyd; Meldrum, Deirdre

    2004-05-01

    A successful imaging system has been designed and built for yeast pedigree analysis. The system uses a fiber-optic imaging bundle to recognize single yeast cells. Image processing software has been developed to accurately classify the cells as either budding or not budding a daughter cell. This system is intended to replace the body of a microscope for the detection of budding in a microfluidic system.

  8. Spaceflight enhances cell aggregation and random budding in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Crabbé, Aurélie; Nielsen-Preiss, Sheila M; Woolley, Christine M; Barrila, Jennifer; Buchanan, Kent; McCracken, James; Inglis, Diane O; Searles, Stephen C; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A; Ott, C Mark; Wilson, James W; Pierson, Duane L; Stefanyshyn-Piper, Heidemarie M; Hyman, Linda E; Nickerson, Cheryl A

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground controls, which represented 8.3% of the analyzed ORFs. Spaceflight-cultured C. albicans-induced genes involved in cell aggregation (similar to flocculation), which was validated by microscopic and flow cytometry analysis. We also observed enhanced random budding of spaceflight-cultured cells as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples, in accordance with the gene expression data. Furthermore, genes involved in antifungal agent and stress resistance were differentially regulated in spaceflight, including induction of ABC transporters and members of the major facilitator family, downregulation of ergosterol-encoding genes, and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Finally, downregulation of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton was observed. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator Cap1 and over 30% of the Cap1 regulon was differentially expressed in spaceflight-cultured C. albicans. A potential role for Cap1 in the spaceflight response of C. albicans is suggested, as this regulator is involved in random budding, cell aggregation, and oxidative stress resistance; all related to observed spaceflight-associated changes of C. albicans. While culture of C. albicans in microgravity potentiates a global change in gene expression that could induce a virulence-related phenotype, no increased virulence in a murine intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection model was observed under the conditions of this study. Collectively, our data represent an important basis for the assessment of the risk that commensal flora could play during human spaceflight missions. Furthermore, since the low fluid

  9. Spaceflight Enhances Cell Aggregation and Random Budding in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Christine M.; Barrila, Jennifer; Buchanan, Kent; McCracken, James; Inglis, Diane O.; Searles, Stephen C.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Pierson, Duane L.; Stefanyshyn-Piper, Heidemarie M.; Hyman, Linda E.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground controls, which represented 8.3% of the analyzed ORFs. Spaceflight-cultured C. albicans–induced genes involved in cell aggregation (similar to flocculation), which was validated by microscopic and flow cytometry analysis. We also observed enhanced random budding of spaceflight-cultured cells as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples, in accordance with the gene expression data. Furthermore, genes involved in antifungal agent and stress resistance were differentially regulated in spaceflight, including induction of ABC transporters and members of the major facilitator family, downregulation of ergosterol-encoding genes, and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Finally, downregulation of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton was observed. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator Cap1 and over 30% of the Cap1 regulon was differentially expressed in spaceflight-cultured C. albicans. A potential role for Cap1 in the spaceflight response of C. albicans is suggested, as this regulator is involved in random budding, cell aggregation, and oxidative stress resistance; all related to observed spaceflight-associated changes of C. albicans. While culture of C. albicans in microgravity potentiates a global change in gene expression that could induce a virulence-related phenotype, no increased virulence in a murine intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection model was observed under the conditions of this study. Collectively, our data represent an important basis for the assessment of the risk that commensal flora could play during human spaceflight missions. Furthermore, since the low fluid

  10. Measuring Replicative Life Span in the Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Kristan K.; Kennedy, Brian K.; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Aging is a degenerative process characterized by a progressive deterioration of cellular components and organelles resulting in mortality. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used extensively to study the biology of aging, and several determinants of yeast longevity have been shown to be conserved in multicellular eukaryotes, including worms, flies, and mice 1. Due to the lack of easily quantified age-associated phenotypes, aging in yeast has been assayed almost exclusively by measuring the life span of cells in different contexts, with two different life span paradigms in common usage 2. Chronological life span refers to the length of time that a mother cell can survive in a non-dividing, quiescence-like state, and is proposed to serve as a model for aging of post-mitotic cells in multicellular eukaryotes. Replicative life span, in contrast, refers the number of daughter cells produced by a mother cell prior to senescence, and is thought to provide a model of aging in mitotically active cells. Here we present a generalized protocol for measuring the replicative life span of budding yeast mother cells. The goal of the replicative life span assay is to determine how many times each mother cell buds. The mother and daughter cells can be easily differentiated by an experienced researcher using a standard light microscope (total magnification 160X), such as the Zeiss Axioscope 40 or another comparable model. Physical separation of daughter cells from mother cells is achieved using a manual micromanipulator equipped with a fiber-optic needle. Typical laboratory yeast strains produce 20-30 daughter cells per mother and one life span experiment requires 2-3 weeks. PMID:19556967

  11. Flexible ureteroscopic renal stone extraction during laparoscopic ureterolithotomy in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones

    PubMed Central

    You, Jae Hyung; Kim, Young Gon; Kim, Myung Ki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We describe laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy. We describe its efficacy through a laparoscopic port and a ureterotomy site in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones. Methods: Between January 2009 and February 2012, we performed laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy in 11 patients who had upper ureteral and renal stones. The retroperitoneal approaches were used in all patients using 3–4 trocars. Results: All procedures were performed successfully without significant complications. Mean operative time was 78.5 minutes (range: 52–114 minutes). The mean size of ureteral stone was 19.91 mm (range: 15–25 mm). In addition, 25 renal stones (mean size 7.48 mm, range: 2–12 mm) were removed from 11 patients. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.5 days (range: 2–6 days). Conclusions: Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy can be considered one of treatment modalities for patients with large upper ureteral stones accompanied by renal stones who are indicated in laparoscopic ureterolithotomy. PMID:25295127

  12. Candidate genes associated with bud dormancy release in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The detrimental effects of mild winter temperatures on the consistency of cropping of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) in parts of Europe have led to increasing interest in the genetic control of dormancy release in this species. This study examined patterns of gene expression in leaf buds of blackcurrant to identify key differential changes in these profiles around the time of budbreak. Results Using leaf bud tissue of blackcurrant, a cDNA library was generated as a source of blackcurrant ESTs for construction of a custom microarray, which was used to identify differential gene expression during dormancy release. Gene activity was lowest in early stages of dormancy, increasing to reach a maximum around the time of budbreak. Genes with significantly changing expression profiles were clustered and evidence is provided for the transient activity of genes previously associated with dormancy processes in other species. Expression profiling identified candidate genes which were mapped onto a blackcurrant genetic linkage map containing budbreak-related QTL. Three genes, which putatively encode calmodulin-binding protein, beta tubulin and acetyl CoA carboxylase respectively, were found to co-localise with budbreak QTL. Conclusions This study provides insight into the genetic control of dormancy transition in blackcurrant, identifying key changes in gene expression around budbreak. Genetic mapping of ESTs enabled the identification of genes which co-localise with previously-characterised blackcurrant QTL, and it is concluded that these genes have probable roles in release of dormancy and can therefore provide a basis for the development of genetic markers for future breeding deployment. PMID:20840772

  13. γ-Lactam alkaloids from the flower buds of daylily.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Ohta, Tomoe; Yano, Mamiko; Tsujihata, Junichiro; Tsukioka, Junko; Ogawa, Keiko; Fukaya, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Four new alkaloids, hemerocallisamines IV-VII, were isolated from the methanol extract of flower buds of daylily. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The absolute stereochemistry of the hemerocallisamines IV-VI was elucidated by the application of the modified Mosher's method, HPLC analysis, and optical rotation. In the present study, the isolated alkaloids significantly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ42 in vitro. This is the first report about bioactive alkaloids with a γ-lactam ring from daylily. In addition, isolated nucleosides showed accelerative effects on neurite outgrowth under the non-fasting condition. PMID:26849229

  14. Bud protection: a key trait for species sorting in a forest-savanna mosaic.

    PubMed

    Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Beckett, Heath; Midgley, Guy F; Bond, William J

    2015-09-01

    Contrasting fire regimes maintain patch mosaics of savanna, thicket and forest biomes in many African subtropical landscapes. Species dominating each biome are thus expected to display distinct fire-related traits, commonly thought to be bark related. Recent Australian savanna research suggests that bud position, not bark protection alone, determines fire resilience via resprouting. We tested first how bud position influences resprouting ability in 17 tree species. We then compared the effect of both bark-related protection and bud position on the distribution of 63 tree species in 253 transects in all three biomes. Tree species with buds positioned deep under bark had a higher proportion of post-fire aboveground shoot resprouting. Species with low bud protection occurred in fire-prone biomes only if they could root-sucker. The effect of bud protection was supported by a good relationship between species bud protection and distribution across a gradient of fire frequency. Bud protection and high bark production are required to survive frequent fires in savanna. Forests are fire refugia hosting species with little or no bud protection and thin bark. Root-suckering species occur in the three biomes, suggesting that fire is not the only factor filtering this functional type. PMID:25856385

  15. Efficacy and safety of Ho:YAG Laser Lithotripsy for ureteroscopic removal of proximal and distal ureteral calculi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Laser lithotripsy is an established endourological modality. Ho:YAG laser have broadened the indications for ureteroscopic stone managements to include larger stone sizes throughout the whole upper urinary tract. Aim of current work is to assess efficacy and safety of Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy during retrograde ureteroscopic management of ureteral calculi in different locations. Methods 88 patients were treated with ureteroscopic Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy in our institute. Study endpoint was the number of treatments until the patient was stone-free. Patients were classified according to the location of their stones as Group I (distal ureteric stones, 51 patients) and group II (proximal ureteral stones, 37). Group I patients have larger stones as Group II (10.70 mm vs. 8.24 mm, respectively, P = 0.020). Results Overall stone free rate for both groups was 95.8%. The mean number of procedures for proximal calculi was 1.1 ± 0.1 (1–3) and for distal calculi was 1.0 ± 0.0. The initial treatment was more successful in patients with distal ureteral calculi (100% vs. 82.40%, respectively, P = 0.008). No significant difference in the stone free rate was noticed after the second laser procedure for stones smaller versus larger than 10 mm (100% versus 94.1%, P = 0.13). Overall complication rate was 7.9% (Clavien II und IIIb). Overall and grade-adjusted complication rates were not dependant on the stone location. No laser induced complications were noticed. Conclusions The use of the Ho:YAG laser appears to be an adequate tool to disintegrate ureteral calculi independent of primary location. Combination of the semirigid and flexible ureteroscopes as well as the appropriate endourologic tools could likely improve the stone clearance rates for proximal calculi regardless of stone-size. PMID:25107528

  16. Occurrence of Enterococci: Bud, Blossom, and Soil Studies1

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, J. Orvin

    1961-01-01

    The occurrence of enterococci (group D streptococci) on buds and flowers of plants and in soils has been studied. They were recovered from 27.5% of the flowers of seven species of plants, and from 6.8% of the buds of the same plants. They were recovered from 34% of the flowers of nonagricultural plants, from 32.2% of the flowers of ten species of agricultural dicotyledonous plants, and from 10.4% of the flowers of five species of grasses and cereals. The enterococci were invariably present or invariably absent from all samples taken from very few species. They occurred in small numbers on enclosed tassels and silks of corn of 22 of 60 samples, and in greater numbers on 90% or more of these after their floral parts had emerged. Interposition of a mechanical barrier reduced the incidence of recovery from flowers. The occurrence in soil, generally at a low level of population, may be correlated with occurrence on the plant growing on the soil or with nearby enterococcal-bearing plants. It is concluded that enterococci may be regarded as temporary residents on plants, capable of limited reproduction, and that they are disseminated among plants by the action of insects and wind, and spread to the ground by these agencies, gravity, and rain. PMID:16349612

  17. Structure and Function in the Budding Yeast Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Angela; Gasser, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Budding yeast, like other eukaryotes, carries its genetic information on chromosomes that are sequestered from other cellular constituents by a double membrane, which forms the nucleus. An elaborate molecular machinery forms large pores that span the double membrane and regulate the traffic of macromolecules into and out of the nucleus. In multicellular eukaryotes, an intermediate filament meshwork formed of lamin proteins bridges from pore to pore and helps the nucleus reform after mitosis. Yeast, however, lacks lamins, and the nuclear envelope is not disrupted during yeast mitosis. The mitotic spindle nucleates from the nucleoplasmic face of the spindle pole body, which is embedded in the nuclear envelope. Surprisingly, the kinetochores remain attached to short microtubules throughout interphase, influencing the position of centromeres in the interphase nucleus, and telomeres are found clustered in foci at the nuclear periphery. In addition to this chromosomal organization, the yeast nucleus is functionally compartmentalized to allow efficient gene expression, repression, RNA processing, genomic replication, and repair. The formation of functional subcompartments is achieved in the nucleus without intranuclear membranes and depends instead on sequence elements, protein–protein interactions, specific anchorage sites at the nuclear envelope or at pores, and long-range contacts between specific chromosomal loci, such as telomeres. Here we review the spatial organization of the budding yeast nucleus, the proteins involved in forming nuclear subcompartments, and evidence suggesting that the spatial organization of the nucleus is important for nuclear function. PMID:22964839

  18. Parasite epigenetics and immune evasion: lessons from budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable ability of many parasites to evade host immunity is the key to their success and pervasiveness. The immune evasion is directly linked to the silencing of the members of extended families of genes that encode for major parasite antigens. At any time only one of these genes is active. Infrequent switches to other members of the gene family help the parasites elude the immune system and cause prolonged maladies. For most pathogens, the detailed mechanisms of gene silencing and switching are poorly understood. On the other hand, studies in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have revealed similar mechanisms of gene repression and switching and have provided significant insights into the molecular basis of these phenomena. This information is becoming increasingly relevant to the genetics of the parasites. Here we summarize recent advances in parasite epigenetics and emphasize the similarities between S. cerevisiae and pathogens such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Candida, and Pneumocystis. We also outline current challenges in the control and the treatment of the diseases caused by these parasites and link them to epigenetics and the wealth of knowledge acquired from budding yeast. PMID:24252437

  19. Systematic identification of cell size regulators in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Soifer, Ilya; Barkai, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Cell size is determined by a complex interplay between growth and division, involving multiple cellular pathways. To identify systematically processes affecting size control in G1 in budding yeast, we imaged and analyzed the cell cycle of millions of individual cells representing 591 mutants implicated in size control. Quantitative metric distinguished mutants affecting the mechanism of size control from the majority of mutants that have a perturbed size due to indirect effects modulating cell growth. Overall, we identified 17 negative and dozens positive size control regulators, with the negative regulators forming a small network centered on elements of mitotic exit network. Some elements of the translation machinery affected size control with a notable distinction between the deletions of parts of small and large ribosomal subunit: parts of small ribosomal subunit tended to regulate size control, while parts of the large subunit affected cell growth. Analysis of small cells revealed additional size control mechanism that functions in G2/M, complementing the primary size control in G1. Our study provides new insights about size control mechanisms in budding yeast. PMID:25411401

  20. Signal transduction and information processing in mammalian taste buds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The molecular machinery for chemosensory transduction in taste buds has received considerable attention within the last decade. Consequently, we now know a great deal about sweet, bitter, and umami taste mechanisms and are gaining ground rapidly on salty and sour transduction. Sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are transduced by G-protein-coupled receptors. Salty taste may be transduced by epithelial Na channels similar to those found in renal tissues. Sour transduction appears to be initiated by intracellular acidification acting on acid-sensitive membrane proteins. Once a taste signal is generated in a taste cell, the subsequent steps involve secretion of neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin. It is now recognized that the cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami taste stimuli do not possess synapses and instead secrete the neurotransmitter ATP via a novel mechanism not involving conventional vesicular exocytosis. ATP is believed to excite primary sensory afferent fibers that convey gustatory signals to the brain. In contrast, taste cells that do have synapses release serotonin in response to gustatory stimulation. The postsynaptic targets of serotonin have not yet been identified. Finally, ATP secreted from receptor cells also acts on neighboring taste cells to stimulate their release of serotonin. This suggests that there is important information processing and signal coding taking place in the mammalian taste bud after gustatory stimulation. PMID:17468883

  1. Replication-Associated Recombinational Repair: Lessons from Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Jaclyn N.; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Recombinational repair processes multiple types of DNA lesions. Though best understood in the repair of DNA breaks, recombinational repair is intimately linked to other situations encountered during replication. As DNA strands are decorated with many types of blocks that impede the replication machinery, a great number of genomic regions cannot be duplicated without the help of recombinational repair. This replication-associated recombinational repair employs both the core recombination proteins used for DNA break repair and the specialized factors that couple replication with repair. Studies from multiple organisms have provided insights into the roles of these specialized factors, with the findings in budding yeast being advanced through use of powerful genetics and methods for detecting DNA replication and repair intermediates. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in this organism, ranging from our understanding of the classical template switch mechanisms to gap filling and replication fork regression pathways. As many of the protein factors and biological principles uncovered in budding yeast are conserved in higher eukaryotes, these findings are crucial for stimulating studies in more complex organisms. PMID:27548223

  2. Lodgepole pine: the first evidence of seed-based somatic embryogenesis and the expression of embryogenesis marker genes in shoot bud cultures of adult trees.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Young; Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Park, Ji-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2010-11-01

    Of the various alternatives for cloning elite conifers, somatic embryogenesis (SE) appears to be the best option. In recent years, significant areas of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest have been devastated by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) in Western Canada. In an attempt to establish an SE propagation system for MPB-resistant lodgepole pine, several families displaying varying levels of resistance were selected for experimentation involving shoot bud and immature seed explants. In bud cultures, eight embryogenic lines were induced from 2 of 15 genotypes following various treatments. Genotype had an important influence on embryogenic culture initiation, and this effect was consistent over time. These lines were identified by microscopic observation and genetic markers. Despite the abundance of early somatic embryos, the cultures have yet to develop into mature embryos. In contrast, immature zygotic embryos (ZEs) cultured from megagametophytes initiated SE at an early dominance stage via nodule-type callus in 1 of 10 genotypes. As part of the study, putative embryogenesis-specific genes, WOX2 (WUSCHELL homeobox 2) and HAP3A, were analyzed in cultures of both shoot bud explants and ZEs. On the basis of these analyses, we postulate that PcHAP3A was expressed mainly in callus and may be involved in cell division, whereas WOX2 was expressed mainly in embryonal mass (EM)-like tissues. The findings from this study, based on molecular assessment, suggest that the cell lines derived from bud cultures were truly EM. Moreover, these experimental observations suggest that PcWOX2 could be used as an early genetic marker to discriminate embryogenic cultures from callus. PMID:20935320

  3. Abscisic Acid Is a General Negative Regulator of Arabidopsis Axillary Bud Growth1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chi; Finlayson, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Branching is an important process controlled by intrinsic programs and by environmental signals transduced by a variety of plant hormones. Abscisic acid (ABA) was previously shown to mediate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) branching responses to the ratio of red light (R) to far-red light (FR; an indicator of competition) by suppressing bud outgrowth from lower rosette positions under low R:FR. However, the role of ABA in regulating branching more generally was not investigated. This study shows that ABA restricts lower bud outgrowth and promotes correlative inhibition under both high and low R:FR. ABA was elevated in buds exhibiting delayed outgrowth resulting from bud position and low R:FR and decreased in elongating buds. ABA was reduced in lower buds of hyperbranching mutants deficient in auxin signaling (AUXIN RESISTANT1), MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING (MAX) signaling (MAX2), and BRANCHED1 (BRC1) function, and partial suppression of branch elongation in these mutants by exogenous ABA suggested that ABA may act downstream of these components. Bud BRC1 expression was not altered by exogenous ABA, consistent with a downstream function for ABA. However, the expression of genes encoding the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis enzyme TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS1, the auxin transporter PIN-FORMED1, and the cell cycle genes CYCLIN A2;1 and PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN1 in buds was suppressed by ABA, suggesting that it may inhibit bud growth in part by suppressing elements of the cell cycle machinery and bud-autonomous IAA biosynthesis and transport. ABA was found to suppress bud IAA accumulation, thus confirming this aspect of its action. PMID:26149576

  4. BudBurst Buddies: Introducing Young Citizen Scientists to Plants and Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Gardiner, L. S.; Henderson, S.

    2011-12-01

    As part of Project BudBurst, the BudBurst Buddies recently moved to the National Ecological Network (NEON) as part of its Education and Public Engagement efforts. The BudBurst Buddies (www.budburstbuddies.org) were created to engage elementary school age children in the science of observing plants and the timing of phenological (life cycle) events. BudBurst Buddies is a part of the Project BudBurst national citizen science initiative (www.budburst.org), which allows individuals to engage in the scientific process, contributing to a better understanding of climate change while increasing public awareness of phenology and the impacts of climate change on plants. As a first step towards engaging the next generation of citizen scientists, BudBurst Buddies provides the opportunity for children to gain experience with scientific research and increases awareness of how plants change throughout the year. Hundreds of young students have participated in the inaugural year of BudBurst Buddies. Children can participate in BudBurst Buddies on their own, with their families, or in formal or informal education settings. The program was recently highlighted by education staff at the New York Hall of Science and numerous classrooms have been implementing this resource as part of their curriculum. Each child who participates creates a journal about a plant of his or her choosing, makes observations of the plant over the growing season and submits findings online, earning an official BudBurst Buddies certificate. An online storybook for kids tells how two children, Lily and Sage, observed plants in their neighborhood and became BudBurst Buddies. This presentation will provide an overview of the BudBurst Buddies resources including a new implementation guide and will also share feedback from the first year of implementation.

  5. [Effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-li; Xia, Ya-zhen; Sun, Zhi-qiang

    2016-02-01

    In order to explore the effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treat- ments every day with 10 °C for 10 minutes in. an artificial climate chamber. Tomato seedlings were treated with cold-shock at the first true leaf stage and the treatment lasted for 15 days. Tomato seed- lings without cold-shock were used as control. At the fourth true leaf period of tomato seedlings, five plants were randomly sampled and the growth characteristics and the ultrastructure changes of meso- phyll cell of tomato seedlings were examined. The flower bud differentiation process of tomato seed- lings was observed at the periods of the second, fourth and sixth true leaves respectively. Flowering and fruiting of tomato seedlings were also investigated after transplanting. The results showed that the stem diameter and health index of tomato seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced by 7.2% and 55.5% compared with seedlings without cold-shock. Mesophyll cells of the seedlings with cold-shock arranged loosely and various organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria were morphologically integrated, while chloroplasts and mitochondria of seedlings mesophyll cells without cold-shock swelled up and thylakoids vacuolized apparently. The flower bud differentiation process of seedlings with cold-shock could be advanced significantly at the early seedling stage compared with the control and the advancement was weakened with the seedling growing. Fruit set number and percentage on the first and second inflorescence of tomato plants transplanted by seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced significantly compared with those of the control. These results indicated that the injury of membrane structure of various organelles, especially chloroplast and mitochondria could be allevia- ted by cold-shock treatment under high temperature tress. Cold-shock treatment could not only im- prove the

  6. Efficacy of nifedipine and alfuzosin in the management of distal ureteric stones: A randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Sameer; Lal, Shyam; Charak, K. S.; Chakravarti, Sumit; Kohli, Supreeti; Ahmad, Shamshad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stone disease is a significant and world-wide health problem. Recently, certain drugs have been used as a supplement to observation alone in an effort to improve spontaneous stone expulsion. We evaluated the efficacy of nifedipine and alfuzosin in the medical treatment of symptomatic, uncomplicated distal ureteral stones. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled prospective study to determine the efficacy of alfuzosin and nifedipine as an adjunctive medical therapy, to increases the stone-expulsion rates in distal ureteric calculus of size ≤10 mm. Investigators and patients were blinded to the randomization scheme. Patients were randomly divided into three equal groups of 35 patients each. Patients in Group I received tablet nifedipine 30 mg/day, Group II received alfuzosin 10 mg/day and Group III was the control group received tablet diclofenac sodium. The patient blood pressure, stone position on imaging, number of pain attacks, time of stone-expulsion, hospital re-admission and any adverse events were assessed. Patients were followed-up weekly and continued until the patient was rendered stone free or up to 28 days. Statistical analysis was performed and P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Stone-expulsion was observed in 60%, 85.7% and 20% patients in Group I, II and III respectively. A statistically significant difference was noted in between Groups I versus III, Groups II versus III and Groups I versus II (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.0315 respectively). The mean number of pain attacks was 2.91 ± 1.01 for Group I, 1.8 ± 0.83 for Group II, and 2.82 ± 1.12 for Group III, which is statistical significant in Groups II versus III, and Groups I versus II (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). Hospital re-admission rate was less in treatment groups when compare to control group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The use of alfuzosin and nifedipine as a medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones proved to be safe and

  7. Study of the ureterovesical jet flow by means of dupplex Doppler ultrasonography in patients with residual ureteral stone after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Halil; Cece, Hasan; Dusak, Abdurrahim; Savas, Murat; Verit, Ayhan; Yeni, Ercan

    2010-02-01

    The aims of our study are to evaluate ureterovesical jet flow Doppler ultrasound (US) in patients with residual ureteral stone after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and to compare with unobstructed contralateral ureter. Patients who have residual ureteral stone in intravenous pyelography (IVP) and/or computed tomography (CT) after ESWL and unobstructed contralateral ureter in 20 patients were prospectively evaluated with Doppler US. The mean peak velocity of the Doppler waveforms was obtained on the residual ureteral stone and contralateral non-obstructed ureter (17.10 +/- 20), (56.0 +/- 32), respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, due to the absence of contraindications and side-effects, Doppler US is sensitive and highly specific that can contribute significantly to the diagnosis of residual ureteral stone after ESWL. It can replace IVP and/or CT, in condition where IVP is undesirable and in addition Doppler US can supply a functional investigation of the obstructed ureter. PMID:19940988

  8. 48 CFR 1419.202-70 - Acquisition screening and BUDS recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisition screening and BUDS recommendations. 1419.202-70 Section 1419.202-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1419.202-70 Acquisition screening and BUDS recommendations. (a) For...

  9. Size Does Matter: Staging of Silene latifolia Floral Buds for Transcriptome Studies

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Su San; Perlin, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Dioecious plants in the Caryophyllaceae family are susceptible to infection by members of the anthericolous smut fungi. In our studies of the Silene latifolia/Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae pathosystem, we were interested in characterizing the plant-pathogen interaction at the molecular level before and during teliosporogenesis. This takes place during floral bud development, and we hoped to capture the interaction by Illumina Next-Gen RNA-Sequencing. Using previous literature that documented the stages of the floral buds for S. latifolia, we examined the floral buds from plants grown and infected under growth chamber conditions, using the disserting microscope to determine the stage of floral buds based on the morphology. We compiled the information and determined the size of floral buds that correspond to the desired stages of development for tissue collection, for the purpose of RNA-sequencing. This offers a practical approach for researchers who require a large number of floral buds/tissue categorized by stages of development, ascertaining whether infected/uninfected buds are at comparable stages of development and whether this also holds true for male vs. female buds. We also document our experience in infecting the plants and some of the unusual morphologies we observed after infection. PMID:26378529

  10. Proteomic study of 'Moncada' mandarin buds from on- versus off-crop trees.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Mesejo, Carlos; Reig, Carmina; Agustí, Manuel; Tárraga, Susana; Lisón, Purificación; Iglesias, Domingo J; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; González-Mas, M Carmen

    2013-12-01

    A proteomic analysis of buds from mandarin trees with contrasting fruit load (on- and off-crop trees) was carried out during the onset of low-temperature induction. The aim of the study was to find out more about the molecular mechanism relating to alternate bearing in Citrus and its relationship with flowering. The 'Moncada' variety (Clementine 'Oroval'x'Kara' mandarin), displaying remarkable behaviour in alternate production, was used in this study. From 2D DIGE gel, 192 spots were isolated: 97 showed increased expression in the off-crop buds as compared to the on-crop buds, while 95 exhibited enhanced expression in the on-crop buds versus the off-crop buds. These spots were identified by MALDI-MS or LC-MS-MS. The largest groups of proteins up-expressed in the off-crop buds were the proteins involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the proteins expressed in response to stimuli such as reactive oxygen species. The largest groups of proteins up-expressed in the on-crop buds were related to primary metabolism, oxidative stress and defence responses. Depending on their function, some of these proteins can stimulate the flowering, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase or leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase, while others can inhibit it, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit II. Twenty-two other proteins with unknown functions were up-expressed in the on- or off-crop buds. PMID:24056126

  11. New technique for more rapid cryopreservation of dormant vegetative tree buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation of dormant buds of temperate trees in liquid nitrogen can provide a safe backup of field germplasm collections. However the process requires several months of preparation before buds can be cryopreserved. Cryopreservation at the natural moisture content (MC) would greatly accelerate...

  12. Generation of bioengineered feather buds on a reconstructed chick skin from dissociated epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    Various kinds of in vitro culture systems of tissues and organs have been developed, and applied to understand multicellular systems during embryonic organogenesis. In the research field of feather bud development, tissue recombination assays using an intact epithelial tissue and mesenchymal tissue/cells have contributed to our understanding the mechanisms of feather bud formation and development. However, there are few methods to generate a skin and its appendages from single cells of both epithelium and mesenchyme. In this study, we have developed a bioengineering method to reconstruct an embryonic dorsal skin after completely dissociating single epithelial and mesenchymal cells from chick skin. Multiple feather buds can form on the reconstructed skin in a single row in vitro. The bioengineered feather buds develop into long feather buds by transplantation onto a chorioallantoic membrane. The bioengineered bud sizes were similar to those of native embryo. The number of bioengineered buds was increased linearly with the initial contact length of epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers where the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions occur. In addition, the bioengineered bud formation was also disturbed by the inhibition of major signaling pathways including FGF (fibroblast growth factor), Wnt/β-catenin, Notch and BMP (bone morphogenetic protein). We expect that our bioengineering technique will motivate further extensive research on multicellular developmental systems, such as the formation and sizing of cutaneous appendages, and their regulatory mechanisms. PMID:27019985

  13. Key stages in mammary gland development: the mammary end bud as a motile organ.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Lindsay; Silberstein, Gary B

    2005-01-01

    In the rodent, epithelial end buds define the tips of elongating mammary ducts. These highly motile structures undergo repeated dichotomous branching as they aggressively advance through fatty stroma and, turning to avoid other ducts, they finally cease growth leaving behind the open, tree-like framework on which secretory alveoli develop during pregnancy. This review identifies the motility of end buds as a unique developmental marker that represents the successful integration of systemic and local mammotrophic influences, and covers relevant advances in ductal growth regulation, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, and cell adhesion in the inner end bud. An unexpected growth-promoting synergy between insulin-like growth factor-1 and progesterone, in which ducts elongate without forming new end buds, is described as well as evidence strongly supporting self-inhibition of ductal elongation by end-bud-secreted transforming growth factor-beta acting on stromal targets. The influence of the matrix metalloproteinase ECM-remodeling enzymes, notably matrix metalloproteinase-2, on end bud growth is discussed in the broader context of enzymes that regulate the polysaccharide-rich glycosaminoglycan elements of the ECM. Finally, a critical, motility-enabling role for the cellular architecture of the end bud is identified and the contribution of cadherins, the netrin/neogenin system, and ErbB2 to the structure and motility of end buds is discussed. PMID:16280048

  14. Effect of pretreatment methods of dormant pear buds on viability after cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to develop alternatives for dormant bud cryopreservation by using several cryoprotectants on four pear cultivars with a view to improve the viability of the dormant buds. We used different cryoprotectants such as Honey, PVS2, PVS3, PVS4, Towill, IPBB-1 for cultivars: Talgarskaya Kra...

  15. Differential Expression of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes Associated with Bud Dormancy Changes in Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy, throughout the year. In this study, relationships between carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined and real-time PCR was used to determine if shifts in carbohydra...

  16. Differential expression of carbohydrate metabolism genes during bud dormancy changes in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy, throughout the year. In this study, relationships between carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined and real-time PCR was used to determine if shifts in carbohydra...

  17. Spontaneous rupture of renal pelvis as a rare complication of ureteral lithiasis.

    PubMed

    Porfyris, Orestis; Apostolidi, Elena; Mpampali, Andromachi; Kalomoiris, Paraskevas

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous rupture of renal pelvis with urine extravasation is a rare condition and usually associated with obstructing ureteric calculus. It poses diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas, while a stepwise approach for the confirmation of diagnosis, treatment and follow up is needed. We present a case of a 75-year old male patient who had a renal pelvis rupture with perirenal extravasation of urine due to a 4 mm stone located at the right ureterovesical junction. Diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography, while the patient was treated successfully with the placement of a percutaneous nephrostomy. A week later a CT- nephrostomography showed the healing of renal pelvis with no extravasation and no evidence of the obstructing stone. PMID:27011880

  18. Surface immobilization of kanamycin-chitosan nanoparticles on polyurethane ureteral stents to prevent bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Venkat Kumar, Govindarajan; Su, Chia-Hung; Velusamy, Palaniyandi

    2016-09-13

    Bacterial adhesion is a major problem that can lead to the infection of implanted urological stents. In this study, kanamycin-chitosan nanoparticles (KMCSNPs) were immobilized on the surface of a polyurethane ureteral stent (PUS) to prevent urinary bacterial infection. KMCSNPs were synthesized using the ionic gelation method. The synthesized KMCSNPs appeared spherical with a ζ-average particle size of 225 nm. KMCSNPs were immobilized on the PUS surface by covalent immobilization techniques. The surface-modified PUS was characterized using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The surface-modified PUS showed significantly increased antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli MTCC 729 and Proteus mirabilis MTCC 425 relative to the surface of an unmodified PUS. These findings suggest that the KMCSNP-immobilized PUS has the potential to prevent bacterial infection in the human urinary tract. PMID:27436679

  19. [The Vaginal Metastasis of Ureteral Carcinoma after Left Nephroureterectomy: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Gaku; Tanigawa, Go; Kuribayashi, Sohei; Okusa, Takuya; Kawamura, Masataka; Taniguchi, Ayumu; Nakano, Kosuke; Tsutahara, Koichi; Takemura, Masahiko; Fushimi, Hiroaki; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    69-year-old woman underwent left nephroureterectomy for left ureteral cancer (urothelial carcinoma (UC), high grade, pT3pN0) in September 2013. She returned to our hospital presenting with asymptomatic macrohematuria in July 2014. Cystoscopy showed tiny papillary tumors in the bladder. We also found genital bleeding from multiple papillary tumors on the vaginal wall. We performed transurethral resection of the bladder tumor and a biopsy of the vaginal wall demonstrated non-invasive UC, high grade. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging after the operation showed no infiltration outside the bladder wall and vaginal wall. Therefore, we performed endoscopic excision of the vaginal tumor. However we could not resect all vaginal tumors. Irradiation of the vagina and uterus was performed under the diagnosis of metastasis of UC tovagina. Vaginal UC is extremely rare and this is the 26th case report in the literature. PMID:27018410

  20. Spontaneous rupture of renal pelvis as a rare complication of ureteral lithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Porfyris, Orestis; Apostolidi, Elena; Mpampali, Andromachi; Kalomoiris, Paraskevas

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of renal pelvis with urine extravasation is a rare condition and usually associated with obstructing ureteric calculus. It poses diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas, while a stepwise approach for the confirmation of diagnosis, treatment and follow up is needed. We present a case of a 75-year old male patient who had a renal pelvis rupture with perirenal extravasation of urine due to a 4 mm stone located at the right ureterovesical junction. Diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography, while the patient was treated successfully with the placement of a percutaneous nephrostomy. A week later a CT- nephrostomography showed the healing of renal pelvis with no extravasation and no evidence of the obstructing stone. PMID:27011880

  1. Intraoperative frozen section evaluation of ureteral and urethral margins: studies of 203 consecutive radical cystoprostatectomy for men with bladder urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haijun; Ro, Jae Y; Truong, Luan D; Ayala, Alberto G; Shen, Steven S

    2014-01-01

    Intraoperative frozen section (FS) evaluation of ureteral and urethral margins is frequently requested during radical cystoprostatectomy in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma. However, it is still controversial whether intraoperative FSs of ureteral and urethral margins are necessary in all patients with cystoprostatectomy or a risk-based assessment with limited to the high risk patients is the best approach. A total of 203 radical cystoprostatectomy specimens with FS evaluation on margin status from men treated for bladder urothelial carcinoma from 2003 to 2010 in our institution were reviewed. Clinicopathologic features studied include: patients' age, pathologic tumor stage, presence of carcinoma in- situ (CIS), and intraoperative FS diagnosis. All 203 patients had intraoperative FS evaluation of ureter, and of these, 37 patients had additional urethra FS evaluation. Of the 203 ureteral FS cases, 17 (8.4%) had positive margin for CIS (16 cases) or CIS with invasive urothelial carcinoma (1 case). All 17 patients with positive ureteral margin on FS had concomitant CIS in the bladder (15.5%; 17 of 110 patients). In contrast, none of the patients without concomitant CIS (n=93) had positive ureteral margins on FS. Among 37 patients who also had FS evaluation on urethral resection margin, 3 patients (8.1%) had positive margins for CIS and all three of them had concomitant CIS in the bladder. Positive ureteral/urethral margin was not associated with patients' age or tumor stage, but was significantly associated with the presence of CIS in the bladder (p<0.001). Our study demonstrates that presence of concomitant CIS in bladder cancer was often associated with positive ureteral or urethral margin for CIS or invasive carcinoma; therefore, intraoperative FS evaluation may be indicated to these patients with concomitant bladder CIS. In contrast, in patients with no associated concomitant CIS in the bladder, FS of ureteral/urethral margins may not be necessary unless

  2. Time Course of Morphological Alterations of Fungiform Papillae and Taste Buds Following Chorda Tympani Transection in Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sollars, Suzanne I.; Smith, Peter C.; Hill, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The time course of structural changes in fungiform papillae was analyzed in rats that received unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection at 10 days of age. Morphological differences between intact and denervated sides of the tongue were first observed at 8 days postsection, with an increase in the number of fungiform papillae that did not have a pore. In addition, the first papilla with a filiform-like appearance was noted on the denervated side at 8 days postsectioning. By 11 days after surgery, the total number of papillae and the number of papillae with a pore were significantly lower on the transected side of the tongue as compared to the intact side. At 50 days postsection, there was an average of 70.5 fungiform papillae on the intact side and a mean of only 20.8 fungiform papillae the denervated side. Of those few remaining papillae on the cut side, an average of 13.5 papillae were categorized as filiform-like, while no filiform-like papillae occurred on the intact side. Significant reduction in taste bud volume was noted at 4 days posttransection and further decrements in taste bud volume were noted at 8 and 30 days postsection. Electron microscopy of the lingual branch of the trigeminal nerve from adult rats that received neonatal chorda tympani transection showed normal numbers of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. Thus, in addition to the well-characterized dependence of taste bud maintenance on the chorda tympani nerve, the present study shows an additional role of the chorda tympani nerve in papilla maintenance during early postnatal development. PMID:11984844

  3. Efficacy of Alfuzosin After Shock Wave Lithotripsy for the Treatment of Ureteral Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Ju; Shin, Soon Cheol; Seo, Do Young; Min, Dong Suk; Cho, Jeong Man; Kang, Jung Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the efficacy of alfuzosin for the treatment of ureteral calculi less than 10 mm in diameter after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Materials and Methods A randomized, single-blind clinical trial was performed prospectively by one physician between June 2010 and August 2011. A total of 84 patients with ureteral calculi 5 to 10 mm in diameter were divided into two groups. Alfuzosin 10 mg (once daily) and loxoprofen sodium 68.1 mg (as needed) were prescribed to group 1 (n=41), and loxoprofen sodium 68.1 mg (as needed) only was prescribed to group 2 (n=44). The drug administration began immediately after ESWL and continued until stone expulsion was confirmed up to a maximum of 42 days after the procedure. Results Thirty-nine of 41 (95.1%) patients in group 1 and 40 of 43 (93.0%) patients in group 2 ultimately passed stones (p=0.96). The number of ESWL sessions was 1.34±0.65 and 1.41±0.85 in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.33). The patients who required analgesics after ESWL were 8 (19.5%) in group 1 and 13 (30.2%) in group 2 (p=0.31). Visual analogue scale pain severity scores were 5.33±1.22 and 6.43±1.36 in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.056). The time to stone expulsion in groups 1 and 2 was 9.5±4.8 days and 14.7±9.8 days, respectively (p=0.005). No significant adverse effects occurred. Conclusions The use of alfuzosin in combination with ESWL seems to facilitate stone passage and to reduce the time of stone expulsion but does not affect the stone-free rate. PMID:23550174

  4. Lunar Phases and Emergency Department Visits for Renal Colic Due to Ureteral Calculus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Andy W.; Johnson, Justin D.; Fronczak, Carolyn M.; LaGrange, Chad A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Urolithiasis affects an estimated 5% of the population and the lifetime risk of passing a stone in the urinary tract is estimated to be 8–10%. Urinary calculus formation is highly variable and while certain risk factors such as age, gender, seasonality, anatomic abnormality, and metabolic diseases have been identified, not much is known regarding the association of environmental factors such as lunar phases on renal colic. We conducted a retrospective study to test the hypothesis that full moon phase is an environmental factor associated for increased emergency department (ED) visits for renal colic due to ureteral calculus. Methods We analyzed 559 renal colic diagnoses by the ED at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in a 24-month period and compared them with corresponding lunar phases as well as supermoon events. The lunar phases were defined as full moon ± two days, new moon ± two days, and the days in-between as normal days according to the lunar calendar. Supermoon event dates were obtained from NASA. Results 90 cases (16.1%) were diagnosed during full moon phase, 89 cases (15.9%) were diagnosed during new moon phase, and 380 cases (68.0%) were diagnosed during normal days. The incidence of renal colic showed no statistically significant association with lunar phases or supermoon events. Conclusion In this retrospective longitudinal study with adequate power, neither full moon phase nor supermoon event exhibited an association with increased renal colic diagnoses due to ureteral calculus by the ED at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. PMID:27299307

  5. Quality-of-Life Assessment After Palliative Interventions to Manage Malignant Ureteral Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Monsky, Wayne Laurence; Molloy, Chris; Jin, Bedro; Nolan, Timothy; Fernando, Dayantha; Loh, Shaun; Li, Chin-Shang

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Malignancies may cause urinary tract obstruction, which is often relieved with placement of a percutaneous nephrostomy tube, an internal double J nephro-ureteric stent (double J), or an internal external nephroureteral stent (NUS). We evaluated the affect of these palliative interventions on quality of life (QoL) using previously validated surveys. Methods: Forty-six patients with malignancy related ureteral obstruction received nephrostomy tubes (n = 16), double J stents (n = 15), or NUS (n = 15) as determined by a multidisciplinary team. QoL surveys were administered at 7, 30, and 90 days after the palliative procedure to evaluate symptoms and physical, social, functional, and emotional well-being. Number of related procedures, fluoroscopy time, and complications were documented. Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman's test were used to compare patients at 7, 30, and 90 days. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between clinical outcomes/symptoms and QoL. Results: Responses to QoL surveys were not significantly different for patients receiving nephrostomies, double J stents, or NUS at 7, 30, or 90 days. At 30 and 90 days there were significantly higher reported urinary symptoms and pain in those receiving double J stents compared with nephrostomies (P = 0.0035 and P = 0.0189, respectively). Significantly greater fluoroscopy time was needed for double J stent-related procedures (P = 0.0054). Nephrostomy tubes were associated with more frequent minor complications requiring additional changes. Conclusion: QoL was not significantly different. However, a greater incidence of pain in those receiving double J stents and more frequent tube changes in those with nephrostomy tubes should be considered when choosing palliative approaches.

  6. A novel approach for accurate prediction of spontaneous passage of ureteral stones: support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Dal Moro, F; Abate, A; Lanckriet, G R G; Arandjelovic, G; Gasparella, P; Bassi, P; Mancini, M; Pagano, F

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to optimally predict the spontaneous passage of ureteral stones in patients with renal colic by applying for the first time support vector machines (SVM), an instance of kernel methods, for classification. After reviewing the results found in the literature, we compared the performances obtained with logistic regression (LR) and accurately trained artificial neural networks (ANN) to those obtained with SVM, that is, the standard SVM, and the linear programming SVM (LP-SVM); the latter techniques show an improved performance. Moreover, we rank the prediction factors according to their importance using Fisher scores and the LP-SVM feature weights. A data set of 1163 patients affected by renal colic has been analyzed and restricted to single out a statistically coherent subset of 402 patients. Nine clinical factors are used as inputs for the classification algorithms, to predict one binary output. The algorithms are cross-validated by training and testing on randomly selected train- and test-set partitions of the data and reporting the average performance on the test sets. The SVM-based approaches obtained a sensitivity of 84.5% and a specificity of 86.9%. The feature ranking based on LP-SVM gives the highest importance to stone size, stone position and symptom duration before check-up. We propose a statistically correct way of employing LR, ANN and SVM for the prediction of spontaneous passage of ureteral stones in patients with renal colic. SVM outperformed ANN, as well as LR. This study will soon be translated into a practical software toolbox for actual clinical usage. PMID:16374437

  7. A Comparison of Antegrade Percutaneous and Laparoscopic Approaches in the Treatment of Proximal Ureteral Stones

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Sercan; Ozok, Hakki Ugur; Sagnak, Levent; Ersoy, Hamit

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the effectiveness and safety of retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (RLU) and percutaneous antegrade ureteroscopy (PAU) in which we use semirigid ureteroscopy in the treatment of proximal ureteral stones. Methods. Fifty-eight patients with large, impacted stones who had a history of failed shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and, retrograde ureterorenoscopy (URS) were included in the study between April 2007 and April 2014. Thirty-seven PAU and twenty-one RLU procedures were applied. Stone-free rates, operation times, duration of hospital stay, and follow-up duration were analyzed. Results. Overall stone-free rate was 100% for both groups. There was no significant difference between both groups with respect to postoperative duration of hospital stay and urinary leakage of more than 2 days. PAU group had a greater amount of blood loss (mean hemoglobin drops for PAU group and RLU group were 1.6 ± 1.1 g/dL versus 0.5 ± 0.3 g/dL, resp.; P = 0.022). RLU group had longer operation time (for PAU group and RLU group 80.1 ± 44.6 min versus 102.1 ± 45.5 min, resp.; P = 0.039). Conclusions. Both PAU and RLU appear to be comparable in the treatment of proximal ureteral stones when the history is notable for a failed retrograde approach or SWL. The decision should be based on surgical expertise and availability of surgical equipment. PMID:25295266

  8. Computational model of polarized actin cables and cytokinetic actin ring formation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haosu; Bidone, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast actin cables and contractile ring are important for polarized growth and division, revealing basic aspects of cytoskeletal function. To study these formin-nucleated structures, we built a 3D computational model with actin filaments represented as beads connected by springs. Polymerization by formins at the bud tip and bud neck, crosslinking, severing, and myosin pulling, are included. Parameter values were estimated from prior experiments. The model generates actin cable structures and dynamics similar to those of wild type and formin deletion mutant cells. Simulations with increased polymerization rate result in long, wavy cables. Simulated pulling by type V myosin stretches actin cables. Increasing the affinity of actin filaments for the bud neck together with reduced myosin V pulling promotes the formation of a bundle of antiparallel filaments at the bud neck, which we suggest as a model for the assembly of actin filaments to the contractile ring. PMID:26538307

  9. Phenological bud bank development of Bouteloua gracilis, Hesperostipa comata, and Pascopyrum smithii during drought in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative reproduction in rangelands relies on tiller recruitment from belowground bud banks. Improved understanding of species-specific bud production and phenology would facilitate timing of aboveground management strategies. Twelve individual plants of the warm season grass (Bouteloua gracilis...

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Alfuzosin as Medical Expulsive Therapy for Ureteral Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenli; Zeng, Guohua; Kang, Ran; Wu, Wenqi; Li, Jiasheng; Chen, Kang; Wan, Show P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alfuzosin has been widely used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis, and is claimed to be a selective agent for the lower urinary tract with low incidence of adverse side-effects and hypotensive changes. Recently, several randomized controlled trials have reported using Alfuzosin as an expulsive therapy of ureteral stones. Tamsulosin, another alpha blocker, has also been used as an agent for the expulsive therapy for ureteral stones. It is unclear whether alfuzosin has similar efficacy as Tamsulosin in the management of ureteral stones. Objective To perform a systematic review and analysis of literatures comparing Alfuzosin with Tamsulosin or standard conservative therapy for the treatment of ureteral stones less than 10 mm in diameter. Methods A systematic literature review was performed in December 2014 using Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane library databases to identify relevant studies. All randomized and controlled trials were included. A subgroup analysis was performed comparing Alfuzosin with control therapy on the management of distal ureteral stones. Results Alfuzosin provided a significantly higher stone-free rate than the control treatments (RR: 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35–2.55; p<0.001), and a shorter stone expulsion time (Weighted mean difference [WMD]: -4.20 d, 95%CI, -6.19 to -2.21; p<0.001), but it has a higher complication rate (RR: 2.02; 95% CI, 1.30–3.15; p<0.01). When Alfuzosin was compared to Tamsulosin, there was no significant difference in terms of stone-free rate (RR: 0.90; 95% CI, 0.79–1.02; p = 0.09) as well as the stone expulsion time (WMD: 0.52 d, 95%CI, -1.61 to 2.64; p = 0.63). The adverse effects of Alfuzosin were similar to those of Tamsulosin (RR: 0.88; 95% CI, 0.61–1.26; p = 0.47). Conclusions Alfuzosin is a safe and effective agent for the expulsive therapy of ureteral stones smaller than 10 mm in size. It is more effective than therapeutic regiment without alpha blocker. It is

  11. Tumor budding predicts response to anti-EGFR therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Zlobec, Inti; Molinari, Francesca; Martin, Vittoria; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Saletti, Piercarlo; Trezzi, Rosangela; De Dosso, Sara; Vlajnic, Tatjana; Frattini, Milo; Lugli, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the evaluation of tumor budding can complement K-RAS analysis to improve the individualized prediction of response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor based therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. METHODS: Forty-three patients with mCRC treated with cetuximab or panitumumab were entered into this study. According to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria, 30 patients had stable or progressive disease (non-responsive), while 13 patients had a partial response. Tumor buds were evaluated from whole tissue sections stained for pan-cytokeratin, evaluated in the densest region using a 40 × objective and “high-grade” tumor budding was defined as 15 buds/high-power field. RESULTS: Tumor buds and K-RAS mutation both correctly classified 68% of patients. All patients with K-RAS mutation (n = 7) or high-grade tumor budding (n = 11) were non-responsive, of which 4 patients had both features. All 13 partial responders were K-RAS wild-type with low-grade tumor budding. Combined, the predictive value of K-RAS and tumor budding was 80%. Additionally, high-grade tumor budding was significantly related to worse progression-free survival [HR (95% CI): 2.8 (1.3-6.0, P = 0.008)]. CONCLUSION: If confirmed in larger cohorts, the addition of tumor budding to K-RAS analysis may represent an effective approach for individualized patient management in the metastatic setting. PMID:20939111

  12. Breaking-bud pollination: a new pollination process in partially opened flowers by small bees.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Futa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions have usually been researched in flowers that have fully opened. However, some pollinators can visit flowers before full opening and contribute to fruit and seed sets. In this paper, we researched the pollination biology of flowers just starting to open in four field experiments. We observed the insect visitors to Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea for 3 years at five sites. These observations revealed that only small bees, Lasioglossum japonicum, often entered through tiny spaces between the tepals of 'breaking buds' (i.e. partially opened flowers) and collected pollen. We hypothesized that they can pollinate this species at the breaking-bud stage, when the stigma is located near the anthers. To measure the pollination effect of small bees at the breaking-bud stage, we bagged several breaking buds after small bees had visited them and examined whether these buds were pollinated. In bagging experiments, 30% of the breaking buds set fruit and seeds. Fruit-set ratios of the breaking buds did not differ significantly from those of the fully opened flowers, which had been visited by several insect species. We also counted the pollen grain numbers on the body of L. japonicum and on the anthers of randomly-selected and manipulated flowers. These experiments revealed that all of the captured bees had some pollen of target plants and that L. japonicum collected most of the pollen grains at the breaking-bud stage. Our results showed that the new pollination process, breaking-bud pollination, happened in breaking buds by L. japonicum, although there is no evidence to reveal that this is the most effective pollination method for L. sanguinea var. sanguinea. In principle, this new pollination process can occur in other flowering plants and our results are a major contribution to studies of plant-pollinator interactions. PMID:26175010

  13. BudBurst Buddies: A New Tool for Engaging the Youngest Citizen Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.

    2010-12-01

    BudBurst Buddies (www.budburstbuddies.org) introduces elementary school age children to the science of observing plants and the timing of phenological (life cycle) events. BudBurst Buddies is a new part of the Project BudBurst national citizen science initiative (www.budburst.org), which allows individuals to engage in the scientific process, contributing to a better understanding of climate change while increasing public awareness of phenology and the impacts of climate change on plants. As a first step towards engaging the next generation of citizen scientists, BudBurst Buddies provides the opportunity for children to gain experience with scientific research and increases awareness of how plants change throughout the year. Children can participate in BudBurst Buddies on their own, with their families, or in formal or informal education settings. Each child who participates creates a journal about a plant of his or her choosing, makes observations of the plant over the growing season and submits findings online, earning an official BudBurst Buddies certificate. An online storybook for kids tells how two children, Lily and Sage, observed plants in their neighborhood and became BudBurst Buddies. This presentation will provide an overview of the BudBurst Buddies newly developed resources. BudBurst Buddies is a part of Project BudBurst, a national citizen science program coordinated by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the Chicago Botanic Garden. Funding for this resource was provided by NEON, NSF, NASA, and the National Geographic Education Foundation.

  14. A simple biophysical model emulates budding yeast chromosome condensation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tammy M K; Heeger, Sebastian; Chaleil, Raphaël A G; Matthews, Nik; Stewart, Aengus; Wright, Jon; Lim, Carmay; Bates, Paul A; Uhlmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic chromosomes were one of the first cell biological structures to be described, yet their molecular architecture remains poorly understood. We have devised a simple biophysical model of a 300 kb-long nucleosome chain, the size of a budding yeast chromosome, constrained by interactions between binding sites of the chromosomal condensin complex, a key component of interphase and mitotic chromosomes. Comparisons of computational and experimental (4C) interaction maps, and other biophysical features, allow us to predict a mode of condensin action. Stochastic condensin-mediated pairwise interactions along the nucleosome chain generate native-like chromosome features and recapitulate chromosome compaction and individualization during mitotic condensation. Higher order interactions between condensin binding sites explain the data less well. Our results suggest that basic assumptions about chromatin behavior go a long way to explain chromosome architecture and are able to generate a molecular model of what the inside of a chromosome is likely to look like. PMID:25922992

  15. The Composition, Functions, and Regulation of the Budding Yeast Kinetochore

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of all organisms depends on the accurate and orderly segregation of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis. Budding yeast has long served as an outstanding model organism to identify the components and underlying mechanisms that regulate chromosome segregation. This review focuses on the kinetochore, the macromolecular protein complex that assembles on centromeric chromatin and maintains persistent load-bearing attachments to the dynamic tips of spindle microtubules. The kinetochore also serves as a regulatory hub for the spindle checkpoint, ensuring that cell cycle progression is coupled to the achievement of proper microtubule–kinetochore attachments. Progress in understanding the composition and overall architecture of the kinetochore, as well as its properties in making and regulating microtubule attachments and the spindle checkpoint, is discussed. PMID:23908374

  16. Post-transcriptional regulation in budding yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Neiman, Aaron M

    2016-05-01

    The precise regulation of gene expression is essential for developmental processes in eukaryotic organisms. As an important post-transcriptional regulatory point, translational control is complementary to transcriptional regulation. Sporulation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a developmental process controlled by a well-studied transcriptional cascade that drives the cell through the events of DNA replication, meiotic chromosome segregation, and spore assembly. Recent studies have revealed that as cells begin the meiotic divisions, translational regulation of gene expression fine tunes this transcriptional cascade. The significance and mechanisms of this translational regulation are beginning to emerge. These studies may also provide insights into translational regulation in germ cell development of multicellular organisms. PMID:26613728

  17. The physics of lipid droplet nucleation, growth and budding.

    PubMed

    Thiam, Abdou Rachid; Forêt, Lionel

    2016-08-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular oil-in-water emulsion droplets, covered by a phospholipid monolayer and mainly present in the cytosol. Despite their important role in cellular metabolism and growing number of newly identified functions, LD formation mechanism from the endoplasmic reticulum remains poorly understood. To form a LD, the oil molecules synthesized in the ER accumulate between the monolayer leaflets and induce deformation of the membrane. This formation process works through three steps: nucleation, growth and budding, exactly as in phase separation and dewetting phenomena. These steps involve sequential biophysical membrane remodeling mechanisms for which we present basic tools of statistical physics, membrane biophysics, and soft matter science underlying them. We aim to highlight relevant factors that could control LD formation size, site and number through this physics description. An emphasis will be given to a currently underestimated contribution of the molecular interactions between lipids to favor an energetically costless mechanism of LD formation. PMID:27131867

  18. A comprehensive model to predict mitotic division in budding yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sutradhar, Sabyasachi; Yadav, Vikas; Sridhar, Shreyas; Sreekumar, Lakshmi; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Santanu Kumar; Paul, Raja; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity chromosome segregation during cell division depends on a series of concerted interdependent interactions. Using a systems biology approach, we built a robust minimal computational model to comprehend mitotic events in dividing budding yeasts of two major phyla: Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. This model accurately reproduces experimental observations related to spindle alignment, nuclear migration, and microtubule (MT) dynamics during cell division in these yeasts. The model converges to the conclusion that biased nucleation of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) is essential for directional nuclear migration. Two distinct pathways, based on the population of cMTs and cortical dyneins, differentiate nuclear migration and spindle orientation in these two phyla. In addition, the model accurately predicts the contribution of specific classes of MTs in chromosome segregation. Thus we present a model that offers a wider applicability to simulate the effects of perturbation of an event on the concerted process of the mitotic cell division. PMID:26310442

  19. A porcine model of relief of unilateral ureteral obstruction: study on self-repairing capability over multiple time points.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Sun, Jing; Miao, Lining; Ji, Lei; Luo, Manyu; Li, Bing; Cui, Wenpeng; Wang, Yangwei; Xie, Yuansheng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-08-01

    It is still controversial whether renal tubular interstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a reversible process. Although previous studies examining TIF have been carried out in rodents, their kidney size and physiological character differ with humans, and the difference among diverse individuals before and after damage was obvious. Thus an experimental animal model to simulate human kidney disease was urged to be established. In order to clarify whether TIF is reversible, and the exact time points that the kidney has the capacity to be repaired, a porcine relief of unilateral ureteral obstruction (R-UUO) model was developed. Kidney damage and reparation were observed dynamically in vivo over various time points. Pigs were randomized divided into three groups (n = 6): UUO 5 days group, UUO 7 days, and UUO 10 days group. Each porcine in that groups underwent UUO and subsequent R-UUO for three time points. Renal function, histological structure, and protein expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and E-cadherin were evaluated at different time points. Following R-UUO after 5 and 7 days of UUO, compared to UUO, serum creatinine levels were significantly decreased. Renal pathological tissue damage was repaired. The expressions of α-SMA and vimentin were decreased and E-cadherin expression was increased (P < 0.05). However, during R-UUO 14, 28, and 56 days after 10 days of UUO, serum creatinine was not decreased significantly. The expressions of α-SMA and vimentin consistently remained at high levels. Renal damage was unable to be restored and resulted in chronic lesions. Kidney damage induced by UUO can be reversed in early stages. However, longer time of UUO with significant levels of TIF showed limited reversibility. The porcine R-UUO model provides an ideal animal model for the investigation of kidney injury and repair as well as for the evaluation of the effect of drug treatment. PMID:27381184

  20. Is semirigid ureteroscopy sufficient in the treatment of proximal ureteral stones? When is combined therapy with flexible ureteroscopy needed?

    PubMed

    Turkan, Sadi; Ekmekcioglu, Ozan; Irkilata, Lokman; Aydin, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine cases of proximal ureteral stones in which semirigid or flexible ureteroscopes alone were insufficient for endoscopic treatment, requiring the combination of both. A total of 137 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Holmium laser was used as the energy source for stone fragmentation. Each operation was begun with a 6/7.5 Fr semirigid ureteroscope (URS), and continued with a 7.5 Fr flexible URS in those procedures that failed to reach the stone or push-up. Double J stents were inserted into those patients in whom the flexible URS failed. Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or a repeat ureteroscopy (after 2-4 weeks) was planned in those patients who were considered to be treated unsuccessfully. The demographic features of the patients, stone sizes, treatment outcomes, need for additional treatment, complications, and the results of the postoperative 1-month early follow-up were evaluated. The mean age of the patients (77 males and 60 females) was 38 ± 6.7 years old, the mean stone size was 12.3 ± 3.7 mm, and the number of patients with persistent hydronephrosis was 86 (62.8 %). A stone-free diagnosis was achieved in a total of 124 patients (90.5 %), using a semirigid URS in 80 patients and a flexible URS in 44 patients. Treatment using a flexible URS was administered in 38 patients (27.7 %) due to push-up, and in 6 patients (4.3 %) because of the failure to advance the semirigid URS into the ureter. The treatment failed in 13 patients (9.4 %) despite the use of both methods. Treatment using low-caliber semirigid ureteroscopy and a holmium laser is possible, regardless of the stone size, in female patients without hydronephrosis. However, the need for combined treatment with flexible ureteroscopy is increased in male patients with hydronephrosis. PMID:26788442

  1. Changes in well-defined phases of bud dormancy associated with shifts in carbohydrate metabolism may involve beta-amylases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is a noxious perennial weed that infests range lands in the Northern Great Plains. It is being used as a model to investigate dormancy in underground adventitious buds, i.e., root and crown buds. Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) are 1) maintained in a quie...

  2. Yeast Cdc42 functions at a late step in exocytosis, specifically during polarized growth of the emerging bud

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Joan E.; Moskow, John J.; Gladfelter, Amy S.; Viterbo, Domenic; Lew, Daniel J.; Brennwald, Patrick J.

    2001-01-01

    The Rho family GTPase Cdc42 is a key regulator of cell polarity and cytoskeletal organization in eukaryotic cells. In yeast, the role of Cdc42 in polarization of cell growth includes polarization of the actin cytoskeleton, which delivers secretory vesicles to growth sites at the plasma membrane. We now describe a novel temperature-sensitive mutant, cdc42-6, that reveals a role for Cdc42 in docking and fusion of secretory vesicles that is independent of its role in actin polarization. cdc42-6 mutants can polarize actin and deliver secretory vesicles to the bud, but fail to fuse those vesicles with the plasma membrane. This defect is manifested only during the early stages of bud formation when growth is most highly polarized, and appears to reflect a requirement for Cdc42 to maintain maximally active exocytic machinery at sites of high vesicle throughput. Extensive genetic interactions between cdc42-6 and mutations in exocytic components support this hypothesis, and indicate a functional overlap with Rho3, which also regulates both actin organization and exocytosis. Localization data suggest that the defect in cdc42-6 cells is not at the level of the localization of the exocytic apparatus. Rather, we suggest that Cdc42 acts as an allosteric regulator of the vesicle docking and fusion apparatus to provide maximal function at sites of polarized growth. PMID:11706050

  3. Yeast Cdc42 functions at a late step in exocytosis, specifically during polarized growth of the emerging bud.

    PubMed

    Adamo, J E; Moskow, J J; Gladfelter, A S; Viterbo, D; Lew, D J; Brennwald, P J

    2001-11-12

    The Rho family GTPase Cdc42 is a key regulator of cell polarity and cytoskeletal organization in eukaryotic cells. In yeast, the role of Cdc42 in polarization of cell growth includes polarization of the actin cytoskeleton, which delivers secretory vesicles to growth sites at the plasma membrane. We now describe a novel temperature-sensitive mutant, cdc42-6, that reveals a role for Cdc42 in docking and fusion of secretory vesicles that is independent of its role in actin polarization. cdc42-6 mutants can polarize actin and deliver secretory vesicles to the bud, but fail to fuse those vesicles with the plasma membrane. This defect is manifested only during the early stages of bud formation when growth is most highly polarized, and appears to reflect a requirement for Cdc42 to maintain maximally active exocytic machinery at sites of high vesicle throughput. Extensive genetic interactions between cdc42-6 and mutations in exocytic components support this hypothesis, and indicate a functional overlap with Rho3, which also regulates both actin organization and exocytosis. Localization data suggest that the defect in cdc42-6 cells is not at the level of the localization of the exocytic apparatus. Rather, we suggest that Cdc42 acts as an allosteric regulator of the vesicle docking and fusion apparatus to provide maximal function at sites of polarized growth. PMID:11706050

  4. Myeloid sarcoma presenting with acute renal failure and bilateral ureteral obstruction: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Usmani, Saad Z; Shahid, Zainab; Saleh, Husain; Nasser, Kamal A

    2007-08-01

    Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a very rare disease that either presents with acute myeloid leukemia or as relapse of acute myeloid leukemia. The common sites include the small intestine, skin, bone, and lymph nodes. We present an unusual case of MS presenting with acute renal failure (ARF) and bilateral ureteral obstruction. Ultrasonography showed bilateral hydronephrosis and a large pelvic mass displacing the uterus. Pelvic mass biopsy showed fibroadipose tissue with diffuse neoplastic cell infiltration and immunostaining was positive for leukocyte common antigen (LCA) and myeloperoxidase consistent with myeloid sarcoma. Bone marrow biopsy revealed 63% myeloblasts. The patient died the 17th day of induction therapy. We came across only four MS cases in English literature that presented with ARF. To our knowledge, this case is the first description of myeloid sarcoma presenting with ARF and bilateral ureteral obstruction not originating from urogenital system. Physicians should consider possible hematological malignancies in patients with similar presentation. PMID:17700206

  5. EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY AND ENDOSCOPIC URETERAL STENT PLACEMENT IN AN ASIAN SMALL-CLAWED OTTER (AONYX CINEREA) WITH NEPHROLITHIASIS.

    PubMed

    Wojick, Kimberlee B; Berent, Allyson C; Weisse, Chick W; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2015-06-01

    Urolithiasis is a significant disease concern in Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea), with over 60% of captive animals affected. Bilateral ureteral stent placement, using endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance, and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) were performed as salvage procedures in a 13-yr-old intact female Asian small-clawed otter following a 7-yr history of nephrolithiasis and progressive renal insufficiency. Following the procedure, radiographs revealed a slight shifting of urolith position, although a decrease in urolith mass was not observed. As a result of declining quality of life related to severe osteoarthritis, the otter was euthanized 5 wk after the procedure. While this treatment approach was unsuccessful in this case, the technique was clinically feasible, so ESWL and ureteral stent placement may remain a consideration for other individuals of this species presented earlier in the course of this disease. PMID:26056891

  6. A Laparoscopic Management Combined with a Flexible Ureteroscope for Ureteral Polyps of More Than 3 cm Length

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kousuke; Nishihara, Kiyoaki; Nakiri, Makoto; Suyama, Shunsuke; Chikui, Katsuaki; Hayashi, Shuichiro; Kurose, Hirofumi; Ogasawara, Naoyuki; Suekane, Shigetaka; Igawa, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ureteral polyps are benign tumors of the ureter, which are relatively rare. The etiology has proposed various hypotheses, involving chronic inflammation and congenital disease. Most of them are commonly diagnosed in the upper ureter including the ureteropelvic junction. Some studies have reported polypectomy using a holmium laser, but several studies presented laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy for patients in whom the mentioned procedure is difficult. We underwent laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy with a combination of flexible ureteroscope for ureteral polyps of more than 3 cm length. We used ureteroscopy with a laparoscopic approach to minimize the length of ureter resection. Using the light guide of ureteroscopy is useful to decide the exact and minimal excision range for ureteroureterostomy.

  7. Retroperitoneal laparoendoscopic single-site ureterolithotomy and ureteroureterostomy for retrocaval ureter with ureteral calculus: first case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Chen, Xiang; Luo, Yan-Cheng; He, Yao; Li, Nan-Nan; Xie, Chao-Qun; Lai, Chen; Fang, Xiao-Long

    2012-12-01

    A 53-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of intermittent right flank pain. Radiological imaging confirmed the diagnosis of retrocaval ureter (RCU) and ureteral calculus. Retroperitoneal laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) ureterolithotomy and ureteroureterostomy was successfully performed. The operative time was 185 min and the blood loss was approximately 20 ml. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Postoperative analgesia was not needed. The patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. The drain and double-J stent were respectively removed at 1 and 8 weeks postoperatively. At the 3-month follow-up, nuclear scan showed no evidence of obstruction of the right kidney and the patient also remained symptom free. It may be concluded that retroperitoneal LESS repair for RCU is a feasible and safe procedure, which can be considered as a option for the management of RCU even if it is complicated by the presence of a ureteral calculus. PMID:22624948

  8. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Bart J; Thodey, Kate; Schaffer, Robert J; Alba, Rob; Balakrishnan, Lena; Bishop, Rebecca; Bowen, Judith H; Crowhurst, Ross N; Gleave, Andrew P; Ledger, Susan; McArtney, Steve; Pichler, Franz B; Snowden, Kimberley C; Ward, Shayna

    2008-01-01

    Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases) designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development. PMID:18279528

  9. Safety and efficacy of using the stone cone and an entrapment and extraction device in ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteric stones

    PubMed Central

    Shabana, Waleed; Teleb, Mohamed; Dawod, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of using a stone cone and an entrapment and extraction device (N-Trap®, Cook Urological, Bloomington, IN, USA) to avoid stone retropulsion during ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteric stones. Patients and methods This retrospective comparative study included 436 patients treated with ureteroscopic lithotripsy for a single ureteric stone from February 2011 to January 2014. The diagnosis of a stone was confirmed by plain spiral computed tomography in all cases. Patients were divided according to the ureteric occlusion device applied to avoid stone retropulsion during pneumatic lithotripsy into three groups; group 1 (156) had no instruments used, group 2 (140) in whom the stone cone was applied, and group 3 (140) in whom the N-Trap was used. Patient demographics, stone criteria, operative duration and complications, and success rates (complete stone disintegration with no upward migration) were reported and analysed statistically. Results The stone was in the lower ureter in >55% of patients in all groups. The mean (SD) of maximum stone length was 9.8 (2.5), 10.4 (2.8) and 9.7 (2.9) in groups 1–3, respectively. The use of the stone cone or N-Trap did not significantly increase the operative duration (P = 0.13) or complication rates (P = 0.67). There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) favouring groups 2 and 3 for retropulsion and success rates, being 83.3% in group 1, 97.1% in group 2 and 95.7% in group 3. Conclusion The stone cone and N-Trap gave high success rates in preventing stone retropulsion during ureteric pneumatic lithotripsy. Both devices caused no increase in operative duration or complications when used cautiously. PMID:26413324

  10. Ten-year experience in the management of distal ureteral stones greater than 10 mm in size

    PubMed Central

    DELL’ATTI, L.; PAPA, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and semirigid ureteroscopy lithotripsy (URSL) have become standards of treatment for ureteral calculi. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare ESWL vs. URSL in terms of safety and efficacy for treatment of large distal ureteral stones ≥ 1cm. Patients and Methods This investigation assessed 637 patients with distal ureteral stones (10 to 15mm in size). 313 in the ESWL group were treated on an outpatient basis using the LithoDiamond machine without anaesthesia. URSL was performed in 324 patients with a 6–8 Fr semirigid ureterorenoscope and YAG laser under spinal anaesthesia. A successful outcome was defined as the patient being stone free 1 month after treatment. For all patients the parameters, including stone-free rate, operation time, complications, were inserted retrospectively in this study after review of medical records and operating room logs. Results The stone-free rate after URSL was 77.5% and 45.4% after ESWL treatment (p<0.001). The mean operative time between two groups was 74.7±9.8 for URSL group and 38.3±7.6 for ESWL group. The average number of office visits was 4.2 and 2.6 in patients treated with ESWL and URSL, respectively. Double j stents were inserted in 28.7% of patients. Twenty-one patients needed rehospitalisations for major complications. However, the differences in the overall complication rate were not statistically significant, with a rate of 16.3% for URSL and 14.4% for ESWL (p=0.246). Conclusion We have shown that URSL has enough safety and efficacy for the treatment of distal ureteral stones ≥ 1cm. URSL is associated with higher stone clearance rate as compared with ESWL. PMID:27142822

  11. Characterization and assessment of a novel poly(ethylene oxide)/polyurethane composite hydrogel (Aquavene) as a ureteral stent biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Gorman, S P; Tunney, M M; Keane, P F; Van Bladel, K; Bley, B

    1998-03-15

    The effective long-term use of indwelling ureteral stents is often hindered by the formation of encrusting deposits which may cause obstruction and blockage of the stent. Development of improved ureteral stent biomaterials capable of preventing or reducing encrustation is therefore particularly desirable. In this study, the suitability as a ureteral stent biomaterial of Aquavene, a novel poly(ethylene oxide)/polyurethane composite hydrogel was compared with that of silicone and polyurethane, two materials widely employed in ureteral stent manufacture. Examination of Aquavene in dry and hydrated states by confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy showed the presence of numerous channels within a cellular matrix structure. The channel size increased considerably to as much as 10 microm in diameter in the hydrated state. Aquavene provided superior resistance to encrustation and intraluminal blockage over a 24-week period in a simulated urine flow model. Unobstructed urine flow continued with Aquavene at 24 weeks, whereas silicone and polyurethane stents became blocked with encrustation at 8 and 10 weeks, respectively. Weight loss within Aquavene on the order of 9% (w/w) over the 24-week flow period indicates that extraction of the noncrosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogel may be responsible for the prevention of encrustation blockage of this biomaterial. In the dry state, Aquavene was significantly harder than either silicone or polyurethane, as shown by Young's modulus, and rapidly became soft on hydration. These additional properties of Aquavene would facilitate ease of stent insertion in the dry state past obstructions in the ureter and provide improved patient comfort on subsequent biomaterial hydration in situ. Aquavene is a promising candidate for use in the urinary tract, as it is probable that effective long-term urine drainage would be maintained in vivo. Further evaluation of this novel biomaterial is

  12. Sepsis due to pyonephrosis: an adult with pelvic-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) in a duplex kidney.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Francesco; Vitturi, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    We present the case of a 75-year-old woman with sepsis. She was evaluated with bedside ultrasound with a diagnosis of pyonephrosis, and subsequently underwent a TC scan that showed a pelvic-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) in a duplicated renal system. PUJO associated with duplex kidney, while relatively frequent in children, is a rare condition in adults, and may lead to severe complications as in this case. PMID:26261472

  13. Interkinetic nuclear migration in the mouse embryonic ureteric epithelium: Possible implication for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Motoya, Tomoyuki; Ogawa, Noriko; Nitta, Tetsuya; Rafiq, Ashiq Mahmood; Jahan, Esrat; Furuya, Motohide; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Udagawa, Jun; Otani, Hiroki

    2016-05-01

    Interkinetic nuclear migration (INM) is a phenomenon in which progenitor cell nuclei migrate along the apico-basal axis of the pseudostratified epithelium, which is characterized by the presence of apical primary cilia, in synchrony with the cell cycle in a manner of apical mitosis. INM is suggested to regulate not only stem/progenitor cell proliferation/differentiation but also organ size and shape. INM has been reported in epithelia of both ectoderm and endoderm origin. We examined whether INM exists in the mesoderm-derived ureteric epithelium. At embryonic day (E) 11.5, E12.5 and E13.5, C57BL/6J mouse dams were injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and embryos were killed 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h later. We immunostained transverse sections of the ureter for BrdU, and measured the position of BrdU (+) nuclei in the ureteric epithelia along the apico-basal axis at each time point. We analyzed the distribution patterns of BrdU (+) nuclei in histograms using the multidimensional scaling. Changes in the nucleus distribution patterns suggested nucleus movement characteristic of INM in the ureteric epithelia, and the mode of INM varied throughout the ureter development. While apical primary cilia are related with INM by providing a centrosome for the apical mitosis, congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include syndromes linked to primary ciliary dysfunction affecting epithelial tubular organs such as kidney, ureter, and brain. The present study showed that INM exists in the ureteric epithelium and suggests that INM may be related with the CAKUT etiology via primary ciliary protein function. PMID:26710751

  14. Laparoscopic management of distal ureteric stones in a bilharzial ureter: Results of a single-centre prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Hani H.; Elgobashy, Samir E.; Elkholy, Amr; Kamal, Ahmad M.; Roshdy, Mamdouh A.; Elbaz, Ahmad G.; Riad, Essam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy and safety of the laparoscopic management of an impacted distal ureteric stone in a bilharzial ureter, as bilharzial ureters are complicated by distal stricture caused by the precipitation of bilharzial ova in the distal ureter. These cases are associated with poorly functioning and grossly hydronephrotic kidneys that hinder the endoscopic manipulation of the coexistent distal high burden of, and long-standing, impacted stones. Patients and methods We used laparoscopic ureterolithotomy, with four trocars, to manage 51 bilharzial patients (33 men and 18 women; mean age 40.13 years) with distal ureteric stones. The ureter was opened directly over the stone and the stone was extracted. A JJ stent was inserted into the ureter, which was then closed with a 4–0 polyglactin running suture. Results The mean stone size was 2.73 cm. Conversion to open surgery was required in only one patient. The mean operative duration was 92 min, the postoperative pain score was 20–60, the mean (range) number of analgesic requests after surgery was 1.72 (1–3), comprising once in 21 patients, twice in 23 and thrice in seven. The mean hospital stay was 2.74 days, and the total duration of follow-up was 7–12 months. The stone recurred in four patients and a ureteric stricture was reported in two. All patients were rendered stone-free. Conclusion Laparoscopy is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for distal ureteric stones in a bilharzial ureter with hydronephrosis. PMID:26413344

  15. Auxin dynamics after decapitation are not correlated with the initial growth of axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Morris, Suzanne E; Cox, Marjolein C H; Ross, John J; Krisantini, Santi; Beveridge, Christine A

    2005-07-01

    One of the first and most enduring roles identified for the plant hormone auxin is the mediation of apical dominance. Many reports have claimed that reduced stem indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels and/or reduced basipetal IAA transport directly or indirectly initiate bud growth in decapitated plants. We have tested whether auxin inhibits the initial stage of bud release, or subsequent stages, in garden pea (Pisum sativum) by providing a rigorous examination of the dynamics of auxin level, auxin transport, and axillary bud growth. We demonstrate that after decapitation, initial bud growth occurs prior to changes in IAA level or transport in surrounding stem tissue and is not prevented by an acropetal supply of exogenous auxin. We also show that auxin transport inhibitors cause a similar auxin depletion as decapitation, but do not stimulate bud growth within our experimental time-frame. These results indicate that decapitation may trigger initial bud growth via an auxin-independent mechanism. We propose that auxin operates after this initial stage, mediating apical dominance via autoregulation of buds that are already in transition toward sustained growth. PMID:15965021

  16. [Relationships between reactive oxygen metabolism and endodormancy release of peach bud under short-term heating].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-di; Wang, Hai-bo; Gao, Dong-sheng; Li, Jiang; Wang, Bao-liang; Liu, Feng-zhi

    2010-11-01

    Taking the 6-year-old peach "Shuguang" as test object, this paper studied the effects of short-term heating at 40 degrees C, 45 degrees C, and 50 degrees C on the bud livability, bud burst, reactive oxygen content, and activities of related enzymes in peach bud, aimed to investigate the regulation effect of short-term heating on the endodormancy release of peach bud. The results indicated that the effects of short-tern heating on the endodormancy release of peach bud were advanced by the postponement of treatment date, the increase of treatment temperature, and the prolonging of treatment time. On November 30, the regulation effect of heating at 40 degrees C was negative. Comparing with those under no-heating (CK), the date of endodormancy release was postponed, the bud burst, the O2-* and * OH production rates, the H2O2 content, and the activities of CAT and POD were lowered, and the SOD activity was improved. It was adverse under heating at 45 degrees C and 50 degrees C. On December 10, heating at 40 degrees C nearly had no obvious effect on the endodormancy release, while heating at 45 degrees C and 50 degrees C had the same effect as that on November 30, with the former being more superior to the latter. Correlation analysis indicated that the rapid increase of reactive oxygen might be the critical reason for the endodormancy release of peach bud. PMID:21360995

  17. Using dielectrophoresis to study the dynamic response of single budding yeast cells to Lyticase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Yi, Pyshar; Soffe, Rebecca; Nahavandi, Sofia; Shukla, Ravi; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2015-05-01

    Budding yeast cells are quick and easy to grow and represent a versatile model of eukaryotic cells for a variety of cellular studies, largely because their genome has been widely studied and links can be drawn with higher eukaryotes. Therefore, the efficient separation, immobilization, and conversion of budding yeasts into spheroplast or protoplast can provide valuable insight for many fundamentals investigations in cell biology at a single cell level. Dielectrophoresis, the induced motion of particles in non-uniform electric fields, possesses a great versatility for manipulation of cells in microfluidic platforms. Despite this, dielectrophoresis has been largely utilized for studying of non-budding yeast cells and has rarely been used for manipulation of budding cells. Here, we utilize dielectrophoresis for studying the dynamic response of budding cells to different concentrations of Lyticase. This involves separation of the budding yeasts from a background of non-budding cells and their subsequent immobilization onto the microelectrodes at desired densities down to single cell level. The immobilized yeasts are then stimulated with Lyticase to remove the cell wall and convert them into spheroplasts, in a highly dynamic process that depends on the concentration of Lyticase. We also introduce a novel method for immobilization of the cell organelles released from the lysed cells by patterning multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) between the microelectrodes. PMID:25701421

  18. Carbohydrate concentrations and freezing stress resistance of silver birch buds grown under elevated temperature and ozone.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Tuomainen, Marjo; Oksanen, Elina

    2013-03-01

    The effects of slightly elevated temperature (+0.8 °C), ozone (O3) concentration (1.3 × ambient O3 concentration) and their combination on over-wintering buds of Betula pendula Roth were studied after two growing seasons of exposure in the field. Carbohydrate concentrations, freezing stress resistance (FSR), bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio, and transcript levels of cytochrome oxidase (COX), alternative oxidase (AOX) and dehydrin (LTI36) genes were studied in two clones (clones 12 and 25) in December. Elevated temperature increased the bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio and the ratio of raffinose family oligosaccharides to sucrose and the transcript levels of the dehydrin (LTI36) gene (in clone 12 only), but did not alter the FSR of the buds. Genotype-specific alterations in carbohydrate metabolism were found in the buds grown under elevated O3. The treatments did not significantly affect the transcript level of the COX or AOX genes. No clear pattern of an interactive effect between elevated temperature and O3 concentration was found. According to these data, the increase in autumnal temperatures and slightly increasing O3 concentrations do not increase the risk for freeze-induced damage in winter in silver birch buds, although some alterations in bud physiology occur. PMID:23425688

  19. Increased IAA transport in axillary buds upon release from apical dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Tamas, I.A.; Reimels, A.J. )

    1989-04-01

    To investigate the transport of indoleacetic acid (IAA) simultaneously in the stem and the axillary bud, bud-bearing nodal stem segments of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were excised and agar blocks containing {sup 14}C-IAA or {sup 3}H-IAA were placed on the apical cut surface and the bud stump respectively. A plain receiver block was placed on the basal end. After a period of transport, the stem segment and the attached bud stump were sectioned, and the activity of sections and agar blocks was counted. We found that the transport of {sup 3}H-IAA from the bud stump to the receiver was greatly accelerated in plants decapitated one or two days prior to the experiment, compared to the intact controls. Decapitation also caused a decrease in the ability of the stem axis to transport {sup 14}C-IAA from the apical to the basal end of the stem segment. The increased ability of the axillary bud to transport IAA, relative to that of the stem axis, may play a role int he release of the bud from apical dominance.

  20. 99m T c-DTPA Study to Validate an Experimental Model of Ureteral Obstruction in Rabbits: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Marcelo Lopes; Bertti, Rodolfo; Moro, Juliano César; Coltro Neto, Fábio; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Fregonesi, Adriano; de Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes; Ramos, Celso Darío

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To create a ureteral obstruction experimental model that can be proved through 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy and histopathological studies, without causing total renal function loss. Materials and Methods. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were submitted to a surgical experiment to create a model of unilateral obstruction to urinary flow. Surgery procedure provided unilateral ureteral obstruction (left kidney) to urinary flow and posteriorly was evaluated by 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy and histopathological study. 99mTc-DTPA renal study was performed to detect and quantify signs of obstruction and to evaluate renal function. Statistical analysis was performed through the Student t-test with a significance level of P<0.05. Results. Nine of the ten rabbits presented left renal unit obstruction and one nonobstructive on the 99mTc-DTPA and histopathological studies. All the right renal units, which were not submitted to surgical procedure, were nonobstructed by the studies. There was a general agreement between scintigraphy and histopathological results in both groups. Conclusion. The experimental model promoted the creation of ureteral obstruction in rabbits, confirmed by nuclear medicine scintigraphy and histopathology, and could be used in further studies to better understand urinary obstruction. PMID:24489538